Explorer, born in Galena, Illinois, USA. He trained at West Point (1871), and served as a cavalry lieutenant on the frontier, while also studying law and medicine. He qualified as a lawyer (1875) and a doctor (1876). He led an expedition (187880) to uncover the wreckage of the Franklin expedition, and established that all had perished and no records were left behind. After resigning from the army (1885), he explored the Yukon R and opened new territory in Alaska. He lectured widely and wrote about his adventures in such books as In the Land of Cave and Cliff Dweller (1893) about the Tarahumari Indians of Chihuahua, Mexico.