Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 76

Cambridge Encyclopedia

transcendentalism (philosophy) - History, Origins, Other meanings of transcendentalism

The theory, particularly associated with Kant, that the world of experience is conditioned by and logically dependent on the organizing structure of principles and concepts common to all rational minds. Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in the New England region of the United States of America in the early-to mid-1…

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transcription (genetics) - Eukaryotic transcription, Measuring and detecting transcription, History, Terminology, Reverse transcription

The making of a complementary RNA copy of a gene in the DNA. Transcription requires the DNA or chromatin to be in an open configuration, allowing the binding of specific proteins (transcription factors) to the promoter of the gene being transcribed. Transcription is carried out by enzymes known as RNA polymerases. Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically co…

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Transdanubia - Administrative divisions, Geography, History

Geographical region in Hungary, lying W of the R Danube and extending to the Hungarian Alps and S to the R Drava; occupies a third of Hungary; hilly and fertile region, noted for livestock and wine production. Transdanubia (Hungarian: Dunántúl) is a traditional region of Hungary. The borders of Transdanubia are the Danube river (north and east), the Drava and Mura rivers (sout…

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transducer

Any device which converts one form of energy into another. A microphone is an acoustic transducer, converting sound waves into electrical signals. Electromechanical transducers convert electrical signals into mechanical oscillations, as in piezo-electric ultrasound generators. …

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transept - Other senses of the word

The part of a cruciform-planned church that projects out at right angles to the main body of the building, usually between nave and chancel. Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. In Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architecture, the transept is the area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform ("cross-shaped") bui…

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transfer (of training)

The effect of performing one task on the subsequent performance of another. Performance on the subsequent task may be improved, in comparison with a control group (positive transfer); or it may be inhibited (negative transfer). It is important to take account of unwanted transfer effects in the design of experiments involving several different treatments of the same subjects. Transfer may r…

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transfer pricing - Economic theory, Practical application, External Links

The price charged when an article is passed from one part or department of a company to another. There are difficulties when the transfer is across national frontiers, as in the case of transnational companies, since the company may avoid taxes in a high-tax country by under-pricing exports from it and over-pricing imports to it, thus shifting profits to countries with lower tax rates. Tran…

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transference - Transference and counter-transference during psychotherapy

In psychiatry, the unconscious attachment of feelings originally associated with significant early figures in one's life (eg parents) to others (particularly to the psychotherapist). In psychotherapy this allows for the exploration of a patient's early difficulties which have remained unresolved. The term was coined by Freud in 1895. Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized …

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transformer - Overview, Basic principles, Practical considerations, Construction, Transformer types, Uses of transformers

A device, with no moving parts, which transfers an alternating current (AC) from one circuit (called the primary winding) to one or more other circuits (secondary winding) by electromagnetic induction, usually with a change in voltage. There is no electrical connection between the two circuits. It is often used for converting the high voltage from AC power supplies to the normal domestic supply vo…

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transhumance - Scandinavia, The Pyrenees, The Alps, Worldwide transhumance patterns, Reference

The transfer of livestock, usually cattle and sheep, between winter and summer pastures. It is characteristic of some mountainous regions, where whole families may move with their flocks up to the high-altitude pastures. It may also occur in arctic regions, where livestock are moved to more northerly pastures for the summer. Transhumance is a term that has two accepted usages: T…

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transistor - Introduction, Importance, History, Types, Usage, Advantages of transistors over vacuum tubes, Gallery, Transistor manufacturers

A solid-state device, made from a sandwich of semiconductors, usually germanium or silicon, with different electrical characteristics (p- and n-type). A p-type (positive) semiconductor is made by adding impurities such as boron or aluminium. An n-type (negative) semiconductor is made by adding arsenic or phosphorous. Transistors can be used as amplifiers or rectifiers. Small, robust, and safe (sin…

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transition state - History of concept, Observing transition states, Locating Transition States by Computational Chemistry

In a chemical reaction, an unstable arrangement of atoms characteristic of the highest energy through which the atoms must pass during the reaction. The concept of a transition state has been important in many theories of the rate at which chemical reactions occur. This started with the transition state theory (also referred to as the Activated Complex Theory), which was first develop…

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Transkei - Geography, People, History of the Bantustan

Former independent black homeland in SE South Africa; between the Kei and Mtamvuna Rivers on the Indian Ocean; capital, Umtata; traditional territory of the Xhosa; self-government, 1963; granted independence by South Africa (not recognized internationally), 1976; bloodless military coup, 1987; incorporated into Eastern Cape province in the South African constitution of 1994. The Transkei

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translation (genetics) - Prokaryotic translation, Eukaryotic translation, Translation by hand, Translation by computer

The making of a protein from a messenger RNA which takes place on a ribosome in the cytoplasm of the cell. Each three nucleotide bases of the mRNA represent a specific amino acid which are joined together in succession. Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression).Translation occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are locate…

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translation (language) - The term and the concept of "translation", Common misconceptions, Translation vs., Translation process

The conversion of one language into another; often used specifically with reference to written texts, as opposed to the interpretation of spoken language. There are various types of translation: word-for-word translation, in which each word is found an equivalent, carrying over the grammatical and lexical features of the original, often makes little sense, because it breaks the structural rules of…

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transliteration - Uses of transliteration, Issues in transliterating particular languages

The written representation of a word in the closest corresponding characters of a different language. The process is commonly seen at work in loan-words, as in the Welsh bws from ‘bus’, and in the writing of proper names, as in Tchaikovsky and Moscow from Russian Cyrillic characters. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another …

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transmission

The system fitted to an engine that transmits the power generated by the engine to the point at which it is required. Normally this system is composed of mechanical components such as gears, shafts, clutches, and chains, but other methods using hydraulic and electrical means can also be used. Transmission is the act of passing something on: …

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transmutation - Photoneutron process, Origin, In stars, Alchemy

In nuclear physics, the conversion of one nuclide to another, either by natural radioactive decay or by collision with other nuclei or particles. Loosely, one element can thus be transmuted into another. Alchemy failed, since it attempted to manipulate only chemical properties, not the nucleus, which is what controls the element's type. The first artificial transmutation was achieved by Ernest Rut…

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transpiration

The loss of water vapour from a plant. It mainly occurs from leaves via the stomata, which partially control the process by opening and closing in response to humidity changes in the air. The process cools and prevents damage to the leaves in hot weather, and helps draw water up from the roots to other parts of the plant. Transpiration is the evaporation of water from aerial parts of plants…

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transposing instrument - Families of instruments, Transposition at the octave, Tone and sound quality

A musical instrument which sounds at a higher or lower pitch than that at which its music is notated. There are various practical and historical reasons for this, the main one being to regularize the fingering of wind instruments, so that a player can change from one size (and pitch) of an instrument to another, without having to adopt a different fingering system. In the modern orchestra the main…

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transubstantiation - Scriptural foundations, Historical development, Views of other churches on transubstantiation

The Roman Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist (Mass), affirming the belief that the bread and wine used in the sacrament are converted into the body and blood of Christ, who is therefore truly present. The doctrine, rejected by 16th-c Reformers, was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent. Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that…

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Transvaal - History, Geography

Former province in South Africa; settled by the Boers after the Great Trek of 1836; independence, 1852, recognized by Britain; known as the South African Republic; annexed by Britain, 1877; Boer rebellion in 1880–1 led to restoration of the republic; annexed as a British colony, 1900; self-government, 1906; joined Union of South Africa, 1910; in the 1994 constitution, divided into Northern Provin…

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transvestism - Origin of the term, Modern usage, Conclusion, Related word: travesty

The recurrent practice of dressing in the clothes of the opposite sex, normally for sexual excitement. It usually begins in adolescence. The term transvestism has undergone several changes of meaning since it was coined in the 1910s, and it is still used in all of these meanings except the very first one. Magnus Hirschfeld coined the term transvestism around 1915 in Berlin (from…

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Transylvania - Etymology, Geography, Administrative divisions, Economy, Population, History, Historical coat of arms of Transylvania, Tourist attractions, Culture

Geographical region and province of N and C Romania, separated from Wallachia and Moldova by the Carpathian Mts; a former Hungarian principality that became part of the Austro–Hungarian Empire; incorporated into Romania, 1918; part of the region ceded to Hungary by Hitler in World War 2; chief towns, Cluj-Napoca and Bra?ov. Transylvania (Romanian: Ardeal or Transilvania; Transy…

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trapdoor spider

A spider that lives in a silk-lined tube constructed in a burrow in the ground, closed off by a silk lid; passing insects are attacked and pulled into the tube with great speed; found in Africa, the Americas, and Australia. (Order: Araneae.) Trapdoor spiders (superfamily Ctenizoidea, family Ctenizidae) are medium-sized mygalomorph spiders that construct burrows with a cork-like trapdoor mad…

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trapezium rule

In mathematics, an approximate method for finding the value of an integral. Regarding the integral as the area of a region between a curve and the x-axis, this region is divided into n trapezia, width h, each of which has area ½h(yr + yr + 1). The area of the whole region is ½h[y0 + 2(y1 + y2 + ...) + yn]. In mathematics, the trapezium rule (the British term) or trapezoid rule…

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Trappists - History, Monastic life, Goods for sale, Monasteries

The popular name of the Cistercians of the More Strict Observance, centred on the monastery of La Trappe, France, until 1892. The Order continues throughout the world, devoted to divine office, and noted for its austerity (eg perpetual silence, and abstention from meat, fish, and eggs). The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (O.C.S.O.: Ordo Cisterciensium reformatorum), or Trappi…

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Travancore - Geography, History

Former princely state in present-day Kerala, SW India; successively under Indian Tamils, Hindu kings, and Muslim rule; became an independent state (mid-18th-c); under British protection, 1795; following Indian independence, Travancore and Cochin merged to form the state of Travancore-Cochin, renamed Kerala in 1956. Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്ക…

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travertine

A type of limestone formed by precipitation from springs or streams rich in dissolved calcium carbonate. When porous and spongy in appearance, it may be termed calc tufa. It is extensively mined in Tuscany, Italy, and used as a paving stone. Detailed studies of the Tivoli travertine deposits revealed diurnal and annual rhythmic banding and laminae which have potential use in geochronology (…

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Travnik - Geography and climate, History, Demographics, Government, Economy, Culture, Tourism, Miscellaneous

44º13N 17º40E, pop (2001e) 21 000. Town in C Bosnia and Herzegovina; on the R Lasva, NW of Sarajevo; founded, 15th-c; much of the town was destroyed by fire, 1903; birthplace of Ivo Andri?, his former home is now a museum; winter sports centre; noted for its clear air and water. Travnik (Cyrillic: Травник) is a city in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, 90km west of Sarajevo. It is …

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trawler

A vessel designed to drag a large bag-shaped net along or near the bottom of the sea to catch fish. Modern trawlers equipped with echo-sounder fish-finders and refrigeration to preserve their catch may be as big as 4000 gross tonnes. A trawler is a fishing vessel designed for the purpose of operating a trawl, a type of fishing net that is dragged along the bottom of the sea (or sometimes ab…

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treason - Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, United States

The crime of betrayal of a state or failing to pay proper allegiance to a government or monarch. In the USA, treason is defined and limited in Article III, section (3) of the Constitution, and conviction requires the testimony of at least two witnesses or a confession in open court as well as wrongful intent and an overt act. In the UK the law on treason is governed by the Treason Act (1351), whic…

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treasury - Examples of Treasuries

In business and accounting, the function of managing finance, especially its provision and use. It includes the provision of capital, borrowing, the short-term deposit of surplus funds, and foreign exchange dealing. In UK government terms, the Treasury is the name of the department responsible for managing the nation's finances, headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is responsible to the …

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treaty - Bilateral and multilateral treaties, Adding and amendment treaty obligations, Execution and implementation, Ending treaty obligations

A formal agreement between states or governments, especially one that ratifies a peace or trade agreement; the document ratifying such an agreement. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. Treaties are called by several names: treaties, international agreements, protocols, coven…

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Trebizond - History, Geography and climate, Tourist attractions, Images from Trabzon, Sister cities

A city on the Black Sea coast of present-day Turkey, former capital of a Christian empire (1204–1461), founded by Alexius Comnenus. It was the outpost of Greek culture in Asia Minor until the Greek defeat by the Turks in 1922. Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: Τραπεζοῦς, Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea…

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tree - Champion trees, Life stages

A large, perennial plant with a single, woody, self-supporting stem (the trunk or bole) extending to a considerable height above the ground before branching to form the leafy crown. Trees exhibit a wide variety of shapes, from very narrow, columnar forms to wide-spreading ones, and may be evergreen or deciduous. They occur in many different plant families. Dicotyledonous and gymnosperm trees grow …

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tree frog

A frog adapted to live in trees; flat with sucker-like discs on fingers and toes; two families: true tree frogs (Hylidae, 637 species) and Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridaea, 184 species). The name is also used for some frogs in other families. …

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tree of heaven - Ecology, Cultivation and uses

A fast-growing deciduous tree (Ailanthus altissima) to 20–30 m/65–100 ft, native to China, and widely planted elsewhere for ornament, shade, and as a soil stabilizer; leaves pinnate, with 13–25, 2–4-toothed leaflets, red when young; flowers in large clusters, starry, greenish-white, strong-smelling; fruit with an elongated wing. (Family: Simaroubaceae.) Ailanthus altissima (Tree of He…

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treecreeper

Either of two families of songbirds of the N hemisphere: the treecreeper (US creeper) (Family: Certhiidae, 6 species); and the Australian treecreeper (Family: Climacteridae, 6 species), native to Australia and New Guinea; inhabits woodland; eats insects caught on trees and (Australian treecreepers) on ground. …

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treehopper

A small, hopping insect that feeds by sucking the sap of trees and shrubs; nymphs often gregarious; many produce honeydew and are attended by ants; mainly in warm dry regions. (Order: Homoptera. Family: Membracidae, c.2500 species.) Treehoppers and thorn bugs are members of the Membracidae family, a group of insects related to the cicadas and the leafhoppers. …

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trefoil - Architecture

A member of either of two groups of plants belonging to the pea family, Leguminosae. Genus Trifolium comprises yellow-flowered species of clovers. Genus Lotus includes a widely distributed group of annual or perennial herbs, occurring in Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, and Australia; leaves divided into five leaflets; pea-like flowers, small, often yellow or reddish-coloured; pods long, many-…

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Trematoda - Life Cycles, Chemical castration of hosts

A class of parasitic flatworms; body flattened and covered with a horny layer (cuticle); one or more attachment organs present; gut well developed, often with large intestinal cavity for storing and digesting food, and without an anus; contains c.8000 species, including the monogenetic and digenetic flukes. (Phylum: Platyhelminthes.) The Trematoda (commonly referred to as a fluke) is a clas…

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Tremiti Islands - Weblink

pop (2000e) 350; area 3 km²/1·16 sq mi. Rocky limestone archipelago in Puglia, S Italy, in the Adriatic Sea; chief islands, San Domino, San Nicola, Caprara; popular area for scuba diving. Tremiti (Italian: Isole Tremiti) is an archipelago of the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula. …

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tremor - Types, Causes, Treatment, Other tremors

Involuntary shaking movements affecting any part of the body, but usually most obvious in the hands. It may be due to a variety of disorders including thyrotoxicosis, alcohol withdrawal, and Parkinson's disease, which produces a characteristic ‘pill rolling’ tremor. Some people have a natural fine tremor, known as benign essential tremor that is not related to an underlying disease process. …

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trench mouth

Severe and often recurring infection of the teeth and surrounding tissues. It is due to inadequate cleaning of the teeth, which allows plaque and bacteria to build up and invade the gums and bones supporting them. Repeated infections in the bone leads to permanent holes, ultimately resulting in the teeth loosening and falling out, and painful abscesses developing. Trench mouth is a polymicr…

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trench warfare - Background, Development, Implementation, Life in the trenches, Death in the trenches, Weapons of trench warfare, Mining

Fighting from long narrow ditches in which troops stood and were relatively sheltered from the enemy fire. Trenches were used in the Crimean War, and on a far larger scale in World War 1. After the first Battle of the Marne (1914) the retreating Germans dug themselves in N of the R Aisne, setting the pattern for trench warfare on the Western Front. Thousands of miles of parallel trenches were dug,…

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Trent Affair - Background, British plans for war with the Union, Sources

(1861) An incident between the USA and Britain in which the USS San Jacinto removed two officials of the Confederate States from the British ship Trent. The issue provoked considerable British anger until the Confederate officials were released by the American secretary of state. The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occu…

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Trento - Geography, Society and economy, Main sights, Famous natives of Trento

46°04N 11°08E, pop (2000e) 100 000. Capital town of Trento province, Trentino-Alto Adige, N Italy, on the left bank of the R Adige; archbishopric; railway; electrical goods, chemicals, cement, lumber, cultural activities, wine; birthplace of Jacopo Aconzio and Cesare Battisti; cathedral (11th–13th-c), Castello del Buon Consiglio (13th-c), Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (16th-c), where the Cou…

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Trenton

40°14N 74°46W, pop (2000e) 85 400. State capital of New Jersey in Mercer Co, W New Jersey, USA, on the E bank of the Delaware R; settled by English Quakers in the 1670s; city status, 1792; scene of a British defeat by George Washington, 1776; monument (47 m/154 ft) marks the battle site; railway; manufactured steel, machinery, ceramics; research and development centre; State House complex; W…

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trespass - Trespass to land, Other legal uses

Unlawful entry onto the property of another. It includes entry below the land (eg mining) and within a reasonable distance above the land (eg shooting a bullet). Historically, the notion includes any unlawful act which interferes with another's property or rights. Despite the widely posted notice, trespassers can be sued, not prosecuted, although trespass may sometimes constitute a crime; for exam…

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Tretyakov Gallery

One of the world's largest art galleries, located in Moscow, and housing exhibits of Russian painting and sculpture from the 11th-c to the present. The museum building was designed by Viktor M Vasnetsov (1848–1926) and erected in 1901–2; the gallery passed into state ownership in 1918. Because of lack of space to house the 50 000 exhibits, a new gallery is presently under construction. T…

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Treviso - Geography, History, Main sights, Sports

45º40N 12º15E, pop (2002e) 82 100. Capital town of Treviso province, Veneto region, NE Italy; located in a fertile plain at the junction of the Botteniga and Sile rivers, 27 km/17 mi from Venice; birthplace of Paris Bordone and Giovanni Comisso; town is surrounded by well-preserved 15th-c walls and a circuit of canals and moats; paper, machinery; cathedral (15th–16th-c), with paintings by T…

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Trevor (Wallace) Howard - Early life, Film career

Actor, born in Cliftonville, Kent, SE England, UK. He trained in London and had a successful stage career until joining the army at the beginning of World War 2. Invalided out in 1944, he turned to films, and sprang to stardom with Brief Encounter (1945), followed by The Third Man (1949) and Outcast of the Islands (1951). His versatile and often eccentric characterizations were regularly in demand…

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Trevor Bailey

Cricketer, writer, and sports broadcaster, born in Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex, SE England, UK. An all-rounder, he played in 61 Test matches, where his adhesive batting earned him his nickname. He made over 2200 runs in Test cricket, and took 132 Test wickets. He played for Essex for 20 years. On retirement he established a reputation as a radio commentator. Trevor Edward Bailey (born December …

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Trevor Baylis - Early life, Invention, Quotes, Bibliography

Engineer and inventor, born in Kilburn, NW London, UK. He studied structural engineering at Southall Technical College, and started a successful swimming pool company while working at home on inventions to help the physically handicapped. In 1993 he began work on a clockwork (‘wind-up’) radio that dispensed with batteries and electric power, which could be used by isolated communities where ener…

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Trevor Eve

Actor and producer, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Kingston College of Art and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. In 1980 he became well known for his role as Eddie Shoestring in the television series Shoestring, and later TV appearances include Jamaica Inn (1985), A Doll's House (1991), The Politician's Wife (1995), David Copperfield (1999), the series W…

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Trevor Griffiths

Playwright, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Manchester, became a teacher, then worked as an education officer for the BBC (1965–72). His plays are social dramas, such as The Party (1973), which revolves around a discussion of left-wing politics, and Comedians (1975), an angry survey of British social attitudes. Other plays include Real Dreams (1987), another …

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triad - History of triads, Triad organizational structure, Triad oaths, Tongs, Gang fighting, Organized crime

The Western name given to a Chinese secret society (because of the importance of the triangle, representing the harmony of Earth, Heaven, and Man, in the initiation ceremonies). These societies originated in response to Qing suppression of Ming loyalists in the later 17th-c, and were active in the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64) and the 1911 revolution. Triads are now reputedly prominent in organized…

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triangle (mathematics) - Types of triangles, Basic facts, Points, lines and circles associated with a triangle

A plane figure bounded by three straight lines (sides). If all three are equal, the triangle is said to be equilateral; if two are equal, it is said to be isosceles. The sum of the angles of a triangle was proved by the Greeks to be equal to two right angles. If the largest angle in a triangle is less than a right angle, the triangle is called scalene; if the largest angle is greater than a right …

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triangle (music) - Types of triangles, Basic facts, Points, lines and circles associated with a triangle

A musical instrument of great antiquity, made from a steel rod in the form of a triangle, with one corner left open. It is struck with a short metal beater to produce a high, silvery sound of indefinite pitch. Any three non-collinear points determine a triangle and a unique plane, i.e. From the systemics perspective, triangle is the structure of every system composed with three …

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Triangulum

A small but distinctive N constellation between Aries and Andromeda. It includes the notable spiral galaxy M33. There is also a prominent S constellation Triangulum Australe (‘southern triangle’). Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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triathlon - History, Standard race distances, Nonstandard variations, How a triathlon works, Rules of triathlon, Professional competitions

A three-part sporting event consisting of sea swimming (3·8 km/2·4 mi), cycling (180 km/112 mi), and marathon running (42·2 km/26·2 mi). The events take place in sequence on a single occasion. According to former Ironman Champion, triathlon historian and author, Scott Tinley, the Triathlon is anecdotally based on a race in France during the 1920-1930s that was called "Les trois …

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tribe - Terminology, Indigenous peoples, Origins

A term sometimes used to describe ethnic minorities which formerly enjoyed political autonomy, but which have been incorporated into a nation state. In practice, it is usually applied only to such groupings in Third World countries, and its use carries a denigrating implication that the ‘tribe’ is backward, and that its political aspirations, if any, are illegitimate. A tribe, viewed hist…

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tribology - Applications, Fundamentals of Tribology, Bibliography

The study of phenomena involving the sliding of one surface over another. It includes friction, lubrication, and wear. Tribology is the science and technology of friction, lubrication, and wear, derived from the Greek tribo meaning "I rub". The study of tribology is commonly applied in bearing design but extends into other almost any aspect of modern technology, even to such unl…

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tribunal - Tribunals in Republic of Ireland

An official body exercising functions of a quasi-judicial nature. In the UK, tribunals frequently deal with matters where the citizen is in conflict with a government department. They tend to be specialized, governing such issues as employment rights, social security, mental health, and taxation. The proceedings of a tribunal may be subject to judicial review. Tribunals exist outside the ordinary …

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Trichina - Maturity

A small roundworm (Trichinella spiralis), parasitic in the human small intestine; infection usually results from eating raw or undercooked pork. (Phylum: Nematoda.) The small adult worms mature in the intestine of an intermediate host such as a pig. Each adult female produces batches of up to 1,500 live larvae, which bore through the intestinal wall, enter the blood and lymphatic syst…

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trichinosis - Signs and symptoms, Incubation time, Life cycle, Screening for compounds active against Trichinella, Diagnosis, Treatment, Epidemiology

A foodborne disease caused by a microscopic parasite, Trichinella spiralis, acquired by eating the undercooked meat of infected animals, usually pork. The parasites spread throughout the body and become embedded in muscles, forming cysts, and provoking an inflammatory reaction. This leads to muscle pain and weakness accompanied by fever, profuse sweating, a rash, and swelling around the eyes. Invo…

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trichomoniasis - Symptoms, Complications

Infestation of the mucous membrane of the vagina with a flagellated protozoan. It causes irritation and vaginal discharge, and may be passed to the male urethra during sexual contact. Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as "trich" or the ping pong disease, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 2 to 3 million Americans yearly. Trichomoniasis, like many other sex…

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Trident missile - Trident I (C4) UGM-96A, Conventional Trident

The US Navy's third-generation submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) system, following on from the earlier Polaris and Poseidon missiles. The first version, Trident C-4, became operational in 1980. The larger Trident D-5 was tested with the US Navy in 1989, and entered service with the British Royal Navy in the mid-1990s. The missile has a very long range (11 000 km/7000 mi), and carries …

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Trier - Geography, History, Sights, Museums, Miscellaneous, Infrastructure

49°45N 6°39E, pop (2000e) 101 000. River-port capital of Trier district, W Germany; on the R Moselle near the Luxembourg border; one of Germany's oldest towns; bishopric since the 4th-c; railway; university (1970); Roman Catholic Theological College; centre of wine production and trade; birthplace of Karl Marx; Porta Nigra (2nd-c), cathedral (4th-c, 11th–12th-c), and Roman basilica, world her…

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Trieste - History, Second World War, Yugoslav and New Zealand involvement, Italian city, Main sights, Literature

45°39N 13°47E, pop (2000e) 255 000. Seaport and capital town of Trieste province, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy, on the Adriatic coast; largest port in the Adriatic; capital of Free Territory of Trieste, established by the United Nations in 1947, divided in 1954 between Italy and Yugoslavia; airport; railway; university (1938); shipbuilding and repairing, oil refining, spirits and liqueurs, …

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triggerfish

Deep-bodied fish with a spiny first dorsal fin; large front spine, locked in upright position by a second smaller spine, and serving to wedge the fish in rock crevices away from predators; body strongly compressed, teeth well-developed, pelvic fins absent. (Family: Balistidae, 5 genera.) …

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Triglav

46°21N 13°50E. Mountain in NW Slovenia; highest peak in the Julian Alps, rising to 2863 m/9393 ft. Triglav is the highest mountain in Slovenia and the Julian Alps. …

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triglyceride - Metabolism, Role in disease, Industrial uses, Staining

The major chemical compound found in dietary fats and in the storage fat in adipose tissue. A glycerol molecule (C3H8O3) combines with three fatty acids, mostly of chain length 14–20. Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be from 5 to 28 carbon atoms, but 17 and 19 are most common. Most natural fats contain a complex mixture of individual tri…

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trigonometry - Overview, Early history of trigonometry, Applications of trigonometry, Common formulae

The branch of mathematics mainly concerned with relating the sides and angles of a triangle, based on triangles being similar if they have one right angle and one other angle equal. The trigonometric functions can be defined as the ratio of sides of a right-angled triangle, the commonest being . The most useful results for triangles that do not contain a right angle are the sine formula and the c…

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trilobite - Physical description, Sensory organs, Development, Terminology, Origins, Extinction, Fossil distribution

An extinct primitive marine arthropod, characterized by two grooves along its body producing a tri-lobed appearance; diverse and widespread from the Cambrian to the Permian periods; ranged from minute to 1 m/3 ft long; mostly living on sea bottom; sometimes planktonic. (Phylum: Arthropoda. Class: Trilobita, c.4000 species.) Trilobites are extinct arthropods in the class Trilobita. The las…

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Trilussa - Biography, Selected bibliography, Sources

Poet, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. His first poems were published in Roman reviews to which he was a regular contributor. In 1895 appeared Quaranta sonetti romaneschi, followed by Altri sonetti (1898), Caffè-concerto (1901), and other collections in Roman dialect which paint a vivid and mostly humorous picture of the Roman bourgeoisie, although sometimes veined with sadness. His later work featur…

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trimaran - History, Construction, Safety, World Record

A vessel with a narrow hull and large outriggers or floats giving the appearance of a three-hulled craft. The design gives great stability, thus permitting a large sail area which produces relatively high speed. It is mainly used for yachts. A trimaran is a multihull boat consisting of a main hull (vaka) and two smaller outrigger hulls (amas), attached to the main hull with lateral struts (…

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Trimurti - Views of Trimurti within Hinduism, Symbolizations, Evolution of Theology on the Hindu Trinity, Other uses

The Hindu triad, manifesting the cosmic functions of the Supreme Being, as represented by Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is the balance between the opposing principles of preservation and destruction, symbolized by Vishnu and Shiva respectively. In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) is a concept that holds that God has three aspects, which are only different forms of …

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Trinidad and Tobago - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Religion, Human rights, Culture, Sports, Holidays

Official name Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American nation of Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles. Originally settled by Amerindians of South American origin at least 7,000 years ago, Trinidad and Tobago was occupied by Arawakan- and Car…

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Trinity - Scripture and tradition, Ontology of the Trinity, Dissent from the doctrine

A distinctively Christian doctrine that God exists in three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The unity of God is maintained by insisting that the three persons or modes of existence of God are of one substance. The doctrine arose in the early Church because strictly monotheistic Jews nevertheless affirmed the divinity of Christ (the Son) and the presence of God in the Church through the Holy…

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Trinity House

The lighthouse authority for England and Wales, the Channel Islands, and Gibraltar. It is one of the principal pilotage authorities, and also supervises the maintenance of navigation marks carried out by local harbour authorities. Its pilotage role is undergoing a fundamental change, with control being gradually devolved to local port management. The Corporation of Trinity House came into b…

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Trinity Sunday - Anglican practice, Dates for Trinity Sunday, Famous composers celebrate the Trinity

In the Christian Church, the Sunday after Whitsunday, observed in honour of the Trinity. It was introduced by Pope John XXII in 1334 to mark the end of the feast days commemorating the life of Christ. Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Trinity Sunday is celebrated in all the Western liturgical churches: Roman Catholic…

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trio (composition)

The central section of a minuet or scherzo, which in the earliest examples often employed a three-part texture. In music In other entertainment: …

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trio (ensemble)

An ensemble of three singers or instrumentalists, or a piece of music for such an ensemble. The string trio is normally composed of violin, viola, and cello; in the piano trio, a piano replaces the viola. Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven are among those who wrote for both these ensembles. In music In other entertainment: …

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triode

An electronic valve having three electrodes; a positive anode, an electron-emitting cathode, and a negatively biased control grid. A triode controls the flow of electrons from the cathode to the anode. It can be used as an amplifier or oscillator. A triode is a type of vacuum tube (or valve in British English) with three elements: the filament or cathode, the grid, and the plate or anode. T…

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triolet - Examples

Mediaeval French poem of eight lines, using only two rhymes; the first two lines are repeated as the final two lines, the first line recurs as the fourth. It is a simplified form of rondel. A triolet (IPA: [ˈtɹiːəˌlɨt], or [ˌtɹiːəˈleɪ]) is a poetic form. Its rhyme scheme is ABaAabAB and all lines are in iambic tetrameter; the first, fourth and seventh lines are identical, …

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Trip - People with the given name Trip

17th-c Amsterdam family of metal and arms dealers, who played an important role in the city. Prominent members were Elias (1570–1635), founder of the family's fortunes with his brother-in-law Lodewijk de Geer, and on the Board of the VOC (United East India Company); Hendrick (1607–66) who, with brother Louis, founded a business dealing in metal, arms, and stone; Louis (1605–84), who was three t…

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tripe

The fore-stomach of a ruminant, used as food - both the rumen (plain tripe) and the reticulum (honeycomb tripe). In France and the UK it is traditionally stewed with onions, vegetables, and herbs, although recipes differ. …

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Triple Crown - Papal Tiara, Other uses

A term used in many sports to describe the winning of three major events. In British horse racing it is the Derby, 2000 Guineas, and St Leger; in US racing, the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes. In British Rugby Union it is the beating of the other three Home countries in the International Championship. The Triple Crown is a term sometimes used to describe the three-tier…

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Triple Entente

A series of agreements between Britain and France (1904) and Britain and Russia (1907) initially to resolve outstanding colonial differences. It aligned Britain to France and Russia, who had concluded a military alliance in 1893–4. In 1914, the Triple Entente became a military alliance. The Triple Entente was the alliance formed in 1907 among the United Kingdom, France and Russia after the…

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triple jump

An athletics field event in which competitors execute a jump in three phases for distance, beginning after a run-up at a take-off board and finishing in a sandpit. The athlete takes off and lands on the same foot, then takes a stride to land on the other, and ends with a two-footed jump. The rules governing fair jumps and measurement are the same as for the long jump. In competition, six jumps are…

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Tripoli (Lebanon) - History, Law and Government, Geography, Economy, Sites of Interest, Colleges and Universities, Sports, Town twinning

34°27N 35°50E, pop (2000e) 219 000. Seaport capital of Tripoli division, NW Lebanon; second largest city in Lebanon; trade centre for N Lebanon and NW Syria; mostly occupied by Sunni Muslims; two Palestinian refugee camps nearby; railway; port trade, oil refining; Tower of the Lion, 12th-c Crusader Castle of St Gilles, 13th-c Mamelukes' Grand Mosque. Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarāb…

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Tripoli (Libya) - History, Law and Government, Geography, Economy, Sites of Interest, Colleges and Universities, Sports, Town twinning

32°54N 13°11E, pop (2000e) 808 000. Seaport capital of Libya; on the Mediterranean coast, 345 km/214 mi SW of Malta; founded by the Phoenicians, and later developed by the Romans; important Axis base in World War 2; bombed (1941–2) and occupied by the British (1943); bombed by US Air Force in response to alleged terrorist activities, 1986; airport; railway; university (1973); olive oil, fru…

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Tripura - Origin of the name Tripura, History, Geography, Economy, Government, Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council, Religion

pop (2001e) 3 191 200; area 10 477 km²/4044 sq mi. State in E India, bounded N, W and S by Bangladesh; became a state of India, 1949; status changed to union territory, 1956; reverted to a state, 1972; capital, Agartala; governed by a 60-member Legislative Assembly; mostly hilly and forested; tribal shifting cultivation gradually being replaced by modern farming methods; rice, wheat, tea, …

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trireme - Origin, Construction and capabilities, Tactics, Changes of engagement and construction, Reconstruction

A Mediterranean war galley of Greek origin propelled by three banks of oars. Speeds of up to nine knots are claimed for short distances. It was fitted with a square sail for use with a favourable wind, and also a strong projection fixed to the bow below the waterline, used to ram other ships. Triremes (Greek Τριήρεις) are several different types of ancient warships. The …

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Trisha Brown - Works

Choreographer, born in Aberdeen, Washington, USA. In New York City she helped to found the experimental Judson Dance Theater in 1962. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s she created a series of original ‘equipment pieces’, where dancers were rigged in block and tackle harness to allow them to walk on walls or down the trunks of trees. She also ran an improvisational group, Grand Union (1970–6), and …

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Tristan da Cunha - History, Geography, Demographics, Society

37°15S 12°30W; pop (2000e) 370; area 110 km²/42 sq mi. Small volcanic island in the S Atlantic, about midway between S Africa and South America; volcanic cone rises to 2060 m/6758 ft; three uninhabited islands nearby; inhabitants are the descendants of a British garrison established in 1816 during Napoleon's exile in St Helena; became a dependency of St Helena, 1922; chief settlement, Edi…

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Tristan L'Hermite

Playwright and poet, born in La Marche, NEC France. Exiled for a time in England after a duel, he returned to France in 1621, where he dominated the theatre with his tragedies, which include Marianne (1636), Penthée (1637), and La mort de Sénèque (1644). He was the first to write French tragedies in which love is central to the action. Other works include Les Amours de Tristan (1638), written i…

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Tristan Tzara - Life and work, Trivia

French poet and essayist, born in Moinesti, EC Romania. He first emigrated to Zurich where, during World War 1, he became a founder of the Dada modern art movement, for which he wrote the first Dada texts, La Première Aventure céleste de Monsieur Antipyrine (1916) and Vingtcinq poèmes (1918), and the movement's manifestos, Sept Manifestes Dada (1924). Picabia persuaded him to go to Paris, where…

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Tristram Cary - Published References

Composer and teacher, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK, the son of Joyce Cary. He studied at Trinity College of Music, and pioneered the development of electronic music, establishing his own studio in 1952. He became a director of the celebrated Electronic Music Studios in London, and was professor of electronic music at the Royal College of Music, London (1967–74). In 1979 he joined A…

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triticale - Biology and genetics, Conventional breeding approaches, Application of newer techniques, Conclusion, Trivia

An artificial hybrid (Triticosecale), derived from wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale), giving yields and grain quality approaching those of wheat in cold climates where only rye could be grown previously. The cultivation of triticale is expanding rapidly in Poland and Russia, though little cultivated elsewhere. It is well adapted to hot dry climates. (Family: Gramineae.) Triticale (x Tritico…

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tritium - Properties, Usage, History, Pop Culture

A heavy isotope of hydrogen, in which the nucleus comprises one proton and two neutrons rather than a single proton (as for common hydrogen). It is radioactive, with a half-life of 12·3 years. It does not occur naturally, but is formed in nuclear reactions, and is an important ingredient of nuclear fusion reactions and hydrogen bombs. Tritium (symbol T or H2) at standard temperature and pr…

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Triton (astronomy)

The principal natural satellite of Neptune, discovered in 1846; distance from the planet 355 000 km/221 000 mi; diameter 2705 km/1681 mi, orbital period 5·9 days. Uniquely, for a large moon, its orbit is retrograde about Neptune. The encounter by Voyager 2 (Aug 1989) showed that it has a thin atmosphere of nitrogen, with a surface pressure of 10 microbar. There is a darker pinkish hemispher…

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Triton (mythology) - In Popular Culture

In Greek mythology, the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. He is depicted in art as a fish from the waist down, and blowing a conch-shell. The beings of similar form (mermen) who serve Poseidon are often referred to as Tritons. Triton is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the deep. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Triton dwelt with his parents in a golden palace in the depth…

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triumphal arch - List of triumphal arches, Gallery

A free-standing gateway of purely aesthetic and symbolic function, usually monumental in proportion, built of stone, and with ornate surface decoration. It was first used in Rome in the 2nd-c BC, but the most famous example is the Arc de Triomphe, Paris (1806–35), architect J F Chalgrin. For Roman ones only, see List of ancient Roman triumphal arches Permanent monumental triump…

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triumvirate - Etymology, Roman Triumvirates, Modern Triumvirates, Other 'Triumvirates', In fiction

Literally Lat, ‘a group of three men’; in ancient Rome 1 the name given to any publicly appointed administrative board of three; 2 First Triumvirate the name commonly, though incorrectly, applied to the unofficial coalition between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus in 60 BC; 3 Second Triumvirate the name given to the joint rule from 43 BC of Antonius, Octavian (Augustus), and Lepidus. The term …

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trogon - Species list

A bird native to the New World tropics, Africa, and SE Asia; plumage soft, brightly coloured; tail long; inhabits woodland; eats insects, spiders, fruit, and (occasionally) small vertebrates. (Family: Trogonidae, c.40 species.) The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. …

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Troilus

In Greek legend, a prince of Troy, the son of Priam and Hecuba, who was killed by Achilles. In mediaeval stories, he is the lover of Cressida. In Greek mythology, Troilus is a Trojan prince and one of the many sons of Priam. In medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend of the Trojan War, Troilus falls in love with Cressida, whose father has defected to the Greeks because he can …

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Trojan Horse - Legend, Possible explanation, Images

A huge wooden horse, according to legend left behind on the beach by the Greeks, who had pretended to give up the siege of Troy. Told by Sinon that it was an offering to Athena, the Trojans broke down their city wall to bring it inside. At night, warriors emerged and captured the city. The Trojan Horse is part of the myth of the Trojan War, as told in Virgil's Latin epic poem The Aeneid. …

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Trojan War - Sources, Origins of the war, The gathering of Achean forces and the first expedition

In Greek legend, the 10-year conflict between the Greeks and Trojans, which began when Paris carried off Helen, the wife of Menelaus, and ended in the sacking of Troy. The story was the subject of Homer's Iliad, and is tentatively dated on the basis of archaeology to c.1260 BC. The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), …

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troll

In early Scandinavian mythology a huge ogre, in later tradition a mischievous dwarf, the guardian of treasure, inhabiting caves and mountains and skilled with his hands. A troll is a fearsome member of a mythical anthropomorph race from Scandinavia. In Orkney and Shetland tales, trolls are called trows, adopted from the Norse language when these islands were settled by Vikings. …

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trombone - Construction, Types, Variations in construction, Didactics

A musical instrument made from brass tubing, mainly cylindrical, which expands to a bell at one end and is fitted with a cup-shaped mouthpiece at the other. A slide is used to vary the length, and therefore the fundamental pitch, of the instrument, which is made in various sizes. Its history dates back to the 15th-c; until c.1700 it was known as the sackbut. It was much used in the 17th–18th-c fo…

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Trondheim - Geography and climate, Institutions, History, City boroughs, Main sights, Transportation, Music, Shopping and commercial districts

63°36N 10°23E, pop (2000e) 145 000. Seaport and capital of Sør-Trøndelag county, C Norway, at the mouth of the R Nidelv (Nea), on S shore of Trondheim Fjord; former capital of Norway during the Viking period; occupied by the Germans, 1940–5; bishopric; airport; railway; university (1968); shipbuilding, fishing, trade in timber; cathedral (1066–93), royal palace (18th-c), Church of Our Lady…

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Tro

Mountain range in C Cyprus; rises to 1951 m/6400 ft at Mt Olympus, highest peak on the island. Troodos mountain range stretches across most of the western side of Cyprus, offering cool sanctuary and idyllic hours spent in long walks in its scented pine forests in summer and winter sports and ski-ing in winter. There are many famous mountain resorts, Byzantine monasteries and churche…

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Troon

55°32N 4°40W, pop (2000e) 14 400. Town and golf resort in South Ayrshire, W Scotland, UK; at N end of Ayr Bay, 9 km/6 mi N of Ayr; railway; boatbuilding. In the 2001 Census the population of Troon, not including the nearby village of Loans but including the Barassie area, was estimated at 14,766--a 100.8% increase on the 1991 estimate of 14,094 (source: General Register Office f…

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Trooping the Colour - The Sovereign's Birthday Parade, The ceremony in detail, Regimental Marches of the Foot Guards

In the UK, originally the display of the regimental standard to the troops; now usually taken to refer to the annual ceremony on Horse Guards Parade, London, when the monarch reviews one of the five battalions of the Guards regiment and its flag, or colour, is presented. The ceremony takes place to mark the monarch's official birthday, and is currently in June. In the United Kingdom, Troopi…

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tropical agriculture - Green Revolution, Plant propagation, Plant defenses, Slash/mulch, Small-scale irrigation, Pest control

The cultivation of field and plantation crops in tropical regions. Although the processes involved are similar to those used in temperate areas, the crops involved must be tolerant of the tropical environments in which they are grown. In particular, crops must be suited to the varied rainfall and rainfall distribution in the tropics, adaptation to the low rainfall in many of these regions being pa…

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tropics - Tropical ecosystems

A climatic zone located between the Tropics of Cancer (2 The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator (parallel 0) and limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere, at approximately 23°26' (23.4°) N latitude, and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at 23°26' (23.4°) S latitude. (In the temperate zones, north of…

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tropism - Types of tropisms

A plant response by directional movement towards (positive tropism) or away from (negative tropism) a sustained external stimulus. It is attained by unequal growth of the sides of the organ stimulated by growth hormones. Phototropism is a response to light; geotropism to gravity; and chemotropism to chemicals. A tropism is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a …

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troposphere - Pressure and temperature structure, Atmospheric circulation

The lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, within which the weather is active because of the continual motion of the air and a steadily decreasing temperature with height. The upper boundary of the troposphere (the tropopause) is located at a temperature inversion: warmer air in the stratosphere overlies the troposphere, and effectively forms a barrier to convection. The height of the tropopause …

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Trotskyism - Trotsky, the Russian Revolution and Stalin, Founding of the Fourth International, Trotskyists Win Mass Support

A development of Marxist thought by Leon Trotsky. Essentially a theory of permanent revolution, Trotskyism stressed the internationalism of socialism, avoided co-existence, and encouraged revolutionary movements abroad; this conflicted with Stalin's ideas of ‘socialism in one country’. Trotskyism has since inspired other extreme left-wing revolutionary movements but they are factionally divided,…

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trout

Any of several species of the family Salmonidae, existing in two forms: the brown trout, confined to fresh water, and the migratory and much larger sea trout; includes the European trout (Salmo trutta), found in marine and adjacent freshwaters from Norway to the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea; an excellent food fish, very popular with anglers, and also farmed commercially. All fi…

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Trowbridge - Location, History, Architecture, Entertainment, Individuals associated with Trowbridge, Governance, Pubs in Trowbridge, Issues of Violent Crime

51°20N 2°13W, pop (2000e) 30 800. County town of Wiltshire, S England, UK; 12 km/7 mi SE of Bath; railway; foodstuffs; brewing, clothing, printing, dairy products. Trowbridge is the county town of Wiltshire, England. Trowbridge is situated on the River Biss in the west of the county, just south of an ancient stone age burial ground, which some believe is the cause for the …

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Troy - Legendary Troy, Homeric Troy, Archaeological Troy, Excavation campaigns, Hittite evidence, Homeric Ilios and historical Wilusa

Ancient ruined city in Çanakkale province, W Turkey; the archaeological site lies S of the Dardanelles, near Hisarlik; in Greek legend it was besieged by a confederation of Greek armies for 10 years (Trojan War), as recounted by Homer in the Iliad; from the Stone Age to Roman times, over a period of 4000 years, the city was rebuilt on the same site nine times; excavated by Heinrich Schliemann in …

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Troyes

48°19N 4°03E, pop (2000e) 63 500. Capital city of Aube department, NEC France; on channel of the R Seine, 150 km/93 mi SE of Paris; bishopric, 4th-c; capital of old province of Champagne; railway; centre of hosiery trade; textiles, machinery, foodstuffs; cathedral (13th–16th-c), Church of St-Urbain (13th-c), Church of Ste-Madeleine (16th-c), former Abbey of St-Loup, with famous library, Mus…

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truffle - Edible usage, Social history, Methods of production, Kinds of truffles, Truffles in New Zealand and Australia

The underground fruiting body of fungi belonging to the genus Tuber; often found in soils under beech woods; may be fleshy or waxy; remains closed and has no active dispersal mechanism for spores; much sought after as a delicacy. (Subdivision: Ascomycetes. Order: Tuberales.) Truffle describes a group of edible mycorrhizall (symbiotic relationship between fungus and plant ) fungi (genus Tube…

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Trujillo

8°06S 79°00W, pop (2000e) 635 000. Capital of La Libertad department, NW Peru; founded by Pizarro, 1536; airfield; university (1824); cathedral, several convents, monasteries, and colonial churches, neighbouring archaeological sites. The name Trujillo is shared by several different places: Trujillo is also a common surname among the inhabitants of Spanish-speaking countries:…

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Truman Capote - Biography, Capote on film, Capote in TV and Film, Published and other works, Watch, Listen to

Writer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. He took his stepfather's surname in childhood. A high school dropout, he went to New York City (1942) and worked for a time as an office boy at The New Yorker. His first published novel, Other Voices, Other Rooms (1948), launched a literary career that peaked with his innovative ‘non-fiction novel’ In Cold Blood (1966), but he is probably best-known f…

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trumpet - Construction, Types of trumpets, History, Technique, Instruction and Method books

A musical instrument made from cylindrical brass (or other metal) tubing, fitted with a cup-shaped mouthpiece, and widening at the other end to a flared bell. It was traditionally used for signalling, and since the 17th-c as an orchestral and solo instrument. Until the 19th-c it was restricted to the notes of the harmonic series, many trumpeters of Bach's time specializing in the high clarino regi…

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trumpet vine

A deciduous climber native to E Asia and E North America; stems clinging by aerial roots; leaves pinnate; flowers orange-scarlet, trumpet-shaped with five unequal lobes; also called a trumpet creeper. It is a popular ornamental. (Genus: Campsis, 2 species. Family: Bignoniaceae.) …

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Truro - History, Geography, Education, Railways, Famous people born or resident in Truro

50°16N 5°03W, pop (2000e) 20 700. City and county town of Cornwall, SW England, UK; on R Truro, 20 km/12 mi SW of St Austell; Royal Institution of Cornwall; railway; foodstuffs, engineering, seaweed fertilizer, pottery; cathedral (1880–1910), Pendennis Castle (1543). The remains at Carvossa indicate that there has been settlement in the Truro since at least Iron Age times. There was …

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Truth and Reconciliation Commission - Creation and Mandate, Committees, Findings, Impact, Criticisms

A committee established in South Africa in 1995 to investigate the abuses of the apartheid era. Its hearings, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Desmond Tutu, achieved an international profile, though the value of the exercise as a means of achieving better race relations was frequently questioned within the country. Its report was published in 1998. The Truth and Reconciliation Commissio…

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Trygve (Halvdan) Lie

Norwegian statesman and UN secretary-general (1946–52), born in Oslo (formerly Kristiania), Norway. He studied at the University of Kristiania, became a Labour member of the Norwegian parliament and held several posts, before having to flee to Britain (1940), where he was Norway's foreign minister-in-exile until 1945. He was elected the first secretary-general of the UN, but resigned in 1952 as a…

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Trygve Haavelmo

Econometrician and economist, born in Skedsmo, SE Norway. In 1947, he became head of a division in the Norwegian ministry of commerce, and in 1948 was appointed professor of political economy and statistics at the University of Oslo. He was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize for Economics for his contributions to developing the field of econometrics, especially methods to estimate and test quantitative …

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trypanosomiasis - Human trypanosomiases, Animal trypanosomiases

Any of several diseases caused by infection with trypanosomes, protozoa that infest domestic and wild animals and are transmitted to humans by insect vectors. African trypanosomiasis is transmitted by bites from tsetse flies and is common across Africa; it is also known as sleeping sickness. Initial symptoms are high fever, fatigue, headache, and joint pain; as the disease develops it leads to ana…

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tsetse fly - Tsetse biology, Tsetse systematics, Tsetse as vectors of trypanosomiasis, Tsetse control, Etymology, Resources

A small biting fly found in tropical Africa; mouthparts form a needle-like proboscis; feeds on blood of vertebrates; of great medical and veterinary importance as the carrier of sleeping sickness (in humans) and nagana (in cattle); serious epidemics in the early 20th-c, and recurrent outbreaks since; a major impediment to the use of horses and draught oxen in the early European exploration of Afri…

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tsunami - Characteristics, Tsunami wave, Signs of an approaching tsunami, Warnings and prevention, Historical tsunamis

Long-period ocean waves produced by movements of the sea floor associated with earthquakes, volcanic explosions, or landslides. Tsunamis may cross entire ocean basins at speeds as great as 800 km/500 mi per hour, and strike coastal regions with devastating force. Thousands of lives have been lost in regions of the Pacific subject to destructive tsunamis, which may reach heights in excess of 30 …

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Tuareg - Traditional social stratification, Tuareg territory, Tuareg confederations, political centers, and leaders, Culture, Ethnic classification

A Berber pastoral people of the C Sahara and the N Sahel zone of W Africa. A traditionally highly-stratified feudal society, in the past they were caravan traders and feared raiders. Many died during the severe drought of the 1970s. Descended from Berbers in the region that is now Libya, the Tuareg are descendants of ancient Saharan peoples described by Herodotus, who mentions the ancient L…

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tuatara - Taxonomy and evolution, Physical description, Natural history, Conservation status, Etymology and cultural significance

A rare lizard-like reptile (Sphenodon punctatus), native to islands off the coast of New Zealand; the only remaining member of the order Rhyncocephalia; primitive in form (resembling extinct species); green or orange-brown; length, up to 65 cm/26 in; male with crest of tooth-like spines along back; nocturnal; digs burrow or shares burrow of a nesting petrel; eats invertebrates, small vertebrates…

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tuba - Roles, Types and construction, Variations, Jazz

A musical instrument made from brass tubing curved elliptically, with usually three valves, a mouthpiece set at right angles, and a wide bell pointing upwards. It is the largest and lowest in pitch of all brass instruments, and succeeded the ophicleide as the bass of the orchestral brass section in the mid-19th-c. It is made in various sizes, some of which are known by other names. The tuba…

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tuberculosis (TB) - Other names, Symptoms, Bacterial species, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Progression, Treatment, Prevention, Epidemiology, History

A chronic debilitating disease almost always caused in humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, characterized by deposits of infected granules (tubercles) throughout the body. It thrives in overcrowded and deprived conditions, and was the scourge of poor communities in the 19th-c. It remains a major health problem in the developing world, and is re-emerging in the West as a significant infectious thr…

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Tubuai Islands

pop (2000e) 8900; area 137 km²/53 sq mi. Volcanic island group of French Polynesia, 528 km/328 mi S of the Society Is; comprises a 1300 km/800 mi chain of volcanic islands and reefs; chief islands, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai, Raivaevae, Rapa; chief settlement, Mataura (Tubuai); coffee, copra. The Austral Islands (French: Îles Australes or Archipel des Australes) are the southernmost…

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tubular bells

A set of metal tubes tuned to different pitches and suspended in a large frame. They are struck with a short mallet to produce bell sounds in orchestral and operatic music. Tubular bells are typically struck on the top edge of the tube with a rawhide- or plastic-headed hammer. They are commonly used to mimic the sound of heavy and impractical church bells in programmatic classical mus…

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Tucana

A faint S constellation, which includes the prominent Small Magellanic Cloud and the notable globular cluster 47 Tuc. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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tug of war - Tug of war teams

An athletic event of strength involving two teams who pull against each other from opposite ends of a long thick rope. A team normally consists of eight members. With sheer strength and determination they have to pull their opponents over a predetermined mark. Ancient Chinese and Egyptians participated in similar events. The modern rules were drawn up by the New York Athletic Club in 1879. It was …

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tui

A honeyeater (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) native to the New Zealand area; dark plumage with small knot of white feathers on throat, and collar of delicate white filaments; inhabits forest and habitation; eats insects, fruit, and nectar; also known as parson bird. As a common noun, Tui can mean: As a proper noun, it can mean: As an acronym, TUI can refer to: …

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tulip - Use and history, Cultivation, Selected species, References and external links, Gallery

A bulb native to Europe and Asia, especially the steppe regions with cold winters and hot dry summers; stems erect; leaves narrow to oval, sometimes wavy; flowers solitary, occasionally 2–6, in a variety of shapes and colours but usually large and showy, with six rounded or pointed, in some forms fringed perianth-segments or tepals. A popular ornamental for centuries, a huge industry is built aro…

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tulip mania - History, Popular view, Competing views, Further reading

The frenzy of speculation in tulip bulbs in the Republic of The Netherlands from c.1634–7, often quoted as an example of financial speculation. The market suddenly crashed in 1637, ruining many people. The event is remembered in part because of its extended discussion in the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by popular British journalist Charles …

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Tullamore - History, Radio, Tourist Attractions

53°16N 7°30W, pop (2000e) 9600. Capital of Offaly county, Leinster, C Ireland; road junction on the Grand Canal, W of Dublin; railway; agricultural trade, spinning, distilling; abbey nearby at Durrow founded by St Columba. Tullamore (Tulach Mhór in Irish) is a town in County Offaly, Ireland, located in the midlands of the island of Ireland, with approximately 15,000 inhabitants in the d…

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Tullio Levi-Civita - Biography

Mathematician, born in Padua, NE Italy. He studied in Padua and became professor there in 1897. From about 1900 he worked on the absolute differential calculus (or tensor calculus) which became the essential mathematical tool in Einstein's general relativity theory. He was professor in Rome (1919–38), but was forced to retire by Fascist laws against Jews. Tullio Levi-Civita (March 29, 1873…

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Tulsidas - Life, Rāmacaritamānasa, Other works, His doctrine, Sources and manuscripts

Devotional poet, born in E India. His best-known work is Ramacaritamanas (The Holy Lake of Rama's Deeds), an immensely popular Eastern Hindi version of the Ramayana epic, which he began in 1574. His devotional approach - a concern for moral conduct, and the idea of salvation through Rama incarnated as absolute knowledge and love - suggests a Nestorian Christian influence on his work. Gosvā…

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tuna

Any of several large, fast-swimming, predatory, fish (especially the Thunnus species) found in surface ocean waters; belong with the mackerels to the family Scombridae; body characteristically spindle-shaped and adapted for power and speed; many heavily exploited commercially. …

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Tunbridge Wells - History, Layout of the town, World views of the town, Local politics, Twinning

51°08N 0°16E, pop (2000e) 60 300. Spa town in Kent, SE England; 50 km/31 mi SE of London; iron-rich springs discovered in 1606; fashionable health resort in 17th–18th-c; ‘Royal’ since 1909, a legacy of visits made by Queen Victoria; railway; light industry, printing. Royal Tunbridge Wells (often called simply Tunbridge Wells) is a Wealden town in west Kent in England, just north of…

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tundra - Arctic tundra, Antarctic Tundra, Alpine tundra, Climatic classification

The treeless vegetation zone found polewards of the taiga of North America, Europe, and Asia. Often underlain by permafrost, the vegetation is dominated by mosses, lichens, herbaceous perennials, dwarf shrubs, and grasses. The growing season is short, but warm enough for snow to melt and the active layer of permafrost to thaw. The resulting boggy depressions provide breeding ground for mosquitoes.…

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tungsten

W (from Ger wolfram), element 74, density 20 g/cm3, melting point 3410°C. A grey metal, difficult to work, occurring mainly with other elements in oxide ores, from which it can be recovered by carbon reduction. The metal is used extensively for lamp filaments, because of its high melting point and general lack of reactivity. Compounds mainly show the oxidation states +4 and +6. Tungsten carbide …

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Tungurahua - History, Climbing

1°26S 78°26W. Andean volcano in C Ecuador; 30 km/19 mi SE of Ambato; rises to 5016 m/16 456 ft; spa town of Baños at N foot; eruptions in 1886, devastating Baños, and 2006. Tungurahua, (IPA: [tʊŋɡʊɹɑʊɑ]),(Quichua tunguri (throat), rahua (fire): "Throat of Fire" ) is an active stratovolcano located in the Cordillera Central of Ecuador. Volcanic activity started in 1999…

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Tunguska event - Description, History, Earth Impactor hypothesis, Unexplained phenomena, Speculative hypotheses

An explosion of enormous force low in the atmosphere over the Siberian wilderness area of Tunguska R valley (30 Jun 1908). This naturally occurring event is thought to have resulted from the impact of a small comet nucleus or asteroid. Equivalent to about a 2-megaton atomic bomb explosion, it levelled 3000 km²/1200 sq mi of forest. No meteoritic debris was recovered, suggesting that the impact…

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tunicate - Description, Invasive species, Chemical derivatives

A marine invertebrate chordate; may be solitary or in colonies, base-attached or free-swimming; adult body enclosed in leathery tunic (test); water drawn into a branchial sac via an inhalant siphon; food particles then trapped by mucus and water expelled from an exhalant siphon; larval stage possesses a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, and posterior tail; c.1250 species, including sea squirts, salps,…

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tuning fork

A two-pronged metal instrument, invented in 1711 by English trumpeter John Shore (c.1662–1752), which is made to vibrate and then pressed down on a wooden surface to produce a note (virtually free from upper harmonics) to which voices or instruments can adjust their pitch. Currently, the most common tuning fork used by musicians sounds the note of A (440 Hz, international "concert pitch"),…

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Tunis - Geography, History, Landmarks, Transport, Miscellaneous topics

36°50N 10°13E, pop (2000e) 778 000. Seaport capital of Tunisia, 240 km/150 mi from Sicily; in a strategic position on the Mediterranean; Phoenician origin, later dominated by Carthage; capital status, 1236; captured by Turks, 1533; gained notoriety as a pirate base; occupied by French, 1881; airport; railway; university (1960); chemicals, textiles, tourism; Great Mosque of Zitouna (9th-c), D…

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Tunisia - History, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Education, Interesting Notes, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Republic of Tunisia, Arabic al-Jumhuria at-Tunisia Tunisia (Arabic: تونس, Berber: ), officially the Tunisian Republic (الجمهورية التونسية), is a country situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Though the Romans referred to the new empire growi…

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Tunku Abdul Rahman (Putra Alhaj) - Early life, Early political career, Road to independence, Prime Minister, Involvements in Islam, Later life, Family

The first prime minister of Malaya (1957–63) and Malaysia (1963–70), born in Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaya. The son of the Sultan of Kedah, he trained as a lawyer at Cambridge and joined the civil service in Kedah in 1931. In 1945 he founded the United Malays' National Organization (UMNO), and in 1952 entered Malayan politics, becoming chief minister (1955) and then prime minister. He negotiated the…

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tunnel - Construction, Very short tunnels, Artificial Tunnels, Examples of tunnels, Media

An artificial underground passage constructed for a variety of purposes, such as roads, railways, canals, mining, or conducting water. Tunnels are constructed either by cutting away the material above and then covering the tunnel over (the cut and cover method), or by driving through the ground using hand tools, a tunnelling shield, or rock drills as appropriate. In soft ground, some form of tunne…

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tunnel diode - Forward bias operation, Reverse bias operation, Technical comparisons

A heavily doped semiconductor junction diode, with a very thin junction region. Breakdown occurs at very low reverse voltages, and there is no region of high reverse resistance. It has a negative resistance over part of its operating region, and is used in high frequency amplifiers and oscillators. A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode which is capable of very fast …

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Tupamaros

An Uruguayan urban guerrilla movement founded by Raúl Sendic in 1963, named after the 18th-c Peruvian Indian rebel, Túpac Amaru. The movement was suppressed by the military-controlled government of 1972–85. Tupamaros, also known as the MLN (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional or National Liberation Movement), was an urban guerrilla organization in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. …

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tupelo

A deciduous tree (Nyssa sylvatica) native to the swamps of E North America; leaves turning bright scarlet in autumn; inconspicuous flowers, small, greenish; males and females on separate trees; edible fruit 1–2 cm/0·4–0·8 in, oval, blue-black; also called black gum and pepperidge. It is cultivated mainly for ornament. (Family: Nyssaceae.) The Tupelos, genus Nyssa, are a small genus of…

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turaco - Species, image gallery

A large African bird, inhabiting woodland and dry scrub; eats fruit and insects; tail long; head usually with crest; also known as the touraco, tauraco, (in S Africa) lourie or loerie, and (in W Africa) plantain-eater. The woodland species are brightly-coloured (some colours produced by pigments being found only in this family); the scrubland species (also called go-away birds) are duller. (Family…

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turbidity current

A current composed of sediment particles suspended in water that may flow down slope underwater at a velocity measured in tens of knots. It is thought to be an important agent in transporting shallow marine sediments to the deep sea, carving out a submarine canyon in the process. As these turbidity currents lose speed on the low gradients of the continental rise and abyssal plains, they leave sedi…

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turbine - Types of turbines, Uses of turbines

A balanced wheel having at its rim a large number of small radiating blades of aerofoil cross section. When an axial flow of fluid is made to pass over the blades, the turbine rotates about its shaft. The shaft's rotation can then be used for useful external work. If the fluid is steam, the engine is called a steam turbine; if water, a water turbine. In a turbo-jet aircraft, the gas turbine engine…

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turbot

European flatfish (Scophthalmus maximus) widespread on gravel bottoms of inshore waters of the E North Atlantic; length up to 1 m/3¼ ft; light brown with darker spots and patches; feeds mainly on small fishes; excellent food fish taken commercially by trawl and line; also popular with sea anglers. (Family: Scophthalmidae.) Turbot (pronounced tur-bit]) (family Scophthalmidae, order Pleuro…

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turbulence

In fluid flow, a flow in which pressure and velocity change constantly and erratically. Common examples are wind and water swirling around obstructions. Flow along pipes becomes turbulent at sufficiently high flow rates. In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. Flow that is not turbulent is called laminar flow. T…

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Turin - History, Law and government, Geography and climate, Demographics, Economy, Main sights, Universities, Turin World Book Capital

45°04N 7°40E, pop (2000e) 991 000. Capital city of Turin province, Piedmont, NW Italy, on left bank of R Po; founded by the Taurini; Roman colony under Augustus; capital of Kingdom of Sardinia, 1720; centre of the 19th-c Risorgimento; capital of the Kingdom of Italy until 1861–5; airport; railway; archbishopric; university (1404); iron, steel, cars, machinery, rolling stock, underwater defenc…

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Turkestan - History, Overview, Things Turkestan has given its name to

Historical area of C Asia occupying parts of modern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang, including the great trading centres of Samarkand and Tashkent. Traversed by the E–W Silk Road, and thus of great economic importance to China, it attracted repeated Chinese strategic interest from the 2nd-c BC onwards. Conquered by the Tang dynasty (657) it was later tak…

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turkey - Etymology, History, Government and politics, Foreign Relations, Military, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Gallery

A large pheasant-like bird, native to C and S North America; head naked; male with pendulous fold of skin at base of bill, and prominent spur on each leg; inhabits mixed woodland; omnivorous; plumage dark, mottled (domestic populations paler); domesticated in 16th-c; a popular poultry bird, especially in the USA at Thanksgiving and the UK at Christmas. (Family: Meleagrididae, 2 species.) Tu…

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Turkey - Etymology, History, Government and politics, Foreign Relations, Military, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Gallery

Official name Republic of Turkey Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti?(help·info)), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Southwestern Asia and the Balkan region of Southeastern Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 afte…

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Turkmenistan - History, Politics, Human rights, Administrative divisions, Geography, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Further reading

Official name Republic of Turkmenistan, formerly Turkmenia, Turkmen Türkmenistan Jumhuriyäti Turkmenistan (also known as Turkmenia) is a country in Central Asia. The territory of Turkmenistan has a long and checkered history, as armies from one empire to another decamped on their way to more prosperous territories. When the Soviet Union began to collapse, Turkmenis…

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Turks and Caicos Islands - History, Geography, Politics, Demographics, Transportation, Proposed union with Canada, In popular culture, Sources and external links

Timezone GMT -5 The Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) are a British Overseas Territory consisting of two groups of tropical islands in the Caribbean. The islands of the Turks and Caicos were first populated by Carib Amerindians but, shortly after the islands' discovery – depending on the source, on 12 October 1492 by Christopher Columbus, who would have claimed them for Spa…

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Turku - History, Geography, Climate, Government and politics, Transportation, People, Economy, Education, Media, Culture

60°27N 22°15E, pop (2000e) 163 000. Seaport and capital of Turku-Pori province, SW Finland; on Aurajoki (river) near its mouth on the Gulf of Bothnia; third largest city in Finland; established, 11th-c; capital of Finland until 1812; peace between Sweden and Russia signed here, 1743; airport; railway; ferries to Sweden and Åland Is; two universities (Swedish 1918, Finnish 1920); shipbuilding,…

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turmeric - Food additive, Medicine, Cosmetics, Chemistry

A perennial native to India (Curcuma longa), related to ginger and East Indian arrowroot; rhizomatous; stem to c.1 m/3¼ ft; flowers with a yellow lip, borne in a dense spike with white and pink bracts. It is cultivated for the fleshy, aromatic rhizomes, ground to provide the distinctive smell and colour of curry powder. It also produces a yellow dye. (Family: Zingiberaceae.) Turmeric (Cu…

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Turner Prize - Introduction, Criticism, Demonstrations, Turner Prize 2005, Turner Prize 2006, Turner Prize 2007, Winners and shortlisted artists

Britain's most prestigious prize for contemporary art, awarded to a British artist under 50 for an outstanding exhibition in the previous year. An initiative of the Tate Gallery, London, it was first awarded in 1984, and has since attracted considerable controversy for its choice of winners, regularly forcing a public debate on the question of ‘Is it art?’. The Turner Prize is an annual p…

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turnip - Description, Origin, Cultivation

An annual or biennial vegetable (Brassica rapa), 1 m/3¼ ft high; bright green, deeply-lobed leaves; yellow, cross-shaped flowers. The cultivated turnip (subspecies rapa) has an edible tuberous taproot, and is widely grown as a vegetable and for fodder. The wild turnip (subspecies moestris) lacks a swollen taproot. (Family: Cruciferae.) The turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) is a root veget…

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turnover tax

A tax levied at several stages in the progression from materials to finished goods, or when certain services are provided. For example, a miller pays turnover tax on wheat from the farmer; the baker pays it on the flour; and the customer pays it on the bread. Unlike value-added tax, there is no credit for tax paid at earlier stages. The turnover tax is a sales tax used in planned economies …

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turnstone

Either of two species of sandpiper, genus Arenaria: the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), found worldwide on coasts; also the black turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala), found on the W coast of North America; turns stones and seaweed with short bill, seeking invertebrates; also eats carrion. (Family: Scolopacidae.) Turnstones are two bird species, the Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres),…

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turquoise - Properties of turquoise, Formation, Occurrence, History of use, Imitations, Treatments, Valuation and care

A hydrated aluminium phosphate mineral formed by the surface alteration of aluminium-rich rock, with bright-blue to green-blue masses or veins, opaque with a waxy lustre. It is valued as a semi-precious stone. Turquoise (or turquois) is opaque, blue-to-green hydrated copper aluminium phosphate mineral according to the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·5H2O. This may have arisen from …

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turtle (computing) - Evolution, Physical description, Order Testudines - turtles, tortoises, and terrapins, Further reading

An electromechanical computer drawing device. The precise movements of the turtle are sent to it by the computer. The device is normally associated with the computer programming language LOGO, used in elementary educational environments. Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or c…

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turtle (zoology) - Evolution, Physical description, Order Testudines - turtles, tortoises, and terrapins, Further reading

A reptile of order Chelonia; in the USA, includes all species; in the UK, only the marine species with the legs modified as paddles (sea turtles, 7 species in families Chelonidae and Dermochelyidae); sea turtles spend almost their entire life at sea, coming ashore only to bask or lay eggs in the sand of beaches. Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the …

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Tuscan order

The simplest of the five main orders of classical architecture, probably derived from Etruscan-type temples. It closely resembles the Doric order, but with a plain base, shaft, and entablature. Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Ital…

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Tuscany - Economy, Provinces of Tuscany, Landscapes, Image gallery, Citations

pop (2000e) 3 596 000; area 22 989 km²/8874 sq mi. Region of NW Italy; capital, Florence; other chief towns, Pisa, Siena, Lucca, Livorno; mountainous with fertile valleys and marshy coastal plain; industry mainly in the Arno valley; iron, lignite, marble; engineering, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, glass, crystal, textiles, tanning, craftwork; important agricultural area; olive oil, market…

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Tusculum - HISTORY, The cross

Originally an independent Latin town in the mountains SE of Rome. By the late Republic it had become a fashionable country retreat for wealthy Romans. Both Cicero and Lucullus had villas there. Tusculum was an ancient city of Latium in Italy situated in a commanding position on the north edge of the outer crater ring of the Alban volcano, in Alban Hills 6 km (4 miles) north-east of th…

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tusk shell

A marine, bottom-living mollusc found partly embedded in sediment from shallow water to abyssal depths; body bilaterally symmetrical, within a curved, tubular shell open at both ends; foot protrusible, often used for burrowing; head poorly developed, but with a tube (proboscis) for catching protozoan prey. (Class: Scaphopoda.) The tusk shells are a class Scaphopoda of marine mollusks distin…

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Tuvalu - History, Politics, Districts, Foreign relations, Geography, Economy, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Local name Tuvalu Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and Australia. The first inhabitants of Tuvalu were Polynesian people. In 1974 the Ellice Islanders voted for separate British dependency status as Tuvalu, separating from the Gilbert Islands which became Kiribati upon independenc…

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Twelve Tables - History, Excerpts from the Twelve Tables, Relevant articles

Drawn up by a commission of 10 men in 451–450 BC, the first attempt by the Romans to codify their laws. Produced under pressure from the plebeians, their publication (on 12 tablets) was intended to curb the power of the patricians. Although the original tablets themselves do not survive, quotations from them in ancient authors indicate that they contained rulings from all branches of the law as i…

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Twenty-one Demands - Japanese expansionism in China, Initial Negotiations, The Japanese Ultimatum, Results

A series of demands presented by Japan to China in 1915, which included recognition of Japanese control of Manchuria, Shandong, Inner Mongolia, SE China and the Yangzi Valley; imposition of Japanese advisers in the Chinese administration; and compulsory purchase of 50% of its munitions from Japan. President Yuan Shikai accepted them as the basis of a treaty, but the resulting popular patriotic pro…

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Twickenham - Geography, History, Schools, Famous residents, Local geography

Rugby Union football ground in W London, UK. Opened in 1910, it has been the venue for almost all England internationals since then, as well as for the Rugby Football Union (RFU) Cup Final since 1972 and for the Oxford v Cambridge University match. The headquarters of the RFU, it was extensively remodelled in the 1980s and 1990s, and staged the 1991 World Cup Final. Capacity: 78 000. Twick…

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Twiggy - TV work

Fashion model, actress, and singer, born in London, UK. She became a modelling superstar almost overnight at the age of 17, and was a symbol of the ‘swinging sixties’ in London's Carnaby Street. She has made numerous appearances on television, and her films include The Boy Friend (1971), The Blues Brothers (1981), and Madame Sousatzka (1989). In 2001 she was briefly co-presenter of ITV's popular…

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twilight - Definitions, On other planets, Significance

The interval of time shortly after sunset or just before sunrise. Civil twilight begins or ends when the Sun is 6° below the local horizon; nautical twilight 12° below the horizon, and astronomical twilight 18° below the horizon. Twilight is the time before sunrise or after sunset when sunlight scattered in the upper atmosphere illuminates the lower atmosphere and the surface of the Eart…

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twill - Characteristics of twill

A type of woven fabric characterized by a pattern of diagonal lines. Many variations are possible, such as herringbone twills, where the pattern zigzags across the cloth. Twill weaves produce strong, hard-wearing fabrics, often employed in sports and work-wear situations. Twill, from a practical standpoint, is a warm weather material, less well suited for cold weather. Harris Tw…

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twinning

The linking of two towns or cities in different countries, so that they may have a ‘special relationship’ and foster cultural exchanges. For example, Edinburgh, Scotland, is twinned with Munich, Germany (1954); Nice, France (1958); Florence, Italy (1964); Dunedin, New Zealand (1974); Kiev, Ukraine (1989); San Diego, USA (1977); Vancouver, Canada (1977); Xian, China (1985); and Aalborg, Denmark (…

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twist - Music, Film and stage, People, Places

The winding together of fibres, which gives added strength to yarns. The twist level affects other factors than strength, including stretch and softness. …

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twisted pair - Uses, Cable Shielding

A simple form of cabling. It is used extensively in the public telephone network, but can also be used for linking computer systems in a network. Twisted pair cables were first used in telephone systems by Bell in 1881 and by 1900 the entire American network was twisted pair. In telephone applications, UTP is often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair co…

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Twyla Tharp - Personal Life and Early Years, Work

Choreographer and modern dancer, born in Portland, Indiana, USA. Trained in ballet and modern dance, she performed with the Paul Taylor Dance Company (1963–5) before forming her own company. Her early abstract works such as Push Comes to Shove (1975), and dances for the films Hair (1979) and White Knights (1985), have evolved into more popular works for ballet companies. After disbanding her comp…

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Tyche

The Greek goddess of chance or luck, prominent in the Hellenistic period. She is depicted as blind, or, with a wall, as the luck of a city. In Greek mythology, Tyche (Τύχη,meaning "luck" in greek,Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. Tyche appears on many coins of the Hellenistic period in…

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Tycho Brahe - Life, Career: observing the heavens, Bibliography, Named after Tycho

Astronomer, born in Knudstrup, Sweden. In 1573 he discovered serious errors in the astronomical tables, and commenced work to rectify this by observing the stars and planets with unprecedented positional accuracy. He rejected the Copernican theory, but it fell to Kepler to show this model to be essentially correct, using Brahe's data. Tycho Brahe was born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (de Knutstorp), …

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Tyne and Wear - History, Administration, Identity, Politics, Towns and villages, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 1 076 000; area 540 km²/208 sq mi. County of NE England, UK, created in 1974; bounded E by the North Sea; drained by the Tyne and Wear Rivers; administrative centre, Newcastle upon Tyne; chief towns include Gateshead, Jarrow, Wallsend, Sunderland; a highly industrialized area, especially since the Industrial Revolution; suffered serious decline following the Great Depression, es…

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Tyneside - Definition

Urban area in Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK; includes Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Jarrow, Felling, Hebburn, Newburn, Longbenton–Killingworth, Wallsend, and North and South Shields; airport (Woolsington); railway; The Baltic, a centre for contemporary art, opened in Gateshead, 2002; Sage Gateshead concert venue opened on R Tyne quayside, 2004. Tyneside is a conurbation in northern Engla…

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typesetting - Letterpress era, Digital era, Further reading

The preparation of type (text matter) for printing. The invention of movable type in the West in the 15th-c revolutionized book production. Individual metal characters or sorts were arranged by hand by compositors (who selected the capital letters from the upper case and the smaller letters from the lower case, giving rise to our modern terminology). It was not until the late 19th-c that hot metal…

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typewriter - History, Typewriter legacy, Correction methods, Typing speed records and speed contests, Forensic identification

A hand-operated machine for producing printed letters and other symbols on paper. Traditionally, characters mounted on rods are made to hit an inked ribbon against paper by pressing on keys; the paper is automatically moved when a key is struck. William Burt patented the notion (he called it a ‘typographer’) in 1829, and some very slow machines were built around that time; but the prototype of t…

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typhoid fever - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Transmission, Heterozygous advantage, History

An infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi, also known as enteric fever. It is acquired by ingesting food or liquids contaminated with faeces from an infected person, and is often spread in water supplies or during food preparation. Clinical features include a high fever, drowsiness, aches, diarrhoea, and an abdominal rash, progressing to delirium and coma. Following recovery, some people be…

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typhus - Typhus in history

Any of several illnesses caused by infection with a strain of Rickettsia; also known as spotted fever. Louse-borne typhus is caused by Rickettsia prowazeki. It is common in overcrowded conditions and results in a severe illness with headache, prostration, and a measles-like rash. Flea-borne typhus is caused by Rickettsia mooneri, and results in a milder illness. Tick-borne typhus fever (Rocky Moun…

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typography - History, Scope, Text typography, Readability and legibility, Newspapers, magazines, and periodicals, Display typography

The design of letterforms for use as typefaces, and the selection of typefaces for typeset documents. Typefaces are designed and used for a multitude of purposes (eg books, newspapers, stationery, handbills) and for use on various kinds of typesetting equipment, in both print and non-print media (such as film and television). Many typefaces in use today are called after the printers who originally…

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Tyr - Origins, Tyr in the Edda, Tyr rune, Modern popular culture

The Norse god of battle, who guards the other gods. He was the only one brave enough to place his hand in the mouth of the wolf Fenrir as a pledge. When the wolf realized that it was caught, it bit off the hand. Tyr (Old Norse: Týr) is the god of single combat and heroic glory in Norse mythology, portrayed as a one-handed man. In the late Icelandic Eddas, he is portrayed, alternately, as …

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tyramine - Metabolism, Effects

A chemical compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine, which occurs in foods such as cheese and wine, sometimes in large quantities. Normally tyramine is degraded by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). If MAO is reduced, as occurs with certain antidepressants, tyramine accumulates, leading to an elevation in blood pressure. Migraine headaches may be associated with excess amine production aggra…

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tyrant - Historical forms, Modern forms

In Greek city-states of the 7th-c and 6th-c BC, a neutral term, possibly of Lydian origin, simply describing an absolute ruler who had seized power illegally. Only later (5th-c BC) did it acquire its present meaning - a cruel and oppressive ruler. A tyrant (Latin tyrannus, from Greek τύραννος týrannos) possesses absolute power through the people in a state or in an organization: on…

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Tyrone

pop (2000e) 166 700; area 3136 km²/1210 sq mi. County in W Northern Ireland, UK, consisting of four districts (Cookstown, Dungannon, Omagh, Strabane); bounded E by Lough Neagh, and NW and S by the Republic of Ireland along the R Foyle; hilly, with the Sperrin Mts rising (N) to 683 m/2241 ft at Mt Sawel; county town, Omagh; other chief towns, Dungannon, Cookstown, Strabane; oats, potatoes, …

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Tyrrhenian Sea

Arm of the Mediterranean Sea; bounded by the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica; major ports, Naples and Palermo. The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off of the western coast of Italy. It is bounded by Corsica and Sardinia (west) Liguria (north), Tuscany, Latium, Campania, and Calabria (east), and Sicily (south). The maximum depth of the…

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Tyumen - History, Modern city

57°11N 65°29E, pop (2000e) 493 000. Capital city of Tyumenskaya oblast, SW Siberian Russia, on R Tura; founded, 1585; first settled Russian town E of the Ural Mts; formerly an important centre of trade with China; railway junction; university; cotton textiles, clothing, machine tools and instruments, oil refining. Tyumen (Russian: Тюме́нь) is a city in Russia, the administrative …

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U Nu - Religious and literary works, Novelist and playwright

Burmese statesman and prime minister (1948–56, 1957–8, 1960–2), born in Wakema, S Myanmar (formerly Burma). He studied at Rangoon University, and came to prominence through student political movements (1934). Imprisoned by the British for sedition (1940), he was released by the Japanese and served in Ba Maw's puppet administration. In 1946 he became president of the Burmese Constituent Assembly…

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U Thant - Early days, Mandarin, UN Secretary General, Extraordinary finale

Burmese diplomat, born in Pantanaw, S Myanmar (formerly Burma). He studied at Yangon, and was a teacher who took up government work when Burma became independent in 1948, becoming the country's UN representative in 1957. As secretary-general of the UN (1962–71), he played a major diplomatic role during the Cuban crisis (1962). He also formulated a plan to end the Congolese Civil War (1962), and m…

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U-boat - World War I, World War II, Major U-boat classes, Popular culture

An abbreviation of Unterseeboat (Ger ‘submarine’). The German Navy launched large-scale submarine offensives in both World Wars, and each time the U-boats came close to victory. The distinction between U-boat and submarine is common in English-language usage (where "U-Boat" is used to refer exclusively to the German naval sumbmarines of the First and Second World Wars) but unknown i…

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U-matic

The trade name for the first helical-scan videotape cassette recorder introduced by Sony in 1970, initially for the professional non-broadcast market. It used ¾-in (19 mm) tape at a speed of 9·53 cm/3¾ in per second in a large cassette 221 × 140 × 32 mm with a playing time of up to 1 hour. It is widely used for all forms of industrial video production, and its extended high-band form,…

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Ub Iwerks

Animated-cartoon director, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. The animator who put life into Walt Disney's sketches of Mickey Mouse, he began as an apprentice to the Union Bank Note Company (1916). In 1920, in partnership, he set up the Disney–Iwerks Studio, and produced Laugh-O-Gram cartoons, followed by Alice in Cartoonland (1923). Iwerks joined Disney in California to animate Oswald the Lucky…

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Udine - History, Gallery, Economy

46°04N 13°14E, pop (2000e) 101 000. Industrial town and capital of Udine province, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy, 61 km/38 mi NW of Trieste; important road and rail junction; suffered severe bombing in World War 2; archbishopric; railway; brewing, furniture, freight distribution, textiles, leather, chemicals; castle (16th-c), cathedral (1236), town hall (15th-c). Udine (Friulian Udi…

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UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) - UEFA Chief Executives, UEFA Presidents, Competitions, UEFA World Cup Qualifiers

A football organization founded in 1954 by the representatives of the association football governing bodies of 30 European nations, which in 2006 consisted of 52 member associations. UEFA is responsible for organizing the three major European club tournaments: the Champions' Cup, the Cup Winners' Cup, and the UEFA Cup. They also run their own European Championship, a World Cup style of competition…

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Ufa

54°45N 55°58E, pop (2000e) 1 092 000. Capital city of Bashkirskaya, E European Russia; in the Ural Mts, on the R Ufa, at its confluence with the Dema and Zilim Rivers; founded as a fortress, 1586; birthplace of Sergei Aksakov; airport; railway; university (1957); clothing, cotton textiles, oil refining, chemicals. Ufa is one of the industrial centres in the Western Urals area, and is s…

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Uffizi - The museum and its history, In popular culture, The collections

A museum in Florence, NC Italy, housing one of the world's greatest collections of works by Italian masters. The Renaissance palace, designed by Vasari in 1560, was opened to the public by the Medici family in the 17th-c. The Uffizi Gallery (Italian: Galleria degli Uffizi) is a palace or palazzo in Florence, holding one of the oldest and most famous art museums in the world. Bui…

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Uganda - History, Politics, Geography, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, AIDS-prevention, Culture and sport, Human rights

Official name Republic of Uganda Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda, is a country in East Africa, bordered on the east by Kenya, the north by Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a portion of the south of the country including the capita…

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Ugarit - The site, History, Alphabet, Ugaritic literature, Ugarit religion, Kings of Ugarit

A flourishing Canaanite city on the coast of N Syria opposite Cyprus, which in the late Bronze Age (c.1450–1200 BC) enjoyed wide contacts with the Egyptians, the Hittites, and the Mycenaeans. It was destroyed by the Sea Peoples c.1200 BC. Coordinates: 35°36′06″N, 35°47′0″E Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; Ugarit sent tribute to Egypt and maintained trad…

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Ugo Bassi

Italian patriot and priest, born in Cento, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He was a republican and a friend of Garibaldi, and participated in the defence of Venice and then the Roman Republic. He was captured by Austrian forces at Comacchio, taken to Bologna, and shot. Ugo Bassi (1800 - August 8, 1849), Italian patriot, was born at Cento, and received his early education at Bologna. An…

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Ugo Betti - Works, Texts available in English

Playwright and poet, born in Camerino, EC Italy. He studied law and became a judge in Rome (1930–44), and librarian of the ministry of justice (1944–53). He is best known for his 26 plays, notably La padrona (The Mistress, 1927). Collections of verse include Il re pensieroso (1922, The Thoughtful King), and he also wrote three books of short stories. Ugo Betti (Camerino, February 4, 1892 …

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Ugo Cavallero

General, born in Casale Monferrato, Piedmont, N Italy. In charge of the Italian troops in E Africa, he was promoted chief of general staff (1940–3). He was made Marshal of Italy in 1942, but was dismissed the next year, and died in unclear circumstances after being summoned to the Frascati German headquarters. Conte Ugo Cavallero (September 20, 1880 – September 13, 1943) was a prominent …

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Ugo Foscolo - Biography

Writer, born in Zákinthos, Greece. He studied at Spalato and Venice, and his disappointment when Napoleon ceded Venice to Austria found vent in the Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis (1802, Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis). After a period in the French army, he returned to Milan, and published his best poem, Dei sepolcri (1807, Of the Sepulchres). His work shows two directions, the romantic-autobiograph…

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Ujung Pandang - History, Economy

5°09S 119°28E, pop (2000e) 1 108 000. Seaport capital of Sulawesi Selatan province, Indonesia; in SW corner of Sulawesi I; important trade centre of E Indonesia, established by the Dutch in 1607; free port, 1848; airfield; university (1956); coffee, rubber, copra, resin, spices. Beginning in the sixteenth century, Makassar was the dominant trading/pao center of eastern Indonesia, and s…

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ukiyo-e - History, Making of ukiyo-e, Important artists

In Japanese painting and printmaking, a movement that flourished in the 16th–19th-c. Stressing aesthetics, style, and contempt for ugliness, favourite themes included theatrical subjects, actors, prostitutes, and landscapes. Colour was added, along with Dutch-influenced perspective, by Masonobu (1686–1764). The coloured landscape woodcuts of Hokusai and Hiroshige influenced 19th-c French artists…

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Ukraine - Etymology of the name, History, Government and politics, Military, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Religion, Culture

Official name Republic of Ukraine Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, Ukraina, /ukraˈjina/) is a country in Eastern Europe. From at least the ninth century, the territory of present-day Ukraine was a centre of medieval East Slavic civilization forming the state of Kievan Rus, and for the following several centuries the territory was divided between a number of regional po…

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ukulele - Tuning a ukulele, Ukulele musicians, Tahitian ukulele, Audio samples

A Hawaiian musical instrument, resembling a small guitar, with four gut or nylon strings that are strummed with the fingernails and fingertips. It was for many years a favourite instrument in the USA for popular music, especially as an accompaniment to a solo singer. In 1879 the three men generally credited as the first ukulele makers arrived from Portugal in Hawaiʻi, sailing into Honolulu…

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Ulaanbaatar - Geography, History, Names of Ulan Bator, City administration, Transportation, Colleges and universities, Description, Sister Cities

47°54N 106°52E, pop (2000e) 674 000. Capital of Mongolia, in Selenge county, C Mongolia, surrounded by the Khenti Mts; founded as Urga in 1639, centre of Lamaistic religion in Mongolia; trading centre on caravan routes between Russia and China, 18th-c; capital, 1921; university (1942); meat processing, carpets, brewing, wood processing, veterinary medicine, mining, foodstuffs. Ulan Bato…

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ulcer - Description, Ulcer classification schemes, Other locations, Pathology of ulceration

A break in the surface of the skin or mucous membrane, which may be acute in onset and short-lived or persistent. They may be caused by trauma (physical or chemical), infection, inadequate blood supply, or auto-immune disease. Ulcers may also occur in the mouth and gastro-intestinal tract. An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an i…

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Ulf (Svante) von Euler - Works

Physiologist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, and spent his whole career there (1930–71). He found the first prostaglandin in 1935, and in 1970 shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his isolation and identification of noradrenaline (norepinephrine), the neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system. He was a member of the Nobel…

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Ulisse Aldrovandi - List of works, Honors

Naturalist, born in Bologna, N Italy. He studied medicine at the University of Bologna (1553), occupied successively its chairs of botany and natural history, and established its botanical garden in 1567. He published many handsomely illustrated books on birds, fishes, and insects. Ulisse Aldrovandi (11 September 1522 - 10 November 1605) was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bo…

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Ullapool

57°54N 5°10W, pop (2000e) 1360. Port town in Highland, NW Scotland, UK; on E shore of Loch Broom; ferry service to Stornoway, I of Lewis; tourist resort; fishing, fish processing; Ullapool museum. Ullapool (Ullapul or Ulapul in Gaelic) is a small town in Ross and Cromarty, Highland, Scotland. …

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Ulm - Geography, History, Transportation, Education and culture, People from Ulm

48°24N 10°00E, pop (2000e) 114 000. Industrial and commercial city in Baden-Württemberg province, S Germany; on R Danube, 72 km/45 mi SE of Stuttgart; scene of Napoleon's defeat of Austria, 1805; railway; university (1967); cars, transport equipment, electrical engineering, textiles, leatherwork; birthplace of Einstein; Gothic Minster (1377–1529), with the world's highest spire (161 m/528…

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Ulric (Richard Gustav) Neisser - Books

Psychologist, born in Kiel, N Germany. He studied at Harvard, then taught at Brandeis, Cornell, and Emory universities. The modern growth of cognitive psychology received a major boost from the publication in 1967 of the first (and most influential) of his books, Cognitive Psychology. In his later writings he became critical of the methodology of much cognitive psychology, faulting it for being ‘…

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Ulrich Becher - Overview, Selected works

Writer, born in Berlin, Germany. He emigrated to Brazil and the USA, returning home in 1948. His graphic and exciting short stories, reminiscent of Hemingway, include Das Herz des Hais (1960), Der schwarze Hut (1972), and Vom Unzulänglichen der Wirklichkeit. 10 nicht so nette Geschichten (1980). He also wrote novels, including Murmeljagd (1969), Williams' Ex-Casino (1973), and Das Profil (1963, n…

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Ulrich Beck - Works, See Also

Sociologist, born in Stolp, Germany (now Slupsk, NW Poland). A professor in Munich (since 1992), he works in the fields of occupational and educational sociology, dealing with such topics as social inequality and change. He is especially known for his studies of the risk society. Dr. Ulrich Beck (born May 15, 1944) is a German sociologist who holds a professorship at Munich University and a…

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Ulrich Boner

Swiss writer of fables. A Dominican friar in Bern from 1324, his Edelstein, a collection of fables and jokes, was one of the first German books printed, in 1461. Ulrich Boner, or Bonerius, (fl. He was born in Bern, descended of an old Bernese family, and, as far as can be ascertained, took clerical orders and became a monk; He wrote, in Middle High German, a collecti…

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Ulrich von Hutten

Humanist, born at the castle of Steckelberg, EC Germany. He was sent to the Benedictine monastery of Fulda in 1499, but fled from there in 1505. After many travels he was crowned poet laureate by Emperor Maximilian I (1517), entered the service of Albert, Archbishop of Mainz, and shared in the famous satires Epistolae obscurorum virorum (Letters of Obscure Men). Eager to see Germany free from fore…

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Ulrike (Marie) Meinhof - See also, Film, Literature

Terrorist, born in Oldenburg, NW Germany. While studying at Marburg, she campaigned for German nuclear disarmament, and became a respected left-wing journalist. After an interview with the imprisoned arsonist, Andreas Baader, she became committed to the use of violence to secure radical social change. In May 1970, she helped free Baader, and they headed an underground urban guerrilla organization …

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Ulster - Geography and demographics, History and politics, Sport

pop (2000e) 232 300; area 8012 km²/3093 sq mi. Province in Ireland, comprising counties of Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan; Donegal separated by part of Connacht, lying W of Northern Ireland; Cavan and Monaghan lie to the S of Northern Ireland; chief towns include Donegal, Letterkenny, Cavan, and Monaghan; a former kingdom; land confiscated by the English Crown, and distributed to Protestant En…

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Ultra - Sources and history, Use of Ultra, Purple decrypts in Europe, Postwar public disclosure of Ultra

A British security classification (the very highest) given during World War 2 to intelligence gathered from the breaking of the key German military codes used with their ‘Enigma’ encryption device. ‘Ultra’ intelligence was available to the British high command from the outset of the war, and was of crucial importance during the Battle of Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic. Ultra (so…

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Ultramontanism

Literally, ‘beyond the mountains’; a movement, deriving from France, asserting the centralization of the authority and power of the Roman Catholic Church in Rome and the pope. It gained impetus after the French Revolution (1789), and reached its high point with the First Vatican Council (1870) and the declaration of papal infallibility. In the 18th century the word passed to Germany (Jose…

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ultrasound - Ability to hear ultrasound, Diagnostic sonography, Biomedical ultrasound applications, Industrial ultrasound, Ultrasound flow meter, Ultrasonic cleaning

Sound of a frequency greater than 20 000 Hz; inaudible to humans, but certain animals such as dogs and bats can hear some ultrasonic signals. Pulses of very high frequency sound are reflected back to different extents by different materials (eg the tissues of the human body). If such a ‘sonar’ device is connected to a computer, accurate representations of the structure of the material can be m…

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Ulugh Beg

Ruler of the Timurid empire (1447–9). A grandson of Tamerlane, he made his name particularly as an astronomer. He founded an observatory at Samarkand, compiled astronomical tables, and corrected errors made by Ptolemy of Alexandria, whose figures were still in use. He also wrote poetry and history. After a brief reign, he was overthrown and slain by a rebellious son in 1449. Ulugh Beg (als…

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Uluru - Name, Description, History, Local legend, Restrictions for tourists

National park in Northern Territory, C Australia; area c.1325 km²/500 sq mi; contains the Olgas, a series of steep-sided rock domes, and Ayers Rock; an area of continuing cultural and religious significance to the Aboriginal people; a world heritage site. Uluṟu, also known as Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation in central Australia, in the Northern Territory. Uluṟu is sa…

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Ulverston - Festival town, Gallery, Twin Towns

54º12N 3º06W. Market town in South Lakeland, Cumbria, NW England, UK; located near Morecambe Bay, 13 km/8 mi NE of Barrow-in-Furness; granted a market charter by Edward I (1280); birthplace of Stan Laurel and Sir John Barrow; Hoad Monument (1850) dedicated to Barrow stands on a hill overlooking the town; railway; pharmaceuticals, electrical goods, tanning; charter festival (Sep), town fair and…

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Ulysses (Simpson) Kay

Composer, born in Tucson, Arizona, USA. One of the first prominent African-American composers, he studied with Hindemith and Hanson, and wrote mildly Modernist works that won numerous prizes. Ulysses Kay (January 7, 1917, Tucson, Arizona - May 20, 1995, Englewood, New Jersey) was an African-American composer. Ulysses Kay, the nephew of the classic jazz musician King Oliver, stud…

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Uma (Karuna) Thurman - Biography, Filmography

Film actress, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The daughter of an American father and Swedish mother, she attended the Northfield Mount Hermon boarding school in Massachusetts and left at age 15 to pursue a modelling career. She then moved to New York to try her luck at acting, and after a number of small parts gained recognition with her role in Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction (1994). Later f…

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Umayyad Mosque - History, Construction and Architecture

The great mosque at Damascus in Syria, built (705–15) on the site of a Christian church to John the Baptist, and believed to incorporate the reliquary shrine of the saint's head. The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. The mosque holds a shrine which is said to contain the head of John the Baptist, h…

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Umberto Boccioni - Early experience, Artwork, Style

Artist and sculptor, born in Reggio di Calabria, S Italy. He was the most original artist of the Futurist school, and its principal theorist. An important bronze sculpture, ‘Unique Forms of Continuity in Space’ (1913), is in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City. Umberto Boccioni (October 19, 1882–August 16, 1916) was an Italian painter and sculptor and a member of the Futurist moveme…

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Umberto Bossi - Birth and education, Politics, Peculiar style, Institutional experience

Italian politician, born in Cassano Magnago, Lombardy, N Italy. He founded the Lombard League in 1979 (Northern League from 1991), and became a senator (1987) and a deputy (1992). In March 1994 he entered into an electoral pact with Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia, and the League took part in the centre-right government headed by Berlusconi, but in December he broke the coalition and backed the D…

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Umberto Eco - Works, Novels, Honorary doctorates, Bibliography

Novelist and critic, born in Alessandria, N Italy. He studied at Turin University, has taught semiotics at the University of Bologne for many years, and published several important works on the subject. His novel Il nome della rosa (1980, The Name of the Rose), an intellectual detective story, achieved instant fame, and attracted much critical attention; it was filmed in 1986. Later novels are Fou…

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Umberto Giordano - Other works

Operatic composer, born in Foggia, SE Italy. He composed several operas, and is best remembered for Andrea Chenier (1896) and Fedora (1898). Umberto Giordano (August 28, 1867 - November 12, 1948) was an Italian composer, mainly of opera. His first opera Marina, was written for the competition staged by the music publishers Casa Sonzogno for the best one-act opera, remembered today bec…

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Umberto Nobile - Early career, Polar Expeditions, Later career

Aviator, born in Lauro, S Italy. He became an aeronautical engineer and built the airships Norge and Italia. He flew across the North Pole in the Norge with Amundsen and Ellsworth in 1926. A general in the Italian air force and professor of aeronautical engineering at Naples, in 1928 he was wrecked in the airship Italia when returning from the North Pole, and was judged to be responsible for the d…

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Umberto Saba - Childhood and education, Career, List of works

Poet, born in Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy. An antiquarian bookseller in Trieste, he was an isolated figure, whose main influences were Hebrew culture, German Romanticism, Freud, and Venetian dialect poetry. His poetry, which combined aulic forms and conversational language, is collected in the Canzoniere (1921–48, 1951–61) and in Mediterranee (1947). He also wrote a critical comment…

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umbilical cord - Explanation, Makeup and composition, Problems, Lotus birth, Animals, Other uses for the term "umbilical cord"

A solid flexible cord which connects the developing fetus of the placental mammals (eg humans and dogs) to the placenta within the uterus. When first formed, it is comparatively short, but it increases in length as the fetus and amniotic cavity enlarge (the average length in humans is 60 cm/24 in.) It allows the fetus to float freely in the fluid of the uterus (the amniotic fluid) and through th…

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Umbria - Archaeological sites and ruins

pop (2000e) 822 000; area 8456 km²/3265 sq mi. Region of C Italy; capital, Perugia; other chief towns, Foligno and Terni; L Trasimeno, largest lake in the Italian peninsula; prosperous farming region (corn, olives, wine, sugar beet, tobacco, market gardening, sheep farming); industry around Terni, Narni, and Foligno (chemicals, metalworking); textiles, crafts, and confectionery in Perugia an…

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Uncas

Pequot and Mohegan leader, born in present-day Connecticut, USA. He led rebellions against his father-in-law, Sassacus, the Pequot leader, eventually taking over part of the Pequot lands and ruling its people under their new tribal name, the Mohegans. He maintained power throughout much of his life with the help of the English colonists, whom he supported in the Pequot War (1636–7) and King Phili…

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underground

A complete railway system designed to operate underground in tunnels or tubes, also known as the tube, subway, or metro. Traction is supplied almost exclusively by electric motor. Undergrounds are usually built where the provision of normal surface or overhead railways is not possible, usually because of congestion or other environmental considerations. Due to their high cost of construction, unde…

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Underground Press - Origins, The underground press in Australia, The underground press in the UK

(1940–5) In The Netherlands during the German occupation in World War 2, publications which were often produced in stencil and distributed from hand to hand. Some titles still survive now as ordinary newspapers, such as Het Parool, Trouw, De Waarheid, and Vrij Nederland (a weekly). This movement borrowed the name from previous underground presses such as the Dutch underground press during …

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Underground Railroad - Folklore, Legal and political, Effect on Canada, Notable people, Notable locations, Contemporary literature, Related events

A network of safe houses, hiding places, and routes to aid escaped American slaves to reach freedom in the N or Canada. Never formally organized, it was active as early as 1786, but was most widespread and active after 1830. One of the major means of resistance to slavery, estimates suggest that it helped at least 50 000 runaways. The Underground Railroad (occasionally referred to as the "…

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undue influence

In law, improper pressure used by one person who abuses a position of influence or power upon another, in relation to some transaction, for example, by a beneficiary under a will upon the testator. A gift (or contract) may be set aside where there has been undue influence applied by the donee (or one contracting party) to the donor (or other contracting party). Certain relationships (eg between so…

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unemployment - Impact on society and the economy, Causes of unemployment, Types of unemployment, Measuring unemployment

A situtation where a person able and willing to do work is not employed. Unemployment may be due to several possible causes, none of which are mutually exclusive. Demand-deficiency or Keynesian unemployment is where there is simply insufficient demand. In classical unemployment, the lowest pay that workers will accept is above what employers think their labour is worth. Frictional unemployment is …

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UNESCO - Structure, Controversy and reform, UNESCO activities, UNESCO prizes, awards and medals, Directors General of UNESCO

Acronym for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, founded in 1946 with the objective of contributing to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science, and culture. It has a general conference, executive board, and secretariat, with headquarters in Paris. In the mid-1980s, there emerged serious concern among the non-communist indu…

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ungulate - Relationships

A mammal in which toes end in hooves rather than claws; includes artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) and perissodactyls (odd-toed ungulates); also the primitive ungulates (elephant, hyrax, aardvark); usually large and herbivorous. Ungulates (meaning roughly "hoofed" or "hoofed animal") are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of their toes, usually hoofed, to sustain their wh…

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unicorn - Overview, Unicorns in prehistory, Unicorns in antiquity, Medieval unicorns, The Hunt of the Unicorn, Heraldry

A fabulous creature, a horse with a single horn on its forehead; probably based on stories of the rhinoceros. In mediaeval legend it could be captured only by a virgin putting its head in her lap. The unicorn is a legendary creature usually depicted with the body of a horse, but with a single – usually spiral – horn growing out of its forehead (hence its name – cornus being Lati…

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uniformitarianism

In geology, the principle that geological processes controlling the evolution of the Earth's crust were of the same kind throughout geological time as they are today. First formulated by British geologist James Hutton, it contrasts with the earlier theory of catastrophism, which postulated that the history of the Earth has to be explained by events radically different from anything going on at the…

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Union Movement - Development of labour movements within nation states, Development of an international labour movement

A party formed by Sir Oswald Mosley in 1948 as a successor to his New Party (1931) and the British Union of Fascists (1932). It put up a handful of candidates 1959–66, failing to secure a significant number of votes. The party's main plank was opposition to immigration, but it also included a call to unite Europe into a vast market to buy and sell from Africa. Mosley gave up the leadership in 196…

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Union of Utrecht

A league formed in 1579 by the mainly Protestant provinces to carry on joint opposition to Spain, after the Union of Arras had shown themselves willing to be accommodating. William (the Silent) of Orange was sympathetic, but remained officially aloof in an attempt to try and save the Pacification of Ghent, and was among the last to sign. It was intended to form the basis of a defensive military al…

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Uniramia

A group of arthropods characterized by their 1-branched (uniramous) limbs, and by jaws that bite transversely at the tip; comprises the insects (Insecta), centipedes (Chilopoda), millipedes (Diplopoda), and velvet worms (Onychophora); sometimes treated as a separate phylum at the arthropodan level of organization. The Uniramia are a major group of Arthropoda, consisting of organisms with an…

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unit trust - Bid-Offer Spread, Mechanics, OEIC conversion, History, Ways To Invest, Further reading

A form of investment. The trust buys shares in a number of companies, and offers the public an opportunity to buy a unit of the portfolio. It is a means of spreading risk. There are over 1000 unit trusts in the UK, catering for the general investor and for special situations. A unit trust is a form of collective investment constituted under a trust deed. Found in the UK, Ireland…

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United Arab Emirates - Economic trend, Human rights, Geography, Demographics, Culture and Religion, Media, Holidays

Local name Ittih-ad al-Im-arat al-'Arab-iyah The United Arab Emirates (also the UAE or the Emirates) is a Middle Eastern country situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia on the Persian Gulf, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajmān, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain. United Arab Emirates is the richest country in th…

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United Church of Canada - History, About the United Church, The United Church in popular culture

A Church established in Canada in 1925 through the union of the Presbyterian, Congregational, and Methodist Churches in Canada. Although its system of government was to be presbyterian in character, a minority of Presbyterian congregations refused to join, and continued as the Presbyterian Church in Canada. In 1968 there was a further merger, with the Canadian branch of the Evangelical United Bret…

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United Church of Christ - Origin of the United Church of Christ, Polity/organizational structure, United Church News

A Christian denomination formed in the USA in 1961 (after 20 years of negotiations) by the union of the Congregational and Christian Churches with the Evangelical and Reformed Church. Envisioned as an ecumenical Protestant Church, it allows for variation in local organization and in the interpretation of doctrine, but continues to reflect its Reformed theological background. Disambiguation:…

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United Gold Coast Convention

A nationalist party formed in the Gold Coast (later, Ghana) in 1947. Kwame Nkrumah became secretary-general in 1948, but it was soon apparent that he was at odds with the leadership, since he desired to promote a more radical approach. In 1949 he formed the Convention People's Party, which led Ghana to independence in 1957. The United Gold Coast Convention was a political party who aim was …

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United Kingdom (UK) - History, Government and politics, Law, Geography, Demographics, Economy, Administrative subdivisions, Military, Culture, Symbols, Neighbouring countries

Local names United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Great Britain, Britain The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (usually shortened to the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is a country and sovereign state that is situated in west Northern Europe. Its territory and population are primarily situated on the island of Great Britain and in Northern Irela…

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United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA)

An authority set up by the Atomic Energy Authority Act in 1954, which has prime responsibility for research and the development of nuclear power in the UK on behalf of the government. It conducts research into new reactor systems, including safety and environmental issues, and provides support for the UK nuclear industry. Its main site and headquarters is located in Harwell, Oxfordshire. Th…

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United Nations (UN) - History, Membership, Headquarters, Financing, Languages, Aims and Activities, Reform, Millennium Development Goals

An organization formed to maintain world peace and foster international co-operation, formally established on 24 October 1945 with 51 founder countries. Its permanent headquarters are in New York. The UN Charter, which was drafted during the war by the USA, UK, and USSR, remains virtually unaltered despite the growth in membership and activities. There are six ‘principal organs’. The General As…

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