Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 75

Cambridge Encyclopedia

thresher shark - Distribution and habitat, Anatomy and appearance, Diet, Species

Large and very distinctive surface-living shark (Alopias vulpinus), widespread in tropical to temperate seas; easily recognized by the remarkably long upper lobe of tail fin which may exceed half its body length; tail lobe used to round up shoals of fish by thrashing the water surface; body length up to 6 m/20 ft. (Family: Alopiidae.) Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the fami…

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threshold

In psychology, the physically measured value of stimulation at which an observer's response changes from one category to another. The smallest amount of stimulation required for detection is the absolute threshold; the smallest detectable difference between sources of stimulation is the difference threshold. In music: In science: In television: In other f…

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thrombosis - Causes, Types/classification, Embolisation

The formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel, resulting in a partial or complete blockage. Its basis is the formation of the protein, fibrin, which is formed from a soluble precursor, fibrinogen. Fibrin forms a mesh in which platelets and red blood cells are trapped, and produces a plug to the flow of blood. The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is activated by a complex series of enzymes …

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Thucydides - Life, Education, Character, The History of the Peloponnesian War

Athenian politician, son-in-law of Cimon, and leader of the opposition to Pericles until ostracized in 443 BC. He was probably a relative of Thucydides, the historian. Thucydides (circa 460 BC – c. 400 BC), Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídēs) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between S…

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Thucydides - Life, Education, Character, The History of the Peloponnesian War

Athenian aristocratic historian of the Peloponnesian War. Although scrupulously accurate in his narrative of events, he was not altogether unprejudiced. Exiled for 20 years by the democracy for military imcompetence in the N Aegean (424 BC), he was consistently critical of the democratic system and its leaders in the war years. Thucydides (circa 460 BC – c. 400 BC), Greek Θουκυδίδ…

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Thuggee - Working method, Origin and recruitment, Beliefs and practices, Number of victims

An Indian cult which combined robbery and ritual murder (usually by strangling) in the name of Kali (the Hindu goddess of destruction). Under British governor-general Lord Bentinck (1833–5), and his agent Captain William Sleeman, vigorous steps were taken to eradicate the problem. Thuggee (or tuggee) (from Hindi thag thief, from Sanskrit sthaga scoundrel, from sthagati to conceal) was an I…

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Thule - Ancient Geography, Middle Ages, Modern use, "Aryan Thule", References in popular culture

77°30N 69°29W. Eskimo settlement in NW Greenland; on coast of Hayes Halvø peninsula; founded as a Danish trading post in 1910; Danish–US airforce base nearby; scientific installations; name also given by the ancients to the most northerly land of Europe, an island described c.310 BC by the Greek navigator, Pytheas. The Greek explorer Pytheas is the first to have written of Thule, doing …

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Thun

46°46N 7°38E, pop (2000e) 40 000. Town in Bern canton, W Switzerland, on the R Aare near L Thun; gateway to the Bernese Oberland; railway junction; engineering, watches, cheese; castle (1191). Coordinates: 46°46′N 7°38′E Thun (French: Thoune) is a town in the canton of Bern in Switzerland with about 42,136 inhabitants (1 January 2006). It is located where t…

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thunderstorm - Classification, Where thunderstorms occur, Life cycle, Lightning

A storm of heavy rain, thunder, and lightning which occurs when cumulonimbus clouds develop in unstable, humid conditions. As air rises, condensation releases latent heat, and this increases the available energy, reinforcing the rising tendency of the air. Above the level at which condensation occurs, supercooled water droplets coalesce to form precipitation-sized droplets. As rain falls, instabil…

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Thurgood Marshall - Education, Later Life, Death, Timeline of Marshall's life, Dedications

Civil-rights advocate and judge, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The great-grandson of a slave, he graduated as valedictorian from Howard University Law School (1933) and soon began to represent civil-rights activists. Becoming a counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1938), during the next 23 years he won 29 of the 32 major cases he undertook for that organi…

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Thuringia

A historic area of Germany, including the Harz Mts and Thuringian Forest, a march or frontier region against the Slavs. Controlled by various dynasties, from the 10th-c Dukes of Saxony to the House of Wettin (1265), it was divided between Saxony, Hesse-Kassel, and others 1485–1920, and is now a province within united Germany. The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies …

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Thuringian Forest

Region of forest land covering about two-thirds of the county of Suhl in S Germany between the Weisse Elster (E) and R Werra (W); formerly included in the German state of Thuringia, becoming part of East Germany in 1945; popular tourist region; winter sports resort at Oberhof. The Thuringian Forest (Thüringer Wald in German language) running northwest to southeast, forms a continuous stret…

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Thurman (Wesley) Arnold - Early years

Lawyer and government official, born in Laramie, Wyoming, USA. Dean of the University of Virginia Law School (1927–30) and iconoclastic law professor at Yale (1930–7), he wrote The Folklore of Capitalism (1937). An assistant attorney general in Washington (1938–43), he spearheaded anti-trust indictments. He served as an appellate judge (1943–5) before returning to private practice. Thur…

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Thurso - Geography, History, Local government, Port of Scrabster, Sport, Twin Towns, Main road junctions

58°35N 3°32W, pop (2000e) 8690. Port town in Highland, N Scotland, UK; on N coast, at head of R Thurso, 30 km/19 mi NW of Wick; N terminus of railway system; car ferry service to Orkney from Scrabster; St Peter's Church (17th-c), Thurso Folk Museum. Thurso (from Old Norse, meaning 'Bull's water') (Inbhir Theòrsa in Scottish Gaelic) is a town and a burgh on the north coast of Scotland.…

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Thurston Dart

Keyboard player, conductor, and musical scholar, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music and London University, became professor of music at Cambridge (1962) and at London (1964), and was also director of the Philomusica of London (1955–9). A specialist in early music, he edited several editions of 16th-c and 17th-c English works. Robert Thurston Dart (September 3, 192…

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Thutmose III

Egyptian pharoah (c.1504–1450 BC). He was one of the greatest of Egyptian rulers, who re-established Egyptian control over Syria and Nubia, and ornamented his kingdom with revenues from these conquests. He built the temple of Amon at Karnak, and erected many obelisks, including ‘Cleopatra's Needle’. In the early years of his reign, power lay in the hands of Hatshepsut, the sister/wife of Thutmo…

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Thyestes - Thyestes in theatre, Spoken-word myths - audio files

In Greek mythology, a son of Pelops, who inherited the curse upon that house. His brother Atreus set before him a dish made of the flesh of Thyestes' children. Later, he became the father of Aegisthus. In Greek mythology, Thyestes was the son of Pelops, King of Olympia, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and Aegisthus. Thyestes and his twin brother, Atreus, were exiled by their fath…

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thylacine - Taxonomy and evolution, Discovery, Physical description, Ecology and behaviour, Extinction, Modern research and projects, Cultural references

An Australian marsupial, probably extinct since the 1930s; length, up to 1·6 m/5¼ ft; dog-like, with long thick tail; sandy brown with dark vertical stripes over back and hindquarters; could sit upright on hind legs and tail like a kangaroo; female with short backward-facing pouch covering four teats; when last known, was nocturnal in the Tasmanian mountains; ate wallabies, smaller marsupials,…

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thyme

A small spreading aromatic shrub, often only a few cm high, native to Europe and Asia; leaves small, narrow, in opposite pairs; flowers 2-lipped, usually pink or mauve, in crowded whorls forming spikes or heads. It is widely cultivated as a culinary herb, with variegated forms as ornamentals. It is a large genus, with numerous narrowly defined species and hybrids, many with distinctive scents and …

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thymine

C5H6N2O2, 5-methyluracil. One of the pyrimidine bases in DNA, usually paired with adenine. …

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thymus - Function, Anatomy, Development, Structure, Cancer, Other animals and second thymus, Additional images

A lymphoid gland of vertebrates, which in mammals lies in the upper part of the chest close to the great vessels and the heart, its shape and size being determined by the surrounding structures. In humans, its size shows great individual variation at any given age; it is present at birth (average weight 13 g/0·5 oz), and continues to grow until puberty (average weight in the adolescent 37 g/1

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thyratron

An electronic valve filled with a gas (usually mercury vapour or an inert gas) at low pressure. It is used for switching, and as a controlled rectifier in applications such as welding. Such valves are now being replaced by semiconductor devices. A thyratron is a type of gas filled tube used as a high energy electrical switch. Triode, Tetrode and Pentode variations of the thyratron have been…

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thyristor - Function, History, Applications, Comparisons to other devices, Failure modes, Silicon carbide thyristors, Types of thyristors

A semiconductor device that acts as a switch; also often called a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). It is made of a sandwich of p-n-p-n semiconductor material. A flow of current is initiated by a signal, and the current then becomes independent of the signal. This flow will stop only if the voltage across the thyristor is reversed. A triac is a thyristor which, once triggered, remains on until t…

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thyroid hormone - Circulation, Function, Related diseases, Medical use of thyroid hormones, Structure and production of the thyroid hormones

A collective term for iodine-containing amine hormones secreted from vertebrate thyroid glands. In humans and other mammals, the principle hormones are thyroxine (T4) and trilodothyronine (T3), which have important roles in fetal development and throughout life in the control of metabolism. Their synthesis and release is controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a glycoprotein hormone produ…

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Tiananmen Square - Events, Images from near and in the square

The largest public square in the world, covering 40 ha/98 acres and lying S of the Ming Tiananmen (‘Gate of Heavenly Peace’) leading into the Forbidden City in C Beijing. It has long been the venue of mass manifestations (eg in the May Fourth Movement, 1919) and it was here that the People's Republic was proclaimed in September 1949. In 1966, during the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong addresse…

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Tiberias - Current, Other transliterations, Twin Cities

32°48N 35°32E, pop (2000e) 44 000. Holiday resort town in Northern district, N Israel, on W shore of L Tiberias; named after the Roman emperor, Tiberius; medicinal hot springs known since ancient times; one of the four holy cities of the Jews; Jewish settlement re-established in 1922; Monastery of St Peter. Coordinates: 32°47′23″N, 35°31′29″E Tiberias (Hebrew: טב…

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Tiberius - Early life, Retirement to Rhodes, Heir to Augustus, Early reign

Roman emperor (14–37), the son of Livia, and stepson and successor of the Emperor Augustus. Deeply conservative by nature, he was content to continue Augustus's policies and simply consolidate his achievements. Despite the soundness of his administration and foreign policy, politically his reign was a disaster. The suspicious death of his heir Germanicus (19) was followed by the excesses of his c…

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Tibesti Mountains

Mountain range in NC Africa, largely in NW Chad, partly in Libya and Sudan; area 100 000 km²/38 600 sq mi, length 480 km/300 mi; highest mountain group in Sahara; highest peak, Emi Koussi (3415 m/11 204 ft); spectacular rock formations created by wind erosion. The Tibesti Mountains are a group of dormant volcanoes forming a mountain range in the central Sahara desert in the Bourk…

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Tibet - Definitions, Name, Cities, Geography, Demographics, Culture

pop (2000e) 2 448 000; area 1 221 600 km²/471 500 sq mi. Designated by Chinese as an autonomous region in SW China; S and W border includes Bhutan, India, and Nepal; in the Tibet Plateau, average altitude 4000 m/13 000 ft; Himalayas in the S, on borders with India, Nepal, and Bhutan, rising to 8848 m/29 028 ft at Mt Everest; Kunlun Shan range in the N; major farming area in S valle…

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Tibetan art - Greek influence brought by Alexander the Great, Mahayana Buddhist influence, Tantric Influence, External Links

The art associated with Tibet, which for a thousand years has reflected the intense spirituality and mysticism of Lamaism. Wall-paintings and banners, Buddhist sculpture in stone, wood, metal, and ivory, as well as tombs and stupas, were produced by anonymous craftsmen following age-old rules. Tibetan art refers to the art of Tibet and other present and former Himalayan kingdoms (Bhutan, La…

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tic - Description and classification, Tic disorders, Controversy and confusion

An involuntary non-rhythmic motor movement or vocal production which serves no apparent purpose. It may occur as the result of a neurological lesion, and most famously in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, where the patient may suddenly utter a sound like a bark, or swear without provocation or intention to do so. A tic is a sudden, repetitive, stereotyped, nonrhythmic, involuntary movement (m…

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tick - Characteristics, Ticks as disease vectors, Location, Population Control, Life cycle, Example species

A large mite specialized as a blood-feeding, external parasite of terrestrial vertebrates; fangs modified for cutting skin; cuticle typically elastic, stretching to accommodate blood meal; can transmit diseases of humans and domesticated animals. (Order: Acari. Family: Ixodidae.) Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with mites, constitute the order Acarina. …

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ticket of leave

A pass issued to convicts in Australia as a reward for good behaviour; it was a form of parole which could be issued after 4, 6, or 8 years depending on whether the sentence was for 7, 14 years, or life, respectively. About 30% of convicts received tickets of leave by 1840. A ticket of leave was a piece of paper issued to convicts transported from the United Kingdom who had served a period …

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tidal wave

The extremely long-period waves driven by the forces producing the tides. The term is often popularly but incorrectly used to refer to tsunamis, which are not related to tides. The term tidal wave can refer to: …

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tide - Tidal terminology, Timing, Tidal physics, Tides and navigation, Other tides

The regular, periodic rise and fall of the surface of the sea. The tides are produced by differences in gravitational forces acting on different points on the Earth's surface, and affect all bodies of water to some extent. These so-called tidal forces are produced primarily by the Sun and Moon. The Sun's tidal forces are only about half as strong as those of the Moon, due to the Sun's greater dist…

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Tiergarten

A park covering 255 ha/630 acres in Berlin, Germany. Originally a royal hunting ground, it was landscaped in the 18th-c and opened to the public. The park was re-established, after being severely damaged during World War 2 and the bitter winter that followed, when many trees were cut for fuel. Tiergarten (Animal Garden) is the name of both a large park in Berlin and a neighborhood within …

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Tierra del Fuego - Geography, History, Flora, Economy

pop (2000e) 78 200; area 73 746 km²/28 473 sq mi. Island group at the extreme S of South America; E side (about one third) belongs to Argentina (National Territory), remainder belongs to Chile; boundary agreed in 1881; bounded by the Magellan Strait (N), Atlantic Ocean (E), Pacific Ocean (W), and Beagle Channel (S); highest point Monte Darwin (2438 m/7999 ft); Cape Horn southernmost poin…

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Tiffin

41º1N 83º2W, pop (2000e) 18 100. Seat of Seneca Co, NW Ohio, USA; on the Sandusky R; first settled as Oakley village (1817), renamed Fort Ball, and finally Tiffin (1822); birthplace of Oliver Baker and George Cressey; severely damaged by floods (1913); railway; many parks. Tiffin is an Indian and British term for a light meal eaten during the day. Not so long ago, in India, …

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tiger beetle

An active, brightly-coloured beetle found in open, sunny habitats; larvae typically live in burrows; both larvae and adults feed mainly on small insects. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Carabidae.) The tiger beetles are a large group of beetles known for their predatory habits. …

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tiger shark

Large and very dangerous shark (Galeocerda cuvier) widely distributed in tropical and warm temperate seas; length up to 5 m/16 ft; grey to brown, with darker vertical stripes and patches, the pattern becoming indistinct in large specimens. (Family: Carcharhinidae.) …

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Tiger Woods

Golfer, born in Cypress, California, USA. He studied at Stanford University and won amateur US golf titles before turning professional in 1996. He shot to fame after winning the US Masters at Augusta in 1997 - with a record score of 270 - at the age of 21, the first African-American to do so, as well as the youngest; in his first appearance at the British Open later that year he equalled the Troon…

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Tijuana - History, Culture and entertainment, Economy, Driving to Tijuana from the USA, Tijuana Makes Me Happy

32°32N 117°02W, pop (2000e) 894 000. Border town in NW Baja California Norte, NW Mexico; on the Pacific Ocean at the frontier with California, USA; airfield; tourist town with casinos and nightclubs; horse racing, dog racing, bullfights. Tijuana (Spanish [ti'xwana], English usually [ˌtiːəˈwɑnə]), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the munic…

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Tikal - Tikal in the Classic era, The site, Ancient history of Tikal, Modern history of Tikal

An ancient Mayan city in the Petén rainforest of N Guatemala, settled by 250 BC, at its peak in the 7th–8th-c AD, but abruptly abandoned c.900. In area 16 km²/6 sq mi, it contained an estimated 3000 buildings with a population of c.20–30 000. Monuments include palaces, plazas, ten reservoirs, and six temple pyramids, the largest 70 m/229 ft high. It is a world heritage site. Tikal…

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Tilburg - History, Famous people from Tilburg

51°31N 5°06E, pop (2000e) 168 000. Industrial city in North Brabant province, S Netherlands; on the Wilhelmina Canal, 54 km/34 mi SE of Rotterdam; railway; woollens, metalworking; major business and cultural centre in the S; capital of Dutch Catholicism. Tilburg (pronunciation (help·info)) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brab…

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Tilbury - History, Fort, Docks, Transport

51°28N 0°23E, pop (2000e) 12 100. Town in Essex, SE England, UK; on the R Thames estuary, E of London; railway; major port and docks for London and the SE. Tilbury is located on the north bank of the River Thames, in the borough of Thurrock in England, at the point where the river suddenly narrows to about 800 yards/740 metres in width. Tilbury has a deep water port, a fort …

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tillage

The preparation of land for crop-bearing. Tillage loosens the soil, kills weeds, and improves the circulation of the water and air in the soil. Plant wastes from preceding crops enrich the soil with nutrients when the soil is tilled. Harrows may be employed to break up and pulverise strips of soil after ploughing. This aeration of the soil provides further circulation of oxygen and water and stimu…

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Tim Rice

Lyricist, writer, and broadcaster, born in Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Lancing College, then took up law, but left a lawyer's firm to join the EMI recording company. He has co-written lyrics on many award-winning records, has appeared on numerous radio and TV quiz shows, and written several books. He is best known for writing the lyrics to music by Andrew Lloyd Webber for Joseph…

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Tim Robbins

Film actor, director, and writer, born in West Govina, California, USA. He grew up in New York City, moved to Los Angeles in 1981, and helped found the Actors Gang, an alternative theatre group. To fund this venture he took roles in such films as Fraternity Vacation (1985) and Howard the Duck (1986). He wrote, directed, and composed the songs for the critically acclaimed Bob Roberts (1992). He app…

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timbre - American Standards Association definition, Spectra, Envelope, In music, Spelling

The sound quality of a voice or musical instrument, which depends on the prominence or otherwise of upper harmonics (partials) in the notes produced. The timbre of a flute or recorder, for example, is weak in upper harmonics compared with that of the much brighter violin or trumpet. The ‘clanging’ sound of a bell results from the number and strength of upper partials which are not concordant wit…

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Timbuktu - Origins, Legendary tales, Center of learning, Ravage and decline, Timbuktu today, Famous people connected with Timbuktu

16°49N 2°59W, pop (2000e) 32 000. Town in Gao region, N Mali, 690 km/429 mi NE of Bamako; settled in the 11th-c; a chief centre of Muslim learning; declined after conquest by Morocco, 16th-c; taken by the French, 1893; airfield; adjoining town of Kabara serves as a port on the R Niger; tourism, salt, power plant; Djinguereber Mosque (13th-c), Sankore Mosque (14th-c), Sidi Yahya Mosque (15th-…

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time - Measurement, Standards, Interpretations, Psychology, Use of time, Further reading

That which distinguishes sequential events from simultaneous events; symbol t, units s (second); the fourth dimension, in addition to the three spatial dimensions. It allows the assignment of cause and effect, and, according to our perception, the assignment of past, present, and future. In Newtonian mechanics, time is absolute, meaning that a second as measured by one observer is the same as a se…

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time and motion study

The technique of job analysis to discover how tasks are actually carried out; more usually known now as work study or industrial engineering. Its aim is to find the most efficient way of performing a task, both in terms of time and effort, in order to raise productivity. When used as a basis for wage negotiations, it can lead to industrial disputes. A time and motion study (or time-motion s…

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time dilation - Overview, Experimental confirmation, Time dilation and space flight, Simple inference of time dilation

The slowing of time for objects moving at velocities close to the velocity of light, as perceived by a stationary observer. If observer A watches the clock held by observer B as B moves past, A will see B's clock as running slowly. In turn, B will see A's clock as running slowly. The symmetry is consistent with the principle that no observer is ‘more at rest’ than any other. Time dilation is obs…

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Time of Troubles

A period of intense social and political turmoil in Russia (1598–1613), involving a series of successive crises, civil wars, famines, Cossack and peasant revolts, foreign invasions, and widespread material destruction. In 1591 the legitimate heir of Ivan the Terrible, Dmitri, was murdered, possibly on the orders of Boris Godunov. Subsequently, four pretenders assumed his name. The first appeared …

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time-sharing (computing)

A means of providing simultaneous access by several users to the same computer. Each user, in turn, is assigned full use of the central processing unit for a very small duration, making it appear that each user has continuous access. Other historical timesharing systems, some of them still in widespread use, include: …

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time-sharing (leisure)

The joint ownership of holiday accommodation by a consortium. Depending upon the number of shares acquired, each share holder is entitled to a specific period of use. A register of time-share owners exists, enabling them to exchange their accommodation for another during their holiday entitlement period. Other historical timesharing systems, some of them still in widespread use, include: …

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Times Square - Times Square today, Times Square in popular culture

The area in New York City formed by the intersection of Broadway, 42nd Street, and 7th Avenue, and at the centre of the city's theatre district. It takes its name from the Times Tower, built in 1904 to house the offices of the New York Times. Times Square is the name given to a principal intersection, at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue, and stretching from West 42nd to West 47th…

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Timgad

The former Roman city of Thaugadi in NE Algeria; a world heritage site. Founded by the Emperor Trajan in AD 100, and abandoned after the 5th-c, it is a noted example of Roman planning. The site has been extensively restored, and archaeological work still continues. Timgad (Arabic, Thamugadi, called Thamugas by the Romans, was a Roman colonial town in North Africa founded by the Emperor Traj…

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Timoleon

Greek statesman, and general of Corinth. He overthrew the tyranny of his brother Timophanes, and retired from public life; but when Dionysius the Younger and others tried to establish themselves in Syracuse, he was prevailed upon to return. He manoeuvred Dionysius into abdication and fought the Carthaginians, who were supporting the other tyrants, defeating them at the Crimessus in 341. Tim…

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Timor - History, Trivia

pop (2000e) 1 905 000; area 33 912 km²/13 090 sq mi. Mountainous island in SE Asia, in the Sunda group, NW of Australia; divided between Portugal and Holland, 1859; West Timor (former Dutch Timor) included in Indonesia at independence, administered as part of the province of Nusa Tenggara Timur; capital, Kupang; coffee, coconuts, maize; former Portuguese territory of East Timor granted fu…

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Timor Sea

Part of the Pacific Ocean, SE of Timor, Indonesia, and NW of Northern Territory, Australia; lies over a wide continental shelf, with depths down to 110 m/360 ft, but deepens off Timor. A number of significant islands are located in the sea, notably Melville Island off Australia and the Australian-governed Ashmore and Cartier Islands. It is thought that early humans reached Australia…

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Timothy (James) McVeigh - Biography, Bombing, Arrest, trial, conviction and sentencing, Death, Motivations for the bombing, Alleged accomplices

Convicted perpetrator of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, born in Pendleton, New York, USA. He joined the army in 1988, took part in Operation Desert Storm, and was discharged in 1991. He became internationally known when he was charged with the bombing of the Alfred P Murrah US government building in Oklahoma City in 1995, in which 168 people died. At his trial in 1997, a Denver jury found him gui…

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Timothy (Lancaster) West - Life and career, Stage roles, TV roles, Film roles, Autobiography

Actor and director, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He was educated in London, entered the profession as assistant stage manager at Wimbledon (1956), and made his London debut in 1959. He was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company (1964–6), and with the prospect Theatre Company (1966–72), where he also directed, and thereafter played a wide variety of roles in the provinces, …

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Timothy (Peter) Mo - Awards

Novelist, born in Kowloon, Hong Kong. He studied at Oxford University, attracting attention with his first novel, The Monkey King (1978), set in Hong Kong, followed by Sour Sweet (1982, Hawthornden Prize), a densely realistic portrait of London's Chinese community. Later novels include The Redundancy of Courage (1991), Brownout on Breadfruit Boulevard (1995), and Renegade or Halo Squared (1999, Ja…

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Timothy Hackworth - Youth and early work, Further locomotive constructions, Legacy

Locomotive engineer, born in Wylam, Northumberland, NE England, UK. He was manager of the Stockton–Darlington railway (1825–40), and builder of a number of famous engines, including the Royal George and the Sans Pareil, rival of George Stephenson's Rocket. Timothy Hackworth (December 22, 1786 – July 7, 1850) was a steam locomotive mechanical engineer who lived in Shildon, County Durham,…

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Timothy Michael Healy - Governor-General, Additional Reading

Irish Nationalist leader, born in Bantry, Co Cork, S Ireland. He sat in parliament (1880–1918), headed in 1890 the revolt against Parnell, and became an Independent Nationalist. He was the first Governor-General of the Irish Free State (1922–8). Timothy Michael Healy, KC (17 May 1855 – 26 March 1931) was one of the most controversial of Irish politicians, with a career that spanned the …

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Timothy Murphy

American soldier, born in Pike Co, Pennsylvania, USA. A legendary Continental army sharpshooter, he enlisted (Jun 1775) and fought at Boston and in the New Jersey campaign, served with General Daniel Morgan in the campaign against John Burgoyne (1777), and saw action at Yorktown (1781). His inability to read and write did not bar him from postwar successes in local politics. At the Battle o…

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Timothy Thomas Fortune - Early life, Education, Tuskegee's Point Man, New York Journalist

Journalist, editor, and civil rights activist, born in Marianna Township, Florida, USA. Freed from slavery in only 1865, he witnessed his father's stormy career as a Reconstructionist politician in Florida. He learned the printing trade, and when he moved to Washington, DC (1876) he worked on an African-American newspaper and became friendly with Frederick Douglass. In 1880 he moved to New York Ci…

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timpani - The instrument, Timpani sticks, Timpani in the modern ensemble, Performance techniques, History

Drums made from large copper bowls (hence the English name kettledrum), with heads of calfskin or plastic, which can be tuned to various pitches by means of hand-screws or, in modern instruments, pedals. They are normally played with two felt-headed sticks, but other types may be specified. As military instruments, two timpani were carried on horseback at either side of the rider. Since the 17th-c…

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Timur - Early life, Military leader, Rise to power, Period of expansion, India, Last campaigns and death

Tatar conqueror, born near Samarkand, SE Uzbekistan. In 1369 he ascended the throne of Samarkand, subdued nearly all Persia, Georgia, and the Tatar empire, and conquered all the states between the Indus and the lower Ganges (1398). He won Damascus and Syria from the Mameluke sovereigns of Egypt, then defeated the Turks at Angora (1402), taking Sultan Bayezit prisoner. His death, while taking a 200…

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tin

Sn (Lat stannum), element 50, melting point 232°C, density 7·3 g/cm3. A white metal in the carbon group of elements, occurring in nature mainly as the oxide (SnO2), and isolated by reduction with carbon. The metal forms a very strongly adhering oxide coat, and is therefore not corroded easily. Tin is used as a plating for other metals because of its corrosion resistance. Tin compounds are less …

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Tin Pan Alley - Origins, Prime, Influence on law and business, Composers, Publishing houses, Biggest hits, Trivia

A nickname coined towards the end of the 19th-c for the popular music-publishing centre of New York City situated on 28th Street and 6th Avenue, and later on Broadway near 49th Street. In the UK it can refer to the area around Denmark Street in Soho, London. Coordinates: 40°44′44″N, 73°59′22.5″W Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-center…

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Tina Anselmi

Italian politician, born in Castelfranco Veneto, Veneto, NE Italy. She took part in the resistance and was an active member of the Christian Democrats after 1944, and a deputy from 1968 to 1992. The first Italian woman minister, she served first in the department of employment (1976–8) and then the ministry of health (1978–9). She headed the parliamentary commission on the masonic lodge P2 (1981…

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Tina Turner - Biography, Solo career, Solo discography, Filmography, Tours, Trivia

Singer, born in Nutbush, Tennessee, USA. She achieved considerable success in the rhythm-and-blues vocal duo, Ike and Tina Turner, before their marriage and professional partnership was officially dissolved in 1976. Her first solo single, ‘Let's Stay Together’ (1983), reached number 6 in the UK music charts. Other hit singles include ‘What's Love Got To Do With It?’ (1984) and ‘Private Dancer…

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tinamou - Species

A partridge-like bird, native to the New World tropics; inhabits woodland, scrub, or grassland; eats plant material, insects, and (occasionally) mice; eggs incubated by male. (Family: Tinamidae, c.50 species.) The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. …

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Tinian

pop (2000e) 2500; area 101 km²/39 sq mi. One of the N Mariana Is, W Pacific, 5 km/3 mi SW of Saipan; length 18 km/11 mi; four long runways built by the USA during World War 2; plaque commemorates the launching of the Hiroshima bombing mission in 1945; site of ancient stone columns. Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. Ti…

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tinnitus - Objective tinnitus, Causes of subjective tinnitus, Mechanisms of subjective tinnitus, Prevention, Tinnitus treatment

A ringing or hissing sound heard within the ear, which may arise from almost any disorder of the ear or its nerve supply. When the cause is simple, such as excessive wax in the external ear, the condition is easily remedied; in other cases, the disorder is usually intractable. Tinnitus (ti-NIGHT-us or TIN-i-tus) is the perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound. Ti…

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tinplate - History, The pack mill process, The strip mill

A thin steel sheet coated with tin by dipping or electrolytic deposition. It is used for light robust containers and protective constructions. First tried out in the late 17th-c, it was not used to any extent until the invention of canning in the early 19th-c, since when it has attained worldwide industrial importance. Tinplate consists of sheet steel covered with a thin layer of tin. …

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Tintoretto - Biography, Style of life and assessment

Venetian painter, probably born in Venice, NE Italy, the son of a dyer (Ital tintore). Except for visits to Mantua (1580, 1590–3), he lived all his life in Venice, painting portraits and biblical subjects in which he attempted (according to a contemporary critic) to combine the energetic drawing of Michelangelo with the glowing colour of Titian. His most spectacular works are sacred murals painte…

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Tiny Rowland - German background, Rhodesia, Honoured

Financier, born in India. He joined Lonrho (London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company) in 1961, and became chief executive and managing director. In 1983 he became chairman of The Observer newspaper, which he sold to The Guardian in 1993. He stepped down from Lonrho in 1994, following a bitter battle for control of the company with German property tycoon Dieter Bock. Roland 'Tiny' Rowlan…

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Tip O'Neill - Early life and political career, Congressman O'Neill, Speaker of the House, After Congress

US representative, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Boston College, then went into insurance, at the same time becoming actively involved in Democratic politics. He was elected to the Massachusetts House (1936–52), and became its youngest speaker (1947) before going to the US House of Representatives (1953–1987). He pushed liberal legislation while protecting his working-clas…

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Tipasa - History, Another Roman town of the same name, Modern era, Externals Links

A village on the N coast of Algeria, standing on the ruins of the ancient city of Tipasa; a world heritage site. The original settlement, founded in the 5th-c BC, passed through many hands, from Phoenician to Roman, before it was abandoned in the 5th-c. Tipasa (Arabic: تيبازة) Tibaza, older Tefessedt, Chenoua Bazar) is a town on the coast of Algeria, capital of the Tipasa wilaya. …

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Tipperary

County in Munster province, SC Ireland; divided into North Riding (pop (2000e) 58 500; area 1996 km²/770 sq mi) and South Riding (pop (2000e) 76 000; area 2258 km²/872 sq mi); watered by R Suir; Silvermine Mts (N), Galty Mts (S), Slieve Ardagh Hills (W); capital, Clonmel; rich dairy-farming area; centre for horse and greyhound breeding; festival of Irish and modern music and dance at T…

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Tippi Hedren - Films, Influence, Shambala Preserve, Listen to, Marriages, Filmography, Awards and nominations

Film actress, born in New Ulm, Michigan, USA. She was discovered by Alfred Hitchcock, who cast her in The Birds (1963) and Marnie (1964). Later films include Roar (1981), which she also produced, Deadly Spygames (1989), and Citizen Ruth (1996), and she has appeared in several television movies, including Birds 2: The Land's End (1994). In 1972 she founded and is president of the Roar Foundation, a…

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Tiran - Population, Name, History, Climate, Districts, Economy, Education, Environmental problems, Transport, Notable people, Landmarks

41°20N 19°50E, pop (2000e) 277 200. Capital town of Albania and of Tiranë district; in a valley in the foothills of the Kruja-Dajti Mts, 40 km/25 mi from the Adriatic Sea; founded by Turks in the early 17th-c; made capital in 1920; residential area built by the Italians (1939–43); industrial area to the W; university (1957); railway; airport (Rinas); textiles, foodstuffs, footwear, metalwo…

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Tiresias - Overview, Tiresias and Thebes, Death, In post-classical literature, Sources

In Greek mythology, a blind Theban prophet, who takes a prominent part in Sophocles' plays about Oedipus and Antigone. Later legends account for his wisdom by saying that he had experienced the life of both sexes. In Greek mythology, Tiresias (also transliterated as Teiresias) was a blind prophet famous for changing his sex, the son of the shepherd Everes and the nymph Chariclo. …

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Tirso de Molina

Playwright, born in Madrid, Spain. Educated at Alcalá, he became prior of the monastery of Soria. A disciple of his contemporary, Lope de Vega, he wrote many comedies and religious plays, but is best known for his treatment of the Don Juan legend in El burlador de Sevilla (1635, The Seducer of Seville). Tirso de Molina (October, 1579 - March 12, 1648) was a Spanish dramatist and poet. He s…

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Tiryns

An ancient Greek town in the Argolid near Mycenae, famous for the remains of its fortified Bronze Age palace. Large parts of its Cyclopean walls still stand. Tiryns (in ancient greek Τίρυνς and in modern Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archeological site in the Greek nomos of Argolis in the Peloponnese peninsula, some kilometres north of Nauplion. The famous megaron of the …

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tissue

A group or layer of similarly specialized cells, or cells and associated fibres, which have specific functions. Most animals are composed of some or all of the following types of tissue. Epithelial tissue consists of cells only, and covers all internal and external surfaces. Connective tissue (eg fat) consists of cells and fibres, and tends to have a passive role, supporting or joining the more fu…

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tit

A small, lively, acrobatic songbird, native to the N hemisphere and Africa; inhabits woodland and habitation; in the wild, eats insects and seeds; also known as the titmouse or typical tit; includes the chickadees of North America. The name is also used for the long-tailed tit (Family: Aegithalidae), the penduline tit (Family: Remizidae), and numerous other birds of diverse groups. (Family: Parida…

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Titan (astronomy) - Mythology, Science, Sports, Military, Geography, Gaming

Saturn's largest satellite, discovered in 1655 by Huygens; distance from the planet 1 222 000 km/759 000 mi; diameter 5150 km/3200 mi; orbital period 15·945 days. It is the second-largest moon in the Solar System, and the only satellite with a substantial atmosphere, principally composed of nitrogen and methane with a surface pressure greater than Earth's atmosphere. It was approached clos…

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Titan (mythology) - In Hesiod, Titanomachy, In Orphic sources, In the 20th century

In Greek mythology, a member of the older generation of gods, the children of Uranus and Gaia. After Zeus and the Olympians took power, the Titans made war on them; but they were defeated and imprisoned in Tartarus. One or two, notably Prometheus, helped Zeus. The Titans may represent memories of pre-Greek Mediterranean gods. In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek Τιτάν, plural Τιτά…

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Titania (astronomy)

The largest satellite of Uranus, discovered in 1787 by W Herschel; distance from the planet 436 000 km/271 000 mi; diameter 1580 km/980 mi, orbital period 8·7 days. It has an icy, cratered surface, with extensive scarps. Titania may refer to: Titania Street, Belfast, Northern Ireland …

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Titania (mythology) - Modern References

In Greek mythology, a female Titan, identified with the Moon. In Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream she is the queen of the fairies, who is tricked into falling in love with Bottom the weaver. Titania was the name of a character in William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream. In Shakespeare's play, she is the queen of the fairies. Due to Shakespeare's influence, later fi…

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titanium - Applications, Safety

Ti, element 22, melting point 1660°C. A lustrous, white metal, with a relatively low density of 4·5 g/cm3. It is found widely distributed in nature, never uncombined, and usually as an oxide (TiO2). The metal, produced by magnesium reduction, is used in some alloys, especially for aircraft. Its compounds usually show oxidation states +3 and +4. The dioxide is a particularly important white pigm…

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Titian - Biography, Family

Venetian painter, born in Pieve di Cadore, NE Italy. Trained in the studio of Giovanni Bellini, he assisted Giorgione with the paintings on the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (1508). His early paintings display Giorgione's influence, and his own revolutionary style is not apparent until after c.1516, in such works as ‘The Assumption of the Virgin’ (1516–18, Venice). For the Duke of Ferrara he painted thr…

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Titian (Ramsay) Peale

Painter, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the son of Charles Willson Peale. He was trained as a naturalist and artist by his father at the Peale Museum in Philadelphia, where he became director in 1833. He is known for his naturalist illustrations, as seen in American Ornithology (1825–33) by Charles Lucien Bonaparte, and his own work, Lepidoptera Americana (1833). Peale was first …

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title - Honorary titles granted by heads of state

A word used before someone's name to show an acquired or inherited rank or honour, a person's sex (Mr, Mrs, Ms) or occupation (Doctor, Colonel), or some other attainment (eg Dr for a PhD degree). Inherited title equivalents between languages include (French/German/Italian/Spanish): king - roi/Kaiser/re/rey; duke - duc/Herzog/duca/duque; prince - prince/Pfalzgraf/principe/principe; marquess - marqu…

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Tito Gobbi - Biography

Baritone, born in Bassano del Grappa, NE Italy. He studied law at Padua, then took up singing in Rome, making his operatic debut in 1935 at Gubbio. He appeared regularly with the Rome Opera from 1938, and soon made an international reputation, especially in Verdian roles such as Falstaff and Don Carlos. Gobbi was born in Bassano del Grappa and studied law at the University of Padua before h…

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titration - Etymology, Preparing a sample for titration, Titration curves, Types, Particular uses

A technique for finding the volume of one solution chemically equivalent to a given volume of another, usually by adding the first solution slowly until equivalence is reached. This can be detected by the addition of a small amount of an indicator material. Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative/chemical analysis which can be used to determine the concentration of a known r…

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Titus - Early life and military successes, In later literature, Quotes

Roman emperor (79–81), the elder son and successor of Vespasian. Popular with the Romans for his generosity, charm, and military prowess, he is execrated in Jewish tradition for his destruction of Jerusalem (70) and suppression of the Jewish Revolt. His brief reign was marred by many natural calamities, notably the eruption of Vesuvius (79). He completed the Colosseum, begun by his father. …

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Titus Oates - Early life, Royal Navy, Jesuits, The Popish Plot, Trivia

Conspirator and perjurer, born in Oakham, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and took Anglican orders, but was dismissed from his curacy for misconduct. Having feigned conversion to Catholicism and attended Jesuit seminaries on the continent, in 1678 he made public details of a fictitious Jesuit plot to murder Charles II and restore Catholicism. This ‘Popish Plot’ caused wid…

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Titus Pomponius Atticus

Intellectual, businessman, and writer, born in Rome, Italy. He acquired the surname Atticus because of his long sojourn in Athens (85–65) to avoid the Civil War. He was a wealthy and highly cultivated man who espoused the Epicurean philosophy and combined his literary activities with a successful business career. Cicero's Letters to Atticus form a famous and prolific correspondence. Titus …

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Tiverton

50º55N 3º29W, pop (2000e) 23 000. Market town in Devon, SW England, UK; on the R Exe, 21 km/13 mi N of Exeter; formerly famous for lace; railway; textiles, engineering; birthplace of 1st Viscount Amory and Richard Cosway. Tiverton is a town in the County of Devon, in England. Its name is derived from 'the town on two fords' or 'Twy-ford-ton' - 'Twyverton'. An Iron Age hill…

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Tlaloc - Mythology, Related gods

The Aztec god of rain, to whom children were sacrificed in time of drought. The features of his face are formed of serpents, representing the lightning. Tlaloc, also known as Nuhualpilli, was, in Aztec belief, the god of rain and fertility. Human sacrifices were often made in his honor, usually children. Tlaloc was also worshipped in pre-Aztec times, by the Teotihuac…

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Tlemcen - History

34°53N 1°21W, pop (2000e) 333 700. Chief town of Tlemcen department, NW Algeria, N Africa; 113 km/70 mi SW of Oran; capital of major Moroccan dynasties (12th–16th-c); despite French occupation from 1842, a well-preserved Muslim culture; railway; agriculture, carpets; leather, olive oil, tourism; Almovarid Great Mosque (1135), Grand Mosque, Museum of Bel Hassane. Coordinates: 34°52

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Tlingit - Territory, Culture, Food, Philosophy and Religion, History

A North American Indian group of the Pacific NW coast (from Prince William Sound to S Alaska), who lived mainly by fishing and hunting, c.14 000 (1990 census). They are famed for their art, including Chilkat blankets woven from cedar bark and goat hair, and subtly coloured wood sculptures. The Tlingit (IPA: /'klɪŋkɪt/, also /-gɪt/, often incorrectly /'tlɪŋkɪt/) are an American Nativ…

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TNT (explosive) - Chemicals, Organizations, Arts, Other

The abbreviation for trinitrotoluene, C7H5N3O6. A high explosive made by the nitration of toluene with nitric and sulphuric acids; a solid melting at 82°C. Used for filling shells and bombs, it is one of the most effective and easiest to handle of the military high explosives. TNT may refer to: …

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toadfish

Robust, bottom-living fish of the family Batrachoididae (6 genera), found in inshore waters of tropical to temperate seas; body typically elongate, tapering to a small tail, dorsal and anal fins long; eyes placed on top of flattened head, mouth large with strong teeth; some species have powerful poison spines. The toadfishes are a type of ray-finned fish normally found on the sand and mud b…

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Toamasina - Maps

18°10S 49°23E, pop (2000e) 195 000. Port on the E coast of Madagascar, on the Indian Ocean, 367 km/228 mi NE of Antananarivo; Madagascar's main port, and a popular tourist resort; airfield; railway; surrounded by sugar-cane plantations; Ivoloina Gardens nearby. Toamasina (Masc. It owes its importance to the existence of a coral reef, which forms a spacious and fairly commo…

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tobacco - History, Etymology, Cultivation, Types, Tobacco products

An annual or shrubby perennial, native to warm parts of the New World and Australasia; large leaves; tubular flowers, greenish, yellow, pink, or reddish. The dried, slightly fermented leaves of various species, principally Nicotiana tabacum, are used for smoking, chewing, and snuff, and contain the powerful alkaloid nicotine which is both poisonous and addictive. (Genus: Nicotiana, 66 species. Fam…

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Tobago - Geography, History, Climate, Economy and tourism, Environmental problems, Diving, Ecology, Government, Hurricanes

pop (2000e) 48 000; area 300 km²/116 sq mi. Island in the W Caribbean; part of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago; chief town, Scarborough; united with Trinidad in 1889; airport; luxury hotel-conference centre at Rocky Point; tourist complex at Minster Point. Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago has a land …

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Tobias (George) Smollett

Novelist, born in Cardross, Argyll and Bute, W Scotland, UK. He studied medicine at Glasgow University, served on the Cartagena expedition in 1741, and settled in London as a surgeon in 1744. He turned to writing, achieving success with his first works, the picaresque novels The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748) and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751). He spent several years in journal ed…

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Toby jug - Origin, Toby in the stars

A pottery jug in the form of a seated figure, usually a stout man smoking a pipe and wearing a tricorn hat which forms the pouring lip. Such jugs seem to have been introduced in N Staffordshire c.1770. Makers included Ralph Wood (1748–95) and Enoch Wood (1759–1840). A toby jug - also sometimes known as a Fillpot - is ceramic jug in the form of a seated person. The original tob…

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Todor Zhivkov - Biography

Bulgarian statesman, prime minister (1962–71), and president (1971–89), born in Botevgrad, WC Bulgaria. He joined the (illegal) Communist Party in 1932, fought with the Bulgarian resistance in 1943, and took part in the Sofia coup that overthrew the pro-German regime in 1944. He became first secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1954, prime minister in 1962 and, as chairman of the Counci…

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tog

A unit for measuring the ‘warmth’ rating in bedding textiles. The tog rating is a measure of thermal resistance: the higher the value, the better its performance. …

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Togo - History, Geography, Administrative divisions, Economy, Religion, Politics, Culture and sport

Local name République Togolaise (French) Togo, officially the Togolese Republic, is a country in West Africa bordering Ghana in the west, Benin in the east and Burkina Faso in the north. Western history does not record what happened in Togo before the Portuguese arrived in the late fifteenth century. For the next two hundred years, the coastal region was a major raiding center…

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Tok Pisin

An English-based pidgin, spoken by c.3–4 million people in Papua New Guinea, mainly as a second language, and heavily influenced by local Papuan languages. It is now spoken by over 100 000 as a mother-tongue, and has thus become a creole. …

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tokamak - History, Toroidal design, Plasma heating, Experimental tokamaks

A machine used in nuclear fusion research. A helical system of magnetic fields confines the plasma of reactive charged particles in a hollow doughnut-ring-shaped chamber, where it is then heated by passing an electric current through it, and additional methods using radio-frequency fields and ion beams, to temperatures in excess of 108°C. A tokamak is a machine producing a toroidal (doughn…

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tokay gecko - Feet, As pets

A large gecko (Gekko gekko) (length, almost 30 cm/12 in), native to India and SE Asia; mottled coloration; nocturnal; eats insects and small vertebrates; common in houses; male calls ‘gekk-ho’ loudly (all geckos named after this call); also known as common gecko. The Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko), is a nocturnal arboreal gecko native to southeast Asia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. To…

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Tokelau - History, Geography, Demographics, Internet domain names, Miscellaneous topics

8–10°S 171–173°W; pop (2000e) 1000; area 10·1 km²/3·9 sq mi. Island territory under New Zealand administration, consisting of three small atolls (Atafu, Nukunonu, Fakaofo) in the S Pacific Ocean, c.3500 km/2200 mi N of New Zealand; chief settlement, Nukunonu; timezone GMT ?11; ethnic group, Polynesian; chief languages, Tokelauan, English; inhabitants are citizens of New Zealand; Weste…

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token economy

A system whereby residents or members of an institution (eg psychiatric hospital, school, custody centre) can earn tokens in exchange for socially approved or co-operative behaviour. They then use the tokens to ‘buy’ chosen goods or privileges. …

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token ring - Overview, Token frame, Token ring frame format, Active and standby monitors, Token ring insertion process

A form of computer local area network, developed by IBM and using a ring topology, in which a token is passed around the computers on the ring. If the token is free then a computer may attach a message to the token and transmit it. If the token is not free then the computer must wait until the token comes round again. Token ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted…

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Tokugawa shogunate - Government, Institutions of the Shogunate, List of the Tokugawa Shoguns

(1603–1868) The last and most powerful of the Japanese shogunates (1603–1868), established by Ieyasu Tokugawa at Edo (modern Tokyo). Tokugawa power was cemented through ruthless domination of daimyo (noble) lands and lifestyles. Western commercial contacts were developed, important poetry and the great ukiyo-e art were produced, and there was rapid educational advance. Nevertheless, a series of …

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Tokyo - History, Geography and administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, Transportation, Education, Culture, Tourism, Tokyo in popular media

35°40N 139°45E, pop (2000e) 8 184 000 (metropolitan district). Seaport capital of Japan, Kanto region, E Honshu; on N shore of Tokyo-wan bay, on R Sumida; founded as village of Edo, 12th-c; headquarters of the Tokugawa shogunate, 1603; imperial capital, 1868; severe earthquake damage, 1923; heavily bombed in World War 2; airport; railway; over 100 universities; shipbuilding, engineering, chem…

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Toledo (Spain) - Places, People, Other

39°50N 4°02W, pop (2000e) 61 000. Capital of Toledo province, Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain; on R Tagus, 71 km/44 mi SW of Madrid; former capital of Visigothic kingdom of Castile and of Spain; railway; tourism, metalwork, silk, artwork, confectionery; noted for its swords and knives; Moorish citadel, cathedral (13th–17th-c), El Greco's house, Churches of St Thomas and St Romanus, Santa Cruz m…

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Toledo (USA) - Places, People, Other

41°39N 83°33W, pop (2000e) 313 600. Seat of Lucas Co, NW Ohio, USA; port at the mouth of the Maumee R, at the W end of L Erie; formed by the union of two settlements, 1833; involved in the ‘Toledo War’ (1835–6), a boundary dispute between Ohio and Michigan; railway; university (1872); vehicles, glass and fabricated metal products, machinery, oil products; trade in coal and grain; one of the…

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tolerance - Rationalization, Politics and religion, Tolerating the intolerant, Tolerance as a virtue

In medicine, a diminishing effect when certain drugs are given continuously. Several mechanisms are responsible, which include a change in the wall of the cell membranes that bind the drug, or a change in the way the drug is degraded in the body. Immunological tolerance represents the inherent or acquired failure of the immune system to distinguish between self and not-self, preventing an immunolo…

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Tolpuddle martyrs - The historical events, Cultural and historical significance, Image gallery

The name give to six agricultural labourers at Tolpuddle, Dorset, S England, UK, who were organized in 1833 into a local trade union by a Methodist preacher, George Loveless (1796–1874). Poverty, unemployment, relocation of jobs, increased mechanization, and poor harvests led to protests. The labourers were convicted of taking illegal oaths, and transported to Australia. The action provoked subst…

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toluene

C6H5CH3, IUPAC methylbenzene, boiling point 111°C. A colourless liquid with a characteristic odour, widely used as an organic solvent, being substantially less toxic than benzene. It is obtained from coal tar, and is the starting point for many organic syntheses. Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinner…

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Tolyatti or Togliatti - History, Modern city

53°32N 49°24E, pop (2000e) 650 000. Town in Samarskaya oblast, Russia, on the Samara reservoir; founded, 1738; relocated in the mid-1950s when it was flooded by the reservoir of the nearby hydroelectric power plant; rail terminus; synthetic rubber, fertilizers, machinery, foodstuffs. Stavropol (Russian: Ста́врополь) is a city located in south-western Russia. The city is the a…

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Tom Brokaw - Early life, Career, Present, Awards

Television presenter, born in Webster, South Dakota, USA. Starting as a radio reporter in college, he worked in television in Omaha and Atlanta, before becoming KNBC late-night presenter in Los Angeles (1965–73). As the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) Washington correspondent (1973–6), he covered the Watergate scandal. He became Today show host (1976–82), leaving to become presenter of the …

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Tom Connolly

Baseball umpire, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. His family moved to Natick, MA when he was 13. As an American League umpire (1901–31), he umpired the first ever American League game (1901) and the first ever World Series game (1903). He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1953. Thomas Henry Connolly (December 31, 1870 - April 28, 1961) was an Anglo-American u…

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Tom Conti

Actor and director, born in Paisley, Renfrewshire, W Scotland, UK. He studied at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music, made his acting debut in 1960, and has since performed and directed regularly in London theatres. Television appearances include The Norman Conquests and Glittering Prizes, and the later Donovan (2004). Among his films are Galileo (1974), Merry Christmas, Mr Lawrence (1982), Shirle…

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Tom Courtenay - Biography, Later Career, Trivia

Actor, born in Hull, NE England, UK. He trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and made his professional debut in 1960 with the Old Vic company in Edinburgh. He played Hamlet at the 1968 Edinburgh Festival, and won acclaim for his performance as Norman in the Ayckbourn comedy trilogy, The Norman Conquests (1974). Other stage appearances include The Dresser (1980), the title role in …

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Tom Cribb - Trivia

Prizefighter and bare-knuckles champion of the world, born in Bitton, South Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He twice defeated Jem Belcher for the bare-knuckles championship (1807, 1809), and also defeated the US black pugilist Tom Molineaux (1810, 1811). He retired with an unbeaten record, and became a publican in London. Tom Cribb (1781-11 May 1848) was an English bare-knuckle boxer of t…

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Tom Cruise - Early life, Hollywood, Relationships, Controversy, Selected filmography, Trivia, Other work

Film actor, born in Syracuse, New York, USA. After an itinerant childhood, his plans for a professional wrestling career were abandoned through injury. He tried his hand at acting, struggling through night classes and auditions, and went on to make many successful films including Top Gun (1985), Rain Man (1988), A Few Good Men (1992), The Firm (1993), Interview with the Vampire (1995), and Mission…

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Tom Finney

Footballer, born in Preston, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He played for Preston North End all his footballing life. He won 76 England caps, and is considered to have been one of the best wingers in the game. He was knighted in 1998. In 2003, he published Tom Finney: My Autobiography. …

less than 1 minute read

Tom Graveney

Cricketer and television commentator, born in Riding Mill, Northumberland, NE England, UK. A tall, graceful batsman, he had a patchy Test career; nevertheless, he made 11 Test centuries for England in the course of compiling 4882 runs, recording a best of 258 against the West Indies at Nottingham in 1957. In a first-class career spanning 23 years, he scored 47 793 runs including 122 centuries. In…

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Tom Hanks - Hanks's early life, Personal life, Filmography, Top worldwide film grosses, Academy Awards and nominations

Film actor, born in Concord, California, USA. He studied at the California State University, Sacramento, where he worked as stage manager and actor in university productions. He spent three seasons performing the classics with the Great Lakes Shakespeare Festival in Ohio before making his film debut in the thriller He Knows You're Alone (1981). After some well received television comedy, he was ca…

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Tom Hayden - Books by Tom Hayden, Trivia

Radical activist, state legislator, and writer, born in Royal Oak, Michigan, USA. One of the best-known student radical leaders of the 1960s, he was a co-founder of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) (1961), president of SDS (1962–3), co-founder of the Economic Research and Action Project (1964), and leader of the Newark Community Union Project (1964–7). Married to actress Jane Fonda, h…

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Tom Keating - Forger with a cause, Technique, Revealing the forger, Aftermath, Further reading

Art restorer and celebrated forger of paintings, born in London, UK. The scandal about his fakes of the works of the great masters broke in 1976, when an art expert suggested that a work by Samuel Palmer, which sold at an auction for £9400, was not genuine. Keating admitted that a series of nine pictures, bearing imitations of Samuel Palmer's signature, were in fact drawn by himself, and estimate…

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Tom Kilburn - Computer engineering, Administration, Personal

Computer scientist, born in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, becoming professor of computer science at Manchester (1964–81), and one of the dominant figures in British computer design. After working with Sir Frederic Calland Williams to build the world's first operational stored-program computer in 1948, he directed a series of collaborative ventures with Ferranti…

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Tom Landry - Early life, NFL playing career, NFL coaching career, Beyond the NFL, Tom Landry in Popular Culture

Player and coach of American football, born in Mission, Texas, USA. An outstanding defensive back with the National Football League's New York Giants, he became head coach of the Dallas Cowboys in their first year (1960) and remained until 1988. His teams featured a tricky, multiple offence and his creation, the flex defence. During his 29 seasons, the Cowboys won 18 division championships and app…

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Tom Lanoye - (partial) Bibliography

Flemish novelist, poet, and performer, born in Sint-Niklaas, N Belgium. Generally regarded as the most influential contemporary performing poet, in his performances he explicitly places himself in the ancient oral tradition. His novels, poems, and shows are typified by his strong rhetorical ability, sharp sense of humour, and self-mockery. He made his breakthrough with Een slagerszoon met een bril…

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Tom Mboya - Education, Politics, Death

Kenyan statesman and nationalist leader, born in Kilima Mbogo, WC Kenya. He studied at Mangu, joined the Kenya African Union, and after this Party was suppressed became secretary of the Kenya Federation of Labour and a campaigner for independence. In 1960 he was general secretary of Kenyatta's Kenya African National Union, and became minister of labour (1962–3), minister of justice (1963–4), and…

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Tom McCall - Early life and career, Political career, Vortex I, Back to journalism, End of life, Tributes

Journalist and governor, born in Egypt, Massachusetts, USA. After serving in World War 2 as a US Navy correspondent, he became a television journalist in Portland, OR and produced Pollution in Paradise. A Republican, he became Oregon's secretary of state (1964–6), and as governor (1967–75) he passed 100 environmental protection bills, including the first state fuel conservation plan (1974). He l…

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Tom Mix - Early years, Film career, Fatal accident, Honors, Trivia, Further reading

Film actor, born in Mix Run, Pennsylvania, USA. He had been a champion rodeo rider, a soldier, and a cowboy in Oklahoma before he began to make short Westerns in 1909. (Studio publicists would later invent an even more glamorous past, fighting in the Spanish-American War, service with the Texas Rangers, and other such mythical feats.) He went on to star in more than 400 low-budget Westerns with hi…

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Tom Paulin - Life and work, Controversy, Bibliography

Poet, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He grew up in Belfast, and studied at the universities of Hull and Oxford. His central themes are the Irish predicament, and in particular Protestant identity, beginning with A State of Justice (1977). Later books include The Riot Act (1985), Seize the Fire (1990), and The Invasion Handbook (2002). He edited the Faber books of political verse (19…

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Tom Peters - Biography, Bestselling author, Works

Writer, lecturer, and management consultant, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He was a McKinsey and Co associate (1974–81) before founding the Tom Peters Group. His best-seller, In Search of Excellence (co-author, 1982), dissected successful corporate practices and became a business bible. As a ubiquitous and popular writer, lecturer, and newspaper columnist, he helped formulate competitive Amer…

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Tom Roberts - Life, Works

Painter, born in Dorchester, Dorset, S England, UK. He emigrated as a child, and studied at the Carlton School of Design and at the National Gallery School, both in Melbourne, before returning to London to attend the Royal Academy Schools. His best work, which deals with pioneering life in the bush, was produced in Australia in the late 1880s and 1890s. He was commissioned to paint the official op…

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Tom Seaver - Early development, Rookie of the Year, The "Miracle Mets" season, Continued excellence

Baseball pitcher, born in Fresno, California, USA. During his 20-year career (1967–86), primarily with the New York Mets and Cincinnati Reds, the right-hander won 311 games, three earned-run-average titles, and the Cy Young Award three times (1969, 1973, 1975). He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1992. George Thomas Seaver (born November 17, 1944 in Fresno, California) is a former…

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Tom Selleck - Early life, Early career, Movie Star, Awards, Personal life, Filmography, Television Work, Trivia

Television and film actor, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. A talented collegiate athlete, he supported himself as a model, winning small parts in films and television during the 1970s. He starred in CBS's Magnum, PI (1980–8), playing an easy-going private eye. His feature films include Three Men and a Baby (1987), In and Out (1997), and The Love Letter (1999). Thomas William Selleck (born …

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Tom Sharpe

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge and did his National Service in the Marines before going to South Africa in 1951, from where he was deported in 1961after being imprisoned for his anti-apartheid views. He was a lecturer in history at the Cambridge College of Arts and Technology (1963–71) before turning to full-time writing, beginning with Riotous Assembly (1971). Later novels…

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Tom Thomson - Biography, Art and technique, Facts and figures

Painter, born in Claremont, Ontario, SE Canada. He worked as an engraver and designer-illustrator before turning to art in 1906. He spent a great deal of time working in Algonquin Park, Ontario, producing many sketches and some larger canvases, such as ‘The West Wind’ (1917, Toronto). He was found drowned near Wapomeo I, leaving a mystery about the manner of his death which to some extent has ob…

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Tom Tryon - Acting Career, Writing Career, Relationships, Selected works, Selected Filmography

Actor and writer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale (1949 BA), and in New York City at the Art Students League and the Neighborhood Playhouse, then worked as an actor (1952–71) on Broadway, on television, and in Hollywood films. Leaving acting, he turned to writing and became a successful novelist. He wrote compelling horror fiction, as in The Other (1971) and Harvest Home (1…

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Tom Waits - Early career, 1980s, 1990s, Lawsuits, Discography, Filmography

Singer, songwriter, and actor, born in Pomona, California, USA. He had a critically acclaimed debut album, Closing Time (1973), and ‘Jersey Girl’ from his 1980 album Heartattack and Vine became an integral part of Bruce Springsteen's concerts. His soundtrack album from the film One From the Heart (1982) was Oscar nominated. His biggest chart success was the number 3 hit for Rod Stewart, ‘Downto…

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Tom Wesselmann

Painter, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He studied psychology at Cincinnati University before taking art courses. In 1961 he moved to New York City, abandoning the abstract expressionist style and turning to Pop Art. Most of his paintings depict overtly erotic female nudes in contemporary American environments; these works form the series known as ‘The Great American Nude’. Tom Wesselmann…

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Tom Wolfe - Career, Trivia, Bibliography

Writer and artist, born in Richmond, Virginia, USA. He received his doctorate in American Studies from Yale University (1957), and began a career as a reporter for the Springfield Union (1956–9), the Washington Post (1959–62), and the New York Herald Tribune (1962–6). The originator of such phrases as radical chic and the me decade, his ‘new journalism’ essays were collected under such titles…

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Tom Yawkey - Successes with the Red Sox, Legacy

Baseball executive, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The nephew of Bill Yawkey, who had once owned the Detroit Tigers, and heir to a multi-million-dollar fortune, he attended Yale (where he played second base) and had been looking for a major league team to own when the Boston Red Sox came up for purchase in 1933. He was actively involved in running the Red Sox until his death (his 44 years was the…

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Tomar - Parishes, Geography, History, Attractions, Economy, Politics, Holidays

39°36N 8°25W, pop (2000e) 13 800. Town in Santarém district, C Portugal, on R Nabão; railway; textiles, paper, cork, distilling; Convent of Christ, a world heritage site; Church of São João Baptista; festival of the Tabuleiros (Jul, even-numbered years). Tomar (pron. The municipality is composed of 16 parishes, and is located in the district of Santarém. It …

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Tomasz Hajto

Footballer, born in Kraków, Poland. He began his career at age 14 with KS Halniak, and progressed to play for a number of first division clubs in Poland. Moving to Germany, from 1997 he enjoyed success with Duisburg, but the German Cup runners-up found themselves relegated to the second division at the end of the 2000 season and he moved to Schalke 04, where he has developed into one of the best …

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tomatillo

An annual native to tropical America (Physalis ixocarpa); flowers bright yellow with dark basal spots; berry 5 cm/2 in, yellow to purple, often bursting through the bladdery calyx. It is a locally important food crop. (Family: Solanaceae.) …

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tomato - Cultivation and uses, Myths of the Tomato, Controversies, Tomato records

A bushy annual (Lycopersicon esculentum) native to Pacific South America, but now cultivated on a commercial scale throughout the world; leaves pinnate with toothed or lobed leaflets; flowers in short sprays (trusses), yellow, with five reflexed petals; berry bright red, fleshy, edible; originally called love apple and regarded as an aphrodisiac. The plants are resistant to pests such as greenfly,…

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Tommaso Campanella

Philosopher, born in Stilo, S Italy. Entering the Dominican order in 1583, he taught at Rome and Naples. He evolved an empirical, anti-Scholastic philosophy, for which he was imprisoned by the Inquisition. He was arrested again in 1599 for heresy and conspiracy against Spanish rule, and was not finally released until 1626. From prison he wrote his famous utopian work, La Città del Sole (c.1602, C…

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Tommaso Grossi

Poet and writer, born in Bellano, Lombardy, N Italy. A friend of Manzoni and Porta, he was a strong supporter of Romanticism and explored its main themes in his work. He wrote the satirical anti-Austrian poem La Prineide (1815) and some short stories in verse set in the Middle Ages, Ildegonda (1820). His best-known work is the poem I lombardi alla prima crociata (1826), from which Verdi wrote an o…

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Tommaso Landolfi - Bibliography in English, Essential bibliography in Italian

Writer, born in Pico, Latium, W Italy. He wrote short stories and novels which delve into the paradoxes hidden in everyday life, searching for a new type of morality; he also described in bitingly ironic tones the human struggle between rationality and instincts. His work includes La pietra lunare (1939), Rien va (1963), Un amore del nostro tempo (1965), Racconti impossibili (1966), and Del meno (…

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Tommaso Tittoni

Italian politician, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. A deputy of the right, he was three times foreign affairs minister (1903–5, 1906–9, 1919) and ambassador to Paris (1910–16). As such, he strove to maintain a good relationship with all foreign powers. Later he joined the Fascist Party and was president of the Accademia d'Italia (1929–30). Tommaso Tittoni (November 16, 1855 – February 7,…

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Tommy (Lee) Flanagan

Jazz musician, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. A distinctive modern jazz pianist, he accompanied Ella Fitzgerald and other singers throughout the 1960s and 1970s, and led his own trio after 1980. The Tommy Flanagan Trio (with bassist Wilbur Little and drummer Elvin Jones) released their first album, Tommy Flanagan Trio Overseas, in 1957. As an accompaniest, Flanagan worked with Ella F…

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Tommy Armour - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He emigrated to the USA in 1925, where he became a successful golfer, winning the US Open (1927) and the British Open (1931). After retiring from competition he became a teaching professional. NYF = Tournament not yet founded NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" in…

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Tommy Cooper - Biography, Honors

Comic and magician, born in Caerphilly, S Wales, UK. A member of the Horse Guards (1939–46), he began performing with the Combined Services Entertainment in the Middle East, where he acquired his trademark headgear of a red fez. In 1947 he appeared at the Windmill Theatre, then achieved television renown in numerous variety shows and his own 1950s series It's Magic. His act thrived on his apparen…

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Tommy Docherty - Playing Career, Managerial Career

Footballer and manager, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He played 25 times for Scotland, and managed 10 clubs including Aston Villa, Manchester United, Derby County, and Queen's Park Rangers. From September 1971 he managed the Scotland side for just over a year. On leaving football he built a successful career as an after-dinner speaker. Thomas Henderson Docherty (born Gorbals, Glasgow on …

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Tommy Dorsey - Early life, His own band, Death and aftermath, Married life, Discography, Filmography

Musician, born in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a Swing Era bandleader who began with local dance bands in Scranton, PA. He moved to New York City (1925) and engaged in free-lance radio and recording work as a trombonist and trumpeter, and during 1927–8 was a sideman with Paul Whiteman. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, he and his brother, Jimmy Dorsey (1904–57), a saxophonist, co-led a…

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Tommy Douglas - Early life and activism, Premier of Saskatchewan, Federal NDP leader, Late career and retirement, Artistic depiction

Baptist minister and Canadian politician. As premier of Saskatchewan (1944–61), he led the first Socialist government elected in Canada, and was later leader of the federal New Democratic Party for 10 years. He helped establish Democratic Socialism in the mainstream of Canadian politics, and with the introduction of medicare in Saskatchewan is recognized as the Canadian ‘father of socialized med…

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Tommy Farr

Boxer, born in Clydach Vale, Rhondda Cynon Taff, S Wales, UK. A former coalminer and booth fighter, he gained a reputation as one of the most courageous boxers of his era. He became British and Empire Heavyweight champion in March 1937 after defeating Ben Foord on points, and went on to fight 197 official bouts over a 30-year period. In August 1937 he challenged the reigning world champion, Joe Lo…

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Tommy Franks - Early life, Military career, Iraq Troop Levels and Conduct of the Iraq War

US general, born in Wynnewood, Oklahoma, USA. He studied at the University of Texas (1971) and graduated from military school at Fort Still, OK (1967). From the 1980s, he served in West Germany, commanded in Korea, and was commander of the Third US Army, Fort McPherson, GA. He was promoted to general (2000) and appointed commander-in-chief of the US Central Command (2000–3). He had responsibility…

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Tommy Handley

Comedian, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He served in World War 1, then worked in variety, and in the infancy of radio became known as a regular broadcaster. In 1939 he achieved nationwide fame through his weekly programme ITMA (It's That Man Again) which, with its mixture of satire, parody, slapstick, and wit, helped to boost wartime morale, and continued as a prime favourite unti…

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Tommy Hitchcock

Polo player and aviator, born in Aiken, South Carolina, USA. Son of a 10-goal polo player, the highest ranking, he became an outstanding polo player by age 16. In World War 1 he volunteered to fly in the Lafayette Escadrille and was shot down behind German lines in March 1918. He escaped and made his way back to his squadron, which became a unit of the US Air Service by the end of the war. After g…

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Tommy Lawton - Playing career, Later career, Bibliography

Footballer, born in Bolton, Lancashire, NW England, UK. A successful English centre-forward, his most famous days were with Everton and Arsenal, but he also served Burnley, Chelsea, Notts County, and Brentford. Like most of his generation, he lost almost seven years to World War 2, but his international record was a remarkable 22 goals in 23 matches. Tommy Lawton (October 6, 1919 - November…

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Tommy Steele - Singer, Actor, Author and other talents, Family, Fanclub, Sources

Actor, singer, and director, born in London, UK. He achieved considerable fame as a pop singer in the 1950s and 1960s, made his stage debut in variety at the Empire Theatre, Sunderland in 1956, and in London at the Dominion Theatre in 1957. He played Tony Lumpkin in Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer at the Old Vic in 1960. The archetypal Cockney lad, he continued to appear in musicals during the 1…

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Tommy Trinder - Life, Tommy Trinder - filmography

Comedian and actor, born in London, UK. He appeared in small-town variety shows, before making his name in the Band Waggon show at the London Palladium (1939). He went on to become a national favourite with his catch-phrase ‘you lucky people’, both as a stand-up comic in such revues as Happy and Glorious and Best Bib and Tucker, and as a leading man in such films as Sailors Three (1940), The Bel…

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tomography

A technique using X-rays or ultrasound to produce an image of structures in the body. …

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Tomoyuki Yamashita - Biography, Trial and controversy, Personal life, Further reading

Japanese soldier, born in Kochi, S Japan. He commanded a division in China in 1939, and in 1942 commanded the forces which overran Singapore. He then took over the Philippines campaign, capturing Bataan and Corregidor. Still in charge when MacArthur turned the tables in 1944–5, he was captured, tried for war crimes, and hanged. General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki) …

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Tomsk - Education, Culture, Famous people, Tomsk Sister Cities

56°30N 85°05E, pop (2000e) 501 000. River-port capital of Tomskaya oblast, WC Siberian Russia, on R Tom; founded, 1604; major Siberian trade centre until bypassed by the Trans-Siberian railway in the 1890s; airfield; railway; university (1888); machinery, metalworking, chemicals, pharmaceuticals. Tomsk (Russian: Томск) is a city on the Tom River in the southwest of Siberian Federal…

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tonality - Uses of the term, Vocabulary of tonal analysis, Characteristics, Theory of tonal music

The property of music which is written ‘in a key’, ie with a particular pitch as a point of aural reference (usually firmly established at the beginning and end) towards which other key centres gravitate. The theoretical corner-stones of tonality are the diatonic major and minor scales, in which pitches are related to a tonic, or key note, so that the intervals between any two degrees of the sca…

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tone

In music, 1 the interval (equal to two semitones) between, for example, the first two notes of a diatonic scale, or doh and ray in tonic sol-fa. 2 The timbre of a voice or instrument. 3 US usage for note (pitch) in such contexts as ‘12-tone music’, ‘tone cluster’, and ‘tone row’. In geography: In people: Tone may also refer to: …

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Tonga - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture and diaspora, Sport

Official name Kingdom of Tonga, Tongan Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga, formerly Friendly Islands Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan for "south"), is an independent archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean. The islands are also known as the Friendly Islands, the name given by Captain Cook because of the friendly reception he received. He happened to arrive at the time o…

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Tongeren - Famous inhabitants, Pictures

50°47N 5°28E, pop (2000e) 29 900. Rural market town in S Limburg province, E Belgium, on R Jeker; oldest town in Belgium, founded 1st-c AD; basilica of Our Lady. Coordinates: 50°47′N 5°28′E …

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tongue - Structure, Muscles of the tongue, Papillae and taste buds, Innervation of the Tongue

A highly mobile, muscular structure vital for the digestive functions of chewing, taste, and swallowing. In humans it is also important in speech, being essential for the production of all vowels and most consonants. It consists of a free front part within the mouth (horizontal at rest), containing numerous taste buds, and a more fixed back part in the oropharynx, which has accumulations of lympho…

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Toni (Anton) Sailer

Alpine skier, born in Kitzbühel, W Austria. In 1956, he became the first man to win all three Olympic skiing titles (downhill, slalom, giant slalom). He was the world combined champion (1956, 1958) and the world downhill and giant slalom champion (1958). He later became an actor and singer, a hotel owner, and an investor in a textile business. Anton "Toni" Sailer (born November 17, 1935 in…

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Toni Morrison - Morrison's early years, Promoting Black literature, Morrison's novels, Politics, Works, Quotations

Writer and editor, born in Lorain, Ohio, USA. She studied at Howard University (1953 BA) and Cornell (1955 MA), and taught English at Texas Southern University (1955–7) and at Howard (1957–64). Later posts include the State University of New York, Purchase (1971–2), Albany (1984–9), and Princeton (1989). She married Harold Morrison in 1958 (divorced 1964), and became a senior editor for Random…

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tonic sol-fa - Members, Discography

A system of musical notation devised by John Curwen, who based it on the solmization system of Guido d'Arezzo, anglicizing the pitch names to doh, ray, me, fah, soh, la, te. These could be abbreviated to their initial letters, and furnished with other signs to indicate note-lengths, rests, and octave transposition. An ability to read the notation requires training in sol-fa, which is gained throug…

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Tonk

Former princely state of present-day Rajasthan, NW India; formerly consisted of six separate areas in Rajasthan and C India, and was acquired (1798) by the Pathan chieftain Amir Khan; became part of the state of Rajasthan, 1948. If you searched for Tonk you may be looking for: …

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tonsillitis - Causes, Complications

Acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils, usually due to infection with streptococci. The condition usually responds to treatment with antibiotics. Removal of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) is now rarely required, and only for repeated or serious infection. Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. …

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tonsure - History, Tonsure today, Sources

The shaving of all or part of the head, to denote clerical or monastic status. It is still compulsory for certain monks and priests. Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches, and some Hindu temples of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. The origin of the tonsure remains unclear but it certainly was…

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Tony - Famous Anthonys

An annual award for theatrical achievement in New York City; named after US actress and director Antoinette Perry (1888–1946). It recognizes several categories within plays and musicals, including acting, direction, music, choreography, and design, as well as best play, best musical, and best revival. In Catholicism it can refer to: In politics it can refer to: In m…

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Tony Bennett - Early life, World War II and after, First successes, A growing artistry, Years of struggle, Turnaround

Singer, born in Queens, New York City, New York, USA. He studied music and art at New York's High School of Industrial Art, but left at 16 to help support his family. He found work as a singing waiter in Italian restaurants before being drafted into the US Army in World War 2. Following his discharge in 1946, he began singing in local venues, and in 1949 was spotted by Pearl Bailey who invited him…

1 minute read

Tony Blair - Early life, Early political career, In opposition, Second term 2001 to 2005

British politician and prime minister (1997– ), born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. Educated in Edinburgh, he studied law at Oxford, and was called to the bar in 1976. He was elected Labour MP for Sedgefield in 1983, becoming his party's spokesperson on Treasury affairs (1985–7) and trade and industry (1987–8). He joined the shadow cabinet in 1988, becoming responsible for energy (1988), employ…

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Tony Brown

Television host and producer, born in Charleston, West Virginia, USA. A journalist in Detroit, he joined National Educational Television's news magazine, Black Journal in 1970, later becoming dean of Howard University's School of Communications (1971–2). He lobbied to keep the show on the air, and as host and executive producer of Tony Brown's Journal (1978), he continued to look critically at is…

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Tony Curtis - Biography, Filmography, Further reading

Actor, born in New York City, USA. After many small film parts early in his career, he proved he could play light comedy roles as in Some Like It Hot (1959) while also displaying his dramatic ability in The Boston Strangler (1968). His many films include The Vikings (1958), Spartacus (1960), The Great Impostor (1961), The Mirror Crack'd (1980), and The Continued Adventures of Reptile Man (1996). H…

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Tony Dorsett

Player of American football, born in Rochester, Pennsylvania, USA. The first college player to rush for over 6000 career yards, and the 1976 Heisman Trophy winner at the University of Pittsburgh, he gained 12 739 yards in twelve professional seasons. Anthony Drew Dorsett (born April 7, 1954 in the Pittsburgh suburb of Rochester, Pennsylvania) is a former American football running back who …

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Tony Greig - Up to the task, "Grovelled" by the West Indies, The Indian tour

Cricketer, born in Queenstown, SE South Africa. A good all-rounder, he captained England in Test matches, scoring 3599 runs and eight centuries. His great height enabled him to bowl sharp medium pace, and he took 141 Test wickets, twice taking ten in a match. He played a leading part in recruiting players from all Test countries to join the rival organization, World Series Cricket, being assembled…

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Tony Hancock - Early life and career, Hancock's peak years, International dreams and introspection, Personal life, Biographies

Comedian, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. After a brief period as a civil servant, he enlisted in the RAF (1942). Overcoming extreme stage-fright he tried his hand as a stand-up comic with touring shows before making his professional stage debut in Wings (1946). Pantomimes, cabaret, and radio appearances in Educating Archie (1951) contributed to his growing popularity, and he mad…

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Tony Harrison - Further reading

Poet, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. After studying in Leeds, and teaching in Nigeria and Prague, he became known with The Loiners (1970) and the translation Palladas Poems (1975). His combination of classical technique and colloquial language has produced powerful effects in the open sequences Ten Poems from the School of Eloquence (1976) and Continuous (1981), also evident in his …

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Tony Hillerman - Other novels, About Hillerman, non-fiction, by author

Writer, born in Sacred Heart, Oklahoma, USA. Although he was raised among the Pottawatomie and Seminole Indians and studied at an Indian boarding school, he was not a Native American. He attended Oklahoma State University (1943), the University of Oklahoma (1946 BA), and the University of New Mexico (1966 MA). He worked as a journalist in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico (1948–63), lived in Albuqu…

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Tony Hulman - Early life and entry into the family business, Making Clabber Girl a household name

Motor-racing executive, born in Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. In 1945 he purchased the Indianapolis 500 Speedway and, after extensive renovations to the facility, he promoted the annual 500 mi race into the largest sporting event in the world. Anton "Tony" Hulman, Jr. (February 11, 1901 - October 27, 1977) was a businessman from Terre Haute, Indiana and graduated from Yale University in 1924.…

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Tony Jacklin - Senior wins, Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He won the 1969 Open at Royal Lytham (the first British winner for 18 years), and in 1970 won the US Open at Hazeltine, MN (the first British winner for 50 years). He turned professional in 1962, and won the Jacksonville Open in 1968, the first Briton to win on the US Tour. A former Ryder Cup player (1967–80), he was appointed non-pl…

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Tony Lock

Cricketer, born in Limpsfield, Surrey, SE England, UK. His left-arm bowling helped to make Surrey virtually unbeatable at county level in the 1950s. He played 49 Tests for England and took 174 wickets, taking 10 or more wickets in a match on three occasions. His bowling action came under suspicion, but he returned with a satisfactorily remodelled bowling method. He also played for Western Australi…

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Tony McCoy

Jockey, born in Co Antrim, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He rode his first winner in England in 1994 and claimed a record 74 winners as a conditional jockey (1994–5). National Hunt Champion jockey since 1995, he broke Peter Scudamore's previous jumps record of 221 wins in a season by winning 253 (1997–8). In 2002 he broke the record for the number of winners in a season, 269, set on the Flat by Sir G…

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Tony Pastor

Actor and manager, born in New York City, New York, USA. A performer and entrepreneur, he first appeared with Phineas Barnum. He worked successfully to clean up the image of vaudeville, banning the sale of liquor and getting rid of the cruder acts. He opened several theatres and introduced such stars as Weber and Fields and Lillian Russell, and ran the Fourteenth Street Theatre until his death. …

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Tony Richardson - Filmography (Selected)

Stage and film director, born in Shipley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and worked for the BBC before entering the theatre. His reputation was established with the Royal Court Theatre production of Look Back in Anger (1956), a play representative of the emerging generation of ‘Angry Young Men’. During the 1950s his experimental productions stimulated a revival of creative …

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Tony Smith

Sculptor, painter, and architect, born in South Orange, New Jersey, USA. After suffering from tuberculosis when young, he studied art at the Art Students League (1933–6) and architecture at Chicago's New Bauhaus (1937–8). He was an apprentice to Frank Lloyd Wright (1938–9) and a practising architect in New York City (1940–60). He painted and worked on architectural commissions, taught at many …

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Tony Trabert - Grand Slam singles finals, Sources

Tennis player, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He won 10 Grand Slam tournaments during 1950–5, five in singles and five in doubles competition. Trabert was a standout athlete, a starter on the basketball team and 1951 University Intercollegiate singles championship winner at the University of Cincinnati. An extremely athletic right-hander who mostly played a serve and volley gam…

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Tony Walton

Set and costume designer, born in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, SE England, UK. Dividing his career between London and New York, he designed for drama, musicals, ballet, opera, films, and television. Tony Walton (born Anthony John Walton, 24 October 1934) is an English Oscar, Tony and Emmy-winning set and costume designer. He has received many Oscar, Emmy and other nominations, including …

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tool - Functions of tools, History

Any implement which is used to carry out a task. Early man made the first axes by sharpening flint. Stone tools were replaced from around 4000 BC by bronze and then iron tools, which were later used to build instruments and simple machines. The Industrial Revolution saw the introduction of machine tools, and mass production of goods became a possibility. Modern tools are now available for almost a…

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toothwort

A parasitic perennial (Lathraea squamaria), native to Europe and Asia; stem white; flowers tinged dull purple, forming a 1-sided spike. It closely resembles the broomrapes, but is parasitic on roots of trees and shrubs, especially elm and hazel. (Family: Scrophulariaceae.) Toothwort (Lathraea) is a small genus of five to seven species of flowering plants, native to temperate Europe and Asia…

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Toots Thielemans - Career, Influence, Partial discography

Jazz musician and composer, born in Brussels, Belgium. He was inspired to take up the guitar by compatriot Django Reinhardt, and the harmonica by Larry Adler. A performer of bebop and jazz, he appeared with Charlie Parker in Paris in 1949, toured Europe with Benny Goodman and Diana Washington in the 1950s, and appeared with Paul Simon and Peggy Lee. He became a favourite soloist of Quincy Jones, a…

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topaz - Etymology and historical and mythical usage, Uses in jewelry

An aluminium silicate mineral (Al2SiO4(OH,F)2), occurring in acid igneous rocks, pegmatites, and veins, with a colour range including colourless, yellow, and blue. It may be used as a gemstone. Topaz is commonly associated with silicic igneous rocks of the granite and rhyolite type. It typically crystallizes in granitic pegmatites or in vapor cavities in rhyolite lava flows like those …

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topography - As a textual description

The study of the physical characteristics of the Earth's surface (eg relief, soils, vegetation). A topographical map portrays information such as elevation and gradient through the use of symbols and special shading to show contours and spot heights. The older meaning of “topography,” going back to Roman and even Greek eras, is the detailed description of a place. Topographi…

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topology - History, Elementary introduction, Mathematical definition, Some theorems in general topology, Some useful notions from algebraic topology

A generalization of geometry which studies the properties of shapes and space that are independent of distance. The usual map of the London Underground is an example of a topological diagram, for it shows the lines joining various stations, yet is not to scale. Topology developed very widely in the 20th-c, and can perhaps now best be described as the study of continuity. In many branches of mathem…

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Torah - Structure, Production and usage of a Torah scroll, The Torah as the core of Judaism

The Jewish Law, most narrowly considered the Priestly Code found in the Pentateuch and said to have been given to Moses by God. The term was also often applied to the Pentateuch as a whole; and as the importance of the Prophets and Writings grew, it was sometimes used to describe them all as divinely revealed instructions and traditions. This written Torah was eventually supplemented in Pharisaic …

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Torbay

50°28N 3°30W, pop (2001e) 129 700. Unitary authority (from 1998) in Devon, SW England, UK, formed in 1968; includes the resort towns of Torquay, Paignton, and Brixham; railway; tourism, horticulture, electronics. Torbay (IPA: [tɔːˈbeɪ]) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Pl…

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Torborg Nedreaas - Bibliography, Prizes

Novelist, born in Bergen, SW Norway. She turned to writing late in life, after World War 2. A left-wing feminist, her books highlight social life and class struggle in Norwegian urban society. Especially powerful are (trans titles) Music from a Blue Well (1960) and At the Next New Moon (1971). Torborg Nedreaas (born November 13, 1906 in Bergen, Norway died June 30 1987) was a Norwegian auth…

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Torfaen

pop (2001e) 91 000; area 126 km²/49 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in SE Wales, UK; administrative centre, Pontypool; other chief town, Cwmbran. See also: Henllys community council. …

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torii - Other uses

A Shinto gateway in Japan, the traditional arch at the entrance to the sacred grounds of Shinto shrines, generally orange-red in colour, but sometimes unpainted, giving the name of the deity. At shrines of the harvest god, or the fox deity (Inari), those wanting good fortune may donate torii with their names. A famous torii is found on the Inland Sea off Miyajima. A torii (鳥居, torii) is…

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tormentil

Any of various species of Potentilla, with 4-petalled, yellow flowers. (Family: Rosaceae.) …

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tornado - Etymology, Definitions, Life cycle, Characteristics, Intensity and damage, Prediction, Detection, Climatology, Extremes, Tornado safety, Continuing research

A column of air rotating rapidly (up to 100 m/s, c.225 mph) around a very low pressure centre. Over the Great Plains of the USA they may develop from squall-line thunderstorms, and are common in spring and early summer. The mechanism of formation is not fully understood, but they are associated with low pressure systems, and resemble a dark funnel extending from the cloud base to the ground. Alt…

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Toronto - Cityscape, Infrastructure

43°42N 79°25W, pop (2000e) 711 100, (metropolitan area) 3 358 000. Capital of Ontario province, Canada, on N shore of L Ontario, at the mouth of the Don R; largest city in Canada; French fort, 1749; occupied by the British, 1759; settled by United Empire Loyalist migrants from the American Revolution, 1793; named York; capital of Upper Canada, 1796; city and modern name, 1834; capital of Ont…

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torpedo - History, Propulsion, Torpedo classes and diameters, Torpedoes used by various navies, Sources

A munition of naval warfare, in essence a guided underwater missile, equipped with a motor to propel it through the water and an explosive charge fused to detonate on impact with its target. The first practical torpedo dates from the middle of the 19th-c. In modern warfare, guided torpedoes are a key anti-submarine weapon, equipped with sonar-seeking heads which identify and track underwater sound…

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Torquato Tasso

Poet, born in Sorrento, SW Italy. He studied law and philosophy at Padua, where he published his first work, a romantic poem, Rinaldo. After joining the court of the Duke of Ferrara, he wrote his epic masterpiece on the capture of Jerusalem during the first crusade, Gerusalemme Liberata (1581, Jerusalem Liberated). The poem is characterized by a historic–religious background, a running commentary…

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Torquay - History of Torquay, Geography, Transport, Economy, Culture, Torquay in English culture, Demographics, Social issues in Torquay

50°28N 3°30W, pop (2000e) 61 300. Resort town in Torbay unitary authority, Devon, SW England, UK; 30 km/19 mi S of Exeter; centre for recreational sailing; railway; Torr Abbey (12th-c), Kent's Cavern; regatta (Aug); football league team, Torquay United (Gulls). Torquay (IPA: [tɔːˈki]) is a town in Devon, England. Torquay's name originates in it being the quay of the anc…

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torque - Units

In mechanics, the ability of a force to cause rotation. Torque equals the product of the force with the perpendicular distance between the rotation axis and the line of action of the force; symbol ?; units Nm (newton.metre). In physics, torque can informally be thought of as "rotational force" or "angular force" which causes a change in rotational motion. The rotational analogues of force, …

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torr

Unit of pressure; symbol torr; named after Evangelista Torricelli; defined via atmospheric pressure, a standard atmosphere having a pressure of 760 torr by definition; 1 torr equals the pressure of a column of mercury 1 mm high (to within one part in 7×106); 1 torr = 133·3 Pa (pascal, SI unit); still commonly used in vacuum physics. Example reading: 1 Pa = 1 N/m² ?= 10 at ?= 9.869…

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Torres Strait - Geography, History

Channel between the Coral Sea (E) and the Arafura Sea (W), to the N of Cape York, Queensland, Australia; c.130 km/80 mi wide; discovered by Spanish explorer Luis Vaez de Torres, 1606; contains Torres Strait Islands, which may be remains of a land bridge linking Asia and Australia; annexed by Queensland in 19th-c; inhabited by Polynesians, Melanesians, Aborigines, pop (2000e) 6800; pearl culture…

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tort - Liability, Defences and Remedies, Theory and Reform, Tort and Criminal Law, Tort by legal jurisdiction

A wrong (mediaeval Lat tortum ‘wrong’) which harms someone else, actionable in the civil courts of England and Wales. The usual remedies are damages and/or an injunction. In some instances, the tort may be ‘waived’, and the defendant required to account for profits gained through the wrong. The law of tort, as well as protecting individual rights to property damage and personal injury caused b…

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tortoise - Partial species list, Further reading, Gallery

A land-dwelling reptile of order Chelonia; feet short, round, with short claws; toes not webbed; used especially for 41 species of family Testudinidae; native to tropical and subtropical regions (except Australasia); usually vegetarian. A tortoise is a land-dwelling reptile of the order Testudines. The giant tortoises of the Galápagos Islands helped Charles Darwin formulate his…

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tortoiseshell cat - Patterns, Gallery of the various types

A British short-haired domestic cat; mottled coat of black, dark red, and light red (with no white); difficult to produce; almost always female (males rare and sterile); also known as calimanco or calico cat or clouded tiger. The name (often shortened to tortie) is also used for other breeds with mottled markings. The mix of colors results in a cat with patches of red and patches of black, …

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torture - Aspects of torture, Torture devices and methods, Fiction, Other meanings of the word

In law, the infliction of severe physical or mental suffering, whether for punishment, intimidation, or to extract a confession for a crime. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) prohibits the use of torture, and it has been universally condemned. Since the early 19th-c, the use of torture in all European countries has been banned, but it is still widely used in many parts of the world,…

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Toru?

53°01N 18°35E, pop (2000e) 205 000. Industrial river port and capital of Toru? voivodship, NC Poland, on R Vistula; railway; university (1945); synthetic fibres, electronics, wool, fertilizer; founded in 1231 by the Teutonic Knights; birthplace of Copernicus; Church of St John (13th-c), palace of the bishops of Kujawy (1693), castle (13th-c), ethnographical museum, burghers' manor (15th-c); me…

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Torvill and Dean - Careers, Style and approach, Trivia

Figure skaters Jayne Torvill (1957– ) and Christopher Dean (1958– ), both from Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. They were world ice dance champions (1981–4) and Olympic champions (1984). Their highly acclaimed performances included an interpretation of music from Ravel's Bolero, and the musical, Barnum, which was choreographed by British actor Michael Crawford. At the height of their…

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Toshiko Takaezu

Ceramicist, born in Pepeekeo, Hawaii, USA. She studied under Maija Grotell at Cranbrook, taught there and at other schools, and then at Princeton University (1966). In 1968 she established a studio in Quakertown, NJ. With her biomorphic forms of the 1950s, her explorations of sound by enclosing clay pebbles in pots, and the later closed cracked vessels, she drew on Zen ideas and abstract expressio…

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totalitarianism - Hannah Arendt's thesis, Cold War-era research

In its modern form, a political concept first used to describe the USSR's communist regime and Italy and Germany's fascist regimes during the period between the two World Wars. It is difficult to distinguish empirically from related concepts such as authoritarianism and dictatorship, but certain common features can be identified. These relate to the use of power and the means of government employe…

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totem - North American totem poles, Possibly totemic culture in ancient China, Totems in Zimbabwe

A word of North American Indian origin, widely used by social anthropologists and others to describe an animal or plant to which a particular clan or tribe has a special attachment. Some Australian Aboriginal tribes, for example, have the kangaroo as a totem, others the witchetty grub. Sometimes the totem may not be eaten; sometimes it must be eaten on special ritual occasions. The totem symbolize…

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totem pole - Style, Meaning and purpose, Construction and maintenance, Property, Totem poles of note

An elaborately carved pole about 20 m/65 ft high, erected in front of houses, made by Pacific NW Coast American Indians. Totem poles depict the guardian spirits of kin groups and their leaders, and confer prestige upon their owners. Poles of all types share a common graphic style with carved and painted containers, housefronts, canoes, masks, intricately-woven blankets, ceremonial dress, …

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Totila

King of the Ostrogoths (from 541). During the Gothic War he succeeded in winning back from the Byzantines large territories in C Italy. He defeated Belisarius and took first Rome in 546, and then Sicily. He was defeated at Senigallia and then at Gualdo Tadino by Narsete, and died while trying to escape. His life's work was the restoration of the Gothic kingdom in Italy and he entered upon t…

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toucan - Toucans in advertising, Toucans in fiction, Species list

A largish bird with an enormous bill, native to the New World tropics; brightly coloured; bare coloured skin around eye; long tail; inhabits woodland; eats seeds, fruit, invertebrates, and small vertebrates. (Family: Ramphastidae, 42 species.) Toucans are near passerine birds from the neotropics. Toucans were used to advertise Guinness stout (using the slogan 'See what toucan do…

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Toulon

43°10N 5°55E, pop (2000e) 176 000. Fortified naval port and capital of Var department, SE France; on Mediterranean Sea, 70 km/43 mi SE of Marseille; most important naval port in France; major naval station in World War 1; French fleet scuttled here in 1942, to prevent German capture; railway; episcopal see; shipbuilding, oil refining, armaments, chemicals, textiles; Gothic Cathedral of Ste-M…

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Toulouse - Geography, History, Population, Government and politics, Sights, Economy, Culture

43°37N 1°27E, pop (2000e) 376 000. Capital city of Haute-Garonne department, S France; on R Garonne and Canal du Midi, 213 km/132 mi SE of Bordeaux; capital of former province of Languedoc; fourth largest city in France; road and rail junction; archbishopric; university (1229); Catholic Institute of Toulouse (1877); cultural and economic centre of S France; electronics, aircraft, armaments, …

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Tour de France - History, Physical rigor, Classification jerseys, Stages, Culture, Doping, Statistics

The world's most gruelling bicycle race, first held in 1903 to advertise a cycling periodical. In 2005, 21 teams each with nine riders have to cover approximately 3390 km/2106 mi of mainly French countryside during a three-week period in July. The Tour is broken into eleven flat stages, six mountain stages, two individual time-trials, and one team time-trial. About 10 million people watch the ra…

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Touraine - Geography, History, Sights, Famous natives, Famous non natives

Former province in C France, now occupying the department of Indre-et-Loire and part of Vienne; became part of France, 1641; known for its Huguenot silk-weaving trade; chief town, Tours. Traversed by the Loire and its tributaries the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne, the Touraine makes up a part of the Paris Basin. The TGV, which connects Tours with Paris in less than an hour, has made …

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tourmaline

A complex borosilicate mineral containing sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, and other metals, found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It forms hard, dense, prismatic crystals, and may be used as a gemstone. The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated groups of silicate minerals. …

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Tournai - History, Tourist Attractions, Festivities, Geology, People born in Tournai

49°52N 5°24E, pop (2000e) 68 800. Administrative and cultural town in W Hainaut province, W Belgium, on the R Scheldt, 22 km/14 mi E of Lille; bishopric; second oldest town in Belgium, founded 275 AD; railway; cement, machinery, foodstuffs, textiles (especially carpets), tourism; cathedral (11th–12th-c, restored 19th-c) is a world heritage site. Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: T…

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Tours - Main sights, Language, City, Transportation, Miscellaneous

47°22N 0°40E, pop (2000e) 135 000. Industrial and commercial city, and capital of Indre-et-Loire department, WC France; between Loire and Cher Rivers, 206 km/128 mi SW of Paris; episcopal see, 3rd-c; grew up around tomb of St Martin (died in 397), becoming a place of pilgrimage and centre of healing; Huguenot silk industry in 15th–16th-c; airport; road and rail junction; university (1970); …

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Toussaint l'Ouverture - Early life, Rebellions and negotiations, Campaign in support of the French Revolution

Revolutionary leader, born a slave in Haiti (formerly St Domingue). In 1791, he joined the insurgents, and by 1797 was effective ruler of the former colony. He drove out British and Spanish expeditions, restored order, and aimed at independence. Napoleon sent a new expedition to Saint Domingue, and proclaimed the re-establishment of slavery. Toussaint was eventually arrested, and died in a French …

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Tove (Marika) Jansson - Life and family, Painter and illustrator, Author, Comic strip artist, Jansson's cultural heritage, Bibliography

Writer of children's books, and artist, born in Helsinki, Finland. Her books for children, featuring the ‘Moomintrolls’ and illustrated by herself, are as much appreciated by adults. They reached an international audience and she was the recipient of many literary prizes. In later years she wrote a number of books aimed at adults, such as Sommarboken (1972, The Summer Book). Tove Marika J…

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Tower Bridge - Design, Nearby places, Trivia

The easternmost bridge on the R Thames, London, UK. The bridge can open to allow large ships in and out of the Pool of London. It was designed by Sir Horace Jones (1819–87) and Sir John Wolfe Barry (1836–1918), and opened in 1894. Tower Bridge is a bascule bridge in London, England over the River Thames. It has become an iconic symbol of London and is sometimes mistakenly called London Br…

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Tower of London - History, Description, Crown Jewels, Location, In fiction

A palace-fortress started by William I as a wooden fortification in 1067 and replaced by him with one in stone (c.1077–97). Successive Norman, Plantagenet, and Tudor monarchs added to it until Edward I completed the outer wall, extending to around 7 ha/18 acres. The keep or White Tower is one of the earliest fortifications on such a scale in W Europe, begun by William I in 1078. The Armour Coll…

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Townshend Acts

(1767) Taxes imposed by the British parliament on five categories of goods imported into the American colonies, after successful colonial resistance to the Stamp Act (1765). The Townshend Taxes likewise met resistance, and four categories were repealed in 1770. The fifth, on tea, remained in effect until the Boston Tea Party. The Acts are named after the British chancellor of the exchequer, Charle…

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toxic shock syndrome - Symptoms and diagnosis, Therapy

A sudden collapse with shock and falling blood pressure, which results from toxins released into the blood stream by infection with staphylococci. A rare occurrence, it has been mainly associated with the use by women of superabsorbent tampons, the infection originating in the vagina. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. Approximate…

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toxicology

The study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living systems. Toxicology allows prediction of the risks likely to be associated with a particular chemical or drug. The modern science was founded in the 19th-c by French chemist Mathieu Orfila (1787–1853). Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos ) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms . It is the …

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toxin - Use, Non-technical usage

A poison produced by a micro-organism, which causes certain diseases or disorders. Botulinum toxin from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum is one of the most powerful, deadly toxins known. Toxins from Salmonella typhi cause typhoid fever; toxins from Pasteurella pestis cause bubonic plague; toxins from Shigella dysenteriae cause dysentery. Toxins can also be secreted by plants and animals. …

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toxocariasis - Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention

Human infection with Toxocara canis, a roundworm carried by dogs. Infection is acquired by eating dirt contaminated with roundworm eggs. The larvae migrate around the body causing disease in a variety of organs, notably the eye leading to blindness. Toxocariasis is an infection caused by the dog or cat roundworm, Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, respectively. Toxocariasis occurs…

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toxoplasmosis - Transmission, Clinical manifestations, Risk factors, Possible effects on human behavior, Human prevalence, Animal prevalence

A disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondi, acquired by eating infected meat, or by contact with contaminated cat faeces. It is often harmless, but may cause serious disease in the immuno-compromized individuals, such as those with AIDS. The infection is passed to the fetus during pregnancy, resulting in abortion or congenital toxoplasmosis in the child, with blindness and brain damage. …

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Toynbee Hall

The first university settlement (institutions through which universities provide support to deprived inner city communities), founded in E London in 1885. It was named after the social reformer and economist Arnold Toynbee (1852–83), who dedicated himself to improving the quality of life of the urban poor. Toynbee Hall is the original university settlement house of the settlement movement.…

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Toyohiko Kagawa - Brotherhood Economics, Famous Quotes

Social reformer and evangelist, born in Kobe, C Japan. A convert to Christianity, he was educated at the Presbyterian College in Tokyo, and at Princeton Theological Seminary in the USA. Returning to Japan, he became an evangelist and social worker in the slums of Kobe. He was a leader in the Japanese labour movement, helping to found the Federation of Labour (1918) and the Farmer's Union (1921), a…

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Toyotomi Hideyoshi - Rise to power, Pinnacle of power, Cultural legacy, Popular culture, Trivia, Note on name, Further reading

The second of the three great historical unifiers of Japan, between Nobunaga and Ieyasu Tokugawa, sometimes called ‘the Napoleon of Japan’. Unusually, he was of peasant origin, an ordinary soldier who rose to become Nobunaga's foremost general. Between Nobunaga's death (1582) and 1590 he established his overlordship of Japan, being appointed regent in 1585. His law forbade all except samurai to …

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Tracey Emin - Early life, Britartist, Fame, Other works, Strangeland, School tapestry, Momart fire, Stuckism

Multimedia artist, born in London, UK. Her controversial entry for the 1999 Turner Prize, ‘My Bed’, a dishevelled bed with soiled sheets and debris, was later bought by art collector Charles Saatchi. In 2001 her solo exhibition, ‘You Forgot to Kiss My Soul’, opened at the White Cube Gallery in London. It included sculptures, embroidered blankets, drawings, photographs, a video, and some work i…

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Tracey Ullman - Early life, Music career, Television career, Filmography, Discography, UK Top 40 Singles, Awards, Bibliography

Actress and singer, born in Slough, S England, UK. She attended London's Italia Conti Stage School, and went on to gain recognition as an impressionist in the comedy television programme Three of a Kind. Success took her to America and her own television programme, The Tracey Ullman Show, for which she won an Emmy in 1990. Tracey Ullman was born on December 30, 1959, in Slough, Berkshire, E…

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trachea - Vertebrate Trachea, Invertebrate Trachea, Additional images

A tube connecting the larynx with the principal bronchi; also known as the windpipe. Lined by respiratory (columnar ciliated) epithelium, it has an external fibrous membrane which encloses hoops of cartilage (open at the back) that prevent the trachea from collapsing. During breathing the trachea stretches longitudinally (up to 2 cm/0·8 in). In the human adult it is 9–15 cm/3·5–6 in long. …

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trachoma

An eye infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is endemic in developing countries, and the world's leading preventable cause of blindness. The bacterium is passed between children and affects the eyelid, causing inflammation. Repeated infection leads to scarring, and eventually the eyelashes turn inwards, irritating and damaging the surface of the eye, and resulting in profound…

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tractor - Farm tractor, Engineering tractors, EPA tractor, Other types of tractors, In aerospace, In computers

A self-propelled vehicle found on farms or similar places of work, and normally used for towing and powering various agricultural machines. Tractors do not usually have a frame or springs, but use the engine and transmission housing to provide structural rigidity, with the tyres to provide cushioning. There are two major types of tractors: the wheel tractor and the tracklayer tractor, known as a c…

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trade union - Unions today, Trade unions worldwide and by region and country, Impact of Unions, Criticism, Union publications

An association of people, often in the same type of business, trade, or profession, who have joined together to protect their interests and improve their pay, working conditions, and security of employment; also known in the USA as a labor union. In the UK, the trade union movement developed in the early years of the 19th-c, growing rapidly after the repeal of the Combination Acts (declaring union…

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trademark - Fundamental concepts, Terminology and symbols, Establishing trademark rights — use and registration, Registrability and distinctive character

A symbol placed on an article to show that it has been made by a certain company. When the mark is registered, its unauthorized use is illegal. It is an important marketing device, aimed at creating a strong brand image for a product. In the USA, trademarks often include the sign ®, signifying that the mark has been registered. A trademark, trade mark, ™ or ® is a distinctive sign of so…

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Trades Union Congress (TUC) - List of members

A voluntary association of trade unions in the UK, founded in 1868. In 2005 there were 67 affiliated unions, representing over 6·5 million members. The role of the TUC is to develop systematic relations with the government and the Confederation of British Industry, to represent the interests of its members on national councils and commissions, and to help settle disputes between members. It also …

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tradescantia

A succulent perennial with jointed, often trailing stems, native to the New World; leaves alternate, oval, stalkless; flowers 3-petalled, often white or blue, in small terminal clusters; named after John Tradescant the Younger, botanist and gardener to Charles I of England. Several species and cultivars, especially those with variegated leaves, are grown as house plants. (Genus: Tradescantia, 60 s…

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traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) - History, Uses, TCM theory, Model of the body, Macro approach to disease, Diagnostics, Treatment techniques

A system of medicine based on Taoist principles and texts, dating back more than 2000 years. It views health as a state in which the mind, body, and spirit are in harmony, and there is a perfect balance of yin and yang energy. Disease is due to an imbalance of energy, blockage of energy flow, and the influence of internal or external ‘perverse energies’, which are described according to the clim…

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tragedy - Early Western tragedy, Early Indian tragedy, Theories of tragedy, Renaissance and 17th century tragedy, Modern tragedy

In Western tradition, a play which presents the occurrence and the effects of a great misfortune suffered by an individual, and reverberating in society. Earlier, this required a great person as protagonist, but modern writers have attempted to confer tragic status on ordinary people. The fundamental purpose of tragedy (reminding us of its origins in religious ritual) was claimed by Aristotle to b…

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tragopan

A pheasant, native to SE Asia; inhabits woodland; nests in tree. (Genus: Tragopan, 5 species.) Tragopan is a genus of bird in the family Phasianidae. …

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Trajan - Biography, Trajan's legacy

Roman emperor (98–117), selected as successor by the aged Nerva for his military skills. He was the first emperor after Augustus to expand the Roman empire significantly, adding Dacia and Arabia (AD 106). The wealth from Dacia's gold mines enabled him to launch an ambitious building programme, especially in Rome, where he constructed a new forum, library, and aqueduct. A sensitive but firm ruler,…

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Tralee - History, Tourism, Transport, Local Media, Education, Hospitals, Tralee People, Politics

52°16N 9°42W, pop (2000e) 18 000. Capital of Kerry county, Munster, SW Ireland; NE of Slieve Mish Mts; connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a canal; railway; technical college; agricultural trade, bacon-curing, tourism; St Patrick's Week festival (Mar); Rose of Tralee festival (Sep), with street dancing and singing. Tralee (Irish: 'Trá Lí') is the county town of County Kerry, in the sou…

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tram - Etymology, History, Steam trams, Cable pulled cars, Other power sources, Electric trams (trolley cars)

A passenger vehicle normally propelled by an electric motor fed from overhead lines, designed to run on rails set into public roads; in the USA known as a trolley car. The tram is still a major means of transport in several US and European cities (eg New Orleans, Cologne); in the UK there is a tourist service in Blackpool, and in the 1990s new services began in Manchester and Sheffield. In general…

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trampolining - Origins, Trampolining Moves, Trampolining Competitions, Competition Safety

The art of performing acrobatics on a sprung canvas sheet stretched across a frame, first used at the turn of the 20th-c as a circus attraction. The name derives from Spanish trampolin ‘springboard’. It was developed into a sport following the design of a prototype modern trampoline by American diving and tumbling champion George Nissen in 1936. It became an Olympic sport in Sydney in 2000. …

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Trans-Siberian Railway - History, Demand and design, Construction, Effects, Costs, Routes, Trivia

An important rail route extending across Siberia, originally between terminals at Chelyabinsk in the Urals and Vladivostok on the Pacific. It was constructed 1891–1905, with an extension around L Baykal completed in 1916. The line, which has played a major role in the development of Siberia, is now largely electrified; the journey from Moscow to Vladivostok (9311 km/5786 mi) takes 7 days. Durin…

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transaction processing - Description, Implementations, Books

A form of computer processing of data, through the use of a terminal, in which the operation is carried out as a sequence of transactions. At each transaction the computer poses a question via the terminal, and the terminal operator gives a response. For example, to book an airline seat the computer asks which flight, then which class, then whether special meals are required, etc. The terminal ope…

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transactional analysis - TA outline, Key ideas of TA, Games and their analysis, Philosophy of TA, Pop TA

A method of psychotherapy in which the parent, child, or adult component of any interaction is analysed in addition to considering the unconscious pattern of a patient's actions. The purpose is to unravel emotional problems and to highlight the specific strategies an individual uses in social communication. The technique was developed by psychiatrist Eric Berne (1910–70) from the late-1940s, in h…

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transcendental meditation (TM) - History, Procedures and theory, Theory of Consciousness, Learning TM, TM-related research

A meditation technique taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, based in part on Hindu meditation. It has been widely practised in the West since the 1960s, when he ‘converted’ the Beatles. Its practitioners are taught to meditate for 20 minutes twice a day as a means of reducing stress, achieving relaxation, and increasing self-understanding. Transcendental Meditation or TM is a trademarked form…

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Transcendentalism (movement) - History, Origins, Other meanings of transcendentalism

A philosophical and literary movement in 19th-c New England as a reaction against 18th-c rationalism, led by Emerson and Thoreau. Influenced by Romanticism and German Idealism, it exalted the ideals of self-knowledge, self-reverence, and individual autonomy, and asserted the presence of the divine in nature as well as in the individual. Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literatu…

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transcendentalism (mysticism) - History, Origins, Other meanings of transcendentalism

A religious or mystical belief in a world or state of being beyond the reach of human apprehension and experience. Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in the New England region of the United States of America in the early-to mid-19th century. Transcendentalism began as a protest against the general state …

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