Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 74

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Theda Bara - Timeline

Silent film actress, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. She acted briefly in stock companies and then in Hollywood as an extra. Following the creation of the Hollywood studio machine, she was assigned her new name, billed as the daughter of an Eastern potentate, and turned into an overnight star in A Fool There Was (1915). She received her nickname because of her screen portrayal of exotic ‘man-hungr…

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theft - Elements, Theft in English law, Theft in Victoria - Australia, Theft in the U.S.

The taking or appropriation of property belonging to another person without consent, with the intention of permanently depriving that person of the property. Borrowing is not theft, but such temporary appropriation may in certain jurisdictions sometimes be the subject of other criminal sanctions. For example, in the UK the temporary taking of a motor-car without the owner's consent is a statutory …

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theism - A taxonomy of beliefs about deities, Theism, Atheism, Agnosticism

Belief in a single divine being, transcendent and personal, who created the world and, although involved with and related to the creation, is distinct from it. It is a feature of Jewish and Islamic as well as Christian faith, and is contrasted with both deism and pantheism. Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more Gods or deities. It is possible to categorize views a…

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Thelonious (Sphere) Monk - Life and career, Discography, Samples, Compositions, Trivia

Jazz musician, born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, USA. He was raised in New York and received piano lessons at age 11. Two years later he accompanied his mother's singing at a local Baptist church and began playing piano at parties in Harlem. He led a trio at a neighbourhood bar c.1934, then spent two years touring with an evangelist. He attended Juilliard briefly in the late 1930s, and during 1…

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Themis - Consorts/Children

In Greek mythology, the goddess of established law and justice (really a personification). As a consort of Zeus, she is the mother of the Horae and the Moerae. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis (Greek Θέμις) among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. Θεμιζ A Roman equivalent of o…

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Themistocles

Athenian general, visionary politician, and hero of Salamis. By persuading the Athenians to develop Piraeus as a port (493 BC), and to use their rich silver deposits to build a fleet (483 BC), he not only made possible their great naval victory at Salamis (480 BC), but also laid the foundations of their maritime empire. He fell from favour c.470 BC, and was ostracized. After many adventures, he se…

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Theo van Doesburg - Biography, Literature

Painter, architect, and writer, born in Utrecht, The Netherlands. He began as a poet, but took up painting and exhibited at The Hague in 1908. With Piet Mondrian he founded the avant-garde magazine De Stijl (1917–31), and devoted himself to propagating the new aesthetic ideas of this movement, based on a severe form of geometrical abstraction known as neo-Plasticism. He later became increasingly …

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Theobald

Archbishop of Canterbury, born near Bec, NW France. A monk at Bec, he became abbot there in 1137, and the following year was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. He crowned King Stephen, but after the king's death he refused to regard Stephen's son as his successor, and eventually crowned Henry II (1154). He advanced his archdeacon, Thomas Becket, to the chancellorship in 1155, introduced the study…

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Theobald Smith

Microbiologist and immunologist, born in Albany, New York, USA. He studied at Cornell, and came to be associated with several US institutions, including Harvard (professor, 1896–1915) and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1915–29). He first implicated an insect vector in the spread of disease when he showed that Texas cattle fever is spread by ticks. He worked on human and bovine t…

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Theocritus

Greek pastoral poet, probably born in Syracuse. He was brought up in Cos, and lived for a time at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus in Alexandria. About 30 of his poems survive, though the authenticity of some have been disputed. His short poems dealing with pastoral subjects, and representing a single scene, came to be called ‘idylls’ (eidullia). Tennyson was deeply influenced by him, as were t…

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theodicy - Origin of the term, The problem of evil, The nature of God, Examples of theodicy

The defence and vindication of God, defined as both omnipotent and good in the light of evil in the world. The term was first used by Leibniz in 1710. Theodicy (adjectival form "theodicean") is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil in the world with the assumption of a benevolent God. An attempt to reconcile the co-existence of e…

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theodolite - Concept of operation, History, Using theodolites in surveying, Modern theodolites

An optical surveying instrument for measuring vertical or (more importantly) horizontal angles. It is a small telescope, with cross wires, movable over horizontal and vertical graduated circular scales. It is usually seen mounted on a stable tripod. A theodolite is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles, as used in triangulation networks. It is a key tool in surveyi…

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Theodor Benfey

Philologist, born near Göttingen, C Germany. His early work was in the fields of classical and Hebrew philology, the Lexicon of Greek Roots (1839–42). Having learned Sanskrit in a few weeks to win a bet, he later turned his attention to Sanskrit philology. He was professor at Göttingen from 1848. His best-known work is the Sanskrit–English Dictionary (1866). Theodor Benfey (January 28, …

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Theodor Fontane - Youth, Newspaper writer and critic, London, Prussian War, Later years, Famous Quote, Works, Poems, Reference

Poet and novelist, born in Neuruppin, NE Germany. He worked in the family chemist's business until he took to literature in Berlin (1849). Periods of residence in Britain (1855–9) as a newspaper correspondent led to ballads such as ‘Archibald Douglas’, and other British-based pieces. His later realistic novels influenced Thomas Mann; the first of them, Vor dem Sturm (1878, Before the Storm), an…

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Theodor Herzl - The Leader of the Zionists, Judenstaat and Altneuland, Books written by Theodor Herzl

Zionist leader, born in Budapest, Hungary. He trained as a lawyer in Vienna, then became a journalist and playwright. After reporting the Dreyfus trial (1894), he was converted to Zionism, and in the pamphlet Der Judenstaat (1896, The Jewish State) he called for a world council to discuss the question of a homeland for the Jews, convened the first Zionist Congress at Basel (1897), and became the f…

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Theodor Heuss

First president of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949–59), born in Brackenheim, SW Germany. He studied at Munich and Berlin, became editor of the political magazine Hilfe (1905–12), professor at the Berlin College of Political Science (1920–33), and an MP (1924–8, 1930–2). A prolific author and journalist, he wrote two books denouncing Hitler, and when the latter came to power in 1933, he …

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Theodor Mundt

Writer and journalist, born in Potsdam, EC Germany. A prominent member of the radical literary movement Junges Deutschland, as editor of various literary journals he campaigned against censorship. In 1848–50 he taught history and literature at the University of Breslau. His novels include Das Duett (1831), Madonna. Unterhaltungen mit einer Heiligen (1835, which was banned by the Prussian censors …

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Theodor Reik

Psychoanalyst, born in Vienna, Austria. He became a close friend and protégé of Sigmund Freud after they met in 1910. He studied at Vienna, where he practised as a psychoanalyst (1918–28), then taught at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute until 1933, when he fled the Nazis to The Hague. In 1938 he emigrated to the USA, establishing a private practice in New York City, and becoming a US citizen…

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Theodor Schwann - Works, Sources

Physiologist, born in Neuss, W Germany. He studied medicine at Berlin University, and became professor at Louvain (1838) and Liège (1848). He discovered the enzyme pepsin, investigated muscle contraction, demonstrated the role of micro-organisms in putrefaction, and extended the cell theory (previously applied to plants) to animal tissues, thus founding modern histology. Among his many con…

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Theodore - People, Places, Other

Adventurer, born in Cologne, W Germany. He served in the French army and the Swedish diplomatic service, became chargé d'affaires to Emperor Charles VI (ruled 1711–40) and, in 1736, led a Corsican rising against the Genoese, supported by the Turks and the Bey of Tunis. He was elected king, and left after a few months to procure foreign aid, but his attempts to return in 1738 and in 1743 were fru…

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Theodore (Dehone) Judah

Engineer and railroad builder, born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. He studied engineering and worked for the railroads of the Connecticut Valley area until 1854. He went West and became the chief engineer of the Sacramento Valley Railroad. Travelling in the California mountains, he developed the idea of a transcontinental railroad, and wrote a pamphlet (1857) which persuaded Collis Huntington, L…

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Theodore (Herman Albert) Dreiser

Writer, born in Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. Raised in poverty and in a German-speaking environment, he left home for Chicago at age 16. After a period of odd jobs and a year at the University of Indiana, he became a Midwestern newspaper reporter and, in New York after 1894, a magazine feature writer. Sister Carrie (1900), his first and still highly regarded novel, was withheld from general distribu…

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Theodore (Huebner) Roethke - History, References to Roethke, Bibliography, Filmography

Poet, born in Saginaw, Michigan, USA. He studied at Michigan and Harvard universities, then taught at Pennsylvania State, Bennington, and Washington. It was not until the publication of his fourth volume, The Waking (1953, Pulitzer) that he became widely known. Words for the Wind (1958) is a selection from his first four books; his Collected Poems appeared posthumously in 1968. Theodore Hue…

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Theodore (Martin) Hesburgh - External links and references

Clergyman and university president, born in Syracuse, New York, USA. An ordained Roman Catholic priest, he became indelibly identified with Notre Dame University, where he was president (1952–87) in a term that secularized and integrated the university and brought the athletic department under administrative control. He was a charter member of the Civil Rights Commission (1957–72). Hesbur…

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Theodore (Newton) Vail

Telephone and utilities executive, born near Minerva, Ohio, USA. He moved to New Jersey (1847) where he learned to operate the telegraph while working as a clerk in a drugstore. By age 19 he was at Western Union Telegraph Co in New York City, then moved with his family to Iowa (1866) and began working for the US Post Office Department (1869). He inaugurated the Fast Mail, the first train to carry …

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Theodore (William) Richards

Chemist, born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, USA. He was affiliated with Harvard from his graduate studies to his death (1885–1928). He had begun by trying to establish precisely the relation of the atomic weights of hydrogen and oxygen, and he devoted the first half of his career to correcting the errors in the accepted atomic weights of 21 elements. It was this work that won him the Nobel Prize f…

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Theodore Beza - Early life, Teacher at Lausanne, Journeys in behalf of the Protestants, Settles in Geneva

Theologian and poet, born in Vézelay, C France. He studied Greek and law at Orléans, then settled in Geneva and became professor of Greek at Lausanne (1549–54). His first poetry, Juvenilia (1548), a book of amorous verse, earned him a reputation as a leading Latin poet. Soon afterwards he experienced a religious conversion and for several years travelled throughout Europe in defence of the Prot…

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Theodore Bikel - Other work, Interview

Actor and singer, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to Palestine as a teenager, acted in plays, then went to London where he studied acting and appeared on stage. He moved to the USA in 1954, made his New York stage debut (1955), and appeared in a few films before he was cast as the original Georg von Trapp in Rodgers and Hammerstein's The Sound of Music (1959). An American citizen from 1961, …

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Theodore Caldwell Janeway

Physician, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of Edward Gamaliel Janeway, he followed in his father's footsteps, eschewing study abroad for work in his father's office. He is credited with pioneering the clinical use of a patient's blood pressure in The Clinical Study of Blood Pressure (1904), and with introducing sphygmomanometers. …

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Theodore Dwight Weld - External sources

Abolitionist, born in Hampton, Connecticut, USA. After attending Hamilton College and the Oneida Institute, which stressed manual labour in education, he was influenced by Presbyterian evangelist Charles Grandison Finney to devote himself to promoting reforms, and he went to study at the Lane Seminary in Cincinnati (1834). For about 10 years thereafter, as an ardent abolitionist, he gave forceful …

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Theodore Dwight Woolsey

Educator and political scientist, born in New York, USA. A valedictorian at Yale (1820), he attended Princeton Theological Seminary until 1823, then completed his theological studies at Yale and Europe. He was professor of Greek at Yale (1831–46), then became its president (1846–71), during which time he taught history, political science, and international law. He was chairman of the American co…

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Theodore H(arold) Maiman

Physicist, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He studied physics at Colorado and Stanford universities, and joined Hughes Research Laboratories, Miami, in 1955. He was much interested in the maser, devised in 1953 to produce coherent microwave radiation. He improved its design, and by 1960 devised the first working laser, which gave coherent visible light. From the 1960s he founded companies to…

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Theodore Lascaris I - Laskarid Emperors of Nicaea:

First emperor of Nicaea (1208–21), the son-in-law of Byzantine emperor Alexius III. He distinguished himself in the Fourth Crusade (1203–4) and formed a new Byzantine state after Constantinople was taken. In c.1214 he signed a treaty defining the frontiers between the new Greek empire of Nicaea and the now Latin empire of Constantinople. He strengthened his ties to the Latin empire by marrying M…

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Theodore Low De Vinne

Painter, born in Stamford, Connecticut, USA. In 1877 he became full owner of a print shop that produced high-quality materials, reproducing illustrations with particular success, and made important innovations in typography. He wrote the influential Practice of Typography (4 vols, 1900–4). Theodore Low De Vinne (December 25, 1828-February 16, 1914) was an American printer and scholarly aut…

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Theodore Lyman

Zoologist and soldier, born in Waltham, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1855) and worked under Louis Agassiz. He was one of the first trustees of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and he pursued his studies both at home and abroad. He volunteered during the Civil War and was present at several important occasions. The letters he wrote to his wife, published as Meade's Headquarters, 186…

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Theodore Lyman

Physicist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He taught at Harvard (1907–25), then became director of Harvard's Jefferson Physical Laboratory (1910–47). He discovered the fundamental Lyman series of hydrogen wavelengths in the vacuum ultraviolet (1914), and continued to investigate the range of ultraviolet spectra to increasingly shorter wavelengths. Directivity is also defined for direc…

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Theodore of Mopsuestia - Life and work, Posthumous legacy, Literary remains

Christian theologian, born in Antioch, S Turkey (formerly Syria). He was made Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia in 392. He wrote commentaries (mostly now lost) on almost all the books of Scripture, adopting a literal meaning in preference to the use of allegorical interpretation. As the teacher of Nestorius, he was perhaps the founder of Nestorianism, and his views on the Incarnation were condemned …

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Theodore Parker - Early life, Theological questions, Controversy and his split with the church, His church and social mission

Unitarian clergyman and reformer, born in Lexington, Massachusetts, USA. He overcame a background of poverty to graduate from Harvard Divinity School in 1836. Serving as Unitarian minister in West Roxbury, he was an associate of William Ellery Channing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and other Transcendentalists, and became a leader of liberal theological thought. His progressive views forced him to resign …

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Theodore Robinson - Training and early career, Robinson at Giverny, Return to America, Final years

Painter, born in Irasburg, Vermont, USA. After attending the National Academy of Design in New York City (1874) and helping found the Art Students League, he studied in Paris (1876–8) and returned to the USA. Up to this time he painted in a conventional realistic manner, but after a second stay in France (1884–8), particularly after meeting Claude Monet in 1887, he embraced and promoted the Impr…

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Theodore Roosevelt - Childhood and education, Early life, Return to public life, Post-presidency, World War I

US statesman and 26th president (1901–9), born in New York City, New York, USA, the fifth cousin of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Born into a patrician family, he was sickly as a boy but built up his body and physical abilities. He graduated from Harvard (1880) and the next year gained election to the New York legislature (Republican, 1882–4). During the 1880s he also began his extensive historical…

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Theodore Sedgwick - Mum Bett

Legal scholar, born in Albany, New York, USA. He practised law for several years (1934–50) and served as US district attorney for the Southern District of New York (1858–9). He wrote extensively for the popular press as well as Thoughts on the Annexation of Texas (1844) and Statutory and Constitutional Law (1857). Theodore Sedgwick (May 9, 1746-January 24, 1813), a Delegate, a Representat…

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Theodore von K - Contributions, Books

Physicist and aeronautical engineer, born in Budapest, Hungary. While spending most of his early career at German educational institutions, he advised many governments and firms on issues of aerodynamics and applied mechanics. Having visited the USA on two occasions, he came again in 1930 to direct the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, and when the Nazis…

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Theodoret (of Cyrrhus) - Life, The Nestorian controversy, Works: exegetical, Works: apologetic, historical, Works: dogmatic, Translations

Theologian and Church historian, born in Antioch, S Turkey (formerly Syria). He entered a monastery, and in 423 became Bishop of Cyrrhus. Deeply involved in the Nestorian and Eutychian controversies, he was deposed by the Council of Ephesus in 449, though restored by the Council of Chalcedon two years later. His works consist of commentaries, histories of the Church, orations, and letters. …

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Theodoric I

King of the Visigoths, the son of Alaric I, elected king in 418. Alternately an ally and an enemy of Rome, in 421 (or 422) he treacherously joined the Vandals and attacked the Roman troops from behind. In 435 he attacked the Romans in Gaul and besieged Narbonne. Forced to retreat to Toulouse, he there defeated a Roman army (439). On the invasion of Attila in 451, he joined the Romans, under Aëtiu…

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Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen - Biography, Quote, Genealogy

Protestant clergyman, born in Lingen, NW Germany. He received a classical education and was ordained in the Dutch Reformed Church in 1717. Sent to America in 1719 as a missionary, he established several churches in the Raritan Valley of New Jersey, and is considered a leading force in the establishment of the Dutch Reformed faith in the New World. All five of his sons became ministers. Theo…

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Theodosius (Grigorievich) Dobzhansky - Biography

Geneticist, born in Nemirov, Ukraine. He taught zoology in Russia, and emigrated to the USA (1927) because of Stalinist repression of genetic science. He was a professor and researcher at the California Institute of Technology (1928–40), where he published his seminal book, Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937). He relocated to Columbia University (1940–62), joined Rockefeller University (19…

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Theodosius I - Career, Family, Diplomatic policy with the Goths, Civil wars in the Empire, Theodosius the patron

Roman emperor of the East (379–95). Made emperor because of his military abilities, he solved the long-standing Gothic problem by allowing the Goths to settle S of the Danube as allies of Rome. His title comes from his vigorous championship of orthodox Christianity. Flavius Theodosius (January 11, 347 - January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor …

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Theodosius II

Roman emperor (408–50), the grandson of Theodosius I and, like him, a staunch champion of orthodox Christianity. He is chiefly remembered for his codification of the Roman law in 438. Flavius Theodosius (April, 401 – July 28, 450), known in English as Theodosius II, was an Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450), mostly known for the law code bearing his name, the Codex Theodosianus. …

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theology - History of the term, The emergence of Christian theology, Theology and religions other than Christianity

Literally, the science of the divine, or of discourse about God. In Christianity, it is understood as the systematic critical clarification of the historical beliefs of the Church. It has been divided into natural theology, that which can be known about God from nature or by reason alone, and revealed theology, that which can only be known through the self-disclosure of God. Theology (Greek…

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Theophilus

One of the Fathers of the Christian Church, from Syria. Bishop of Antioch (169–177), he wrote an important Apology for Christianity (c.180). Some people have used Theophilus as a forename, including: There is also a Theophilus crater on the Moon. …

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Theophilus Parsons

Judge, born in Byfield, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1769), then practised law in Maine and Massachusetts (1770s), his ideas heavily influencing the Massachusetts Federalist constitution of 1780. His reputation grew steadily, and by the beginning of the 19th-c he was considered the leading lawyer in the USA. An important legal scholar, he is given credit for rooting the US legal syst…

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Theophilus Parsons

Legal scholar, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, USA. On the faculty of Harvard (1848–69), he was a popular lecturer and wrote several important textbooks including The Law of Contracts (1853–5). The son of a clergyman, he graduated from Harvard College in 1769, was a schoolmaster in Falmouth (now Portland, Maine) from 1770-1773; He served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Jud…

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Theophrastus

Greek philosopher, born in Eresus, Lesbos, Greece. At Athens he studied under Aristotle, becoming his close friend, and head of the Peripatetic school after his death. He was responsible for preserving many of Aristotle's works, along with many fragments of the Presocratics. Among his own works which have survived are two books on plants, and Charact?res, describing 30 moral types based on studies…

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theophylline - History, Side effects

An alkaloid, in the same chemical family as caffeine and theobromine, found in a variety of plants, including tea. It is used in the treatment of asthma, and is sometimes used as a mild diuretic. Like caffeine, theophylline is a mild stimulant. Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. Th…

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theorbo - Theorbo tuning

A large lute with six strings above a fretted fingerboard, and seven or eight additional bass strings which are not stopped and have a separate pegbox. It was widely used in the 17th-c as a continuo instrument. A theorbo (from Italian tiorba, also tuorbe in French, Theorbe in German) is a plucked string instrument. As a name, theorbo signifies a number of long-necked lutes with second…

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theorem

A proposition proved by logical deduction from one or more initial premises. Although geometrical theorems are the most widely known, theorems exist in all branches of mathematics. A simple theorem which is proved and then used towards the proof of another theorem is known as a lemma. If the theorem is ‘statement p implies statement q’, the converse is ‘statement q implies statement p’. The co…

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theosophy - The three objects, Basic Theosophical beliefs, A brief history of Theosophy

Any system of philosophical or theological thought based on the direct and immediate experience of the divine. It has been used to describe any developed system of mystical thought and practice, and especially the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky (1831–91) and H S Olcott (1832–1907) in New York City. Theosophy, literally "knowledge of the divine",…

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Therapsida - Taxonomy and Phylogeny

An order of fossil reptiles including the direct ancestors of the mammals; known mainly from the Permian and Triassic periods; many with well-differentiated dentitions; some with a secondary palate, and mammal-like limbs, but only one middle-ear bone. (Subclass: Synapsida.) Therapsids, previously known as the "mammal-like reptiles", are an order of synapsids. …

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Theravada - History, Philosophy, Scriptures, Praxis, Festivals and customs

The form of Buddhism commonly found in S Asia (Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos). Its doctrines remain essentially as they were in the 3rd-c BC, and it is generally distinguished from the later Mahayana (‘greater vehicle’) Buddhism in its rejection of the theory of bodhisattvas. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the …

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thermae - Baths in culture and society, Building layout, Remains of Roman baths

The elaborate public bathing complexes that were a standard feature of urban life under the Roman Empire. Functioning very much as community centres, the larger thermal establishments contained far more than changing rooms and hot and cold baths. Among other facilities on offer there might be exercise grounds (palaestrae), clubrooms, lecture theatres, and libraries. The term thermae was the…

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thermal expansion

The increase in size observed in most materials when heated. The expansion results from the increased thermal motion of atoms. The change in the length of a solid rod equals the product of its starting length, the change in temperature, and ?, the coefficient of expansion. For copper, ? = 1·7 × 10?5/°C. In physics, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to increase in volume or …

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thermal insulation - Materials used for thermal insulation, Choice of insulation, Personal insulation, Building insulation, Industrial insulation

Shielding whose function is to reduce heat flow. Heat loss by conduction is stemmed using layers of material having low thermal conductivity. Loss by convection is reduced by preventing the movement of fluids around the object. Loss by heat radiation is reduced using reflective coatings. The term Thermal Insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the meth…

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thermal printer - Essential mechanisms, Applications

A type of printer which generally uses thermally sensitive paper and produces characters using a set of electrically heated wires. Although thermal printers are relatively inexpensive, the special paper they use is not. A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the …

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thermistor - Steinhart Hart equation, B parameter equation, Conduction model, Self-heating effects

A temperature sensor constructed from semiconductor material whose electrical resistance falls rapidly as the temperature rises; an abbreviation of thermal resistor. It is made from cobalt, nickel, and magnesium oxides mixed with finely divided copper. Thermistors are used in electronic circuits measuring or controlling temperature, in wave-guides to measure the transmitted power, and in time-dela…

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thermite - Types, Ignition, Safety, Military uses, Civilian uses, History

A mixture of aluminium and iron oxide which, if ignited, undergoes a fierce chemical reaction producing a high temperature (c.2400°C) and yielding molten iron (or other metal if another oxide is used). The process was devised in 1895 by German chemist Hans Goldschmidt (1861–1923). It is useful for the preparation of intractable metals, or in welding, and has been used for incendiary bombs. …

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thermochemistry - History

The study of the energy changes accompanying chemical reactions. Such energies have precise values for precisely defined reactants and products. Thermochemical methods are widely used in determining the energy value of foods. In the thermodynamics and physical chemistry, thermochemistry is the study of the heat evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions. Thermochemistry, generally, is concer…

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thermocline

The depth in the ocean where temperature decreases rapidly. In many ocean areas, including all of the tropics, a permanent thermocline begins at approximately 100 m/325 ft depth. This is just below the surface layer mixed by the wind, where sea surface temperatures may range as high as 28°C. The thermocline may extend to depths of 1000 m/3250 ft or more, where temperatures may be as low as 2

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thermocouple - Principle of operation, Different types, Applications

A type of thermometer that allows the direct electronic monitoring of temperature. A temperature-dependent potential difference exists across the junction between two different metals (the contact potential). If one such junction is placed in the sample, and the other held at constant temperature, the potential difference between the two junctions is a measure of the sample temperature. In …

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thermodynamics - History, Classical thermodynamics, Statistical thermodynamics, Chemical thermodynamics, Thermodynamic systems, Thermodynamic parameters, Thermodynamic instruments, Thermodynamic states

The study of heat and heat-related phenomena, based on four fundamental laws. Zeroth Law If two systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with a third, they will be in thermodynamic equilibrium with one another. For example, two objects left to stand a while in a still room will be the same temperature as the room and therefore as each other. First Law The sum of the energy changes occurring in s…

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thermography - Thermographic imaging, Thermographer training, Thermographic printing

A detection technique which converts invisible heat energy into a visible picture. Objects radiate varying amounts of infrared (IR) heat energy, depending on their temperature. Inside a thermograph, a solid-state detector ‘sees’ the IR, even in the dark or smoke. TV-style pictures show temperatures by variations in brightness or colour. In printing, thermography simulates the effect produced by …

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thermohaline circulation - Impacts on global climate

Marine circulation caused by differences in the temperature and salinity of sea water. These differences are caused by heating or cooling, evaporation or precipitation, and freezing and thawing, and result in density differences in surface sea water. An increase in salinity or a decrease in temperature produces an increase in density, and conversely a decrease in salinity or an increase in tempera…

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thermoluminescence dating

A method of dating ancient pottery by measuring the energy accumulated in the crystal lattice of its inclusions of quartz, through the breakdown over time of naturally occurring uranium. The technique is now increasingly extended to burnt flint, calcite, and sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is the determination by means of measuring the accumulated radiation dose of the time elapse…

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thermometer - Types of thermometers, Specialist uses of thermometers

A device for measuring temperature. In household alcohol and mercury thermometers, heat causes the liquid in a reservoir to expand, forcing some of the liquid up a graduated tube. The graduations are fixed by calibration against known markers of chosen temperature scale. The first reliable mercury-in-glass thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714. The first thermometer was a t…

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thermoplastic - Temperature dependence, List of thermoplastics

A class of resin which softens and hardens reversibly on heating and cooling any number of times. A thermoplastic is a material that is plastic or deformable, melts to a liquid when heated and freezes to a brittle, glassy state when cooled sufficiently. Most thermoplastics are high molecular weight polymers whose chains associate through weak van der Waals forces (polyethylene); …

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Thermopylae

A pass between mountains and sea in C Greece. The failure of the Greeks to hold it in 480 BC enabled the Persians to invade Attica, capture Athens, and sack the Acropolis. Thermopylae (IPA pronunciation: [θə(r)mɒ'pəli]) (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic Θερμοπύλες) is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. …

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thermosphere

The upper atmospheric layer above the mesopause (c.80 km/50 mi, separating the mesosphere from the thermosphere) in which atmospheric densities are very low. The lower part is composed mainly of nitrogen (N2) and oxygen in molecular (O2) and atomic (O) forms, whereas above 200 km/125 mi atomic oxygen predominates over N2 and N. Temperatures increase with altitude because of the absorption of u…

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Theseus - Birth and the six 'labours' of Theseus, Medea and the Marathonian Bull, Minotaur

A legendary king and national hero of Athens, who features in the story of Oedipus, Procrustes, the Argonauts, and others. With Ariadne's help he killed the Minotaur; he conquered the Amazons, and married their queen, Hippolyta; later, he married Phaedra. Theseus (Greek Θησεύς) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in …

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Thespis - Thespis in popular culture

Poet from Icaria. He is said to have been the first to win a prize for tragedy at a festival in Athens (c.534 BC). According to Aristotle, he was the first to use single actors to deliver speeches in stage work, as well as the traditional chorus. Thespis of Icaria (6th century BCE) is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor in a play although the reality is undoub…

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Thessalon - History, Landmarks, Museums, Demographics, Economy, Festivals, Foreign Consulates, Sport clubs, Communications, Photo Gallery, Twinnings

40°38N 22°58E, pop (2000e) 1 021 000. Seaport and capital of Salonica department, Greece; second largest city of Greece; founded, 315 BC; capital of Roman Macedonia, 148 BC; held by Turkey, 1430–1912; base for Allied operations in World War 1; airport; railway; ferry to mainland and islands; two universities (1925, 1957); textiles, metal products, chemicals, cigarettes, agricultural trade, t…

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Thessaly - Transport, Administration

pop (2000e) 764 000; area 14 037 km²/5418 sq mi. Fertile agricultural region of E Greece, bounded W by the Pindus Mts, and E by the Aegean Sea; annexed by Greece, 1881; capital, Larisa; famed in ancient times for its horses; major cereal region in Greece. Thessaly (Greek: Θεσσαλία Thessalía; There are a number of highways and the main railway from Athens to Thess…

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Thetis - Thetis as goddess, Thetis and the other gods, Thetis, Achilles and the Trojan War

In Greek mythology, a nereid destined to bear a son greater than his father. This was the secret known to Prometheus. She was married to Peleus, and was the mother of Achilles. While most extant material about Thetis concerns her role as mother of Achilles, and while she is largely a creature of poetic fancy rather than cult worship in the historical period, a few fragmentary hints an…

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thiamine - Nutrition, Overdose, Research

A water-soluble vitamin (B1) which acts as an enzyme co-factor in the oxidation of glucose. A deficiency leads to beri-beri, a disease once common, especially in SE Asia, where polished rice, low in vitamin B1, was the staple food. Thiamine is more rapidly degraded in the cooking process when the medium is alkaline; thus, the use of soda in the boiling of vegetables reduces thiamine concentrations…

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thiazole - Thiazoles and thiazolium salts, Organic synthesis, Organic reactions

C3H3NS, boiling point 117°C. A five-membered ring compound; a colourless liquid, the basis for a range of dyestuffs. This ring system occurs in vitamin B1 (thiamine). Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is an organic chemical compound with the empirical formula C3H3NS. Thiazole is used for manufacturing biocides, fungicides, pharmaceuticals, and dyes. Thiazoles are a class o…

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Thierry (Daniel) Henry

Footballer, born in Les Ulis, Paris, France. A prodigy, he was admitted to France's football academy, Clairefontaine, at the age of 13, and within four years was playing for the French first division side AS Monaco (1994–9). He spent six months with the Italian club Juventus before signing for the English premier division side Arsenal in 1999 for an estimated £10·5 million. A regular in the Fre…

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Thierry Lacroix

French rugby player, who has scored a record number of points for his country. He scored a record eight penalties against Ireland in the 1995 World Cup, and a total of 112 points in the whole tournament. He played demi-d'ouverture or centre. Thierry Lacroix (born March 2, 1967 in Nogaro, France) is a rugby player who won 43 caps playing at fly-half for the French rugby union side. Lacroix p…

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Thimphu

27°32N 89°43E; pop (2000e) town, 14 400; Official capital of Bhutan, C Asia, on R Raidak; founded, 1581; fortified town, a major monastery; capital since 1962; air strip; rice, wheat, maize, timber; Tashi Chho Dzong castle. Thimphu is the capital of Bhutan, and also the name of the surrounding valley and dzongkhag, the Thimphu District. Tashichoedzong, the fortress monastery…

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Thionville

49º36N 6º15E, pop (2002e) 41 200. Town in Moselle department, NE France; located in the heart of the Lorraine region, close to the borders of Germany, Luxembourg, and Belgium; birthplace of Joseph Bodin de Boismortier. Thionville (German: Diedenhofen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. …

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third stream - Earlier fusion attempts, Examples of Third Stream Music

A type of music which aims to combine the styles of Western art music with those of jazz or various ethnic traditions. Among composers associated with it are André Hodeir (1921– ), John Lewis, and Günther Schuller. Third Stream music is a term coined in 1957 by Gunther Schuller to describe a musical genre which is a synthesis of classical music and jazz. Improvisation (a key element of j…

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Thirteen Colonies - List, From Colonies to States, Other colonies, Bibliography

The American provinces that revolted against British rule and declared independence in 1776. From N to S they were New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Fourteen states actually declared independence, because Vermont separated from New York at the same time. In imperial…

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Thirty Years' War - Origins of the War, The Bohemian Revolt, Danish intervention, Swedish intervention, Swedish–French intervention

(1618–48) A complex phase, specifically German in origin, of a long and intermittent power struggle between the kings of France and the Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain (1491–1715). The background was complicated by the developing confrontation between militant Calvinism and re-invigorated, post-Tridentine Catholicism; also by the underlying constitutional conflict between the …

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Thirty-nine Articles - Content of the document

A set of doctrinal formulations for the Church of England, issued after several earlier efforts under Elizabeth I in 1563 (but without Article 29 about ‘eating the body’, in order to appease the Romanists), and finally adopted as a whole by the Convocation of 1571. They do not comprise a creed, but rather a general Anglican view on a series of contentious matters in order to maintain the unity o…

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thistle

The name applied to several spiny plants of the daisy family, Compositae, many belonging to the genera Cirsium and Carduus. All have leaves with spiny margins, flower-heads often almost globular, solitary or in clusters, surrounded by overlapping, usually spine-tipped bracts; florets reddish, purple, or white; the national emblem of Scotland. (Family: Compositae.) The thistle, in particular…

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Thomas (Alva) Edison - Early life, Marriages and children, Beginning his career, Menlo Park, Later years, Criticism, Tributes, Biographies

Inventor, born in Milan, Ohio, USA. Raised in Ohio and Michigan, he was taken out of school at age seven after only three months in the classroom (his constant questioning led some teachers to consider him retarded) and was educated by his mother. He showed an early curiosity for explanations of how everything worked, and was especially interested in chemistry. At age 12 he went to work selling ne…

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Thomas (Augustine) Arne

Composer, born in London, UK. He was educated at Eton, became skilful as a violinist, then turned to composing with his first opera Rosamond (1733). He was appointed composer to Drury Lane Theatre, for which he composed famous settings of Shakespearean songs. ‘Rule, Britannia’ (originally written for The Masque of Alfred) is his, as well as two oratorios and two operas. Thomas Augustine A…

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Thomas (Brackett) Reed - Political Life, In the House of Representatives, Presidential aspirations and departure from Congress

US representative, born in Portland, Maine, USA. After working his way through Bowdoin College, he went to California where he became a lawyer (1863), returning to Maine to practise law and serve in the state legislature. A Republican attorney general (1870–3), he was elected to the US House of Representatives (1876–99). A fierce debater, he used his prosecutorial skills to uncover Democratic fr…

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Thomas (Chrowder) Chamberlin

Geologist, born in Mattoon, Illinois, USA. He studied at Beloit College, where he became professor of geology (1872–82), He was chief geologist of the Wisconsin Geological Survey and later professor of geology at Chicago (1892–1918). His best-known work was in connection with the fundamental geology of the Solar System. Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843 - 1928) was an American geologist (o…

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Thomas (Clayton) Wolfe - Biography, Trivia, Bibliography, Further reading

Writer and playwright, born in Asheville, North Carolina, USA. The son of a stonecutter, he studied at the University of North Carolina (1920 BA) and Harvard (1922 MA; graduate study 1923). He taught intermittently at New York University (1924–30), and lived in Brooklyn, NY. He travelled in Europe several times, began his career writing plays, but turned to writing novels during his turbulent aff…

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Thomas (Cowperthwait) Eakins - Life and work, Legacy

Painter, photographer, and sculptor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After studying painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1861–6), he studied in Paris (1866–70) under Jean Léon Gerôme. During his travels in Europe he was profoundly influenced by the Spanish painters Velázquez and Ribera. He returned to Philadelphia (1870), and studied anatomy and dissections at Jeffe…

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Thomas (Dresser) White

Aviator, born in Walker, Minnesota, USA. He trained at West Point (1920), completed aviation training in 1925, and carried out a series of staff and line assignments, including tours as air attaché in the Soviet Union, Italy, and Brazil. As deputy commander of the Thirteenth Air Force, he took part in the reconquest of the Philippines (1944), and was commander of the Seventh Air Force during the …

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Thomas (Earl) Starzl - Life, Retirement

Surgeon, born in Le Mars, Iowa, USA. At the University of Colorado School of Medicine (1962–80) and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (1981), he advanced organ transplantation by perfecting both the surgical techniques and the drugs to suppress the body's rejection of transplants. Controversial because of his willingness to take risks and make claims that more conservative surgeons shie…

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Thomas (Forsyth) Torrance - Early life and education, Professorship and work

British theologian, born of missionary parents in Chengtu, China. He was professor of dogmatics at New College, Edinburgh (1952–79), and moderator of the Church of Scotland General Assembly (1976–7). He holds that theology should abandon its preconceptions and respond to the reality it encounters, both in relation to science and in the quest for an acceptable ecumenical theology. His views have …

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Thomas (Francis III) McGuane - Writing style, Early life, Montana

Writer, born in Wyandotte, Michigan, USA. He studied at the University of Michigan, Olivet College, Michigan State (1962 BA), Yale (1965 MFA), and Stanford (1966–7). He began his writing career as a flamboyant satirist, as seen in The Bushwacked Piano (1971). After a serious car accident (1972), he worked as a scriptwriter in Hollywood and directed the screen adaptation of his novel, Ninety-two i…

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Thomas (Handasyd) Perkins

Merchant and philanthropist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He made his fortune trading in Santo Domingo (1785–92) and China (1792–1838), and was a prominent Federalist state legislator (1805–24). His generous local philanthropy benefited Massachusetts General Hospital, the Boston Athenaeum, and the Perkins Institution for the Blind, renamed for him after a major benefaction in 1833. …

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Thomas (Hopkins) Gallaudet

Educationist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Yale University, and became interested in the education of the deaf. He learned sign language in Europe, and went on to establish the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford, CT (1816). Following retirement (1830), New York University appointed him its first professor for the philosophy of education. Gallaudet was born …

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Thomas (James) Merton - Biography, College, Monastic life, Selected bibliography

Catholic monk and writer, born in Prades, France. Following his mother's early death, he was raised in France, England, and the USA. After earning bachelor's and master's degrees in English from Columbia University, he converted from agnosticism to Catholicism, and in 1941 entered a Trappist monastery at Gethsemani, KY, taking the name Louis. His autobiography, The Seven Storey Mountain (1948), be…

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Thomas (Joseph) Mooney - Life

Labour radical, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The son of a coal miner, he was converted to Socialism on a trip to Europe (1907). Settling in San Francisco (1911), he became dedicated to left-wing unity, and affiliated with various radical and labour groups, including the International Workers of the World and the left-wing faction of the San Francisco Socialists. He helped publish their newspape…

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Thomas (Lake) Harris - Bibliography

Spiritualist, born in Fenny Stratford, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. At the age of three he was taken to America, and in 1843 became a Universalist pastor. In 1850 he set up as a spiritualistic medium, founding the ‘Church of the Good Shepherd’ (c.1858) on doctrines compounded of Swedenborg and Fourier. Thomas Harris (born 1940 in Jackson, Tennessee) is an author, most famous for his b…

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Thomas (Michael) Keneally - Novels

Writer, born in Kempsey, New South Wales, SE Australia. Educated at Strathfield, Sydney, he studied for the priesthood, but left before ordination, becoming a teacher and then a full-time writer. His novels are frequently historical, and include Gossip from the Forest (1975), about the armistice negotiations in 1918, and Schindler's Ark (1982, Booker, filmed as Schindler's List in 1993 by Steven S…

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Thomas (Pearsall Field) Hoving - Career at the Met

Museum director and editor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Princeton (1953 BA; 1958 MFA; 1959 PhD). He began his career as an assistant curator at the Cloisters (1959–60), then progressed to assistant curator at the Metropolitan Museum (1960–3), associate curator (1963–5), curator (1965–6), and director (1967–77). His one year away from the Metropolitan was to serve as ad…

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Thomas (Ruggles) Pynchon - Biography, Themes and influence, Media scrutiny, Works

Novelist, born in Glen Cove, New York, USA. He studied at Cornell, then worked as a technical writer for Boeing before leaving to write fiction. His novels, such as V (1963), The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), Gravity's Rainbow (1973, National Book Award), and Vineland (1992) all display a preoccupation with codes, quests, and coincidences that determines the form of the narrative. Later works include M…

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Thomas (Samuel) Kuhn - The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)

Philosopher and historian of science, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Trained as a physicist, he became interested in the historical development of science, and in 1962 published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, a study of how scientific theories are formed, judged, and supplanted. Its proposition that even the most ‘objective’ scientific theories are influenced by external factors has ha…

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Thomas (Stephen) Foley

US representative, born in Spokane, Washington, USA. A lawyer in Spokane, he was aged 35 when he defeated the Republican incumbent and entered congress in 1965. A Democratic reformer, he became chairman of the Agriculture Committee (1974), party whip (1980), and majority leader (1986). Although a skilled party strategist, he did not always tow the Democratic party line, and his preference for cons…

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Thomas (Stephen) Szasz - Szasz's main arguments, Criticism

Psychiatrist and writer, born in Budapest, Hungary. He emigrated to the USA (1938) and became professor of psychiatry at the State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse, NY (1956). Long regarded as a maverick within his field, he argued that mental illness (as opposed to organic disturbance) does not exist, but is rather a metaphor. Mental illness should rather be seen as ‘prob…

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Thomas (Wilmer) Dewing

Painter, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied in Paris (1879), settled in New York City, and painted ethereal scenes of isolated women, as in ‘The Recitation’ (1891). From 1898–1919 he exhibited with the Ten. Thomas Wilmer Dewing (May 4, 1851 – November 5, 1938) was an American painter working at the turn of the 20th century. He married Maria Oakey Dewing, an accomplished pai…

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Thomas (Wilson) Dorr

Lawyer and political reformer, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Admitted to the bar in 1827, he was elected to the Rhode Island assembly in 1834. Taking the lead in efforts to establish a state constitution that would abolish such anti-democratic practices as the requirement that only adult males who owned a good amount of land could vote, he formed a ‘People's Party’ that adopted a consti…

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Thomas A(lexander) Scott

Railroad executive, born at Fort Loudon, Pennsylvania, USA. He began working in the state toll collector's office at age 17 and continued until 1850, when he became station agent for the Pennsylvania Railroad at Duncansville. As the railroad grew, he was transferred and promoted, becoming first vice-president in 1859. (It was Scott who first hired young Andrew Carnegie in 1853 and helped him advan…

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Thomas Addison - The early years, Guy's Hospital, Diseases Addison described, The end

Physician, born in Longbenton, Northumberland, NE England, UK. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, settled in London, and in 1837 became physician to Guy's Hospital. His chief researches were on pneumonia, tuberculosis, and especially on the disease of the adrenal glands now known as Addison's disease. Thomas Addison (April, 1793 - June 29, 1860) was a renowned 19th-century English physician …

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Thomas Ap Catesby Jones

US naval officer, born in Westmoreland Co, Virginia, USA. His naval career (1805–50) included service in the War of 1812, and the drawing up of a treaty (1826) with King Kamehameha III of the Sandwich Is (now Hawaiian Is). He was temporarily relieved of his command after he seized Monterey, CA (1842) before formal hostilities had begun between the USA and Mexico. He served in the Mexican War but …

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Thomas Arnold - Biography

Educationist, scholar, and headmaster of Rugby School, born in East Cowes, Isle of Wight, S England, UK the father of Matthew Arnold and Mary Augusta Ward. He studied at Oxford, took deacon's orders in 1818, and in 1828 was appointed headmaster of Rugby. He reformed the school system (especially by introducing sports and ending bullying). The style of teaching he introduced was graphically describ…

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Thomas Arundel - Anti-Lollard

English clergyman and statesman, the third son of Robert FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel. Chancellor of England (1386–96), he became Archbishop of York in 1388 and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1396. Banished by Richard II in 1397, he returned from exile with Henry IV and crowned him in 1399. He then became Chancellor again, and was a bitter opponent of the Lollards. Thomas Arundel (1353-1414) was…

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Thomas Bailey Aldrich

Writer, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA. He was the author of numerous short stories, novels, and books of poetry. His most successful book, The Story of a Bad Boy (1870), was an autobiographical novel about his boyhood. In 1881 he became editor of the Atlantic Monthly. Thomas Bailey Aldrich (11 November 1836 – 19 March 1907) was a poet, novelist, traveler, and editor, born in Port…

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Thomas Bayes - Biography, Bayes' theorem, Bayes and Bayesianism

Mathematician, born in London, UK. He is principally remembered for his posthumously published Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances (1763), in which he was the first to study the idea of statistical inference, and to estimate the probability of an event from the frequency of its previous occurrences. His father was one of the first six Nonconformist ministers to be publicly o…

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Thomas Beddoes

Physician and writer, born in Shifnal, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He studied medicine and became reader in chemistry at Oxford, but his sympathies with the French Revolution led to his resignation (1792). From 1798 to 1801 he developed at Clifton (Bristol) a ‘pneumatic institute’ for the cure of diseases by the inhalation of gases, with Humphry Davy his assistant. Thomas Beddoes (April 1…

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Thomas Bernhard - Life, Work, Works (In Translation), Further Reading

Austrian writer, born in Heerlen, S Netherlands. He depicted human beings as governed by the laws of sickness and death in his sombre and melancholic poems Gesammelte Gedichte (1991), and markedly individualistic prose as found in the novel Frost (1963). Some of his novels are autobiographical, such as Die Ursache (1975) and Der Keller (1976), and others tend towards social criticism, including Wi…

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Thomas Bewick - Biography

Wood engraver, born in Ovingham, Northumberland, NE England, UK. Among his best works are the woodcuts for The Chillingham Bull (1789) and for the History of British Birds (1797–1804). Bewick's swan was named in his honour shortly after his death. Thomas Bewick (August 1753 – November 8, 1828) was an English wood engraver and ornithologist. Bewick was born at Cherryburn House…

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Thomas Blanchard - Patents

Inventor, born in Sutton, Massachusetts, USA. An inventive child from an early age, he devised an automatic tack-making machine and a lathe for turning gun barrels. Working at the US Arsenal in Springfield, MA, he built a lathe that could automatically produce precision interchangeable parts (1818), an essential step in the direction of mass production. He later designed a steam automobile (1825) …

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Thomas Blood - Early life, Theft and aftermath, Death

Irish adventurer. A parliamentarian during the English Civil War, he was deprived of his estate at the Restoration. He put himself (1663) at the head of a plot to seize Dublin Castle, but the plot was discovered and his chief accomplices executed. In 1671, with three accomplices he entered the Tower and stole the crown, while one of his associates took the orb. They were pursued and captured; but …

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Thomas Bourchier

English statesman and clergyman, an important figure during the Wars of the Roses. He became Bishop of Worcester (1434), of Ely (1444), Archbishop of Canterbury (1454), and a cardinal (1473). He was Lord Chancellor (1455–6), and crowned Edward IV (1461), Richard III (1483), and Henry VII (1485). Thomas Bourchier (ca. 1404 – 30 March 1486) was an English archbishop, Lord Chancellor and ca…

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Thomas Bowdler - Biography, The Family Shakespeare

Doctor and man of letters, born in Ashley, Somerset, SW England, UK. He retired from medical practice and settled in the Isle of Wight to devote himself to literary pursuits. He is immortalized as the editor of The Family Shakespeare (10 vols, 1818), in which ‘those words and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family’ and which are ‘unfit to be read by gentle…

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Thomas Bracken

Poet and journalist, born in Co Monaghan, NE Ireland. He settled in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1869, and came to be regarded as the local equivalent of Tennyson and Longfellow. His reputation declined in the 1930s, but he is remembered as the author of the national anthem, ‘God Defend New Zealand!’. Thomas Bracken (December 21, 1843 - February 16, 1898), born at Clones, County Monaghan, Ire…

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Thomas Brussig - Works

Novelist, born in East Berlin, German Democratic Republic (now Germany). He worked as a removal man, museum attendant, and hotel porter before studying sociology and drama. His first novel, Watercolours (1994), was published under the pseudonym Cordt Berneburger. His best-selling satirical novel Heroes Like Us (1998) comments on the downfall of former East Germany, and chronicles the farcical fort…

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Thomas Bulfinch - Table of Contents

Banker and writer, born in Newton, Massachusetts, USA. The son of the influential architect Charles Bulfinch, he tried his hand at various businesses, then worked in a bank (1837–67). This job allowed him much spare time which he spent studying natural history and literature, and he began to write books drawing on his extensive reading, such as Hebrew Lyrical History (1853), The Age of Chivalry (…

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Thomas Burke

Writer, born in London, UK. He is best known for his Limehouse Nights (1916), but he was the author of about 30 books, including Nights in Town (1915), The Streets of London (1941), and The English Inn (1930). Thomas Burke may refer to: …

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Thomas Campion - Media

Physician, poet, and composer, born in Witham, Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and at the University of Caen, France, and set his own lyrics to music. He prepared masques presented at court, 1607–17. As well as poetry in Latin and English he left several books of ‘ayres’ for voice and lute. Today he is primarily remembered as a fine poet, whose literary output is inseparable from…

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Thomas Carew - References, Sources

Poet, born in West Wickham, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford and the Middle Temple, and became a diplomat. A friend of Jonson and Donne, he wrote polished lyrics in the Cavalier tradition, and a masque Coelum britannicum (1634) which was performed at court. Thomas Carew (pronounced like "Carry") (1595 – March 22, 1640) was an English poet. He was the son of Sir Matth…

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Thomas Carlyle - Early life and influences, Private life, Influence, Works, Definitions

Man of letters, born in Ecclefechan, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. The son of a stonemason, he studied at Edinburgh University, and taught for several years before beginning to write articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and becoming absorbed in German literature, notably Goethe. In 1826 he married Jane Baillie Welsh. His best-known work is Sartor Resartus (1833–4). He then moved to…

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Thomas Chalmers - Overview, Mathematics, Christianity, His Parish, Moral Philosophy, Published works, Natural theology, See also

Theologian and reformer, born in Anstruther, Fife, E Scotland, UK. He studied at St Andrews, was ordained in 1803, and became a minister in Glasgow (1815), where his oratory took the city by storm. He became professor of moral philosophy at St Andrews (1823), and of theology at Edinburgh (1827). In the Disruption of 1843 he led 470 ministers out of the Established Church of Scotland to found the F…

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Thomas Chandler Haliburton - Works

Writer and jurist, born in Windsor, Nova Scotia, SE Canada. He was called to the bar in 1820, becoming a judge of the Supreme Court in 1842. In 1856 he retired to England. He is best known as the creator of ‘Sam Slick’, a sort of American ‘Sam Weller’, originally printed in the Halifax newspaper Nova Scotian (1835), later as a book The Clockmaker, or Sayings and Doings of Samuel Slick of Slick…

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Thomas Chatterton - Childhood, First "medieval" works, Posthumous recognition

Poet, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. In 1768 he hoaxed the whole city with a description, ‘from an old manuscript’, of the opening of Bristol Bridge in 1248. His poems, purporting to be by Thomas Rowley, a 15th-c monk, were sent to Horace Walpole, but (though Walpole was taken in) were soon denounced as forgeries. He then went to London, where he wrote many successful stories, essays, and othe…

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Thomas Chippendale

Furniture-maker and designer, baptised at Otley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He set up a workshop in St Martin's Lane, London, UK, in 1754, in partnership with a merchant, James Rannie (d.1766). He soon became famous for his graceful Neoclassical furniture, especially chairs, which he made mostly from mahogany in the Rococo, chinoiserie, and Gothic Revival styles. The Gentleman and Cabinet-make…

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Thomas Chittenden

US governor, born in East Guilford, Connecticut, USA. A Vermont farmer, he was a member of the council of state that drew up Vermont's first request for statehood (1777) after it had declared itself an independent republic that year. When the Continental Congress rejected the request, he became governor of the republic (1778–89, 1790–1). After negotiations with the British commander in Canada, t…

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Thomas Coke

Methodist clergyman, born in Brecon, Powys, E Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford (1768), and became an Anglican curate in Somerset, but in 1777 joined the Methodists, and was attached to the London circuit. In 1784 he was appointed by John Wesley as the superintendent of the Methodist Church in America. He visited the USA nine times, and assumed the title of bishop in 1787. He died in the Indian Ocea…

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Thomas Cole - Selected works

Painter and poet, born in Lancashire, NW England, UK. He emigrated with his family to Philadelphia (1819) to escape the Industrial Revolution. A founder of the Hudson River School, he influenced many artists, especially his pupil, Frederick E Church. With his mastery of precise detail, his landscapes quickly brought him fame and comparison with his predecessor, Washington Allston. Notable painting…

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Thomas Cook - Thomas Cook and Son, Company Ownership, Thomas Cook AG

Railway excursion and tourist pioneer, born in Melbourne, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He became a Baptist missionary in 1828. In 1841 he arranged an excursion railway trip between Leicester and Loughborough to attend a temperance meeting, and this later became a regular event. In the 1860s he became an agent for the sale of travel tickets and built up the business of Thomas Cook & Son, now a worldw…

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Thomas Cooper

Social agitator, scientist, and educator, born in London, UK. Trained as a lawyer and doctor, and with a smattering of chemistry and philosophy, he espoused radical ideas which closed off advancement in England, so in 1794 he emigrated to the USA with Joseph Priestley. He practised both law and medicine in Pennsylvania, but also became a pamphleteer in support of Thomas Jefferson. After serving as…

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Thomas Coram - Bibliography

Philanthropist, born in Lyme Regis, Dorset, S England, UK. A shipwright by trade, he went to America in 1693 and settled in Taunton, Massachusetts (1694–1704). There he strengthened the Anglican Church, and promoted settlement schemes in Georgia and Nova Scotia. Back in London (1719) he planned and founded the Foundling Hospital (1741–1926), of which Hogarth was a patron. In 1742-1745, th…

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Thomas Corwin

US representative, senator, governor, and lawyer, born in Bourbon Co, Kentucky, USA. He served in the US House of Representatives (Whig, Ohio, 1831–40), then became Ohio's governor (1841–3). In the US Senate (1845–50), he denounced the Mexican War, predicting that acquisition of more territory would incite regional conflict. He served as treasury secretary to President Millard Fillmore (1851–3…

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Thomas Coutts

Banker, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He founded the London banking-house of Coutts & Co with his brother James Coutts, on whose death in 1778 he became sole manager. Thomas Coutts (September 7, 1735 - February 24, 1822), Anglo-Scottish banker was the founder of the banking house of Coutts & He was the fourth son of John Coutts (1699-1751), who carried on business in Edinb…

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Thomas Couture

Painter, born in Senlis, NC France. He studied under Delaroche and became a historical and portrait painter. His most famous work is Les Romans de la Decadence (1847), which he exhibited at the Salon of 1847. He is best-remembered today as the teacher who encouraged Manet to paint ‘en plein air’. He was born at Senlis Oise, France and at age 11, Thomas Couture's family moved to Paris wher…

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Thomas Cranmer - Early years (1489–1533), Archbishop under Henry VIII (1533–1547), Archbishop under Edward VI (1547–1553)

Archbishop of Canterbury, born in Aslockton, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, took orders in 1523, and became a divinity tutor. His suggestion that Henry VIII appeal for his divorce to the universities of Christendom won him the king's favour and he was appointed a royal chaplain. He was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1533, making allegiance to the pope ‘for form's sake

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Thomas Creevey

British politician and diarist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He was a Whig MP for Thetford (1802), and later for Appleby, and became treasurer of ordnance (1830) and treasurer of Greenwich Hospital. He is chiefly remembered for the Creevey Papers, a journal important as a source of Georgian social history. He is remembered through the Creevey Papers, published in 1903 unde…

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Thomas Crofton Croker - Bibliography

Antiquary and folklorist, born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. He worked as a clerk at the Admiralty (1818–59). In 1825 he published his The Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland anonymously, a work which charmed Sir Walter Scott and was translated into German by the brothers Grimm (1826). A second series followed in 1827. Thomas Crofton Croker, (January 15, 1798 – August 8, …

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Thomas Cubitt - External Links

Builder, born in Buxton, Norfolk, E England, UK. He revolutionized trade practices in the building industry, working with his brother Lewis Cubitt (1799–1883) until 1831. They worked together on the development of Belgravia, London; later, Thomas's buildings included Osborne House and the E front of Buckingham Palace; Lewis's best-known building is Kings Cross Station. The son of a Norfolk…

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Thomas Dangerfield

Conspirator, born in Waltham, Essex, SE England, UK. A thief, vagabond, and soldier, in 1679 he accused the Presbyterians of plotting to destroy the government. Imprisoned when this was shown to be a lie, he claimed he had been deceived by Catholics plotting against the life of Charles II. Convicted of libel, he was whipped and pilloried, and on returning from Tyburn was killed by a blow from a by…

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Thomas Dartmouth Rice

Minstrel performer, born in New York, USA. He was a little-known entertainer when c.1828–31 (it is generally believed though cannot be absolutely proved) he first performed in Louisville, KY in blackface (from burnt cork) and rags, a routine he called ‘Jump Jim Crow’. He was supposedly mimicking a crippled black slave (of a Mr Crow in Louisville) he had observed entertaining his fellow workers …

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Thomas de Quincey - Life and work, Influence, Online texts, Bibliography

Writer and critic, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. Educated at Manchester Grammar School, he ran away, and wandered in Wales and London. He then spent a short time at Oxford, where he became addicted to opium. On a visit to Bath, he met Coleridge, and through him Southey and Wordsworth; and in 1809 went to live near them in Grasmere. There he set up as an author, largely wr…

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Thomas Dekker - Life, Work

Playwright, born in London, UK. He was a prolific writer, but only a few of his plays were printed and most of the others are now lost. His best-known works are the comedy, The Shoemaker's Holiday (1600), and The Honest Whore (1604; part II, 1630). He wrote several plays in collaboration with other Elizabethan playwrights, and was also well known as a writer of prose pamphlets giving a lively acco…

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Thomas Dudley - See also, Descendants of Thomas Dudley, External Links

Colonial governor, born in Northampton, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He served as Massachusetts Bay governor for four terms and was deputy-governor 13 times. He was present and active in nearly all of the important actions undertaken by the colony, including the creation of Harvard College. Thomas Dudley (October 12, 1576–July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several ter…

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Thomas Eisner

Entomologist, born in Berlin, Germany. As a child in Germany, he showed an early interest in what he termed ‘biophilia’, the love of living creatures, and was always fascinated by insects and odours. When his Jewish father left Germany (1933), Eisner emigrated with his family to Barcelona, Spain, then to France and then Uruguay. He went to the USA in 1948, and was a research associate at Harvard…

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Thomas Erastus

Theologian and physician, born in Basel, N Switzerland. He studied theology at Basel, and philosophy and medicine in Italy, and was appointed physician to the counts of Henneberg. He was professor of medicine at Heidelberg, physician to the Elector Palatine (1558), and professor of ethics at Basel from 1580. In theology he was a follower of Zwingli, was opposed to Calvin's system of Church governm…

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Thomas Frederick Price - Background

Catholic missionary, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, USA. Ordained in 1886, he preached missions and edited a magazine of apologetics. In 1910 he met Father James Walsh, with whom he founded the Maryknoll Foreign Mission Society (1911). In 1918 he went to China with the first group of Maryknoll missionaries, but died of appendicitis the following year. Thomas Frederick Price (August 19,…

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Thomas Fuller - Life

Clergyman and antiquary, born in Aldwinkle St Peter's, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was appointed preacher to the Chapel Royal at the Savoy, London (1641–3), and during the Civil War was chaplain to the royalist commander, Ralph Hopton (1598–1652). With the restoration of the monarchy (1660) he was appointed chaplain-extraordinary to Charles II. He published many wor…

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Thomas Gage - French and Indian War, Governorship, American Revolution, Return to England, Reference

British soldier, whose actions helped precipitate the American Revolution, born in Firle, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He accompanied Braddock's ill-fated expedition in Pennsylvania (1754), and the successful campaign in Quebec (1759), and became Military Governor of Montreal in 1760. He was commander-in-chief of the British forces in America (1763–72), and in 1774 Governor of Massachusetts. In A…

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Thomas Gainsborough - Trivia, Notable fictionalized films about Gainsborough

Landscape and portrait painter, born in Sudbury, Suffolk, E England, UK. In his youth he copied Dutch landscapes, and at 14 was sent to London, where he learnt the art of Rococo decoration. He moved to Bath in 1759, where he established himself with his portrait of Earl Nugent (1760). His best-known paintings include ‘The Blue Boy’ (c. 1770, San Marino), ‘The Harvest Wagon’ (1767, Birmingham) …

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Thomas Gaisford - Quotation

English Greek scholar. He became professor of Greek at Oxford in 1812, and in 1831 Dean of Christ Church. He produced editions of Herodotos, Hephaestion, Stobaeus, and Suidas. The Gaisford Prizes at Oxford for Greek prose and verse were founded in his memory in 1856. He was born at Iford Manor, Wiltshire, and entered the University of Oxford in 1797, becoming successively student and tutor …

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Thomas Girtin

Landscape painter, born in London, UK. His landscapes included many on subjects in the N of England and also in France, which he visited in 1802. His works were among the first to exploit water-colour as a true medium, as distinct from a tint for colouring drawings. Thomas Girtin (18 February 1775 - 9 November 1802), was an English painter and etcher, who played a key role in establishing w…

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Thomas Gold - Life, Astrophysics, Origins of petroleum

Astronomer, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Cambridge, and worked with Hermann Bondi and Fred Hoyle on the steady-state theory of the origin of the universe (1948). He became professor of astronomy at Harvard (1957), and director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space Research at Cornell (1959–81). In 1968 he suggested that pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, as was later confirm…

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Thomas Gray

Poet, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where in 1768 he became professor of history and modern languages. In 1742 he wrote his ‘Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College’, and began his masterpiece, ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’ (1751), set at Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire. In it, he reflects on the obscure destinies of the people buried there and, through them, on the fat…

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Thomas Guy - Early life, Sponsor of hospitals, Bibliography

Philanthropist, born in London, UK. He began business in 1668 as a bookseller, and then became a printer of Bibles, amassing a fortune of nearly half a million pounds. In 1707 he built and furnished three wards of St Thomas' Hospital, and in 1721 founded the hospital in Southwark, London, which bears his name. Thomas Guy (1644-1724) was a British bookseller, speculator and de facto founder …

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Thomas H(arper) Ince

Film producer, director, screenwriter, and actor, born in Newport, Rhode Island, USA. He made his stage debut at age six, and later appeared on Broadway and in films. In 1910 he began directing Mary Pickford films. He used detailed, tightly structured scripts, which he often wrote himself, and by 1916 devoted himself to producing and writing. He is best remembered for Custer's Last Fight (1912), C…

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Thomas H(inman) Moorer

US naval officer, born in Mount Willing, Alabama, USA. During World War 2 he narrowly escaped death twice - his airplane was shot down and the ship that rescued him was torpedoed (1942). A naval aviator, he rose through the ranks to become commander of the Atlantic Fleet (1965–7), chief of naval operations (1967–70), and chairman of the joint chiefs-of-staff (1970–4) before he retired in 1974. …

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Thomas H(uckle) Weller

Physiologist, born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. He studied at Harvard and Michigan universities, then served in World War 2 as an army medical researcher into tropical diseases. After the War he joined the Children's Medical Center in Boston, where he worked with John Enders and Frederick Robbins devising techniques for cultivating the poliomyelitis virus (thus making possible the development of a…

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Thomas Hamilton

Architect, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied as a mason with his father, beginning independent practice in Edinburgh before 1817. In 1826 he was among the founders of the Royal Scottish Academy, and was a leading figure in the international Greek Revival. His Grecian designs include the Royal College of Physicians Hall (1844–5), Edinburgh. Cumston (Compstone) House, Kirkcudbright (1828)…

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Thomas Hancock - Details

Merchant, born in present-day Lexington, Massachusetts, USA. He established himself in bookselling and in the merchant trade. He furnished supplies to British forces in Nova Scotia (1746–58) and the ships for the removal of the Acadians (1755). He left his estate to his nephew, John Hancock. Thomas Hancock (July 1823-12 March 1871) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highes…

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Thomas Hardy - Biography, Novels, Poetry, Works

Novelist and poet, born in Upper Bockhampton, Dorset, S England, UK. After schooling in Dorchester, he studied as an architect, and at 22 moved to London, where he began to write poems expressing his love of rural life. Unable to publish his poetry, he turned to the novel, and found success with Far from the Madding Crowd (1874). He then took up writing as a profession, and produced a series of no…

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Thomas Harriot - Biography, Legacy

Mathematician and scientist, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became mathematical tutor to Sir Walter Raleigh (1581–5), and was sent to survey Virginia. He corresponded with Johannes Kepler on astronomical matters, observed Halley's comet in 1607, and made observations with the newly discovered telescope from 1609, as early as Galileo. He studied optics, refracti…

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Thomas Harrison

English Parliamentarian soldier and regicide, born in Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He fought for the parliamentary army in the Civil War (1642–5), commanded the guard which took Charles I from Hurst Castle to London, sat among his judges, and signed his death warrant (1649). He became a member of the Council of State (1651), but was too uncompromising in religion and politi…

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Thomas Hearns - Professional Career

Boxer, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. In 1988 he became the first man to win world titles at four and five different weights, and in 1991 the first to win titles at six different weights: he defeated Pipino Cuevas for the welterweight title (WBA, 1980), Wilfred Benitez for the super-welterweight (WBC, 1982), Roberto Duran for the vacant WBA junior-middleweight title (1984), Dennis Andries for th…

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Thomas Heywood

Playwright and poet, born in Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was writing plays by 1596, and by 1633 had shared in the composition of 220 plays, and written 24 of his own, notably his domestic tragedy, A Woman Killed with Kindness (1607). He also wrote many pageants, tracts, treatises, and translations. Heywood was born about 1575 in Lincolnshire. The first…

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Thomas Hobbes - Early life and education, In Paris, Civil war in England, Leviathan, Controversies, Later life

Political philosopher, born in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and began a long tutorial association with the Cavendish family, through which he travelled widely and became acquainted with such leading intellectuals of the day as Bacon, Ben Jonson, Galileo, Descartes, and Gassendi. After studying Euclidean geometry, he thought to extend its method into a comprehensive s…

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Thomas Hobson

Carrier and inn-keeper of Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. For some 50 years he drove a stagecoach the 60 mi from Cambridge to London at breakneck speed. He kept a stable of horses to rent out to students at the university, and required each customer to take the horse nearest the stable door, whatever its quality; hence the expression ‘Hobson's choice’, meaning no choice at all. …

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Thomas Hodgkin - Life, Works

Physician and pathologist, born in London, UK. He studied at Edinburgh, held various posts at Guy's Hospital, and described the glandular disease lymphadenoma, which is named after him (Hodgkin's disease). He died while travelling in Palestine, and is buried in Jaffa. Thomas Hodgkin (August 17, 1798 - April 5, 1866) was a British physician and considered one of the most prominent pathologis…

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Thomas Hood - Biography, Examples of his works

Poet and humorist, born in London, UK. He achieved recognition when, with John Hamilton Reynolds (1794–1852), he published Odes and Addresses to Great People (1825). In his Whims and Oddities (1826) he showed his graphic talent in ‘picture-puns’, of which he seems to have been the inventor. In 1844 he started his own Hood's Monthly Magazine. Thomas Hood (May 23, 1799 - May 3, 1845) was a…

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Thomas Hooker

Nonconformist preacher, born in Marefield, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He became a fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, then a Puritan lecturer at Chelmsford. In 1631 he went to Holland, then in 1633 emigrated to America and became pastor at Cambridge, MA. He moved with his congregation to Connecticut, and founded the town of Hartford (1636), where in 1638 he told the State Court that the peo…

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Thomas Hope

Connoisseur and antiquarian, born in Amsterdam of English parents. A man of considerable wealth, he travelled widely in Europe and the Near East in his youth, collecting marble artefacts and making drawings of buildings and sculptures. He settled in London c.1796, and introduced the vogue of Egyptian and Roman decoration in his mansion in Duchess St, London. He wrote House Furniture and Interior D…

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Thomas Hovenden

Painter, born in Dummanway, Ireland. He emigrated to the USA (1863) and was based in Philadelphia. A deeply sympathetic man, he is known for his genre studies of black Americans, such as Breaking Home Ties (1890). He died while trying to save a young girl from an onrushing train. Thomas Hovenden (December 28, 1840 - August 14, 1895), American artist, was born in Dunmanway, Co. H…

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Thomas Hughes - Biography, Bibliography, Reference

Writer, born in Uffington, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was called to the bar (1848), and became a county court judge (1882). A Liberal MP (1865–74), closely associated with the Christian Socialists, he helped to found the Working Men's College (1854), of which he became principal (1872–83). He is primarily remembered as the author of the public school classic, Tom Brown's …

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Thomas Hunt Morgan - Early life, Bryn Mawr, Columbia University, Caltech, Legacy

Geneticist, born in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Trained as an embryologist, he became a biology professor at Bryn Mawr (1891–1904), where he wrote his first major book, Regeneration (1901). He became a professor at Columbia University (1904–28), and began his revolutionary genetic investigations of the fruit fly Drosophila (1908). Initially sceptical of Gregor Mendel's research, Morgan performed r…

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Thomas Hutchinson - Literature

Colonial governor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the great-great grandson of Anne Hutchinson. As chief justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court, he upheld the legality of the Stamp Act (1765). He was governor of Massachusetts during the eventful period preceding the American Revolution (1771–4), and then he moved to England and wrote a valuable history of the Massachusetts Bay colony. …

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Thomas Jefferson - Early life and education, Political career from 1774 to 1800, Presidency 1801-1809

US statesman and third president (1801–9), born in Albermarle Co, Virginia, USA. His father was a surveyor-landowner and his mother was a member of the distinguished Randolph family of Virginia. Thomas graduated from the College of William and Mary (1762) and read law under George Wythe. After several years of law practice, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses (1769–75) and sided wi…

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Thomas John Barnardo - Dr. Barnardo's Homes, Emigration system, Death

Physician and philanthropist, the founder of homes for destitute children, born in Dublin, Ireland. A clerk by profession, he was converted to Christianity in 1862 and, after a period spent preaching in the Dublin slums, moved to London in 1866 to study medicine with the aim of becoming a medical missionary. Instead he founded in 1867, while still a student, the East End Mission for destitute chil…

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Thomas Johnson

Judge, born in Calvert Co, Maryland, USA. He represented Maryland at the First Continental Congress (1774) and served as the first governor of Maryland (1777–9). He was chief judge on the general court there when President Washington named him to the US Supreme Court (1791–3). Thomas Johnson may refer to: …

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Thomas Johnston - Red Clydesider, War-time roles, Power to the Glens, Post-war activity

Engraver, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He engraved maps, scenes of battles and cities, and bookplates, and was also a japanner and organ builder. He is known for his ‘Plan of Boston’ (c.1727–9), and the earliest engraving of an American historical event, ‘The Battle of Lake George’ (1755). Thomas Johnston CH (1882-5 September 1965) was a prominent Scottish socialist and politici…

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Thomas Jonathan Jackson - Paternal ancestry, U.S. Army, the Mexican War

US soldier, born in Clarksburg, Virginia, USA. After his parents died in poverty, he was raised by an uncle who helped him obtain an appointment to West Point. Following graduation (1846), he served in the Mexican War, then resigned from the army (1852) to accept a professorship at Virginia Military Institute (VMI), where he became noted for his dedication to his Presbyterian faith. He commanded a…

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Thomas Ken - Early Life, Ken and Charles II, Ken and James II, The Nonjuring Schism

Clergyman, born in Little Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He became a prebendary of Winchester cathedral (1669), and royal chaplain to Charles II (1680). Appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells (1685), he refused to publish in his diocese the Declaration of Indulgence issued by James II (1688). With seven other bishops he was imprisoned, tried for sedition, and acquitted. After the Revolu…

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Thomas Klestil - Presidency

Austrian statesman and president (1992–2004), born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Vienna University, entered the Austrian foreign service and served in Paris (1959–62), Washington (1962–6), and Los Angeles (1969–74). He acted as secretary to the Austrian chancellor (1966–9) and was later the country's permanent representative to the UN (1978–82) and ambassador to the USA (1982–7). He hel…

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Thomas Linacre

Physician and scholar, born in Canterbury, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was elected fellow of All Souls in 1484, and studied to be a physician at Padua. One of the earliest champions of the ‘new learning’, he taught Greek to Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. About 1500 Henry VII made him tutor to Prince Arthur. As king's physician to Henry VII and Henry VIII, he practised in London. In…

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Thomas Lodge - Early life and education, Career, Playwriting, Novels, Academic works

Playwright, romance writer, and poet, probably born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, then at Lincoln's Inn. Around 1588 he took part in a buccaneering expedition to the Canaries, and wrote the romance, Rosalynde (1590), his best-known work, the source of Shakespeare's As You Like It. Lodge excelled as a lyric poet of amorous verse and songs; his chief volume of verse, Phillis, was issued in 15…

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Thomas Lord - Early life, Lord's first ground, Lord's second ground

Sportsman, born in Thirsk, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He was founder of Lord's Cricket Ground in London, first opening a cricket ground in Dorset Square in London in 1787, which became the home of the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), the regulating body of English cricket, and also the county ground of Middlesex. It was moved to its present site at St John's Wood in 1814. Lord himself pl…

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Thomas Love Peacock - Early life, Friendship with Shelley, East India Company, Later life, Works

Novelist and poet, born in Weymouth, Dorset, S England, UK. He entered the service of the East India Company in 1819 after producing three satirical romances, Headlong Hall (1816), Melincourt (1817), and Nightmare Abbey (1818), and later produced four other works along similar lines. In each case a company of humorists meet in a country house, and the satire arises from their conversation rather t…

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Thomas Lovell Beddoes - Sources, Works

Poet, born in Clifton, Bristol, SW England, UK, the eldest son of Thomas Beddoes. He studied at Oxford, and in 1822 published The Bride's Tragedy, a sombre murder drama. From 1825 he was engaged in the composition of a Gothic-Romantic drama, Death's Jest-book, which appeared in 1850, a year after his suicide. Thomas Lovell Beddoes (June 30, 1803 – January 26, 1849) was an English poet and…

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Thomas MacDonagh

Poet, critic, and nationalist, born in Cloughjordan, Co Tipperary, SC Ireland. He helped P H Pearse to found St Enda's College, Dublin (1908), and published poems, original works, and translations from the Irish. In 1914 he founded the Irish Theatre with Joseph Plunkett and Edward Martyn (1859–1923). An outstanding critic of English literature, his works include Thomas Campion (1913) and Literatu…

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Thomas MacDonough

US naval officer, born in New Castle Co, Delaware, USA. He entered the navy in 1800 and served in the Tripolitan War. During the War of 1812, he built and commanded a small fleet on L Champlain. He won a decisive victory against a British fleet at Plattsburgh (1814), and died at sea while returning from command of the Mediterranean Squadron. Thomas MacDonough (December 21, 1783-November 10,…

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Thomas Mann - Life, Political views, Work, Works

Novelist, born in Lübeck, N Germany. He left school at 19, and spent some time at Munich University before becoming a writer, like his brother Heinrich. His early masterpiece, Buddenbrooks (1901), traced the decline of a family over four generations. He produced several short stories and novellas, such as Der Tod in Venedig (1913, Death in Venice; filmed, 1971; opera by Britten, 1971–3), and the…

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Thomas Mayhew

Protestant missionary and colonist, born in Wiltshire, S England, UK. He settled in Medford, MA before 1632 and purchased Martha's Vineyard (1641), establishing his son as head of a colony there. After his son was lost at sea (1657), he continued and expanded his son's missionary work among the Indians, and as governor of Martha's Vineyard was a benevolent dictator. A grandson succeeded him as mis…

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Thomas Middleton - Life, Middleton's Canon

Playwright, probably born in London, UK. After spending two years at Oxford and writing verse, he wrote satirical and romantic comedies for producer Philip Henslowe, collaborating with Dekker on plays such as The Honest Whore (1604). In 1620 he was appointed city chronologer, commissioned to write and produce the Lord Mayors' pageants. His stage masterpieces include Women Beware Women (c.1621) and…

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Thomas Mifflin

American soldier and governor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. One of the most radical members of the First Continental Congress, he became quartermaster general of the Continental army (1775–8). After supporting a plot to replace George Washington with General Horatio Gates, he disavowed it, but under criticism for his actions as quartermaster, he resigned. A Democratic-Republican in th…

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Thomas Milton Rivers

Virologist, born in Jonesboro, Georgia, USA. After graduating from Johns Hopkins Medical School (1915), with which he remained affiliated until 1919, he headed the infectious disease ward at Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1922–37), becoming the institute's director (1937–56). After retiring, he remained active with the Rockefeller Foundation (1956–62). His work in the 1930s–1940s …

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Thomas Minton

Pottery and china manufacturer, born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, WC England, UK, founder of the firm which bears his name. Originally trained as a transfer-print engraver, he worked for Josiah Spode before he set up his own business in Stoke-on-Trent (1789), producing copperplates for transfer-printing in blue underglaze. He is reputed to have invented the willow pattern. In 1793 he built a pottery…

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Thomas Moore - Other works, Trivia

Poet, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and the Middle Temple. His best-known work, Irish Melodies (1807–34), including such memorable poems as ‘The Last Rose of Summer’, was set to music and aroused sympathy for the Irish nationalists among London's nobility. His reputation at that time was on a par with that of Byron and Scott, and he was paid the then phenomenal…

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Thomas Morley

Composer, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. A pupil of William Byrd, he became organist at St Paul's Cathedral, and from 1592 was a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. He is best known for A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (1597), written in entertaining dialogue with the purpose of encouraging part-singing for pleasure; also for his volumes of madrigals and canzonets, which …

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Thomas Murner

Writer, born in Oberehnheim-Strasbourg, Alsace. A Franciscan since 1490, he became a priest in 1525. An ardent opponent of the Reformation, he left Alsace for Switzerland (1525) on the outbreak of the Peasants' Wars, but was forced to return home four years later because of his attacks on Protestantism. His satires are sharply witty and couched in robust terms. Von dem großen Lutherischen Narren,…

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Thomas Nagel - Biography, Work, Selected publications

Philosopher, born in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslavia). After receiving a Harvard doctorate (1963), he taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1963–6) and Princeton (1966–80), then became a professor and department chairman at New York University. His specialties include ethics, philosophy of mind, and ancient philosophy, and among his books are Mortal Questions (1978…

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Thomas Nast

Cartoonist, born in Landau, SW Germany. When he was five, his family migrated to the USA, where he studied at the Academy of Design in New York City. He became a draftsman for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper at 15, and in 1862 was engaged by Harper's Weekly (1861–6), where he defined the genre of the political cartoon. His crusade against the corrupt New York political machine known as the T…

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Thomas Nelson

Publisher, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He established his publishing company in 1798. His son William (1816–87) entered the business in 1835, and did much to improve the city of Edinburgh, including the restoration of Parliament House. Another son, Thomas (1822–92), is credited with the invention of a rotary press (1850), and established an office in London (1844). Specializing in tracts…

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Thomas Nelson Page - Titles, Further reading, Trivia

Writer and diplomat, born in Hanover Co, Virginia, USA. He studied at Washington College (Lexington, VA) (1869–72) and the University of Virginia (1873–4 LLB), then practised law in Richmond, VA (1874–93). As a writer he produced sentimental Southern dialect stories, such as In Ole Virginia; or, Marse Chan and Other Stories (1887), and also wrote novels, essays, biographies, and children's book…

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Thomas Newcomen - Religious life, Developing the steam engine, Successors to Newcomen's design

Inventor, born in Dartmouth, Devon, SW England, UK. A blacksmith by trade, he developed a piston engine using steam at atmospheric pressure and the vacuum created when the steam was condensed to pump water from mines. In 1698 he began working with Thomas Savery, who had just patented a high pressure steam engine. Together they constructed practical working engines that were widely used in collieri…

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Thomas Norton

Lawyer and poet, born in London, UK. He was a successful lawyer, an MP, and a zealous Protestant who translated Calvin's Christianae religionis institutio (1561). With Sackville he was joint author of the tragedy Gorboduc, which was performed before Elizabeth I in 1562. Thomas Norton (1532 – March 10, 1584) was an English lawyer, politician, writer of verse, and chief interrogator of Quee…

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Thomas Nuttall - The Genera of North American Plants

Botanist and ornithologist, born in Settle, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He worked in a Liverpool print shop before emigrating to Philadelphia in 1808. Taking up the study of botany, he accompanied scientific expeditions on the Missouri R (1809–11), the Arkansas R and Red R (1818–20), and the Columbia R (1834–5). He published a study of American plant life (1818) and an ornithological manual…

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Thomas Otway

Playwright, born in Trotton, West Sussex, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, but left without a degree, then failed as an actor and became a writer. He translated Racine and Molière, and wrote Restoration comedies, but his best-known works are the tragedies The Orphan (1680) and his masterpiece Venice Preserved, or a Plot Discovered (1682). Thomas Otway (March 3, 1652 – April 14, 1685)…

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Thomas Paine - Biography, Legacy, Bibliography

Revolutionary philosopher and writer, born in Thetford, Norfolk, E England, UK. A corset-maker from the age of 13, he became a sailor, a schoolmaster, and an exciseman. In 1774 he sailed for Philadelphia, where his pamphlet Common Sense (1776) argued for complete independence. He served with the US army, and was made secretary to the Committee of Foreign Affairs. In 1787 he returned to England, wh…

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Thomas Parr

Centenarian, born, according to tradition, in 1483. He was a Shropshire farm-servant, and when 120 years old married his second wife, and till his 130th year performed all his usual work. In his 152nd year his fame had reached London, and he was induced to journey there to see Charles I, where he was treated at court so royally that he died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Thomas Parr w…

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Thomas Percy - Literary work

Antiquarian, poet, and bishop, born in Bridgnorth, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became chaplain to the Duke of Northumberland and George III, Dean of Carlisle (1778), and Bishop of Dromore (1782). As a man of letters his fame rests on his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (1765), largely compiled from a 17th-c manuscript of mediaeval ballads and other material found in a hous…

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Thomas Pinckney

US diplomat and soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA, the brother of Charles Pinckney. He studied law in London, then returned to South Carolina and served with distinction in the Revolution. He became Governor of South Carolina (1787–9) and ambassador to Great Britain (1792–6). He negotiated the San Lorenzo or Pinckney Treaty with Spain, which established territorial and traffic rig…

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Thomas Pitt - Pitt's diamond, Properties

Merchant, born in Blandford St Mary, Dorset, S England, UK. He became a wealthy East India merchant, Governor of Madras, and purchaser of the Pitt diamond, which he sold in 1717 to the French regent to become one of the state jewels of France. He was the grandfather of William Pitt, the Elder. Thomas Pitt (July 5, 1653 – April 28, 1726), born at Blandford Forum, Dorset, to a rector and hi…

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Thomas Plume - Plume Library, Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy

Theologian, born in Maldon, Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became vicar of Greenwich from 1658, and archdeacon of Rochester from 1679. He endowed an observatory and the Plumian chair of astronomy and experimental philosophy at Cambridge, and bequeathed his extensive library to the town of Maldon, where it still exists intact. He was born in 1630 in Maldon, Essex and edu…

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Thomas Reid

Philosopher, born in Strachan, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. He studied at Aberdeen, becoming professor there in 1751, and later succeeded Adam Smith in the chair of moral philosophy at Glasgow (1764–80). He was leader of the ‘Scottish’ school, which rejected the scepticism of David Hume. His main publications include Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785) and Essays on the Active Po…

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Thomas Rowlandson

Caricaturist, born in London, UK. He studied in London and Paris, then travelled widely in Britain, and became a specialist in humorous watercolours commenting on the social scene. Some of his best-known works are his illustrations to the ‘Dr Syntax’ series (1812–21) and ‘The English Dance of Death’ (1815–16). Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756–April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist.…

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Thomas Rymer

Critic and historian, born in Northallerton, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and entered Gray's Inn in 1666. He published translations, critical discussions on poetry, dramas, and works on history, and in 1692 was appointed royal historiographer. His critical works include The Tragedies of the Last Age Consider'd (1678) and A Short View of Tragedy (1693). He is chiefly reme…

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Thomas Sandby

Artist and architect, born in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK, the brother of Paul Sandby. He ran an academy in Nottingham with his brother, and became private secretary and draughtsman to William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. He was deputy ranger of Windsor Park from 1746, and became the first professor of architecture to the Royal Academy (1770). He built Lincoln's Inn Fields (1776), …

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Thomas Satterwhite Noble

Painter and teacher, born in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. He studied with Couture in Paris (1856–9), served in the Confederate Army (1862–5), established a studio in New York (1866–9), and headed the McMicken School of Design (later the Cincinnati Art Academy) (1869–1904). He studied in Munich (1881–3) and retired to Bensonhurst, Long Island (1904). A historical, genre, and seascape painter, he …

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Thomas Savery

Engineer, born in Shilstone, Devon, SW England, UK. He developed and patented a device for pumping water out of mines (1698), using steam pressure admitted to a closed chamber containing water. When the steam had forced the water to a higher level, the steam was condensed, creating a vacuum which drew up more water from below through a valve, refilling the closed chamber for the process to be repe…

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Thomas Say

Entomologist and conchologist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He attended Quaker schools, but expanded his childhood interest in natural history by self-teaching. After helping to found the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences (1812), he was appointed zoologist for Major Stephen H Long's expeditions to the Rocky Mts (1819) and the sources of the Minnesota R (1823). He became curator …

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Thomas Schippers

Conductor, born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. A brilliant talent, he made his public debut at age 18. During the 1950s he conducted at the Metropolitan Opera and made international guest appearances. He conducted the Cincinnati Symphony for six years before his death from cancer. Thomas Schippers (March 9, 1930–December 16, 1977) was a prominent American orchestral conductor. He made his d…

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Thomas Shadwell - Life, Poems, Works

Playwright, born in Brandon, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, became a lawyer, and found success with his first satirical comedy, The Sullen Lovers (1668), and such later ‘comedies of manners’ as Epsom-Wells (1672). He carried on a literary feud with Dryden, whom he satirized, and who attacked him in turn in MacFlecknoe (1684) and other poems. He succeeded Dryden as poet laureate…

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Thomas Shepard

Protestant clergyman, born in Towcester, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. Educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and ordained in 1627, he was silenced for nonconformity and emigrated to Massachusetts in 1635. He espoused a stern Calvinist doctrine as pastor at Newtown (now Cambridge). A promoter of education, he was said to have established the first scholarships for needy students in America. H…

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Thomas Sheraton

Cabinet-maker, born in Stockton-on-Tees, Durham, NE England, UK. He settled in London c.1790, wrote a Cabinetmaker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book (1794), and produced a range of Neoclassical designs which had a wide influence on contemporary taste in furniture. Thomas Sheraton (1751 - October 22, 1806) was a furniture designer, one of the "big three" English furniture makers of the 18th cen…

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Thomas Simpson - Works

Mathematician, born in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, C England, UK. He became professor of mathematics at Woolwich (1743), and published a long series of works (1737–57) on algebra, trigonometry, chance, and other topics. Warning: this page is about the mathematician Thomas Simpson. Thomas Simpson (August 20, 1710 – May 14, 1761) was a British mathematician, inventor and eponym of …

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Thomas Simpson - Works

Cyclist, born in Easington, Durham, NE England, UK. In 1962 he became the first Briton ever to wear the leader's yellow jersey in the Tour de France. Known as Major Tom to the French, he led the race for just one day. During the 1967 Tour de France he died from heart failure while riding the 13th stage, the climb of Mont Ventoux. A memorial stone was built near the spot where he died. Warni…

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Thomas Smith

Painter, birthplace unknown. He is identified tentatively as Captain (or Major) Thomas Smith who arrived in Boston, USA from Bermuda (1650). An attributed painting is ‘Self-Portrait’ (c.1690), showing a navy battle in the background with the artist holding a poem and a skull. Thomas Smith may refer to: U.S. congressmen: In other politics: Others: …

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Thomas Southerne

Playwright, born in Oxmantown, Dublin, E Ireland. From Trinity College, Dublin, he passed to the Middle Temple, London, UK, and in 1682 began his career as a playwright with a performance at the Drury Lane Theatre. Between 1685 and 1688 he was in the army, but thereafter he wrote many plays, contributed to John Dryden's works for a time, was much admired by fellow writers, and helped younger playw…

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Thomas Sowell - Education, Writings, Columns, Brief notes on some of Sowell's thoughts, Those influenced by Sowell

Economist, born in Gastonia, North Carolina, USA. He studied at Harvard, Columbia University, and the University of Chicago, and taught at Rutgers (1962–3), Howard (1963–4), and Brandeis universities (1967–70). He left the University of California, Los Angeles (1972) to direct the Ethnic Minorities Research Project at the Urban Institute in Washington, DC. His books include Black Education: Myt…

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Thomas Starr King - Statue replacement

Unitarian minister and lecturer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He worked as a teacher, principal, and book-keeper to support his mother and siblings. Largely self-taught, he became a Unitarian minister in Boston (1846), and went to San Francisco (1860), where his orations helped to keep California in the Union during the Civil War. He died of diphtheria. California named two mountain peaks…

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Thomas Stewart

Baritone, born in San Saba, Texas, USA. He studied at the Juilliard School, New York City, and in 1954 made his operatic debut in a local production. The next year he met and married a fellow student, the soprano Evelyn Lear (1926– ), and together they went to study in Berlin on Fulbright scholarships. In 1957 he joined the Berlin Opera Company, and made his Covent Garden debut in 1960. He went o…

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Thomas Story Kirkbride - External Links

Physician, born near Trenton, Pennsylvania, USA. Raised in a Quaker farming family, he was physician to the Friends' Asylum for the Insane near Philadelphia (1832), before joining Philadelphia's Pennsylvania Hospital to supervise treatment of the mentally ill (1833). Heading the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane from 1840, his care and leadership mounted a ‘renaissance in psychiatry’, insisti…

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Thomas Stothard

Painter and engraver, born in London, UK. A student at the Royal Academy, he was a full academician in 1794, and appointed librarian in 1812. He is best known for his painting ‘The Canterbury Pilgrims’, and for his numerous book illustrations in such classic works as Robinson Crusoe, The Pilgrim's Progress, and The Vicar of Wakefield. He exhibited oil paintings at the Royal Academy from 1778 unt…

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Thomas Sully

Painter, born in Horncastle, Lincolnshire, E England, UK. He and his family emigrated to Charleston, SC, in 1792. He received art instruction from family members and in 1807 began a portrait-painting career in Richmond and Norfolk, VA. He worked with Gilbert Stuart in Boston, moved to Philadelphia, and studied with Benjamin West in London. Returning to Philadelphia in 1810, he painted technically …

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Thomas Sumter

Revolutionary soldier and US political leader, born near Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. He opposed the British under Tarleton in South Carolina, was defeated at Fishing Creek, but gained a victory at Blackstock Hill (1780). In 1789 he became a member of the US House of Representatives, and later of the US Senate (1801–10). Fort Sumter was named after him. Sumter was born in Virginia, came…

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Thomas Sutcliffe Mort

Businessman and pioneer of refrigeration, born in Bolton, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He went to Sydney in 1838 as agent for an English firm. In 1854 he constructed a dry dock at Balmain, Sydney, a venture in which half of the company shares were held by his employees. As well as shipbuilding, the first Australian railway locomotive was built there in 1870. He established a scientific farm at Boda…

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Thomas Swann - Early life and career, Mayor of Baltimore, Governor of Maryland

US governor, representative, and businessman, born in Alexandria, then part of the District of Columbia, USA. After a successful career in the railroad business, he became mayor of Baltimore (1856–8) and served as Union Party governor of Maryland (1866–9). He supported Reconstruction but also worked to restore the franchise to Southern sympathizers. He later served four terms in the US House of …

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Thomas Sydenham

Physician, born in Wynford Eagle, Dorset, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and from 1655 practised in London. He stressed the importance of observation rather than theory in clinical medicine. He wrote Observationes medicae (1667) and a treatise on gout (1683), distinguished the symptoms of venereal disease (1675), recognized hysteria as a distinct disease, and gave his name to Sydenham's chor…

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Thomas Tallis

English musician, ‘the father of English cathedral music’. One of the greatest contrapuntists of the English School, an adaptation of his plainsong responses, and his setting of the Canticles in D Minor, are still in use. He wrote much church music, including a motet in 40 parts, Spem in alium. In 1575 Elizabeth I granted him, with Byrd, a monopoly for printing music and music paper in England. …

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Thomas Telford - Early career, Ellesmere Canal, Engineer in demand, The 'Colossus of Roads', Late career

Engineer, born near Langholm, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. He began as a stonemason, taught himself architecture, and in 1787 became surveyor of public works for Shropshire. He planned the Ellesmere (1793–1805) and Caledonian (1803–23) canals, the road from London to Holyhead, with the Menai Suspension Bridge (1826), and built in all over 1000 mi of road and 1200 bridges, as well as …

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Thomas Tomkins - Life, Works, Sources

Composer and organist, born in St David's, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, UK, to a musical family. He studied under William Byrd, and in his early 20s became organist of Worcester Cathedral, where he spent most of his life. In 1621 he was one of the organists of the Chapel Royal, and composed music for the coronation of Charles I (1626). His compositions include a vast amount of church music, madrigals,…

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Thomas Tompion

Clockmaker, born in Northill, Bedfordshire, SC England, UK, acknowledged as the greatest English maker. He was admitted to the London Clockmakers' Company in 1671, and became Master of the Company in 1703. In 1676 he was appointed clockmaker to the newly-opened Royal Observatory. His craftsmanship and scientific knowledge enabled him to make watches, table clocks, and long-case clocks with greatly…

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Thomas Traherne - Life, Works, Influence, Quotes, Further reading

Mystical writer, born in Hereford, Herefordshire, WC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was ordained rector at Credenhill. The manuscripts of his Poetical Works (1903) and Centuries of Meditations (1908) were discovered by chance on a London street bookstall in 1896. Thomas Traherne, MA (1636 or 1637 - October 10, 1674) was an English poet and religious writer. He was born i…

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Thomas Truxtun - Publications

US naval officer and merchant captain, born near Hempstead, New York, USA. He was successful as a privateer in the Revolution, and as a captain in the China trade. He became a naval captain (1794), and during the undeclared war with France captured the French Insurgente (1799) and defeated La Vengeance in a five-hour battle (1800). He also wrote books on navigation and naval tactics. Thomas…

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Thomas Walsingham

English chronicler and monk. He was associated chiefly with St Albans abbey, but for a time was prior of Wymondham. An authority for English history from 1377 until 1422, he compiled Historia Anglicana, 1272–1422 and other works. Thomas Walsingham (d. 1422), English chronicler, was probably educated at St Albans Abbey at St Albans, Hertfordshire, and at Oxford. He became a monk…

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Thomas Warton - Life, Poetry, Criticism and Historical Works, A Sonnet by Warton, Various works

Poet laureate and critic, born in Basingstoke, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became a fellow of Trinity College (1751) and professor of poetry (1757). His Observations on Spencer's Faerie Queene (1754) established his reputation, but he is best remembered for his History of English Poetry (1774–81). He became poet laureate and professor of ancient history at Oxford in 1…

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Thomas Watson

Lyric poet, born in London, UK. He was educated at Oxford, then studied law in London. Coming to Marlowe's help in a street fight, he killed a man in 1589. He excelled in English ‘sonnets’ in Hecatompathia or Passionate Century of Love (1582) and The Tears of Fancie (1593), and his sonnets were very probably studied by Shakespeare. He also translated classics into Latin and English, including So…

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Thomas Weelkes

Madrigal composer, probably born in Elsted, Surrey, SE England, UK. He became organist at Winchester College (1597) and Chichester Cathedral (1602). Nearly 100 of his madrigals have survived, as well as some instrumental music, and fragments of his sacred music. Thomas Weelkes (baptised 25 October 1576 – buried 1 December 1623) was an English composer and organist. He became organist of W…

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Thomas Wentworth (Storrow) Higginson - Early life, Politics and action, Emily Dickinson, Works

Unitarian minister, soldier, and writer, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. After graduating from Harvard (1841), he taught, then returned to take a degree from Harvard Divinity School (1847). In his first parish in Newburyport, MA he was more interested in social issues than in theology, usually preaching for women's suffrage and against slavery, and in 1848 he ran unsuccessfully for Congress…

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Thomas Willing

Merchant and banker, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied law in London and then prospered at various commercial pursuits (1749–93), joining with Robert Morris to form Philadelphia's major mercantile firm. Patriotic but not radical, as a delegate to the Continental Congress (1775–6) he voted against the initial resolution for independence. He was president of the Bank of North Ame…

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Thomas Willis

Physician, one of the founders of the Royal Society (1662), born in Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied classics then medicine at Oxford, where he became professor of natural philosophy (1660–75). He was a pioneer in the study of the anatomy of the brain, and discovered the circle of Willis, the ring of blood vessels at the base of the brain. He also worked on diseases of the nervo…

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Thomas Wyatt Turner

Social activist, born in Charles Co, Maryland, USA. An African-American Catholic who taught biology at Howard University (from 1913), he organized and chaired a Committee for the Advancement of Colored Catholics (later Federated Colored Catholics) to combat racial discrimination in the Church. It was especially active during 1919–32, when it was splintered by a dispute over Turner's then-controve…

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Thomas Young

Physicist, physician, and Egyptologist, born in Milverton, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied medicine at London, Edinburgh, Göttingen, and Cambridge universities, then devoted himself to scientific research, becoming professor of natural philosophy to the Royal Institution (1801). His Lectures (1807) expounded the doctrine of interference, which established the wave theory of light. He propose…

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Thomism - Thomistic philosophy, Impact of Thomism, Connection with Jewish thought, Scholarly perspectives on Thomism

In Christian philosophical theology, the name given to the doctrines of Thomas Aquinas, and to later schools claiming descent from him. Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas worked to create a philosophical system which integrated Christian doctrine with elements taken from the philosophy of Aristotle. Generally, he augmented …

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Thor - Characteristics, Surviving representations, Named after Thor, Modern popular culture, Thor in modern symbolism

In Norse mythology, the god of thunder, son of Odin and Frigga; also known as the Hurler. His hammer is called Miolnir. In the stories, much is made of his appetite for food and drink. He is the strongest of the gods, and protects them. At Ragnarök he will fight with the World Serpent, kill it, and then die. Thor (Proto-Germanic: *Þunraz, Old Norse: Þórr, Old English: Þunor, Ol…

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Thor Heyerdahl - The Kon-Tiki Expedition, Expedition to Easter Island, The Boats Ra and Ra II

Anthropologist, born in Larvik, S Norway. After studying at Oslo, he served with the free Norwegian forces in World War 2. In 1947 he set out to prove, by sailing a balsa raft (the Kon-Tiki) from Peru to Tuamotu I in the S Pacific, that the Peruvian Indians could have settled in Polynesia. His success in the venture, and his archaeological expedition to Easter I, won him popular fame and several a…

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thoracic duct - Clinical significance

The main lymphatic duct of the body, draining the whole of the body (except the right side of the head, neck, and thorax, and right upper limb) into the junction of the left internal jugular and sub-clavian veins. In particular, it conveys lymph containing absorbed fat from the intestine to the general circulation. It originates in the abdomen from the confluence of the right and left lumba…

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thorax

That part of the body between the neck and the abdomen enclosed by the thoracic part of the vertebral column, the ribs, and the sternum, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm; also known as the thoracic cage or chest. Roughly cone-shaped, it surrounds and protects the lungs, heart, and great vessels, and also contains the oesophagus, thymus gland, and thoracic duct. It provides support a…

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Thornton (Niven) Wilder - Life, Works, Novels by Thornton Wilder, Plays

Writer, born in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. He studied at Yale, then taught literature and classics at the University of Chicago (1930–7). His first novel, The Cabala, appeared in 1926, and was followed by The Bridge of San Luis Rey (1927, Pulitzer). Other titles include The Woman of Andros (1930) and The Ides of March (1948). As a playwright, he is best-remembered for Our Town (1938) and The Skin o…

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thoroughbred - Origins, Uses, Science dilemma, The Thoroughbred in breeding

The fastest breed of horse (over 65 kph/40 mph), developed in England for racing; height, 16 hands/1·6 m/5 ft 4 in; elegant, athletic, highly-strung; all descended from three Arab stallions of the early 18th-c - the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Barb, and the Byerley Turk; also known as English thoroughbred or racehorse. The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. Th…

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Thorstein (Bunde) Veblen - Biography, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), Primary sources, Secondary sources

Economist and social critic, born in Cato, Wisconsin, USA. He studied at Carleton College and took his PhD in philosophy from Yale University in 1884. Having little use for neoclassical economics, he is best known for his sharp criticism of modern industrial civilization in such works as The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), The Instinct of Workmanship (1914), Imperial Germany and the Industrial…

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Thoth - Name, Titles

An ancient Egyptian Moon-god, sometimes depicted with the head of an ibis, sometimes as a baboon. He wears a crown showing the Moon's disc. The god of words, magic, and scribes, in the Underworld he records the souls of the dead. He is usually identified with Hermes. Thoth, a Greek name derived from the Egyptian *ḏiḥautī (djih-how-tee) (written by Egyptians as ḏḥwty) was considered…

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thought experiment - Origins and use of the term "thought experiment", Thought experimentation in general

In physics, an experiment visualized but not performed because it is too difficult, but which nonetheless may demonstrate important principles; also called a gedankenexperiment. The classic example is Einstein's analysis of experiments performed in free-falling or accelerating lifts to demonstrate the equivalence principle. Thought experiments are well-structured hypothetical questions that…

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Thrace - Ancient history, Culture, Medieval history, Modern history, Cities of Thrace, Famous Thracians

pop (2000e) 353 000; area 8578 km²/3311 sq mi. NE region of Greece, bounded N by Bulgaria, E by Turkey, and S by the Aegean Sea; in classical times, part of an area associated with the worship of Dionysus; area now divided between Turkey, Greece, and Bulgaria; capital, Komotini; region of fertile plains, producing corn, wine, rice, and tobacco. Thrace (Bulgarian: Тракия Trakiya,…

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Thrasybulus - Personal life and early career, Coup of 411 BC, In command, The Thirty Tyrants, Later actions

Athenian general. A strenuous supporter of the democracy, in 411 BC he helped to overthrow the Four Hundred, and was responsible for the recall of Alcibiades. In that year he defeated the Spartans in naval battles at Cynossema, and at Cyzicus in 410 BC. In 404 BC he was banished by the Thirty Tyrants, but restored the democracy in 403 BC by seizing Piraeus. He conquered Lesbos and defended Rhodes,…

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threadfin

Any of the tropical marine and estuarine fish in the family Polynemidae (3 genera); long free pectoral fin rays which serve in part as sensitive feelers, and from which they derive their name; body length may reach over 1·5 m/5 ft; several are valuable food fish. …

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