Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 73

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Syngman Rhee - Early life, Presidency, Resignation, Legacy

Korean statesman and president of South Korea (1948–60), born near Kaesong, S North Korea. Imprisoned (1897–1904) for his part in an independence campaign, he later went to the USA, returning to Japanese-annexed Korea in 1910. After the unsuccessful rising of 1919, he became president of the exiled Korean Provisional Government. On Japan's surrender (1945) he returned to become the first elected…

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synonym

A word which is similar enough in meaning to another word for it to be usable as a substitute in some contexts, such as illuminate and light. An antonym is a word which has the opposite meaning to another, such as light and dark. A hyponym is a word whose meaning is included within that of another, such as horse and animal. The study of sense relations of this kind is part of the subject of semant…

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synoptic gospels

A term applied to three New Testament Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke), so called because of the striking amount of common material that they contain. Most of Mark's Gospel, for example, is reproduced in Matthew and Luke, and the correspondence often extends to the order of passages and wording, although differences also exist. The precise way in which the works are interrelated is known as the ‘syn…

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synroc

An artificial ceramic material used to store high-level radioactive waste. The waste is added to mixed powdered metal oxides from which the ceramic is formed by heat and compression. Radioactive waste atoms displace some host atoms, and so are chemically bound into a material similar in type to natural ceramic. It is under development as an alternative to storage using glass. Synroc, a port…

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syntax

In linguistics, the study of sentence structure; alternatively, the study of how words can be combined into larger grammatical units. A syntax for a language specifies a set of grammatical categories (such as verb, noun phrase, and sentence) and a set of rules which define the ways in which these categories relate to each other. In linguistics, Syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterne…

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synthesizer - Sound basics, Overview of popular synthesis methods, Synthesizer basics, The start of the analogue synthesizer era

An electronic apparatus for generating musical sounds, usually fitted with one or more keyboards and loudspeakers. One of the earliest and best known was developed in 1964 by Robert A Moog (1934–2005). Like many of those which followed, it could produce only one sound at a time, but since 1975 newer ‘polyphonic’ types have been developed, including digital ones based on microprocessors, which a…

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Synthetism - Synthetist paintings

A term sometimes used by art critics to refer to the Symbolist artists, to distinguish them from the Symbolist poets. It is also sometimes applied to the Nabis. Synthetism is a term used by post-Impressionist artists like Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard and Louis Anquetin to distinguish their work from Impressionism. In 1890, Maurice Denis summarized the goals for synthetism as, …

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syphilis

A chronic sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Initially, a primary lesion (a chancre) develops on the genitals or anus. This is followed several weeks later by features of a generalized infection, with fever and a rash. The condition may then remain dormant for years. Nodules (gumma) then form in the skin and mucous membranes, and these may break down to form large ulcers. T…

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Syracuse (Italy)

37°04N 15°18E, pop (2000e) 122 000. Seaport capital of Siracusa province, Sicily, S Italy; 53 km/33 mi SE of Catania; founded by Greek settlers, 734 BC; leading cultural centre, 5th-c BC; taken by the Romans, 212 BC; archbishopric; railway; food processing, paper making, construction, petrochemicals, tourism; birthplace of Archimedes, Theocritus; cathedral (640), Greek theatre (3rd-c BC), Ro…

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Syracuse (USA)

43°03N 76°09W, pop (2000e) 147 300. Seat of Onondaga Co, C New York, USA; 19 km/12 mi S of W end of L Oneida; developed in association with salt works during the 1780s and later at the junction of the Erie and Oswego Canals; city status, 1848; airfield; railway; university (1870); electrical equipment. Syracuse may refer to: Large cities: Small cities and other…

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Syria - History, Administrative divisions, Syrian Major Cities, Other Cities, Syrian Towns, Syrian Villages, Politics, Geography, Culture

Official name Syrian Arab Republic, Arabic Al-Jumhuriyah al-Arabiyah as-Suriyah Syria (Arabic: سوريا or, since 2005, سورية), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in the Middle East. Historically, Syria, or The Levant as the region has sometimes been called in English, has often been taken to include the …

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Syrinx - Syrinx in classical music

In Greek mythology, a nymph pursued by Pan. She called on the Earth to help, and so sank down into it and became a reed-bed. Pan cut some of the reeds, and made the panpipes. In classical mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity. Claude Debussy wrote "Syrinx (La Flute De Pan)" based on Pan's lament over losing his love.…

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syrinx - Syrinx in classical music

The voice-producing organ of birds; situated in the windpipe where this divides into two. It has vibrating membranes, a reverberating capsule (tympanum), and various muscles. The structure and position of the syrinx has been used in bird classification to indicate the relationships of groups. In classical mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known fo…

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system - Types of systems, Systems in information and computer science, Systems in engineering

Any biological, mechanical, or organizational entity which carries out a specific function, receiving inputs from its surroundings and sending outputs to its surroundings. It follows that any system is a part of a wider system, which in turn is part of a wider system, and so on. In computing, the word is used to refer to a part of the information processing of an organization which might be approp…

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systems analysis - Modeling

In computing, generally used to refer to the techniques involved in the intimate understanding, design, and optimization of computer systems. Systems analysts are responsible for the precise definition and implementation of a computer system in business, research, and other contexts. Systems design is the process of designing a new computer system to replace an existing manual system or an inappro…

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syzygy - Astronomy, Athletics, Books, Comics, Games, Gnosticism, Mathematics, Medicine, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Software, Television, Trivia

An astronomical situation which occurs when the Sun, Earth, and Moon or a planet are roughly in a straight line. Eclipses are likely when the Moon is at syzygy. In astronomy, a syzygy is the alignment of three celestial bodies in the same gravitational system along a straight line. The word is usually used in context with the Sun, Earth, and the Moon or a planet, where the latter is i…

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Szczecin - Architecture and urban planning, Politics and administration, Economy, Culture, Education and science, Sports

53°25N 14°32E, pop (2000e) 419 000. Industrial river-port capital of Szczecin voivodship, NW Poland; on R Oder 60 km/37 mi from the Baltic Sea; largest Baltic trading port; urban status, 1243; member of the Hanseatic League, 1360; Prussian rule, 1720–1945; badly damaged in World War 2; ceded to Poland, 1945; contains area of Mi?dzyodrze, 5 km/3 mi of docks, canals, and transshipment facil…

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Szeged - Geographic location, Demographics, History, Education, Economy, Tourist sights, "Famous" people born in Szeged, Twin towns

46°16N 20°10E, pop (2000e) 171 000. River-port capital of Csongrád county, S Hungary, on R Tisza; railway; university (1872, refounded 1921); biological centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; railway; timber and salt trade, chemicals, hemp, salami, red pepper; cultural centre of the S Alföld; medicinal baths; castle (1242), votive church; open-air arts festival (Jul–Aug). Coord…

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Szombathely - Location, History, Szombathely's Twin towns, Famous People associated with Szombathely

47°14N 16°38E, pop (2000e) 83 300. Capital of Vas county, W Hungary, on R Gyöngyös; bishopric; railway; chemicals, textiles, timber; cathedral, 14th-c Franciscan church, 17th-c Dominican church, Garden of Ruins with excavations of 4th-c imperial palace. Coordinates: 47.23512° 16.62191° Szombathely (Latin: Savaria/Sabaria, German: Steinamanger, Croatian: Sambotel, Sloveni…

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T(homas) Robert S(hannon) Broughton

Roman historian, born in Corbetton, Ontario, Canada. He studied at the University of Toronto, Canada (1921 BA; 1922 MA) and at Johns Hopkins (1928 PhD). He spent most of his teaching career in the USA, notably at Bryn Mawr (1928–65) and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (1965–70, emeritus 1970). His Magistrates of the Roman Republic (1951–2) and Addenda and Corrigenda (1986), record…

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T-Bone Walker - Incomplete Discography

Blues musician, born in Linden, Texas, USA. A pioneering electric guitarist, he worked as a lead-boy for Blind Lemon Jefferson in Dallas before teaching himself guitar in the mid-1920s. He toured with a variety of medicine shows throughout the South and made his first recording in 1929. During 1930–5 he toured with Ida Cox, Ma Rainey, Cab Calloway, and Milt Larkins, then appeared as a member of L…

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tabasco sauce - Production, Tabasco and the U.S. military, Tabasco in space, Tabasco in popular culture

A red sauce rich in chillies and hot red peppers, originating in the Mexican state of Tabasco. It is made from the fruit of the plant Capsicum frutescens, and is used to flavour soups, stews, and other hot dishes. Tabasco is the trademarked brand name for a hot pepper sauce that is a well-known table condiment. (The word "tabasco" is rendered in lowercase when referring to the botanical var…

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Tabernacle - Hebrew mishkan, Contents, Builders, Organization, Incorporated into Temple in Jerusalem, Significance for Sabbath

A movable sanctuary or tent; in early Israelite religion, the shelter for the Ark of the Covenant during the desert wanderings and conquest of Canaan, eventually replaced by Solomon's Temple. Elaborate instructions for its construction and furnishing are given in the Book of Exodus, but many consider these to derive from a later priestly source. The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mish…

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tablature - Concepts, Harmonica tab, Guitar tab, Lute tablature, German lute tablature, Musette tablature

A system of musical notation tailored to a particular instrument or group of instruments and indicating the keys, frets, etc to be used rather than the pitch to be sounded. German organ tablature used mainly letters in conjunction with rhythmic signs; lute tablatures used letters or numerals on lines representing the strings of the instrument. The only instruments for which tablature is normally u…

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Table Mountain

33°58S 18°25E. Mountain in SW South Africa; height 1086 m/3563 ft; a flat-topped central massif flanked on either side by the Lion's Head and Devil's Peak; often shrouded in cloud, known as the ‘Tablecloth’; Kirstenbosch national botanical gardens on E slopes; Cape Town at the foot. Table Mountain is a name given to many mountains around the world: …

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table tennis - General description, History, Equipment, Physics of table tennis, Governance, Notes and trivia

An indoor bat-and-ball game played by two or four players on a table measuring 9 ft (2·75 m) by 5 ft (1·52 m). The centre of the table has a net 6 in (15·25 cm) high stretched across it. The ball must be hit over the net and into the opposing half of the table. The object is to force one's opponent to make an error and thus not return the ball successfully. In doubles, the players must hi…

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taboo - Etymology, Examples, Origins, In literature, Taboo and art

A prohibited form of conduct; from a Polynesian word, tapu. A wide variety of actions may be tapu: a chief's tapu may prevent him being allowed to carry burdens; children may be prohibited from touching sea-going canoes, or men's weapons, or from eating certain foods. Breaching a tapu may result directly in sickness or death, or may provoke physical punishment. Captain Cook recorded the term durin…

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tabor - Proper names, Acronym, Other

A small double-headed side drum with snares, known from mediaeval times. It was often played with one stick, the player at the same time blowing a three-holed pipe to accompany dancing. …

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Tabriz - Governing system, Tabriz Monuments, Museums, Famous Tabrizis, Education, Major Industries, Major Hotels, Special Food, Transportation

38°05N 46°18E, pop (2000e) 1 373 000. Capital city of Tabriz district, NW Iran; fourth largest city in Iran; often severely damaged by earthquakes; airport; railway; university (1949); industrial and commercial centre; carpets; ruined 15th-c Blue Mosque and citadel. Tabriz (Persian and Azeri: تبریز, Latin script: Təbriz) is the largest city in north-western Iran with a population…

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tachometer - Automotive, Light Rail Vehicles, Medicine, Analog audio recording

An instrument for measuring the speed of rotation. There are many methods; a typical modern device rotates a magnet near a non-magnetic conductor, exerting a force through the field produced by eddy currents. It is widely used to monitor the driving practices of lorry-drivers and bus-drivers. A tachometer measures the speed of rotation of a shaft or disk (from Greek: tachos = speed, metron …

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tachycardia - Autonomic and endocrine causes, Hemodynamic responses, Tachycardic arrhythmias

An abnormally fast heart rate. It may arise due to a normal physiological process, such as during exercise, the ingestion of drugs such as caffeine and amphetamine, or generalized disorders such as serious infections or hyperthyroidism. It may also be due to specific disorders of the heart that disrupt the normal electrical pathways of the heart muscle, in which case the heart rate may be irregula…

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tachyon - Basic properties, Causality, Field and string theories, Tachyons in fiction

A hypothetical elementary particle having imaginary mass (ie m2 less than 0), and able to travel faster than the velocity of light without violating special relativity. Observable effects are predicted, but have not been seen. From a special relativity perspective a tachyon is a particle with space-like four-momentum. One curious effect is that, unlike ordinary particles, the speed of a tac…

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Tacitus - Biography, Works, The sources of Tacitus, Literary style, Studies and reception history

Roman historian. He studied rhetoric at Rome, became a praetor, and established a great reputation as an orator, becoming consul in 97. His major works are two historical studies, the 12-volume Historiae (Histories), of which only the first four books survive whole, and the Annales (Annals), of possibly 18 books, of which only eight have been completely preserved. His concise and vivid prose style…

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tactical voting - Types of tactical voting, Examples in real elections, Rational voter model, Pre-election influence

The act of casting a vote in an election for a candidate with the best chance of defeating another candidate who would otherwise be the most likely to win. This generally occurs where the candidate of one's choice is highly unlikely to be successful, or where preventing a particular candidate from being elected is of greater importance. In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic votin…

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Tadd Dameron - Discography, Late career and death

Musician, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Mainly active in the 1940s, he was a pianist and bandleader, an arranger for Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie, and the composer of several modern jazz standards. Tadley Ewing Peake (Tadd) Dameron (February 21, 1917 – March 8, 1965) was an American jazz pianist, arranger, and composer. Dameron developed an addiction to narcotics toward the…

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Tadeusz Konwicki - Selected English bibliography

Dissident writer and film-maker, born in Lithuania. After fighting with guerrilla forces in Lithuania against both German and Russian occupation in World War 2, he moved to Poland, where he made his home, and began to write. His book, A Minor Apocalypse, was banned. In the 1950s, At the Construction Site was a much prized novel about the Party as an engineer of souls. He was denounced in 1968. A l…

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Tadmur or Tadmor - History, Further excavations, Gallery

34°36N 38°15E, pop (2000e) 28 000. Ancient city in Hims governorate, C Syria, a world heritage site; 208 km/129 mi NE of Damascus; financial capital of the E world, 1st–2nd-c; on ancient caravan route from Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea; rail terminus; many examples of Hellenistic art and architecture; numerous temples, including Temple of Bêl; Monumental Arch; several tombs on hill slo…

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tadpole

The larva of an amphibian, especially a frog or toad; largest 25 cm/10 in long; usually a short spherical body, feathery gills, large tail; most eat microscopic plants; with age, gills and tail shrink, legs appear, and larvae become carnivorous; also known as pollywog, or porwiggle (from Old English tade poll, ‘toad head’, Middle English pollwyggle, ‘head wiggle’). A tadpole (also kno…

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taekwondo - The development of taekwondo, Organizations, Features, Ranks, belts, and promotion, Olympic competition rules

A martial art developed in Korea by General Choi Hong Hi. It officially became part of Korean tradition and culture in 1955, and is now popular as a sport. The International Taekwondo Federation was founded in 1966. Taekwondo (also spelled tae kwon do or taekwon-do) is a hard martial art originating in Korea. An amalgamation of Chinese, Japanese, and traditional Korean fighting styles…

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Taganrog - General information, History of Taganrog, Views of Taganrog, Landmarks and tourist attractions, Taganrog in literature

47°14N 38°55E, pop (2000e) 293 000. Seaport in Rostovskaya oblast, S European Russia; on NE shore of the Gulf of Taganrog of the Sea of Azov; founded as a fortress and naval base, 1698; rail terminus; metallurgy, machines, foodstuffs, shipyards, leatherwork; birthplace of Chekhov. Taganrog (Russian: Таганро́г) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. …

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Tage (Fritiof) Erlander

Swedish politician and prime minister (1946–69), born in Ransäter, Värmland, SWC Sweden. He studied science and sociology at Lund University, where he joined a club for student radicals. Elected an MP for the Social Democrat Party (1932), he held various ministerial posts until succeeding P A Hansson as prime minister in 1946. During his record 23 year period in office he gained respect and pop…

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Tahar Ben Jelloun - List of works, External Links, References and notes

French poet, novelist, and playwright, born in Fez, N Morocco. His work focuses on the problems of stateless emigrants, as in the novels Harrouda (1973) and Moha le fou, Moha le sage (1978), and in the essays Les Amandiers sont morts de leurs blessures (1976) and L'Ecrivain public (1981). Collections of poetry include Hommes sous linceul de silence (1971), Cicatrices de soleil (1972), Le Discours …

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Tahiti - History, Modern Tahiti

17°37S 149°27W; pop (2000e) 164 000; area 1042 km²/402 sq mi. Largest island of French Polynesia, S Pacific Ocean, belonging to the Windward group of the Society Is; length, 48 km/30 mi; French colony, 1880; capital, Papeete; rises to 2237 m/7339 ft in the volcanic peak of Mt Orohena; vanilla, coconuts, copra, sugar cane, tourism; home of Gauguin (1891–3). Tahiti is the largest…

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tahr

A S Asian goat-antelope; thick coat except on head; short curved horns; inhabits steep, tree-covered hillsides; three species: Himalayan tahr (introduced in New Zealand), Nilgiri tahr, and Arabian tahr. (Genus: Hemitragus.) Tahrs are three species of large ungulates closely relative to the wild goat. …

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Tai - Reference

National park in Guiglo and Sassandra departments, SW Côte d'Ivoire; area 3300 km²/1300 sq mi; established in 1972; a world heritage site. …

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tai chi chuan - Overview, Training and techniques, Styles and history, Modern T'ai Chi, Health benefits

A Chinese martial art said to date from the 13th-c, when a Taoist monk, Chang San Feng, observed a fight between a snake and a crane and devised a series of postures based on the movements of these animals from which the present forms are developed. The foundation of the art is the practice of ‘the form’, a series of 108 movements in a slow, continuous sequence, which is used as a method of medi…

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Mount Tai - History, Education, Administration, Demographics

The most revered of China's five sacred mountains, and a key geological, religious, and cultural site in Shandong province; a world heritage site. Evidence of settlement dates back 400 000 years, and the area is rich in fossils, medicinal plants, ancient ruins, and temples. Because it is estimated that over 75% of all overseas Chinese until the mid- to late-20th century claimed origin in T…

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taiga - Climate and geography, Flora, Fauna, Fire

A Russian term for the open coniferous forest zone intermediate between the boreal forest and tundra regions. Sometimes it is used synonymously with the term boreal, though in the taiga the vegetation canopy is more open, with occasional stands of deciduous trees. Open areas are usually poorly drained muskeg. Since North America and Eurasia were recently connected by the Bering land bridge,…

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Taillefer

Norman minstrel. He sang war songs at the Battle of Hastings, in which he was killed. He is shown in the Bayeux tapestry. Taillefer (Latin Incisor-ferri, both meaning 'hewer of iron') was the surname of a Norman ioglere (juggler or jester) whose exact name and place of birth are unknown (sometimes his first name is given as "Ivo"). Wace mentions Taillefer in the Roman de R…

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tailorbird

An Old World warbler (Family: Sylviidae) native to India and SE Asia; inhabits forest and cultivation; eats insects and nectar; nest formed by folding a large leaf and ‘sewing’ the edges together with separate stitches of wool, silk, or spider's web. (Genus: Orthotomus, 9 species.) …

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taipan

A venomous snake (Oxyuranus scutellatus), native to NE Australia and New Guinea; one of the world's most deadly snakes; the largest Australian snake (length up to 4 m/13 ft); aggressive (but rare); brown with paler head; eats mainly small mammals. The Australian fierce snake (Parademansia microlepidota) is sometimes placed in genus Oxyuranus and called desert taipan. (Family: Elapidae.) T…

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Taiping Rebellion - Beginning, Army, Theology, The Kingdom's policies, Administration, Climax, Downfall, Further reading

(1850–64) A major uprising against the Qing dynasty in China. Hong Xiuquan (1814–64), a Hakka schoolmaster and failed Confucian scholar, became a Christian in 1837, and saw himself as the younger brother of Christ, with a divine mission. By 1850 he had recruited 10 000 members of his God Worshippers League, and in 1851 declared himself Heavenly King of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taipi…

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Taiwan - History, Geography, Society, Notes and references

Official name Republic of China The main island of Taiwan, sometimes also referred to as Formosa (from Portuguese, meaning "graceful"), is located at 22°57′N 120°12′E, off the coast of the territories administered by the People's Republic of China, south of Japan and north of the Philippines. It is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean, to the south by the South China Sea and…

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Taizong

Second emperor of the Tang dynasty in China. As Li Shimin (Li Shih-min) he encouraged his father Li Yuan (566–635) to overthrow the Sui dynasty (618). He seized the crown in 618 after assassinating two brothers and their families, and forcing his father's abdication. His reign saw the zenith of Tang power. The government was restructured and Confucian ministers given prominence, the law was refor…

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Taizu

First emperor of the Song (Sung) dynasty in China, born into a Beijing military family. He became a general, then reunified China after the post-Tang disintegration (after 907), having been put on the throne by the palace guard (960). Leaving the N under the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1119) he defeated each S state in succession, and reasserted control of Annam. He treated defeated warlords lenient…

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Taj Mahal - Origin and inspiration, The garden, Outlying buildings, The tomb, Decoration, Construction, History, Visiting, Legends and theories

A renowned monument to love constructed (1632–54) at Agra in Uttar Pradesh, India, as a mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, the favourite wife of Shah Jahan. Built of white marble and inlaid with semi-precious stones and mosaic work, it is a masterpiece of Mughal architecture, and a world heritage site. A huge central dome surrounded by four smaller domes surmounts the main structure, which is flanked by…

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Tajikistan - Politics, Economy, Miscellaneous topics, Further reading, External links and references

Official name Republic of Tajikistan, also spelled Tadzhikistan, Tajik Jumhurii Tojikistan The Republic of Tajikistan (Persian: جمهوری تاجیکستان (Perso-Arabic), Tajik: ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Cyrillic), Çumhurii Toçikiston (Turkic) is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. The way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is: .تاجک…

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Takeshi Kitano - Early life, Film career, Family, Other work

Actor, comedian, director, and writer, born in Tokyo, Japan. After completing his studies at Meiji University in 1965, he had various jobs which included working as a janitor and as an elevator boy in a strip club. In 1972, while at the club, he met Kiyoshi Kaneko, and together they formed a comedy duo called The Two Beats. The Two Beats quickly became the alternative comedians of their day, with …

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talapoin

The smallest Old World monkey, from W Africa (Miopithecus talapoin); greenish with pale underparts; round head and long tail; partly webbed hands and feet; swims well; inhabits forest near water; also known as pygmy guenon. Talapoins are the two species of Old World monkeys classified in genus Miopithecus. …

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talc - Formation, Occurrence, Uses, Safety

A hydrous magnesium silicate mineral (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2), formed in metamorphic rocks as light-grey soft masses; also known as steatite or soapstone. It may be associated with serpentine. There are large deposits in Austria and India. It is used in cosmetics (talcum powder) and in the paper, paint, rubber, and textile industries. It may also be carved for ornaments. Talc is a mineral composed …

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Talca

35°25S 71°39W, pop (2000e) 208 800. Capital of Maule region, C Chile; S of Santiago; founded, 1692; destroyed by earthquake, 1742 and 1928, then completely rebuilt; Chilean independence declared here, 1818; railway; major wine-producing area; O'Higgins Museum. …

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Talcahuano

36°40S 73°10W, pop (2000e) 282 000. Port in Bío-Bío region, C Chile; on a peninsula, 12 km/7 mi from Concepción; best harbour in Chile, containing main naval base and dry docks; railway; steel, using iron ore from N Chile. Talcahuano is a port city of Chile, lying near Concepción. The official foundation date of Talcahuano is November 5, 1764 when Antonio Guill y Gonza…

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Talcott Parsons - Biography, Ideas, Pattern variables

Sociologist and educator, born in Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA. Educated at Amherst College, the London School of Economics, and the University of Heidelberg, he spent his long academic career at Harvard (1927–73), where he founded the department of social relations (1946) and trained three generations of students. His first book, The Structure of Social Action (1937), launched a lifelong effo…

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Taliesin - Biography, Book of Taliesin, Gruffydd's account of his life, In fiction

Welsh bard, possibly mythical, said to have flourished in the ancient Welsh territories of N Britain. He is known only from a collection of poems, The Book of Taliesin, transcribed in the late 13th-c. His name is given in the 9th-c Historia Britonum of Nennius. Taliesin or Taliessin (c. His name is associated with the Book of Taliesin, a book of poems written down in the 10th century but wh…

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tallage - England, France, Germany

A manorial obligation in the form of a tax, paid by villeins in Britain in return for protection; also a tax paid on the ancient demesne lands of the crown (ie recorded in the Domesday Book as royal lands in 1066), even if subsequently granted away as fiefs. Included within the royal demesne were the chartered towns, which resisted the collection of tallage. London especially resisted the collecti…

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Tallinn - Etymology, Geography, Administrative districts, Population, Economy, Education, Tourism, Transport, Partner cities

59°22N 24°48E, pop (2000e) 456 000. Seaport capital of Estonia, on S coast of the Gulf of Finland; member of the Hanseatic League; taken by Russia, 1710; capital of independent Estonia, 1918–40; occupied by Germany in World War 2; airfield; railway; extensive military and naval installations; major transportation junction; electric motors, shipbuilding, superphosphates, shale gas; citadel (13…

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Tallmadge

41º06N 81º27W, pop (2000e) 16 400. Town in Ohio, USA; founded (1807) as part of the Connecticut Western Reserve; incorporated, 1951; birthplace of Delia Salter Bacon; famous landmark is the Tallmadge Circle (built mid-19th-c), a circular roadway with eight roads leading off; many historic homes and buildings are preserved; Congregational church (c.1825) is the oldest operating church in Ohio. …

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Tallulah Bankhead - Biography, Death, Signature quotes, MI5 investigation of Eton school scandal, Further reading

Actress, born in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. She was brought up in New York City and Washington, and made her stage debut in 1918. She won Critic awards for her two most famous stage roles, Regina in The Little Foxes (1939) and Sabina in The Skin of Our Teeth (1942). Her most outstanding film portrayal was in Lifeboat (1944). Tallulah Brockman Bankhead (January 31, 1902 - December 12, 1968) w…

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Talmud - Origins of the Talmud, Beraita, Talmud, Printing of the Talmud, Talmud commentary and study, Historical method

An authoritative, influential compilation of rabbinic traditions and discussions about Jewish life and Laws, including worship, diet, purity, and social welfare. After the Mishnah of Rabbi Judah was compiled (c.200), it became itself an object of study by Jewish scholars in Palestine and Babylon; their commentary on it (the Gemara), together with the Mishnah, constitutes the Talmud, of which there…

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Tamale - Tamales in Latin America, Tamales in the United States, Tamales in the Caribbean

9°26N 0°49W, pop (2000e) 197 000. Capital of Northern region, Ghana; 430 km/267 mi N of Accra; airfield; educational centre; cotton, groundnuts, civil engineering. Tamales are an ancient American food, made throughout the continent for over 5000 years. Tamales are difficult to make. The sides of the husk are folded and the newly made tamale is steam-cooked for an hour or u…

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Tamara (Platonovna) Karsavina - Personal life and career, Pictures

Ballet dancer, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia. She trained at the Imperial Ballet School under Cecchetti, joined the Mariinsky Theatre (1902), and became one of the original members of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes in Paris, partnering Nijinsky in ballets by Michel Fokine (1909–14). She married an English diplomat and moved with him to London (1918), where she became vice-president of the Royal Ac…

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tamarin

A marmoset of genus Saguinus (10 species); lower canine teeth longer than incisors; eats fruit and small animals; also known as long-tusked marmoset. The name is also used for Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin, golden marmoset, or lion-headed marmoset). The tamarins are any of the squirrel-sized New World monkeys from the family Cebidae, classified as the genus Saguinus. nigricoll…

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tambourine - Riq, Buben, Dajre, Dayereh, Daf, Kanjira

A small frame drum fitted with jingles, and covered on one side with parchment or plastic. It may be shaken, tapped with the fingertips, stroked with a moistened thumb, etc to produce various effects, mostly while accompanying dancing. The tambourine is a musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a single drumhead mounted on a ring with pairs of small metal jingles. Most tam…

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Tambov

52°44N 41°28E, pop (2000e) 333 000. Capital city of Tambovskaya oblast, SC European Russia, on a tributary of the R Oka; founded as a fortress, 1636; airfield; railway; synthetic resins and plastics, clothing, engineering. Tambov (Russian: Тамбо́в) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Tambov Oblast. The name "Tambov" originates from a Moksha language word…

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Tamil Nadu - History, Geography, Governance and administration, Politics, Demographics, Education and social development, Culture and Arts, Tamil Festivals

pop (2001e) 62 110 800; area 130 069 km²/50 207 sq mi. State in S India, bounded E and S by the Bay of Bengal; Sri Lanka to the S; part of the Chola Empire, 10th–13th-c; first British trading settlement, 1611; largely under British control by 1801; boundaries of Mysore state altered in 1956 and 1960; renamed Tamil Nadu, 1968; capital, Chennai (Madras); governed by a 63-member Legislative…

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Tammany Hall - Leaders, Bibliography

The most powerful of the four Democratic Party Committees in New York City; originally a club (the Society of Tammany) founded in 1789, which in the late 19th-c and early 20th-c was notorious for its political corruption. During the selection process for presidential candidates, it generally controlled the votes of the other New York City representatives. However, as formal party control of politi…

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tamoxifen - Side effects, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, Pharmacogenetics

A drug used in the treatment of breast cancer, first developed by the British pharmaceutical company ICI. In the 1980s it was shown to be helpful in the treatment of about half of all breast cancer cases. It works by blocking the action of the female sex hormone oestrogen on cancers whose growth is linked to oestrogen levels. Some new studies have shown that tamoxifen given prophylactically may al…

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Tampere - History, General, Culture, Sports, Statistics, Notable persons, Twin towns, Trivia

61°32N 23°45E, pop (2000e) 177 700. City in Häme province, SW Finland; on the Tammerkoski rapids by L Näsijärvi, c.160 km/100 mi NW of Helsinki; second largest city in Finland; established, 1779; developed as industrial centre in 19th-c; airfield; railway; boat trips to Virrat; university (1966); technological institute (1965); hydroelectricity; footwear, leather, textiles, metal, timber …

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Tampico - Trivia

22°18N 97°52W, pop (2000e) 327 000. Seaport in Tamaulipas state, NE Mexico, on the Gulf of Mexico; airport; railway; oil refining, oil products, boatbuilding, timber, fishing, fish processing. Tampico, located at 22.22°?N 97.85°?W, is the main city in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, and the Mexican Gulf's main economic powerhouse. Although oil is the largest export of the port …

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Tanabata - History, Customs, Date, Tanabata festivals, The Sendai Tanabata Festival, Story behind the Tanabata

A Japanese festival (7 Jul, but in some places 7 Aug) dedicated to the two stars Vega and Altair - two lovers (in the Chinese folk-tale) allowed to meet only once a year on that night; also called Star Festival. Tanabata七夕 (tanabata, Tanabata七夕), meaning "Seven Evenings") is a Japanese star festival, derived from Obon traditions and the Chinese star festival, Qi Xi. The festival is …

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tanager - Species list

A songbird, native to the New World tropics; plumage usually brightly coloured; wings short, rounded; usually inhabits woodland; eats fruit, insects, seeds, and nectar. (Family: Thraupidae, c.239 species.) There are 240 species of Tanagers in the bird family Thraupidae. Family: Thraupidae …

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Tancred

Norman crusader, the grandson of Robert Guiscard. He went on the First Crusade, distinguished himself in the sieges of Nicaea, Tarsus, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Ascalon, and was given the principality of Tiberias (1099). He also ruled at Edessa and Antioch. Tancred can refer to: …

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Tancredi Galimberti - Known surviving works

Partisan, born in Cuneo, Piedmont, NW Italy. Strongly opposed to Fascism, he was one of the founders of the partisan group Italia libera (Free Italy), which would later become the Piedmontese ‘Justice and freedom’ units. A CLN (National Liberation Committee) delegate, he signed the Barcellonette agreement with the French partisans in 1944. He was killed by the Nazi-Fascists. …

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tangent - Geometry, Trigonometry, Derivative, Power series

A line (usually a straight line) which touches a curve at a point P with the same gradient as the curve at P. It is sometimes convenient to think of a tangent meeting a curve at two (or more) coincident points. The tangent to a circle at a point P is perpendicular to the radius of the circle through P. In plane geometry, a straight line is tangent to a curve, at some point, if both line and…

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tangentopoli - Popular distrust of politics, A stable instability

A term coined by Italian newspapers in the early 1990s to describe the system of widespread political corruption and illegal party financing linked to tangenti (‘rake-offs’), which were paid to obtain public contracts. It first came to light in Milan, where in February 1992 the Mani pulite enquiry uncovered a web of corruption in the town's public administration. Tangentopoli (Italian for…

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tangerine

A citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata); a variety of mandarin with bright orange rind. (Family: Rutaceae.) …

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tank - History, Design, Weapons, Protection, Mobility, Sonic, seismic, and thermal traces

An armoured fighting vehicle, typically equipped with tracks enabling it to manoeuvre across broken ground, and armed by a high velocity gun in a rotating turret. The first practical tanks were devised and used in action in 1916 by the British. In the years before 1939, they were developed into fast-moving, hard-hitting machines capable of independent action. This had a great impact on warfare, am…

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tanker

A vessel designed to carry liquid in bulk in a number of tanks, each of which is an integral part of the hull structure. The vessel with the largest gross tonnage is the Norwegian-registered oil tanker Jahre Viking of 260 851 gross tonnes and a deadweight capacity of 564 739 tonnes. Previously known as the Seawise Giant, she is the largest ship ever built. Tanker can refer to: …

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Tankred Dorst - Biography, Major works

Playwright, born in Sonneburg, Thüringen, C Germany. He served in World War 2 and was a prisoner-of-war. He studied German and drama and began a literary career in 1960. After initial work writing for a puppet theatre in Munich, he achieved international acclaim for his anti-war play Große Schmährede an der Stadtmauer (1962), followed by Toller (1968) and Merlin oder das wüste Land (1981). His…

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Tannaim - The generations of the Tannaim, Compilers of the Mishnah

Early sages and teachers of Judaism (mainly AD 10–220) who were instrumental in the emerging rabbinic movement by their study of the Jewish Law (Torah) and formulation of the nucleus of the Mishnah and midrashim. Followers of Hillel and Shammai are often considered the first Tannaim. Tannaim (תנאים) is the plural term for the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, fro…

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tanning - Modern methods of tanning, Ancient methods of tanning, Another use

The process of turning raw animal hide or skin into a permanent, durable, flexible form. Cleaned skin is soaked in solutions of vegetable extracts containing tannins (eg oak bark) or, since the 19th-c, chrome salts. Tanning is the process of converting putrescible skin into non-putrescible leather, usually with tannin, an acidic chemical compound that prevents decomposition and often impart…

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Tantalus - Story of Tantalus, Other characters with the same name, Related terms

In Greek mythology, a son of Zeus and Pluto. As king of Sipylos in Lydia, he committed terrible crimes. He stole the food of the gods, so becoming immortal, and served them his son Pelops in a dish. For this he was punished in the Underworld; he sits in a pool which recedes when he bends to drink, and the grapes over his head elude his grasp. In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλ

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tantra - Hindu tantra, Tantric practices, Tantra in the modern world

A type of Hindu or Buddhist ritual text, and the practice of its instruction. Tantras may include texts describing spells, magical formulas, mantras, meditative practices, and rituals to be performed. The practice of Tantra requires instruction by a guru. In its Hindu forms, tantra can be summarized as a family of voluntary rituals modeled on those of the Vedas, together with their attendan…

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Tanya Moiseiwitsch

Set designer, born in London, UK. Starting with designs for Dublin's Abbey Theatre (1935–9), she became associated with the Old Vic, the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, and the Stratford (Ontario) Festival. From its opening in 1963, she was affiliated with the Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis. She also designed a number of London's contemporary West End productions. Tani…

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Tanzania - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Environment, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Education, Media

Official name United Republic of Tanzania Tanzania IPA: [ˌtænzəˈniə], officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania in Swahili), is a country on the east coast of Africa. The country is named after Tanganyika, its mainland part, and the Zanzibar islands off its east coast. In 1964, Tanganyika united with Zanzibar, forming the United Republic of Tanga…

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tape recorder - Description of operation, Limitations, Variety of tape recorders, Use of tape recorders

Equipment for storing sound and other information on magnetic tape; also used to play back these recordings. The sound to be recorded is turned into an electrical signal by a microphone, and fed to the recording head. Magnetic tape passes over this head, and a record of the original sound is imprinted in magnetic signals on the tape. Electrical signals from a radio or other source can also be reco…

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tapestry - Function, Iconography, Historical development, Famous tapestries, Bibliography

A heavy decorative textile, hand-woven with multi-colour pictorial designs, and often of large size. Oriental in origin, tapestries were used for wall hangings, furniture, and floor coverings. Imitation tapestry fabrics are made on jacquard looms. The Middle Ages is the period of greatest renown for tapestry weaving, with France, Belgium, and Holland excelling at the craft. Some tapestries were no…

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tapioca - Production and uses

A starchy preparation derived from the root crop cassava. The flour of the cassava is low in protein, which is readily removed by washing in water. Tapioca is used in puddings and as a thickening agent in liquid food. Tapioca is an essentially flavourless starchy ingredient, or fecula, produced from treated and dried cassava (manioc) root and used in cooking. It is similar to sago and is …

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tapir - Species, Hybrids, General appearance, Physiology, Natural history, Lifecycle, Behavior, Habitat, predation, and vulnerability, Genetics

A nocturnal mammal native to Central and South America and SE Asia; resembles a small, smooth-skinned, hornless rhinoceros, with a short smooth coat, and a snout extended as a short trunk; the only perissodactyl with four toes on front feet; inhabits woodland; young with pale horizontal stripes and spots. (Family: Tapiridae, 4 species.) Tapirs are large browsing mammals, roughly pig-like in…

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Tapping Reeve

Law professor, jurist and writer, born in Brookhaven, New York, USA. In 1763 he graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), became a teacher there (1764–71), and then practised law in Litchfield, CT. In 1784 he established the Litchfield Law School, one of the first two law schools in America and for many years the most influential. When he became a judge of the Connecticut Superi…

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tar - Production

The liquid product of heating coal in the absence of air (coal tar). It contains many important substances, extractable by solvents or further distillation, and useful in the chemical industry (benzene, phenol, pyridine, etc). Wood tar is the first product of the destructive distillation of wood. Further distillation yields creosote and a variety of organic compounds depending on the wood; for exa…

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Tara - Places, Deities, Schools, Films, Companies, Other

A prehistoric hillfort, 40 km/23 mi NW of Dublin, E Ireland, the supposed site of St Patrick's conversion of Lóegaire in the 5th-c, and the traditional seat of the kings of Ireland from pre-Christian times to the death of Maél Sechnaill II of Meath in 1022. Archaeologically its earthworks are poorly known, apart from the Mound of the Hostages, a megalithic passage grave of the early 3rd millen…

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tarantella - Instances in other settings and media, External Links

A lively folk dance that first appeared in the 17th-c in S Italy, named after the seaport of Taranto. It was said to cure (or in some legends to be induced by) the bite of the tarantula. Chopin, Liszt, Weber, and other composers used the dance in rapid 6/8 time in the form of a perpetuum mobile, proceeding throughout in notes of the same value. The tarantella (tarentule, tarentella, tarante…

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tarantula - General characteristics, Habitat and behavior, Tarantula taxonomy, Tarantulas and people, Origin of the name "tarantula"

Any of the large hairy spiders of the family Therophosidae; rather sluggish spiders with a strong bite which may be venomous; hairs can cause rash when handled. The name is also used for a large, hairy species of wolf spider (family: Lycosidae), found in Italy. (Order: Araneae.) True tarantulas are spiders belonging to the family Theraphosidae (Greek for thera "wild animal, beast" + phos "l…

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Tarbes

43°15N 0°03E, pop (2000e) 52 600. Industrial and commercial city, and capital of Hautes-Pyrénées department, S France; on left bank of R Adour, 37 km/23 mi SE of Pau; originally a Roman settlement; ancient capital of province of Bigorre; road and rail junction; firearms, furniture, footwear, agricultural trade; 12th–14th-c cathedral, national stud farm (Les Haras, 1806), Jardin Mussey. …

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targum - The Two "Official" Targumim, Targum Ketuvim, Other Targumim on the Torah

An Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Scriptures or parts thereof, probably originally composed orally (c.1st-c BC) when the Torah was read aloud in the synagogues, since most Jews of the time understood Aramaic rather than Hebrew, but then written in the rabbinic period. The translations sometimes betray early rabbinic ideology. Best known is the Targum Onkelos. A targum (plural: targumim) …

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tariff - Economic analysis, History of Tariffs

A tax on goods entering a country. Tariffs may be intended mainly to raise revenue, particularly in less developed countries. A revenue tariff will be most effective at a moderate level; if it is too high, goods will simply be smuggled. Tariffs may be aimed at reducing imports in general. If the balance of trade needs to be improved, tariffs are an inefficient method, as they do nothing to help ex…

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Tarim Basin

Largest inland basin in China; area 530 000 km²/205 000 sq mi; bounded by Kunlun and Altun Shan Ranges (S) and Tian Shan Range (N); desert and salt lakes in centre, including largest desert in China, Takla Makan (area 327 000 km²/126 000 sq mi); dominated by China, from 2nd-c AD; disputed between Chinese and Tibetans, 7th-c; rich in salt and non-ferrous metals; nuclear testing takes pl…

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taro - Taro production in Hawaii

A perennial (Colocasia esculenta) native to SE Asia; leaves large, oval, with long stalk attached near centre of blade; spathe pale yellow; also called dasheen. It is cultivated commercially in the tropics for its large corms, rich in easily digested starch suitable for invalids and infants. The corms must first be boiled to remove poisonous calcium oxalate crystals. (Family: Araceae.) Taro…

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tarot - Origins, The tarot deck, History, Esoteric views on the history of tarot

A pack of playing cards used chiefly in fortune-telling. It consists of 22 picture cards of the major arcana (arcana ‘secret’) and the 56 cards in suits of the minor arcana. There are four suits: staves (or wands), cups, swords, and coins. The oldest cards date from 15th-c Italy. There are many theories about their origin and symbolism: their design was influenced by occult features, introduced …

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tarpon

Large fish (Tarpon atlanticus) widespread in open waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and greatly prized as a sport fish; length up to 2·4 m/8 ft; mouth oblique, lower jaw prolonged; dorsal fin small with long posterior fin ray; larvae live in shallow inshore waters and brackish marshes. (Family: Megalopidae.) …

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tarragon

An aromatic perennial (Artemisia dracunculus) growing to 120 cm/4 ft, native to Asia; leaves narrowly lance-shaped, the basal ones 3-lobed at the apex; flower-heads globular, 3 mm/0·12 in across, yellowish, drooping in lax panicles. It is widely cultivated as a culinary herb, and for seasoning vinegar. (Family: Compositae.) …

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Tarragona - History, Ancient remains, Modern Tarragona, Major Events

41°05N 1°17E, pop (2000e) 112 000. Port and capital of Tarragona province, Catalonia, NE Spain; 534 km/332 mi NE of Madrid; archbishopric; airport; railway; agricultural trade, chemicals, vegetable oils; Roman aqueduct and amphitheatre, cathedral (12th–13th-c), archaeological museum; Fiesta of St Magin (Aug), Fiesta of Santa Tecia (Sep). The archaeological excavations a world heritage site.…

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tarsier

A nocturnal primate native to Indonesia and the Philippines; large eyes, long hind legs; long naked tail with tuft of hairs at the tip; leaps between branches; inhabits woodland. (Family: Tarsiidae, 3 species.) The tarsiers are the members of the Tarsius genus of prosimian primates, monotypic in the Tarsiidae family and Tarsiiformes infraorder. …

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tartan - Origins, Clan tartans, Other modern tartans

A fabric of a twill structure, made from variously coloured warp and weft yarns, using checkered designs which are almost always symmetrical. Tartans are mainly associated with the Scottish clans, in a tradition of dress dating from the 17th-c. A tartan is a specific woven pattern that often signifies a particular Scottish clan in the modern era. Tartan is also known as plaid in North Ameri…

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tartaric acid - Derivatives

IUPAC 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, C4H6O6. A compound with three stereo-isomers: a pair of mirror images, and one in which one half of the molecule is the mirror image of the other, called meso-tartaric acid. One isomer, and its potassium and calcium salts, is found widely in plants. Potassium hydrogen tartrate is used as an acid in baking powder, and is called cream of tartar. Tartar emetic is …

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Tartarus - Tartarus in Greek Mythology, Roman Mythology's Tartarus, Jehovah's Witnesses, Notes and References

In Greek mythology, the name of the part of the Underworld where those who offended the gods were punished. The Titans were thrust down there after their rebellion, and infamous criminals were tortured. Tartarus, or Tartaros is a place of eternal torment and suffering, similar to the Hell of Christianity, Netherworld of Pagan religions, the Hindu Naraka, Judaic Gehenna, Chinese Di Yu,…

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tartrazine

An artificial yellow colouring (E102) permitted for use in foods. It has been associated with hypersensitivity reactions among urticaria sufferers and asthmatics. The prevalence of true tartrazine sensitivity is about 1 in 10 000, while the self-diagnosed sensitivity is 7%. Tartrazine (otherwise known as E102 or FD&C Yellow 5) is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye used as a food colo…

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Tasha Tudor - Books

Writer and illustrator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts School. Her mother, Rosamond Tudor, was a portrait painter, and Tasha changed her first name and adopted her mother's maiden name. She also elected to live a 19th-c lifestyle in Marlboro, VT where she raised all her food, lived without inside plumbing, and made her own candles. Her illustratio…

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Tashkent - Geography, History, 20th century, Sights, City built environment, Education, Media, Sister Cities, See also

41°16N 69°13E, pop (2000e) 2 457 000. Capital city of Uzbekistan, in the foothills of the Tien Shan Mts; oldest city of C Asia, known in the 1st-c BC; Chinese influence, 7th-c AD; Chinese–Arab conflict, 8th-c; taken by Russia, 1865; virtually rebuilt after earthquake damage, 1966; airport; railway; university (1920); solar research, chemicals, heavy engineering, clothing, footwear, textiles,…

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Tasman Sea

Part of the Pacific Ocean separating E Australia and Tasmania from New Zealand; linked to the Indian Ocean by the Bass Strait; shallow, narrow continental shelf off Australia, sinking to depths of 4570 m/14 990 ft in the Tasman abyssal plain; named for the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman. The Tasman Sea is deemed by the International Hydrographic Organisation to include the waters to the east…

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Tasmania - History, Climate, Government, Politics, Economy, Transport, Culture, Prominent Tasmanians, Indigenous animals, Places in Tasmania

pop (2000e) 501 000; area 67 800 km²/26 200 sq mi. Island state of Australia, separated from the mainland by the Bass Strait; includes the main island of Tasmania, and several smaller islands, notably King I (1099 km²/424 sq mi), Flinders I (1374 km²/530 sq mi), Bruny I (362 km²/140 sq mi); discovered by Abel Tasman, 1642; first European settlement, 1803 (a British dependency o…

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Tasmanian devil - Taxonomy, Physical description, Ecology and behaviour, Cultural references

An Australian carnivorous marsupial (Sarcophilus harrisii); the largest dasyure (length up to 1·1 m/3·6 ft); bear-like in shape, with large powerful head and long bushy tail; dark with pale throat, pale patches on sides, pale muzzle; eats mainly carrion (including fur and bones), also kills snakes, birds, etc. The Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), also referred to simply as 'the d…

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Tassili N'Ajjer - Prehistoric art, Further reading

National park in E Algeria, N Africa; NE of the Ahaggar (Hoggar) Mts; area 1000 km²/400 sq mi; established in 1972; a sandstone plateau contains many prehistoric cave paintings of animals and people. The Tassili n'Ajjer (It is a name from the Berber language, and it is known as "التاسيلي" (Tassili) in Arabic and its English name is: "Tassili Plateau") is a mountain range in the …

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tatami - Layout and size, Use

Traditional Japanese floor matting. Layers of bound rushes are set in a rectangular framework and covered with smooth mats edged with narrow strips of dark cloth. Tatami are standard size, equivalent to one sleeping space, and rooms are described as ‘6 mat, 8 mat’ etc. Shoes are never worn on tatami. Tatami (畳 tatami, Tatami) (originally meaning "folded and piled") mats are a traditiona…

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Tate Gallery - History and development, Support

A London gallery housing the nation's chief collection of British art and modern foreign art. It was opened in 1897 as a branch of the National Gallery, but became administratively autonomous in 1915, and fully independent in 1955. The Tate Modern gallery, on the site of the former Bankside power station, London, opened in May 2000. There is also a Tate Gallery at the Albert Dock development in Li…

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Tatian - Life, Writings, Theology

Christian thinker, from Syria. He became a pupil of the martyr Justin in Rome, and was converted to Christianity by him. After Justin's death c.165 he was estranged from the Catholic Church, and returned to Syria (c.172). There he established, or was at least closely associated with, an ascetic religious community of Encratites, which fostered a heretical combination of Christianity and Stoicism. …

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Tatiana (Avenirovna) Proskouriakoff - Reconstructive archaeology, Bibliography

Archaeologist and illustrator, born in Tomsk, Russia. A childhood immigrant to the USA, she trained as an architect and, starting out as an archaeological illustrator, became a pioneer scholar of Maya culture, making outstanding contributions on Maya hieroglyphics and monuments. She held posts at the Carnegie Institution (1939) and Harvard's Peabody Museum (1958–77). In 1962 she was awarded the K…

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Tatra Mountains - Some peaks of the Tatras, Mountain peaks, Bibliography

Mountain group in C Carpathian Mts, comprising the High Tatra (Vysoké Tatry) and Low Tatra (Nízké Tatry); highest group, of the Carpathians, rising to 2655 m/8711 ft at Gerlachovský Štít; High Tatra National Park, area 500 km²/200 sq mi, established in 1948. The Tatra mountains, Tatras or Tatra (in Polish and Slovak Tatry), constitute a mountain range on the border of Poland and…

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Tatsumi Hijikata

Performance artist, born in Akita province, NW Japan. He was a key figure in the Japanese avant-garde of the 1950s and 1960s, and with Kazuo Ohno is credited with the founding of the butoh dance-theatre movement, that draws on and yet refutes traditional Japanese Kabuki and Noh theatre and Western art forms. His 1968 piece Nikutai No Hanran (Rebellion of the Body) is acknowledged as one of the mos…

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Taufa'ahau Tupou IV

King of Tonga, the eldest son of Queen Salote Tupou III. He studied at Newington College and Sydney University. He served successively as minister for education and health, before becoming prime minister under his mother in 1949. On succeeding to the throne on his mother's death in 1965, he shared power with his brother, Prince Fatafehi Tu'ipelehake, who became prime minister. Tāufaʻāhau…

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Taunton (UK) - History, Attractions, Pop culture references, Twinning

51°01N 3°06W, pop (2000e) 55 700. County town in Somerset, SW England, UK; on the R Tone, in the Vale of Taunton Deane; founded in 705; rebellion of Perkin Warbeck ended here (1497); Duke of Monmouth crowned king here (1685); 12th-c castle hall, where Bloody Assizes held (1685); railway; cider, textiles, leather, optical instruments, light engineering; Somerset county museum. Taunton is…

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Taunton (USA) - History, Attractions, Pop culture references, Twinning

41º54N 71º06W, pop (2000e) 56 000. Seat of Bristol Co, SE Massachusetts, USA; on the R Taunton, 52 km/32 mi S of Boston; birthplace of Isaac Babbitt, William Z Foster, Paul Mackendrick; railway; cotton, iron foundries, plastics. Taunton is the county town of Somerset, England. Suburbs of the town include Bishop's Hull, Staplegrove and Galmington, giving a total population for the "Tau…

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Taurus - Places, Vehicles, Software, Music, Fiction, Other

A prominent N constellation of the zodiac, including the Pleiades and Hyades clusters and the Crab Nebula. It lies between Aries and Gemini. Its brightest star is the red giant Aldebaran, one of the few stars whose diameter has been measured directly, at about 45 times the Sun's diameter; distance: 20 parsec. Taurus is Latin for "bull" and may refer to: Military: Civ…

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Taurus Mountains

Mountain chain of S Turkey, extending in a curve from L E?ridir roughly parallel to the Mediterranean coast as far as the R Seyhan; highest peak, Ala Da?lari (3910 m/12 828 ft); its NW extension across the R Seyhan is called the Anti-Taurus; in the SE are the Cilician Gates, an important pass in ancient times; chromium, copper, silver, zinc, iron, arsenic. The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: …

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Tavistock - Tavistock Today, History

50º33N 4º08W, pop (2000e) 11 200. Market town in W Devon, England, UK; on the R Tavy and bordering Dartmoor; underground canal links the town to the R Tamar; early tin mining industry and a named Stannary town; area later mined for copper, arsenic, iron ore; ruins of 10th-c Benedictine abbey; Aldred became abbot here, 1027; bronze statue of Sir Francis Drake; arts centre; weekly Pannier Market…

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tawny owl

A typical owl (Strix aluco) native to Europe, Asia, and N Africa; mottled brown with black eyes and no ear tufts; inhabits woodland and habitation (occasionally open country); eats small vertebrates and insects. The name is also used for the tawny fish owl and tawny-browed owl. The Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) is a species of owl resident in much of Europe and southern Russia. …

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Taxila - Ancient centre of learning

The chief city of the Achaemenid satrapy of Gandhara, now a major archaeological site covering 65 km²/25 sq mi in Punjab, Pakistan; a world heritage area. Excavations have revealed three distinct cities, the earliest dating from c.400 BC; the second was occupied successively by Bactrian Greeks, Scythians, Parthians, and Kushans; the third was founded c.130 and flourished for over five centurie…

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taxis - Examples

A directed movement or orientation reaction of an organism to a stimulus. Taxis is usually used with a prefix to indicate the nature of the stimulus, for example chemotaxis (for a chemical stimulus), phototaxis (for a light stimulus), and thermotaxis (for a temperature stimulus). Movement towards the stimulus is a positive taxis, movement away from stimulus a negative taxis, so that an animal that…

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taxonomy - Taxonomy and mental classification, Various taxonomies

The theory and practice of describing, naming, and classifying organisms. It is divided into alpha taxonomy, the description and designation of species typically on the basis of morphological characters; beta taxonomy, the arrangement of species into hierarchical systems of higher categories; and gamma taxonomy, the study of the evolutionary relationships between groups (taxa) and of variation wit…

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Tay-Sachs disease - Symptoms, Etiology and pathogenesis, Testing and prevention, Epidemiology

A rare inherited disorder in which an abnormal accumulation of lipid occurs in the brain, because the enzyme for breaking it down is absent. Clinical features usually appear in infancy with blindness, paralysis, mental retardation, and eventually death. It is most common in descendants of C and E European (Ashkenazi) Jews. The condition is named after British ophthalmologist Warren Tay (1843–1927…

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Tazio Nuvolari - Career, Major victories

Italian motor-racing driver, considered by many to have been the greatest of the pre-war years. He joined the Alfa Romeo team in 1930, and scored many wins, often against superior cars. He won the 1935 German Grand Prix in a four-year old Alfa Romeo, despite the presence of new Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union cars. Tazio Giorgio Nuvolari (November 16, 1892 – August 11, 1953) was an Italian r…

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Tbilisi - History, Politics and Administration, Transport, Geography, People and culture, Miscellaneous, Education, Photo tour

41°43N 44°48E, pop (2000e) 1 250 000. Capital city of Georgia; on the R Kura, between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus; founded, 5th-c; ancient trading point between Europe and India; airport; railway junction; university (1918); machinery, film making, printing, publishing, foodstuffs, wine, silk, electrical equipment, locomotives, plastics; ruins of Narikala (4th–17th-c), Anchiskhati Church…

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tea - Processing and classification, Blending and additives, Content, Origin and early history in Asia

A small evergreen tree (Camellia sinensis) growing to c.4 m/13 ft in the wild, but only a small shrub in cultivation; leaves leathery, toothed and pointed; flowers 5-petalled, white, fragrant; native to Myanmar and Assam, but cultivated in Tibet and China for social drinking and meditation from early times, and subsequently the Arab world and Japan (9th-c); India, Japan, and Sri Lanka are now al…

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Teacher of Righteousness - Identity of the Teacher

The religious leader and founder of the Qumran community, probably in the mid-2nd-c BC; apparently a Zadokite priest who opposed the Hasmoneans, assuming the role of Jewish high priest, and led his followers into exile near the Dead Sea. His identity is otherwise unknown, but this title is applied to him in the Damascus Document and various Qumran commentaries, because of his role in guiding the c…

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teak

A large evergreen tree (Tectona grandis), growing to 45 m/150 ft, native to S India and SE Asia; leaves up to 45 cm/18 in, oval, opposite; flowers small, white, 5-lobed bells. It is a source of high-quality, durable, water-resistant timber. Extremely heavy, teak sinks in water unless thoroughly dried, so the trees are killed by having a girdle of bark cut near the base, and are left for up to …

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Teapot Dome Scandal - Background, The scandal, The investigation and its outcome, Aftermath

A US government scandal during the Harding administration in the early 1920s involving the lease of land for oil exploration in California, and especially at Teapot Dome, Wyoming. The attorney general was forced to resign, after refusing access to files. Following other resignations, criminal proceedings were introduced, and secretary of the interior Albert B Fall received a prison sentence. …

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Technicolor - About the Technicolor process, History of Technicolor, The Technicolor Corporation in the modern era

The trademark of a colour cinematography process internationally dominant between 1935 and 1955. Shooting involved special three-strip cameras and multiple release prints by photo-mechanical dye-transfer. Even after the introduction of colour negative in 1953, dye-transfer printing continued to the mid-1970s. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Tec…

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technology - History of technology, Economics and technological development, Sociological factors and effects, Environment, Control, Technology and philosophy

The use of tools, machines, materials, techniques, and sources of power to make work easier and more productive. Industrial technology began 200 years ago with the introduction of power-driven machines, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods. Whereas science is concerned with understanding how and why things happen, technology deals with making things happen; it can be subdivide…

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tectonics

The study of the structure of the Earth's crust, particularly such processes as the movement of rocks during folding and faulting. Tectonics, (from the Greek for "builder", tekton), is a field of study within geology concerned generally with the structures within the crust of the Earth (or other planets) and particularly with the forces and movements that have operated in a region to …

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Tecumseh - Early years, "Tecumseh's War", War of 1812

Shawnee chief, born in Old Piqua on the Mad R, near present-day Springfield, Ohio, USA. One of the most sophisticated Native American opponents of the encroaching United States, he was a highly skilled warrior, orator, and statesman who advocated ‘civilized’ resistance. He was undoubtedly influenced by the fact that his father and two brothers were killed while fighting American colonists. In 17…

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Ted Bundy - Biography, Modus operandi and victim profile, List of victims, Movies about Ted Bundy

Convicted murderer, born in Burlington, Vermont, USA. He was a law student who is believed to have killed at least 36 females, both adults and children, over a number of years. Convicted in 1979 on several charges, including the murder of a 12-year-old girl, he was sentenced to death. He was executed in Florida in 1989 after a string of unsuccessful appeals. Theodore Robert "Ted" Bundy (Nov…

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Ted Corbitt - Personal and professional life, Racing and training, Other contributions to running

Marathon runner, born in Dunbarton, South Carolina, USA. Called ‘the father of American distance running’, his exploits in marathon running and ultra-marathons (distances longer than 26 miles 385 yds) contributed substantially to the popularity of long-distance running in the USA. He trained hard, and ran in international races of 40–100 mi, often against much younger men. He usually finished …

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Ted Dexter

Cricketer and sports commentator, born in Milan, N Italy. He studied at Cambridge, became a cricketer in 1958, and captained Sussex (1960–65) and England (1962–5). He scored 4502 runs, including eight Test centuries. He excelled in most sports, notably golf. In 1964 he stood unsuccessfully for parliament as a Conservative against James Callaghan. After retiring from first-class cricket in 1965, …

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Ted Hughes - Early life, Personal life, Writings, Bibliography

Poet, born in Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he read English for two years, then switched to archaeology and anthropology for his final year. After various sporadic jobs, he became a teacher, then went to the USA (1957–9). Best known for his very distinctive animal poems, his first collections were The Hawk in the Rain (1957) and Lupercal (1960). His my…

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Ted Koehler - Songs, Work on Broadway

Lyricist, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He played piano in silent-film cinemas and began writing songs in the 1920s for vaudeville and Broadway shows. In the 1930s and 1940s he produced floor shows for the Cotton Club and Broadway. With Harold Arlen, Burton Lane, and other composers, he wrote such hits as ‘I Love a Parade’ (1931) and ‘Stormy Weather’ (1933). He also wrote musi…

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Ted Koppel - Departure from Nightline

Television journalist, born in Lancashire, NW England, UK. The son of German-Jewish refugees, he went to the USA (1953), became an American citizen (1963), and earned degrees from Syracuse and Stanford. Originally a newscaster for WABC radio (1963–7), he switched to television reporting while covering the Vietnam War, becoming ABC's chief diplomatic correspondent (1971) and presenter of the Satur…

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Ted Turner - Biography, Cultural references, Bibliography

Communications tycoon, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Expelled from Brown University for having women in his room, he took over the family's Atlanta-based billboard enterprise in 1963 after his father's suicide, and began building his media empire. In 1970 he bought an independent Atlanta UHF station and built it into the first satellite-transmitted superstation. His programming strategy was based…

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Ted Williams - Early life, In the major leagues, Military Service, Summary of career

Baseball player, born in San Diego, California, USA. During his 19-year career as an outfielder for the Boston Red Sox (1939–60), he hit 521 home runs and posted a lifetime batting average of ·344, sixth highest in major league history. His career total walks (2019) are second only to Babe Ruth's, and in 1941 he batted ·406, a mark not bettered in over 50 years. He became manager of the Washing…

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Teddy Sheringham

Footballer, born in Highams Park, NC Greater London, UK. A forward, he played for Millwall, Aldershot, Nottingham Forest, and Tottenham Hotspur, signing for Manchester United in 1997, and returning to Tottenham in 2001. He won two Player of the Year awards during the 2000–1 season, and was an England team member in the 2002 World Cup campaign, winning 51 caps by the end of his international caree…

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Teddy Wilson

Pianist, bandleader, and arranger, one of the most influential stylists of the swing era of the late 1930s, born in Austin, Texas, USA. He studied music briefly, and while still in his teens was working in Chicago with such major artists as Louis Armstrong. His move to New York City in 1933 to join the Benny Carter Orchestra established his career as a pianist and arranger. When he joined the Benn…

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Teesside - Local government, Urban area, The name

Urban area surrounding the R Tees estuary in NE England, UK; includes Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar, Thornaby, Middlesbrough; formed in 1967; railway; airport (Middleton St George). Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in North East England made up of the towns of Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar and surrounding settlements. The Tees forms the historic county border b…

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tefillin - Details of manufacture, Contents, Laying Tefillin and The blessings, Women and tefillin, Some Laws Regarding Tefillin

Jewish phylacteries or frontlets, consisting of two black leather cubes with leather straps, bound over the forehead and left arm, and worn by adult Jewish males during morning prayers, except on sabbaths and festivals. The cubes contain scriptural texts (such as Deut 6.4–9, 11.13–21; Ex 13.1–16), and the explanation of their use is traced to Biblical commandments about the words of the Law bei…

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Tegucigalpa - History, Politics, Transportation, Sports

14°05N 87°14W, pop (2000e) 817 000. Capital city of Honduras; founded as a mining centre, 1524; comprises two distinct towns, the almost flat Comayagüela and the hilly Tegucigalpa, separated by the R Choluteca; altitude 975 m/3200 ft; capital, 1880; airport; university (1847); textiles, sugar, wood products, plastics, chemicals, metal and electrical products; some silver, lead, zinc mining;…

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Tehran Conference - Overview, Tripartite dinner meeting, Declaration of the Three Powers, The Conference in the arts

The first inter-allied conference of World War 2, attended by Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill in 1943. The subjects discussed were the co-ordination of Allied landings in France with the Soviet offensive against Germany, Russian entry in the war against Japan, and the establishment of a post-war international organization. Failure to agree on the future government of Poland foreshadowed the start…

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Teide

Highest peak in Spain (3718 m/12 198 ft), on the volcanic massif that occupies the centre of the Spanish island of Tenerife in the Canaries archipelago. Cañadas del Teide (c.2100 m/6890 ft), of which it is the peak, are situated in the middle of the Teide National Park and are formed by two basins separated by the Roques de García. On the slopes of the massif there are three protuberances c…

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tektite - Tektite origin: two theories, Earlier non-terrestrial-impact theories

A rounded, flat, and glassy meteorite ranging in diameter from submillimetre size up to c.10 cm/4 in. Tektites (from Greek tektos, molten) are natural glass objects, up to a few centimeters in size, which — according to most scientists — have been formed by the impact of large meteorites on Earth's surface. Tektites are among the "driest" rocks, with an average water content of …

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telecine - Basic principle, Frame rate differences, Common pulldown patterns, Digital television, and high definition, DVDs

Equipment for converting motion-picture film to video for broadcast television or videotape recording. In the flying spot system, a continuously moving film is scanned by a spot of light generated on a cathode ray tube. The transmitted light is then converted to red, green, and blue signals by a beam-splitting optical system and three photo-multiplier tubes. Developments in digital scanning allow …

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telegraphy - Optical telegraphs and smoke signals, Electrical telegraphs, Radiotelegraphy, Telegraphic improvements, Telex, TWX, Arrival of the Internet

Communication at a distance of written, printed, or pictorial matter, by the transmission of electrical signals along wires. Modern examples of this are telex and fax. In radiotelegraphy the message is carried by radio waves rather than along a wire. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far and graphein = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical trans…

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Telemachus - In the Odyssey, Other appearances

In the Odyssey, the son of Odysseus and Penelope. He sets out to find his father, visiting Nestor and Menelaus. Later he helps Odysseus fight Penelope's suitors. He was born on the day when Odysseus was called to fight in the Trojan War. The emissary Palamedes, who was sent to call Odysseus to battle, placed the infant Telemachus before the plow. After his father has been gone f…

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telemarketing - Early History, Categories, Regulations, Sound

A marketing system which uses the telephone, handling responses to advertisements which carry telephone numbers. The telephone operators receive calls, take orders, or arrange for brochures to be sent. It also involves making calls to prospective clients on behalf of marketing outlets, to generate leads, orders, or interest. Telemarketing is a registered trademark owned by Nadji Tehrani sin…

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teleology (philosophy) - Contrasted with philosophical naturalism, Extrinsic and intrinsic finality, Classical Greek teleology, Modern/postmodern philosophy, Science

The theory that some phenomena or events can best be explained by reference to the forward ends, purposes, or aims to which they are directed, rather than by prior causes; it is usually contrasted with mechanism. This applies particularly to human behaviour and to that of living organisms (eg a cat stalking a mouse). In ethics, teleological theories such as utilitarianism claim that actions should…

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teleology (theology) - Contrasted with philosophical naturalism, Extrinsic and intrinsic finality, Classical Greek teleology, Modern/postmodern philosophy, Science

In theology, the teleological argument is the argument from design. Teleology (telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. Teleology traditionally is contrasted with philosophical naturalism, which views nature as lacking design or purpose. Two classic examples of these opposing vi…

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telephone - Introduction, History, Digital Telephony, Wireless phone systems, IP Telephony, Telephone equipment research labs, Telephone operating companies

A device for transmitting speech sounds over a distance. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent to develop such an instrument, and his induction receiver, along with Thomas Edison's carbon transmitter, form the basis of the modern telephone. In the mouthpiece, a carbon microphone translates sound vibrations into a varied electric current which is relayed through wires to the receiver, …

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telephoto lens - Construction

A camera lens of long focal length but comparatively short overall dimensions, giving increased magnification for a limited angle of view. In 35 mm still cameras, focal lengths of 100–300 mm are usual, but for special purposes such as news work, sports, and natural history 500–1000 mm may be employed. It is sometimes confused with a long focus lens which, while of long focal length, may not b…

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telerecording - Technique, History, Legacy

The transfer of a video programme to motion-picture film. Since the interval between successive video frames is very short, a film camera with extremely rapid movement from one frame to the next is essential. Direct photography of a shadow-mask colour video display is not satisfactory, and a three-tube system is preferred, in which separate cathode-ray screens for the three colour components are o…

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telescope - History, Types of telescope, Research telescopes, Imperfect images, Famous optical telescopes, Other famous telescopes

An optical instrument for producing magnified images of distant objects. Telescopes came into widespread use in Europe at the beginning of the 17th-c, but may have been known earlier. The earliest known devices were made c.1608 by Lippershey and Galileo. Astronomical telescopes produce an inverted image, but give a larger field of view and higher magnification than terrestrial (upright image) tele…

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Telescopium

A small, faint S constellation delineated by Lacaille in honour of the astronomical telescope. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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teletext - History—1970s, History—1980s, History—1990s, Description, "Interactive teletext", Other Teletext-related services, Level 2.5 teletext

An information service of alpha-numerical data and simple diagrams transmitted as individual pages in digitally coded form in the field-blanking intervals of a TV broadcast signal. The constantly updated results, typically news headlines, football scores, weather maps, etc, can be displayed on any domestic receiver equipped with a decoder and page-selection keyboard. In the UK, the services Ceefax…

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television - History, Technology, Geographical usage, Content, Social aspects

The transmission and reproduction of moving pictures and associated sound by electronic means; developed in the late 19th-c and early 20th-c, with the first pictures presented by Baird in 1926. The image of a scene in a TV camera using a vidicon tube is analysed by scanning along a series of horizontal lines, the variations of brightness along each line being converted into a train of electrical s…

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Telford - History

52°42N 2°28W. A new town in Shropshire, WC England, UK, designated in 1963, comprising three previous urban areas: Telford Dawley, pop (2000e) 30 600; Telford North, pop (2000e) 56 700; Telford South, pop (2000e) 24 900; Telford and Wrekin a unitary authority in 1998; on the R Severn SE of Shrewsbury, 55 km/34 mi NW of Birmingham; originally designated as Dawley New Town; railway; electr…

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tell

An Arabic ‘mound’ or ‘hill’, equivalent to Persian tepe, Turkish hüyük; in archaeological usage, an artificial mound formed through the long-term accumulation of mud brick from houses successively levelled and rebuilt. Most common in the Near East, Anatolia, and the Balkans, tells can stand 30 m/100 ft high, and yield evidence of occupation over several millennia. Tell or tall (Arab…

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telomere - Nature and function of telomeres, Telomere shortening, Extending telomeres, Telomere Length Assay, Telomere sequences

The part of a chromosome further from the centromere in eucaryotes, containing G-rich repetitive DNA. Without telomeres chromosomes are unstable, and can combine with other chromosomes to give ring structures. Telomeres generally decrease in length during the ageing process, probably because of the loss of activity of the enzyme telomerase. A telomere is a region of highly repetitive DNA at…

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tempera - Ground, Making tempera, Some Tempera Artists, Further Reading

A method of painting with powdered pigment mixed with egg-yolk and water, usually on specially prepared wooden panels. This technique was normal in the Middle Ages, and was not generally superseded until oil painting became popular in the late 15th-c. Tempera, or temper is the medium used to bind a range of pigments, it is a term used across medieval Europe. Tempers include egg yolk (temper…

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temperament - Temperament in infants, children and adults, Influences of Temperament on Family Life

A tuning system for keyboard and fretted string instruments in which some of the ‘pure’ intervals of ‘just intonation’ (the tuning derived from the natural harmonic series) are made slightly larger or smaller (ie ‘tempered’) in order to accommodate polyphony and a wide range of modulation. In equal temperament, which became universally employed in the 19th-c, the octave is divided into 12 eq…

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temperance movement - Temperance movements around the world, Linguistics, Source

A response to the social evils caused by the alcoholism so widespread in the 18th-c and 19th-c. Temperance societies were organized first in the USA, then in Britain and Scandinavia. The original aim was to moderate drinking, but prohibition became the goal. Federal prohibition became a reality in the USA in 1919, but was repealed in 1933. A temperance movement attempts to greatly reduce th…

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temperature - The role of temperature in nature, Temperature measurement, Comparison of temperature scales, Theoretical foundation of temperature

Measurement related to heat flow between objects. Heat will be transferred between objects having different temperatures. It is measured using thermometers, thermocouples, and pyrometers, and is controlled using thermostats. The Kelvin temperature scale is used in physics (an SI unit), fixed by the triple point of water, 27 Temperature is measured with thermometers that may be calibrated to…

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Temple - Religious terminology, Temple architecture, List of religious temples, Additional reading

31º06N 97º21W, pop (2001e) 54 500. Town in Bell Co, C Texas, USA; 52 km/32 mi SSW of Waco; birthplace of Sammy Baugh; grain trade, textiles, railway engineering. Some religions using the term temple, exclusively or alongside specific synonym(s): Some religions refer to their temples by a unique word of their own: In various historical periods, specific architec…

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Temple - Religious terminology, Temple architecture, List of religious temples, Additional reading

A group of buildings, including the 12th-c Temple church, in Fleet St, London, UK. They were established on land once owned by the Knights Templar, and have housed the offices of the Inner and Middle Temples for centuries. The 12th-c Temple in Paris was also Templar property. It later became a royal prison, and was demolished in 1811. Some religions using the term temple, exclusively or alo…

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temple - Religious terminology, Temple architecture, List of religious temples, Additional reading

A building in the ancient world used as a sanctuary for the gods. Temples had rather different functions from modern churches. They were not places where people gathered together indoors for communal worship; their main purpose was to provide, quite literally, a dwelling place for the gods. Thus all temples, whether big or small, were for the most part no more than a repository for the cult statue…

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Temple of Heaven - Facts and figures, More Images

A group of buildings in Beijing, in which the emperors formerly conducted their devotions. The complex was laid out in 1406–20, and is regarded as a masterpiece of traditional Chinese architecture. The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: 天壇, Simplified Chinese: 天坛, pinyin: Tiāntán; It is regarded as a Taoist temple, although the worship of …

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Templeton Prize - Prize winners

A prize for progress in religion, awarded annually by the Templeton Foundation, New York City. It was created in 1972 by US businessman John Marks Templeton to recognize achievements in spirituality - a category he felt was overlooked by the Nobel awards. It is the world's largest money award, annually adjusted to ensure that no other annual award exceeds it; its total passed $1 million dollars fo…

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tempura

Japanese fritters, probably originating with the Portuguese in 16th-c Japan. They are served crisp, with diluted soy sauce mixed with grated radish to balance the oil. Tempura (てんぷら or 天麩羅, tenpura) refers to classic Japanese deep fried batter-dipped seafood and vegetables. Western chefs frequently include tempura dishes on their menus but seldom with 'authentic' r…

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Ten Years' War (1868) - Tactics, Progress of the War, Conclusion of the War, Atrocities, Further reading

The name usually given to the unsuccessful Cuban insurrection against Spanish colonial rule. The rebels accepted their defeat in the Pact of Zanjón (Feb 1878). The Ten Years' War, (Guerra de los Diez Años) (also known as the Great War) began on October 10, 1868. On this date, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his following of patriots from his sugar mill La Demajagua, proclaimed Cuba's…

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tench

Freshwater fish (Tinca tinca) native to slow rivers and lakes of Europe and W Asia, but now more widespread; length up to 60 cm/2 ft; body stout, fins rounded; mouth with pair of thin barbels; dark green to brown; fished commercially in some areas, and popular with anglers. (Family: Cyprinidae.) The tench or doctor fish (Tinca tinca) is a fish of the Cyprinid family, and is one of the com…

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tendon - Composition, Anatomy, Other information

An extremely strong fibrous cord or sheet of connective tissue (bundles of collagen fibres), continuously attaching muscle to bone or cartilage. When tendon fibres pass across or around bony surfaces, they may develop either a surrounding (synovial) sheath or a (sesamoid) bone within them in order to reduce friction. Occasionally the sheath becomes inflamed (tenosynovitis), and movement may be pai…

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tendril - History, Biology of tendrils

An organ with which climbing plants attach themselves to supports; derived from modified leaves, branches, or inflorescences. Most tendrils coil around the support; others end in sticky, sucker-like pads; a few are negatively phototropic, and grow into dark cracks in the support. In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaf or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing pla…

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Tenerife - Geography, Transportation, History, Other

pop (2000e) 686 000; area 1923 km²/742 sq mi. Island of Spain, in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the most extensive and the second largest population of the Canaries; volcanic massif of the Teide in C of island; shoreline high and rocky; agriculture by irrigation; plantains, tomatoes, fishing, tourism; capital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife; other towns La Laguna, Puerto de la Cruz. …

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Tennessee - Economy, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 5 689 300; area 109 149 km²/42 144 sq mi. State in SEC USA, divided into 95 counties; the ‘Volunteer State’; ceded by France, 1763; explored by Daniel Boone, 1769; temporary state of Franklin formed in 1784, after the War of Independence; Federal government created the Territory South of the Ohio (1790); admitted as the 16th state to the Union, 1796; seceded, 1861; the scene…

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Tennessee River - Course, Dams, Important cities and towns, Popular culture

River in SE USA; formed near Knoxville, Tennessee, by the confluence of the French Broad and Holston Rivers; forms part of the Alabama–Mississippi border; flows into Kentucky to join the Ohio R at Paducah; length (including the French Broad) 1398 km/869 mi; major tributaries the Little Tennessee, Clinch, Hiwasee, Elk, Duck; used for irrigation, flood-control, and hydroelectric power (controlled…

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Tennessee Williams - Biography, Novels, Short stories, Poetry

Playwright, born in Columbus, Mississippi, USA. From an old Tennessee family (he adopted his first name by 1939 while in New Orleans), he was raised under the influence of his clergyman-grandfather. Moving with his family to St Louis (1913), he went on to several colleges, graduating from the State University of Iowa (1938). He moved around the country for many years, worked at odd jobs while he w…

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Tenney Frank - Biography, Selected bibliography

Classicist and historian, born near Clay Center, Kansas, USA. He studied at the universities of Kansas (1898 BA, 1899 MA) and Chicago (1903 PhD), and taught at Bryn Mawr (1904–19) and Johns Hopkins (1919–38). Often called the finest American historian of Rome of his time, he was appropriately the first American classicist to hold the Eastman Professorship at Oxford (1938–9). Editor of the Ameri…

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tennis - Manner of play, Shots, Tournaments, History, Great players, The greatest player of all time

A racket-and-ball game for two or four players developed from real tennis; also known as lawn tennis. It is played on a rectangular court measuring 78 ft (23·77 m) long by 27 ft (8·23 m) wide for singles, or 36 ft (10·97 m) wide for doubles. A net 3 ft (0·9 m) high at the centre is stretched across the width of the court. Playing surface varies, and can be grass, clay, shale, concrete,…

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Tennis Court Oath

(1789) A dramatic incident which took place in the first stage of the French Revolution. An oath was taken in a tennis court at Versailles by representatives of the Third Estate of the French Assembly or Estates General, who had been locked out of their assembly place. Declaring themselves (as opposed to the nobles and clergy) to be the National Assembly, the deputies swore never to separate until…

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tennis elbow - Aetiology, Symptoms, Treatment

Pain in the external aspect of the elbow following repetitive trauma, such as may occur in playing tennis. It may result from small tears in the muscles in the region. Tennis elbow (or lateral epicondylitis -- lat. epicondylitis lateralis humeri) is a condition where the outer part of the elbow becomes painful and tender, usually as a result of a specific strain or overuse. Whilst it …

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Tenochtitl - Geography, City plan, Inhabitants, History, Ruins of Tenochtitlan

The island capital of L Texcoco, now beneath Mexico City, from which the Aztecs dominated Mexico from c.1344–5 to the Spanish Conquest in 1519. About 13 km²/5 sq mi in area, it had c.60 000 houses and a population of c.200 000. Tenochtitlan (pronounced [tɛ.nɔtʃ.tɪ.tɬaːn]) or, alternatively, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, (Nahuatl for "Mexico among the stone-cacti") was the capita…

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Tenrikyo - Background, Tenrikyo centers outside Japan, Notable followers

A Japanese faith-healing movement founded in 1838 by a female shaman Nakayama Miki (1798–1887). Her birthplace, Tenri, near the ancient capital of Nara, is the chief religious centre of this missionary sect. Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyo is estimated to have about 2 million followers world-wide with 1.5 million of those in Japan. The focus of the religion is to attain yoki yusa…

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tensile strength - Typical tensile strengths

The stretching stress at which a material breaks; symbol ?, units Pa (pascal). For metals this is greater when the metal is cold-worked or stretched into wires. For stresses slightly less than tensile strength, most materials undergo plastic deformation. For steel piano wire and cast iron, tensile strengths are 2 × 109 and 2 × 108 Pa, respectively. Some typical tensile strengths of s…

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Tenskwatawa - Early years, Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812, Later years and death

Shawnee resistance leader, born on the Mad R near present-day Springfield, Ohio, USA, the brother of Tecumseh. A vision in 1805 led him to believe that Indians must reject the ways of whites and return to their traditions. His prediction of a solar eclipse in 1806 was largely responsible for his fame as The Prophet. He worked with his brother to unite Indians as common owners of the land throughou…

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tenure - History, Award, Revocation, Criticisms of the tenure process, Criticisms of tenure, Arguments in favor of tenure

A teacher's right to permanency of appointment, usually gained after successful completion of a probationary period. The concept became a contentious political issue in the UK when the government abolished it for university teachers appointed after the 1988 Education Bill had been introduced in Parliament. In US universities, tenure is still granted, though less frequently than in the past, and th…

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Tenzing Norgay - Early life, Mountaineering, Success on Mount Everest, Family life, After Everest

Mountaineer, born in Tsa-chu, near Makalu, E Nepal. He made his first climb as a porter with a British expedition in 1935, and later climbed many of the Himalayan peaks. In 1953 he succeeded in reaching the Everest summit with Edmund Hillary, for which he was awarded the George Medal. He later became head of the Institute of Mountaineering at Darjeeling. Tenzing Norgay (29 May(?) 1914 – 9…

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Teodoro Moscoso - Early years, Career, Books

Pharmacist and public official, born in Barcelona, Spain. He was an early ally of Luis Muñoz Marín and assisted in the foundation of the Popular Democratic Party (1938). He was best known for his work for economic reform in Puerto Rico, particularly the Fomento Económico (Operation Bootstrap), which he twice headed (1942–60, 1973–6). In 1961 President Kennedy first appointed him ambassador to…

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Teofilo Folengo - Biography

Poet, born in Mantua, Lombardy, N Italy. He became a Benedictine monk at an early age, left the order in 1524, but returned in 1530. His fame rests on the collection of poems Maccheronee, published under the name Merlin Cocai, from which the type of poetry called maccheronica originated. They comprise the comic poem Moscheide and the metrical comic romance Baldus. The latter charts the adventures …

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Terence - Biography, Terence's plays, External references

Latin comic poet, born in Carthage, N Africa. He became the slave of a Roman senator, who gave him an education in Rome and freed him. His successful first play, Andria (166 BC, The Andrian Girl), introduced him to Roman society, where his chief patrons were Laclius and the younger Scipio. His surviving six comedies are Greek in origin and scene, directly based on Menander. Many of his conventions…

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Terence Anderson

Journalist and hostage, born in Lorain, Ohio, USA. After college he enlisted in the US Marine Corps and served in Vietnam as a combat journalist. Joining the Associated Press (1974), he went to cover events in Beirut (1982), where he was kidnapped by Islamic extremists in 1985. He became the longest held American hostage and the last released (Dec 1991), and was paid tribute by many of his fellow …

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Terence MacSwiney - Life, Writings, Bibliography

Irish nationalist, born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. He trained as an accountant, and wrote poetry and plays before becoming a major influence in forming the Irish Volunteers in Cork in 1913. He accepted MacNeill's countermanding of the Easter Rising in 1916, and was elected Sinn Féin MP for West Cork in 1918. In 1920 he was elected Lord Mayor of Cork, and was arrested the following August, being…

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Terence Stamp - Biography, Selected filmography

Film actor, born in London, UK. He made his film debut as the martyred hero of Billy Budd (1962, Oscar nomination), and went on to appear in several major productions, such as The Collector (1965) and Far From the Madding Crowd (1967), before withdrawing in disillusion from Hollywood in 1969 and going to live in England. He returned to the screen as the indomitable Zod in Superman: The Movie (1978…

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Terengganu - History, Administration, Culture and attractions, Sources, references and external links

pop (2000e) 936 000; area 12 928 km²/4990 sq mi. State in NE Peninsular Malaysia; formerly a fief of Malacca and then of Johor, before coming under the rule of Thailand; ceded to Britain, 1909; capital, Kuala Terengganu; fishing, offshore oil. Terengganu (Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia. …

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Teresa Berganza - Films

Mezzo-soprano, born in Madrid, Spain. She made her debut in 1955, and became specially noted for Mozart and Rossini roles. She first sang in England at Glyndebourne (1958), then at Covent Garden (1959), and subsequently in concert and opera all over the world. In 1994 she became the first woman elected to the Spanish Royal Academy of Arts. The Spanish opera singer Teresa Berganza (born 16 M…

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Teresa Stratas - Early life and career, Career highlights, Selected discography, Selected filmography, Sources

Soprano, born in Toronto, Ontaria, SE Canada. She studied at the Toronto Royal Conservatoire and in New York City, and made her debut in Toronto as Mimi in La Bohème (1958). She went on to make her New York debut at the Metropolitan Opera the following year. She was born to a struggling immigrant Greek family in Toronto and at age 13 performed Greek pop songs on the radio. At age 20 Strata…

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terminal velocity - Approximation, Derivation

The greatest velocity an object will reach when allowed to fall through some fluid (usually air or water). Terminal velocity is attained when the resistive forces due to the medium, which increase with velocity, are equal and opposite to the accelerating force acting in the direction of motion. Its value depends on the fluid and on the object's shape, density, and surface roughness. The ter…

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Terminus

The Roman god of boundary marks, where his statue or bust was sometimes placed. His sanctuary on the Capitol was within the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, but as Terminus had to be worshipped in the open air, it was not allowed to be covered in. His festival (Terminalia) was on 23 February. Terminus is a Latin word that literally means Boundary stone but can refer to: …

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termite - Appearance and morphology

A small, social insect that constructs nests in rotten wood or makes earth mounds which may measure several metres across and contain millions of individuals: caste structure of colony well-developed; workers mostly sterile, blind, and with soft white cuticle (known as white ants); soldiers sterile, with large heads and strong jaws; adults (imagos) winged, reproductive forms with compound eyes; gu…

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tern

A small, gull-like seabird, found worldwide; plumage usually pale with black cap and forked tail; head with partly erectile crest (crested tern) or smooth. Some species, such as noddies (ternlets) and marsh terns, are darker, often with wedge-shaped tails. (Family: Laridae, 42 species; some authors put the tern in a separate family, Sternidae.) Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, pr…

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terpene - Structure and biosynthesis, Types

A class of natural products, also known as essential oils, based upon the oligomerization of isoprene, having formulae closely related to (C5H8)n. Common examples, whose names show their origins, are pinene, limonene, menthol, and carotene. Terpenes are a large and varied class of hydrocarbons, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants, particularly conifers, though also by some insect…

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terrapin

A reptile of the family Emydidae, found in fresh or brackish water or on land; hind feet may be enlarged to assist with swimming; some species eat small animals when young, plants when adult; also known as pond turtle. The name is sometimes used only for some of the pond turtle species. (Order: Chelonia.) Terrapin may mean: …

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Terrel (Howard) Bell - U.S. Secretary of Education, Resignation and post-political life, Note of interest

Educator, born in Lava Hot Springs, Idaho, USA. After a career in public school administration he was US Commissioner of Education (1974–6). Later, as US secretary of education (1981–4) he consolidated government programmes, established the National Commission on Excellence, and sponsored its study, A Nation at Risk (1983). Terrel Howard Bell (November 11, 1921-1996) was United States Sec…

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terrier - Terrier types and groups

A small hardy domestic dog, bred for hunting (especially foxes); originally sent into burrows after prey; traditionally aggressive, tenacious, fearless; many modern breeds. Most terrier breeds were developed in the British Isles. Bear in mind that not all terriers are in the terrier group, and not all dogs in the terrier groups are terriers. See: Terrier breeds can b…

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Territorial Army - World War I and earlier, Interwar and World War II, Postwar, Present-day units

A British reserve military force, first formed in 1908 by amalgamating the old volunteer and yeomanry regiments in a new force of part-time soldiers, each battalion of which was attached to a battalion of the regular army. The ‘Terriers’ (known as the Territorial Force to 1920, the Territorials thereafter) fought with distinction in the two world wars. They receive continuous training on a part-…

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territory

In US history, political status prior to the attainment of statehood, held in two stages. In the first, an ‘unorganized territory’ was ruled by a judge; in the second, an ‘organized’ territory could elect its own legislature and non-voting delegate to Congress. Hawaii and Alaska lost their territorial status in the mid-20th-c, when they became US states, and the Virgin Is, Guam, and American S…

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terrorism - Definition, Pejorative use, Democracy, Perpetrators, Tactics, Responses to terrorism, History, Examples of major incidents, Further reading

Coercive and violent behaviour undertaken to achieve or promote a particular political objective or cause, often involving the overthrow of established order. Terrorist activity is designed to induce fear through its indiscriminate, arbitrary, and unpredictable acts of violence, often against members of the population at large. It may be ‘official’, as under Stalin, or ‘unofficial’, as employe…

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Terry (de la Mesa) Allen

US soldier, born in Fort Douglas, Utah, USA. The famously profane son of a professional soldier, he failed to graduate from West Point, and fought as a professional boxer for a time. During World War 2 he became the only officer to lead two infantry divisions in battle; the 1st, composed largely of regulars, in Sicily (1943), and the conscript 104th, which he trained in Oregon and led in France an…

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Terry Gilliam - Early life, "Gilliamations" (Gilliam's Animations), Directing, Film Festival, Trivia

Artist and film director, born in Minneapolis, Michigan, USA. Originally known for his fantasy animations in the television series ‘Monty Python's Flying Circus’ (1969–74), he went on to work in film, directing such imaginative adventures as Jabberwocky (1977), The Time Bandits (1980), The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988), The Fisher King (1991), Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (1998), and …

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Terry Hands - Directed plays

Stage director, born in Aldershot, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Birmingham University, co-founded the Everyman Theatre, Liverpool (1964), then joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1966, where he became an associate director (1967–77), joint artistic director with Trevor Nunn (1978–86), and sole artistic director and chief executive (1986–91). He was consultant director at the Com

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Terry McMillan - Marriage to Jonathan Plummer, Partial bibliography

Novelist, born in Port Huron, Michigan, USA. She studied at Berkeley and Columbia universities and later taught at the universities of Wyoming (1987–90) and Arizona (1990–2). She began writing in her mid-thirties, publishing Mama (1987) followed by a string of best-selling novels including Disappearing Acts (1989), Waiting to Exhale (1992; filmed 1995), How Stella Got Her Groove Back (1996), and…

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Terry Pratchett - Biography, Bibliography, Works about Pratchett, Fans, Internet, Influences, Orangutans, Trademarks

Writer, born in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He is best known for his series of fantasy novels, Discworld, which began in 1983 with The Colour of Magic and which had reached a 30th novel, Thud!, in 2005. Later novels in the series include Wintersmith (2006). The Science of Discworld appeared in 1999, with a second volume in 2002. Other works include the ‘Truckers’ trilogy (call…

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Terry Riley - Life, Musical style and techniques, Notable works, Notable students

Composer, born in Colfax, California, USA. He studied at the University of California, financing himself by playing jazz in local bars. His compositions include In C (1964), first performed by an ensemble including Steve Reich, Reed Streams (1966), and A Rainbow in Curved Air (1968). Born in Colfax, California, Riley studied at Shasta College, San Francisco State University, and the San Fra…

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Terry Sanford - Youth, Gubernatorial career, Duke University, Senate career, Later life, Legacy

US senator and governor, born in Laurinburg, North Carolina, USA. A World War 2 army hero, he became a lawyer and state senator in 1953. As governor (Democrat, North Carolina, 1961–5), he sponsored progressive legislation including the Higher Education Act (1963) and the North Carolina Fund (1963). After writing Storm over the States (1967), he became president of Duke University (1969–87). He t…

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Terry Sawchuk

Ice hockey player, born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, C Canada. One of the game's greatest goaltenders, he started his career with the Detroit Red Wings in 1950, and later played for the Boston Bruins, Toronto Maple Leafs, Los Angeles Kings, and New York Rangers. His 103 shutouts are a National Hockey League record. He appeared in 971 games (1950–70), a record for a goaltender. He was largely responsibl…

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Terry Venables - Playing career, Managerial career, Other interests, Trivia

Football player, manager, and coach, born in Dagenham, E Greater London, UK. He began his career with Chelsea (1958–66), then joined Tottenham Hotspur (1966–8) and Queens Park Rangers (1968–73). As a manager, he took Crystal Palace from the third division to the top of the first division (1976–80), then managed Queens Park Rangers (1980–4), Barcelona (1984–7) - who won the Spanish Championsh…

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Terry Waite - Trivia

Consultant and former hostage, born in Bollington, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. After several posts as an adviser and administrator for various Church projects, including periods in Africa, he became Adviser to the Archbishop of Canterbury on Anglican Communion Affairs (1980–92). As the Archbishop's special envoy, he was particularly involved in negotiations to secure the release of hostages held i…

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Terry Wogan - Career, Honours, Children In Need, Trivia

Broadcaster and writer, born in Limerick, SW Ireland. He began his broadcasting career as a radio announcer in Ireland (1963) before joining the BBC (1965), where he hosted various radio programmes including Late Night Extra (1967–9) and The Terry Wogan Show (1969–72). Resident in Britain from 1969, his popularity grew when he presented Radio Two's Breakfast Show (1972–84). He has hosted severa…

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Terry-Thomas - Biography, Selected filmography

Film actor, born in Finchley, NW Greater London, UK. He began his career as Thomas Terry in music hall and radio before changing his name to Terry Thomas, afterwards adding the hyphen for comic effect. He was the gap-toothed villain in dozens of post-World War 2 comedies, satirizing and eventually personifying the upper-class bounder in such films as I'm All Right Jack (1959), School for Scoundrel…

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Tertiaries

Members of the Third Order of religious life. Normally, these are lay people striving after Christian perfection in life in the world under the guidance of a religious Order, such as the Franciscans or Dominicans. A Regular Tertiary is a member of a community bound by vows. Although something of the kind existed among the Humiliati in the 12th century, the institution of Tertiaries arose ou…

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tertulia

In Spanish literary history, a literary clique or salon which gradually replaced the more formal literary academies of the 18th-c. The word comes from the nickname of that part of the early theatres where the educated classes and clergy sat, known as tertuliantes from their frequent citing of the Christian apologist Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullianus, called Tertuliano in Castilian. Their tertu…

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Tertullian - Life, Writings, Theology, Moral principles

Christian theologian, born in Carthage. He lived for some time at Rome, was converted (c.196), and then returned to Carthage. His opposition to worldliness in the Church culminated in his becoming a leader of the Montanist sect (c.207). The first to produce major Christian works in Latin, he thus exercised a profound influence on the development of ecclesiastical language. He wrote books against h…

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Teruel - History, Miscellaneous

40°22N 1°08W, pop (2000e) 29 000. Capital of Teruel province, Aragón, EC Spain; on R Turia, 302 km/188 mi from Madrid; bishopric; railway; clothes, woollens, soap, leather, flour, wood products, foodstuffs; cathedral (16th-c), Los Arcos aqueduct, Church of St Peter; the town's Mudéjar architecture, a mixture of Christian and Islamic influences, is a world heritage site. Teruel is a …

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terza rima - Form, History, Some Examples

An Italian verse form, where the rhyme dovetails the three-line stanzas, ending with aba, bcb, cdc, etc. It is used by Dante in the Divina commedia, and also by Petrarch and Boccaccio. Chaucer used it for part of A Complaint to his Lady, but it was Sir Thomas Wyatt who pioneered its use in England. Other poets who have employed it are Byron, Shelley, Browning and, more recently, Auden. Terz…

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Tessa (Jane Helen Douglas) Jowell - Early life, Parliament, Culture Secretary, Personal life, Controversy and "Jowellgate"

British stateswoman, born in London, UK. Educated at Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and London, she became a Labour councillor in Camden (1971–86) where she chaired the social services committee. Before becoming Labour MP for Dulwich and West Norwood in 1992, she was active in the voluntary sector, being deputy director of MIND (1974–86), director of community care special project, Birmingham (1986–90), …

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Test Act

A British Act passed in 1673 by a parliament anxious to curb Catholic influence at Charles II's court. Every office holder had to take Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance, and to take Communion according to the rites of the Church of England. A declaration against the doctrine of transubstantiation also had to be made. The passage of the Act necessitated the resignation of the king's brother, James,…

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testosterone - Sources of testosterone, Mechanism of effects, Effects of testosterone on humans, Therapeutic use of testosterone

The male sex hormone, produced in the testes, and responsible for the development of the primary sex organs, secondary sex characteristics (eg facial hair), and sexual behaviour. Like other steroid hormones, testosterone is derived from cholesterol. The largest amounts of testosterone are produced by the testes in men, but it is also synthesized in smaller quantities in women by the t…

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tetanus - Signs and Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Epidemiology

A disease resulting from infection with Clostridium tetani, which exists in the soil and in the gut of humans and other animals; also known as lockjaw. It especially affects farmers and gardeners. Infection enters the body through wounds in the skin caused by a nail or splinter. The bacteria produce a toxin which affects motor nerve cells in the spinal cord, and induces convulsions and muscle spas…

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tetany - Referring to a single muscle operating normally, Referring to multiple muscles, as a medical sign

A state of neuromuscular hyperexcitability, usually associated with low blood calcium levels, but also induced by the toxin produced by the clostridium tetani bacteria. It leads to muscle cramps, high blood pressure, convulsions, and spasm of the larynx, which may result in life-threatening obstruction of the airway. There are two classic clinical signs of tetany: Chvostek's sign is a facial twitc…

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tetra

Any of many small colourful freshwater fish (Family: Characidae), from South and Central America; popular with aquarists; length typically 3–10 cm/1¼ in; body rather carp-like, but lacking barbels and with well-developed jaw teeth. Tetra species: …

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Teutonic Knights - History, Cultural references, Names in other languages, Coat of arms gallery, Seals and coins

Members of the Order of St Mary of the Teutons, a religious-military order founded c.1190 and inspired by crusading ideals. By the 14th-c they controlled the E Baltic lands of the Livonian Knights, Prussia, and E Pomerania. In 1410 the Poles and Lithuanians routed the Order at Tannenberg. The Order was dissolved in Germany in 1809, but re-established in Austria in 1834. Its habit was a white robe …

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Tex Avery - Early years, "Termite Terrace", Creation of Looney Tunes stars, Speaking of Animals, Avery at MGM

Film cartoon director, born in Texas, USA. He joined the Walter Lantz animation studio in 1929, then moved to Warner Brothers, where he was noticed for his zany comedy, creating Daffy Duck, and developing Bugs Bunny in A Wild Hare (1940). With MGM his creations included Droopy (1943) and Screwy Squirrel (1944). In 1955 he moved into television commercials, and later joined Hanna–Barbera for the t…

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Tex Rickard - Trivia

Boxing promoter, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. A colourful, buccaneering character, he ran a gambling business in Texas, made and lost a fortune in the Yukon in the 1890s, and arranged his first prize fight in 1906. He promoted matches during boxing's ‘golden age’, including the Jack Dempsey–George Carpentier bout in 1921 - boxing's first $1 million gate - and the famous Dempsey–Gene Tun…

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Tex Ritter

Country music singer and songwriter, born in Murvaul, Texas, USA, the father of John Ritter. While studying at the University of Texas he became interested in cowboy songs and folklore, and although he began law school at Northwestern University, he left to take up a career as a folksinger. By 1930 he had his first role on Broadway, made his first film in 1936, and during the 1930s he appeared in …

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Tex Thornton

Conglomerate organizer, born in Haskell, Texas, USA. After developing the armed forces' first statistical management control system during World War 2, he led the ‘Whiz Kids’ team that modernized Ford's management (1946–9) and restructured Hughes Aircraft's management (1949–53). He co-founded the electronics company (1953) that became Litton Industries, and through dozens of mergers it became …

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Texas - History, Geography, Law and government, Economy, Culture, Cities and metropolitan areas, Miscellany, Further reading

pop (2000e) 20 851 800; area 691 003 km²/266 807 sq mi. State in SW USA, divided into 254 counties; the ‘Lone Star State’; second largest state in the USA; first settled by the Spanish in the late 1600s; first American settlement, 1821; American rebellion after request for separate statehood turned down by Mexico, 1835; declared independence, defeated by Santa Anna at the Alamo, 1836; M…

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textual criticism - Overview, Eclecticism, Stemmatics, Copy-Text Editing, Cladistics, Applications of textual criticism

A scholarly procedure devoted to establishing the authenticity and accuracy of literary texts; unlike other forms of criticism, not interpretive or evaluative in character. It involves the scrutiny of manuscripts where they exist, the collation of different readings (recension), and where evidence is incomplete or inconclusive, the practice of emendation. The method was first applied to biblical t…

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Thabo (Mvuyelwa) Mbeki - Early years, Role in African Politics, Economic policies, Political style, Mbeki and the Internet

Leader of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1997, and president of South Africa (1999– ), born in Idutywa, SE South Africa. He joined the ANC Youth League as a teenager, and in 1959 was expelled from school for political activities. By the time his father, Govan Mbeki (1910–2001), was sentenced to life at the Rivonia Trial of 1964, Thabo was in exile. He then studied in England and the US…

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Thaddeus Stevens - Early life, Political life, Trivia, Death, Legacy

US representative, born in Danville, Vermont, USA. Congenitally lame, he grew up with an intense empathy for society's poor and disenfranchised. He graduated from Dartmouth College, then studied law, setting up a practice in Gettysburg, PA (1816). He served in the state's House of Representatives (1833–41), but the formative experience of his years in Gettysburg inspired his passionate antipathy …

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Thailand - History, Government, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture

official name Kingdom of Thailand The Kingdom of Thailand is a country in Southeast Asia, bordering Laos and Cambodia to the east, the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia to the south, and the Andaman Sea and Myanmar to the west. According to archeological evidence various indigenous cultures have existed in Thailand from the time of the Ban Chiang culture (4420 BC-3400 BC) onwa…

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Thales - Life, Theories, Interpretations, Influence on others, Sources, Trivia

Greek natural philosopher, traditionally regarded as the first philosopher, born in Miletus. His mercantile journeys took him to Egypt and Babylon, where he acquired land-surveying and astronomical techniques, and is said to have predicted the solar eclipse in 585 BC. None of his writings survive, but Aristotle attributes to him the doctrine that water is the original substance from which all thin…

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thalidomide - History, Thalidomide today, Thalidomide analogs, Notable children of those who took thalidomide

A sedative introduced in West Germany in 1956, in the UK in 1958, and subsequently in some other countries. It became widely used because of its particular safety (even massive overdoses are not lethal). However, it was recognized as a teratogen (causing congenital abnormalities) and withdrawn; approximately 20% of babies whose mothers had taken thalidomide during early pregnancy suffered absence …

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River Thames

River rising in the Cotswold Hills, SE Gloucestershire, England, UK; flows 352 km/219 mi E and SE through Oxfordshire, the former county of Berkshire, Surrey, and Greater London; approaches the North Sea in a long, wide estuary between Essex (N) and Kent (S); navigable as far as London by large ships; chief tributaries, the Cherwell, Thame, Lea, Colne, Roding, Kennet, Mole, Wey, and Medway River…

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Thar Desert - Origin of the Thar Desert, Physiography and geology, Desert soils, Biodiversity, Natural vegetation

area c.320 000 km²/125 000 sq mi. Arid region in NW India and E Pakistan, S Asia; 800 km/500 mi long and 400 km/250 mi wide; between the Indus and the Sutlej Rivers (W) and the Aravalli Range (E); bounded S by the Rann of Kutch; crossed by irrigation canals in N and W, largest the Rajasthan Canal. The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a desert located in weste…

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Th - Information, Information, Trivia, Communities, Historical population, Other

pop (2001e) 18 000; area 379 km²/146 sq mi. Wooded island in the N Aegean Sea, Greece; located opposite the mouth of the R Néstos, separated from the mainland of Macedonia by a 6·5 km/4 mi wide channel; highest mountain is Mt Ipsárion 1203 m/3947 ft; island famed in ancient times for its gold mines and marble quarries; chief town, Thásos (formerly Limín); ancient settlements excavat…

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the Andrews Sisters - History, Hit records, Other songs, Filmography

Popular musical group, consisting of LaVerne Andrews (1915–67), Maxine (or Maxene) Andrews (1918–95), and Patti (Patricia) Andrews (1920– ), all born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Of Norwegian-Greek parentage, they formed a harmony trio in 1932, won some local amateur contests, and gained national attention with their recording of ‘Bei Mir Bist Du Schoen’ (1937). They performed on radio wit…

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The Beach Boys - History, Personnel changes through the years, Discography, Album availability

US singing/instrumental group, formed in California in 1961, consisting originally of brothers Brian Wilson (1942– , vocalist, bass guitar, keyboards, songwriter), Carl Wilson (1946–98, vocalist, guitar) and Dennis Wilson (1944–83, vocalist, drums), with cousin Mike Love (1941– , vocalist) and Al(an) Jardine (1942– , vocalist, bass guitar, guitar); later also Bruce Johnston (1944– ) and othe…

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The Beatles - History, Musical evolution, Influence, Instrumentation, Discography, On film, Further reading

British pop group, formed in Liverpool, NW England, UK in 1960, consisting at that time of John Lennon (1940–80, rhythm guitar, keyboards, vocals), Paul McCartney (1942– , bass guitar, vocals), George Harrison (1943–2001, lead guitar, sitar, vocals), and Pete Best (1941– , drums). In 1962 Best was replaced by Ringo Starr (1940– , real name Richard Starkey), and the band signed a record contra…

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The Carpenters - Early life, The Carpenters, Early 1980s, Karen's sudden death, After Carpenters, Albums, Singles

Brother and sister vocal duo, both born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Karen Carpenter (1950–83, vocals, drums) and Richard Carpenter (1946– , vocals, keyboards). They began working together in the mid -1960s, and their second album, Close To You, reached US number 1 in 1970. During the 1970s, they appealed to fans of all ages. The partnership ended following the breakdown of Karen's health in …

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The Monkees

US pop group, formed in 1966 with members Davy Jones (1945– , vocals, guitar), Mike Nesmith (1942– , vocals, guitar), Peter Tork (1944– , vocals, keyboards, bass guitar), and Micky Dolenz (1946– , drums). Created by the producers of the successful television show of the same name, the music was originally played by session musicians. Their first single, ‘Last Train To Clarkesville’ (1966), r…

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The Osmonds - Career, Musical success, The Osmonds today, Discography, Trivia

US pop vocal group, formed in 1959 with members Alan (1949– ), Wayne (1951– ), Merrill (1953– ), Jay (1955– ), Donny (1957– ), Marie (1959– ), and Jimmy (1963– ). The group had been formed as a barber-shop style harmony quartet by the four older sons of a devoted Mormon family. Joined by the younger members of the family, they went on to become one of the most successful acts of the 1970s. …

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The Rolling Stones - History, Lineups, Discography, Tours, Further reading

Rock group, members Mick Jagger (1943– ) vocals, Keith Richards (1943– ) guitar, Bill Wyman (1936– ) bass, Charlie Watts (1942– ) drums, Ron Wood (1947– ) guitar, former member Brian Jones (1944–69) guitar, one of the longest-running and most successful popular music groups to emerge in the 1960s. They first performed together in 1962. At first, they were very much in the shadow of The Beatl…

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Thea Astley - Bibliography

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. She studied at the University of Queensland and began teaching in 1944, often in remote locations, before joining the faculty at Macquarie University, Sydney (1968–80). Brought up a Roman Catholic, much of her writing has been influenced by her Catholicism and the environment of N Queensland. She won the prestigious Mile…

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Thea Beckman - Selected bibliography, Thea Beckmanprize

Writer of children's books, born in Rotterdam, W Netherlands. Very popular with older children, she also writes historical works and books that cover topical issues. Her many prizes include the Golden Slate-pencil (Gouden Griffel) for Kruistocht in spijkerbroek (1974, Crusade in Jeans). The following is a list of her best known novels: After her death, the Historisch Nieuwsblad …

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Thea Musgrave - Biography, Works

Composer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. She studied at Edinburgh University, the Paris Conservatoire, and with Nadia Boulanger. Her early work was largely Scottish in inspiration, but in the late 1950s became more abstract, and she has used serial and aleatory devices. Her music includes the dramatic choral work The Five Ages of Man (1963), a full-length ballet, Beauty and the Beast (1968), …

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