Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 7

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Arkansas River - Watershed trails, Pronunciation

River in SC USA; rises in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado; flows SE through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas; joins the Mississippi S of Memphis; length 2330 km/1450 mi; major tributaries the Cimmaron, Canadian, Neosho, Verdigris; navigable for its length in Arkansas. The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast, and …

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Arles - Geography, History, Economy, Main sights, Miscellaneous, Sources and external links

43°41N 4°38E, pop (2000e) 55 000. Old town in Bouches-du-Rhône department, SE France; 72 km/45 mi NE of Marseille, at head of the Rhône delta; capital of Gaul, 4th-c; formerly an important crossroads and capital of Provence; railway; boatbuilding, metalwork, foodstuffs, hats; Roman remains, including a huge arena and theatre (a world heritage site), 11th-c cathedral; associations with van …

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Arlington - Canada

pop (2000e) 189 500; area 68 km²/26 sq mi. County of Virginia, USA, a suburb of Washington, DC; site of the Arlington National Cemetery (1920) with a memorial amphitheatre and Tomb of the Unknown Soldier; Pentagon Building; Washington National Airport. Arlington is the name of many places: …

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arm - Anatomy of the human arm

A term commonly used to denote the whole of the upper limb; more precisely, in anatomy, the region between the shoulder and elbow joints, distinguished from the forearm (between the elbow and wrist joints), and the hand (beyond the wrist joint). The arm articulates with the trunk via the pectoral girdle (the scapula, or shoulder blade, and clavicle). The bones are the humerus in the arm, the radiu…

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Armada

42º84N 82º88W, pop (2001e) 1600. Village in Armada Township, Macomb Co, Michigan, USA; located 144 km/89 mi of Lansing; birthplace of Harlan Barrows and Clarence Ridley; town fair (Aug). Armada may refer to: …

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armadillo - Habitat and physiology, Armadillos and science, Armadillos and humans, Trivia

A nocturnal mammal (an edentate), found from South America to S USA; long snout and tubular ears; head and body covered with bony plates; large front claws for digging; eats ants, termites, and other small animals. (Family: Dasypodidae, 20 species.) Armadillos are small placental mammals of the family Dasypodidae, known for having a bony armor shell. In the United States, the sole resident …

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Armageddon - Bahá'í Faith, Jehovah's Witnesses, Rastafari movement, Seventh-day Adventists

A place mentioned in the New Testament (Rev 16.16) as the site of the final cosmic battle between the forces of good and evil in the last days. The name is possibly a corruption of ‘the mountains of Megiddo’ or some other unknown location in Israel. The word Armageddon is known only from a single verse in the Greek New Testament, but it is thought to be derived from the Hebrew words Har M…

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Armagh (city) - Administration, History, 2001 Census, Education, Sport

54°21N 6°39W, pop (2000e) 14 800. City in Armagh district, Co Armagh, SE Northern Ireland, UK; seat of the kings of Ulster, 400 BC–AD 333; religious centre of Ireland in the 5th-c, when St Patrick was made archbishop here; Protestant and Catholic archbishoprics; city status, 1995; textiles (linen), engineering, shoes, food processing; St Patrick's Cathedral (Roman Catholic, 1840–73), observa…

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Armagh (county) - Administration, History, 2001 Census, Education, Sport

pop (2000e) 132 300; area 1254 km²/484 sq mi. County in SE Northern Ireland, UK, divided into two districts (Armagh, Craigavon); the name is also used for one of these districts, pop (2000e) 53 000, and its administrative centre; bounded S and SW by the Republic of Ireland; rises to 577 m/1893 ft at Slieve Gullion; county town, Armagh; other chief towns include Lurgan and Portadown; pota…

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Armand David - See also

French Lazarist missionary and naturalist, born in Espelette in the Pyrenees. Ordained in 1862, he became a missionary in China, where he discovered (1866–74) hundreds of previously unknown botanical and zoological species, many of them sent to the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. His most famous discovery was Père David's deer (elaphurus davidianus). Father David summed up his labours in an …

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Armand Guillaumin

Impressionist painter, born in Paris, France. A clerk who painted as a hobby, he met Cézanne at the Académie Suisse (1861) and exhibited at the first Impressionist exhibition (1874) and most later exhibitions by the group. A friend of Gaugin, Pissarro, and van Gogh, in 1891 he won 100 000 francs in a lottery and devoted himself to painting. Regarded as one of the minor Impressionists, his later…

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Armand Hammer - Quotations about Hammer

Industrialist, art collector, and philanthropist, born in New York City, New York, USA. His father, Julius Hammer, was a Russian immigrant who was a doctor, a socialist activist, and a founding member of the American Communist Party. While earning his medical degree at Columbia University, Armand made his first million dollars running his father's pharmaceutical business. In 1921 he went to the ne…

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Armando Diaz - Reference

Military leader, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. In charge of operations at the outbreak of World War 1, he replaced Luigi Cadorna as chief-of-staff after the Caporetto defeat in November 1917. He reorganized the army and was responsible for the victorious Vittorio Veneto offensive in 1918. He became a senator from 1918, then war minister (1922–4), and was made marshal of Italy in 1924. …

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armed forces - Organization, Benefits and costs, Armed forces of the world

The military organizations which a country officially establishes in order to impose its will onto other countries or to defend itself from attack by other countries. Such forces are to be distinguished from unofficial armed groups (such as brigands) and from the internal law-enforcement agencies (such as the police). The three main branches of the armed forces are the army, navy, and air force; b…

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Armenia (republic)

Official name Republic of Armenia, Armenian Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun …

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Armenia (Turkey)

Ancient kingdom largely occupying the present-day Van region of E Turkey and parts of NW Iran and the republic of Armenia; SE of the Black Sea and SW of the Caspian Sea; ruled by the Ottoman Turks from 1514; E territory ceded to Persia, 1620; further districts lost to Russia, 1828–9; today Turkish Armenia comprises the NE provinces of Turkey; chief towns, Kars, Erzurum, Erzincan; Armenian nationa…

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Armenians - History, Geographic distribution, Culture, Institutions

A people who came from Armenia, now NE Turkey and the republic of Armenia. Of Indo-European origin, they speak a language of that family with some Caucasian features, and are Christians, affiliated to the Armenian Catholic branch of the Roman Catholic Church, or the Monophysite Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox) Church. Their highly developed ancient culture, particularly in fine art, architecture, and…

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armillary sphere - The description and use of the armillary sphere

A celestial globe, first used by the Greek astronomers, in which the sky is represented by a skeleton framework of intersecting circles, the Earth being at the centre. In antiquity, it was of major importance for measuring star positions. The first Chinese sphere dates from the 4th-c BC; they had a 20-ton sphere in the 11th-c. An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, …

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Arminius - Biography, Legacy, Modern popular culture

Chief of the German Cherusci, who served as an officer in the Roman army and acquired Roman citizenship. However, in AD 9 he allied with other German tribes against the Romans, and annihilated an entire Roman army of three legions commanded by Publius Quintilius Varus. He was later murdered by some of his own kinsmen. Arminius (also Hermann, Armin, 16 BC-AD 21 was a chieftain of the Germani…

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Armistead Maupin - Written works

Novelist, born in Washington District of Columbia, USA. He attended the University of North Carolina, and after serving as a naval officer in Vietnam he settled in California in 1971. The six volumes of his Tales of the City sequence (beginning in 1978) have been praised for their unsentimental portrait of gay lifestyle on the US West Coast. Later novels include Night Listener (2000). His m…

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Armistice Day

The anniversary of the day (11 Nov 1918) on which World War 1 ended, marked in the UK by a two-minute silence at 11 o'clock, the hour when the fighting stopped (the armistice agreement having been signed six hours earlier); replaced after World War 2 by Remembrance Sunday. The US equivalent is Veterans' Day. Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1…

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Armory show

An art exhibition, officially entitled The International Exhibition of Modern Art, held at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York, 1913. It introduced modern art to the USA. Many exhibitions have been held in the vast spaces of U.S. National Guard armories, but the Armory Show refers to the "International Exhibition of Modern Art" that opened in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on …

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armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) - Types of AFVs, Types of AFVs

A generic term for combat vehicles such as tanks, armoured cars, armoured personnel carriers, and infantry fighting vehicles which have armour protection against hostile fire. An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. Armoured fighting vehicles are classified according to their intended role on the battlefield and chara…

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arms control - Enactment, Enforcement, Theory of Arms Control, History of Arms Control

Any restraint exercised by one or more countries over the level, type, deployment, and use of their armaments, occurring through agreement or unilaterally. Its aim is to reduce the possibility of war and/or reduce its consequences. It is premised on the notion that states can reduce arms to their mutual benefit, including that of reducing the burden of costs, without abandoning their hostile stanc…

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arms race

The continual accumulation in terms of numbers and capacity of military weapons by two or more states, in the belief that only by maintaining a superiority will their national security be guaranteed. Many maintain that, in such a situation, the continual growth in weapons becomes a threat to security by increasing international tension and distrust. More generically, the term "arms race" is…

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army - Field Army

The branch of the armed forces configured and equipped to make war on land. The term army, while referring to a nation's land forces, is also conferred on large military formations engaged in a particular theatre of war (the British ‘Eighth Army’, for example). These are subdivided into Army Corps and Divisions, and may be combined for command purposes into Army Groups. Army (From Latin a…

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army ant - New World Army Ants

A tropical ant with very reduced or absent eyes. It forms enormous colonies characterized by group foraging behaviour and frequent changes in nest site. A bivouac nest formed by living ants protects the wingless queen and the brood. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Formicidae.) There are over 200 known species of army ant, divided into New World and Old World types. All are members of the true …

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Arna (Wendell) Bontemps - Works

Writer, anthologist, and librarian, born in Alexandria, Louisiana, USA. Raised in California, he studied at Pacific Union College there (BA). In 1923 his first published poetry was ‘Crisis’ in the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, edited by W E B Du Bois. His ‘Golgatha Is a Mountain’ (1925) won the Alexander Pushkin Award. He spent most of his career a…

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Arnaut Daniel

Provençal poet, born at the Castle of Rebeyrac, Périgord, SW France. He became a member of the court of Richard Coeur de Lion and was esteemed one of the best of the troubadours, particularly for his treatment of the theme of love. He introduced the sestina, the pattern of which was later adapted by Dante and Petrarch. Arnaut Danièl was a Provençal troubadour of the 13th century, praise…

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Arne (Wilhelm Kaurin) Tiselius

Chemist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at Uppsala under Svedberg, and became professor of biochemistry there (1938). He investigated serum proteins by electrophoretic analysis, and in chromatography evolved new methods for the analysis of colourless substances. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1948, and later became president of the Nobel Foundation (1960–4). Arne Wi…

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Arne Jacobsen - Major works

Architect and designer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He studied at the Royal Danish Academy, where he later became professor of architecture (1956). He won a House of the Future competition in 1929 and became a leading exponent of Modernism. He designed many private houses in the Bellavista resort near Copenhagen; his main public buildings were the SAS skyscraper in Copenhagen (1955) and St Cather…

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Arne Sucksdorff

Film director, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied natural science, then art, but preferred photography. His first short film won awards, and resulted in a contract with the major studio, Svensk Filmindustri. He made a series of prominent nature films which, though magical at times, emphasize the cruel and dramatic aspects of animal life. Titles include Människor i stad (1947, Rhythm of a City)…

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Arnhem - Population centres, History, Places of interest, Transport

52°00N 5°53E, pop (2000e) 139 000. Capital city of Gelderland province, E Netherlands; on the right bank of the lower Rhine, 53 km/33 mi SE of Utrecht; seat of the law courts, several government agencies, and the provincial government; on the site of a Roman settlement; charter, 1233; heavily damaged in World War 2; scene of unsuccessful airborne landing of British troops (Sep 1944); railway…

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Arnhem Land

The peninsular plateau in N Australia, E of Darwin; named after the Dutch ship which arrived here in 1618; chief town, Nhulunbuy; now contains Kakadu national park, and a reserve for Aborigines; bauxite and uranium mining. Arnhem Land is an area of 97,000 km² in the north-eastern corner of the Northern Territory, Australia. Until the mid-1950s under direct rule from the territory capital D…

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Arno (Allan) Penzias

Astrophysicist, born in Munich, SE Germany. A refugee with his family from Nazi Germany, he studied at Colombia University, joining the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1961. In 1965 he and his colleague Robert Wilson, exploring the Milky Way with a radio telescope, discovered cosmic microwave background radiation - a discovery which has provided some of the strongest evidence for the ‘big bang’ t…

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Arnobius the Elder

A teacher of rhetoric in Sicca, Numidia (Africa). He became a Christian c.300, and wrote a vigorous defence of Christianity (Adversus nationes). Arnobius (called Afer, and sometimes "the Elder"), early Christian writer, was a teacher of rhetoric at Sicca Venerea in proconsular Africa during the reign of Diocletian. His conversion to Christianity is said by Jerome to have been oc…

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Arnold (Abner) Newman - Early life and career, Success as photographer

Photographer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied painting at the University of Miami but decided to pursue his interest in photography, and later met Alfred Stieglitz, who encouraged him in his chosen career. Following exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art and the Philadelphia Museum of Art (1945), he gained the first of many commissions for Life magazine. He remained a prolific fr…

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Arnold (Daniel) Palmer - Major Championships

Golfer, born in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, USA. One of golf's most charismatic players, he was instrumental in popularizing the sport in the US. After a successful amateur career at Wake Forest College, he turned professional and won the Canadian Open (1955), and during 1958–64 he won the Masters four times, the British Open twice, and the US Open once. One of the first television-age golfing persona…

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Arnold (Johannes Wilhelm) Sommerfeld

Physicist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He studied at Königsberg and became professor of mathematics at Clausthal (1897), and professor of physics at Aachen (1900) and Munich (1906). With Felix Klein he developed the theory of the gyroscope. He researched into a variety of problems, including X-ray and electron diffraction, and radio waves. He is best known for his work…

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Arnold (Joseph) Toynbee - Biography, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England, Social commitment, Works

Historian, born in London, UK, the nephew of Arnold Toynbee. He studied at Oxford, served in the Foreign Office in both World Wars, and attended the Paris peace conferences (1919 and 1946). He was professor of modern Greek and Byzantine history at London (1919–24) and director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (1925–55). His major work was the multi-volume Study of History …

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Arnold (Lucius) Gesell

Psychologist, born in Alma, Wisconsin, USA, the brother of Gerhard Gesell. He studied at Clark and Yale universities, became Director of the Clinic of Child Development at Yale in 1911, and also taught at Yale School of Medicine (1915–48). He later acted as research consultant to the Gesell Institute of Child Development (1950–8). He devised standard scales for measuring the progress of infant d…

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Arnold (Orville) Beckman - Early life, Education, pH Meter, Transistor

Electrical engineer, inventor, and philanthropist, born in Cullom, Illinois, USA. He worked as a Bell Telephone research engineer and taught at the California Institute of Technology before establishing his own firm, Beckman Instruments, to produce scientific instruments of his own invention. His quartz spectrophotometer made automatic chemical analysis possible. His company developed a long line …

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Arnold Henry Guyot

Geographer, born in Boudevilliers, W Switzerland. He studied at Neuchâtel and in Germany, became professor of geology at Neuchâtel (1839), and studied glaciers in Switzerland with Jean Louis Agassiz. In 1848 he emigrated to the USA, and became professor of physical geography and geology at Princeton (1854), and was in charge of the meteorological department of the Smithsonian Institution. His na…

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Arnold of Brescia - Life, Life and death in Rome

Clergyman and politician, born in Brescia, N Italy. He adopted the monastic life, but his criticism of the Church's wealth and temporal power led to his banishment from Italy (1139). In France he met with bitter hostility from St Bernard of Clairvaux, and took refuge for five years in Zürich. An insurrection against the papal government in Rome drew him there (1143), and for 10 years he struggled…

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Arnold Schoenberg - Music, Extramusical interests, Works

Composer, born in Vienna, Austria. He was largely self-taught, and in his 20s lived by orchestrating operettas while composing such early works as the string sextet Verklärte Nacht (1899, Transfigured Night). His search for a personal musical style emerged in these works, which were not well received: his Chamber Symphony caused a riot at its first performance in 1907 through its abandonment of t…

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Arnold Schwarzenegger - Early life, Bodybuilding career, Acting career, Political career, Other aspects of Schwarzenegger's life, Bibliography

US film actor, born near Graz, SE Austria. He took up body-building at the age of 14, winning several Mr Universe and Mr Olympia titles, then starred in a body-building documentary, Pumping Iron (1977). He had various small film roles before he was cast in Stay Hungry (1976), for which he received a Golden Globe as best newcomer. In the 1980s he became established as the leading figure in a new ge…

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Arnold Toynbee - Biography, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England, Social commitment, Works

Economic historian and social reformer, born in London, UK. He lectured in economic history at Oxford, and also to numerous workers' adult education classes, and undertook social work in the East End of London with Samuel Barnett. He is best known as the coiner of the phrase and author of The Industrial Revolution in England (1884). Toynbee Hall, a university settlement in Whitechapel, London, was…

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Arnold von Winkelried

Swiss patriot, knight of Unterwalden. At the Battle of Sempach (1386), when the Swiss failed to break the compact line of Austrian spears, he is said to have grasped as many pikes as he could reach, buried them in his bosom and bore them by his weight to the earth. His comrades rushed into the breach, slaughtered the Austrians, and gained a decisive victory. Arnold von Winkelried or Arnold …

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Arnold Zweig - Life and work, Bibliography

Writer, born in Glogów, W Poland (formerly Glogau, Germany). His writing, socialistic in outlook, was coloured by his interest in Zionism, which led him to seek refuge in Palestine when exiled by the Nazis in 1934. He is best known for his pacifist novel, Der Streit um den Sergeanten Grischa (1928, The Case of Sergeant Grischa). Arnold Zweig (November 10, 1887 - November 26, 1968) was a Ge…

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Arnolfo di Cambio - Selected works, Sculpture

Italian sculptor and architect, the designer of Florence Cathedral. A pupil of Nicola Pisano, he worked on his master's shrine of S Dominic, Bologna, and the pulpit at Siena before going to Rome in 1277. His tomb of Cardinal de Braye at Orvieto set the style for wall-tombs for more than a century. The remains of his sculptural decoration for Florence Cathedral are in the cathedral museum. A…

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Arnulf of Carinthia

German emperor. He was elected King of Germany in 887, defeated the Normans at Louvain, and strengthened his power in Bavaria, Swabia, and Franconia. He was called by Pope Formosus in 894 and intervened in the disputes between Berengario and Guido of Spoleto, the first German king to intervene in Italian events. Crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Formosus in 896, he was later deposed by Berengario an…

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aromatherapy - History, Materials, Theory, Choice and purchase, Price

A popular form of complementary medicine which uses concentrated essential oils extracted from plants. Some aromatherapists have a background in conventional medicine or in paramedical disciplines such as physiotherapy, but others may use alternative systems such as traditional Chinese medicine or radiesthesia. The application of oil to the skin is an effective way of getting active agents to be a…

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aromatic compound

A compound related to benzene, with bonding usually represented as alternate single and double bonds, but more stable than that arrangement would predict. Unlike an aliphatic compound with multiple bonds, it will react more often by substitution than by addition. Its name is derived from the odour of benzene. Aromatic compound has different meanings depending on the context: …

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Aroostook War - Background

(1838–9) A US/Canadian boundary dispute between the state of Maine and the province of New Brunswick, leading to near-hostilities. It was resolved by a temporary truce, and permanently settled by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty (1842). The Aroostook War, also called the Pork and Beans War, the Lumberjack's War or the Northeastern Boundary Dispute, was an undeclared, bloodless North American …

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arquebus - Effectiveness, Mechanism, History

A firearm dating from the 15th-c, a development of the hand cannon, in outline a forerunner of the musket. Fired in action by a flame held to the touch-hole, the weapon was supported by a forked rest holding up the barrel at the operator's chest height. The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut- possibly related to German 'Hackebuechse') was a primitive firearm used in the 15th t…

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Arran

area 430 km²/166 sq mi. Island in North Ayrshire, W Scotland, UK; separated from W coast mainland by the Firth of Clyde; rises to 874 m/2867 ft at Goat Fell; chief centres, Brodick, Lamlash, Lochranza; ferry links between Brodick and Ardrossan and Lochranza and Claonaig; a major tourist area; Brodick castle and country park, Bronze Age Moss Farm Road stone circle, 13th–14th-c Lochranza cast…

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arrangement - Explanation, Credit for an 'arrangement', Popular music, Classical music, Jazz music, Arrangers, Further reading

A transcription or reworking of a musical composition, usually (but not always) for a different performing medium. Before c.1600, arrangements (or ‘intabulations’) of vocal music formed a major part of the keyboard and lute repertory, and in more recent times instruments such as the accordion and the guitar, for which only a limited original repertory exists, have had to rely largely on arrangem…

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Arras - Ecclesiastical history, Miscellaneous

50°17N 2°46E, pop (2000e) 44 600. Old frontier town and capital of Pas-de-Calais department, N France, between Lille and Amiens; formerly famous for its tapestries; railway; bishopric; agricultural equipment, engineering, sugar beet, vegetable oil, hosiery; town hall (16th-c), cathedral (18th-c); birthplace of Robespierre; many war cemeteries nearby; Vimy Ridge memorial, 10 km/6 mi N. …

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arrest (common) - Legal cautions, Non-criminal arrests

The stopping and detaining by lawful authority of a person suspected of a criminal offence; referred to as apprehension in Scotland. Arrests are carried out mainly by the police, but a citizen's arrest is possible in certain circumstances; anyone may lawfully arrest without a warrant someone who is committing an arrestable offence, or who is reasonably suspected of so doing. A person wrongly arres…

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arrest(ment) (in Scotland) - Legal cautions, Non-criminal arrests

A civil remedy in Scotland, whereby a court takes control of property owned by a debtor, but in the hands of a third party (eg a bank). An arrest is the action of the police, or person acting under the law, to take a person into custody so that they may be forthcoming to answer for the commission of a crime. In many legal systems, an arrest requires mere verbal information to persons …

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Arrian - Arrian's life, Arrian's Work, Other surviving classical histories of Alexander

Greek historian, a native of Nicomedia in Bithynia. An officer in the Roman army, in 136 he was appointed prefect of Cappadocia (legate in 131–7). His chief work is the Anabasis Alexandrou, or history of the campaigns of Alexander the Great, which has survived almost entire. His accounts of the people of India, and of a voyage round the Euxine, are valuable for studies of ancient geography. …

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Arrigo Boito - Biography

Poet, composer, and writer, born in Padua, NE Italy. He studied at the Milan Conservatory. The brother of architect and writer Camillo Boito, he pursued musical innovation in different fields. In his operas Mefistofele (1868–75) and the unfinished Nerone, he attempted to overcome conventional formulas. In his poetry, which was connected with the scapigliatura movement, words are equated to music,…

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arrowroot

A type of starch obtained from the tuberous roots of several plants. The most important is probably West Indian arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), a rhizomatous perennial growing to 2 m/6½ ft; leaves with sheathing bases; sepals and petals in threes; native to South America, and cultivated in New World tropics for edible starch. East Indian arrowroot is obtained from Curcuma angustifolia, a relat…

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ars antiqua

A term used to distinguish the music of the late 12th-c and 13th-c from that of the succeeding period. It is particularly associated with the theorists and composers of the Notre Dame school in Paris, notably Léonin and Pérotin. Ars antiqua is a term which refers to the music of Europe of the late Middle Ages between approximately 1170 and 1310, covering the period of the Notre Dame schoo…

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ars nova - References and further reading

In music, a term for the ‘new art’ of the 14th-c, as distinct from that of the preceding period. Its principal representatives were the composer Guillaume de Machaut, and the theorist Philippe de Vitry. Ars nova was a stylistic period in music of the Late Middle Ages, centered in France, which encompassed the period roughly from the publication of the Roman de Fauvel (1310 and 1314)…

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arsenic

As, element 33. A grey metalloid in the nitrogen family, usually showing oxidation states 3 and 5. It is used in some lead alloys and in semiconductors, especially gallium arsenide (GaAs). The name is commonly applied to arsenic (III) oxide (As2O3), the highly poisonous white arsenic of rodent control and detective novels. Arsenic (IPA: /ˈɑːsənɪk/, /ˈɑɹsənɪk/) is a chemical elemen…

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Arshile Gorky - Biography, Gorky in fiction

Painter, born in Khorkom Vari, Turkish Armenia. He emigrated in 1920, and studied at the Rhode Island School of Design and in Boston. He combined ideas and images derived from Surrealism and Biomorphic art, and played a key role in the emergence of the New York school of abstract Expressionists in the 1940s. Gorky was born in the village of poo Khorkom near Van, Turkey. (In later years Gork…

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arsine - Discovery, Synthesis, Reactions, Microelectronics applications, Chemical warfare applications, Forensic science and the Marsh test, Toxicology

AsH3, boiling point ?55°C. A gaseous hydride of arsenic, formed by reducing solutions of arsenic compounds. Arsine, the simplest compound of arsenic, is AsH3. At its standard state, arsine appears in the form of a colorless, denser than air gas that is soluble in water (200 ml/l) and in many organic solvents as well. AsH3 is a pyramidal molecule with H-As-H angles o…

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Arsino

Macedonian princess, the daughter of Ptolemy I, and one of the most conspicuous of Hellenistic queens. She married first (c.300 BC) the aged Lysimachus, King of Thrace, secondly (and briefly) Ptolemy Ceraunus, and finally (c.276 BC) her own brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Several cities were named after her. Arsinoe (Greek: Ἀρσινόη), sometimes spelled Arsinoë, may refer to differ…

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arson - Arson investigation, Arson in fiction

The unlawful destruction of, or damage to, property by fire; known as fire-raising in Scotland. In English law the Criminal Damage Act 1971 abolished the common law crime of arson, and created another criminal offence covering unlawful damage, however caused. It also preserves the separate statutory crime of arson, even though this seems to add little to the scope of the law. There is also an aggr…

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art - Forms, genres, mediums, and styles, Art History, Characteristics of art

Originally, ‘skill’ (of any kind), a meaning the word has in everyday contexts. Modern usage referring especially to painting, drawing, or sculpture emerged by c.1700, but significantly Dr Johnson's primary meaning of the word (1755) was still ‘The power of doing something not taught by nature and instinct; as to walk is natural, to dance is an art.’ This contrast between art and nature goes b…

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Art Blakey - The Jazz Messengers, Later career

Jazz musician, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,USA. An influential drummer, he performed with Billy Eckstine's big band (1944–7) and freelanced on many recordings. From 1954 until his death he led the Jazz Messengers, a combo he consistently renewed with outstanding young players. He was a leading exponent for jazz and also ‘hard bop’, an explosive style characterized by a strong backbeat and …

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Art Brut - Art of the Insane, Jean Dubuffet and Art Brut

A term coined by French painter Jean Dubuffet for the art of untrained people, especially mental patients, prisoners, and socially dispossessed persons generally. Dubuffet built up a collection of about 5000 such items, presented in 1972 to the city of Lausanne. The term Outsider Art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut (which literally translat…

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Art Buchwald - Biography

Journalist, born in Mount Vernon, New York, USA. Starting as a columnist for the European edition of the Herald Tribune covering the lighter side of Paris life, he later moved to Washington, DC with his syndicated column of wry humour, eventually appearing in some 550 papers worldwide. Arthur "Art" Buchwald (born October 20, 1925) is an American humorist best known for his long-running colu…

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Art Carney

Comedian and actor, born in Mount Vernon, New York, USA. After working as ‘second banana’ for Fred Allen, Edgar Bergen, and Bert Lahr, he served in the US Army and was wounded during the Normandy landing (Jun 1944). He later performed on Broadway and television, gaining his greatest success as Jackie Gleason's sewer-cleaner sidekick, Ed Norton, in The Honeymooners (1955–6). He created the role …

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Art Deco - Decorative Arts, Visual Arts, Decline, Modern applications

A term abbreviated from the Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (‘International Exhibition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts’), 1925. It has come to refer to decorative arts of the 1920s and 1930s generally, and the ‘modernistic’ style associated with them: a mixture of Cubism, Art Nouveau, and the Russian ballet, with a fondness for strident col…

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Art Garfunkel - Life and work, Discography, Films

Singer and actor, born in Forest Hills, New York, USA. He teamed up with Paul Simon as a teenager, forming a duo called Tom and Jerry, and (as Simon and Garfunkel) issuing their first album, Wednesday Morning 3 am in 1964. ‘The Sound of Silence’ (1965) brought them their first major success as a duo, followed in 1968 by the soundtrack for the film The Graduate and the album Bridge Over Troubled …

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Art Nouveau - History of Art Nouveau, Character of Art Nouveau, Art Nouveau media, Geographical scope of Art Nouveau

(Fr ‘new art’) A movement which flourished from c.1890 to c.1905, mainly in the decorative arts, characterized by naturalistic plant and flower motifs, and writhing patterns of sinuous, curling lines; called Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, and Stile Liberty (after the shop in Regent St, London) in Italy. Typical products include the drawings of Beardsley, the furniture of Mackin…

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art therapy

The use of self-expression through drawing and painting as a form of treatment for emotional problems. It was introduced to England during the 1940s as a result of a collaboration between artist Adrian Hill and psychotherapist Irene Champernowne. Self-expression through drawing, painting, and collage is combined with psychotherapy as a way of releasing emotional tension, and also to allow the ther…

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Art(h)ur Rubinstein - Biography, Marriage and Death, Honours and Awards

Pianist, born in ?ód?, Poland. He began playing in early childhood and completed his studies in Berlin. He was already famous when he made his US debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra (1906), but his American appearances were not at first successful. With the outbreak of World War 2 he settled in Hollywood, played for film sound tracks, and appeared as himself in two films, including Carnegie Hal…

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Artemis - Worship, Birth, Childhood, Tales of Artemis and men, Other stories, Artemis in Neopaganism, Artemis in Astronomy

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo, and goddess of the Moon. She was originally a mother-goddess of Asia, with a cult especially at Ephesus; in Greece she was a virgin-goddess, associated with wild creatures and the protector of the young. Being connected with hunting, she is depicted with bow and arrows. Artemis (Greek: nominative Ἄρτeuiς, genitiv…

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Artemisia Gentileschi - Biography, Artistic profile, Artemisia and contemporary female painters, Artemisia in popular culture

Painter, born in Rome, Italy, the daughter of Orazio Gentileschi. She lived in Naples, but visited England (1638–9) and left a self-portrait at Hampton Court. Her chief work is ‘Judith and Holofernes’ in the Uffizi, Florence. Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593 - 1653) was an Italian Early Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation influence…

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artery - Types of arteries:, Blood pressure, History

A vessel of the body which usually conveys blood to body tissues. Large, medium, and small arteries (arterioles) can be distinguished. Regulation of the blood supply is determined by the activity of a smooth muscle component (under sympathetic control) which changes the diameter of the vessel cavity. With increasing age, arteries tend to become blocked with atheroma - porridge-like deposits of cho…

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arthritis - Types of arthritis, Treatment, History

An inflammation of one or more joints resulting in swelling, pain, redness, local heat, and limitation of movement. A large number of different conditions may be responsible, such as degenerative processes (eg osteoarthritis), auto-immune disease (eg rheumatoid arthritis), metabolic disease (eg gout), or infection, and they may involve one or many joints. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, join…

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arthropod - Basic arthropod structure, Classification of arthropods, Evolution

A member of the largest and most diverse phylum of animals (Arthropoda), characterized by jointed limbs and an external chitinous skeleton. Arthropods have segmented bodies, most segments carrying a pair of limbs variously modified for locomotion, feeding, respiration, or reproduction. The external skeleton (cuticle) is moulted periodically to permit growth. Size ranges from 80 µm to 3·6 m/11

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Arthur

Semi-legendary king of the Britons. He may originally have been a Romano-British war leader in W England called Arturus; but he is represented as having united the British tribes against the invading Saxons, and as having been the champion of Christendom as well. He is said to have fought against the invaders in a series of momentous battles, starting with a victory at ‘Mount Baden’ (?516) and e…

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Arthur (Garfield) Dove - Selected works, Selected list of works

Painter, born in Canadaigua, New York, USA. From 1903 he earned his living as a commercial illustrator. In 1910 he began a series of abstract paintings, and in the 1920s experimented with collage incorporating mirrors, sand, and metal. His later abstract work is suggestive of natural organic forms. Arthur Garfield Dove (August 2, 1880 – November 23, 1946) was an American artist. …

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Arthur (George) Negus - Bibliography, Sources

Broadcaster and antiques expert, born in Reading, S England, UK. He took over the family antiques business in 1920, and in 1946 joined the Gloucester firm of fine art auctioneers, Bruton, Knowles & Co, becoming a partner in 1972. Asked to expound on the merits and value of antiques for television, he became a regular panel member on the series Going for a Song (1966–76). His avuncular manner, wry…

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Arthur (Henry) Mee - Trivia

Journalist, editor, and writer, born in Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He was most widely known for his Children's Encyclopaedia (1908) and Children's Newspaper. He also wrote a wide range of popular works on history, science, and geography. Arthur Mee (1875 - 1943) was a British writer, journalist and educator. He is best known for The Children's Encyclopedia and The King's En…

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Arthur (Holly) Compton - Early years, Wartime activities, Chancellorship of Washington University, Death and afterwards

Physicist, born in Wooster, Ohio, USA. He studied at Princeton University, and became professor of physics at Chicago (1923). He was a leading authority on nuclear energy, X-rays, and quantity production of plutonium. He observed and explained the Compton effect, the increase in wavelength of X-rays scattered by collisions with electrons, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927. He…

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Arthur (John) Cronquist

Botanist, born in San Jose, California, USA. He was a staff member at the New York Botanical Garden (1943–6), taught at the University of Georgia (1946–8), moved to the State College of Washington (1948–52), then returned to the New York Botanical Garden (1952–92). He made major contributions to the taxonomy of American species of composite flowers, the systematics of flowering plants, and stu…

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Arthur (Lehman) Goodhart - Summary, Personal life and legacy, Career, Honours and titles

Jurist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the Hotchkiss School and Yale University, then lived most of his life in England, becoming professor of jurisprudence at Oxford, and Master of University College there (1951–63). He is also known for his editorship of the Law Quarterly Review (1926–75). Arthur Goodhart was born in New York and educated at the Hotchkiss School, Yale Univers…

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Arthur (Leonard) Schawlow

Physicist, born in Mount Vernon, New York, USA. He studied at Toronto and Columbia universities, worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories (1951–61), then became professor at Stanford, CA. With his brother-in-law, Charles Townes, he devised the laser in 1958, although the first working model was made by Maiman in 1960. He shared the 1981 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work in spectroscopy. Ar…

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Arthur (Michell) Ransome - Before Swallows and Amazons, The Swallows and Amazons series, Awards and appreciation

Writer, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Rugby, worked for a publisher, and became a war correspondent in World War 1, covering the Russian Revolution. After a stormy relationship with his first wife, they divorced in 1924, and he married Trotsky's secretary, Evgenia Shelepin, with whom he fled from Russia. He wrote critical works and travel books before making his name …

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Arthur (Robert) Ashe - Grand Slam singles finals, Singles titles (33), References and external links

Tennis player and writer, born in Richmond, Virginia, USA. After studying at the University of California at Los Angeles on a tennis scholarship, he was selected for the US Davis Cup side in 1963 (winners 1968–70), and was the first black player to win the US national singles and open championships in 1968. He turned professional in 1969, and went on to win the Australian Open (1970) and Wimbledo…

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Arthur (Robert) Morris

Cricketer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. A left-handed opening batsman for Australia, he was capped 46 times, and his 3533 Test runs (average 46·48) included 12 centuries. Twice he made two centuries in the same Test match. Arthur Robert Morris (born January 19, 1922 in Bondi, Sydney, New South Wales) was an Australian cricketer who played 46 Test matches and was a member …

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Arthur (William) Foote

Composer, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. A noted organist, he taught at the New York Conservatory (1920–37). He wrote church and chamber music, as well as books on harmony and keyboard technique. Arthur Foote (1853 – 1937) was an American classical composer, and a member of the "Boston Six". The modern tendency is to view Foote’s music as “Romantic” and “European

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Arthur (William) Symons - Life, Verse, Essays, Reference

Critic and poet, born in Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, UK. He did much to familiarize the British with the literature of France and Italy, producing several translations, and publishing the influential The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899). Born in Wales, of Cornish parents, Symons was educated privately, spending much of his time in France and Italy. His first v…

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Arthur Adamov

Playwright, born in Kislovodsk, SW Russia. His family lost their fortune in 1917, and moved to France, where he was educated and met Surrealist artists. His early absurdist plays L'Invasion (1950, The Invasion) and Le Professeur Taranne (1953) present the dislocations and cruelties of a meaningless world. Ping-Pong (1955) sees humanity reduced to mechanism. Later plays, such as Paolo Paoli (1957) …

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Arthur Askey

Comedian, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He made his professional debut in 1924, and became a leading comedian in summer seasons at British seaside resorts, achieving national recognition on radio with Band Wagon (from 1938). He used his smallness of stature (1.6 m/5 ft 2 in) in his humour, and cultivated a cheery manner. His twangy pronunciation of ‘I thank you!’ became a cat…

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Arthur Berger

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After studies at Harvard and with Nadia Boulanger in Paris, he began an active career in composition and criticism. His works show influences ranging from Neoclassicism to the atonal tradition. He also enjoyed a long and distinguished career as a teacher at Brandeis University (1953–80), professor emeritus from 1980. Arthur Berger (May 15, 19…

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Arthur Capper - Further reading

Publisher and US senator, born in Garnett, Kansas, USA. A newspaper and magazine publisher, he was elected governor of Kansas (Republican, 1915–19) and US senator (1919–49). A New Deal supporter in domestic politics and an isolationist in foreign policy, he was not an especially outspoken leader in the Senate. Arthur Capper (July 14, 1865 - December 19, 1951) was an American politician fr…

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Arthur Cayley - Early years, Education, As a lawyer, As professor, BMA, The Collected Papers, Quaternions, Philosophy

Mathematician, born in Richmond, SW Greater London, UK. He studied languages and mathematics at London and Cambridge, graduated with distinction, but on failing to find a position in mathematics, took up law and was called to the bar in 1849. In 1863 he became professor of pure mathematics at Cambridge. He originated the theory of invariants and covariants, and worked on the theories of matrices a…

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Arthur Deakin

Trade union leader, born in Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, C England, UK. A full-time trade union official from 1919, in 1935 he became assistant to Ernest Bevin, general secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union. In 1945 he himself became general secretary of the union, and president of the World Federation of Trade Unions (1945–9). He was also one of the founders of the Internation…

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Arthur E(dwin) Kennelly - Biography

Engineer, born in Mumbai (Bombay), W India. He went to the USA in 1887, and worked as assistant to Edison. In 1894 he founded a consultancy firm in Philadelphia, where he developed new mathematical analyses of electrical circuits, and in 1902 discovered the ionized layer in the atmosphere, sometimes named after him. Arthur Edwin Kennelly (December 17, 1861 - June 18, 1939), was an American …

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Arthur Farwell - Music and Writings

Composer, born in St Paul, Minnesota, USA. After studies in the USA and Europe, he taught widely while pursuing studies in American Indian, African-American, and other native music, which contributed to his own highly eclectic style. Arthur Farwell (23 March 1872 - 20 January 1952) was an American composer, conductor, educationalist, lithographer, esoteric savant and music publisher. Return…

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Arthur Felling - Early life, Photography career, Legacy

Photojournalist, born in Zloczew, Poland. He was often first to attend crime scenes in Manhattan, selling his stark, graphic photographs to daily newspapers and the wire services (1936–45). In 1947 he went to Hollywood as a technical adviser for films. Weegee was the pseudonym of Arthur Fellig (June 12, 1899 - December 26, 1968), an American photographer and photojournalist, known for his …

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Arthur Fiedler

Conductor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Trained as a violinist in Boston and Berlin, he joined the Boston Symphony (1915–30), first playing violin and then viola. Determined to conduct, he founded his own chamber orchestra, the Boston Sinfonietta (1924). In 1929 he launched the Esplanade summer series, free concerts by the Boston Symphony, along the Charles River. In 1930 he took over the …

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Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait

Painter, born in Livesey Hall near Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He emigrated to New York City (1805), summered in the Adirondacks, and became known for his works of the American West. He also painted sporting scenes, many of which were made into lithographs by Currier & Ives. Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait (February 5, 1819 - April 28, 1905), was an American artist who is known mostly fo…

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Arthur Freed

Lyricist and film producer, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Beginning in vaudeville (he appeared at times with the Marx Brothers), he started to write songs. In 1929 was hired as a lyricist by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), and for the next 10 years he wrote the lyrics for many films. In 1939 he became a producer, and for two decades helped to make MGM the leading studio for musicals, surroun…

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Arthur Garfield Hays

Lawyer and writer, born in Rochester, New York, USA. An often controversial but highly admired lawyer in his day, he was unusual in making several fortunes as a successful corporation lawyer while simultaneously fighting for many unpopular causes. During and after World War 1, when anti-German feeling was high, he defended the commercial rights of Germany. Then in 1933 he took on perhaps his most …

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Arthur Greenwood - Offices held

British statesman, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Leeds, and was a wartime member of Lloyd George's secretariat. He became an MP in 1922 and deputy leader of the parliamentary Labour Party in 1935, showing himself an outspoken critic of ‘appeasement’. In the 1940 government he was minister without portfolio, and 1945 became Lord Privy Seal, but resigned from the gove…

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Arthur Griffith - Early life, Foundation of Sinn Féin, War of Independence, Treaty Negotiations and Death, Quotations, Sources

Irish nationalist politician, born in Dublin, Ireland. He worked as a compositor, then as a miner and journalist in South Africa (1896–8), before editing the United Irishman. In 1905 he founded Sinn Féin, editing it until 1915. He was twice imprisoned, became an MP (1918–22), signed the peace treaty with Britain, and was a moderate president of the Dáil Eireann (1922). Arthur Griffith (…

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Arthur H(arrison) Motley - Red in culture, In fiction, In other languages, Red pigments

Publisher and business executive, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. He joined Crowell-Collier publishers (1928), and as publisher of American Magazine (1941–6) he tripled circulation while increasing advertising revenue, a formula he repeated in resuscitating Parade Magazine (president, 1946–70). He was president of the US Chamber of Commerce (1960–1). Red is an additive primary color…

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Arthur Hailey - Bibliography

Popular novelist, born in Luton, Bedfordshire, SC England, UK. He left school at 14, and served as a RAF pilot during Word War 2. In 1947 he went to Canada, where he received citizenship, and worked in industry and sales in Toronto before becoming a freelance writer in 1956. His first novel, The Final Diagnosis, appeared in 1959, and he wrote many best-selling blockbusters about disasters, several…

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Arthur Holmes

Geologist, born in Hebburn, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. Professor of geology at Durham (1924–43) and Edinburgh (1943–56), he determined the ages of rocks by measuring their radioactive constituents, and was an early scientific supporter of Alfred Wegener's continental drift theory. He wrote The Age of the Earth (1913) and Principles of Physical Geology (1944). Arthur Holmes (January 14…

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Arthur Honegger - Biography, Notable recordings

Composer, born in Le Havre, NW France, of Swiss parentage. He studied in Zürich and at the Paris Conservatoire, and after World War 1 became one of the group of Parisian composers known as Les Six. His dramatic oratorio King David established his reputation in 1921, and Pacific 231 (1923), his musical picture of a locomotive, won considerable popularity. His other works include five symphonies. …

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Arthur Hugh Clough - Writings

Poet, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at Rugby and Oxford, travelled in Europe, and espoused progressive social views. Experimental techniques in his long poem The Bothie (1848), and the ironic narrative Amours de Voyage (1849), have influenced modern poets. His best-known poem, beginning ‘Say not the struggle nought availeth’, was published posthumously in 1862. …

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Arthur Koestler - Life, Mixed legacy, Cultural influence, Bibliography

Writer and journalist, born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied science at Vienna, embraced the cause of Zionism, and became a journalist and editor, and a British citizen. His masterpiece is the political novel, Darkness at Noon (1940). His non-fiction books and essays deal with politics, scientific creativity, and parapsychology, notably The Act of Creation (1964), and he wrote several autobiograph…

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Arthur Kornberg - Early life, Scientific research, Family life

Biochemist, born in New York City, USA. A graduate in medicine from Rochester University, he was director of enzyme research at the National Institutes of Health (1947–52) and head of the department of microbiology at Washington University (1953–9). He discovered the DNA enzyme polymerase, for which he shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In 1959 he was appointed professor at …

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Arthur Lowe

Actor, born in Hayfield, Derbyshire, C England, UK. Becoming a salesman after leaving school, he served in the armed forces (1939–45), ultimately appearing with their entertainments division. He made his London stage debut in Larger Than Life (1950), and his film debut in London Belongs to Me (1948). His subsequent theatre work included The Pajama Game (1955), but it was television that brought h…

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Arthur MacArthur

US soldier, born in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, the father of Douglas MacArthur. After seeing extensive combat with a Wisconsin infantry regiment during the Civil War, he served for many years on garrison duty in the West. He led combat forces in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War (1898) and then served as military governor during the insurrection in the Philippines (1900–1). He…

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Arthur Meighen - Background, First term, Opposition leader, Second term, Afterward

Canadian statesman and prime minister (1920, 1921, 1926), born in Anderson, Ontario, SE Canada. He became a lawyer, and sat in the Canadian House of Commons as a liberal Conservative (1908–26). He was solicitor general (1913), secretary of state (1917), and minister of the interior (1917), and succeeded Robert Borden as leader of the Conservatives in 1920. A brilliant parliamentary debater, his s…

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Arthur Merric Boyd

Painter, born in Opoho, New Zealand. He arrived in Australia in 1886, and became particularly known for his watercolours. Arthur Boyd moved to Australia and in January 1886 married Emma Minnie à Beckett, also an artist, daughter of the Hon. Boyd then travelled and painted a good deal on the continent of Europe, and returned to Australia about the end of 1893, where he lived mos…

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Arthur Miller - Early life, Early career, 1956 - 1964, Later career, Legacy

Playwright, born in New York City, New York, USA. He graduated from the University of Michigan (1938), where he won a prize for playwriting. After serving in the US Army in World War 2, he enjoyed his first success with a novel, Focus (1945). His first play, The Man Who Had All the Luck (1944), was a flop, but All My Sons (1947) won the New York Drama Critic Circle Award. Two years later, Death of…

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Arthur Mitchell

Dancer, choreographer, and director, born in New York City, USA. He trained at the School of American Ballet, and in 1956 joined New York City Ballet, creating important roles in Balanchine's Agon (1957) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (1962) in which he was cast as Puck. The first African-American principal dancer to join that company, his aim was to found his own group in order to develop opportun…

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Arthur Morrison - Literary Works

Novelist and short-story writer, born in London, UK. He became clerk to the People's Palace in Mile End Road, London, then a journalist on the National Observer, for which he wrote a series of stories published as Tales of Mean Streets (1894). His powerfully realistic novels of London slum life include A Child of the Jago (1896), which is believed to have accelerated changes in British housing leg…

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Arthur O(ncken) Lovejoy

Philosopher and intellectual historian, born in Berlin, Germany. Brought by his American parents to Boston (1874), he took his MA from Harvard where he studied under Josiah Royce and William James, and then went on to the Sorbonne in Paris. After teaching philosophy at Stanford (1899–1900), Washington University (St Louis) (1901–9), and the University of Missouri (1909–10), he spent the rest of…

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Arthur Peacocke - Peacocke's views, Implications of Peacocke's theology

Biophysical chemist and clergyman, born in Watford, Greater London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was later appointed lecturer in biophysical chemistry at Birmingham University (1948–59). During the 1950s he was a co-researcher at the University of California, Berkeley, studying the newly discovered double helix of DNA, and then joined the faculty at Oxford (1959). His interest in religion led hi…

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Arthur Phillip - Early life and naval career, Governor of New South Wales, Stabilising the colony, Later life

Admiral, founder and first governor of New South Wales, born in London, UK. He trained at Greenwich, joined the merchant navy at 16 and the Royal Navy at 23, saw service in the Mediterranean, and was at the taking of Havana. He retired from the navy after the Seven Years' War (1763), married, and settled as a gentleman farmer in Hampshire. After the failure of the marriage, he returned to the sea,…

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Arthur Rackham

Artist, born in London, UK. A water-colourist and book illustrator, he was well known for his typically Romantic and grotesque pictures in books of fairy tales, such as Peter Pan (1906), and his own work, The Arthur Rackham Fairy Book (1933). …

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Arthur Scargill - Role in the National Union of Mineworkers, Founding of the Socialist Labour Party

Trade unionist, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He became president of the National Union of Mineworkers in 1981, and a member of the Trades Union Congress General Council. He is primarily known for his strong, Socialist defence of British miners that has often brought his union into conflict with the government, most particularly during the miners' strike (1984–5), and when British…

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Arthur Schnitzler - Publications

Playwright and novelist, born in Vienna, Austria. He was a physician before he turned playwright, writing highly psychological, light-heartedly short plays and novels. They include his one-act play cycles Anatol (1893) and Reigen (1900, Merry-go-round, filmed as La Ronde, 1950). An exponent of fin-de-siecle Viennese life with its sexual repressions and social duplicity, he draws a picture of human…

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Arthur Schopenhauer - Life, Philosophy, Psychology, Politics, Schopenhauer on women, Schopenhauer on homosexuality, Schopenhauer on Hegel, Influence, See also

Philosopher, born in Gda?sk, N Poland (formerly Danzig, Germany). He studied at Göttingen and Berlin, and reacted strongly against the German idealist tradition of Hegel, Fichte, and Schelling. He taught at Berlin (1820), where he boldly held his lectures at the same times as Hegel, but he failed to attract students. He then lived in retirement as a scholar at Frankfurt. His chief work, Die Welt …

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Arthur Schwartz - Songs

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. While practising law in the mid-1920s, he began selling songs to vaudeville and Broadway revues. During the 1930s–1950s he collaborated for Broadway, mainly with lyricist Howard Dietz, and worked as a Hollywood producer and composer with such lyricists as Dorothy Fields and Ira Gershwin on musicals, revues, films, and television. One of his best-kno…

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Arthur Seyss-Inquart - Life before the Anschluss, Head of Ostmark and Southern Poland, Reichskommissar in the Netherlands, Nuremberg Trials

Austrian national socialist, born in Stonarov, S Czech Republic (formerly Stannern, Austria–Hungary). As chancellor in 1938, he invited German troops into Austria, resulting in the Anschluss. In 1939 he was made acting governor-general of occupied Poland, and in 1940 Reichskommissar (Commissioner) for the occupied Netherlands, where he played a leading role in the deportation of Jews. He had hope…

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Arthur Tappan

Merchant, philanthropist, and abolitionist, born in Northampton, Massachusetts, USA. The brother of Benjamin and Lewis Tappan, he was brought up in a strict religious home. He succeeded in the import business, and started (1826) a prosperous silk jobbing venture in New York City, soon involving his brother Lewis as partner. In 1827 he founded the New York Journal of Commerce to be a model of decen…

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Arthur Thistlewood - Early life, Beginning of revolutionary involvement, Spa Fields, Lord Sidmouth, Cato Street Conspiracy, Sources

Conspirator, born in Tupholme, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He served in the army, but, full of revolutionary ideas from his time in America and France, organized a mutiny at Spa Fields (1816). In 1820 he planned the Cato Street Conspiracy to murder Castlereagh and other ministers who were dining at the Earl of Harrowby's house. The conspirators were intercepted, and he was, with four others, con…

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Arthur Twining Hadley - Books

Economist and university president, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. A brilliant teacher of political economy at Yale (1879–99), he became a nationally recognized expert on operating and financing railroads with Railroad Transportation (1885). During his presidency (1899–1921) Yale expanded into a great international university. Arthur Twining Hadley (1856-1930) was an economist who s…

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Arthur van Schendel - Bibliography

Writer, born in Batavia (Jakarta), Indonesia. He studied drama in Amsterdam, taught French in Britain, and lived for some years in Italy. With his first work Drogon (1896), he reacted against naturalism and wrote the first Dutch neo-Romantic novel. The recurring theme in his work is the tragic loner, the lonely character who longs for something or someone unreachable. He was awarded the P C Hooft-…

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Arthur Young - Discussion, Resources and external links

Agricultural and travel writer, born in London, UK. He spent much of his life in Bradfield, Suffolk, where he rented a small farm, and carried out many agricultural experiments. In 1793 he became secretary to the Board of Agriculture. In his writings, he helped to elevate agriculture to a science, founding and editing the monthly Annals of Agriculture in 1784. Arthur Young (September 11, 17…

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Arthur Zimmermann - His career, The Kronrat, His resignation, Background to the telegram, The sending of the telegram

Politician, born in Olecko, NE Poland (formerly Marggrabowa, East Prussia). After diplomatic service in China, he directed from 1904 the E division of the German foreign office, and was foreign secretary (Nov 1916–Aug 1917). In January 1917 he sent the famous Zimmermann telegram to the German minister in Mexico with the terms of an alliance between Mexico and Germany, by which Mexico was to attac…

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Articles of Confederation - Ratification, The end of the war, Function, Revision, Presidents of the Congress

The organizing document of the USA from 1781 to 1788. It established a single-house Congress, with one vote for each state and with no executive, courts, or independent revenue. Its weaknesses quickly became obvious, and it was replaced by the present Constitution. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing doc…

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articulation

The process of modifying the airflow above the larynx to produce a variety of speech-sounds. The jaws open to varying degrees, the tongue makes contact with the palate in various positions, and the lips can be rounded or spread. Sounds are classified according to their place of articulation (eg the part of the palate with which the tongue makes contact) and their manner of articulation (eg whether…

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Artie Shaw - Radio rhythms, Films and fiction, Listen to

Clarinet player and bandleader, born in New York City, USA. He turned professional in 1925, and gained popularity during the 1930s, becoming internationally known after recording ‘Begin the Beguine’ (Cole Porter). Other hits included ‘Stardust’ (1940) and ‘Moonglow’ (1941). He appeared in two feature films, Dancing Co-Ed (1939) with Lana Turner, and Second Chorus (1940). In 1942 he volunteer…

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artificial insemination (AI) - Artificial insemination in livestock and pets, Human Artificial Insemination, History

The instrumental introduction of seminal fluid into the vagina in order to fertilize an ovum. The semen may be that of the husband (AIH) or of a donor (AID). The technique is also widely used in animal husbandry. Artificial insemination (AI) is when sperm is placed into a female's uterus (intrauterine), or cervix (intracervical) using artificial means rather than by natural copulation. Mode…

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artificial intelligence (AI) - Schools of thought, History, AI in Philosophy, AI in business, AI in fiction, Applications

A term applied to the study and use of computers that can simulate some of the characteristics normally ascribed to human intelligence, such as learning, deduction, intuition, and self-correction. The subject encompasses many branches of computer science, including cybernetics, knowledge-based systems, natural language processing, pattern recognition, and robotics. Progress has been made in severa…

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artificial respiration - Insufflations, Oxygen

A procedure to maintain the movement of air into and out of the lungs when natural breathing is inadequate or has ceased. A short-term emergency method is ‘mouth-to-mouth’ respiration. With the head of the patient bent backwards and the nose pinched, the resuscitator takes a deep breath and expels this into the open mouth and lungs of the victim, either directly or via a mouthpiece, repeating th…

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artillery - History, Modern artillery, Types, Artillery Ammunition, Modern artillery operations, Quotations

The heavy ordnance of an army; in particular, its longer-range weapons, as distinct from the small arms that each individual soldier carries. Modern artillery includes guns (known as ‘tube’ artillery) and missiles, both of which may be used in the traditional artillery role of bringing down destructive firepower on an enemy at a distance. Tube artillery may be mounted on towed carriages or track…

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Artois - Location, History, Notable residents

Former province of NE France, now occupying the department of Pas-de-Calais; former capital, Arras; belonged to Flanders until 1180; part of Austrian and Spanish Netherlands in Middle Ages; ceded to France, 1659. Artois (Dutch: Artesië) is a former province of northern France. Artois occupies the interior of the Pas-de-Calais département, the western part of which constitutes …

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Arts and Crafts Movement - Origins and key principles, History of the movement, Influences on later art

A predominantly English movement in architecture, art, and the applied arts during the second half of the 19th-c, which advocated the renewed use of handicraft and simple decoration in reaction to industrial machinery and contemporary aesthetic eclecticism. The movement centred on William Morris, whose ‘Red House’ (1859) by the architect Philip Webb is a good early example of the style. Its orig…

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Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

Biochemist, born in Helsinki, Finland. As professor of biochemistry at Helsinki (1939–48), he carried out research into the processes by which plants obtain nitrogen and complex organic substances from the soil. He showed that silage can be preserved by the application of dilute hydrochloric acid, and studied nutrition and the development of food resources, for which he was awarded the Nobel Priz…

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Artur Schnabel - Biography, Book

Pianist and composer, born in Lipnik, Austria. He made his debut at the age of eight. He taught in Berlin, making frequent concert appearances throughout Europe and America, and with the advent of the Nazi government settled first in Switzerland, then in the USA from 1939. He was an authoritative player of a small range of German classics - notably Beethoven, Mozart, and Schubert. His compositions…

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Arturo Barea - Biography, Works

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Madrid, Spain. His political affiliations made it necessary for him to leave Spain in 1939, later settling in England. With the exception of the war stories in Valor y miedo: relatos (1938), his books appeared in English before they found Spanish publishers. He first showed his ability to create a complete character in The Broken Root (1952) and La raíz ro…

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Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli

Pianist, born in Brescia, N Italy. He studied in Brescia and Milan, and won the International Music Competition in Geneva in 1939. After war service in the Italian air force, he acquired a legendary reputation as a virtuoso in the post-war years, enhanced by the rarity of his public performances, and became highly regarded as a teacher. Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli (January 5, 1920 – Jun…

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Arturo Labriola - Biography

Italian politician, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. He joined the Socialist Party in 1895 and was committed to spreading Marxist doctrine and fighting reformist tendencies. A trade union organizer, he founded Avanguardia Socialista (‘Socialist Avant-garde’) to diffuse his ideas. He left the Socialist Party in 1907 and was in favour of Italian intervention in Libya and in World War 1. Strongl…

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Arturo Toscanini - Biography, Recorded legacy, Notable premieres, Toscanini and the critics, Books about Toscanini

Conductor, born in Parma, Italy. He was a cellist until the night in 1886 when he took over the baton from an indisposed conductor in Rio de Janeiro and stayed on the podium for the rest of his career. After years of journeyman work in Italian opera houses, he became conductor of Milan's La Scala in 1898. In 1909 he went to the USA to lead the Metropolitan Opera orchestra, and his subsequent caree…

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Aruba - Law, Language

Timezone GMT Aruba is a 32 km long island of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea, 27 km north of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Falcón State, Venezuela, and it forms a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Legal jurisdiction lies with a Gerecht in Eerste Aanleg on Aruba, a Common Court of Justice of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie …

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Arusha

3º21S 36º40E, pop (2002e) 165 600. Capital of Arusha region, NE Tanzania, E Africa; located at the foot of Mt Meru, 322 km/200 mi W of Tanga; Filbert Bayi born nearby; in 1929 the railway reached the town which was used as a base for trips to Mt Kilimanjaro and Ngorongoro Crater; Arusha National Park; tourism; clocks and watches, leatherwork, cutlery, textiles, meerschaum pipes, tyres, coffe…

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Arusha Declaration - Excerpt From the Arusha Declaration

An important policy statement by President Nyerere of Tanzania in 1967, proclaiming village socialism, self-reliance, nationalization, and anti-corruption measures against politicians. It was a significant attempt to create a socialist route to African development, but for both internal and external reasons it failed. The Arusha Declaration was made by Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere on …

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Arval Brethren

An ancient priestly college at Rome whose original function was to propitiate the gods of the fields (arva). Revived by the first emperor, Augustus, its duties were extended to include prayer and sacrifice for the well-being of the Imperial House. Arval Brethren (latin: Fratres Arvales) were a body of priests in ancient Rome who offered annual sacrifices to lares and gods to guarantee good …

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Arvid Carlsson

Pharmacologist, born in Uppsala, Sweden. He studied at the University of Lund (1951), and became professor of pharmacology at the University of Göteborg, Sweden (1959, emeritus 1989). He shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine with Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Carlsson was born in Uppsala, Sweden,…

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Arya Samaj - Doctrines, Relations with Sikhs, External Links

A dogmatic and militant Hindu sect founded c.1875 by Dyanand Sarasawati (1824–83). He demanded a return to the purity of the Rig Veda and its principles, as opposed to the accretions and corruptions that subsequently entered Hinduism. Arya Samaj (Arya Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. The society was u…

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Aryan - Etymology, Indo-Iranian, Semantics of Sanskrit arya, Indo-European, Racist connotations, Further reading

A prehistoric people and their language, an extinct member of the Indo-European language family. Aryans reputedly colonized Iran and N India, and gave rise to the Indian subcontinent's Indo-Aryan languages. Nazi Germany embraced unscientific notions of Germanic peoples as the purest members of an Aryan race of Indo-European-speaking peoples responsible for human progress. The term Aryan is no long…

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Asa (Griggs) Candler

Manufacturer, born in Carroll Co, Georgia, USA. He left the family farm to become a doctor in Atlanta, but turned to pharmacy (1873). In 1887 he bought sole rights to John S Pemberton's original formula for Coca-Cola and formed the Coca-Cola Co in 1890. Marketing and manufacturing the soft drink until 1919, he sold the company after a long federal suit over Coca-Cola's healthfulness. He invested h…

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Asa Gray

Botanist, born in Sauquoit, New York, USA. He received his MD in 1831, but gave up medicine after a year's practice to pursue his interest in botany. He taught high-school science in Utica, NY (1832–5), making botanical expeditions to S New York and New Jersey during his summers. He moved to New York City to join his friend and fellow botanist John Torrey (1836), published his first textbook Elem…

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Asa Whitney

Merchant and railroad promoter, born in North Groton, Connecticut, USA. A dry-goods merchant, he became head of his own firm in 1836. After suffering financial losses and the death of his wife in 1840, he travelled to China, where he became very wealthy as an agent for several New York firms, and envisioned the value of an American transcontinental railroad to trade with China. He devised a plan f…

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Asaf Messerer

Ballet dancer, teacher and choreographer, born in Vilnius, Lithuania. He studied with Mikhail Mordkin at the Bolshoi Ballet School, graduating in 1921 to join the company. A versatile principal, he twice won the Stalin prize (1942, 1947) before he retired from dancing in 1954 to concentrate on teaching, the element of his work for which he is best known. His choreography includes Football Player (…

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Asaph Hall - Awards and honors

Astronomer, born in Goshen, Connecticut, USA. He was professor of mathematics at the US Naval Observatory (1863–91), and professor of astronomy at Harvard (1896–1901). In 1877 he discovered the two satellites of Mars, calculated their orbits, and named them Deimos and Phobos. Asaph Hall (October 15, 1829 – November 22, 1907) was an American astronomer who is most famous for having disco…

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asbestos - Types of asbestos and associated fibres, Uses, Asbestos-related diseases, Litigation, Removal of asbestos

The name applied to varieties of fibrous minerals of the serpentine and amphibole groups. Fibres can be separated and woven into cloths or felted into sheets. It is an excellent insulator of heat and electricity, does not burn, and is resistant to chemical attack. The varieties used in manufacture are principally chrysotile (white asbestos), a form of serpentine, and crocidolite (blue asbestos), a…

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asbestosis - Signs and symptoms, Pathogenesis, Legal issues

A form of fibrosis of the lungs caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres. Asbestos fibres enter the lung and initiate an inflammatory process that leads to scarring and gradual destruction of lung tissue. Symptoms develop 15–25 years after the exposure, consisting of cough and shortness of breath which can be extremely disabling. Exposure to asbestos can also cause lung cancer and mesothelioma…

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Ascension Island - History, Politics, Geography, Demographics, Economy, Transport

7°56S 14°22W; pop (2000e) 1500; area 88 km²/34 sq mi. Small, arid, volcanic island in the S Atlantic, 1125 km/700 mi NW of St Helena; highest point, Green Mountain (859 m/2818 ft); discovered by the Portuguese on Ascension Day 1501; British territory, since 1815, administered under the Admiralty; made a dependency of St Helena in 1922; British and US air bases; British forces sent to th…

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asceticism - "Worldly" versus "otherworldly", Religious motivation, Secular motivation, Religious versus secular motivation, Critics

A variety of austere practices involving the renunciation or denial of ordinary bodily and sensual gratifications. These may include fasting, meditation, a life of solitude, the renunciation of possessions, denial of sexual gratification, and, in the extreme, the mortification of the flesh. Asceticism describes a life characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures (austerity). Those who…

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Aschaffenburg - History, Sights, Population

49º99N 9º15E, pop (2002e) 68 000. Town in SC Germany; located on the R Main, bordered by the mountains of the Spessart; industrial centre; birthplace of Lujo Brentano and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner; Castle Johannisburg houses works by Corregio, Lucas Cranach, Raphael, Rembrandt, Rubens; Rosso Bianco museum has the world's largest permanent exhibition of racing and sports cars; Pompejanum roman vill…

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ascorbic acid - Chemistry, Uses

Vitamin C, largely found in citrus fruits, green vegetables, and potatoes. It functions in the body to maintain tissue integrity; a deficiency causes scurvy. Megadoses of vitamin C, up to 20 times the amount required per day, have been promoted for prevention of the common cold, and even greater quantities as an anti-cancer agent. Ascorbic acid is an organic acid with antioxidant properties…

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asepsis - Related terms, History, Methods

The absence of micro-organisms from body surfaces (eg the skin) or from wounds. This ideal state is rarely achieved in surgical operations, but procedures adopted in operating theatres are designed to this end; these include skin sterilization, the wearing of sterile surgical gloves and gowns, chemical or heat sterilization of instruments, swabs, and bandages, and the removal of contaminated air f…

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ash - As an acronym (often in upper-case as "ASH"), In the humanities

A deciduous tree native to the N hemisphere; leaves pinnate; flowers sometimes without perianth, borne in dense clusters appearing before leaves; seeds (keys) have a papery wing which aids in wind dispersal. The timber is valuable, and various species, including weeping forms, are often planted for ornament. (Genus: Fraxinus, 70 species. Family: Oleaceae.) Fictional characters: …

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Ash Wednesday - Historic events

The first day of Lent. The name derives from the ritual, observed in the ancient Church and continued in Roman Catholic and some Anglican Churches, of making a cross on the forehead of Christians with ashes which have previously been blessed. The ashes are obtained by burning the branches used in the previous year's Palm Sunday service. In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is th…

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Ashcan School

A derisive name given to a group of US Realist painters and illustrators, also called The Eight. Formed in 1907, they included Robert Henri, John Sloan, and later George Bellows. They painted everyday, non-academic subjects in an attempt to bring art back into direct contact with ordinary life, especially street life in New York City. The Ashcan School was a realist artistic movement that c…

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Ashdod - History, Modern times, Economy, Transportation, Income, Chassidic Rebbes, Culture and sports, Sister Cities

31°48N 34°38E, pop (2000e) 110 000. Seaport in Southern district, W Israel; on the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km/25 mi S of Tel Aviv–Yafo; ancient Philistine city; modern city founded in 1956 as the major port of S Israel; railway; ancient and modern harbour; light industry, tourism. Ashdod (Hebrew: אַשְׁדּוֹד; The beginning of the human settlement in the area of Ash…

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Asher B(rown) Durand

Painter and engraver, born in Jefferson Village (now Maplewood), New Jersey, USA. He was an engraving apprentice (1812) and then a partner (1817) of Peter Maverick, and engraved banknotes and received important commissions, such as the engraving of John Trumbull's painting, ‘Declaration of Independence’ (1820). After 1835 he devoted himself to portraits, figure studies and, after study in Europe…

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Asher Benjamin

Writer and architect, born in Hartland, Connecticut, USA. A Boston businessman and architect, his seven pattern books (1797–1843) spread Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival styles throughout America. He designed the Charles Street Meetinghouse in Boston (1807). Asher Benjamin (June 15, 1773 - July 26, 1845), born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, was a prominent American architect who transit…

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Ashikaga shogunate

(1338–1569) Second major Japanese shogunate, established by a Kamakura chieftain, Ashikaga Takanji (1305–58) following his seizure of the imperial capital Kyoto in 1336. He established his government at Muromachi, an outlying district of Kyoto. Ashikaga rule was never absolute, extensive castle-building occurred, and a damaging civil war (1467–77) sparked off a century of disorder which ended w…

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Ashmolean Museum - Collections, Notable Keepers of the Ashmolean Museum

A museum at Oxford University, England, UK. Elias Ashmole donated the core of the collection to the University in 1675, and the museum was opened eight years later. Its holdings include a distinguished collection of archaeological relics, paintings, prints, and silverware. The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England is the w…

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Ashmore and Cartier Islands - Geography, Government, Ecology and environment, Economy and migration

Area c.3 km²/1½ sq mi. Uninhabited Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean 320 km/200 mi off the NW coast of Australia; consists of the Ashmore Is (Middle, East and West) and Cartier I; formerly administered by the Northern Territory, it became a separate Commonwealth Territory in 1978; Ashmore Reef is a national nature reserve. The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands …

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ashram

An Indian religious community whose members lead lives of austere self-discipline and dedicated service in accordance with the teachings and practices of their particular school. A well-known ashram was that of Mahatma Gandhi. An Ashram (Pronounced "aashram") in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. Sometimes, the word is u…

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Ashton-under-Lyne - Places of interest, History, Recent developments, Transport, Politics, Sport, Night Life, Famous Locals

53º29N 2º06W, pop (2002e) 44 500. Town in Greater Manchester, NW England, UK; 10 km/6 mi E of Manchester; birthplace of Margaret Beckett; railway; engineering, machinery, leather, plastics, textiles, cigarettes, cotton, chemicals. Ashton-under-Lyne (often referred to as Ashton) is a town in Greater Manchester with a population of 43,236 (2001 census). Ashton lies roughly 7…

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Asia - Territories and regions, Economy

area c.44·5 million km²/17·2 million sq mi. The largest continent; bounded N by the Arctic Ocean, E by the Pacific Ocean, S by the Indian Ocean, and W by Europe; maximum length, 8500 km/5300 mi; maximum width, 9600 km/6000 mi; chief mountain system, the Himalayas, rising to 8848 m/29 028 ft at Mt Everest; major rivers include the Yangtze (Changjiang), Yellow, Brahmaputra, Ayeyarwady (…

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asparagus

A perennial native to Europe and Asia; erect or spreading, some species climbers, all with feathery foliage; the true leaves reduced to tiny scales and replaced by tiny modified branches functioning as leaves; flowers tiny, white or yellow, bell- or star-shaped; berries green, red, or black. Young shoots of Asparagus officinalis are prized as a vegetable. (Genus: Asparagus, 300 species. Family: Li…

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Aspasia - Origin and early years, Life in Athens, Personal and judicial attacks, Later years and death

Mistress of Pericles, born in Miletus, Anatolia. Intellectual and vivacious, she was lampooned in Greek satire, but was held in high regard by Socrates and his followers, and was a great inspiration to Pericles, who successfully defended her against a charge of impiety. Aspasia (c.470 BC–c.400 BC, Greek: Ἀσπασία) was a renowned woman in ancient Greece, famous for her romantic invo…

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aspen - Cultural aspects and uses

A species of poplar (Populus tremula), also called trembling aspen, because the greyish-green, rounded-to-ovoid leaves have flattened stalks, allowing the blades to flutter in the slightest breeze. The movement is accentuated by a flashing of the pale undersurface, giving the impression of constant movement. (Family: Salicaceae.) Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section …

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asphalt - Background, Known Uses

A semi-solid bituminous residue of the evaporation of petroleum (formed by slow evaporation in nature or by distillation in industry). It is usually employed mixed with some solid mineral matter for roofing, road-making, etc. Many natural deposits (eg in Trinidad) have a natural mineral content. There are two forms commonly used in construction: rolled asphalt and mastic asphalt. Rolled asp…

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asphodel - History, Forms of asphodel

The name applied to two related genera native to the Mediterranean region and Asia, with erect stems, narrow, grass-like leaves, and spikes of flowers each with six perianth-segments. Asphodelus (12 species) has leaves V-shaped in cross-section, flowers white or pink. Asphodeline (15 species) has leaves triangular in cross-section, flowers yellow. (Family: Liliaceae.) This plant has one of …

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asphyxia - Causes of asphyxia, Smothering, Compressive asphyxia

Life-threatening interruption to the passage of air through the airways to the lungs. It is commonly due to physical obstruction to the upper respiratory tract from strangulation or inhaled foreign bodies, vomit, or water, as in drowning. It may also occur due to diseases of the airways or lungs. Asphyxia (from Greek a-, "without" and sphuxis, "pulse, heartbeat") is a condition of severely …

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aspidistra

An evergreen perennial (Aspidistra elatior), native to E Asia; leaves long-stalked, elliptical, leathery, lasting several years; flowers bell-shaped with a lid formed by the umbrella-shaped style, dull purple; borne at ground level and pollinated by slugs. It tolerates shade and drought, and is much favoured as a pot-plant. (Family: Liliaceae.) …

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ass - Sources and references

A rare wild horse; small, long ears, short erect mane; pale grey or brown; inhabits drier terrain than other horse species; domesticated thousands of years ago for carrying loads; three species: the African wild ass (Equus (Asinus) asinus); the Asiatic wild ass from S Asia (Equus (Asinus) hemionus, also called onager, kulan, and hemione); and the kiang (Equus (Asinus) kiang) from Tibet. The modern…

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Assam - Origin of name, Geography, Climate, Demographics, History, Languages, Culture, Major cities and towns

pop (2001e) 26 638 400; area 78 523 km²/30 310 sq mi. State in E India, bounded NW by Bhutan and SE by Bangladesh; almost completely separated from India by Bangladesh; important strategic role in World War 2, during Allied advance into Burma; unicameral legislature of 126 members; crossed by the R Brahmaputra; world's largest river island of Majuli is a pilgrimage centre; capital, Dispur…

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assault - American jurisprudence, Aggravated assault, General defenses to assaults

An attack upon the person of another, causing them to fear actual injury (battery). Contact is not an essential ingredient of assault: threatening gestures can suffice. In common usage, and in some statutes and jurisdictions, the term assault is used to include the related concept of battery. Certain kinds of more serious assault, for example assault with intent to resist arrest, are known as aggr…

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Assemblies of God - U.S. A/G Ethnic Fellowships, Assemblies of God Credit Union

A Christian pentecostalist denomination formed in the USA and Canada in the early 20th-c. It promotes mission work all over the world, and believes baptism by the Holy Spirit to be evidenced by speaking in tongues. The Assemblies of God is the world's largest Pentecostal denomination with approximately 52.5 million worldwide who are members of the World Assemblies of God Fellowship . The …

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assembly language - Key concepts, Language design, Use of assembly language, Example listing of assembly language source code, Books

A set of convenient mnemonics corresponding to the machine-code instructions of a specific central processor unit or microprocessor, defined by the manufacturer. Assembly language is more convenient for the programmer than machine code, and is translated (assembled) into machine code by an assembly program, usually known as an assembler. An assembly language is a low-level language used in …

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Asser

Welsh scholar, bishop, and counsellor to Alfred the Great. He spent his youth in the monastic community at St David's. Gaining a reputation for scholarship, he was enlisted into the royal service by Alfred, and made Bishop of Sherborne sometime before 900. He is best known for his unfinished Latin biography of King Alfred, the earliest biography of an English layman. He went to work for Kin…

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Assisi - Fractions, Twin cities, Photo gallery

43º04N 12º37E, pop (2001e) 25 500. Town in Umbria region, C Italy; famous religious and tourist centre; birthplace of Francis of Assisi, Agnes of Assisi, Clare of Assisi; Basilica of St Francis (1228–53) has frescoes by Giotto and Cimabue that were damaged in earthquake of 1997; Basilica of St Clare (1257–65); Romanesque Cathedral of San Rufino (9th-c). Assisi (IPA /ɑˈsiːˌzi/) (La…

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Assize Court - England and Wales, Republic of Ireland

A legal system in England and Wales, dating from the time of Henry II, which was abolished by the Courts Act, 1971. Assize Courts were presided over by High Court judges, who travelled on circuit to hear criminal and civil cases. In 1972, the civil jurisdiction of the Assize Courts was transferred to the High Court, and the criminal jurisdiction to the Crown Court. The criminal jurisdiction functi…

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Associated Press (AP) - History, AP Sports Polls, Cooperative Use of News, Current events

An international news agency, with headquarters in New York City. Founded in 1848, it is the world's oldest and largest news-gathering co-operative, owned by US newspapers. Today the AP serves 1700 newspapers and 6000 television and radio stations in the US, and 8500 news outlets in 121 countries. It is also on the Internet with The Wire, a 24-hour continuous up-dated multimedia site, and on telev…

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associated state - Associated States of the United States, Associated States of New Zealand, Former Commonwealth associated states

A former colony that has a free and voluntary arrangement with the UK as the former colonial power. The state enjoys the right of self-government, but recognizes the British sovereign as head. The concept was introduced for states (eg Antigua, Grenada) wishing to be independent, but economically unable to support themselves. All free associated states either are independent (with status of …

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Association of Caribbean States - Member States, Associate Member States, Summits

An association created by 25 Caribbean basin countries in 1994, with the aim of promoting a common approach to regional economic and political issues. It included the members of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). The Association of Caribbean States (ACS) (Also called the Asociacion de Estados del Caribe or Association des Etats de la Caraibe) was formed with the aim of …

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Assumption

The claim concerning the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus Christ, that on her death she was ‘assumed’ (taken up, body and soul) to heaven. This was believed by some Christians in the ancient Church, widely accepted thereafter in Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches, and defined by Pope Pius XII as an article of faith in 1950. Concepts: Locations: …

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Assyria - Early history, Early Assyrian city-states and kingdoms, Middle Assyrian period, Neo-Assyrian Empire

The name given first to the small area around the town of Assur on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia, and then much later to the vast empire that the rulers of Assur acquired through conquering their neighbours on all sides. At its height in the 9th-c and 8th-c BC, the Assyrian Empire stretched from the E Mediterranean to Iran, and from the Persian Gulf as far N as the mountains of E Turkey. The emp…

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Astana - Reasons for moving the capital, Geography, Economy, People and culture, Sports, Transportation

51°10N 71°30E, pop (2000e) 300 000. Capital of Kazakhstan, on R Ishim; founded as a fortress, 1830; airport; railway junction; agricultural machinery, ceramics, foodstuffs, clothing. Astana (Kazakh: Астана; There are various reasons for the switch of capitals, despite the isolated location of the new capital in the centre of the Kazakh Steppe and the forbidding climate…

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aster

A member of a large group of mainly perennials from America, Eurasia, and Africa; flower-heads daisy-like, usually in clusters; outer ray florets blue, purple, pink, or white, often autumn or late-summer flowering. Several are popular ornamentals. (Genus: Aster, 250 species. Family: Compositae.) Aster can refer to one of the following: …

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asthenosphere

The Earth's upper mantle, extending from the base of the lithosphere at c.72 km/45 mi down to c.250 km/155 mi below the surface. A seismic discontinuity defines the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. The asthenosphere is considerably less rigid than the lithosphere above. The asthenosphere (from an invented Greek ἀσθενός a + ''sthenos "without strength") is the region …

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asthma - History, Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Prognosis, Epidemiology

A common condition in which there is narrowing and obstruction of the airways (bronchi and bronchioles) which is partly or completely reversible with time or treatment. Narrowing results from the contraction of the bronchial muscles and inflammation of the bronchial walls. It may be an exaggerated response in hypersensitive individuals to various allergens. Common amongst these are pollen, house d…

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Asti - History, Main sights, Events, Food

44º54N 8º13E, pop (2001e) 73 100.Town in Piedmont region, NW Italy; at the junction of Tanaro and Borbore rivers; centre of a fertile wine-producing area (Asti Spumante); birthplace of Vittorio Alfieri, Alberto Castigliano, Federigo della Valle, Mikhail Tswett; bishopric; railway; textiles, chemicals, glass, food products; tourism; Palio race (Sep). Asti is a city and comune in the Piem…

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astigmatism - Forms of astigmatism

In vision, an actual asymmetry in the optical system of the eye, so that the eye's ability to focus horizontal and vertical lines is different. In optics, the term refers to aberrations of a lens image due to the position of an object off the lens axis. In optics, astigmatism is when an optical system has different foci for rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes. If an optical syst…

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Astrakhan - Medieval history, Modern history, Notable people

46°22N 48°04E, pop (2000e) 508 000. Capital city of Astrakhan oblast, SE European Russia; on a huge island in the Volga delta; altitude, 22 m/72 ft below sea-level; protected from floods by 75 km/47 mi of dykes; founded, 13th-c; the most important port in the Volga–Caspian basin; airport; railway; university (1919); fishing, fish processing, metalwork, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, riv…

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astral projection

The popular interpretation of an out-of-the-body experience in which it is believed that the person's consciousness is contained in a non-physical ‘astral body’ which temporarily separates from the physical body. People reporting such an experience have said that they can witness events in the vicinity of their astral body (when they claim it is in a different location from their physical body),…

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Astrid (Anna Emilia Ericsson) Lindgren - Bibliography

Children's novelist, born in Vimmerby, SE Sweden. She established her reputation with Pippi Långstrump (1945, Pippi Longstocking), and followed this with a succession of other popular characters, later turning to folklore with such titles as Bröderna Lejonhjärta (1973, The Brothers Lionheart). Following her death in 2002, the Swedish government set up the annual Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award w…

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astrobiology - Overview, Methodology, Publications

The multi-disciplinary study of the origin, distribution, and destiny of life in the universe. It addresses the questions of how does life begin and develop, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is life's future on Earth and beyond. It is a major goal of NASA's science programmes. Astrobiology is the study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology.…

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astrolabe - History, Construction, Images

An ancient instrument (c.200 BC) for showing the positions of the Sun and bright stars at any time and date. If fitted with sights, it was also used for measuring the altitude above the horizon of celestial objects, and in this mode was a 15th-c forerunner of the sextant. The astrolabe is a historical astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers and astrologers. Astrologers of the …

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astrology - Beliefs, Traditions, Horoscopic astrology, History of astrology, Effects on world culture, Astrology and science

A system of knowledge whereby human nature can be understood in terms of the heavens. It relies upon precise measurement and a body of symbolism which has come to be associated with each of the signs of the zodiac and the planets (including the Sun and Moon). It rests on a foundation of ancient philosophy, particularly on the idea that the force which patterns the heavens likewise orders humanity.…

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astronaut - International variations, Space milestones, Astronaut training, Astronaut deaths

The NASA term for a spacecraft crew member; originally applied to pilots, but now including scientists and payload specialists. Over 135 crewed missions were carried out to mid 1998. The longest flight duration was 84 days by the Skylab 4 crew. More than 20 US women have flown in space; and 17 astronauts have lost their lives in accidents directly related to spaceflight. The criteria for de…

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Astronomer Royal - List of Astronomers Royal

An honorary title awarded to a distinguished British astronomer. Before 1972, the title was given to the director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, England. The title of Astronomer Royal for Scotland is also honorary, but before 1995 was given to the director of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. …

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astronomical unit (AU) - History

The mean distance of the Earth from the Sun, c.149·6 million km/93 million mi (precise value, 149·597870×109 m); a convenient measure of distance within the Solar System. Mean distances of other major planets from the Sun are: Mercury 0·39 AU, Venus 0·72 AU, Mars 1·52 AU, Jupiter 5·2 AU, Saturn 9·5 AU, Uranus 19 AU, Neptune 30 AU. There are 63 240 AU in one light year. …

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astronomy - History, Astronomical observations, Astronomical objects, Amateur astronomy, Major questions in astronomy

The study of all classes of celestial object, such as planets, stars, and galaxies, as well as interstellar and intergalactic space, and the universe as a whole; the branch of classical astronomy concerned with the precise measurement of the positions of celestial objects is known as astrometry. The first known systematic observers were the Babylonians, who compiled the first star catalogues c.160…

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astrophysics - History, Observational astrophysics, Theoretical astrophysics

The application of physical laws and theories to stars and galaxies, with the aim of deriving theoretical models to explain their behaviour. Its biggest triumph has been accounting for energy production inside stars, and there have been notable successes in explaining the properties of galaxies and quasars. Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe,…

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Asturias - History, Geography and climate, Tourist attractions, Languages, Food and Drink, Economy, Transportation, The song, Famous citizens

pop (2000e) 1 105 000; area 10 565 km²/4078 sq mi. Autonomous region and former principality of N Spain, co-extensive with the modern province of Oviedo; mountainous region along the Bay of Biscay; largely occupied by the Cordillera Cantabrica, rising to 2646 m/8681 ft in the Picos de Europa; centre of Christian resistance to Muslim invasion, 8th–9th-c; part of Kingdom of Leon, 911; sce…

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Aswan - History

24°05N 32°56E, pop (2000e) 255 100. Capital of Aswan governorate, S Egypt; on the E bank of the R Nile, 900 km/560 mi S of Cairo; Aswan Dam to the S, at limit of navigation (1898–1902); Aswan High Dam further S at head of L Nasser (1971); airfield; railway; steel, textiles, winter tourism; Aswan museum, Roman Nilometer, Temples of Ptolemy VII, Seti I, Rameses II; Tombs of the Ancient Nobles…

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asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) - Explanation, How ADSL works, ADSL standards, Installation issues

A technology which allows a telephone company to provide a higher speed (than basic ISDN) digital transmission over a single existing subscriber line (eg to someone's home). ADSL-1 offers 1·536 Mbps (megabauds per second) from the exchange to the subscriber, and 16 Kbps from the subscriber to the exchange plus the existing analogue voice connection. ADSL-2 and ADSL-3 are being developed. This t…

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asymptote - Asymptotes and graphs of functions, Other meanings

In mathematics, a line (usually straight) which is approached by a curve. This can be shown in a graph where the curve y = 1/x approaches the line y = 0 as x becomes large; so y = 0 is an asymptote. Asymptotes are formally defined using limits. Then the line y=a is a horizontal asymptote for f if Intuitively, this means that for large (positive, or negative) values of x, t…

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asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) - Successes and failures of ATM technology, Recent developments, Structure of an ATM cell

A technology developed by telephone companies outside of North America to transfer digitally coded messages over the telephone network at very high speed using fibre-optic cabling; also known as cell-relay. Messages are divided into fixed-size small packets for independent transmission rather than sending the message as a whole. While used primarily by the telephone carriers, the technology is als…

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Atahualpa - Civil war, Legacy

Last Inca ruler of Peru. On the death of his father, he received the N half of the Inca empire, and in 1532 overthrew his brother, Huascar, who ruled the S half. A year later he was captured by invading Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro. Although his subjects paid a vast ransom to secure his release, Atahualpa was executed. On the death of their father, Huayna Capac, and their older brother…

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Atalanta

In Greek mythology a heroine, nurtured by a she-bear, who grew up to be a strong huntress. She refused to marry any man who would not take part in a foot-race with her: those who lost were killed. Eventually Hippomenes (or Milanion) threw three golden apples of the Hesperides at her feet, so that her attention was diverted and she lost. Atalanta participated in the hunt and struck the first…

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ataxia

Inco-ordination of the arms or legs, arising from a failure of the central nervous system to control the movement of muscles in the limbs, or because the brain is deprived of information about the position of the limbs in space (sensory ataxia). Ataxia often occurs when parts of the nervous system that control movement are damaged. While the term ataxia is primarily used to describe this se…

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Athanaric

Prince of the W Goths, who fought three campaigns against the Roman Emperor Valens (ruled 364–78). He was finally defeated in 369, and driven out by the Huns from the N of the Danube. Athanaric (died 381) was ruler of several branches of the Visigoths for at least two decades in the fourth century and undisputed King of the Visigoths for the last year of his life. A rival of Fr…

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Athanasian Creed

A statement of Christian faith, written in Latin probably in the 5th-c AD. Called Quicunque vult after the opening words, it remains a historic statement of Trinitarian doctrine, still sometimes used liturgically. The Greek text is known in Eastern Churches, but with the omission of the filioque clause. (Note that this version contains an arguable borderline mistranslation when the Latin wo…

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atheism - Etymology, Types and typologies of atheism, Demographics, Atheist organizations and gatherings, Atheism, religion and morality

The denial of the existence of God or gods. It includes both the rejection of any specific belief in God or gods, and the view that the only rational approach to claims about divine existence is one of scepticism. Justification of atheism is often made on the grounds that some branch of science or psychology has rendered belief in God or gods superfluous, or that experiential verification of relig…

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Athenaeus

Greek writer, born in Naucratis, N Egypt. He lived first in Alexandria and later in Rome. He wrote Deipnosophistae (Banquet of the Learned), a collection of anecdotes and excerpts from ancient authors reproduced as dinner-table conversations. The most valuable recent publication about Athenaeus and The Deipnosophists is Athenaeus and his world edited by David Braund and John Wilkins, (2000)…

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Athens - Name, History, Settings and population, Climate, Tourist attractions, Entertainment, nightlife and shopping, The transportation system

38°00N 23°44E, pop (2000e) Greater Athens 3 235 000. Capital city of Greece, in a wide coastal plain between the Ilissus and Cephissus Rivers, surrounded by hills; ancient Greek city-state extending over Attica by the 7th-c BC; great economic and cultural prosperity under Pericles, 5th-c BC; taken by the Romans, 146 BC; part of the Ottoman Empire, 1456; capital of modern Greece, 1835; occupie…

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Athens (USA) - Name, History, Settings and population, Climate, Tourist attractions, Entertainment, nightlife and shopping, The transportation system

33º57N 83º23W, pop (2000e) 100 300. Seat of Clarke Co, N Georgia, USA; located on the R Oconee, 95 km/58 mi ENE of Atlanta; settled in 1785; birthplace of Kim Basinger and Henry Woodfin Grady; university (1801); railway; cotton goods, lumber. Coordinates: 38°00′N 23°43′E Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: /a'θina/) is the capital and largest city of Greece and …

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atherosclerosis - Symptoms, Atherogenesis, Diagnosis of plaque-related disease, Physiologic factors that increase risk, Treatment, Recent research

The irregular deposition of fats (mainly cholesterol and triglycerides) and other substances in the inner wall of arteries; seen as sharply-defined, raised, cream-coloured patches. Together with the associated scarring, this causes narrowing of the affected blood vessel. It also predisposes to the formation of thrombus at the affected site. Common sites are the aorta and blood vessels to the heart…

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athlete's foot - Causes, Growth environment, Symptoms, Treatment

A common form of ringworm infection (tinea pedis) in which a fungus causes itching and fissuring of the skin of the soles of the feet and between the toes. It is usually acquired in swimming baths and from shower floors. Athlete's foot or tinea pedis is a fungal infection of the skin of the foot, usually between the toes, caused by parasitic fungi. The body normally hosts a vari…

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athletics

Tests of running, jumping, throwing, and walking skills for trained athletes, also known (especially in the USA) as track and field. The track events are divided into six categories: sprint races (100 m, 200 m, and 400 m); middle distance races (800 m and 1500 m); long distance races (5000 m and 10 000 m); hurdle races (110 m - 100 m for women - and 400 m); relay races (4 × 100 m an…

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Athlone - History, Climate, Education and industry, Music, Amenities, Radio Broadcasting, Sports in Athlone, Twin City, See Also

53°25N 7°56W, pop (2000e) 15 500. Town in Co Westmeath, Leinster, C Ireland; on R Shannon, W of Dublin; railway; technical college; barracks; radio transmitter; textiles, industrial and electrical cable; remains of town wall, 13th-c Franciscan abbey, 13th-c castle; river boating centre; all-Ireland amateur drama contest (Jul). At the heart of Athlone, both geographically and historicall…

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Atlantic Charter - Image gallery

A declaration of common objectives by Roosevelt and Churchill after a secret meeting off Newfoundland (Aug 1941). It announced agreement on principles which should govern post-war settlements, several of which paralleled Wilson's Fourteen Points of 1918. The Charter was endorsed by the USSR and 14 other states at war with the Axis Powers, and served as an ideological basis for Allied co-operation …

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Atlantic Ocean - Ocean bottom, Water characteristics, Climate, History, Terrain, Major ports and harbours

Body of water extending from the Arctic to the Antarctic, separating North and South America (W) from Europe and Africa (E); area c.82 217 000 km²/31 700 000 sq mi; depths of 5725 m/18 783 ft reached in Argentine abyssal plain; average depth 3700 m/12 000 ft; maximum depth, Puerto Rico Trench, 8648 m/28 372 ft; principal arms (W), Labrador Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea; (E), …

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Atlantic Wall

An incomplete network of coastal fortifications, supplemented by beach-obstacles and minefields, constructed in 1942–4 between the Pas-de-Calais and the Bay of Biscay as part of Hitler's plans for an impregnable ‘Fortress Europe’ capable of repelling any Allied landings. On D-Day its ‘invincibility’ was shown to be a myth. The Atlantic Wall (German: Atlantikwall) was an extensive syste…

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Atlantis - Plato's account, Receptions, Location hypotheses, Atlantis in art, literature and popular culture

According to Plato, an island in the ocean W of Spain, whose armies once threatened Europe and Africa, and which disappeared into the sea. Plato claimed to have heard of the island from the Egyptians, and this has generated many speculative books and expeditions; but it was simply a fictional place where he could locate his ideas of social organization. Atlantis (Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς

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Atlas (astronomy) - "Atlas" etymology, Modern atlases, Selected general atlases

The 15th natural satellite of Saturn, discovered in 1980; distance from the planet 138 000 km/86 000 mi; diameter 40 km/25 mi. An atlas is a collection of maps, traditionally bound into book form, but also found in multimedia formats. The first book that could be called an atlas was constructed from the calculations of Claudius Ptolemy, a geographer working in Alexandria c…

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Atlas (mythology) - Cultural influence, Television, Gallery, Sources

In Greek mythology, a Titan who was made to hold up the heavens with his hands, as a punishment for taking part in the revolt against the Olympians. When books of maps came to be published, he was often portrayed as a frontispiece, hence the name ‘atlas’. In Greek mythology, Atlas was one of the primordial Titans. Sources describe Atlas as the father, by different goddesses, o…

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Atlas Mountains - Geology, Subranges of the Atlas Mountains, References and notes

A system of folded mountain chains in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, NW Africa; includes (1) the volcanic Anti-Atlas range in SW Morocco which runs SW–NE for 250 km/155 mi and rises to heights over 2500 m/8000 ft; (2) the Haut Atlas range, the largest in the group, running SW–NE for 650 km/400 mi from Morocco's Atlantic coast, rising to Mt Toubkal (4165 m/13 665 ft); (3) the Moyen Atlas…

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atmosphere

The layer of gas surrounding any planet or star. Earth's atmosphere is composed of air, which on average is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon, with traces of other rare gases, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Moist air may contain up to 31% water vapour. Earth's atmosphere is divided into several concentric shells, the lowest being the troposphere, followed by the stratosphere, mesosp…

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atmospheric physics

The application of physical principles to the layer of gas surrounding planets, especially Earth. The Earth's atmosphere is a dynamic cloud of approximately 5x1015 tonnes of gas. The atmosphere's temperature drops with altitude to a minimum of about ?100°C, rising at greater heights to 1200°C in the thermosphere 600 km above the Earth's surface. The Sun heats the Earth's surface, warming the ai…

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atmospheric pressure - Standard atmospheric pressure, Mean sea level pressure (MSLP or QFF), Altitude Atmospheric Pressure Variation

The pressure or force exerted by the atmosphere on the Earth's surface. The average pressure at sea level is taken as standard, and it is usual to modify measurements taken at different elevations so that they refer to this level. Pressure varies with elevation (decreases with altitude) and temperature. Units of measurement vary: at sea level, average pressure is 1013·25 mb (millibars, the units…

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atoll - Distribution and size

A roughly circular structure of coral reefs enclosing a lagoon. Atolls occur in warm, clear, tropical oceanic waters where corals and coralline algae can flourish. Darwin first theorized that they are the final stage in a progression of reef formations. In the first stage, a fringing reef grows adjacent to land with little or no lagoon separating it from the shore. The second stage, a barrier reef…

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atom - Atoms and molecules, Properties of the atom in present theory, Exotic atoms

The smallest portion of a chemical element. Each atom comprises a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons, whose number equals that of the protons contained within the nucleus. Electrons are attracted to the nucleus by electromagnetic force. They determine the chemistry of an atom, and are responsible for binding atoms together. Atoms are described using quantum mecha…

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atom laser - Physics, Applications

A device which creates a beam of atoms having properties akin to those of the light beam from a laser. In particular, the waves associated with the atoms are coherent, or in step, and the beam of an atom laser is much brighter than that of an ordinary (incoherent) atomic beam. An atom laser which created pulses of atoms was first demonstrated in 1997 by Wolfgang Ketterle's team at the Massachusett…

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atom optics

The manipulation of beams of neutral atoms, in a way that parallels the manipulation of light in conventional optical systems, using atom optical equivalents of mirrors, lenses, beam splitters, and other elements. Conventional lenses and mirrors will not work for atoms, which are absorbed by the lens material or stick to the mirror surface. Standing wave patterns of laser light act as atom lenses …

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atomic force microscope - Basic Principle, Imaging Modes, Force-Distance measurements, Advantages and Disadvantages

A microscope using a mechanical sensor to form an image of a surface fine enough to see the individual atoms. The sample is moved under a very sharp tip mounted on a soft cantilever spring. A detector, often optical, monitors deflections of the cantilever and passes this information to an electronic display system. Unlike the scanning tunnelling microscope, the atomic force microscope can image no…

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atomic mass unit (amu) - History

Unit of mass; symbol u; also termed unified atomic mass unit; defined as 1/12 of the mass of the carbon-12 atom; value 1u = 1·66 × 10?27 kg; used to express relative atomic masses of atoms; sometimes called a dalton. The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. See 1 E-27 kg for a list of objects wh…

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atomic physics - Isolated atoms, Electronic configuration, History and developments, Significant atomic physicists

The study of the structure and properties of atoms, and of their interactions with electromagnetic radiation and with other atoms. In 1911 Ernest Rutherford interpreted the scattering of alpha particles passing through gold foil as demonstrating that atoms contain a hard central nucleus, c.10?14m in diameter, complete atoms being c.10?10 m across. He visualized the atom as a central positively-ch…

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atomic radius

The effective size of an atom: in a metal, half the distance between the nuclei of the two nearest neighbour atoms in the solid (also called the metallic radius); in non-metals, half the distance of the closest approach of the nuclei of two identical non-bonded atoms. …

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atomism - Traditional atomism in philosophy, Other issues to do with philosophy and atomism, Greek atomism, Indian atomism

A tradition dating back to the 5th-c BC, associated particularly with Democritus and Leucippus, which maintains that matter is composed ultimately of indivisible particles and that all its properties must be explained in terms of them. Classical atomism anticipated the 17th-c corpuscularian philosophy of Locke, Boyle, and Gassendi; but modern particle physics has a very different origin and approa…

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atonality - History of atonality, Controversy over the term itself, Composing atonal music, Criticism of atonal music

The property of music which is not written in a key. While any music not written in the tonal system, which prevailed between c.1600 and c.1920, might be described as ‘atonal’, the term is most commonly applied to music written in the post-tonal but pre-serial style of Schoenberg's Ewartung (1909) and other compositions of that period. Atonality describes music not conforming to the syste…

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atonement - Etymology, The Atonement in Christianity, Atonement theories in Christianity

In Christian theology, the process whereby sinners are made ‘at one’ with God, through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. No one theory is recognized as authoritative, but the theories of Irenaeus (stressing ‘victory’ over evil), Anselm (stressing ‘satisfaction’ made to God), and Abelard (stressing the force of example of Christ) have been commonly held. The atonement …

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Atreus - Atreidae, Spoken-word myths - audio files, Sources

In Greek mythology, a king of Argos who quarrelled with his brother Thyestes, and placed the flesh of Thyestes' children before him at a banquet. Atreus was the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) ("fearless") of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Atreus and his twin brother, T…

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atropine - Physiological effects and uses, Chemistry and pharmacology, History, Natural sources

A drug extracted from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), used as a poison during the Roman Empire and later. It acts by blocking nerve transmission mediated by acetylcholine. Safer derivatives are now used in a wide variety of disorders, commonly in motion-sickness preparations, and also in ophthalmology, to dilate the pupil during eye examinations. Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extrac…

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attachment

In psychology, the infant–care-giver relationship, and the actions (eg crying, cuddling) which promote this relationship. The dominant explanation for attachment is the ethological theory of British psychiatrist John Bowlby, which argues that early reciprocity between parent and child is determined by genetic factors in both participants, modified by the parent's own attachment history. Experienc…

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attar - Works

A fragrant essential oil distilled from plants; also called otto. The best known is attar of roses, obtained from the petals of the damask rose (Rosa damascena), cultivated in the Balkans. Farid od-Din Attar (Persian:فریدالدین عطار; His death has quite a story: It's said that a Mongol soldier found out who he was and was taking him to his officer when a man offered some m…

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attention - History of the study of attention, Current research, Human attention, Further reading

A phenomenon where the processing capacity of the brain is directed towards a particular type of incoming, competing information. The classic example is the ‘cocktail party phenomenon’, where we are able to listen successfully to a single speaker in a room full of other speakers. Early selection theories suppose that we can filter out unwanted material at an early stage of processing; late selec…

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attenuation - Attenuation and Fibre Optics

The reduction in magnitude of some quantity, caused either by absorption when passing through a medium or by increasing distance from its source. Sunlight is attenuated by clouds; sounds die away with distance from their source. Attenuation coefficients are used to quantify different mediums according to how strongly the input ultrasound amplitude decreases as a function of dB/cm. The atten…

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Attica - History, Transportation, Communications, Persons, Hospitals, Municipalities and communities, Provinces

The SE promontory of C Greece, and the most easterly part of the Greek mainland. In Classical Greece, it was the territory which made up the city-state of Athens. Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; The process of the unification of Attica by Athens is not entirely clear, but it concluded at some point in the first half of the 7th century BC when Eleusis and the surrounding …

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Attilio Bertolucci - Biography, Bibliography

Poet, born in San Lazzaro, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy, the father of film director Bernardo Bertolucci. He was noted for his melancholic and meditative tone, reminscent of crepuscolarismo, although his language was influenced by hermetism. His main themes are the remembrance of times and places that one has loved, and the hope of happiness to come. Among his works are Sirio (1929), Fuochi in novembre…

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attorney general - Brazil, Canada, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Isle of Man, Malaysia, Mexico, United Kingdom, United States

The chief legal officer of a number of nations or states, who represents the government in its legal actions. In England and Wales, the attorney general is a member of the House of Commons and of the government, politically responsible for the Crown Prosecution Service, and head of the English Bar. It is his or her duty to represent the public interest with complete detachment. In the USA, the fed…

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aubade

A song or poem which laments the arrival of dawn separating two lovers. It flourished in mediaeval France. The form has some dramatic elements, since the poem is often a dialogue between the lovers, one saying that dawn is near and they must part, and the other answering no. Aubades were in the repertory of troubadours in Europe in the Middle Ages. The love poetry of the 16th ce…

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aubergine - History, Cultivated varieties, Cookery, Cultivation

A bushy perennial (Solanum meleagrum) with funnel-shaped, violet flowers and large, edible berries, native to New World tropics; also its fruit, variable in shape and colour, but typically egg-shaped and purple; also called egg-plant. It is widely cultivated as an annual vegetable in temperate regions. (Family: Solanaceae.) The aubergine, eggplant, or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a solana…

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Aubrey (Vincent) Beardsley - Biography

Illustrator, born in Brighton, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He became famous through his fantastic posters and illustrations for Morte d'Arthur (1893), Salomé, The Rape of the Lock, and other works, as well as for the Yellow Book magazine (1894–96) and his own Book of Fifty Drawings, mostly executed in black and white, in a highly individualistic asymmetrical style. With Wilde he is regarded as …

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Aubrey (Wray) Fitch - World War I and afterward, Aviation, World War II, Post-war service

US naval officer, born in St Ignace, Michigan, USA. He commanded one of the two task forces in the battle of the Coral Sea (1942). He was superintendent of the Naval Academy (1945–7) and retired with the rank of admiral in 1947. Aubrey Wray Fitch (11 June 1883 – 22 May 1978) was an admiral of the United States Navy during World War II. After serving the two years of sea duty then require…

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Auch

43°39N 0°36E, pop (2000e) 25 900. Ancient town and capital of Gers department, S France, on R Gers; important city of Roman Gaul; former capital of Gascony and Armagnac; railway; archbishopric; furniture, hosiery, brandy, pâté; folk museum, Gothic cathedral. Auch (pronounced /ɔʃ/ in French) (Gascon Occitan: Aush, pronounced /awʃ/) is a town and commune in southwestern France. In th…

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Auckland

36°55S 174°43E, pop (2000e) 931 000 (urban area). Seaport city in North Island, New Zealand; principal port of New Zealand; founded, 1840; capital, 1840–65; airport; railway; university (1883); textiles, footwear, clothing, chemicals, steel, electronics, carpets, plastics, food processing, vehicle assembly; Waitemata Harbour spanned by Auckland Harbour Bridge (1959); two cathedrals, New Zeala…

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Audie (Leon) Murphy - Biography, Other honors, Trivia

US soldier and actor, born near Kingston, Texas, USA. The most decorated American soldier of World War 2, he won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the fighting in the Colmar Pocket, E France (1945). After the war he was invited to Hollywood by actor James Cagney and tried to make it as an actor. He finally got a leading role in Bad Boy (1949), and was eventually signed by Universal Pictures,…

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audiology - History, United Kingdom, India

The study of the physiology of hearing, and of diseases that affect the external, middle and inner ear and the associated nerve. It is specifically concerned with assessing the nature and degree of hearing loss and conservation, and with the rehabilitation of people with hearing impairment. The scientific measurement of hearing is known as audiometry. Audiometric testing is carried out using an au…

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audit - Financial Audits, Types of Auditors, Major Audit Companies

The process of checking that the accounts of an organization have been kept in accordance with good practice and with relevant laws (eg the Companies Acts, in the UK), and that the accounts fairly reflect the activities of the organization and its state of affairs at a certain date. All limited companies must have accounts audited. Auditors are appointed by shareholders and report to them. They ar…

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Audit Commission - Chairman and Commissioners, Chief Executive, Managing Directors

In the UK, an independent body set up by the government in 1982 to monitor local authority spending. It has also carried out reviews in the areas of education, health, and the police. The Audit Commission is a public corporation in the United Kingdom, established under the Local Government Finance Act 1982, to appoint auditors to all local authorities in England and Wales. …

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Audre (Geraldin(e)) Lorde - Life, Bibliography

Poet and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at the University of Mexico (1945), Hunter College (1959 BA), and Columbia University (1961 MLS). Based in the Virgin Is, she taught at many institutions, including Hunter (NYC) (1980). She was an African-American activist and lesbian feminist who explored the dimensions of modern life in poetry, a novel, and non-fiction, as in The…

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Audrey Hepburn - Early career, Work for UNICEF, Cancer, Enduring popularity, Filmography, Television and theatre

Actress and film star, born in Brussels, Belgium. She trained as a ballet dancer in Amsterdam, and at the Marie Rambert school in London, making her film and stage debuts in London in 1948. Noticed by the French writer Colette, she was given the lead in the Broadway production of her novel, Gigi (1951), and went on to win international acclaim for Roman Holiday (1953, Oscar), in which she starred …

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Audrey McLaughlin

Canadian politician, born in Dutton, Ontario, SE Canada. She was MP for the Yukon Territory (1987–97) and leader of the federal New Democratic Party (1989–95). Audrey Marlene McLaughlin, PC, OC, MSW BA, LL.D (born November 7, 1936) was leader of Canada's New Democratic Party from 1989 to 1995. She was the first female leader of a major Canadian federal party, as well as the first (a…

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Audrey Meadows

Television comedienne, born in Wu Chang, China, to American missionaries. She trained as a singer and was featured on radio in the Bob and Ray Show, then appeared on television's Jackie Gleason Show (1952–5). A regular on television comedy shows, she played Ralph Cramden's long-suffering wife, Alice, in Honeymooners (1955–6), and appeared in Murder She Wrote (1980s) and on CBS's Uncle Buck (1990…

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Audrey Tautou - Future Career, Selected filmography, Awards and nominations, Quotes

Actress, born in Beaumont, Puy-de-Dôme, C France. She studied drama at the Cours Florent in Paris, and in 1998 won the best young actress award in the ninth annual Jeune Comedien de Cinema Festival. This led to a role in the film Vénus beauté (institut) (1999), for which she won a César Best Actress award. She received further César nominations for Amélie (2001, Le Fabuleux destin d'Amélie …

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Augsburg - Incorporations, Historical population development:, Partner Cities, Sights

48°22N 10°54E, pop (2000e) 263 000 Industrial and commercial city in Schwaben district, S Germany; at the confluence of the Lech and Wertach Rivers, 48 km/30 mi NW of Munich; founded by the Romans, 15 BC; influential commercial centre in 15th-c; seat of the famous Diets of 1530 and 1555; railway; university (1970); textiles, aircraft, machinery, heavy engineering, chemicals, cars, constructi…

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Augsburg Confession - Origin of the Confession, Contents

A statement of faith composed by Luther, Melanchthon, and others for the Diet of Augsburg (1530), the official text being written by Melanchthon in 1531. The earliest of Protestant Confessions, it became authoritative for the Lutheran Church. The Augsburg Confession, also known as the "Augustana" from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Ch…

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August (Friedrich Ferdinand) von Kotzebue - Biography

Playwright, born in Weimar, C Germany. He worked in government service in Russia, and wrote about 200 poetic dramas, notably Menschenhass und Reue (1789–90, trans The Stranger), as well as tales, satires, and historical works. While on a mission for Emperor Alexander I, he was assassinated in Mannheim by a radical student as an alleged spy. August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (May 3, 1…

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