Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 66

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Samuel Ryder

Businessman, born in Cheshire, NWC England, UK, the son of a nurseryman. He built up a prosperous business in St Albans, mainly through selling penny packets of seeds. In 1927 he donated the Ryder Cup, the trophy of the international golf match known by the same name, played by professional teams of British (now European) and American golfers. Samuel Ryder was a resident of St Albans in Her…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Sarphati - Buildings built on Sarphati's initiative

Dutch doctor and social reformer, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. After studying medicine in Leiden he went into practice in Amsterdam. He produced plans for the expansion of Amsterdam and promoted companies for the advancement of pharmacy (Ned. Mij. ter Bevordering der Pharmacie (1842)), popular crafts (Ver. voor Volksvlijt (1852) and Paleis voor Volksvlijt (1858)), and mortgage and savings b…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Seabury - History, Popular Society, Publications

Clergyman, born in Groton, Connecticut, USA. He graduated at Yale in 1748, studied medicine at Edinburgh, and received orders in the Church of England in 1753. In 1757 he became rector of Jamaica, Long Island, and in 1767 of Westchester, NY. Despite imprisonment for his loyalty to Britain through the War of American Independence as a royalist army chaplain, he was elected the first Episcopal Bisho…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Seabury - History, Popular Society, Publications

Lawyer and anti-corruption investigator, born in New York City, New York, USA. Elected the youngest judge in New York (1902), he was named to the state supreme court (1907–13) and to the court of appeals (1914–16). Investigating magistrates' courts in New York City (1930–1), he exposed widespread corruption, forcing the resignation of Mayor James J Walker. Seabury's name became virtually synony…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Sewall

Judge and merchant, born in Bishopstoke, Hampshire, S England, UK. He went to Boston in 1661, married the daughter of a wealthy shipowner, served as a superior court justice, and became the colony's chief justice (1718). In 1697 he confessed his error in having been partly responsible for sending people to the gallows during the Salem witch trials (1692). He wrote one of the first anti-slavery tra…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Simon Schmucker

Protestant religious leader and educator, born in Hagerstown, Maryland, USA. Trained at the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton Theological Seminary, he became a leader of American Lutherism when he co-founded (1820), with his father, the General Synod of Lutheran Churches. In 1826 he was appointed the first professor of the Lutheran seminary, in Gettysburg, PA. He remained there until 1864. …

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Slater - Early years, Life in America, Legacy

Mechanical engineer, the founder of the US cotton industry, born in Belper, Derbyshire, C England, UK. Apprenticed to Jedediah Strutt, he gained a detailed knowledge of the most advanced textile machinery and its operation. Britain had made both the export of machinery or data, and the emigration of textile workers, illegal; nevertheless, attracted by bounties offered by the USA, he emigrated unde…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Sloan

Architect, born in Beaver Dam, Pennsylvania, USA. Called ‘The Architect of Philadelphia’, he designed public buildings, schools, and churches, and, working with Thomas S Kirkbride, became an authority on designing insane asylums. He wrote seven influential plan books (1852–73). Samuel Sloan was a leading Philadelphia-based architect and writer of architecture books in the mid-19th centur…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Smiles - Smiles' writings, The reliability of Smiles' work

Writer and social reformer, born in Haddington, East Lothian, E Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh, and settled as a surgeon in Leeds, but left medicine for journalism, editing the Leeds Times (1838–42), and becoming involved in railway companies until 1866. His main work was a guide to self-improvement, Self-Help (1859), with its short lives of great men and the admonition ‘Do thou likewise

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Taylor Coleridge - Early life and education, Pantisocracy and marriage, Poetry, Family connections, Cultural references, Bibliography

Poet and man of letters, born in Ottery St Mary, Devon, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, imbibed revolutionary ideas, and left to enlist in the Dragoons. His plans to found a communist society in the USA with Robert Southey came to nothing, and he turned instead to teaching and journalism in Bristol. Marrying Sara Fricker (Southey's sister-in-law), he went with her to Nether Stowey, where …

1 minute read

Samuel Tuke

Psychiatric reformer, born in York, North Yorkshire, N England, UK, the grandson of William Tuke. He acquired in his childhood an intense interest in the York Retreat, the psychiatric hospital founded by his family. His Description of the Retreat (1813) contains a classic account of the principles of ‘moral therapy’, which was the basis of the therapeutic milieu there. Tuke's son, Daniel Hack Tu…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel van Houten

Dutch politician, born in Groningen, N Netherlands. He studied law at Groningen, joined the Municipal Council, and was an MP in 1869–94. From a Baptist family, he became progressively more anticlerical. He was on the left wing of the liberal party, opposed Thorbecke, and supported state help for the poor. In 1874 Van Houten's Children's Act (Kinderwet) banned child labour under the age of 12. He …

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wallis

English explorer and naval officer. From 1766 to 1768 he made a circumnavigation of the globe in HMS Dolphin. He was the first European to discover Tahiti (1767), and the Wallis Is were named after him. Samuel Wallis (c. Wallis was born near Camelford, Cornwall. In 1766 he was given the command of HMS Dolphin to circumnavigate the world, accompanied by the Swallow under the comm…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Ward

Banker, born in Warwick, Rhode Island, USA. His family moved to New York City (1790) and at age 14 he began working at the prominent banking house of Prime & Sands. By 1808 he was a partner and soon a head of the firm whose name changed to Prime, Ward & King. During the panic of 1837, he led New York's wealthiest financiers to forestall a repudiation of specie (script) payments by the state, and i…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wells Williams - Publications, Reference

Scholar and diplomat, born in Utica, New York, USA. A printer's son, he directed an American mission press in Canton and Macao (1833–45) and was secretary and interpreter to the American legation in China (1856–76). The leading sinologist of his day, he published several Chinese dictionaries, and his Middle Kingdom (1848, revised 1883) was for decades the standard English-language work on China.…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wendell Williston

Palaeontologist and entomologist, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. The leader of many Western expeditions, he published important work on Cretaceous and Permian amphibians and reptiles. Reflecting his lifelong research, he also published three editions of his classic Manual of North American Diptera (1888–1908). He taught at the University of Chicago (1902–18). Sa…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wesley - Personal life

Organist and composer, born in Bristol, SW England, UK, the son of Charles Wesley. One of the most famous organists of his day, he was an ardent enthusiast of J S Bach. Though a Roman Catholic (to the displeasure of his father and uncle), he wrote also for the Anglican Liturgy, leaving a number of fine motets and anthems, including In exitu Israel. Samuel Wesley (24 February 1766 – 11 Oct…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wharton

Merchant and land speculator, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A prominent merchant by 1763, he was a central figure in three attempts to gain large land grants W of the Alleghenies: the Grand Illinois Venture (1764–72), Indiana Grant (1768–9), and Vandalia (1770–5). None of the projects were ultimately successful, as the start of the American Revolution in 1775 wrecked the Vandalia sch…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Whitbread

British politician, the son of the founder of the famous brewing firm Samuel Whitbread (1720–96). From Eton he passed to Oxford, and in 1790 entered parliament. The intimate friend of Fox, under Pitt he was Leader of the Opposition, and in 1805 headed the attack on Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville (1742–1811) over charges of corruption. Samuel Whitbread (1758 – June 6, 1815) was an Engli…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wilberforce

Anglican clergyman, born in London, UK, the third son of William Wilberforce. He studied at Oxford, and was ordained in 1828. He became Bishop of Oxford in 1845, instituted Cuddesdon Theological College in 1854, and was appointed Bishop of Winchester in 1869. He initiated the modernization of the language of the King James Bible, and wrote along with his brother, Robert, the life of his father (18…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Williston

Jurist, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He was professor (1890–1938) and active professor emeritus (1938–63) at Harvard Law School. He continued in private practice into his nineties and became Harvard's oldest living alumnus. His Law of Contracts (5 vols, 1920–2) became a standard, and he codified commercial law that was adopted by most American states. The American Bar Association awar…

less than 1 minute read

Samuel Wilson

Meat packer, born in West Cambridge (now Arlington), Massachusetts, USA. A Revolutionary War veteran, he started a meat-packing plant in Troy, NY. The meat that he shipped to the army during the War of 1812 was stamped ‘US’. The US referred to US properties, but was then somewhat humorously said to stand for ‘Uncle Sam’ Wilson. As the term ‘Uncle Sam’ came into more widespread use as a symbo…

less than 1 minute read

samurai - History, Western samurai, Culture, Philosophy, Women, Weapons, Etymology of samurai and related words, Myth and reality

Japanese warrior-gentry. After 1192 the Kamakura elaborated a military feudal system: knights (samurai) held land from lords (daimyo) for military service. Educated in Chinese Confucian ethics, they were expected to display such virtues as frugality, incorruptibility, loyalty, self-sacrifice, and valour, and to avoid dishonour by ritual suicide. They became involved in administration under the Tok…

less than 1 minute read

San Andreas Fault - Southern, central, and northern segments, Plate movement, Scientific research, Notable earthquakes

A major fault in the Earth's crust running for about 950 km/600 mi through NW California to the Colorado Desert. It marks the boundary between the Pacific and American crustal plates, which are slipping past each other at an average rate of 1 cm/? in a year. Sudden movements can cause earthquakes, the most notable of which devastated San Francisco in 1906. Serious movement also occurred in 198…

less than 1 minute read

San Joaquin River - Economics

River in C California, USA, in the S part of the Central Valley; rises in the Sierra Nevada; joins the Sacramento R just above Suisin Bay; 510 km/317 mi long; major tributaries the Fresno, Merced, Mariposa; connected with the Sacramento R in the Central Valley Project to increase irrigation, flood-control, and hydroelectricity. The San Joaquin River (pronounced /'sæn wɑ'kin/), 330 miles…

less than 1 minute read

San Lorenzo

An early Olmec ceremonial centre in Veracruz province, Mexico. Occupied from c.1500 BC, it flourished c.1200–900 BC until succeeded by La Venta. On a partly artificial plateau c.50 m/160 ft high and 1·25 km/0·8 mi long stood c.200 houses with a population of c.1000 sustained by maize agriculture, hunting, and fishing. The site is notable for its sculpture, which includes colossal basalt hea…

less than 1 minute read

San Marino (city) - Economy, Transport, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

43°56N 12°26E, pop (2000e) 2500. Capital city of San Marino, C Italy, on Monte Titano; accessible only by road; surrounded by three enclosures of walls, including many gateways, towers, and ramparts; basilica, St Francis's Church, governor's palace. The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is the third smallest nation in Europe (after Monaco …

less than 1 minute read

San Marino (state) - Economy, Transport, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Most Serene Republic of San Marino, Ital Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is the third smallest nation in Europe (after Monaco and the Holy See). Although San Marino is not an official European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by virtue of arrangeme…

less than 1 minute read

San Pedro Sula - History, Sister cities

15º26N 88º01W, pop (2000e) 404 000. Industrial centre of Honduras, and capital of Cortés department; second largest city in Honduras; airport; railway; trade in bananas, coffee, sugar, timber; textiles, zinc roofing, furniture, cement, plastics, steel rolling. San Pedro Sula is a city in the Central American republic of Honduras. San Pedro Sula is known as the Industrial Ca…

less than 1 minute read

San Sebasti - Twin Cities

43°17N 1°58W, pop (2000e) 172 000. Fortified Basque seaport, fashionable resort, and capital of Guipúzcoa province, N Spain; on R Urumea, 469 km/291 mi N of Madrid; bishopric; airport; railway; seaport trade, fisheries, electronics, gloves, dairy produce; Church of St Mary (18th-c), Mount Urgel Park; Tamborada (Jan), Semana Grande (Aug). Donostia-San Sebastián (Basque: Donostia, Spa…

less than 1 minute read

Sanctorius - References and external links

Physician and friend of Galileo, born in Koper, SW Slovenia (formerly Capodistria, Italy). He studied at Padua, and in 1611 became professor of theoretical medicine there. He invented the clinical thermometer, a pulsimeter, a hygrometer, and other instruments, but he is best known for his investigations into the fluctuations of the body's weight under different conditions. Santorio Santorio…

less than 1 minute read

sand - Constituents of sand, Transport, Study of sand, Uses of sand, Hazards of sand

Grains of rock and mineral with sizes between 63 µm and 2 mm (0·0025–0·079 in), formed by the physical weathering of rocks, and composed of resistant minerals (usually quartz) not destroyed during weathering. Black sand, containing volcanic rock, and coral sand also occur. Accumulations of sand can be formed by the action of waves on coastal beaches, and by the wind in deserts. Quartz-rich …

less than 1 minute read

sand dollar

A flattened, disk-like sea urchin found burrowing in soft sediments of shallow tropical and temperate seas; tubular feet arranged in a petal-like pattern on the upper body surface, serving a respiratory function; c.130 living species. (Class: Echinoidea. Order: Clypeasteroida.) Sand dollars are in the Echinoid (Echinoderms) class of marine animals. …

less than 1 minute read

sand lizard

A lizard of the family Lacertidae, native to Europe and W Asia (Lacerta agilis); brown or green with small dark rings and two pale lines along back; inhabits heathland and sandy areas; eats mainly insects. The name is also used for some other species in this family (eg of genus Psammodromus). The Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis is a lizard. …

less than 1 minute read

sandalwood - Source, Production, Use

A hemiparasitic tree (Santalum album) native to SE Asia; leaves opposite, oval; flowers rather inconspicuous, red, with 4-lobed bells. A fragrant timber is obtained from the white outer wood, used for carvings, incense, and joss sticks. Sandal oil is made from the yellow heartwood, and the roots are used for perfume and soap. (Family: Santalaceae.) West Indian sandalwood (Amyris balsamifera…

less than 1 minute read

sanderling

A pale sandpiper (Calidris alba) native to the N hemisphere; inhabits tundra and (in winter) coasts; eats minute crustaceans; follows edges of breaking waves on shore. …

less than 1 minute read

sandgrouse

A bird native to Africa, Asia, and S Europe; resembles a plump pigeon; inhabits open country; eats seeds, shoots, and insects; males transport drinking water to chicks by saturating feathers on underparts. (Family: Pteroclididae, 16 species.) The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. …

less than 1 minute read

Sandown - Natural interests, Tourism, Cities links, Famous connections

50º39N 1º09W, pop (2000e) 17 200 (with Shanklin). Town in Isle of Wight, S England, UK; on Sandown Bay, S of Ryde and N of Shanklin; home of the poet Swinburne; railway; boatbuilding, electrical goods, tourism. Sandown is a seaside resort town on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, England, neighbouring the town of Shanklin to the south. Sandown Bay is the name of the bay off the…

less than 1 minute read

Sandra Day O'Connor - Personal life and education, Early career, Supreme Court career, Current activities and memberships

Jurist, the first female justice of the US Supreme Court, born in El Paso, Texas, USA. She studied law and was admitted to the bar in California, but then took up practice in Arizona, where she became assistant attorney-general (1965–9) and then a state senator. She was a Superior Court judge of Maricopa Co (1974–9) and a judge of the Arizona Court of Appeals (1979–81) before President Reagan n…

less than 1 minute read

Sandra Feldman

Union leader, born in New York City, New York, USA. Growing up poor, she would later credit the public school system for ‘saving my life’. She studied at Brooklyn College and took an MA in English literature from New York University (1964). As a young woman she joined the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and was arrested several times on civil-rights marches in the South. She began as a supply…

less than 1 minute read

Sandrine Bonnaire

Actress, born in Clermont-Ferrand, C France. Without any acting background, she starred at age 16 in M Pialat's A nos amours (1983), gaining a César for best female newcomer. She gained a second César in Agnès Varda's Sans toit ni loi (1985). Later films include La Puritaine (1986, director J Doillon), Sous le soleil de Satan (1987, director M Pialat), M. Hire (1989, director P Leconte), Jeanne…

less than 1 minute read

Sandro Botticelli - Biography

Painter of the early Renaissance, born in Florence, NC Italy. He trained, probably, under Filippo Lippi (c.1458), and from c.1470 worked from his own studio. He is best known for his treatments of mythological subjects, notably ‘Primavera’ (Spring) and ‘Birth of Venus’, both in the Uffizi. His work includes illustrations for Dante's Divina commedia, which he executed in pen and ink and silverp…

less than 1 minute read

Sandro Penna - Biography, Works

Poet, born in Perugia, Umbria, C Italy. In a clear style infused with melancholy and sensuality, he sharply captured the present moment with epigrammatic lyrics on homosexual love in Poesie (1939), Una strana gioia di vivere (1956), Stranezze (1976), and Confuso sogno (1980). Born in Perugia, Penna lived in Rome for much of his life. His affection for boys was reflected by the c…

less than 1 minute read

sandstone - Origins, Types of sandstone, Gallery

A sedimentary rock composed of grains of sand (usually quartz) cemented together by a matrix, usually silica or calcium carbonate. It may be formed through deposition by water in marine or freshwater environments, or by wind action (as dunes). It is quarried as a building stone. Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. Like sand, sandstone may be …

less than 1 minute read

Sandy Koufax

Baseball player, born in New York City, USA. He played in his home town, then in Los Angeles with the Dodgers. Arguably the finest left-handed pitcher of the modern age, his short career reached its peak in the 1960s, and in 1963 he was named Most Valuable Player as the Dodgers beat the New York Yankees in the World Series. In 1965 he again helped the Dodgers to a World Series victory over Minneso…

less than 1 minute read

Sandy Lyle - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, WC England, UK. His major championship successes have been the European Open in 1979, the French Open in 1981, the British Open in 1985, and the US Masters Championship in 1988. An extremely long hitter, he has largely been responsible, with Nick Faldo, for the revival of British professional golf at world level. DNP = did not play CUT = missed…

less than 1 minute read

Sanford (Robinson) Gifford - Childhood / early career, Gifford's travels, In the studio, "Chief pictures"

Painter, born in Greenfield, New York, USA. He studied at the National Academy of Design (c.1845), and was influenced by the work of Thomas Cole. A founder of the American luminism school of painting, he specialized in the effects of light, as seen in his major work, ‘Kauterskill Falls’ (1862). Sanford Robinson Gifford (July 10, 1823 – August 29, 1880) was an American landscape painter …

less than 1 minute read

sangha - Qualities of the Sangha, Monastic tradition, Ordination process, Women's role in the Sangha

The community of bhikkus - those who have formally committed themselves to pursuing the Buddhist way of life and to living in accord with the set of rules known as the Patimokkha. It began with the first disciples of Buddha, and remains influential and widespread today. Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as "association" or "assembly". Traditionally, in Budd…

less than 1 minute read

Sanhedrin - Traditions of origin, Great Sanhedrin and Lesser Sanhedrin, Function and procedures, Early Christianity

A Jewish council of elders meeting in Jerusalem, which during the Graeco-Roman period acquired internal administrative and judicial functions over Palestinian Jews, despite foreign domination. Convened by the high priest, its membership numbered 71, although local courts with this designation outside Jerusalem had fewer members (usually 23 or just 3) and more limited jurisdiction. After the fall o…

less than 1 minute read

Sans Souci

A Rococo palace built (1745–7) at Potsdam, EC Germany, for Frederick II of Prussia, who collaborated with his architect, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1699–1753), on its design. It has been preserved in its original state, and houses several picture galleries. Sans Souci is often used as a name for houses, hotels, restaurants, and businesses. If an internal link led you here, you may…

less than 1 minute read

Sanskrit

The name given to the early forms of Indo-Aryan, at c.1000 BC, in which the sacred Hindu texts known as the Vedas were written. Their grammatical form and pronunciation have been scrupulously preserved as a matter of religious observance. Sanskrit proved to be the key to the reconstruction of Indo-European in the 19th-c. …

less than 1 minute read

Santa Ana

14°00N 79°31W, pop (2000e) 286 000. Capital city of Santa Ana department, NW El Salvador; 55 km/34 mi NW of San Salvador, on NE slopes of Santa Ana volcano; second largest city in the country; business centre of W El Salvador; railway; on the Pan-American Highway; coffee, sugar cane; cathedral, Church of El Calvario. Santa Ana is the second biggest city in El Salvador, located at 64 k…

less than 1 minute read

Santa Barbara

34°25N 119°42W, pop (2000e) 92 300. Resort seat of Santa Barbara Co, SW California, USA, on the Pacific Ocean; founded, 1782; railway; university (1891); oil, aerospace, electronics; tourism; Vandenburg air force base nearby; Santa Barbara Mission (established 1786, present building completed 1820); many buildings with Spanish architecture. Santa Bárbara or Santa Barbara (the Spanish- …

less than 1 minute read

Santa Claus - Overview, Historical origins, Santa Claus in popular culture, Christian opposition to Santa Claus

A name derived from Sinte Klaas, a Dutch dialect form of St Nicholas, the patron saint of children, on the eve of whose feast day (6 Dec) presents were traditionally given to children, as if from the saint. Belief in Santa Claus, also known as Father Christmas, is fostered by adults, but confined to children. Santa Claus lives at the North Pole, dresses in a red fur-lined robe, or suit and bonnet,…

less than 1 minute read

Santa Cruz

17°45S 63°14W, pop (2000e) 678 700. City in Santa Cruz department, E Bolivia; founded in 1561 by Spanish; airport; railway; university (1880); oil refining, gas fields; sugar cane, coffee, rice, tobacco, soya, maize, sugar refining; gas pipeline to Yacuiba; cathedral; carnival (before Lent). Santa Cruz may refer to: …

less than 1 minute read

Santa Cruz de Tenerife

28º28N 16º15W, pop (2000e) 192 000. Seaport and capital of Santa Cruz de Tenerife province, Canary Is, on N coast of Tenerife I; airport; oil refinery, wine, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, beer, pottery, tourism, agricultural trade; carnival (Feb), Festival of Spain (Apr–May), spring festival (May), Fiesta of La Virgen del Carmen (Jul). …

less than 1 minute read

Santa Fe (Argentina)

31°38S 60°43W, pop (2000e) 494 200. River-port capital of Santa Fe province, NEC Argentina; at the mouth of the R Salado, and linked to the R Paraná by a short canal; founded, 1573, but present site not occupied until 1660; airfield; railway; two universities (1919, 1959); rail, shipping, commercial, industrial, and agricultural centre; cathedral; Jesuit La Merced Church (1660–1754), Casa de…

less than 1 minute read

Santa Fe (USA)

35°41N 105°57W, pop (2000e) 62 200. State capital in Santa Fe Co, NC New Mexico, USA; at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mts; the oldest seat of government in the USA; founded by the Spanish, 1609; centre of Spanish–Indian trade for over 200 years; after Mexican independence (1821), centre of trade with the USA; occupied by US troops, 1846; territorial capital, 1851; railway; administrative …

less than 1 minute read

Santa Fe Trail - Route

A trading route from W Missouri through Kansas and Colorado to Santa Fe in New Mexico. The trail was pioneered by William Becknell in 1821, the year of Mexico's independence from Spanish rule. It remained a commercially important route for over 50 years, but declined after the Santa Fe railway was opened in 1880. The Santa Fe Trail was a historic 19th century transportation route across sou…

less than 1 minute read

Santa Marta - Geography and climate, Gallery

11°18N 74°10W, pop (2000e) 201 500. Caribbean port in N Colombia; at mouth of R Manzanares; 96 km/60 mi E of Barranquilla, to which it is linked by road and bridge (1974); founded by Rodrigo de Bastidas, 1525; Simón Bolívar died here, 1830; airport; railway; oil terminal; trade in bananas, coffee, cocoa; leading seaside resort. Santa Marta is a city and municipality, located in nort…

less than 1 minute read

Santiago - Important places named Santiago, Other places named Santiago (by country), Landforms, Historic uses, Other uses

33°27S 70°38W, pop (2000e) 6 037 000. Capital of Chile, crossed E–W by R Mapocho; founded, 1541; capital, 1818; often damaged by floods, fires, and earthquakes; commercial centre; over half Chile's manufacturing located here; airport, 56 km/32 mi NW; railway; metro; three universities (1738, 1888, 1947); cathedral; textiles, food processing, metals, shoes; Avenida O'Higgins (the Alameda) s…

less than 1 minute read

Santiago (de los Caballeros) - Important places named Santiago, Other places named Santiago (by country), Landforms, Historic uses, Other uses

19°30N 70°42W, pop (2000e) 565 900. City in C Santiago province, Dominican Republic; second largest city in country; airfield; most important trading, distributing, and processing centre in N; in fertile Cibao agricultural region; cigarettes, pharmaceuticals, rum; scene of decisive battle of Dominican struggle for independence (1844); cathedral, fort. …

less than 1 minute read

Santiago Calatrava - Notable works, Awards, Exhibits

Architect and engineer, born in Spain. His projects showed advanced solutions to experimentation with the dynamism of structures. Among his works are bridges in Basel, Mérida, Lleida, Barcelona, Sevilla, and Bilbao, the communications tower on Montjuïc for the Barcelona Olympics, the Oriente Railway Station in Lisbon, and the Hemisfèric (planetarium) in Valencia. Santiago Calatra…

less than 1 minute read

Santiago de Compostela - The city, Demography, History of the shrine and the pilgrimage, The cathedral, Sister cities, Books

42°52N 8°37W, pop (2000e) 106 000. City in La Coruña province, Galicia, NW Spain, on R Sar; former capital of the Kingdom of Galicia; world-famous place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages (shrine of St James); airport; railway; university (1501); the old town is a world heritage site; linen, paper, soap, brandy, silverwork; cathedral (11th–12th-c); Fiesta of Santiago Apostol (Jul). Sant…

less than 1 minute read

Santiago de Cuba - History, Personalities

20°00N 75°49W, pop (2000e) 433 500. Seaport capital of Santiago de Cuba province, SE Cuba, on S coast; Cuba's second largest city; founded, 1514; formerly capital of the republic; scene of events in Spanish-American War of 1898, when town surrendered to US forces; scene of Castro's 1953 revolution; rail terminus; university (1947); trade in coffee, tobacco, sugar; cathedral (1528); Museum of C…

less than 1 minute read

Santiago del Estero - Culture

27°48S 64°15W, pop (2000e) 224 700. Capital of Santiago del Estero province, N Argentina; on the R Dulce; the oldest Argentine town, founded in 1553 by settlers from Peru; university; railway; airfield; agricultural trade and lumbering centre; cathedral; Gothic Church of San Francisco (founded, 1565), Museo Arqueológico; convent of Santo Domingo contains one of two copies of the Holy Shroud o…

less than 1 minute read

Santo Domingo - Historic Background, Public Transportation

19°30N 70°42W, pop (2000e) 2 710 000. Capital city of Dominican Republic; on right bank of R Ozama; founded, 1496; airport; harbour; highway junction; university (1538); Renaissance cathedral (1514–40), Alcazar castle (1514). Santo Domingo de Guzmán, population 2,061,200 (2003), estimated 2,253,437 in 2006, is the capital and the largest city of the Dominican Republic. It is the olde…

less than 1 minute read

Santorini - Minoan Advances, Development of the Atlantis Connection, "Minoan" Akrotiri, Ancient volcanic eruption

pop (2000e) 7600; area 75 km²/29 sq mi. Island in the S Cyclades c.140 km/87 mi N of Crete. The last great eruption of its volcano (c.1470 BC), in an explosion four times more powerful than Krakatoa, has been held responsible (probably mistakenly) for the rapid decline of Minoan civilization. The excavated site displays notable wall paintings and 3-storeyed houses. Santorini (Greek

less than 1 minute read

Santos - Places, Other

23°56S 46°22W, pop (2000e) 561 800. Port in São Paulo state, SE Brazil; 63 km/39 mi SE of São Paulo and 5 km/3 mi from the Atlantic coast, on an island; founded in 1534; railway; the most important Brazilian port, handling over 40% of all imports, and about half of all exports; major industrial area around the steelworks, oil refinery and hydroelectric plant at Cubatão, known locally as…

less than 1 minute read

S - People, Music, Business, Technology, Politics, Fiction

River in E Brazil; rises in the Serra de Canastra, flows NE, NW, then SE to enter the Atlantic 96 km/60 mi NE of Aracajú; length 2900 km/1800 mi; main route of access into the interior of E Brazil; hydroelectricity at several points. …

less than 1 minute read

SAP

A clandestine partisan organization operating in the Italian resistance. It was involved in mobilization and sabotage and was first active in the Emilia-Romagna area in 1944, spreading later to the rest of N Italy. Maple tree sap is the basic ingredient in maple syrup. The sap of the rubber tree is used to make latex, which is vulcanized to make rubber. Spruce gum is another tree sap that w…

less than 1 minute read

saponification - Saponification in corpses, Saponification in fire extinguishers

The hydrolysis of a fat (glyceride) in a basic solution, yielding glycerol and the salts of the fatty acids (soaps). The reaction is an example of an ester hydrolysis. Saponification is the hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions to form an alcohol and the salt of the acid. Saponification is commonly used to refer to the reaction of a metallic alkali (base) with a fat or oil to …

less than 1 minute read

Sapper - Specific usage

Novelist, born in Bodmin, Cornwall, SW England, UK. He trained as a soldier before achieving fame as the creator of ‘Bulldog’ Drummond, the aggressively patriotic hero of a series of thrillers written between 1920 and 1937. The Final Count (1926) is a typical example. A sapper, in the sense first used by the French military, was one who sapped (undermined) another's fortifications. …

less than 1 minute read

sapphire - Sapphires in nature, Synthetic sapphire for non-gemstone applications, Star Sapphire

A gem variety of corundum, coloured by the addition of minor amounts of impurity. It occurs in a variety of colours (except red, when it is termed ruby), but blue is the most valuable. Sapphire (from Hebrew: ספּיר Sapir) is the single-crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3), a mineral known as corundum. Trace amounts of other elements such as iron and chromium give sapphires thei…

less than 1 minute read

Sappho - Life, Contributions to the lyric tradition, Transmission and loss of Sappho's works, Works

Greek poet, born in Lesbos, Greece. The most celebrated female poet of antiquity, she wrote lyrics unsurpassed for depth of feeling, passion, and grace. Only two of her odes are extant in full, but many fragments have been found in Egypt. She is said to have plunged into the sea from the Leucadian rock because Phaon did not return her love, but this event seems to have no historical foundation. Tr…

less than 1 minute read

sapsucker

A woodpecker, native to North America and the Caribbean; inhabits woodland; eats sap, insects, berries, and nuts; juvenile plumage differs from adult. (Genus: Sphyrapicus, 2 species.) The Sapsuckers form the genus Sphyrapicus within the woodpecker family Picidae. …

less than 1 minute read

Sara Allgood - Early life, Career, Private life

Actress, born in Dublin, Ireland. At the Abbey Theatre she created the parts of Juno Boyle and Bessie Burgess in Sean O'Casey's Juno and the Paycock and The Plough and the Stars (1926) respectively. In 1940 she settled in Hollywood, and appeared in over 30 films, including Jane Eyre (1943), The Lodger (1944), and Between Two Worlds (1944). Allgood was born in Dublin, Ireland. Al…

less than 1 minute read

Sara Coleridge

Scholar, born in Keswick, Cumbria, NW England, UK, the daughter of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. She was brought up in Robert Southey's household, married her cousin, Henry Nelson Coleridge in 1829, and helped to edit her father's writings. Her own works were Pretty Lessons for Good Children (1834) and Phantasmion (1837), a fairy tale. Sara Coleridge (December 23, 1802 – May 3, 1852) was an En…

less than 1 minute read

Sara Conboy

Labour leader, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. She started factory work at age 11 and became a skilled weaver. She led a carpet factory strike (1909–10) and became an organizer, and later the secretary-treasurer, of the United Textile Workers. One of five women who were appointed to the Council of National Defense in World War 1, she was also the first woman to be an American delegate to the …

less than 1 minute read

Sara Harkness

Architect, born in Swampscott, Massachusetts, USA. After taking her master's degree in architecture from Smith College (1937), she worked for several architectural firms. In 1946 she co-founded the Architects' Collaborative, where she took a principal role designing among other projects the Fox Lane Middle School, Bedford, NY (1966), and Schlecter Auditorium, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA (1971)…

less than 1 minute read

Sara Lidman

Writer, born in Missenträsk, NE Sweden. Tuberculosis interrupted her studies at the University of Uppsala, and she took to writing. Her early widely acclaimed novels include Tjärdalen (1953, The Tar Still) and Hjortonlandet (1955, Cloudberry Land). Her writing became more overtly political in the 1960s after her experiences of South Africa, Kenya, and Vietnam, but later, in the important series …

less than 1 minute read

Sara Montiel - Acting career, Filmography, Discography, Awards, Personal Information

Actress and singer, born in Campo de Criptana (Ciudad Real), SC Spain. She made her film debut in 1944 under the pseudonym María Alejandra, which she changed to Sara Montiel after entrusting her stage career to her manager Enrique Herreros. During the 1950s she went to Mexico and starred in various films, including The Man from Tangiers (director Robert Elwyn). Moving to Hollywood, she worked wit…

less than 1 minute read

Sara Paretsky - Bibliography

Writer of detective fiction, born in Ames, Iowa, USA. She studied at the University of Kansas (1967 BA) and the University of Chicago (1977 MA; 1977 PhD), and became a publications manager for Urban Research Corp (1971–4), a free-lance business writer (1974–7), and an advertizing and direct-mail marketing manager (1977–85) before writing full time from 1985. All her novels are set in and around…

less than 1 minute read

Sara Teasdale

Poet, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. She was educated privately, travelled in Europe and the Middle East (1905–7), married (1914–29), and settled in New York City (1916). Her books include Love Songs (1917) and Strange Victory (1933). Afflicted with bouts of depression, she committed suicide. Sara Teasdale (August 8, 1884 – January 29, 1933), was an American lyrical poet. She was born…

less than 1 minute read

sarabande

A 16th-c dance of Spanish or Latin-American origin in triple time. In a different form and slower tempo it became a standard movement of the Baroque suite, where a long note on the second beat is a distinctive feature. In music, the sarabande (It., sarabanda) is a slow dance in triple metre with the distinctive feature that beats 2 and 3 of the measure are often tied, giving a distinctive r…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah (C) Blaffer Hrdy - Early life, Education, Family Life, Publications, Films

Primatologist, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. She was an instructor in anthropology at the University of Massachusetts (1973), then became a lecturer and fellow in biology at Harvard (1975–8). Appointed an associate at Harvard's Peabody Museum (1979), she concurrently joined the University of California, Davis as a professor (1984). She made major contributions to studies of the evolution of primate…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah (Josepha) Hale

Writer and first female magazine editor, born in Newport, New Hampshire, USA. A widow from 1822, she wrote to support her family. In 1828 she was offered the editorship of the Ladies' Magazine, which continued until 1877 under the later title of Godey's Magazine and Lady's Book. Other notable works include the critically acclaimed Woman's Record: or Sketches of All Distinguished Women from ‘the B…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah (Lois) Vaughan - Life and career, Marriages, relationships, Later life, Songs associated with Vaughan, Selected albums, Tributes

Jazz singer and pianist, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. As a child she sang Gospels in church and studied the organ. Winning a talent competition in 1942, she came to the attention of singer Billy Eckstine, and through him of Earl Hines, who promptly hired her as a singer and pianist. In 1944 she made her first recording with ‘I'll Wait and Pray’, the following year launching out on a solo car…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Bernhardt - Early life, Stage career, Visual Arts and Recordings, Social Life, Marriages, Relationships

Actress and theatre producer, born in Paris, France. She entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1859, and in 1867 won fame as Zanetto in Coppée's Le Passant (1869), and as the Queen of Spain in Ruy Blas (1872). After 1876 she made frequent appearances in London, the USA, and Europe. She also managed several theatres, including the Théâtre Sarah-Bernhardt (founded, 1899), and wrote poetry and plays.…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Caldwell - Videography, Quotes

Opera director and conductor, born in Maryville, Missouri, USA. She studied violin, and while affiliated to Boston University formed her own company, the Boston Opera Group (later the Opera Company of Boston), in 1958. Overseeing every detail of the productions, staging, and music, she was notorious for just meeting last-minute deadlines and averting financial crises, but she made her opera compan…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Churchill - Things, People, Places

English aristocrat, the wife of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. In 1673 she entered the service of the Duke of York (the future James II), and became a close friend of his younger daughter, Princess Anne (the future Queen Anne): in their private correspondence, Anne was called ‘Mrs Morley’ and Sarah was ‘Mrs Freeman’. After Anne became queen, Sarah dominated her household and the Whig…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Grand - Works

Novelist, born of English parents in Donaghadee, NE Northern Ireland. At the age of 16 she married an army doctor, and later became Mayoress of Bath (1923, 1925–9). Her reputation rests on The Heavenly Twins (1893), in which she skilfully handles delicate problems of sexual development, relationships, and disease, and her autobiographical The Beth Book (1897). Her later works, including The Winge…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Kirsch

Writer, born in Limlingerode, C Germany. She was married to Rainer Kirsch (1958–68), with whom she wrote some poetry, including Gespräch mit dem Saurier (1965). Her poetry is well-crafted and fluent, with elements of Romanticism. Other works include socially critical short stories and commentaries, as well as children's books. She was awarded the Petrarca-Preis in 1976 and the Großer Österreic…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Parker Remond

Abolitionist and physician, born in Salem, Massachusetts. A child of free African-Americans, she grew up in a comfortable home, surrounded by both blacks and whites opposed to slavery. Her brother, Charles Remond, became an early anti-slavery lecturer, and in 1853 Sarah came to public notice when she went to court in Boston after being forced out of a hall to which she held a ticket. In 1856 she b…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Polk - People, Places

US first lady (1845–9), born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA. She married James K Polk in 1824. Well-educated, she served as Polk's personal secretary, and the two often worked together until late at night. Polk died two months after his presidency, but she remained admired and respected by both sides during the Civil War and afterwards. Childress can refer to: …

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Siddons

Actress, born in Brecon, Powys, E Wales, UK, the sister of John Kemble. She was a member of the theatre company run by her father, Roger Kemble, from her earliest childhood, and in 1773 married her fellow actor, William Siddons (1744–1808). She gained a great reputation in the provinces, and after playing at Drury Lane in 1782 became the unquestioned queen of tragedy, renowned for her beauty, dig…

less than 1 minute read

Sarah Winnemucca - Early life, Bannock War, Yakima Reservation, Lectures and writing, Commemorations, External links and references

Northern Paiute educator, interpreter, and writer, born near Humboldt Lake, Nevada, USA. She served often as an interpreter with the US Army, looking to it for fair treatment for Indians and urging her people to keep the peace. She worked tirelessly, although ultimately unsuccessfully, for a permanent Paiute reservation. In 1884 she published Life Among the Paiutes. Sarah Winnemucca (born T…

less than 1 minute read

Sarajevo - Geography and climate, History, Government, Demographics, Economy, Communications and media, Transportation, Culture, Sports, Education, Twin cities

43°52N 18°26E, pop (2000e) 400 000. Capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina; on R Miljacka; governed by Austria, 1878–1918; scene of the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife (28 Jun 1914); under siege and badly damaged in civil war, 1992–3; airport; railway; university (1946); vehicles, brewing, engineering, chemicals, carpets, tobacco; educational and cultural centre; site of …

less than 1 minute read

Saransk - History, Other information, Theatres

54º12N 45º10E, pop (2000e) 318 000. Capital city of Mordovskaya, C European Russia, on R Insar; founded as a fortress, 1641; railway; university (1957); foodstuffs, electrical engineering, machinery, chemicals, clothing; Church of John the Apostle (1693). Saransk (Russian: Сара́нск; Saransk has many historic architectural sites stemming from its early settlement in 1…

less than 1 minute read

Saratov - History, Modern Saratov, Famous people

51º30N 45º55E, pop (2000e) 905 000. River-port capital of Saratovskaya oblast, E European Russia, on R Volga; founded as a fortress, 1590; airport; railway; university (1909); oil refining, chemicals, clothing, leatherwork, precision instruments; Troitskii Cathedral (1689–95). Saratov (Russian: Сара́тов) is a major city in Russia located between Ukraine and Kazakhstan. It is th…

less than 1 minute read

Sarawak - History, Geography, Demographics, Economy

pop (2000e) 2 076 000; area 124 449 km²/48 037 sq mi. State in E Malaysia, on NW coast of Borneo; bounded S by Kalimantan (Indonesia), N by the South China Sea and NE by Brunei and Sabah; flat, narrow coastal strip, belt of foothills, and highly mountainous forested interior; highest peak, Mt Murud (2423 m/7949 ft); watered by the R Rajang; given by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke,…

less than 1 minute read

sarcoidosis - Epidemiology, Signs and symptoms, Investigations, Causes and pathophysiology, Treatment

An uncommon, multi-system, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. Immature cells accumulate to form lumps (granulomas) in any organ in the body. The clinical features depend on which organs are affected; for example skin, eyes, lungs, or heart. The granulomas tend to resolve spontaneously but may leave scarring, causing permanent organ damage. Sarcoidosis (also called sarcoid or Be…

less than 1 minute read

sarcoma - Types of sarcoma

A malignant tumour in connective tissue, bone, or muscle. Sarcomas are much less common than are carcinomas, which arise from the lining tissues of the skin and internal organs. Private funding Organizations such as the 'Sarcoma Foundation of America' are working to fund research towards a cure for sarcoma, while other patient-oriented organizations such as the Sarcoma Alliance are wo…

less than 1 minute read

sardana

A traditional choral dance, popular in Cataluña. The sardana (Catalan plural sardanes) is a type of circle dance typical of Catalonia. …

less than 1 minute read

Sardinia - History, Geography, Climate, Culture, Transport, Environment, Business and commerce, Trivia

pop (2000e) 1 644 000; area 24 000 km²/9300 sq mi. Region and island of Italy; settled by Phoenicians; formed part of Kingdom of Sardinia, 18th-c; capital and chief port, Cagliari (airport); main towns, Nuoro, Sassari, Carbonia, Oristano, Iglesias; length 272 km/169 mi; width 144 km/89 mi; second largest island in the Mediterranean; largely hilly, rising to 1835 m/6020 ft in the Mont…

less than 1 minute read

Sardis - Location, History, Archaeological expeditions, Bibliography

The capital of Lydia and the political centre of Asia Minor in the pre-Hellenistic period. A flourishing city in Roman imperial times, it contained one of the largest and richest Jewish communities in the entire empire. Sardis, (also Sardes, Greek: Σάρδεις), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under …

less than 1 minute read

Sargasso Sea

Sluggish area of the Atlantic Ocean, between the Azores and the West Indies within the ‘Horse Latitudes’; a still sea, located at the centre of clockwise-moving warm surface currents, allowing great biological activity; abundance of surface gulfweed; breeding ground for eels which migrate to Europe. The Sargasso Sea is an elongated region in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, surroun…

less than 1 minute read

Sark - Geography, Politics, History, Sercquiais, Clameur de Haro

pop (2000e) 640; area 4 km²/1½ sq mi. Smallest of the four main Channel Islands, lying between Guernsey and the Cotentin Peninsula, France; consists of Great and Little Sark, connected by an isthmus; separate parliament (the Chief Pleas); Seigneurie of Sark established by Elizabeth I; ruler known as the Seigneur (male) or Dame (female) until 2006, when the islanders voted to abolish the feud…

less than 1 minute read

Sarojini Naidu - Early life and family, In the Freedom struggle, Poetry, writings and quotes

Feminist and poet, born in Hyderabad, S India. She studied at Chennai (Madras), London, and Cambridge, and became known as ‘the nightingale of India’. She published three volumes of lyric verse: The Golden Threshold (1905), The Bird of Time (1912), and The Broken Wing (1915). She organized flood-relief in Hyderabad (1908), and lectured and campaigned on feminism, particularly the abolition of pu…

less than 1 minute read

Sarpedon - Sarpedon (son of Zeus and Europa), Sarpedon (son of Zeus and Laodamia)

In the Iliad, a son of Zeus, who led the Lycian troops on the Trojan side, and made an important speech on the duties of a warrior. He was killed by Patroclus, and carried off by Sleep and Death to Lycia. The first Sarpedon was a son of Zeus and Europa, and brother to Minos and Rhadamanthys. In another version, Minos, Sarpedon and Rhadamanthus quarreled over a beautiful boy they…

less than 1 minute read

sarrusophone - Sizes and ranges, Construction, Use in classical music, Use in jazz, Present status, The Rothphone

A musical instrument made of brass in various sizes, with a double reed. It was designed by a French bandmaster, W Sarrus, in 1856 as a substitute for oboes and bassoons in military bands, but enjoyed only brief success. The sarrusophone was manufactured in the following sizes and had the following theoretical ranges: As can be seen, the non-transposed range of the sarrusophone …

less than 1 minute read

sarsaparilla

A climbing, prickly perennial, native to tropical and subtropical regions; leaves leathery, 3-veined; flowers greenish or yellowish, six perianth-segments; berries red or black. The dried roots, especially of Smilax americana species, yield a tonic drink, as well as a drug used to treat rheumatism. In the 19th-c US West it was used as a beverage flavouring. (Genus: Smilax, 350 species. Family: Smi…

less than 1 minute read

SAS - Sas

Abbreviation of Special Air Service, a British army unit specializing in clandestine and anti-terrorist operations. First formed in 1941 as a special commando unit to parachute behind enemy lines, the SAS (motto ‘Who Dares Wins’) was revived as a regular unit of the British Army in 1952 for special operations. Its work is highly secret, but it served with distinction during the Falklands campaig…

less than 1 minute read

sashimi - Serving, Varieties of sashimi, Other sashimi-style dishes

Japanese sliced raw fish, considered a delicacy, and served in many special restaurants. Popular are tuna, sea bream, flatfish, squid, octopus, and shellfish. They are eaten with a seasoning of soy sauce and wasabi, green mustard. Slices of raw fish on small portions of boiled seasoned rice are called sushi. Sashimi (Japanese: 刺身) is a Japanese delicacy primarily consisting of very fres…

less than 1 minute read

Saskatchewan - Municipalities, Demographics, Miscellany

pop (2000e) 1 108 000; area 652 380 km²/251 883 sq mi. Province in W Canada; bounded S by the USA; fertile plain in S two-thirds; N third is in the Canadian Shield; rises to 1392 m/4567 ft in the Cypress Hills (SW); many lakes, largest Athabasca (NW), Reindeer (NE), Wollaston (NE); several rivers; capital, Regina; other chief towns, Saskatoon, Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Yorkton; wheat (a…

less than 1 minute read

Saskatchewan River - Description

River in S Canada, formed in Saskatchewan, 48 km/30 mi E of Prince Albert, by two headstreams which rise in the Rocky Mts of W Alberta; flows E into L Winnipeg; length 1300 km/800 mi. The Saskatchewan River is a major river in Canada, approximately 550 km (340 mi) long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to drain into Lake Winnipeg. Through its tributaries t…

less than 1 minute read

Saskatoon - History, Demographics, Economy, Climate and geography, Transportation, Education, Arts and culture, Royal presence, Sports and recreation

52º10N 106º40W, pop (2000e) 207 800. Town in C Saskatchewan, Canada, on the S Saskatchewan R; settled in 1882 as a temperance colony; developed in early 1900s with settlers from the USA; airfield; railway; university (1907); centre of large grain-growing area; light and heavy industry, oil-related industries, meat packing, flour milling; the Western Development Museum, Memorial Art Gallery; Pi…

less than 1 minute read

sassafras

A name applied to several different plants. True sassafras (Sassafras albidum), is a large shrub or tree, growing to 30 m/100 ft, native to E North America; aromatic foliage; inconspicuous greenish flowers; blue-grey, berry-like fruits. Oil of sassafras, chiefly a flavouring, is distilled from the bark, twigs, and roots. Infusion of the bark is medicinal. (Family: Lauraceae.) Sassafras is…

less than 1 minute read

Sassari - History, Ecclesiastical history, Main sights, Culture, Notable people, Sources and references

40º43N 8º34E, pop (2000e) 123 000. Capital town of Sassari province, Sardinia, Italy, 176 km/109 mi NW of Cagliari; archbishopric; university (1562); centre of agricultural trade; food processing, cheese, tobacco; cathedral (begun 12th-c); Cavalcata Sarda (traditional costumes) (May) on feast of the Assumption; Fiera dell'artigieneto, a biennial crafts fair (May). Sassari (in Italian …

less than 1 minute read

SAT (UK)

In England and Wales the term is an abbreviation for Standard Assessment Task, a test administered to children at the ages of 7, 11, 14, and 16 to discover what level of the national curriculum they have reached. SAT (pronounced as 3 letters) is a USA college entrance test, formerly the Scholastic Aptitude (or Assessment) Test. National Curriculum assessments, in the UK, are usually referre…

less than 1 minute read

SAT (USA)

In the United States an abbreviation for Scholastic Aptitude Test, a general examination of verbal and mathematical skills not related to specific course work, taken by high-school pupils wishing to attend university. The test claims to be objective, but has been criticized for being culturally biased towards the middle class. SAT (pronounced as 3 letters) is a USA college entrance test, fo…

less than 1 minute read

Satchel Paige - Pre-professional career, Major Leagues, Post-playing career, Pitch names, "Rules for Staying Young"

Baseball pitcher, born in Mobile, Alabama, USA. One of the game's greatest pitchers, he was for many years a star in baseball's black leagues before appearing in the major leagues with the Cleveland Indians (1948). As a right-hander for the Kansas City Monarchs and other Negro League clubs, he relied on near perfect control and guile for his legendary success, and it has been unofficially estimate…

less than 1 minute read

satellite (astronautics)

A spacecraft orbiting the Earth or other heavenly body. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the USSR on 4 October 1957, and there are now more than 3000 satellites orbiting the Earth for remote sensing, military surveillance, communications, and space astronomy. Geostationary satellites orbit at 35 900 km/22 300 mi above Earth, taking 24 hours to orbit, so they appear in …

less than 1 minute read

satellite (astronomy)

The moons of the planets in our Solar System. Jupiter and Saturn have extensive systems. Ganymede (Jupiter) is the biggest, exceeding the size of Mercury and Pluto. A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). What seems the first fictional depiction of an artificial satellite launched into Earth orbit seems to be in Jules Verne's The Beg…

less than 1 minute read

satellite DNA

A type of DNA, in which short base-pair sequences are repeated many times, and localized in the centromeric region of chromosomes. It may be involved in the pairing of the centromere regions during meiosis. Centromeric satellite DNA is to be distinguished from micro-satellite DNA which, although also composed of repetitive units of DNA sequence, is distributed throughout the length of chromosomes.…

less than 1 minute read

satellite television - History, Technology, Standards, Categories of usage, Satellite television by continent and country

Television transmission using super-high-frequency beam linkage by way of an artificial satellite followed in its elliptical terrestrial orbit; commenced in 1962 with Telstar. Shortly after, satellites in fixed geostationary orbit above the Equator were introduced, providing continuous communication without tracking. Initially this was between large ground stations, but in the 1970s direct broadca…

less than 1 minute read

satire - Terminology, History of satire, Contemporary satire, Appreciation of satire, Satire under fire

A literary genre whose double derivation, from Latin satura ‘mixture’ and the parodic satyr play, underlines its complex form and motive. The motive includes the exposure of folly and the castigation of vice, with the Latin satirists Horace and Juvenal representing these two extremes. In his Laus stultitiae, the humanist Erasmus used satire as the vehicle for commentary on social and religious m…

less than 1 minute read

satisficing - Economics, Cybernetics (Artificial Intelligence), Social and Cognitive Psychology, Decision Making

In economics, an alternative theory to the view that human activities can be seen as choosing between known alternatives with the aim of maximizing something, usually profits for firms or utility for individuals. Satisficing argues that uncertainty makes maximizing very difficult, and risk-aversion may make it undesirable. Instead, activities proceed by trial and error. Any policy, such as price-s…

less than 1 minute read

satsuma

A citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata); a variety of mandarin with an easily detachable rind. (Family: Rutaceae.) Satsuma may refer to …

less than 1 minute read

Satu Mare - Population, History

47º48N 22º52E, pop (2000e) 138 000. Resort town and capital of Satu Mare county, NW Romania, on R Some?; airfield; railway junction; tourism, grain, livestock, timber, wine trade, mining equipment, rolling stock, electric motors, textiles, food processing. Satu Mare (pronunciation in Romanian: /'sa.tu 'ma.re/; German: Sathmar) is a city with a population of 115,000 and the capital of Sa…

less than 1 minute read

Saturn (astronomy) - Rotational behavior, Planetary rings, Best viewing of Saturn, Saturn in various cultures

The sixth major planet from the Sun, notable for its ring system - first seen by Galileo in 1610, and first explained by Huygens in 1656. It has 46 known moons (in 2005), 14 of which have irregular orbits; the largest, Titan, has a dense atmosphere. Its main characteristics are: mass 5·68 × 1026 kg; mean density 0·69 g/cm3; equatorial radius 60 268 km/37 449 mi; polar radius 54 364 km…

less than 1 minute read

Saturn (mythology) - Early concept, Later concept

A Roman god; either Etruscan in origin, or, as legend has it, a genuine importation of the Greek Cronus. At his festival (Saturnalia, 17 Dec, and for some days after) the social order in the household was turned upside down: servants and slaves had temporary liberty while their masters waited on them at table; there were wild parties, and presents were exchanged. Saturn's wife was Rhea's eq…

less than 1 minute read

satyagraha - Meaning of the Term, Definition and Conduct of Satyagraha, Origins of Satyagraha, See Also

Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance to evil. It was conceived in South Africa in response to laws discriminating against Asians (1906), and used in campaigns against British rule in India. The approach involved fasting, economic boycotts, hand-spinning, and hand-weaving. Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is the philosophy of nonviolent resistance most …

less than 1 minute read

Satyajit Ray - Early life, The Apu Years (1950–58), From Devi to Charulata (1959–64)

Film director, born in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), E India. He studied at Santiniketan University, then worked as a commercial artist while writing screenplays. His first film, Pather Panchali (1954, On the Road), was undertaken in his spare time with very limited finance. Its international success at the Cannes Film Festival allowed him to complete the trilogy with Aparajito (1956, The Unvanquis…

less than 1 minute read

satyr - Mythology, Satyrs in Greek mythology and art, Satyrs in Roman mythology, Other references, Baby satyr

In Greek mythology, a minor deity associated with Dionysus; usually depicted with goat-like ears, tail, and legs. Rural, wild and lustful, the satyrs were said to be the brothers of the nymphs. Satyrs were originally imagined as small, human-like creatures with exaggerated appetites who accompanied Dionysus. The satyr play was a lighthearted follow-up attached to the end of each trilo…

less than 1 minute read

sauce - Sauces in French cuisine, Sauces in other cuisines, Sauce variations, Examples of sauces

A seasoned liquid served with or over a food; it may be hot or cold, savoury or sweet. Cold sauces may be formed from a mixture (eg vinaigrette), an emulsification (eg mayonnaise), or a purée (eg any fruit sauce). For hot sauces the liquid used may be stock, milk, or water, and the thickening agent may be a blend of melted butter and flour (as in the classic béchamel and velouté sauces), egg yo…

less than 1 minute read

Saudi Arabia - History, Politics, Provinces, Major cities of over 1,000,000

Official name Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Arabic: المملكة العربية السعودية‎) is the largest country on the Arabian Peninsula. (Arabia is sometimes also used to refer to the nation, but the term can also refer to the entire Peninsula and its varied nations and is thus ambiguous.) The emergence of a Saudi state began in centra…

less than 1 minute read

sauerkraut - Preparation, Serving, Geographical spread, Health, Similar foods, Bibliography

A popular German food, produced by layering alternately shredded white cabbage and salt in a wooden box. Air is expelled by placing a weight on top. The cabbage salt layers are left for 3–4 weeks to ferment. Sauerkraut is finely sliced white cabbage fermented by various lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. Sauerkraut is a typical dish of German …

less than 1 minute read

Saul

Biblical character, the first king to be elected by the Israelites. He conquered the Philistines, Ammonites, and Amalekites, became jealous of David, his son-in-law, and was ultimately engaged in a feud with the priestly class. Eventually, Samuel secretly anointed David king, and Saul fell in battle with the Philistines on Mt Gilboa. …

less than 1 minute read

Saul (David) Alinsky - Biography and work, Students of Alinsky, Published works, Biography

Social activist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Director of the Industrial Areas Foundation (1939–72), he organized Chicago slum-dwellers to demand better housing and education, then trained others to be community organizers. After the 1964 race riots, he brought his organizing skills to urban ghettos. In Rules for Radicals (1971), he articulated his principles of social activism. Saul Da…

less than 1 minute read

Saul Bellow - Early life, Career, Criticism, Bibliography, In music

Writer, born in Lachine, Quebec, Canada. The son of immigrant Russian Jews, in 1924 he moved with his family to Chicago, the city with which he became most closely identified. He studied anthropology and sociology at Northwestern University and for most of his life taught intellectual history in universities, including Minnesota (1946–9) and Chicago (1963). During World War 2 he served in the mer…

less than 1 minute read

Saul Kripke - Biography, Work, Modal logic, Naming and necessity, Wittgenstein, Truth, Meaning of "I"

Philosopher and logician, born in Bay Shore, New York, USA. He studied at Harvard, then taught at Rockefeller University (1968–76) and Princeton (since 1976). As a youthful prodigy he made remarkable technical advances in modal logic, whose wider philosophical implications were later explored in such famous papers as ‘Naming and Necessity’ (1972). Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November, 194…

less than 1 minute read

Saul Lieberman - Biography, Work, The Agunah issue, Personal Paradox, Judith Lieberman

Scholar, born in Motol, Poland. He studied the Talmud in Jersualem and became Professor of Talmud at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York (1940). He published many scholarly works, most importantly a critical edition of the Tosefta (1955–73), a supplement to the Talmud. Saul Lieberman (1898-1983), was a rabbi and a scholar of Talmud. He served as Professor of Talmud at th…

less than 1 minute read

Saul Steinberg - The "View of the World" cover

Graphic artist, born in Ramnicul-Sarat, EC Romania. He studied in Bucharest and Italy, then began to submit drawings to American periodicals, notably the New Yorker. He left Italy for the Dominican Republic in 1941, and from there moved to New York City. He served in the US Navy during World War 2, then returned to New York and became an influential observer and satirist of modern culture, as seen…

less than 1 minute read

Saumur

47º16N 0º05W, pop (2001e) 30 100. Town in Maine-et-Loire department, W France; on the R Loire, 48 km/30 mi SW of Tours, in the heart of the Anjou region; birthplace of Fanny Ardant, Coco Chanel, and Yves Robert; chateau (13th-c) became home to the Dukes of Anjou and now houses a museum of arts; several schools of horsemanship and many equestrian events; 12 m/40 ft high horse statue ‘Arche…

less than 1 minute read

Saunders Lewis - Life, Literary activity, Works in English and translations

Playwright, poet, and Welsh nationalist, born in Cheshire, NWC England, UK. He studied English and French at Liverpool, became a lecturer in Welsh at University College, Swansea, in 1922, and in 1924 published a study on classical Welsh 18th-c poetry, A School of Welsh Augustans. He was co-founder of the Welsh Nationalist Party (later Plaid Cymru) in 1925, and became its president in 1926. Impriso…

less than 1 minute read

Saurischia

The reptile-hipped dinosaurs; characterized by a forward pointing pubis bone in the pelvic girdle, as in modern reptiles. They comprise two main groups: the Theropoda, including the two-legged flesh-eaters such as Tyrannosaurus; and the giant plant-eating forms belonging to the Sauropodomorpha, including Diplodocus. Saurischians (from the Greek sauros (σαυρος) meaning 'lizard' and isc…

less than 1 minute read

saury

Agile, slender-bodied fish, widespread and locally common in temperate ocean surface waters; head pointed or forming a narrow beak; feeds on other fishes and crustaceans; includes the Atlantic skipper, Scomberesox saurus; body length up to 45 cm/18 in. (Family: Scomberosocidae, 2 genera, 4 species.) …

less than 1 minute read

sausage - History, Classification of sausages, Types of sausage, Health concerns, Quotes

A cylindrical portion of minced meat, usually blended with breadcrumbs and herbs, and enclosed in an edible casing. Originally, the casing came from prepared animal intestine; today it is made from edible carbohydrate polymers. Sausages may be wet (requiring cooking) or dry (ready to eat), as in frankfurters and salami respectively. Sausage is a natural outcome of efficient butchery. …

less than 1 minute read

Savannah

32°05N 81°06W, pop (2000e) 131 500. Seat of Chatham Co, E Georgia, USA; port near the mouth of the Savannah R; founded, 1733; during the War of Independence, held by the British, 1778–82; captured by Sherman during the Civil War, 1864; airfield; railway; trade in tobacco, cotton, sugar, clay, woodpulp; chemicals, petroleum, rubber, plastics, paper products; fisheries; railway engineering; nav…

less than 1 minute read

savannah

The grassland region of the tropics and subtropics, located between areas of tropical rainforest and desert. The length of the arid season prevents widespread tree growth; the scattered trees which do exist, such as acacia and baobab, are adapted to reduced precipitation levels. Fires, both natural and as a result of human activity, help to promote and maintain grassland. Savannah may refer…

less than 1 minute read

Saverio Bettinelli

Scholar, born in Mantua, Lombardy, N Italy. A Jesuit, he travelled widely in Europe before settling in Mantua, where he published an extensive body of work, including tragedies (Serse, 1764), poems, and various essays. In his Lettere virgiliane (1757) and Lettere inglesi (1767) he criticized the Arcadia and its imitation of the classics. He also criticized part of Dante's Divine Comedy, causing a …

less than 1 minute read

Savona

44º32N 8º46E, pop (2001e) 62 100. Seaport in Liguria region, NW Italy; on the Gulf of Genoa, bounded N by the Appno Ligure; birthplace of Anton Barrili and Gabriello Chiabrera; railway; 17th-c cathedral; shipbuilding, tinplate, glass; orange groves, tomatoes. Savona (Sàn-na in the local dialect of Ligurian) is a seaport and comune in the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of t…

less than 1 minute read

sawfly

A wasp-like insect which lacks a constricted waist; egg-laying tube large, saw-like, and used for depositing eggs deep into plant tissues; larvae caterpillar-like, feeding on, or boring into, plant stems, leaves, or wood. (Order: Hymenoptera. Sub-order: Symphyta.) Sawflies make up the suborder Symphyta, a group of largely phytophagous insects in the order Hymenoptera. …

less than 1 minute read

Sax Rohmer - Selected bibliography

Writer of mystery stories, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. Interested in things Egyptian, he found literary fame with his sinister, sardonic, oriental, criminal genius villain, Fu Manchu, whose doings were told in many spine-chilling tales, including Dr Fu Manchu (1913), The Yellow Claw (1915), Moon of Madness (1927), and Re-enter Fu Manchu (1957). Arthur Henry Sarsfield W…

less than 1 minute read

saxhorn - The Saxhorn Family, History

A musical instrument, made from brass tubing, resembling a small tuba, with the mouthpiece set at right angles and an upright bell. It was patented in 1843 by French instrument-maker Adolphe Sax (1814–94), and manufactured in various sizes. Alto and tenor saxhorns are used today in brass bands, where they are known, rather confusingly, as tenor and baritone horns. The saxhorn is a valved b…

less than 1 minute read

saxifrage

A member of a large, varied genus of annuals or perennials, native to N temperate regions and South America, mainly in arctic or alpine regions, many showing adaptations to a water-poor environment; often tufted, domed, or creeping, with slightly fleshy leaves closely packed together and frequently encrusted with chalk deposits secreted by special glands; flowers in branched inflorescences or soli…

less than 1 minute read

Saxo Grammaticus

Danish chronicler, born in Zealand, E Denmark. He was secretary to Archbishop Absalon of Lund, at whose request he wrote the Gesta Danorum, a Latin history of the Danes, in 16 books. The work is partly legendary and partly historical. We know he was a "follower" of Archbishop Absalon, which probably means he worked in the Archbishop’s administration; In Absalon’s will, one c…

less than 1 minute read

Saxons - Continental Saxons, Modern remnants of the Saxon name

A Germanic people from the N Danish plain. Under pressure from the migrating Franks they spread from their home-lands into Italy and the Friesian lands, engaging in piracy (3rd–5th-c). With the Angles and Jutes, they formed the bulk of the invaders who in the two centuries following the Roman withdrawal from Britain (409) conquered and colonized most of what became Anglo-Saxon England. They were …

less than 1 minute read

Saxony - Geography, Economy, Culture, Tourism, Politics

A German ducal and electoral state which experienced many changes of fortune. Prominent from the 9th–11th-c, it was reduced by Emperor Frederick I to two small areas on the R Elbe (1180–1422). Dynastic alliances enlarged the Saxon state on the Middle Elbe in the 15th-c. Frederick the Wise adopted Lutheranism (1524), establishing Saxony's Protestant leadership, and despite family divisions, it gr…

less than 1 minute read

saxophone - History, Construction, Key system, Materials, The mouthpiece, Reeds, Members of the saxophone family

A single-reed musical instrument, made of metal with a wide conical bore. It was patented in 1846 by French instrument-maker Adolphe Sax (1814–94), and made in a variety of sizes and pitches, the most frequently used being the alto and tenor instruments. These are usually joined by the soprano and baritone instruments to form the saxophone quartet; bass and contrabass sizes are also in use. A fav…

less than 1 minute read

Sayan Mountains - Geography, Culture

Mountain range mainly in S Siberian Russia, and extending into N Mongolia; E Sayan Mts stretch 1100 km/680 mi SE from the lower R Yenisey, forming the boundary between Russia and Mongolia in the E; highest peak, Munku-Sardyk (3491 m/11 453 ft); W Sayan Mts lie entirely within Russia, stretching 640 km/400 mi NE from the Altay Mts; gold, coal, graphite, silver, lead; lumbering, hunting, agri…

less than 1 minute read

SBS

Abbreviation of Special Boat Service, the naval arm of British Military Special Forces responsible for all non-conventional maritime operations. Resourced from the Royal Marines, the SBS has seen action in the Falklands War of 1982 and the Gulf War of 1991. It provided the blueprint for the formation of the American SEALS (Sea, Air, Land teams). SBS usually refers to: SB…

less than 1 minute read

scabies - Etiology, Signs, symptoms, and diagnosis, Scabies in animals, Treatment

A common but harmless itchy skin infestation with a mite (Sarcoptes scabei), which burrows below the skin surface. It spreads from person to person by direct contact. Superimposed streptococcal infection is common in the tropical countries. Scabies is a transmissible ectoparasite skin infection characterized by superficial burrows, intense pruritus (itching) and secondary infection. …

less than 1 minute read

Scafell Pike - Geology, Ascent routes

54°28N 3°12W. Mountain in Lake District of Cumbria, NW England, UK; highest peak in England, rising to 977 m/3205 ft in the Cumbrian Mts, W of Ambleside. At 978?metres (3,210 feet), Scafell Pike is the highest mountain in England. The name Pikes of Sca Fell was originally applied collectively to the peaks now known as Scafell Pike, Ill Crag and Broad Crag, which were considered su…

less than 1 minute read

scale - Astronomy, Chemistry and physics, Economics, Music, Scale models, Social science, Scales named after people

In music, the notes forming the basic vocabulary of a melodic or harmonic system, arranged in a succession of upward or downward steps. Since stepwise movement is common in most types of music, the practising of scales forms a basic part of an instrumentalist's training. The important scales in Western music include the major and minor scales, the pentatonic scale, the whole tone scale, and the ch…

less than 1 minute read

scallop

A marine bivalve mollusc with unequal shell valves; lives unattached to a substrate, and is able to swim by clapping its valves together; margin of its mantle provided with a ring of tentacles and numerous eyes; fished commercially for human consumption. (Class: Pelecypoda. Order: Ostreoida.) …

less than 1 minute read

scampi

The Italian culinary term for large Gulf shrimps or Dublin Bay prawns, usually fried in batter. Scampi is the plural of scampo, the Italian name for the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), also known by the names "Dublin Bay Prawn" and "Langoustine". The fleshy tail of the Norway lobster is closer in both taste and texture to lobster and crayfish than prawn or shrimp. In the United …

less than 1 minute read

scanner

An input device in a computer system which scans documents and transfers a map of the document into the memory of the computer. The document is represented by an array of pixels, with the number of pixels per square inch of document signifying the quality of the scanner. Low-quality scanners scan only black and white at 300 pixels per inch; high-quality ones scan in full colour at 1200 pixels per …

less than 1 minute read

scanning probe microscopy - Established types of scanning probe microscopy, Advantages of scanning probe microscopy, Disadvantages of scanning probe microscopy

A general term for a variety of microscope techniques in which a sample surface is studied using a probe tip which scans relative to the sample surface. The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) uses an electron tunnelling current to image a conducting surface. The atomic force microscope (AFM) measures the force on the tip to map a conducting or non-conducting surface. Magnetic and electrical surf…

less than 1 minute read

Scapa Flow - World War I, World War II, Scapa Flow Visitor Centre, Trivia

The area of open water in the Orkney Is, NE Scotland, UK, surrounded by the islands of Mainland, Hoy, Flotta, S Ronaldsay, and Burray. It was a British naval base in World Wars 1 and 2. In 1919 the German naval fleet was scuttled there. Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and H…

less than 1 minute read

scapegoat - Tradition, Metaphor

In ancient Jewish ritual (Lev 16), on the Day of Atonement and after the sacrifices of a bull and a goat as sin-offerings, a second goat (the ‘scapegoat’) was released into the wilderness ‘to Azazel’, possibly a desert demon, symbolizing how the people's sins were removed. The high priest cast lots to determine the respective fates of the two goats. Today the term is more generally applied to …

less than 1 minute read

scapigliatura

The cultural movement which emerged in Piedmont and Lombardy between 1860 and 1870. The name, a loose version of the French bohème, was first used by Cletto Arrighi in 1862. The movement was against middle-class morals and customs, and for vice, drugs, and anarchy. From a literary point of view, it rejected tradition in favour of new movements from abroad (Baudelaire, Flaubert, Zola, but also Ste…

less than 1 minute read

scapula - Muscles, Surfaces, The Acromion, Borders, Angles, Structure, Sources

A triangular bone on each side of the body over the upper part of the back (second to seventh ribs); also called the shoulder-blade. With the clavicle it forms the pectoral girdle. Its only point of attachment to the axial skeleton is indirectly via the clavicle. It sits within a bed of muscles which connect it to the thorax, vertebral column, and upper limb. Its position on the chest wall therefo…

less than 1 minute read

Scarborough - History, Culture, Education, Sport, Famous residents and ex-residents

54°17N 0°24W, pop (2001e) 106 200. Coastal resort town in North Yorkshire, N England, UK; on the North Sea 25 km/15 mi N of Bridlington; a Roman signal station in the 4th-c; England's oldest spa town; railway; electrics, foodstuffs, fishing, tourism; castle (12th-c), museum of regional archaeology; football league team, Scarborough. Scarborough is a town located on the North Sea coast…

less than 1 minute read

scarlet fever

An acute infectious disease of children caused by haemolytic streptococci. A sore throat is followed by a generalized red rash. It responds rapidly to antibiotics, but complications include middle-ear infection, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, and Sydenham's chorea. …

less than 1 minute read

Scarlett Johansson - Selected filmography

Actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. She made her professional acting debut at age eight in the off-Broadway production of Sophistry, and made her film debut in North (1994). She gained recognition for her roles in Manny and Lo (1997) and The Horse Whisperer (1998), and later films include Girl with a Pearl Earring (2003), Lost in Translation (2003, BAFTA Best Actress), Match Point (2005…

less than 1 minute read

scat singing - History, Notable scat singers (in chronological order), Further reference

Wordless or meaningless improvizatory jazz singing, often imitating rapid instrumental solos. It was made popular by Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, Cab Calloway, Sarah Vaughan, and many others, and in turn had an influence on the development of instrumental jazz improvisation. Louis Armstrong's ‘Heebie Jeebies’ (1926) was the first recorded example; dubious legend has it that he dropped the s…

less than 1 minute read

scattering - Electromagnetic scattering, Scattering in particle physics

In physics, the redirection of a beam of light or sound, or a stream of particles resulting from collisions. An approaching beam is directed on to a target material which scatters it into a detector. Scattering experiments are an important source of information in atomic, nuclear, particle, and solid state physics. Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, su…

less than 1 minute read

Schaffhausen

47°42N 8°38E, pop (2000e) 36 000. Industrial town and capital of Schaffhausen canton, NE Switzerland; on the R Rhine, 37 km/23 mi N of Zürich; well-preserved mediaeval town; railway; engineering, iron and steel works, chemicals, aluminium smelting; falls and rapids nearby; Kastel Munot (1564–85), Minster (1087–1150); birthplace of Othmar Ammann. Coordinates: 47°42′N 8°38′E …

less than 1 minute read

scheelite - Synthetics

A mineral calcium tungstate (CaWO4) occurring in hydrothermal veins and pegmatites. It is an important ore of tungsten. Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4. Although it is now uncommon as a diamond imitation—much more convincing products, like cubic zirconia and moissanite have long since superseded it—synthetic scheelite is occasionally …

less than 1 minute read

scherzo

A lively musical piece, though not necessarily a ‘joke’, as the Italian name suggests. Haydn and Beethoven established it as an alternative to the minuet (whose metre and structure it took over) in the classical symphony and sonata. A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. The scherzo developed from th…

less than 1 minute read

Schick Test

A test of the susceptibility to diphtheria, in which a small amount of diphtheria toxin is injected into the skin. A localized reaction indicates susceptibility, when immunization may be desirable. The test is named after the Austrian paediatrician, Bela Schick (1877–1967). The Schick test, invented between 1910 and 1911, is a test used to determine whether or not a person is susceptible t…

less than 1 minute read

Schieringers and Vetkopers

Two opposing parties in Friesland in the 14th and 15th-c. The origin of their name is uncertain, one unproven theory being that the Schieringers were named after local grey (Cistercian) monks and the Vetkopers after another monastery engaged in cattle grazing. Their conflict came to a peak between 1415 and 1422, when a truce was called. The causes of the argument were largely feudal competition fo…

less than 1 minute read

Schinderhannes

Highwayman, born in Miehlen, W Germany. He led a band of highwaymen from 1800 in the Hunsrück and Taunus area, and became the subject of popular legend in songs, plays, and literature. He was also the protagonist of a play by Carl Zuckmayer which was later made into a film. He was executed in Mainz on 21 November 1830. Schinderhannes Johannes Bueckler, (c.1778-1803) German outlaw who orche…

less than 1 minute read

schipperke - Appearance, History, Temperament, Health, Grooming

A breed of dog, developed in Belgium, originally used as a watchdog on barges; small, lively; erect pointed ears, pointed muzzle, no tail; thick, usually black, coat; also known as little boatman, little captain, or little corporal. A Schipperke (pronounced skipper-key) is a small Belgian breed of dog that originated in the early 16th century. Schipperkes are most commonly all b…

less than 1 minute read

schist

A medium-grade regional metamorphic rock characterized by a foliated texture, resulting from the alignment and segregation of layers of mica minerals. The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. The individual mineral grains in schist, drawn…

less than 1 minute read

schistosomiasis - Types, Geographical distribution and epidemiology, Life cycle, Pathology, Clinical features, Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and hygiene

A common cause of illness in tropical countries, resulting from infestation with one of three species of the genus Schistosoma, a fluke; also known as bilharziasis. These penetrate the skin of people bathing in contaminated water. Once inside the body, they spread in the blood and cause disease of the lungs, liver, brain, and kidney. Clinical features include pneumonia, liver failure, fits, and co…

less than 1 minute read

schizophrenia - Overview, History, Diagnosis, Causes, Incidence and prevalence, Treatment, Prognosis, Schizophrenia and drug use, Schizophrenia and violence

A major psychiatric disorder characterized by an alteration of thinking and perception, including a loss of contact with reality. In addition there may be a basic change in personality and a loss of normal emotional responsiveness. Schizophrenic patients often feel that their unexpressed thoughts are known to others and can be influenced by external forces. Trivial events and objects take on inapp…

less than 1 minute read

Schleswig - History

A breed of heavy horse, developed in Germany; height, 15·2–16 hands/1·5–1·6 m/5 ft 2 in–5 ft 4 in; usually pale brown with yellow mane; body long and deep; short powerful legs; also known as Schleswig heavy draught. Schleswig formed part of the historical Lands of Denmark as this country unified out of a number of petty chiefdoms in the 8th to 10th centuries. During t…

less than 1 minute read

Schleswig-Holstein - Languages, Politics

pop (2000e) 2 700 000; area 15 721 km²/6068 sq mi. Northernmost province of Germany, bounded N by Denmark; includes the North Frisian Is; capital, Kiel; chief towns include Lübeck, Flensburg; coast includes an extensive swimming and sailing resort area; shipbuilding, machinery, foodstuffs, electrical engineering; focus of a dispute between Denmark and Prussia in the 19th-c, leading to war…

less than 1 minute read

schlieren photography

A means of forming a photographic image of density variations in a transparent fluid. It relies on the refraction of incident light due to variations in the fluid density, and is used in the analysis of wind tunnel experiments to show the flow and pressure patterns round an object. Schlieren photography is a visual process that is used to photograph the flow of air (or other compressible fl…

less than 1 minute read

Schneider Trophy - Schneider Trophy Alumni

A flying trophy for seaplanes presented by French armaments magnate Jacques Schneider in 1913. After being won outright by Great Britain in 1931 the contest ceased, but the races were revived in the 1980s. The trophy was first competed for on April 16, 1913, at Monaco and won by a French Deperdussin at an average speed of 45.75 mph (about 73 km/h). In 1922 in Naples the British …

less than 1 minute read

scholasticism - Scholastic method, Scholastic genres, Scholastic school, History, Famous scholastics, Key anti-scholastics

The Catholic philosophical tradition dominant in the mediaeval universities of the 12th–14th-c in Western Europe. Anselm spoke of ‘faith seeking understanding’, and the philosophy was generally used in the service of theology; it often took the form of a recovery and interpretation of Greek philosophy, particularly the work of Aristotle. The Renaissance humanists gave the ‘schoolmen’ a bad na…

less than 1 minute read

school (art) - Regional varieties, School sizes and structures, School ownership and operation, History and development of schools

In art history, very broadly the art of one country (eg ‘the French school’) or more specifically one city (eg ‘the Florentine school’ or ‘Avignon school’). Connoisseurs like to distinguish a master's autograph work from that of his followers or assistants by referring to the latter as ‘school’ works, and this type of classification has proved useful to the art trade. The term is, however,…

less than 1 minute read

school (education) - Regional varieties, School sizes and structures, School ownership and operation, History and development of schools

A place where learning can take place, usually classified according to whether it is for primary or secondary age pupils. Schools and schoolmasters were noted by Arabs to be in every Chinese town by 851; and primary and secondary schools were established in all 1000 sub-prefectures of China by 1107. The term can also denote a grouping of subjects, such as a ‘humanities school’. In the USA it is …

less than 1 minute read

School of the Air

A two-way radio educational service for Australian children living in isolated areas; begun in South Australia in 1951 to supplement correspondence teaching and reduce feelings of isolation. The Aussat satellite (launched in 1985) was partly intended to improve the technical quality of broadcasts. School of the Air is a generic term for correspondence schools catering for the primary and ea…

less than 1 minute read

schooner - Etymology, Construction, Operation, Gallery

A sailing vessel with more than one mast, each fore-and-aft-rigged. The masts are usually of equal height, but when two-masted the forward one is often shorter. A schooner (IPA: [ˈskuːnə]) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, the first ship called a schooner was built b…

less than 1 minute read

Schuyler Colfax - Life

US statesman and vice-president, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was a newspaperman and US representative (Republican, Indiana, 1855–69), and in 1868 became vice-president to Ulysses Grant. He was implicated in the Credit Mobilier scandal in 1872. He defended his receipt of 20 shares of the Credit Mobilier stock, but his reputation was ruined, and only the fact that his term was near its…

less than 1 minute read

Schwerin - Sights

53°37N 11°22E, pop (2000e) 132 000. Capital of Schwerin county, N Germany; surrounded by 11 lakes, SW of Rostock; former capital of Mecklenburg state; railway; marine engineering, power cables, sewing machines, plastics, hydraulic products, pharmaceuticals, food processing, tourism; palace, 13th-c Gothic cathedral, art museum. Coordinates: 53°37′N 11°25′E Schwerin is a…

less than 1 minute read

Schwyz

47°02N 8°39E, pop (2000e) 13 300. Capital town of Schwyz canton, C Switzerland, 35 km/22 mi E of Lucerne; the town and canton gave their name to the whole country; the flag of Schwyz (white cross on a red ground) has become the national flag; railway; tourism; Church of St Martin (18th-c), town hall (1642–3), museum. Coordinates: 47°1′N 8°39′E The town of Schwyz?(he…

less than 1 minute read

sciatica - Causes of sciatica, Diagnosis and Treatment

Pain in the distribution of the sciatic nerve (ie over the buttocks and the back of the leg as far as the foot). It is commonly due to pressure on the lumbosacral nerve roots of the sciatic nerve, resulting from the prolapse of an intervertebral disc. Sciatica is a pain in the leg caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve. Although sciatica is a relatively common form of low…

less than 1 minute read

science fiction - Definition, Science fiction and other genres, Subject matter, Media, Fandom

Fiction that focuses on the technical possibilities and human effects of scientific advance. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) is a precursor, though the first novelist to explore this theme systematically was Jules Verne, with four novels (1863–73) including 20 000 Leagues under the Sea (1870). H G Wells brought more scientific rigour to his five novels at the end of the century, which include…

less than 1 minute read

Science Museum - Historical background, Modern examples

A museum in S Kensington, London, UK, housing the most important British collection of scientific and technological exhibits. The collection was separated from the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1909, and has since expanded. A science museum or a science centre is a museum devoted primarily to science. Older science museums tended to concentrate on static displays of objects related to natur…

less than 1 minute read

science park - Cabral Dahab Science Park Management Paradigm

A concentration of scientific and high technology industries and businesses on one site. This allows individual businesses to co-operate and make use of products and ideas developed at the site. The term includes research parks established by universities to promote academic and business links in science, and technology parks designed for the commercial exploitation of high technology. Science par…

less than 1 minute read

scintillation counter - Scintillation counter as a spectrometer

A device for detecting the passage of charged particles, using materials such as sodium iodide, or special plastics which emit light (scintillate) when charged particles pass through them. The light pulses are recorded using photomultipliers. The technique is an important means of timing the passage of particles in particle physics experiments. Scintillators often convert a single photon of…

less than 1 minute read

Scipio Africanus - Biography, Marriage and issue, Roman opinions, Legacy

Innovative Roman general of the Second Punic War, whose victory at Ilipa (206 BC) forced the Carthaginians out of Spain, and whose defeat of Hannibal at Zama (202 BC) broke the power of Carthage altogether. Honoured for this with the title Africanus, he remained in the forefront of affairs until forced into retirement by his political enemies of the 180s. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus …

less than 1 minute read

Scobie Breasley

Jockey and trainer, born in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, SE Australia. A successful rider for over 20 years before coming to Britain in 1950, he was retained to ride for the stable of Sir Gordon Richards in 1956. He was champion jockey in 1957, 1961, 1962, and 1963. He retired in 1968, and became a trainer. Scobie Breasley is Australia's most famous jockey, the winner of the Caulfield Cup …

less than 1 minute read

Scopes Trial - Butler Act, Testing the Butler Act, Prosecution and defense teams, Trial, Examination of Bryan

(1925) A trial of a high-school teacher, John Thomas Scopes, in Tennessee, who instructed his biology students in the evolutionary theory of creation in violation of a Tennessee state law mandating that only the literal account of the creation as told in the Book of Genesis should be taught. He was arrested and charged with violating the statute. William Jennings Bryan appeared for the prosecution…

less than 1 minute read

scops owl

A typical owl of widespread genus Otus (c.40 species); an Old World species, often called scops owl, with the New World species called screech owl; inhabits woodland or dry open country; eats insects (occasionally small birds). …

less than 1 minute read

scorpion

A terrestrial arthropod; body typically elongate, up to 18 cm/7 in long, including a long tail bearing a conspicuous terminal sting; venom of some forms dangerous to humans; most are nocturnal predators of other arthropods; c.1200 species, mostly tropical in distribution. (Class: Arachnida. Order: Scorpiones.) …

less than 1 minute read

scorpionfish - Gallery

Robust, bottom-living, marine fish with well-developed fin and body spines, frequently armed with venom glands; strong cryptic coloration; widespread in tropical to cool temperate seas; includes the W Atlantic Scorpaena plumieri, common on shallow reefs and hard bottoms; length up to 40 cm/16 in. (Family: Scorpaenidae, 11 genera.) The scorpionfish are a family (Scorpaenidae) of mostly mar…

less than 1 minute read

Scorpius

One of the few constellations that really does look like the object it is named after; often wrongly called Scorpio. It is in the S sky, in a very rich part of the Milky Way, with many good clusters as well as Scorpius X-1, the first X-ray source discovered outside our Solar System. It is a constellation of the zodiac, lying between Libra and Sagittarius. The brightest star is Antares, a huge supe…

less than 1 minute read

Scotch whisky - Legal definition, Methods of production, Types of Scotch whisky, Independent bottlers, Understanding a Scotch whisky label

A spirit distilled from malted barley, either single malt, the product of one distillery (c.40 varieties of Island, Highland, Lowland, and Speyside malts), or blended whiskies. Grain whisky, distilled from barley and maize (corn) in continuous stills, is now used as the base for much of the blended whisky. About 85% of the whisky made in Scotland is exported. Scotch whisky is whisky made in…

less than 1 minute read

Scotland - Etymology, History, Politics, Law, Subdivisions, Geography, Climate, Economy, Military, Demographics, Education, Culture, Transport, National symbols

(UK) Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a nation in northwest Europe and one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. Apart from the mainland, Scotland consists of over 790 islands. Scotland's largest city is Glasgow, which is the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Greater Glasgow is home to approximately 40% of Scotland's population. The Kingdom of Sco…

less than 1 minute read

Scotland Yard - History, Popular culture

The headquarters and administration departments of the Metropolitan Police, situated at Westminster in London, UK, although the title is often used synonymously to indicate the Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Originally a part of the precincts of the old Whitehall Palace, its name derives from lodgings made over to the kings of Scotland. New Scotland Yard, designed by Norman Shaw, became …

less than 1 minute read

Scott (Beaird) Brazil - Early years, Career, Death

Television producer and director, born in Sacramento County, California, USA. He studied at the University of Southern California's Annenberg School of Journalism. He became well-known as producer of the groundbreaking 1980s police series Hill Street Blues, winning two Emmys (1983, 1984) and a Golden Globe (1983). He was also executive producer on the police drama series The Shield (Golden Globe, …

less than 1 minute read

Scott Joplin - Early years, Success, Illness, Musical Development, A note on tempo, Joplin's music, Samples

Composer and pianist, born in Texarkana, Texas, USA. Originally a self-taught and itinerant musician, he studied at the George R Smith College in Sedalia, MO to advance his musical skills (1896). He played piano in disreputable dives but used his musical knowledge to help other itinerant musicians notate their own compositions, just as he was doing with his. He then joined with a music publisher, …

1 minute read

Scott Report - Publication

An official report, published in the UK in 1996, criticizing government ministers' complicity in arms sales to Iraq, contravening a UN embargo. It censured the government for its handling of the Matrix Churchill affair, and called for reform. Sir Richard Scott, then a member of the English Court of Appeal, in his inquiry into the affair (1995–6) found that ministers had misled parliament and the …

1 minute read

Scottish Ballet - Future

A company which began life as Western Theatre Ballet in Bristol in 1957, founded by Elizabeth West (1927–62) and Peter Darrell (1928–87). In 1969 it divided into two: most dancers went to Scotland to form the Scottish Theatre Ballet (since 1974 the Scottish Ballet), and some went to Manchester to form the Northern Ballet. Many new works have been created by Darrell, such as Tales of Hoffmann (19…

less than 1 minute read

Scottish Borders - History, Notable towns and villages, Places of interest, Notes and references

pop (2000e) 106 000; area 4672 km²/1804 sq mi. Council in SE Scotland, UK, formerly the region of Borders; bounded NE by the North Sea, SE by England; crossed E–W by Southern Uplands; rivers include the Tweed and Teviot; capital Newtown St Boswells, near Melrose; other chief towns, Hawick, Peebles, Galashiels; livestock, forestry, textiles; Melrose Abbey (12th-c), Abbotsford (home of Walter…

less than 1 minute read

Scottish literature - Earliest Scottish literature, Late medieval Anglo-Scottish literature, The seventeenth to early nineteenth Century

Scottish literature may be divided into that written in Gaelic, in Scots, and in English. Scottish Gaelic remained linked to Irish Gaelic until the 17th-c, and early versions of Scottish tales, sagas, and poetry are to be found in the manuscripts of early Irish-language literature. The earliest extensive anthology of heroic tales and ballads written in literary Gaelic was The Book of the Dean of L…

1 minute read

Scottish National Party (SNP) - History, National Executive Committee, Spokespeople, Party leaders, Electoral performance, Further reading

A political party formed in 1928 as the National Party of Scotland, which merged with the Scottish Party in 1933. It first won a seat at a by-election in 1945. Its greatest success was in the 1974 general election, when it took nearly a third of Scottish votes and won 11 seats. Since then its support has declined, although in 1988 it achieved a surprise victory in the Govan by-election. In the 199…

less than 1 minute read

Scottish Parliament - Building, Officials, Procedure, Committees, Legislative functions, Scrutiny of government, Members, Constituencies and Voting systems

A legislative body tracing its origins to the groups of advisors to Scottish monarchs in the 12th-c. Following the uniting of the crowns Scotland and England in the persons of James VI (Scotland) and I (England), Scotland retained its parliament unil 1707, when the Act of Union was passed bringing together the Scottish and English parliaments as the British parliament meeting in Westminister. The …

1 minute read

Scottish terrier

A breed of dog; long body with very short legs; short erect tail; long head, with eyebrows, moustache, and beard; short erect ears; coat black, thick and wiry, almost reaching the ground; also known as Scottie. The coarser-haired form is called the Aberdeen terrier. Scottish Terriers are a breed of dog best known for their distinctive profile, their fierce loyalty, and their die-hard spirit…

less than 1 minute read

scouting - History, Programs and sections, Uniforms and distinctive insignia, Adults, Around the world

The practice of teaching the young to become good citizens and leaders, based on the principles laid down by Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scout movement in 1908. Scouts are taught to do duty to God, their country, and other people. The Scout Association operates in over 100 nations, and has over 14 million members, classified into Beaver Scouts (aged 6–8), Cub Scouts (aged 8–11), Scou…

less than 1 minute read

scramjet - History, Simple description, Theory, Advantages and disadvantages of scramjets, Advantages and disadvantages for orbital vehicles, Applications

A special ramjet designed for operation at very high speeds (c.6–25 times the speed of sound) where the performance of a conventional ramjet becomes impracticable. In principle, the engine is similar in operation to a conventional ramjet, but the gases flowing through the combustion chamber move at supersonic rather than subsonic speed. In March 2004, a NASA scramjet reached Mach 7 (7700 km/h, 4…

less than 1 minute read

scrapie

A progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system of sheep and goats worldwide. Symptoms may not appear until two years after infection. There are two forms of the disease: in one, there is uncontrollable itching, the animal scraping itself against objects (hence the name); in the other, there is drowsiness, trembling of the head and neck, and paralysis of the legs. The animals usua…

less than 1 minute read

screamer - Species

A bird native to South America; large body, longish fleshy legs, small head, and chicken-like bill; angle of wing with sharp spur; found near water; eats water plants; swims and flies well; related to ducks and geese. (Family: Anhimidae, 3 species.) The Screamers are a small family of birds, the Anhimidae. …

less than 1 minute read

scree - In popular culture

Loose, angular fragments of rock debris, formed by the action of rain and frost, which accumulate on hill slopes; also termed talus. Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. The term scree is generally used interchangeably with talus, though scree often refers to rocks that are small (e.g., sm…

less than 1 minute read

screen

In photography, the surface on which an image is displayed - reflective for front projection, translucent for back projection. Reflection characteristics should suit the viewing conditions: the picture on a diffuse matt white screen can be viewed over a wide angle, whereas a metallized or glass-beaded surface reflects much more light but only over a narrow angle. In the cinema theatre, the screen …

less than 1 minute read

screening

A system which prevents the pick-up or transmission of stray electrical signals; also known as shielding. In coaxial cable links between aerials and televisions, the outer metal webbing screens the signal-carrying inner wire. Grids in the front of microwave ovens shield users from harmful microwaves. Conducting enclosures and meshes shield electrical signals. Enclosures of ferromagnetic material, …

less than 1 minute read

scribe

In general, a writer of documents or copyist; more specifically, in post-exilic and pre-rabbinic Judaism, a class of experts on the Jewish law (the sopherim). Although Ezra was both a priest and a scribe, a class of lay Torah scholars eventually arose, who not only preserved and interpreted Biblical laws, but by New Testament times were also involved with courts of justice. Most were Pharisees. Th…

less than 1 minute read

scrofula - History, The disease

Tuberculosis of the lymph nodes of the neck, with abscess formation and ulceration of the overlying skin. Now a rare condition, it was formerly known as ‘the King's evil’, because of the popular belief that the sovereign's touch would cure it. Scrofula (Scrophula or Struma) refers to a variety of skin diseases; In the Middle Ages it was believed that royal touch, the touch of …

less than 1 minute read

scrotum - Function, Health issues, Additional images

The pouch which in most male mammals holds the testes. It is necessary for normal germ cell production because the temperature of the deeper part of the body is high enough to damage the developing germ cells. Some mammals however, notably the elephant, have testes which remain within the abdominal cavity and do not descend to lie superficially in a scrotum. In some male mammals, the scrotu…

less than 1 minute read

scuba diving - History of diving, Diving Issues, Scuba dive training and certification agencies, Sources

A form of underwater swimming with the aid of a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (abbreviated as scuba), or aqualung. The first such device was developed by French naval officer Jacques Yves Cousteau and engineer Emil Gagnan in 1943. The Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatique (World Underwater Federation) was founded in 1959. Scuba diving is the term used to descr…

less than 1 minute read

sculpture - Materials of sculpture

Traditionally, modelling in a soft material such as clay or wax, the result sometimes being cast in metal, or carving from some hard material such as stone or wood. In the 20th-c there was much work done by joining together prefabricated pieces, a technique known as assemblage. Early Greek bronzes were cast from wooden models, using the ‘lost wax’ process, but most Renaissance and modern bronzes…

less than 1 minute read

scurvy

A nutritional disorder which results from a lack of vitamin C. Bleeding occurs into the skin, around teeth and bones, and into the joints. …

less than 1 minute read

scurvy-grass

A N temperate annual or perennial; leaves oval to kidney-shaped, fleshy, forming a rosette; flowers white, cross-shaped. The sharp-tasting leaves, rich in vitamin C, were used by 17th-c sailors to combat scurvy. (Genus: Cochlearia, 25 species. Family: Cruciferae.) Scurvy-grass (Cochlearia species; Two species formerly included in the genus Cochlearia are now usually treated in s…

less than 1 minute read

Scylla

In Greek mythology, a sea-monster usually located in the Straits of Messina opposite to Charybdis. Originally a woman, she was changed by Circe or Amphitrite into a snake with six heads; in the Odyssey she snatched six men from Odysseus's ships. In Greek mythology, Scylla, or Skylla (Greek Σκύλλα) was a name shared by two characters, a female sea monster and a princess. Sc…

less than 1 minute read

SDI - English language

Abbreviation of Strategic Defense Initiative, the proposal first made by President Reagan in 1983 (dubbed by the press ‘Star Wars’) that the US should develop the technologies for a defensive layered ‘shield’ of weapons based primarily in space, able to shoot down incoming ballistic missiles. The proposal was controversial - not least because the technologies it would need to perfect, such as …

less than 1 minute read

sea - List of seas, Ambiguous terminology, Extraterrestrial seas

A part of an ocean which is generally shallower and defined by somewhat loosely drawn boundaries related to the surrounding landmasses. Epicontinental seas, such as the North Sea and the China Sea, lie over part of a continental shelf. Landlocked seas, such as the Mediterranean, are isolated from the oceans except by narrow channels. Large inland lakes may also be called seas, such as the Caspian …

less than 1 minute read

sea anemone - Anatomy, Life cycle, Ecology, Gallery

A typically solitary, marine coelenterate with a cylindrical body attached at its base to a substrate, and bearing a circle of tentacles at the top around its mouth; some species form colonies; c.800 species known, from the inter-tidal zone to abyssal depths. (Phylum: Cnidaria. Order: Actiniaria.) Named after a terrestrial flower, the anemone, sea anemones form a group of water dwelling, fi…

less than 1 minute read

sea butterfly

A planktonic marine snail, with a reduced or absent shell; found in open oceanic waters; feeds mainly on other invertebrates; possesses lateral fins used in active swimming; also known as a pteropod. (Class: Gastropoda. Order: Gymnosomata.) Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gasteropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). …

less than 1 minute read

sea cucumber - Sea cucumbers in art, Sea cucumber as food and medicine

A typically sausage-shaped, soft-bodied marine invertebrate (echinoderm); mouth at one end surrounded by up to 30 tentacles, anus at the other end; skin leathery, containing minute bony structures (ossicles); found on or in the seabed, from shallow water to the deep sea. (Class: Holothuroidea.) The sea cucumber is an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea, with an elongated body and leathery…

less than 1 minute read

sea fan

A branching form of coral found in colonies mostly in warm shallow waters around coral reefs; body supported by a skeleton formed from horny protein-like material; growth typically 2-dimensional, producing a fan-like colony. (Phylum: Cnidaria. Order: Gorgonacea.) A sea fan is a form of sessile colonial cnidarian, similar to a sea pen or a soft coral, found in tropical and subtropical seawat…

less than 1 minute read

sea hare

A herbivorous marine mollusc, typically found on seaweed in shallow water; shell small, more or less internal; can expel coloured ink from its mantle when irritated. (Class: Gastropoda. Order: Anaspidacea.) Sea hares (a type of sea slug) are small marine gastropod molluscs of the suborder Anaspidea (P. …

less than 1 minute read

sea ice - Formation of sea ice, Climatic importance, Extent and trends of polar ice packs

Ice formed from freezing sea water. At high latitudes in the Arctic and Antarctic, the temperature may drop low enough for sea water to freeze (on average, at ?1·9°C). As ice forms, dissolved salts are excluded from the ice structure, increasing the salinity of the surround water, and producing sea ice with a lower salinity than the water from which it formed. Eventually all of the salt is exclu…

less than 1 minute read

sea lettuce

A green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) in which the body (thallus) is sheet-like and only two cells thick; found on rocks in the intertidal zone and in estuaries. (Class: Chlorophyceae. Order: Ulvales.) The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae widely distributed along the coasts of the world's oceans. …

less than 1 minute read

sea mouse

A marine annelid worm with a flattened body covered with bristles that conceal lines of dorsal scales; body oval shaped, bearing paddle-like lobes (parapodia) along both sides; found in shallow coastal waters. (Class: Polychaeta. Order: Phyllodocida.) …

less than 1 minute read

sea pen

A type of coral found in colonies embedded in soft substrates on the sea bed; colony comprises a main axial individual (polyp) bearing secondary polyps on side branches; often supported by a horny skeleton. (Phylum: Cnidaria. Order: Pennatulacea.) Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea. Sea pens are grouped with the octocorals ("soft corals"), together w…

less than 1 minute read

Sea Peoples - Historic records, Hypotheses about the Sea Peoples

An assortment of marauders, probably from the Mycenaean world, who destroyed the Hittite empire in Anatolia c.1200 BC, and penetrated as far S as Egypt before being checked and dispersed. The Achaeans may have been among the invaders. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Ha…

less than 1 minute read

sea snake - Classification

A venomous snake of family Hydrophiidae (50 species), sometimes included in family Elapidae; inhabits warm coastal waters in the Pacific and Indian oceans; small head, thick body, tail flattened from side to side; eats fish and fish eggs; venom very powerful; most give birth to live young in the water, and spend entire life at sea. Species of genus Laticauda are called sea kraits; these lay eggs, …

less than 1 minute read

sea spider - Morphology, Biology, Subtaxa, Evolution and relationships, Reproduction and development, Trivia, Reference

A long-legged, small-bodied marine arthropod, found on the seabed from the intertidal zone to deep sea; most are predators, sucking juices from soft-bodied prey such as sea anemones and seaweeds; contains c.1000 species. (Subphylum: Chelicerata. Class: Pycnogonida.) Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida. There are approximately 1000 kn…

less than 1 minute read

sea urchin - Physiology, Uses, Geological history, Gallery

A typically hollow, globular, marine invertebrate (echinoderm); body formed by fused skeletal plates bearing movable spines; anus usually on upper surface, mouth on lower surface; complex jaw apparatus known as ‘Aristotle's lantern’; feeds by scavenging, grazing, or ingesting sediment; contains c.5000 fossil and 950 living species, including sand dollars and heart urchins. (Phylum: Echinodermata…

less than 1 minute read

seakale

A perennial (Crambe maritima) native to the Atlantic coasts of Europe; fleshy root; large, bluish, cabbage-like leaves; white, cross-shaped flowers. The forced, blanched shoots are eaten as a vegetable. (Family: Cruciferae.) …

less than 1 minute read

seal (communications)

A blob of wax, or other adhesive substance, bearing an impression, and attached to a document as evidence of its authenticity; also the engraved or carved object (the matrix or die) used to make the impression. The study of seals, which are found from the oldest times, is known as sigillography, and is particularly useful in historical studies as a means of identifying, dating, and validating docu…

less than 1 minute read

seal (zoology)

A marine mammal of the family Phocidae, called the true seal, earless seal, or hair seal (19 species); has fur and a thick layer of blubber; no external ears; cannot turn rear flippers forwards; moves on land by shuffling body horizontally along the ground; in water swims with up and down strokes of hind flippers; group of young called a ‘pod’. Seal or SEAL may refer to articles connected…

less than 1 minute read

seamount - Geography, Ecology, Fishing

An undersea mountain which by definition must rise at least 1000 m/3300 ft above the surrounding sea floor, and whose summit must be more than 200 m/660 ft beneath the surface of the ocean (shallower features are oceanic banks). Though found in all ocean basins, the majority of seamounts are located in the Pacific Ocean, with more than 10 000 already discovered. Most are believed to be extinc…

less than 1 minute read

Seamus (Justin) Heaney - Life, Career, Trivia, Bibliography

Poet, born on a farm near Castledawson in Co Londonderry, N Northern Ireland, UK. The eldest of nine children, he studied at Queen's University in Belfast, and moved to Dublin in 1976. Early works such as Death of a Naturalist (1966) and Door into the Dark (1969) established a deep bond between language and the land. Later volumes (North, 1975; Field Work, 1979; Station Island, 1984) extended this…

1 minute read

Seamus Mallon - Background, Deputy First Minister, Retirement

Northern Ireland politician, born in Markethill, Armagh, SE Northern Ireland, UK. Educated at Newry and Belfast, he was a primary school headteacher before being elected to Armagh District Council (1973–86) and the Northern Ireland Assembly (1973–4). A member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, he was elected a member of the Northern Ireland Convention (1975–6) and of the Northern Irelan…

less than 1 minute read

Sean (Justin) Penn - Biography, Filmography

Actor, writer, producer, and director, born in Santa Monica, California, USA. Born into a show-business family, he is the son of actor Leo Penn (1921–98) and actress Eileen Ryan, and brother of late actor Chris Penn. He appeared on television in a number of small parts before gaining his first feature-film role in Taps (1981). Later films include Carlito's Way (1993), Dead Man Walking (1995, Best…

less than 1 minute read

seaplane - Types of seaplane, History of seaplanes, Seaplane uses and operation

An aircraft capable of taking off and landing upon water using a specially shaped body or floats. Seaplanes, first developed in the USA, were designed to take advantage of the sea as a runway. The most famous seaplanes were those that took part in the Schneider Trophy races of the late 1920s and early 1930s, when the trophy was finally won by a British Supermarine S6B at a speed of 655 kph/407 m…

less than 1 minute read

search engine - Challenges faced by search engines, How search engines work, Storage costs and crawling time

A resource on the World Wide Web, accessible via a browser, which helps a user to find sites and information. Search engines (eg Google, Yahoo, Lycos, Ask Jeeves) continually traverse the Web, following links that are built into documents, and building up indexes of material - for example, recovering titles, headings, and subheadings, important words, and the first few lines from documents. Manipu…

less than 1 minute read

Sears Tower - History, The Skydeck, Trivia

The national headquarters of Sears, Roebuck and Co in Chicago, Illinois, USA; the second tallest office building in the world (as of 2004). Built in 1970–4, architects Skidmore Owings & Merrill, it has 110 storeys and reaches a height of 443 m/1454 ft. The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, and the tallest building in the United States. When completed, the Sears Tower had …

less than 1 minute read

seasonal affective disorder (SAD) - Pathophysiology, Treatment, History

A form of ‘winter depression’, due to lack of light, which is accompanied by fatigue and lethargy, with a craving for carbohydrates which often results in weight gain. Up to 10% of the population may be affected to some extent during the winter months, since light affects the body's biological rhythms through hormonal and neurochemical messenger substances released by the pineal gland. The best …

less than 1 minute read

Seaspeak - Say again

A variety of English, developed in the 1980s, used for international communications at sea. It is restricted in its expressive capacity to a relatively small set of messages, and is intended to forestall difficulties and misunderstandings which might arise from the multiplicity of languages spoken by the world's sailors. Seaspeak is a simplified language designed to facilitate communication…

less than 1 minute read

seaweed - Taxonomy, History, Structure, Ecology, Uses

A common name for any large marine alga belonging to families Chlorophyceae (green seaweeds), Phaeophyceae (brown seaweeds), and Rhodophyceae (red seaweeds). Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. Seaweeds are classified into brown (Phaeophyta), red (Rhodophyta) and green algae (Chlorophyta) based on their pigment composition. Seaweeds are often …

less than 1 minute read

Seba Smith

Journalist and writer, born in Buckfield, Maine, USA. He and his family moved to Bridgton, ME (1799), and he worked in a grocery store, brick yard, and iron foundry. He studied at Bowdoin (1815–18) and travelled in Europe. He became the assistant editor of the Eastern Argus in Portland, ME (1820–6) and founded the Portland Courier (1829). There he began the publication of political and satirical…

less than 1 minute read

Sebastian Brant

Poet and humanist, born in Strassburg, SWC Germany. He studied and lectured at Basel. He is best known for his allegory Das Narrenschiff (1494), a satire on the follies and vices of his times, the most famous German literary work of his century. It was translated into English as The Shyp of Folys by Alexander Barclay and Henry Watson in 1509. Sebastian Brant (also Brandt) (1457 – May 10, …

less than 1 minute read

Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti - Personal life, Professional career, Further reading

Electrical engineer and inventor, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at University College London. From his early experiments with dynamos and alternators he conceived the idea of the large-scale generation and distribution of electricity at high voltages. In 1887 he was appointed chief electrician to the London Electric Supply Corporation, and designed a power station at De…

less than 1 minute read

Sebastiano del Piombo - Biography, Roman works, Elevation to office of Piombo, Partial anthology of works

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy. His surname arose because he was sealer of briefs to Pope Clement VII (1523). He studied under Giovanni Bellini and Giorgione, and went to Rome in c.1510, where he worked in conjunction with Michelangelo. In 1519 he painted his masterpiece, ‘The Raising of Lazarus’ (National Gallery, London). He was also an accomplished portrait painter. Sebastiano del P…

less than 1 minute read

Sebastiano Ricci - Early years, Ricci in Turin, then return to Venice, Florentine fresco masterpieces

Painter, born in Belluno, NE Italy. He trained in Venice, and after extensive travel in Italy worked for two years in Vienna (1701–3). In 1712 he travelled to England, via Holland, with his nephew Marco Ricci. The only complete work to survive from this time is a ‘Resurrection’ in the apse of Chelsea Hospital chapel. His colourful style influenced the young Tiepolo. Sebastiano Ricci (Bel…

less than 1 minute read

Sebastiano Serlio - Biography

Architect and painter, born in Bologna, N Italy. After training there, he moved to Rome in 1514 to study with Baldassare Peruzzi. He moved to Venice in 1527, and in 1540 was called to France by Francis I. More influential than his architecture was his treatise on Italian architecture, Regole generali di architettura (1537–51, and posthumously 1575), which was widely consulted, and later published…

less than 1 minute read

Sebastopol - Political status and subdivision, History, Etymology of the name, Sights and monuments

44°36N 33°31E, pop (2000e) 358 000. Port in Krymskaya (Crimean) oblast, Ukraine; on the SW shore of a peninsula separating the Sea of Azov from the Black Sea; founded, 1783; besieged by the British and French for nearly a year (1854) in the Crimean War; rail terminus; naval base; seaside resort; health resorts nearby; bricks, tiles, food products, textiles, shoes. Sevastopol (Ukrainian …

less than 1 minute read

seborrhoea

Excessively oily skin due to overactive sebaceous glands, the glands in the skin that secrete a natural oil called sebum. The skin appears shiny and can feel greasy and unpleasant. Seborrheic dermatitis may develop - reddened, flaky patches of skin, usually appearing on the scalp and producing dandruff as the scales are shed. Seborrhoea, a medical term applied to describe an accumulation on…

less than 1 minute read

SECAM - Technical details, History, SECAM varieties, Problems with the standard, Facetious interpretations of the SECAM acronym

Acronym for Séquentiel Couleur à Mémoire, a coding system for colour television developed in France in the 1960s and later adopted in the USSR, Eastern Europe, and some Middle East countries. The two colour difference signals are not phase-separated, but transmitted on alternate lines of the picture. A delay line in the receiver allows them to be combined at the final stage, although at some sa…

less than 1 minute read

second - International second, Equivalence to other units of time, Historical origin

Base SI unit of time; symbol s; defined as the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom. Formerly defined as 1/86 400 of the mean solar day, the atomic definition is now the basis of universal time. Subdivisions of the second, such as millisecond (one thousandth of a se…

less than 1 minute read

second messenger

In physiology, a term used to describe intermediate factors (eg nucleotides, phospholipids, calcium ions) present within the cell wall or interior. When activated by a variety of neurotransmitters or hormones (the first messengers) they initiate a sequence of events leading ultimately to a cellular response (such as contraction, relaxation, secretion, or a change in electrical activity). In…

less than 1 minute read

second sight - History of symbolical visions, Sources From Ireland, Second sight and its association with death

A Celtic folklore term for paranormal ability, most frequently used to refer to precognitive extrasensory perception abilities. Second sight is often regarded as an unwanted gift, as anyone possessing it does not have control over what they will ‘see’, and thus may obtain unpleasant information, such as concerning an impending illness or death. Second sight is a form of extra-sensory perc…

less than 1 minute read

secondary education - Secondary education in various countries

The phase of education following the primary stage, beginning in most countries at the age of 11 or 12. Usually the style of education moves towards more specialized work in key subjects, or fields of study taught by specialist teachers. Secondary education usually ends at some point between the age of 15 and 19, this varying in different countries, and culminates in most cases in some kind of pub…

less than 1 minute read

secondary emission - Undesirable effects, Applications

The emission of electrons from the surface of a material because of its bombardment with electrons. The emitted electrons have a spectrum of energies ranging up to that of the incident electrons. Metals emit fewer secondary electrons than insulators. The effect is exploited in photomultipliers. Secondary emission is a phenomenon that occurs in electron tubes where electrons impact an electr…

less than 1 minute read

secondary modern school

A school in those parts of the UK which operate a selective system. Intake consists of those children who were not successful in gaining entry to a grammar school, or who did not wish to attend it. A Secondary Modern School was a type of secondary school that existed in Britain from 1944 until the early 1970s under the Tripartite System, and was designed for the majority of pupils - t…

less than 1 minute read

Secretariat

American racehorse. He set record times for the Kentucky Derby (1 min 59·4 s for 1¼ mi, 1973) and Belmont Stakes (2 min 24 s for 1½ mi, 1973). That year he became the first horse for 25 years to win the Triple Crown. Secretariat may refer to: Organizations: Buildings: …

less than 1 minute read

secretary - Origin, Modern usage, Private secretary

In its most widely used sense, a person who carries out general clerical duties in an office, such as typing and filing; now often replaced by such a term as administrative assistant. In business, it refers to the legally required position of Company Secretary, whose responsibilities include ensuring that the company complies with the provisions of legislation (such as the Companies Acts in the UK…

less than 1 minute read

secretary bird

A large, ground-dwelling bird of prey (Sagittarius serpentarius) native to S Africa; long stilt-like legs; head with an untidy crest of long feathers (resembling pens held behind the ear of a secretary); inhabits grassland; eats small ground-living animals; walks up to 30 km/20 mi a day; soaring flight; nests in trees. (Family: Sagittariidae.) …

less than 1 minute read

secretary of state - Belgium, Germany, Holy See, Mexico, The Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Scotland, Russia, San Marino

The title of most UK government ministers who preside over a department, as distinct from junior ministers. It has increasingly replaced the title of minister, although formally there is now little to distinguish them except that secretaries of state are normally in charge of larger departments. In the USA, the term refers to the head of the state department in charge of foreign affairs, a senior …

less than 1 minute read

secretion - Secretion in the other domains of life:

The process by which material is taken up (eg from the blood) or produced by a cell and expelled to serve a purpose elsewhere in the body. The term also refers to the specific substance (eg a hormone or neurotransmitter) expelled by the cell or organism. Eukaryotic cells have a highly evolved process of secretion. In the Golgi apparatus, the glycosylation of the proteins is modi…

less than 1 minute read

sect - Etymology, Sociological definitions and descriptions, The concept of sect as used in an Indian context

A separately organized group, usually religious, which rejects established religious or political authorities, and claims to adhere to the authentic elements of the wider tradition from which it has separated itself. It is distinctive and exclusive, claiming to possess true belief, correct ritual, and warranted standards of conduct. Membership is voluntary, but the sect accepts or rejects persons …

less than 1 minute read