Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 65

Cambridge Encyclopedia

rudd

Freshwater fish (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) widespread in European rivers and lakes, ranging E to the Caspian region; length up to 40 cm/16 in; greenish-brown on back, sides yellow, fins reddish; feeds on invertebrates as well as on some plant material; popular with anglers. (Family: Cyprinidae.) …

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Rudolf (Carl) Virchow - Scientific career, Political career, Reference

Physician, politician, anthropologist, and founder of cellular pathology, born in Swidwin, NW Poland (formerly Schivelbein, Germany). He studied medicine at Berlin, and became professor of pathological anatomy at Würzburg (1849) and Berlin (1856). His Cellularpathologie (1858) confirmed Remak's observation that all cells derive from a pre-existing cell, and established the importance of cellular …

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Rudolf (Christian Carl) Diesel - Early life, Development of the invention, Later life

Engineer, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Munich Polytechnic, and joined the refrigeration firm Linde in Paris in 1880. He moved to the Berlin branch in 1890, and continued his search for an efficient internal combustion engine. He patented a design in 1892 and, subsidized by the Krupp company, constructed a ‘rational heat motor’, demonstrating the first compression-ignition engine in 1…

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Rudolf (Hametovich) Nureyev - Early life and career at the Kirov, Defection to the West, Fonteyn and Nureyev, Later career

Ballet dancer, born in Irkutsk, in southern Siberian Russia. He studied at the Leningrad Choregraphic School, and became a soloist with the Kirov Ballet. While touring with the Ballet in 1961, he obtained political asylum in Paris, and became an Austrian citizen in 1982. He made his debut at Covent Garden with the Royal Ballet in 1962, and became Fonteyn's regular partner. His virtuosity and expre…

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Rudolf (Julius Emanuel) Clausius - Life, Work, Tributes

Physicist, born in Koszalin, NW Poland (formerly Köslin, Germany). He studied at Berlin, and in 1869 became professor of natural philosophy at Bonn. He worked on optics and electricity, formulated the second law of thermodynamics, and was influential in establishing thermodynamics as a science. Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (January 2, 1822 – August 24, 1888), was a German physicist and…

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Rudolf (Karl) Bultmann - Selected works

Lutheran theologian, Hellenist, and New Testament scholar, born in Wiefelstede, NW Germany. He studied at Tübingen, taught at Marburg, Wroc?aw, (formerly Breslau, Prussia), and Giessen, then became professor of New Testament at Marburg (1921). An early exponent of form criticism (History of the Synoptic Tradition, 1921) he is best known for his highly influential programme (1941) to ‘demythologi…

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Rudolf Arnheim

Art theorist and psychologist, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied at the University of Berlin, worked in Rome with the International Institute of Educational Films (1933–8), then taught at both the New School for Social Research and Sarah Lawrence College (1943–68), Harvard University (1968–74), and the University of Michigan (from 1974). He taught film history, but is most noted as a pioneeri…

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Rudolf Belling - Artistic theories, Departure from Germany

Sculptor, born in Berlin, Germany. In 1937 he emigrated to Istanbul, but returned to Germany in 1966. His early Dreiklang (1919) and later works after 1949 are chiefly abstract in form. Rudolf Belling (1886 - 1972) was a German sculptor. At the very beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Belling’s name was something like a battlecry. Rudolf Belling amplified: a sculp…

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Rudolf Carnap - Life, Logician, Philosophy, Selected publications

Philosopher, born in Wuppertal, W Germany. He studied at Freiburg and Jena, becoming lecturer at Vienna (1926–31), and professor of philosophy at Prague (1931–5), Chicago (1936–52), and California, Los Angeles (1954–70). He was one of the leaders of the ‘Vienna Circle’ of logical positivists. His writings include Der logische Aufbau der Welt (1928, The Logical Construction of the World), Log…

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Rudolf Christoph Eucken

Philosopher, born in Aurich, NW Germany. He studied at the University of Göttingen, then became professor of philosophy at Basel (1871–4) and at Jena (1874–1920). He propounded a distinctive philosophy of ethical activism, and sought to identify and vindicate the spiritual significance of history and life. In his writings he strongly criticized naturalist philosophy, and Der Sozialismus und sei…

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Rudolf Fittig - Career

Scientist, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He studied at Göttingen, and became professor of organic chemistry at Tübingen (1869) and at Strasbourg (1876). He is best known for his work on organic compounds, in particular their reaction with sodium. Fittig studied chemistry at Göttingen, graduating as Ph.D. Fittig's researches are entirely in organic chemistry, and cover an exceptionally wide…

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Rudolf Hermann Lotze

Philosopher, born in Bautzen, E Germany. He studied medicine and philosophy at Leipzig, and went on to become professor of philosophy at Leipzig (1842–4), Göttingen (1844–80), and Berlin (1880–1). He first became known as a physiologist, opposing the popular doctrine of ‘vitalism’, and helped to found the science of physiological psychology, but he is best known for his religious philosophy,…

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Rudolf Hilferding - Biography

German politician, physician, and social scientist, born in Vienna, Austria. Author of texts on Austromarxism and editor of Vorwärts (1907–16), he was a pacifist member of Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD) and later of Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) of which he was a committee member. He was twice German finance minister in the 1920s. After the Nazis came…

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Rudolf Kempe

Conductor, born near Dresden, E Germany. He studied at the Musikhochschule in Dresden, and played the oboe in orchestras at Dortmund and Leipzig before making his debut as a conductor in 1935. He then worked at Leipzig and, after the war, at Dresden and Munich. He later appeared frequently at Covent Garden, London, and was principal conductor of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (1961–75), then of…

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Rudolf Otto - Life, The Holy, Influence, Books available in English, Other translations

Protestant theologian and philosopher, born in Peine, C Germany. A professor at Göttingen and Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia) before settling in Marburg in 1917, he studied non-Christian religions in order to define religion in a new way. In Das Heilige (1917, The Idea of the Holy) he describes religious experience as inspiring both awe and a promise of exaltation and bliss. His other…

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Rudolf Serkin

Pianist, born in Cheb, W Czech Republic (formerly Eger, Austria). He studied composition with Schoenberg in Vienna, and made his debut there in 1915. He settled in the USA in 1939, and directed the Curtis Institute, Philadelphia (1968–76). He founded the Marlboro School of Music (1949) and the Marlboro Music Festival (1950). In 1935 Serkin made his first United States appearance at the Coo…

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Rudolf Steiner - Biography, Philosophical development, Breadth of activity, Steiner and Christianity, Reception of Steiner, Controversies, Bibliography

Social philosopher, the founder of anthroposophy, born in Kraljevec, NW Croatia. He studied science and mathematics, and edited Goethe's scientific papers, before coming temporarily under the spell of the theosophists. In 1912 he propounded his own approach, establishing his first ‘school of spiritual science’, or Goetheanum, in Dornach, Switzerland. His aim was to integrate the psychological an…

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Rudolf von Bennigsen

German politician, born in Lüneburg, NC Germany. In 1859 he became chairman of the Deutscher Nationalverein (German National Union). In 1867 he joined the Reichstag and the Prussian Abgeordnetenhaus, serving as president of the latter from 1873 to 1879. As leader of the national liberals he supported Bismarck, but broke with him following the adoption of the anti-Left Sozialistengesetz, resigning…

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Rudolf von Ems - Life, Works, Editions of works

Poet, born in Hohenems, Vorarlberg. He served the Herren (Lords) von Montfort, dying on an Italian campaign. While his learned epics Willehalm von Orlens (after 1235) and Alexander (c.1245) were in the courtly tradition of Gottfried von Straßburg and Wolfram von Eschenbach, other works proved innovatory: Der guote Gêrhart (1215–25) features for the first time - in the figure of a Cologne mercha…

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Rudolf von Jhering - Works

Jurist, born in Aurich, NW Germany. He was a teacher of Roman Law at Giessen (1852–68), and at Göttingen from 1872. He founded a school of jurisprudence based on teleological principles, and wrote extensively on Roman law and legal history. He is sometimes regarded as the founder of sociological jurisprudence. Rudolf von Jhering (also Ihering) (22 August 1818 - 17 September 1892) was a Ge…

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Rudolph Ackermann

Art publisher, born in Saxony, E Germany. In 1795 he opened a print shop in London and published a well-known set of coloured engravings of London. He is said to have introduced lithography as a fine art into England. Rudolph Ackermann (April 20, 1764–March 30, 1834) was an Anglo-German inventor and publisher. He was born at Schneeberg, in Saxony, where he visited the Latin sc…

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Rudolph Dirks - Further reading

Strip cartoonist, born in Heinde, C Germany. His family moved to Chicago when he was seven. He started selling joke cartoons to Life magazine in 1894, then joined the New York Journal where he created the long-running strip, The Katzenjammer Kids (1897). He later retitled his characters as The Captain and the Kids (1914), while the original Katzenjammer Kids continued in parallel for decades. He r…

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Rudolph Valentino - Hollywood and first marriage, The Sheik, Second marriage, United Artists, Chicago Tribune episode, Death, Funeral

Film actor, born in Castellaneta, SE Italy. He studied agriculture, but emigrated to the USA in 1913, and first appeared on the stage as a dancer. In 1919 he made his screen debut, but his first leading role was as Julio in The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921), which made him a star. His performances in such films as The Sheik (1921), Blood and Sand (1922), The Eagle (1925), and The Son of t…

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Rudy Autio - Sources

Ceramicist, born in Butte, Montana, USA. He studied at Washington State University (MFA), and became professor of ceramics and sculpture at the University of Montana in Missoula (1957). While his early pots reflected abstract expressionism, he is best known for his later figurative work. On anthropomorphic clay forms he superimposed improvisational drawings of women, landscapes, and animals to pic…

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Rudy Hartono (Kurniawan)

Badminton player, born in Surabaya, Indonesia. The winner of a record eight All-England titles (1968–74, 1976), he was also a member of Indonesia's Thomas Cup winning teams in 1970, 1973, 1976, and 1979. He was world champion in 1980. Rudy Hartono Kurniawan (Chinese: 梁海量, phonetic translation: 哈托诺, born August 18, 1949) was an Indonesian badminton player who won the world champ…

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rue

A small aromatic evergreen shrub (Ruta graveolens) with acrid scent and taste, native to the Balkans; leaves bluish-green, divided into wedge-shaped, slightly rounded segments; flowers with 4–5 rather dirty yellow petals curved up at the tips. It is cultivated as a culinary and medicinal herb. (Family: Rutaceae.) Rue (Ruta) is a genus of strongly scented evergreen subshrubs 20-60 cm tall, …

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Rufino Tamayo

Painter, born in Oaxaca, S Mexico. He studied at the School of Fine Arts, Mexico City, and became engrossed in tribal sculpture as a curator at the National Museum of Archaeology (1921–6). His own style combined pre-Columbian art with the art of modern Europe. Among his works are ‘The Birth of Nationality’ and ‘Mexico Today’ (1952–3) for the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City, and murals in …

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Rufus (Matthew) Jones

Philosopher, historian, and social reformer, born in South China, Maine, USA. The child of devout Quaker parents, he attended Haverford College (1885 BA; 1886 MA) and chose to devote himself to understanding and promoting Quakerism. He taught at Quaker preparatory schools before returning to join the faculty of Haverford to teach philosophy (1893–1933). From 1890 he was a minister of the Society …

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Rufus King

Politician and diplomat, born in Scarboro, Maine (then part of Massachusetts), USA. A lawyer, he represented Massachusetts at the Continental Congress (1784–7) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), where he played an influential role in arguing for a strong central government. Having moved to New York City, he became a US senator (Federalist, 1789–96), continuing his eloquent advocacy of Fed…

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Rufus Porter - Famous family, Birth and education, Marriage, Travel, Second marriage, Inventor, Scientific American, Airship, Death and burial

Inventor and editor, born in Boxford, Massachusetts, USA. He left home early and led an eventful, wandering life, playing the fife and violin, and painting portraits. He wandered from Maine to Virginia and back to Connecticut and invented (but did not patent) numerous devices. In New York City, he was editor of the American Mechanic (the first scientific newspaper in the USA) and he began the Scie…

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Rufus Putnam - Early life and career, Revolutionary War, Post-war activities

American revolutionary soldier, born in Sutton, Massachusetts, USA. He served against the French (1757–60), and in the American War of Independence commanded a regiment, becoming brigadier-general in 1783. In 1788 he founded Marietta, OH, and in 1789 was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territory. He later became surveyor-general of the United States (1793–1803). Ru…

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Rufus Wheeler Peckham

Judge, born in Albany, New York, USA. He served on New York's supreme court (1883–6) and court of appeals (1886–95). President Grover Cleveland named him to the US Supreme Court (1896–1909), where he wrote almost 400 opinions. Rufus Wheeler Peckham (November 8, 1838 - October 24, 1909) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1895 until 1909. His older brot…

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Rufus Wilmot Griswold

Anthologist, editor, and literary critic, born in Benson, Vermont, USA. After an obscure period of journalism and editorial work beginning in 1830, he obtained a license as a Baptist minister, though he seems never to have taken a regular pulpit. He edited various periodicals and campaigned against capital punishment and imprisonment for debt. With William Leggett and others, he established a libr…

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Rugby (UK)

52º23N 1º15W, pop (2001e) 87 400. Town in Warwickshire, C England, UK; on R Avon, 17 km/10 mi E of Coventry; famous boys' public school (1567) where the game of rugby football originated; railway; engineering, cement, light industry. Rugby may refer to: The sport of rugby football, in its various forms: Places: Other meanings: …

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Rugby School - Houses of Rugby School, Alumni of Rugby School, Rugby School slang

School in Rugby, Warwickshire, C England, UK, founded in 1567 as a Free Grammar School for the boys of Rugby and Brownsover. Originally located in the centre of the town it moved to its present site in 1750. Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is perhaps one of the top co-educational boarding schools in the country. It…

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Ruggero Bonghi - Biography

Italian politician and man of letters, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. Forced to leave Naples after the 1848 risings, he later became a deputy for the Right in the Italian parliament (1860–5) and was education minister (1874–6). He was also a journalist and historian, founding the La Stampa newspaper and establishing the National Library in Rome. Ruggero Bonghi (20 March 1828 - 22 Oct…

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Ruggero Leoncavallo - Operas, Operettas, Media

Composer, born in Naples, SW Italy. He studied at Naples Conservatory, and earned his living as a pianist and giving singing lessons. His only major success was the opera I Pagliacci (1892). His La Bohème suffered by comparison with Puccini's on the same theme. Ruggero Leoncavallo (April 23, 1857- August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. The next year his I Medici was als…

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Ruggiero Ricci

Violinist, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He made a sensational debut at age 10 and went on to an international solo career with an enormous repertoire, including advanced moderns. Ruggiero Ricci (born July 24, 1918 San Bruno, California) is an Italian-American violin virtuoso. Ricci has become famous in particular for his performances and recordings of Paganini. …

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ruler - Geometric constructions

Someone who exercises supreme authority or control over a state. The term was traditionally used with reference to individuals who have a hereditary right to rule (eg kings, queens, shahs), but is now also applied to the leaders of elected governments (eg presidents, prime ministers) and to those who have seized power (eg dictators, military juntas). In many instances, different notions of ‘rule

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rum - History, Categorization, Production methodology, In cuisine

A spirit distilled either from sugar cane, freshly crushed, or from the fermentation of molasses, a by-product of the West Indian sugar-cane industry. The British navy gave rum a special status in alcoholic beverages by providing a daily tot to all serving sailors. It is drunk wherever sugar cane is grown, but the most notable varieties come from the West Indies. Rum is produced in a variet…

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Rum Rebellion - Events, Reasons for the rebellion

In Australian history, an uprising in Sydney which deposed the governor of New South Wales, Captain William Bligh (1808). Led by John Macarthur, a former army officer, and Major George Johnston, the Rebellion occurred because of personal antagonisms, and Bligh's attempt to end the use of rum as a currency. Bligh returned to England but was not reinstated as governor; Johnston was court-martialled …

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rumba - Ballroom Rumba and Rhumba, Gypsy Rumba, Cuban Rumba, African Rumba, Rumba rhythm, Video

A dance of Cuban origin which became popular as a ballroom dance in the USA and Europe in the 1930s. Its distinctive rhythm, often played on maracas or bongos, is the tresillo, a bar of eight quavers/eighth-notes divided 3 + 3 + 2. There are several ballroom dances which fall under Rumba (also spelled Rhumba) and Bolero, based on Cuban Rumba and Son. In American-style ballroom dancing, …

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ruminant

A mammal of suborder Ruminantia, comprising the traguloids (chevrotains) and pecorans (other deer, giraffes, and Bovidae), and suborder Tylopoda (the camel family); an artiodactyl; many-chambered stomach breaks down coarse plant material; camels and chevrotains have three chambers; pecorans have four - the rumen (or paunch), reticulum (or honeycomb bag), omasum (manyplies, or psalterium), and abom…

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rummy - General features of Rummy-style games, Basic Rummy

A large family of domestic card games. In one popular version, each player has seven cards, and the object is to form them into two hands, one of three cards and one of four (or one hand of seven) by taking and discarding cards from the pack. The hand obtained must be three (or four) cards of the same denomination, or a sequence of three (or four) cards of the same suit. A variation popular in the…

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Rump Parliament - Execution of Charles I, 1649–1653, Oliver Cromwell, End of the Rump Parliament, Links and references

The members of the British Long Parliament who were left after Pride's Purge of conservative and moderate ‘presbyterian’ elements (Dec 1648). It numbered about 60, but by-elections brought it up to 125 by 1652. It ordered the execution of Charles I (1649), and abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords, establishing the Commonwealth in its place. When it fell out with the army, Cromwell dismi…

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runner

In botany, a lateral shoot which grows along the ground, rooting at the tip or at the nodes to form new plants. Typical of rosette plants, runners are often markedly different from the normal shoots. …

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runner bean

A twining perennial (Phaseolus coccineus) growing to 5 m/16 ft, native to tropical America; leaves with three broadly oval leaflets; pea-flowers scarlet or less commonly white, in stalked clusters from the leaf axils; pods up to 40 cm/16 in long, rough, containing large red, kidney-shaped seeds, veined like marble, purple-black. It is a common garden vegetable, widely cultivated for the edible…

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Runnymede - History, Description, Access, Location, Trivia

A meadow on the S bank of the R Thames, Surrey, SE England, UK; 7 km/4 mi SE of Windsor, near Egham; here, or on Magna Carta Island in the river, King John signed the Magna Carta (1215); Commonwealth Air Forces war memorial (1953), Kennedy memorial; owned by the National Trust since 1931. Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the county of Surrey, England, associated w…

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Rupert (Chawner) Brooke - Biography, Discussion

Poet, born in Rugby, Warwickshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, travelled in Germany, and visited the USA and Tahiti. He died a commissioned officer on Skyros on his way to the Dardanelles, and was buried there. His Poems appeared in 1911, and 1914 and Other Poems in 1915, after his death. His handsome appearance and untimely death made him a favourite poet among young people in the int…

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Ruse

43º50N 25º59E, pop (2001e) 165 400. Capital city of Ruse province, NE Bulgaria; on the R Danube bordering Romania; founded 2nd-c BC as Prista, it became a Roman naval station; under Turkish rule (15th–19th-c) as Ruschuk; chief river port of Bulgaria and major commercial and manufacturing centre; birthplace of Michael Arlen; railway; airfield; polytechnic institute; the Bulgarian-Romanian Inte…

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Rushden - History, Sports, Transport, Nearby settlements

52º29N 0º60W, pop (2002e) 25 200. Town in E Northamptonshire, C England, UK; located 5 km/3 mi E of Wellingborough; birthplace of H E Bates; famous for leather and footwear. Rushden is a town in England in the county of Northamptonshire, lying on the A6 mid-way between Bedford and Kettering. The southern limits of the town border on the county of Bedfordshire, and to the n…

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Russell (Conwell) Hoban - Biography, Themes and genres, Adult novels, Selected children's books, Other works

Novelist and writer of children's literature, born in Lansdale, Pennsylvania, USA. He was an illustrator for many years before becoming a writer. The Mouse and His Child (1967) is regarded as a modern children's classic. He became known as a novelist with Turtle Diary (1975), later books including Riddley Walker (1980), The Medusa Frequency (1987), The Trokeville Way (1996), Her Name Was Lola (200…

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Russell (Herman) Conwell

Lawyer, Baptist minister, and lecturer, born in South Worthington, Massachusetts, USA. Raised on the family farm, which was a station on the Underground Railroad, even as a youth he was an impassioned orator on the rights of all men and women. He volunteered for the Union army and was commissioned as ‘the boy Captain’ at age 19. Severely wounded at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain (Jun 1864), he w…

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Russell (Wayne) Baker - Early years, Description, Notable quotations

Journalist, born in Loudoun Co, Virginia, USA. Starting as a reporter for the Baltimore Sun, he joined the New York Times in 1954. In 1962, based in Washington, DC, he launched his ‘Observer’ column, with its wide-ranging, generally humorous observations on politics and life. He won a 1979 Pulitzer Prize for commentary, and a 1983 Pulitzer Prize for his best-selling first volume of reminiscences…

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Russell Crowe - Biography, Filmography, Academy Awards and Nominations, Other Awards

Actor, born in Wellington, New Zealand. At age four he settled with his parents in Sydney, Australia. He entered the pop music scene as singer/musician Russ Le Roc (1980), and in 1985 made his acting debut on the Australian television soap Neighbours. His early film credits include Proof (1992) and Romper Stomper (1993, Australian Film Institute Best Actor), and in 1995 he made his US debut in The…

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Russell Drysdale

Painter, born in Bognor Regis, West Sussex, S England, UK. His family settled in Melbourne in 1923, and he studied at the George Bell Art School, Melbourne, in London, and in Paris, where he was influenced by Surrealism. His powerful scenes of the outback were a major contribution to modern art in Australia. He was knighted in 1969, and became a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1980. …

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Russell H(enry) Chittenden

Biochemist and educator, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. As a senior at Yale (1874), he created the first American course in physiological chemistry (later known as biochemistry), and brought the university's Sheffield Scientific School into prominence as its director (1898–1922), while concurrently lecturing at Columbia University (1898–1903). He made pioneering studies in the enzymatic di…

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Russell Means - Early Life, With AIM, Other political involvement, Acting career

Oglala Sioux activist, born in Pine Ridge, South Dakota, USA. In Cleveland (1970) he founded the second chapter of the American Indian Movement (AIM). His flair for guerrilla theatre, including the seizure of the Mayflower II on Thanksgiving (1970) and the Trail of Broken Treaties (1972), helped bring AIM to national attention. In response to clashes between police and AIM supporters in South Dako…

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Russell Sage - Rumors

Financier, born in Oneida Co, New York, USA. A clerk at his brother's store in Troy (1828), he attended night school, bought out his brother's store (1836), and opened a wholesale grocery business. Active in local politics from 1845, he served in the US House of Representatives (Whig, New York, 1853–7) where he promoted the preservation of Mount Vernon. His interest in railroads and finance was s…

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Russell Sturgis

Architect and architectural critic, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He abandoned his architectural practice in 1880 after completing a series of buildings at Yale, and became the foremost architectural critic of his day. In periodicals, books, encyclopedia articles, and lectures, he championed Louis Sullivan and sparked a national awareness of art and architecture. His monumental History of Arch…

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Russell Watson - History, The People’s Tenor, Just the two of us, Brain tumour, Albums, Singles

Tenor, born in Salford, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He left school at 16, began work in an engineering factory, and in his spare time sang in local working men's clubs. His performance one night of Puccini's aria ‘Nessun dorma’ received a standing ovation, and he decided to become a professional singer (1996). His debut album, The Voice (2000), topped the UK classical chart for many mont…

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Russia - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography and climate, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Etymology

Official name Russian Federation, formerly (1917–91) the Russian SFSR (Soviet Federal Socialist Republic), Russ Rossiyskaya Russia (Russian: Росси́я, Rossiya; Russia shares land borders with the following countries (counter-clockwise from NW to SE): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and Nort…

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Russian blue

A breed of domestic cat; foreign short-haired variety; thick blue-grey coat, each hair often with a silver tip; large thin ears and green eyes; also known as an Archangel cat. …

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Russian Civil War - Overview, Geography and Chronology, Course of events, Explanations for the Red victory, Weaknesses of the Whites

(1918–22) A war which took place in Russia following the October 1917 Revolution. Anti-Bolshevik forces (Whites) led by tsarist generals mounted a series of military and political campaigns against the new Soviet regime, supported by the intervention of allied troops and the governments of Britain, France, the USA, and Japan. They were opposed by the Soviet Red Army, created by Trotsky, which suc…

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Russian literature - Early history, Petrine era, Golden Age, Silver Age, Soviet era, Post-Soviet era

The development of Russian literature was delayed until the 18th-c. Before this time there was a rich and varied oral tradition of folk tales and byliny or epic songs, supplemented from the 16th-c by historically-based material. Some Western influence was relayed via Poland in the 17th-c, but it was French classicism which provided the real stimulus for the philologist Mikhail Lomonosov, the poet …

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Russian Orthodox Church - History, Post-Soviet recovery, Structure and organization, Doctrine and practices, Russian Orthodox churches

A Church originating from missionary activity of the see of Constantinople of the Orthodox Church, with a community organized at Kiev in the 9th-c. In 988, Christianity was declared (by Vladimir) the official faith; in the 14th-c Moscow became the see of the metropolitan; and in the 15th-c the Church declared itself autonomous. It existed in a state of tension with the emperor, and after the Revol…

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Russian Revolution

(1917) The revolution which overthrew the Russian imperialist regime and set up the first Marxist proletarian state. Mass demonstrations of revolutionary workers and soldiers in Petrograd led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the overthrow of the imperial government in February 1917. There followed a period of power-sharing between a provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet, known as ‘d…

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Russian State Library

The national library and depository of Russia, and one of the most extensive libraries in the world, known as the Lenin Library until 1992. When it was established in Moscow in 1917, confiscated private collections formed the bulk of its holdings. It now houses over 28 million books and periodicals. The Russian State Library (Российская государственная библио

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rust - Rust prevention

The product of corrosion, especially of iron-containing materials. It consists mainly of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) or hydrated forms. Rust is the substance formed when iron compounds corrode in the presence of oxygen and water. Iron is found naturally in the ore haematite as iron oxide, and metallic iron tends to return to a similar state when exposed to air, (hydrogen, oxygen, ni…

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Rustichello da Pisa

Scholar, born in Pisa, Tuscany, W Italy. He spent a long time in France, where he assembled the material from the Breton cycle that would shape his chivalry work Meliadus, which he wrote in a mixture of French–Venetian. While in a Genoese jail in 1298, he met Venetian traveller Marco Polo, who dictated his Il Milione, which Rustichello wrote in French with the title Livre des merveilles du monde.…

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Rutebeuf - Works

French wandering minstrel and poet, whose name may have been a pseudonym. He lived in Paris, and led a wandering life after an unhappy marriage (1261), recorded in his Mariage Rutebeuf. He sought the protection of Louis IX, and then of Anne de Poitiers. His many and varied compositions marked the development of the trouvères, and his pungent commentaries are considered the first expression of pop…

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Rutger Hauer - Background, Film career, Comeback, Other activities, Selected filmography, Personal quotes

Film actor, born in Breukelen, The Netherlands. The son of actor parents, he left school early to join an experimental theatre company. His screen debut came in a European film Turkish Delight (1973). He made an English-speaking debut in The Wilby Conspiracy (1975), but when this failed to establish him in Hollywood, he returned to making European films. International recognition came with Nightha…

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Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck

Dutch statesman and lawyer, born in Deventer, C Netherlands. He supported the Patriots, and in 1795 chaired the temporary administration of Amsterdam. As ambassador in Paris he helped negotiate the Peace of Amiens (1802), after which he was ambassador, first in London and later again in Paris. At Napoleon's request he produced a new Constitution (1805) for the Batavian Republic, which he headed as…

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Ruth

Biblical character described in the Book of Ruth as a woman from Moab who, after the death of her husband, refused to abandon her widowed mother-in-law Naomi, accompanying her back to Naomi's home town of Bethlehem. Her loyalty was rewarded when Naomi managed to arrange Ruth's marriage to Boaz, a wealthy kinsman of Naomi's deceased husband, and their son was said to be the grandfather of David. …

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Ruth (Ida) Krauss - Works

Writer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. She studied at the Parsons School of Fine and Applied Art, New York, and settled in Westport, CT. She is known for her innovative children's books, such as A Hole is to Dig: A First Book of First Definitions (1952). Ruth Krauss married the (also notable) Crockett Johnson in 1941. Maurice Sendak characterized Krauss as "a giant" in the wo…

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Ruth Bader Ginsburg - Early life, Judicial career, Dispute over relevance of international law, Sleeping controversy, "Ginsburg Precedent"

Judge, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied law at Harvard and earned her JD at Columbia Law School (1959). She taught at Rutgers University Law School (1963–72) and Columbia University Law School (1972–80), and was a circuit judge on the US Court of Appeals for Washington, DC (1980–93). She led the Women's Rights Project while at Columbia and won several important cases before the…

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Ruth Benedict - Patterns of Culture, The Races of Mankind, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, Post-War

Anthropologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Vassar College, then earned a PhD in anthropology under Franz Boas at Columbia University, where she joined the faculty and assisted Boas (1923–48). Although deafness limited her fieldwork, she was recognized as America's leading anthropologist after Boas' retirement. Her Patterns of Culture (1934) was a classic statement of cul…

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Ruth Berghaus

Director and theatre manager, born in Dresden, E Germany. She worked for the theatre and for the musical stage, including opera. She began as a choreographer, working from 1967 with the Berliner Ensemble, of which she became director (1971–7). Later she directed at the Deutsche Staatsoper Berlin, was responsible for international guest performances, and became known for her unconventional, someti…

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Ruth Brown - Early life, Career, Later life, Death

Blues singer and actress, born in Portsmouth, Virginia, USA. She grew up singing gospel music in the local African Methodist Episcopal Church where her father was choirmaster. In 1945 she ran away from home to sing with trumpeter Jimmy Brown, whom she married, and adopted his name on stage, although it later transpired that the marriage was bigamous. Her career took off when she was spotted singin…

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Ruth Bryan (Owen) Rohde

Diplomat, US representative, and feminist, born in Jacksonville, Illinois, USA, the daughter of William Jennings Bryan. She attended school in Illinois and studied at Nebraska University, but left to marry in 1903. Divorced and remarried, with four children, she supported the family through public speaking after her husband became an invalid. In 1926 she ran unsuccessfully for the US House of Repr…

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Ruth Draper

Monologue performer, born in New York City, USA. She made her stage debut in 1915. Following successful solo appearances for the US troops in France in 1918, she toured extensively, appearing in 1926 before George V at Windsor. Her repertoire comprised monologues of her own devising, and embraced 57 characters. Ruth Draper (December 2, 1884 - December 30, 1956) was an American dramatist. Su…

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Ruth Ellis - Biography, Legacy of The Ellis Case, Burial And Reburial, In Film, Quotation

Convicted murderer, born in Rhyl, Denbighshire, NE Wales, UK. A night-club hostess, in a jealous rage she repeatedly shot her former lover, David Blakely, a motor-racing driver, outside a Hampstead pub (10 Apr 1955). The case achieved notoriety as a ‘crime passionnel’ - Blakely was trying to extricate himself from their tempestuous, often violent, relationship at the time of his murder. Ellis wa…

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Ruth First

Radical opponent of apartheid, as activist, journalist, writer, and academic, born in Johannesburg, NE South Africa. She joined the Communist Party as a student, and worked for various left-wing newspapers and magazines (1946–60). In 1949 she married Joe Slovo; both were arrested and charged with treason in 1956. In 1964 she left South Africa, and subsequently taught at universities in England an…

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Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize

A $100 000 prize awarded annually by the Poetry Foundation, giving special recognition to a living US poet for lifetime achievement. Established in 1986 by Ruth Lilly, the great-great-granddaughter of Eli Lilly, the prestigious award is one of the largest literary honours for work in the English language. The Ruth Lilly Poetry Fellowships are also awarded annually, through a national competition,…

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Ruth Park

Writer, born in Auckland, New Zealand. She went to Australia in 1942 and married the author D'Arcy Niland. Her first success was with the novel The Harp in the South (1947), a story of slum life in Sydney which has been translated into 10 languages, and forms a trilogy with Poor Man's Orange (1949) and Missus (1986). Her work includes several other novels, as well as short stories, and scripts for…

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Ruth Pitter - Career, Style and Influences

Poet, born in Ilford, E Greater London, UK. Encouraged by Hilaire Belloc, her work drew mainly upon the beauty of natural things. In 1955 she was awarded the Queen's Gold Medal for Poetry, having already won the Hawthornden Prize in 1936. Her volumes include First and Second Poems (1927), A Mad Lady's Garland (1934), and End of Drought (1975). She was the first woman ever to receive the Que…

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Ruth Stapleton - People, Musical groups, Towns in the USA, Counties in the USA, Other

Evangelist and faith healer, born in Plains, Georgia, USA, the younger sister of President Jimmy Carter. She co-operated with other Christians, including Roman Catholics, and used her graduate training in psychology in a remarkable ministry which stressed the necessity for inner healing. In the 1976 presidential campaign she addressed the National Press Club in Washington, DC, largely on her broth…

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Ruthwell Cross - Destruction and restoration, Runic inscription, Literature

A runic stone cross at Ruthwell, near Dumfries, S Scotland, UK, dating from the 7th-c. It is carved with scenes from the New Testament and stands 5 m/18 ft high. The Ruthwell Cross is an important Anglo Saxon cross, dating back to the eighth century. This cross is remarkable for its runic inscription, which contains excerpts from The Dream of the Rood, an Old English poem. The cross…

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rutile - Occurrence, Synthetic rutile

A titanium dioxide (TiO2) mineral, usually red-brown to black due to impurities of iron oxide, widespread in igneous and metamorphic rocks and in veins with quartz. It is a source of titanium and is also used as a gemstone. Rutile is a mineral composed dominantly of titanium dioxide, TiO2. Rutile is the most common form of TiO2 in nature, being a common accessory mineral in high…

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Rutland - History, Geography, Rutland Weekend Television, Places of interest, Bibliography

pop (2001e) 34 600; area 394 km²/152 sq mi. County in the UK, known as the smallest in England, incorporated into Leicestershire in 1974, then made a unitary authority in 1997. It has given its name to a reservoir, Rutland Water. Rutland is traditionally England's smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northa…

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Rutland Boughton

Composer, born in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. Strongly influenced by Wagner's principles of music drama, and also by Socialist ideas, his aim was to develop an English style, with a strong choral element, his subjects based on British legend, and he founded the Glastonbury Festival (1914–26). His works include the opera The Immortal Hour (1913), a choral drama Bethlehem (1915), Th…

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Ruud Gullit

Football player and manager, born in Suriname. The son of a former Suriname international, he began his professional career at age 16 with Haarlem, made his debut for Holland in 1981, and gained honours with Dutch teams Feyenoord and PSV Eindhoven. In 1987 he was named European Footballer of the Year, later joining AC Milan for a then world record £7·5 million fee. He captained Holland to win th…

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Ruud Lubbers - Life and career, Sexual harassment allegation, Honorary doctorate

Dutch politician, prime minister (1982, 1986, 1986–9, 1994), and businessman, born in Rotterdam, W Netherlands. He studied at Rotterdam School of Economics, and joined the family engineering business of Lubbers Hollandia. From 1963 he was in business management as a committee member of the NCW (Netherlands Christian Employers Union), a member of the presidium of FME (Metal and Electrotechnology F…

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Ruud van Nistelrooy - Awards and honours, Trivia

Footballer, born in Oss, SE Netherlands. He began his professional career as a forward with the second division Dutch club Den Bosch (1993–7), making 69 appearances and scoring 17 goals. He joined the first division Dutch club SC Herenveen, where he developed as a talented striker (1997–8), and on his 22nd birthday he signed for PSV Eindhoven for £4·2 million, a record transfer fee between Dut…

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Ruzzante - Biography, His work, Plays and monologues

Actor and playwright, born in Padua, Veneto, NE Italy. The illegitimate offspring of an aristocratic family, he was given a good education and started his theatre career playing the villain Ruzzante, hence his nickname. The realism of his plays, Anconitana (1522), Betìa (1524), La moscheta (1529), and La Piovana (1532), written in the Padua dialect, hides a solid literary culture which boosts up …

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Rwanda - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Climate, Transport, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Further reading

Official name Republic of Rwanda Rwanda IPA: [ɾ(g)wɑndɑ], officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a small landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of east-central Africa, with a population of approximately 8 million. Dependence on subsistence agriculture, high (and increasing) population density, decreasing soil fertility and uncertain climate make Rwanda a country where chronic …

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Ryan Giggs - Beginnings, Superstardom, The latter years, International career, Personal life, Campaigner, Career statistics

Footballer, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. He made his league debut for Manchester United in 1991, and first played for Wales later that year, becoming the youngest-ever Welsh cap. Twice named the Professional Football Association's Young Player of the Year (1991–2), his honours with Manchester United include the FA Premiership (1993, 1994, 1996, 1997), the FA Cup (1994, 1996), the Rumbelows (Leag…

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Ryazan - History, Modern Ryazan, Administrative divisions, Sights of Ryazan, Famous people

54º37N 39º43E, pop (2000e) 524 000. Capital city of Ryazanskaya oblast, Russia; on R Oka, 192 km/119 mi SE of Moscow; founded, 1095; former capital of a principality; railway; cellulose, clothing, footwear, oil refining, chemicals. Ryazan (Russian: Ряза́нь IPA: [rʲɪˈzanʲ]) is a city in the Central Federal District of Russia, the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast. …

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Ryde - Transportation and amenities, Famous connections

50º44N 1º10W, pop (2000e) 21 300. Resort town in Isle of Wight, S England, UK; on NE coast of the island, 11 km/7 mi SW of Portsmouth; railway; ferry link with the mainland from Fishbourne to the W; transport equipment, tourism; Quarr Abbey (1132). Ryde is a British seaside town and the second largest urban area on the Isle of Wight, with a population of approximately 30,000. …

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Ryder Cup - Results

A golf tournament played every 2 years between professional male golfers from the USA and Europe. First played at Worcester, MA, in 1927, the Cup was donated by English businessman Samuel Ryder (1859–1936), who suggested the idea of a regular international competition between the USA and Great Britain. The Great Britain team became a European team in 1979. …

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rye

A cereal (Secale cereale) resembling barley, but with longer, narrower ears. It succeeds on poor soils, and is cultivated mainly in cold regions such as parts of North America and E Europe. It is used to make black bread, crispbreads, alcohol, and straw for hats and thatching. It is also planted for animal forage and, in the USA, for stabilizing soil. (Family: Gramineae.) …

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Rye House Plot

An alleged plot by Whigs (Apr 1683) to murder Charles II of England and James, Duke of York, at Rye House near Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK; a counter-part to the alleged Popish Plot of 1678. It was foiled by the early departure of the royal pair from Newmarket. The conspirators were betrayed and captured; two of them, Algernon Sidney and William, Lord Russell, were executed. Th…

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Ryoji Noyori - Chemistry, List of books available in English

Chemist, born in Kobe, C Japan. He studied at Kyoto University (1967 PhD), later joining the Research Center for Materials Science at Nagoya University. He shared the 2001 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions. Ryoji Noyori was born in Kobe, Japan. Noyori believes strongly in the power of catalysis and of green chemistry; In this articl…

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S(eymour) J(onathan) Singer

Cell biologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was a research fellow at the California Institute of Technology (1947–8), worked for the US Public Health Service (1948–51), moved to Yale (1951–61), then joined the University of California, San Diego (1961). He made major contributions to the physical chemistry of proteins (including antibodies), membrane biology, and chemical cytology.…

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S(iegfried) F(rederick) Nadel - Sources and external links

Social anthropologist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied psychology and philosophy at Vienna University before moving to the London School of Economics to study anthropology under Malinowski. He taught at Durham (1948–50), then became professor at Canberra University, Australia (1950–6). He carried out fieldwork among the Nupe in N Nigeria (1934–6) and the Nuba of the Sudan (1938–40). Howeve…

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Saarlouis - Town Twinning, Famous People

49º33N 6º75E, pop (2001e) 37 900. Town in Saarland, Germany; on the R Saar; founded by Louis XIV; birthplace of Marshal Ney, Oskar Lafontaine, Paul B Baltes; coal mining, wood and metal industries. Coordinates: 49°19′N 6°45′E Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis. In 1697, with the Treaty of Ryswick, most parts o…

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Saatchi Saatchi - New Directions

Advertisers: Charles Saatchi (1943– ) and Maurice Saatchi (1946– ), born in Iraq. They immigrated to England with their father in 1947, and set up their advertising agency in 1970. They quickly gained fame with advertisements such as a pregnant man to promote contraception, and were engaged by the Conservative Party in 1978 to create election posters and slogans. They bought out three US agencie…

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Sabah - Geography, Philippine claim, Administrative divisions, Demographics, Economy

pop (2000e) 1 829 000; area 73 711 km²/28 452 sq mi. State in E Malaysia, on the N tip of Borneo; bounded SW by Brunei, W by the South China Sea, E by the Sulu Sea, and S by Kalimantan (Indonesia); highest peak, Mt Kinabalu, 4094 m/13 432 ft; watered by the R Kinabatangan; British protectorate, 1882; member of the Federation of Malaysia, 1963; capital, Kota Kinabalu; copper, oil, timbe…

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Sabin Berthelot

Naturalist, born in Marseille, S France. In 1820 he went to the Canary Islands, where he became an expert botanist, and was later appointed French consul there (1847). Berthelot's pipit was named in his honour. Sabin Berthelot (April 4, 1794 – November 10, 1880) was a French naturalist and ethnologist. He was resident on the Canary Islands for part of his life, and co-authored L'Histoire …

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Sabine Bergmann-Pohl

Politician and physician, born in Eisenach, C Germany. She represented the Christlich-Demokratische Union (CDU) in East Germany and was elected president of the Volkskammer in 1990 and as acting head of state of the German Democratic Republic. After the reunification of Germany she was appointed minister without portfolio (1990), member of the Bundestag, and secretary of state for health (1991–8)…

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sable

An Asian marten (Martes zibellina) with a thick and silky winter coat valuable to the fur trade (summer coat shorter and coarse); inhabits high forests, usually near streams. The fur of the American pine marten (Martes americana) is known as American sable or Hudson Bay sable. The sable (Martes zibellina) is a small mammal, closely akin to the martens, living in northern Asia from the Ural …

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Sabratha - Ancient Sabratha, The archaeological site

Phoenician colony founded in the 8th-c BC on the NW coast of present-day Libya. The city was incorporated in Roman Africa in the 2nd-c BC. Now a world heritage site, the ruins of Sabratha include a reconstructed theatre facing the sea. Sabratha's port was established, perhaps about 500 BC, as a Phoenician trading-post that served as a coastal outlet for the products of the African hinterlan…

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Sacagawea - Early life, The expedition, Later life and death, Myths and legends, Memorials, In popular culture

Shoshone interpreter and guide, born in present-day C Idaho or W Montana, USA. Captured as a young girl by enemy Indians, she was sold to a French-Canadian trapper, Toussaint Charbonneau, who married her in 1804. The only woman on the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804–6, she served as an invaluable intermediary between the whites and local Indians. After accompanying the expedition to the West C…

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saccharin - Discovery and history, Chemistry, Saccharin and cancer, Cultural references

C7H5NO3S, melting point 229°C. A white solid which has more than 400 times the sweetening power of sucrose. The normal form of the artificial sweetener is its sodium salt. Many people find that it leaves a bitter aftertaste. Saccharin is about 300 times as sweet as sucrose, but has an unpleasant bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. Unlike the newer artificial s…

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Sacco and Vanzetti - Overview, First Trial, Second Trial, Motions, Appeals, and Clemency Investigation, Reaction and Response

Anarchists, accused robbers, and murderers: Nicola (Ferdinando) Sacco (1891–1927), born in Torre Maggiore, Italy, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888–1927), born in Villafalletto, Italy. Sacco, son of a landowner, emigrated to the USA (1908), where he worked in a Milford, MA shoe factory (1909–20). Vanzetti, son of a well-to-do farmer, emigrated to the USA (1908) and settled in Plymouth, MA (1915), w…

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Sacha Distel

Guitarist, singer, and composer, born in Paris, France. The nephew of Ray Ventura, who was famous for his ‘Collégiens’, Sacha became the talk of the town after his liaison with Brigitte Bardot. Already recognized as an outstanding jazz guitarist, his charming song ‘Des pommes et des scoubidous’ (1958) guaranteed his success, and initiated a craze among young people who began plaiting plastic …

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Sacha Guitry - Biography

Actor and playwright, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia, the son of French actor-manager Lucien Guitry (1860–1925). He first appeared on stage in Russia with his father's company, and later acted in Paris (1902) and London (1920). He wrote nearly 100 plays, mostly light comedies, many performed in English. He also wrote and directed several films, including Le Roman d'un tricheur (1936, trans The …

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Sachin Tendulkar - Famous innings, Achievements, Man of the Match awards, Trivia

Cricketer, born in Mumbai, W India. The most consistently heavy-scoring batsman of the 1990s, his multimillionaire status testifies both to genius with the bat and the vast popularity of the game, particularly with the corporate sector, in India. He made his debut for Mumbai in 1988–9 and for India in 1989–90, and was Yorkshire's first overseas player in 1992. By the end of the 1999 World Cup, h…

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sacrament - Enumeration, Eternal significance of sacraments

A Christian rite understood as an outward and visible sign of an internal and spiritual grace. Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches recognize seven sacraments: baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist (Mass), penance, extreme unction, holy orders (ordination), and matrimony. Protestant Churches recognize only baptism and the Eucharist (Communion) as sacraments. A sacrament is a Christian rite t…

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Sacramento - History of Sacramento, Neighborhoods, Demographics, Education, Culture, Transportation, Sister cities

38°35N 121°29W, pop (2000e) 407 000. Capital of state and seat of Sacramento Co, C California, USA, on the E bank of the Sacramento R; settled, 1839; expanded rapidly after gold discovered nearby, 1848; state capital, 1854; airport; railway; university (1947); food processing, high technology; professional team, Kings (basketball); Roman Corinthian State Capitol (1860) in Capitol Park; Crocker…

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Sacramento River

Longest river in California, USA; rises in the Klamath Mts; flows 615 km/382 mi S to Suisin Bay; major tributaries the Pit, Feather, American; navigable as far as Red Bluff (412 km/256 mi) for small craft; Sacramento the principal port; joins with the San Joaquin to form the basis of the immense Central Valley Project for flood-control, irrigation, and hydroelectricity, using several dams and …

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sacred ibis

An ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) native to Africa S of the Sahara, S Arabia, and Aldabra (formerly also Egypt); white with dark head and neck; soft dark plumes on tail; eats fish and insects; nests in tree or on ground. The Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) is a species of wading bird of the ibis family, Threskiornithidae, which breeds in sub-Saharan Africa, SE Iraq and formerly in E…

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sacrum - Etymology, Parts, Articulations, Sexual dimorphism, Variations, Additional images

A triangular-shaped bone at the lower end of the vertebral column, formed by fusion of the five sacral vertebrae. In humans standing upright, it lies almost horizontally, articulating with the two hip bones to complete the ring of bone known as the pelvis, and with the rest of the vertebral column at the fifth lumbar vertebra. The sacrum gives attachment to the muscles of the back and the buttock.…

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Sadao Araki - Military career, Political and thinking career, Summary of influence

Japanese soldier and politician. An ultra-nationalist, he was a leader of the right-wing Kodaha (‘Imperial Way’) faction of the army. After World War 2 he was convicted as a war criminal and sentenced to life imprisonment, but released in 1965. Sadao Araki (Japanese: 荒木 貞夫 Araki Sadao, May 26, 1877–November 2, 1966) was a Japanese soldier, member of nobility (Baron), politician,…

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Saddam Hussein - Youth, Rise to power, Saddam Hussein as a secular leader, Foreign affairs, The Gulf War, 1991–2003

President of Iraq (1979–2003), born in Takrit, NC Iraq. He joined the Arab Baath Socialist Party in 1957, and was sentenced to death in 1959 for the attempted assassination of President Kassem, but escaped to Egypt. He played a prominent part in the 1968 revolution, became vice-president of the ruling Revolutionary Command Council (1969), and sole president in 1979. His disastrous attack on Iran …

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Sadducees - Beliefs, Reliability of claims, Legendary origin, New Testament/Greek Scriptures

A major party within Judaism (c.2nd-c BC–AD 70), the name probably deriving from the priest Zadok, whose descendants held priestly office from Solomon's times. They were mainly aristocrats, associated with the Jerusalem priesthood (including the high priest among their number), and influential in Israel's political and socio-economic life. Josephus suggests that they differed from the Pharisees b…

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Sadie Frost - Biography, Personal life, Trivia, Filmography

Actress, born in London, UK. She became known for her role as a vampire in Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992), and later films include Splitting Heirs (1993), Shopping (1994), Captain Jack (1998), and Uprising (2001). She married actor Jude Law in 1997 (divorced 2003) and in 1999 they co-founded a film production company, Natural Nylon, together with other fellow actors including Ewan MacGregor. …

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Sadler's Wells Theatre - First theatre, Second and third theatres, Fourth theatre, Fifth theatre, Sixth theatre

A popular London dance and opera theatre, so-called because in 1683 Richard Sadler discovered a medicinal well in his garden and established a music house there. Light entertainment was provided, and the theatre became famous for pantomimes, harlequinades, and burlesques. Edmund Kean and the famous clown Grimaldi appeared there. In the mid-19th-c it became renowned for its performances of the unex…

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safety film

Also termed non-flam: photographic film with its emulsion coated on a cellulose triacetate or polyester base, which is slow burning and of low inflammability. The contrast is with the highly dangerous cellulose nitrate used before 1950. Photographic film called safety film is made with a film base of either acetate or polyester. Bases known as "acetate" are chemically either cellulose diace…

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safety lamp

A device used by miners to detect explosive methane gas in mines (firedamp), invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy. Any methane present would cause a change in the appearance of the flame, but a double layer of wire gauze surrounding it prevented the gas igniting. Flame lamps have now been almost entirely replaced by lamps powered by electricity. A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp…

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safflower

An annual growing to 1 m/3¼ ft (Carthamus tinctorius); leaves elliptical, finely spiny-toothed around the margin; flower-heads thistle-like, up to 3 cm/1¼ in across, the florets bright red-orange. It is probably native to W Asia, but is no longer known in the wild. It has a long history of cultivation, formerly as a dye plant, but now mainly for the seeds, which yield a useful oil. (Family: …

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saffron - Biology, Cultivation, Chemistry, History, Trade and usage, Cultivars, Grades

An autumn-flowering species of crocus (Crocus sativus), native to S Europe and Asia, with lilac flowers. The large, 3-branched, bright orange stigmas are a source of saffron, used as a food dye and as flavouring. (Family: Iridaceae.) Saffron (IPA: [ˈsæf.ɹən] / [ˈsæf.ɹɔn]) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iri…

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saga - Ancient stories, In mythology, In Computer Science, In contemporary culture, In business

A mediaeval Icelandic or Scandinavian prose narrative, transcribed from oral tradition after 1100, and later composed in writing. There are several cycles, such as the Norwegian Sverris saga, the Orkney Orkneyinga saga, the Danish Knytlinga saga, and the Icelandic Hrafnkels saga. The term is also more generally used of any extended narrative, in fact or fiction: Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga, or the W…

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sage - Plants, Abbreviations, Fictional characters, Other

An aromatic shrub (Salvia officinalis) growing to 0·5 m/1½ ft, native to S Europe; young stems square; leaves oblong, stalked, wrinkled, velvety, in opposite pairs; flowers 1–2 cm/0·4–0·8 in, purplish, 2-lipped, the upper lip hooded. It is widely cultivated as a culinary and medicinal herb. Purple-leaved and variegated forms are grown as ornamentals. (Family: Labiatae.) Sage or SA…

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sage grouse

A grouse native to W North America (Centrocercus urophasianus); lives in drier areas than other grouse, inhabiting sagebrush plains; eats sagebrush leaves; males display at traditional sites (strutting grounds). The Greater Sage Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, is a large grouse. The breeding habitat for the Greater Sage Grouse is sagebrush country in the western United States…

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sagebrush

The name applied to certain North American species of Artemisia, including big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), a much-branched aromatic shrub growing to 3 m/10 ft; leaves wedge-shaped, 3-toothed at the tips, silvery hairy; flower-heads small, greenish, and inconspicuous; also called sagebush. The pollen is a common cause of hay fever during late summer. (Genus: Artemisia. Family: Compositae.) …

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Sagitta - Notable features, History, Mythology, Stars

The third-smallest constellation, lying in the Milky Way near Cygnus. Sagitta (IPA: /səˈdʒiːtə/, Latin: arrow) is the third-smallest of all constellations (only Equuleus and Crux are smaller). Sagitta, the Arrow, is a very small constellation lying south of the Fox, Vulpecula, and north of the Eagle, Aquila, the third smallest constellation in the sky. Others believe the arrow to…

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saguaro

The largest of the cacti (Carnegiea gigantea), slow-growing, reaching 21 m/70 ft, with a thick stem and candelabra-like branches and white flowers; found only in Arizona, S California, and the Sonoran desert in Mexico. (Family: Cactaceae.) …

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sahel - Geography, Environment, Transhumance, Droughts, External links and references

A vegetation zone intermediate between desert and savannah conditions where rainfall is irregular and unpredictable. The vegetation is a transitional scrubland. The name is most commonly applied to the area S of the Sahara (the Sahel), including parts of Mauritania, Chad, Mali, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Niger. The area frequently suffers from drought and famine. The Sahel is primarily sava…

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Said Aouita

Athlete, born in Rabat, Morocco. A middle- and long-distance track athlete, he won the 1984 Olympic 5000 m title, then set world records at 1500 m and 5000 m in 1985 to become the first man for 30 years to hold both records. He went on to break world records at 2 mi, 2000 m, and 3000 m. The overall Grand Prix winner in 1986, 1988, and 1989, he was the 1987 World 5000 m champion. Knighted by…

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sailfish

Large agile billfish (Istiophorus platypterus) widely distributed in open ocean surface waters; length up to 3·5 m/11½ ft; blue-grey above, underside silver; easily recognized by long tall dorsal fin; feeds on fish and squid; highly prized as excellent sport fish, and also taken commercially in some areas. (Family: Istiophoridae.) Sailfishes (genus Istiophorus) are fish living in all th…

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sailing - Basic sailing techniques, Sailing hulls and hull shapes, Types of sails and layouts, Sailing terminology

A term used to describe the sport or pastime of travelling over water in a suitable craft, using wind power acting on sails. Craft range in size from the 2·3 m/7·75 ft long Optimist dinghy with a single sail of 10·7 m²/35 sq ft area, which is sailed and raced at national and international levels by young children, to the 117·5 m/385 ft four-masted square-rigged barque Sedov (the world'…

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sainfoin

A perennial growing to 80 cm/30 in (Onobrychis viciifolia), possibly native to C Europe; leaves pinnate with 6–14 pairs of oblong-oval leaflets; pea-flowers bright pink veined with purple, up to 50 in each long-stalked, spike-like inflorescence arising from the leaf axils; pods 1-seeded, covered with a net-like pattern of ridges and tubercles. It is widely cultivated for fodder. (Family: Legum…

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saint - Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Other religions

In Roman Catholic and Orthodox teaching, a man or woman recognized as being in heaven because of their special qualities. In the New Testament, all Christian believers are referred to as saints, but in the 2nd-c, veneration of saints (often martyrs) began, and individual saints were eventually looked to for intercession and devotion. The practice of veneration was forbidden by 16th-c Reformers, bu…

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Saint John (Canada) - Places, Other uses

45°16N 66°03W, pop (2000e) 84 000. Seaport in S New Brunswick, Canada, on Bay of Fundy at mouth of St John R; harbour ice-free all year; French fort, 1631–5; taken by British, 1758; many United Empire Loyalist immigrants after American Revolution; largely destroyed by fire, 1877; airfield; railway; shipbuilding, steel, pulp; Old Courthouse (1830), Trinity Church (rebuilt 1877), Chubb's Corner…

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Saint John (US Virgin Is) - Places, Other uses

pop (2000e) 3030; area 52 km²/20 sq mi. Smallest of the three main US Virgin Is, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean, 8 km/5 mi E of St Thomas; contains the Virgin Is National Park, established in 1956, area 71 km²/27 sq mi. (including the spellings "Saint Johns" and "Saint John's") …

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Saint-Cloud

48º84N 2º19E, pop (2002e) 28 500. Suburb of Paris, Ile-de-France region, NC France; historic area named for St Clodoald, grandson of Clovis, King of the Franks (5th-c); popular with poets and artists during the 19th-c; birthplace of Hilaire Belloc and Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d' Orléans. …

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Saint-John Perse

Poet and diplomat, born in St Léger des Feuilles, Guadeloupe. He studied at Bordeaux, and after many adventures entered the French foreign ministry (1904), serving in China and France. He became secretary-general (1933), was dismissed, and deprived of French citizenship by the Vichy government (1940), and fled to the USA, where he became a consultant on French literature in the Library of Congres…

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Saint-Omer - Geography, Main sights, Demographics, Nearby areas, History, Miscellaneous

50º45N 2º15E, pop (2001e) 14 000. Town in Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, NE France; lies along the canalized R Aa, 36 km/22 mi SW of the Belgian border; town grew around a monastery and chapel founded by St Omer (7th-c); fortified by the counts of Flanders (10th-c), later passed to Spain; its capture by Louis XIV (1677) was ratified by the Treaty of Nijmegen (1678); birthplace of Germaine Acrema…

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Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte - Gallery

49º23N 1º32W, pop (2001e) 2200. Town in Manche department, Normandy, NW France; located 310 km/193 mi W of Paris; birthplace of Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly; abbey (founded, 1080), château (14th-c), church (16th-c), Musée Barbey d'Aurevilly. …

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Saints Cosmas and Damian - Further reading

Arabian twin brothers, said to have been physicians at Aegaea, Cilicia, who were cast into the sea as Christians, but rescued by an angel. Thereafter, burning and stoning having proved ineffectual, they were beheaded by Diocletian. They are the patron saints of physicians. Feast day 26 September (W), 1 July/1 November (E). Saints Cosmas and Damian (died c. During the persecution…

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Saipan - History, Agriculture and flora, Music video industry, Controversy: Exemptions from federal regulation, Other controversies

pop (2000e) 48 300; area 122 km²/47 sq mi. Largest of the N Mariana Is, W Pacific, 240 km/150 mi NE of Guam; length 23 km/14 mi; barrier reef protects a wide lagoon off the W coast; loss of Saipan in June 1944, bringing Tokyo within range of US bombers, was a serious blow to Japan in World War 2, and brought down the Tojo government; airport; tourism, copra, tropical fruit. Saipan…

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Sakai

34°35N 135°28E, pop (2000e) 825 000. Second largest city in Osaka prefecture, SC Honshu, Japan, on E shore of Osaka-wan Bay; important self-governing port, 14th–15th-c, but overtaken by Osaka in 16th-c, and now silted up; two universities; chemicals, fertilizers, aluminium products, machinery; early 5th-c imperial tomb. Sakai may refer to: …

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sak - Other beverages, History, Brewing, Varieties, Serving sake, Storage, Ritual uses

A Japanese rice wine, brewed in Japan for centuries, and very popular in winter. The drink has sweeter and drier varieties, and special, first-, and second-class grades. It is generally warmed in small bottles and drunk from small cups. Leaving your cup full means you have had enough. Saké is also presented to Shinto shrines, especially at New Year. Sake is widely referred to in English as…

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Sakhalin - History, Geography, Demographics, Climate, Flora and fauna, Transport, Economy

area 74 066 km²/28 589 sq mi. Island in the Sea of Okhotsk, E Russia, separated from the Russian mainland (W) by the Tatar Strait, and from Japan (S) by La Pérouse Strait; length 942 km/585 mi; maximum width 160 km/100 mi; highest point 1609 m/5279 ft; first Russian visit, 1644; colonized by the Japanese, 18th-c; ceded to Russia in exchange for the Kuril Is, 1875; became Russia's most…

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saki - Biography, Controversy, Short stories, Quotations, Books

A New World monkey; coat long, especially around face; tail long; broad mouth turns downwards at sides, producing a sad expression; lives in groups of up to 10 along river banks or forest edges. (Genus: Pithecia, 4 species.) Saki (December 18, 1870 – November 14, 1916) was the pen name of British author Hector Hugh Munro, whose witty and sometimes macabre stories satirised Edwardian socie…

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Saladin - Rise to power, Fighting the Crusaders, Recognition, Burial site, Saladin in media

Sultan of Egypt and Syria, the leader of the Muslims against the crusaders in Palestine, born in Tekrit, Mesopotamia. He entered the service of Nur al-din, Emir of Syria, and on his death (1174) proclaimed himself sultan, asserted his authority over Mesopotamia, and received the homage of the Seljuk princes of Asia Minor. His remaining years were occupied in wars with the Christians, whom he defea…

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River Salado - People, Music, Business, Technology, Politics, Fiction

River forming part of a C Argentine system; rises as the Bermejo in W La Rioja province, flowing S then SE to join the R Colorado 240 km/150 mi W of Bahía Blanca; lower course sometimes called the Curacó; total length, 1200 km/750 mi; this river must be distinguished from the R Salado del Norte, NC Argentina, which rises in the Andes, and flows 2000 km/1250 mi SE to the Paraná at Santa Fe…

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Salamanca

40°58N 5°39W, pop (2000e) 165 000. Capital of Salamanca province, Castilla-León, W Spain; on R Tormes, 212 km/132 mi W of Madrid; scene of British victory over the French in the Peninsular War (1812); bishopric; railway; university (1218), a leading centre of learning until the end of the 16th-c; agricultural centre, rubber products, wool, pharmaceuticals; House of Shells (15th-c), San Stef…

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salamander - Habitat, Mythology, Classification, External references

An amphibian widespread in the temperate N hemisphere and tropical South America; slim body with long tail; juveniles live in water, with feather-like gills and fin around tail; adults live mainly on dry land. (Order: Urodela, 358 species.) Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. Species of salamander…

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Salang

Tunnel and pass in the Hindu Kush, E Afghanistan; along the main supply route from Tajikistan to Kabul; focus of resistance activity by the Mujahideen guerrillas against the Soviet troops and the Afghan Army during the occupation of Afghanistan (1979–89). The Salang are an ancient Eurasian people, such as in reference to one group http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=111234&rog3=…

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Sale (Australia)

38°06S 147°06E, pop (2000e) 15 300. City in SE Victoria, Australia; railway; supply centre for the Bass Strait oil fields; Omega Navigation Tower (427 m/1400 ft), the highest building in Australia; oil and natural gas display; regional arts centre; tourism. Sale is the name of several places: and the surname of these people: Sale is an economic term referring t…

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Sale (UK)

53°26N 2°19W, pop (2000e) 57 100. Town in Greater Manchester, NW England, UK; 8 km/5 mi SW of Manchester; railway; engineering. Sale is the name of several places: and the surname of these people: Sale is an economic term referring to the exchange of goods and services for money. Sale is a type of contract for the exchange of goods, property or services. See Co…

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Salem (Massachusetts) - Geographic features, People, Educational institutions, Sports teams, Other

42°31N 70°53W, pop (2000e) 40 400. Seat of Essex Co, NE Massachusetts, USA; residential suburb of Boston on Massachusetts Bay; settled, 1626; developed as port serving East Indies trade; 20 people executed as witches here, 1692; railway; birthplace of Nathaniel Hawthorne; Witch Museum, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, Pioneer Village. There are also several places which share a co…

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Salem (Oregon) - Geographic features, People, Educational institutions, Sports teams, Other

44°56N 123°02W, pop (2000e) 136 900. State capital in Marion Co, NW Oregon, USA; on the Willamette R; founded by Methodist missionaries, 1841; capital of Oregon Territory, 1851; state capital, 1859; railway; university (1842); food processing, high technology equipment, metal goods. There are also several places which share a common variant of the "Salem" name: …

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Salerno - History, Culture, Economy, Reference, Twin cities

40°40N 14°46E, pop (2000e) 162 000. Industrial town and capital of Salerno province, Campania, SW Italy; 50 km/31 mi SE of Naples, on a bay of the Tyrrhenian Sea; founded by the Romans, 197 BC; one of the earliest universities in Europe, a notable school of medicine (10th-c, closed 1812); scene of major World War 2 fighting, after Allied landing (1943); archbishopric; railway; new university…

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sales tax

A tax levied on goods sold, usually a percentage of the price. It is levied in the USA by most states, at differing rates, and on most products. The retail price quoted may include the sales tax element. A sales tax is a state or locality imposed percentage tax on the selling or renting of certain property or services. The fraction of the total taxes collected as sales taxes typically …

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Salford - History, Transport, Shopping, Culture, Demographics, Twin towns, Famous people from Salford, Sport, References in popular culture

53°30N 2°16W, pop (2001e) 216 100. City in Greater Manchester, NW England, UK; on the R Irwell and Manchester Ship Canal, W of Manchester; chartered in 1230; designated a city in 1926; university (1967); railway; docks for Manchester; textiles, electrical engineering, chemicals, clothing; Roman Catholic cathedral (1848); Peel Park Museum; art gallery; Lowry Centre at Salford Quays. Salf…

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Salic Law - Historical consequences, Agnatic succession, Female inheritance, Old Dutch, Literary references

In normal usage, a rule of succession to the throne barring women, and men whose royal descent is only through females. The principle was established in France from 1316, partly by ingeniously invoking the law-code of the Salian Franks, issued c.511 and given definitive form c.798 - Salic Law (Lat Lex Salica) in its original sense. This set of laws codified policy on matters such as inherit…

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salicylic acid - Medicinal and cosmetic uses

A drug first prepared from an extract of meadowsweet (Spirea ulmaria - hence the word aspirin), and in 1838 from an extract of willow bark; its salt, sodium salicylate, was first used therapeutically for rheumatic pains and feverish cold in 1875. It was superseded in 1899 by the more potent acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H…

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salinity - Definition

The saltiness of seawater, ie the total amount of dissolved substances in seawater, usually reported in parts per thousand (?), grams of solute per kilogram of seawater. The average salinity of ocean water is about 35?. Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. …

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Salisbury (UK) - History, Economy, Culture, Geography, Leisure, Media, Areas within and around Salisbury, Trivia

51°05N 1°48W, pop (2001e) 114 600. City in Wiltshire, S England, UK; at the junction of the Avon, Nadder, Bourne, and Wylye Rivers, 34 km/21 mi NW of Southampton; Old Sarum (3 km/1¾ mi N), Iron Age hill fort, later the centre of settlement, but abandoned when New Sarum was founded in 1220 (though continued to return two members to parliament until the passing of the Reform Bill, 1832); Du…

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Salisbury Plain - History, Notes and references

A chalk plateau of open downs in Wiltshire, S England, UK, rising to an average of 140 m/450 ft and covering some 77 700 ha/192 000 acres. Much of the area is now either under cultivation or used for army training, but it remains remarkable for its prehistoric sites, particularly Stonehenge. Salisbury Plain is a 300 sq mi (780 km²) chalk plateau in central southern England, part of th…

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saliva

A secretory product of insect and terrestrial vertebrate salivary glands. In the latter it is a clear, often sticky solution of salts and proteins. It includes mucin, which binds food together and lubricates the throat to facilitate swallowing, and sometimes (eg in humans) the enzyme ?-amylase (ptyalin), which aids starch digestion. Anti-coagulants are often present in the saliva of blood-sucking …

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Sallust - His life, His works, His significance

Historian and Roman politician, born in Amiternum, Samnium. A tribune in 52 BC, his licentiousness caused his expulsion from the Senate in 50 BC. He was restored to senatorial rank in 47 BC, and he served in the African campaign. His governorship of Numidia (46–44 BC) was sullied by oppression and extortion, the funds from which he used to create the famous Sallustian Gardens. In his retirement h…

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Sally (Janet) Gunnell

Athlete, born in Chigwell, Essex, SE England, UK. She gained international recognition with a gold medal for the 100 m hurdles in the 1986 Commonwealth Games. She won the 400 m hurdles in the 1992 Olympics, and was world champion and world record holder for the same event in 1993 with a time of 52·74 s. In 1993–4 she became European Cup champion, Commonwealth champion, and World Cup champion …

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Sally (Kristen) Ride - Career, Accomplishments

Astronaut and astrophysicist, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. Selected for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) astronaut programme out of 1000 female candidates (1978), she became the first American woman in space on the space shuttle Challenger (1983). Known for solving difficult engineering problems and being a team player, she served on a presidential commission inv…

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Sally Falk Moore - Awards

Cultural anthropologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Barnard College (1943) and Columbia University (1957 PhD), and taught at the University of Southern California and the University of California, Los Angeles before joining the Harvard faculty (1981). She served as dean of Harvard's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1985–9). Among her published works are Power and Pr…

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Sally Field - Early life, Career, Private life, Filmography

Film actress, born in Pasadena, California, USA. Pert and diminutive, she began on television sitcoms, then switched to films, winning Academy Awards for Norma Rae (1979) and Places in the Heart (1984). Sally Margaret Field Mahoney (sometimes incorrectly referred to as Sally Fields) (born November 6, 1946 in Pasadena, California) is an American actress who is a two-time Academy Award …

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Sally Rand

Dancer, born in Hickory Co, Missouri, USA. A circus acrobat and film actress (1926–34), she was best known for her long-running striptease act, in which she removed ostrich plumes to reveal different parts of her body (1932–79). Sally Rand (January 2, 1904 – August 31, 1979) was born Harriet Helen Gould Beck in Hickory County, Missouri. During the 1920s, she acted on stage a…

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salmon - Life History, Salmon as food, Environmental pressures, Aquaculture, Species, Further reading

Large, anadromous (ascending rivers to breed) fish (Salmo salar), widespread and locally common in the N Atlantic (Atlantic salmon) and in NW North America (Pacific salmon); length up to 1·5 m/5 ft; adults undertake extensive migrations at sea, feeding on a variety of fishes and crustaceans, returning to the headwaters of freshwater rivers to breed; greatly prized as game fish, and also taken c…

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Salome - Account by Flavius Josephus, Biblical character, Salome in the arts

The traditional name of the daughter of Herodias. She danced before Herod Antipas (Mark 6.17–28), and was offered a reward. At her mother's instigation, she was given the head of John the Baptist. However, the incident is not recorded in the historical account by Josephus. Salome or Salomé, the Daughter of Herodias (c AD 14 - between 62 and 71), like Dismas, or the various names of the Th…

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Salomon Bochner

Mathematician, born in Kraków, Poland (formerly, Austria-Hungary). Fleeing from Nazism, he settled at Princeton University (1933). A pioneer in abstract harmonic analysis, his research preceded the theory of distributions. A noted teacher, he chaired the Rice University Mathematics Department (1969–76) and founded an interdisciplinary institute for the history of ideas. Salomon Bochner (2…

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Salomon de Brosse

Architect, born in Verneuil, NC France. Related to Du Cerceau, he became architect to Marie de Médicis. He designed various palaces, including le Palais du Luxembourg in Paris (1615–20), the Palais de Justice in Rennes, Louis XIII's hunting lodge (1624–6), and the nucleus of the palace of Versailles. His work is characterized as classical and massive. Salomon de Brosse (1571?, Verneuil-s…

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salon

From the early 17th-c to the early 19th-c, an important feature of French culture, where artists and intellectuals gathered at the house of an aristocratic lady to discuss artistic, scientific, and social matters, and which provided many famous writers with a social base. Famous hostesses included Mme de Staël and Mme de Récamier. Salon is the name or part of the name of several communes …

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Salon

In France, an exhibition of art by members of the French Royal Academy, originating in 1667 and held then in the Salon d'Apollon of the Louvre Palace, Paris; held annually since the time of the French Revolution. In the 19th-c the selection jury refused to hang many of the Impressionist and Postimpressionist painters, whose work was then shown (1863 and 1883) in the Salon des Refusés. The Salon d…

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salsa

A type of popular dance music of Cuban–Puerto Rican origin, taken to the E USA in the 1940s and 1950s, since when it has both merged with jazz and absorbed other influences such as rock, while retaining its distinctive rhythm. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the salsa became absorbed into world popular music, for example, by the renowned Japanese salsa bands. The word originated as a culinary …

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salsify - Some species of Goatsbeard

A plant, usually biennial (Tragopogon porrifolius), growing to 125 cm/50 in, native to the Mediterranean region; cylindrical taproot; leaves grass-like; flower-heads solitary, violet-purple, surrounded by about eight bracts; fruit with a large feathery parachute of hairs. It is widely grown for its edible fleshy root, and sometimes as an ornamental. (Family: Compositae.) The Goatsbeards o…

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salt - History, Appearance, Nomenclature, Formation, Toxic salts

An ionic compound derivable in principle from the reaction of an acid with a base. Most salts are solids at normal temperatures, and dissolve in water to release positive and negative ions (cations and anions). Common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl), obtained from mineral deposits or the evaporation of salt waters. Salt monopolies have been economically important throughout history. There ar…

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SALT - History, Appearance, Nomenclature, Formation, Toxic salts

Acronym for Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, held between the USA and USSR. There were two rounds of talks. The first began in Helsinki in 1969, designed to place a numerical limit on intercontinental nuclear weapons in the hope of slowing down the arms race. An agreement (SALT 1) was reached in 1974. After this there was a hardening of attitudes in the West against the intentions of the USSR, lar…

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Salta

24°46S 65°28W, pop (2000e) 416 400. Capital of Salta province, NW Argentina; on the R Arias, in the Lerma valley; altitude 1190 m/3904 ft; founded, 1582; site of battle in which Spanish royalists were defeated (1813); airport; railway; university (1967); commercial and trade centre for extensive farming, timber, stock-raising, and mining area; cathedral contains venerated Christian images se…

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Saltcoats - Trivia

55º38N 4º47W, pop (1999e) 12 000. Residential burgh in North Ayrshire, W Scotland, UK; located on the W coast, on the Firth of Clyde, 3 km/1¾ mi SE of Ardrossan; birthplace of Sir Hugh Allan; small harbour; railway; North Ayrshire Museum; hosiery. Saltcoats is a small town located on the west coast of North Ayrshire, Scotland. Its name is derived from the town's earliest industry whe…

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saluki - History

The fastest breed of dog (speeds recorded up to 69 kmh/43 mph), developed in Arabia to hunt in the desert with Bedouin; oldest of the greyhound group; resembles the greyhound, with long hair on ears, tail, and backs of legs (a smooth-haired form also exists); also known as Arabian hound or gazelle hound. The Saluki is a breed of dog that is a member of the sighthound family, that is, houn…

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Salvador

12°58S 38°29W, pop (2000e) 2 364 000. Port capital of Bahia state, NE Brazil, on the Atlantic coast SE of Recife; European discovery, 1501; founded 1549, capital of Brazil until 1763; airfield; railway; university (1946); trade in sugar, tropical fruit, cocoa, sisal, soya beans, gemstones; tobacco, food processing, oil refining, petrochemicals, tourism; most of the city's churches and the for…

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Salvador (Edward) Luria - Early life in Europe, Phage research, Later work

Virologist, born in Turin, Italy. At the Curie Laboratory of the Institute of Radium, Paris (1938–40), he studied the effects of radiation on bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria). He then fled the Fascists by emigrating to teach at Columbia University (1940–2). As a research fellow at Vanderbilt (1942–3), he began an informal collaboration with bacteriophage scientists Max Delbrück an…

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Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dali

Artist, born in Figueras, NE Spain. After studying at the Academy of Fine Arts, Madrid, he moved to Paris and joined the Surrealists (1928), becoming one of the principal figures of the movement. His study of abnormal psychology and dream symbolism led him to represent ‘paranoiac’ objects in landscapes remembered from his Spanish boyhood. In 1940 he settled in the USA, became a Catholic, and dev…

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Salvador Allende (Gossens) - Early life, Election, Presidency, Foreign involvement in Chile during Allende's administration, Legacy and debate

Chilean statesman and president (1970–3), born in Valparaíso, C Chile. He helped found the Chilean Socialist Party, was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1937, served as minister of health for three years, and was a senator (1945–70). He sought, and failed to win, the presidency in 1952, 1958, and 1964. He was finally successful in 1970 but because he lacked a popular majority, his election…

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Salvador de Madariaga

Historian, essayist, literary critic, novelist, and diplomat, born in La Coruña, NW Spain. He qualified as an engineer in Paris, and worked on the railways from 1912. On the outbreak of World War 1 he worked for The Times, and from 1921 in the secretariat of the League of Nations, returning to Geneva in 1935–6 as the Spanish delegate. He taught Spanish literature at Oxford University (1928–31) …

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Salvador Espriu - Work

Major Catalan poet, born in Santa Coloma de Farners, Gerona NE Spain. His family moved when he was two to Arenys de Mar, on which he based the mythical country of ‘Sinera’, celebrated in many of his poems and his prose fiction. Much of his best work has constituted a meditation on death, and is marked by his sense of loss at the passing of the old way of life in such small communities as Sinera.…

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Salvation Army - History, Current organization and expenditures, Disaster relief, Thrift shops and charity, Family Tracing Service, Youth groups

A non-sectarian Christian organization founded in the East End of London by William Booth in 1865, dedicated to minister to the poor and needy. It retains a military-style structure and evangelical atmosphere, and its members, both men and women, wear distinctive uniform. In 2006 it was working in some 111 countries. The Salvation Army is an evangelical Christian denomination founded in 186…

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Salvator Rosa - Early Biography, Early Work, Return and Exile from Naples, Stays in Florence and Rome, Artistic Legacy

Painter, born near Naples, SW Italy. He became famous in Rome for his talents as painter, etcher, actor, and poet, but he made powerful enemies by his satires, and withdrew to Florence, returning to Rome after nine years. He owes his reputation mainly to his landscapes of wild and savage scenes. Salvator Rosa (1615 - March 15, 1673) was an Italian painter and poet of the Neapolitan school. …

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Salvatore di Giacomo - Early career, Plays and lyrics, Use of language

Poet and writer, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. A librarian, he wrote short stories (Novelle napolitane, 1914; L'ignoto, 1920) and plays (Malavita, 1889; Assunta Spina, 1911) where the realistic syle of the verismo movement is tempered with sentimental notes. His poems in Neapolitan dialect, such as Sonetti (1883), are noted for the same musicality which can be found in his Ariette e canzoni …

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Salvatore Giuliano - Biography, Dramatizations

Bandit, born in Montelepre, Sicily, S Italy. He was responsible for a series of Mafia-linked robberies and murders in W Sicily. On the run since 1943, he was appointed leader of the ‘volunteer forces fighting for Sicily's independence’ by the independence movement's reactionary wing. On 1 May 1947 he attacked a group of peasants who were celebrating Workers' Day at Portella delle Ginestre, leavi…

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Salvatore Quasimodo - Works

Poet, born in Syracuse, Sicily, S Italy. He studied at Palermo and Rome, became an engineer, then turned to writing, becoming professor of literature in Milan. His early work was Symbolist in character, as in Ed è subito sera (1942, And Suddenly It's Evening), and he became a leader of the ‘hermetic’ poets. After World War 2 his poetry dealt largely with social issues and a deep concern with th…

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salvia

A member of a large genus of tropical and temperate annual or perennial herbs and shrubs; stems square; leaves in opposite pairs; flowers 2-lipped, the upper often hooded. The flower shape and colour are closely geared to pollinators. The New World species, pollinated by birds, typically are red, and have flowers with long straight tubes. In other species the flowers range from cream to red, mauve…

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Salzburg (city) - Setting, History, Main sights, Notable citizens, Events, Transportation, Popular culture, Sister cities, Gallery, Sources

47°25N 13°03E, pop (2000e) 150 000. Capital of Salzburg state, C Austria; on the R Salzach; Old Town between the left bank of the river and the Mönchsberg ridge; railway; university (re-opened 1962); archbishopric; textiles, brewing, metallurgy; cathedral (1614–28), St Peter's Church (1130–43), Franciscan Church, Kollegienkirche (1694–1707), town hall (originally 1407); fortress of Hohensa…

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Salzburg (state) - Geographic location, History, Architecture, Ski resorts, Cities / Villages, Liechtensteinklamm

pop (2001e) 522 000; area 7154 km²/2761 sq mi. Federal state in C Austria, lying on the W German border and between Tirol state and the states of Kärnten, Steiremark, and Oberösterreich; capital, Salzburg; named after its rich salt deposits; Badgastein and Bad Hofgastein are spa resorts; the small towns of Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Zell am See, and Kaprun are popular winter sports centres; the…

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Salzburg Easter Festival

International music festival held annually during Easter in the city of Salzburg, C Austria. It attracts some of the world's leading orchestras, conductors, and concert performers. The Salzburg Easter Festival (the Salzburger Osterfestspiele) is an annual festival of opera and classical music held in Salzburg, Austria during Easter week. It was founded by the conductor Herbert von Kar…

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Salzkammergut - Regions in the Salzkammergut, List of towns in the Salzkammergut

E Alpine region in C Austria; popular tourist area with many lakes; mountains include Dachstein and Totes Gebirge; towns include Gmunden, Hallstatt, Bad Aussee; name originally applied to a salt-mining area around Bad Ischl. The Salzkammergut' consists of ten regions which also include lakes: …

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Sam Cooke - Death, Legacy

Soul singer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He started his career as a gospel singer, but from 1956 onwards recorded many rhythm-and-blues and soul classics, much covered by other artists, including ‘You Send Me’, ‘Cupid’, and ‘Twistin' the Night Away’. He was shot dead in a motel room in 1964. Sam Cooke (January 22, 1931 – December 11, 1964) was a popular and influential American …

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Sam Neill - Acting career, Controversy, Filmography

Actor, born in Omagh, Northern Ireland. He moved to New Zealand with his family at the age of seven, and studied at the University of Canterbury. He joined the New Zealand National Film Unit as an actor and director, and moved to Australia in the 1970s, starring in films such as My Brilliant Career (1979). Since then he has featured in many Australian and international films, including Evil Angels…

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Sam Patch - Literary references, Further reading

Stunt diver, born in Rhode Island, USA. Accompanied on his travels by a fox and a small bear, he dived from cliffs, bridges, and ships' masts (1827–9). He became a figure of popular legend after his death from a jump into the Genesee R, near Rochester, NY. He began working as a child laborer in Pawtucket, Rhode Island in a textile mill. When he was not working, he entertained other boys by…

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Sam Peckinpah

Film director, born in Fresno, California, USA. He started work on television Westerns, and directed his first feature, The Deadly Companions, in 1961. He portrayed a harshly realistic view of the lawless US West, accentuating the inherent violence, as in Major Dundee (1965) and The Wild Bunch (1969). His personal life was equally turbulent, his heavy drinking and quarrels with the studios restric…

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Sam Shepard - Shepard as playwright, Shepard in film, Shepard In print, Shepard as musician, Awards and honors

Playwright and actor, born in Fort Sheridan, Illinois, USA. He studied agriculture, but joined a touring group and moved to New York City (1963), where his first plays were produced by Theater Genesis. He was resident playwright at the Magic Theater, San Francisco, from 1974. His works include The Tooth of Crime (1972), Killer's Head (1975), Curse of the Starving Class (1976), and Buried Child (19…

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Sam Wanamaker - Films and TV

Actor and director, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Drake University, IA, then trained at Goodman Theatre, Chicago, worked with summer stock companies in Chicago as an actor and director, and made his London debut in 1952. In 1957, he was appointed director of the New Shakespeare Theatre, Liverpool, and in 1959 joined the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre company at Stratford-upon-Avon. H…

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Samara

53°10N 50°10E, pop (2000e) 1 250 000. River-port in EC European Russia; on the R Volga where it meets the R Samara; founded as a fortress, 1586; Soviet government transferred here in World War 2, 1941–3; airport; railway; university (1969); machines, metalworking, oil refining, foodstuffs. Samara may refer to: …

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Samaria - Geographical location, Political control, Samaritans, History, New Testament reference, Bibliography

The site in C Palestine of the ancient capital of the N kingdom of the Hebrews, Israel. Destroyed by the Assyrians c.722 BC, Herod the Great rebuilt and enlarged it in the 20s BC. It remained a flourishing Greek-style city throughout the Roman period. It is now in the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Samaria, or the Shomron (Hebrew: שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Šoməron Tiberian Šōmərôn; …

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Samarkand - History, Major Sights, Sister Cities, In fiction, Non-fiction, Photo gallery

39°40N 66°57E, pop (2000e) 430 300. Capital city of Samarkandskaya oblast, Uzbekistan; a major industrial, scientific, and cultural centre situated in the fertile Zeravshan valley; on Chinese northern Silk Road from 2nd-c BC; conquered by Chinese army, 42 BC; Abbasid capital, 9th–10th-c; Chinese influence, 12th-c; known as the city of Timur (1333–1405), after the Tatar conqueror; ruled by th…

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samba - History, Subgenres, Other forms

A Brazilian dance which existed in various rural and urban forms, always accompanied by singing, before it was taken up as a ballroom dance in the 1930s. Lively, syncopated rhythms are a dominant feature. Samba is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. Samba's roots come to Africa, namely Angola, where the dance semba was predecessor of samba. Samba develo…

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Samhain - Ancient Celts, Samhain in Celtic Irish legend, Celtic folklore, "Celtic New Year" questioned, Etymology, Neopaganism

One of the Celtic quarterly feasts. It was celebrated on 1 November to mark the beginning of winter when, it was believed, the way to the ‘other world’ was opened and the dead could return to communicate with the living. There are many tales of mysterious happenings at Samhain. Samhain (pronounced /ˈsˠaunʲ/) is the word for November in the Irish language. The same word was …

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samizdat - Techniques, Terminology and related concepts, History

Privately circulated editions of book-length and shorter texts not authorized for publication by the State censorship in the former USSR, and usually reproduced from typescript. The publishing of such work abroad was known as tamizdat (Russian tam, ‘there’). Samizdat (Russian: самиздат, Polish: Bibuła or drugi obieg) was the clandestine copying and distribution of government-supp…

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Sammy Baugh

Player of American football, born in Temple, Texas, USA. After earning All-America honours as a triple-threat tailback at Texas Christian University (1936), he led the Washington Redskins to National Football League (NFL) championships in 1937 and 1942. The success of his unprecedented pinpoint passing was influential in turning professional football towards a modern aerial style of attack. In his…

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Sammy Cahn - Music, Married...

Lyricist, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a boy he played the violin in a Dixieland band and began writing songs. With pianist Saul Chaplin he wrote many hits of the 1930s, and throughout the next 30 years wrote many popular songs for Hollywood, Broadway, and television with composers Jule Styne and James Van Heusen. A prolific lyricist and writer, he published The Songwriter's Rhyming Di…

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Samoa - Politics, Districts, Geography, Economy, Sports, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Official name The Independent State of Samoa From the end of the Great War (World War I) until 1962, New Zealand controlled Samoa as a Class "C" Mandate under trusteeship through the League of Nations. A long line of highly unquallified white New Zealand administrators had come to Samoa since WWI with their own agenda's and visions for how Samoa should be which were made without consu…

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Samos

pop (2000e) 43 800; area 476 km²/184 sq mi. Wooded island in the E Aegean Sea, Greece, separated from W coast of Turkey by a strait only 2 km/1¼ mi wide; rises to 1440 m/4724 ft in the W; birthplace of Pythagoras; site of the Heraion; commerce, wine, tourism. "Samos" is the name of various places: In Greece: In Spain: Elsewhere:…

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Samoset

Pemaquid diplomat, born on Monhegan I in present-day Maine, USA. He had learned some English from British fishermen who had worked off the coast of Maine. Thus it was that he was able to say ‘Welcome, Englishmen!’ when he greeted the Pilgrims at Plymouth (Mar 1621). He then arranged a meeting with them and Squanto and the Wamponoag chief Massasoit, and he fostered friendship between the two grou…

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Samothrace - Communities, Other, Historical population

pop (2000e) 4250; area 178 km²/69 sq mi. Greek island in the NE Aegean Sea, 40 km/25 mi from the mainland; rises to 1600 m/5249 ft; noted for its sanctuary of the Great Gods, and for the ‘Victory of Samothrace’ sculpture (Louvre, Paris). Coordinates: 40°29′N 25°31′E Samothrace (Greek: Σαμοθράκη, Samothraki, Turkish: Semadirek) is an island in Greece, in…

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samphire

A fleshy, much-branched perennial (Crithmum maritimum), growing to 30 cm/12 in, native to coastal areas of Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea; leaves divided into narrow linear segments, circular in cross-section; flowers yellowish, in umbels 3–6 cm/1¼–2½ in across. The fleshy leaves are sometimes made into a pickle. (Family: Umbelliferae.) Samphire is a name given to many…

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Samson - Biblical story, In rabbinic literature, Other cultural references, In popular culture

Biblical character, a legendary hero of the tribe of Dan, purportedly the last of Israel's tribal leaders (‘judges’) prior to Samuel and the establishment of the monarchy under Saul. Stories (Jud 13–16) tell of his great strength, his battles against the Philistines, his 20-year rule, and his fatal infatuation with Delilah. When she cut his hair, breaking his Nazirite vow, he lost his strength,…

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Samson Occom - Works of Samson Occom

Mohegan educator and Presbyterian religious leader, born near present-day New London, Connecticut, USA. Ordained by the Long Island Presbytery (1759), he travelled to England in 1765 to raise money for Wheelock's Indian Charity School (later Dartmouth College), becoming the first Native American to preach in that country. He helped to create the Brotherton Community of Indians in Oneida Co, New Yo…

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Samudragupta - Sources

North Indian emperor with a reputation as a warrior, poet, and musician. He epitomized the ideal king of the golden age of Hindu history. Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire (c.AD 335 – 380), and successor to Chandragupta I, is considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses that India ever produced, thus also known as the 'Napoleon of India'. Samudragupta is believed to …

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Samuel - Name, Birth and early years, Calling, Leader, National Prophet, Local Seer

Biblical character, the last of the judges and first of the prophets, the son of Elkanah and his wife Hannah. He was an Ephraimite who was dedicated to the priesthood as a child by a Nazirite vow. After the defeat of Israel and loss of the Ark of the Covenant to the Philistines, he tried to keep the tribal confederation together, moving in a circuit among Israel's shrines. He presided, apparently …

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Samuel (Abraham) Goudsmit

Physicist, born in The Hague, The Netherlands. He studied in Amsterdam and Leyden, and emigrated in 1927 to the USA, where he was professor at Michigan (1932–46) and later worked at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island (1948–70). Aged 23, he and his fellow-student George Uhlenbeck (1900–88) had proposed the idea that electrons in atoms can show an effect which they described as elect…

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Samuel (Alexander) Mudd - Early years, Trial and imprisonment, Career after release, Trivia, Other Wikipedia Links

Physician, born in Charles Co, Maryland, USA. A Maryland physician and Confederate sympathizer, he set John Wilkes Booth's broken leg after Lincoln's assassination. He was sentenced to life imprisonment after being convicted of abetting Booth's escape; though he had met Booth at church, he never was implicated in any way in the plot to kill Lincoln. He heroically nursed fellow prisoners at Fort Je…

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Samuel (Barclay) Beckett

Writer and playwright, born in Dublin, Ireland. He became a lecturer in English at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris and later in French at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1932 he lived mostly in France and was, for a time, an associate of James Joyce. His early poetry and first two novels, Murphy (1936) and Watt (c.1943, published 1953), were written in English, but not the trilogy Molloy (195…

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Samuel (Charles) Mazzuchelli - Background, Legacy, Sources

Catholic missionary priest, born in Milan, Italy. He emigrated to the USA (1828) as a Dominican seminarian and was ordained in Cincinnati (1830). After missionary work among Indians in the Mackinac I area, he established parishes, designed churches and public buildings, and ministered to settlers over a vast area of the Mississippi valley. Father Samuel Mazzuchelli ( November 4, 1806 - Febr…

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Samuel (Herman) Reshevsky - Chess Career, Quotes

Chess player, born in Ozorkow, C Poland. His family emigrated to America when he was eight, and he was seven times the US champion. His world-title hopes were stalled by World War 2, then by Soviet-dominated candidates' matches, and he was eclipsed by Bobby Fischer in 1957. He later worked as an investment analyst and insurance salesman. Samuel Herman (Sammy) Reshevsky (born November 26, 19…

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Samuel (Latham) Mitchill

US representative, senator, and physician, born in North Hempstead, New York, USA. He earned his MD (1786) in Edinburgh, Scotland, then returned to New York to study law. In 1792 he was named to a chair at Columbia University, first in natural history, chemistry, and agriculture, then in botany. He edited the Medical Repository (1797–1820), wrote many books including Explanation of the Synopsis o…

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Samuel (Pierpont) Langley - Aviation work

Inventor and aeronautical pioneer, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. Although he had no formal higher education, he served for 20 years as director of the Allegheny Observatory (1867–87). While director, he created a system of regulating railroad time that became standard. In 1878 he invented a bolometer, an electrical thermometer, which he used to conduct experiments on s…

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Samuel (Wesley) Stratton

Educator, born in Litchfield, Illinois, USA. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Illinois, and by 1891 was teaching physics. In 1892 he went to the newly opened University of Chicago, taught physics, researched its application to engineering, and planned and supervised the construction of Ryerson laboratories. In 1900 the secretary of the treasury asked him to write a proposal f…

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Samuel A(ugustus) Barnett

Anglican clergyman and social reformer, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and in 1873 went to a Whitechapel parish where his sympathy with the poor of London was aroused. In 1884 he founded Toynbee Hall in Whitechapel, and went on to advocate other educational reforms, poor relief measures, and universal pensions. In 1894 he became Canon of Bristol, and from 1906 was Canon of …

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Samuel Adams - Biography, Primary sources, Bibliography

American politician and Revolutionary leader, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A second cousin to John Adams, he studied law, failed at several business enterprises, became a tax collector, then devoted himself to politics. One of the first and most outspoken colonists to oppose British laws and policies, in the Massachusetts legislature (1765–74) he promoted corresponding with other colonies'…

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Samuel Alexander - His life, His work

Philosopher, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at Oxford, and in 1893 was appointed to the chair of philosophy at Manchester University. His growing concern for the situation of European Jewry led him to introduce Chaim Weizmann, his colleague at Manchester, to Arthur James Balfour - a meeting which led to the Balfour Declaration, establishing the principle of a Jewish nati…

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Samuel Austin Allibone

Bibliographer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He started out in business, working for an insurance company in Philadelphia. As editor of the American Sunday School Union (1867–79), he published many indexes and anthologies, including An Alphabetical Index to the New Testament (1868) and Prose Quotations from Socrates to Macaulay (1876). Other works include his invaluable Critical Dictio…

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Samuel Barber

Composer, born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. From a musical family, he decided on his career in childhood and attended the Curtis Institute of Music (1924–34). There he wrote the orchestral works The School for Scandal and Music for a Scene from Shelley, which gained him attention in America and Europe. His Adagio for Strings, premiered by Toscanini in 1938, was an immediate hit and remains…

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Samuel Belkin

Rabbi and educator, born in Swislicz, Poland. He went to the USA in 1929. A professor at Yeshiva University, New York City (1940), he served as its president (1940) and chancellor (1975), and was also dean of Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (1941). He was a member of a number of academic and Jewish organizations including the American Academy of Political and Social Science and the Union…

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Samuel Blatchford

Judge, born in New York City, New York, USA. Appointed by President Grant to a federal district court (1867), he rose to be a circuit judge in 1872. President Arthur appointed him to the US Supreme Court (1882–93), where he was known for his expertise in patent law. Samuel Blatchford (March 9, 1820–July 7, 1893) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from Apri…

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Samuel Brannan

California pioneer, born in Saco, Maine, USA. A journeyman printer, he became a Mormon (1842) and led a Mormon group to California by sea (1846). He published San Francisco's first newspaper, the California Star, served on the first city council, and helped to organize the Society of California Pioneers. Brannan was born in Saco, Maine. As a teenager, his family moved to Ohio, where Brannan…

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Samuel Chase - Samuel Chase in popular culture

Jurist, born in Princess Anne, Maryland, USA. He was a delegate to the Continental Congresses from 1774, and signed the Declaration of Independence. He opposed the new Constitution, but supported the Washington administration in 1795, and won nomination to the Supreme Court in 1796. He delivered many distinguished opinions, stressing the supremacy of national treaties over state laws, and the inhe…

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Samuel Clarke - Religious Studies, Correspondence with Leibniz, Later Life and Works, Philosophy

Philosopher and theologian, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he became a friend and disciple of Newton. He was chaplain to the Bishop of Norwich (from 1698), and to Queen Anne (from 1706), and became rector of St James's, Westminster, in 1709. His Boyle Lectures of 1704–5 contained his ‘Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God’ and expounded a ‘ma…

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Samuel Coleridge-Taylor

Composer, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music, and became a music teacher and conductor. He composed a trilogy on the theme of Hiawatha (1898–1900), and other popular cantatas and orchestral works. Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (August 15, 1875–September 1, 1912) was an English composer. Coleridge-Taylor was born in Croydon to a Sierra Leonean father and an…

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Samuel Colt

Inventor and manufacturer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. An indifferent student, he worked in his father's dye and bleaching company (1824–7, 1831–2) and was sent away to sea (1830–1). While at sea, he made a wooden model of an automatically revolving breech pistol, and on returning to the USA he made metal models. To promote his inventions he went on a tour as Dr Coult, lecturing on the …

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Samuel Crompton

Inventor of the spinning-mule, born in Firwood, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. In 1779 he devised a machine which produced yarn of such astonishing fineness that the house was beset by persons eager to know the secret. He had no funds to obtain a patent, so he was forced to sell his idea to a Bolton manufacturer for very little return. The mule was such a great success that he was awarded a n…

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Samuel Daniel - Note

Poet, born near Taunton, Somerset, SW England, UK. He entered Oxford in 1579, but left it without a degree. In 1607 he became one of the queen's grooms of the privy chamber, and had charge of a company of young players at Bristol. His works include sonnets, epistles, masques, and dramas; but his chief production was a poem in eight books, A History of the Civil Wars between York and Lancaster. …

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Samuel de Champlain - Early travels, Founding of Quebec City, Relations and War with Natives, Securing New France

Governor of Canada, born in Brouage, W France. In a series of voyages he travelled to Canada (1603), exploring the E coast (1604–7), and founding Quebec (1608). He was appointed Lieutenant of Canada (1612), and established alliances with several Indian nations. When Quebec fell briefly to the British, he was taken prisoner (1629–32). From 1633 he was Governor of Quebec. L Champlain is named afte…

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Samuel Doe

Liberian soldier and president (1985–90), born in Tuzin, Grand Gedeh Co, Liberia. He joined the army in 1969 and became a sergeant in 1975. In 1980 he led an assault on the presidential palace in which President William Tolbert was killed, thus ending the rule of the Americo-Liberians who had been in office since the 19th-c. Other members and associates of the deposed government were publicly exe…

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Samuel Eliot Morison - Biography, Official Historian of US Navy during World War II, Awards, Quotes

Historian and US naval officer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He received a PhD from Harvard (1913) and then served as a private during World War 1. He joined the faculty at Harvard (1925–55) and engaged in a lifetime of research and writing on naval, colonial, and exploration history. An active sailor himself, he displayed his intimate knowledge of the sea, ships, navigation, and other rea…

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Samuel Freeman Miller

Judge, born in Richmond, Kentucky, USA. Initially a medical doctor, he read law and was admitted to Kentucky's bar in 1847. He was an early organizer of the Republican Party and was named to the US Supreme Court by President Abraham Lincoln (1862–90). Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890), was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1862–1890. …

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Samuel George Morton - Classification of "races" in Crania Americana, Works

Physician and naturalist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Of Irish background and Quaker educated, he took a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania (1820) and also studied medicine at Edinburgh. His research interests extended to geology, palaeontology, and zoology, and he was one of the early advocates of open-air treatment for consumptives. He built a famous collection of hu…

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Samuel Goldwyn - Biography, The Samuel Goldwyn Foundation, The Samuel Goldwyn Company, Trivia, Goldwynisms

Film producer, born in Warsaw, Poland. He emigrated to the USA as a child, and helped to found a film company, producing The Squaw Man (1913). He founded the Goldwyn Pictures Corporation (1917), Eminent Authors Pictures (1919), and finally Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (1925), allying himself with United Artists from 1926. His ‘film-of-the-book’ policy included such films as Bulldog Drummond (1929) and Wu…

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Samuel Gompers - Biography, Primary Sources

Labour leader, born in London, UK. Born to Dutch-Jewish immigrant parents in London, Gompers left school at age 10 to begin work as a cigar maker. He emigrated to New York (1863) where he joined Local 15 of the Cigarmakers' International Union (CMIU) in 1864. Elected CMIU vice-president (1886), he was a founder of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and served as its president (1886–95, 1896

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Samuel Gorton - Fictional Media Portrayals

Colonist and religious leader, born in Gorton, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He emigrated to Massachusetts Colony (1637) where, having denied the doctrine of the Trinity and the existence of heaven and hell, he was tried for heresy and banished (1638). He fell foul of other authorities before returning to London in 1644, where he was given a letter of safe conduct by John Rich, 2nd Earl of W…

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Samuel Green

Printer, born in England, UK. Emigrating to the USA c.1633, he was a bookseller in Boston and in 1649 became manager of the press in Cambridge, MA. The only colonial printer active at the time, he is known to have been responsible for c.275 imprints, including Indian-language Bibles, several editions of the Bay Psalm Book, and official works printed for the colony. Samuel Green may refer to…

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Samuel Gridley Howe - Books

Physician and social reformer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Immediately after taking his MD from Harvard (1824), he sailed for Greece to serve as a surgeon during the Greeks' independence struggle against the Turks, and stayed there until 1830 to help build the new nation. Back in Boston, in 1832 he became the first director of a new school for the blind and remained as its head until his d…

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Samuel Griswold Goodrich

Publisher and writer, born in Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA. Beginning as a bookseller and publisher in Hartford, CT (1816), he travelled much before settling in Boston (1826), where he edited and published The Token (1828–42), a giftbook annual where many of Nathaniel Hawthorne's tales appeared. Adopting the persona of a kindly old man and the pen name Peter Parley, he imparted sugar-coated instr…

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Samuel Harrison Smith

Journalist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He edited two early newspapers covering congressional activities and backing President Thomas Jefferson. Samuel Harrison Smith (1808–1844) was one of the younger brothers of Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. One of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon's Golden Plates, Samuel remained devoted to the …

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Samuel Hearne - Books about Samuel Hearne

Explorer of N Canada, born in London, UK. He served in the Royal Navy, then joined the Hudson's Bay Company, who sent him to Fort Prince of Wales (Churchill) in 1769. He became the first European to travel overland by canoe and sled to the Arctic Ocean by following the Coppermine R north of the Great Slave Lake (1770). In 1774 he set up the first interior trading post for the company at Cumberland…

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Samuel Hoar

Lawyer, US representative, and public official, born in Lincoln, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1802) and worked for a time as a tutor in Virginia before returning north to practise law. He served eight years in the Massachusetts legislature and a single term in the US House of Representatives (Whig, 1835–7) where he passionately opposed slavery. His appearance in a Charleston, SC cou…

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Samuel Insull - Early life, Life in Chicago, Great Depression, Books about Samuel Insull

Public utilities executive, born in London, UK. A book-keeper for one of Thomas Edison's agents in England, he went to the USA (1881) to be Edison's personal secretary. By 1889 he rose to become vice-president of the Edison General Electric Co in Schenectedy, NY. He became president of the Chicago Edison Co (1892), and by 1907 all of Chicago's electricity was being generated by his Commonwealth Ed…

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Samuel Johnson - Life and work, Early life and education, Establishing career, Status achieved

Protestant religious leader and writer, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. A physician's son, he graduated from Harvard and Harvard Divinity School, and in collaboration with a friend, he published a hymnal in 1848. Initially a Unitarian, he became minister of the Free Church in Lynn, MA. He opposed slavery, was a mystic and poet, and in the 1870s published a series of scholarly studies of Orienta…

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Samuel Johnson - Life and work, Early life and education, Establishing career, Status achieved

Lexicographer, critic, and poet, born in Lichfield, Staffordshire, C England, UK. The son of a bookseller, he studied at Lichfield and Oxford, but because of poverty left before taking a degree, and became a teacher. In 1737 he went to London, and worked as a journalist. From 1747 he worked for eight years on his Dictionary of the English Language, started the moralistic periodical, The Rambler (1…

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Samuel Johnson Prize

Literary prize established in 1999 to celebrate the variety and originality of contemporary non-fiction published in the UK. Sponsored anonymously by a British businessman, the annual prize is worth £30 000 to the winner, with the other shortlisted authors receiving £2500 each. The prize is open to works in the areas of current affairs, history, politics, science, sport, travel, biography, auto…

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Samuel Marsden - The Anglican Mission to New Zealand

Clergyman, magistrate, and farmer, born in Farsley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He arrived in New South Wales as assistant chaplain in 1794, and farmed at Parramatta, where he was also appointed magistrate. His harsh measures towards Irish convicts in 1800 earned him the title of ‘the flogging parson’. A pioneer breeder of sheep for wool production, in 1807 he took the first commercial consig…

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Samuel McIntire

Carpenter, builder, and architect, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. He began his career by repairing ships, and from 1780 he built Georgian- and Federal-style houses for Salem merchants, as well as local churches and civic buildings. Also a woodcarver and a designer of interiors noted for their restrained ornamental woodwork, his designs include the Gardner-Pingree House (Essex Institute) (1804

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Samuel Morey - Steam Work, Experiments with vapors and combustion, Internal Combustion Work, Patent "Discovery"

Inventor, born in Hebron, Connecticut, USA. He built up a successful business in timber and sawmills, and acted as a consulting engineer for the construction of locks on the Bellows Falls Canal. After 1790, he and his older brother became interested in steam navigation, and built a series of paddle-wheel steamboats, but in spite of encouragement and financial support from US lawyer and congressman…

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Samuel Noah Kramer - Biography, Bibliography

Sumerologist, writer, and museum curator, born near Kiev, Russia. He went to the USA with his family (1919), and was educated at Temple University (1921 BA) and the University of Pennsylvania (1929 PhD). His career as a leading authority on Sumerian language and literature began with a major expedition to Iraq (1930–1), during which he excavated and translated Sumerian tablets. He became curator …

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Samuel Palmer - Early life, The Shoreham years, Mature life, The later work, Legacy

Landscape painter and etcher, born in London, UK. He produced chiefly watercolours in a mystical and imaginative style derived from his friend William Blake, as in ‘Repose of the Holy Family’ (1824). From 1826 to 1835 he lived in Shoreham, Kent, where he was part of the group which called itself The Ancients. He later visited Italy and began producing more academic, conventional work, and was fo…

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Samuel Parker - Early life and career, Bishop of Oxford

Missionary and explorer, born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, USA. A Congregational clergyman, he went to Oregon (1835), seeking to convert the Flathead and Nez Percé Indians. After his return to New England by way of Hawaii and Cape Horn, he published Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains (1838). Samuel Parker (1640-1688) was an English theologian and clergyman, who during t…

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Samuel Pepys - Chronology, Interests and achievements, The Pepys Library, The Diary, Disease of the stone, Pepysiana

Diarist and naval administrator, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, rose rapidly in the naval service, and became secretary to the Admiralty in 1672. He lost his office and was imprisoned in the Tower of London because of his alleged complicity in the Popish Plot (1678–9), but was reappointed in 1684 and in that same year became president of the Royal Society. At the Revolution (1688) h…

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Samuel Phillips Lee - In memoriam

US naval officer, born in Fairfax Co, Virginia, USA. The grandson of Richard Henry Lee, he commanded the North Atlantic blockading squadron (1862–4) and the Mississippi Squadron (1864–5). He was promoted to rear-admiral (1870) and retired in 1873. Samuel Phillips Lee (13 February 1812 – 7 June 1897) was a Rear Admiral of the United States Navy. Lee was born in Fairfax County…

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Samuel Plimsoll

Social reformer, known as ‘the sailors' friend’, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He became an MP in 1868, and having accumulated a large file on the unseaworthiness of ships, caused the Merchant Shipping Act (1876) to be passed. Every owner was ordered to mark upon the side of a ship a circular disc, with a horizontal line drawn through its centre (the Plimsoll line), down to which the vessel m…

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Samuel Prout

Watercolour painter, born in Plymouth, Devon, SW England, UK. Elected to the Watercolour Society in 1815, his numerous elementary drawing-books influenced many. He was famed for his picturesque views of buildings and streets, and admired by Ruskin. In 1829, King George IV appointed him to be his Painter in Water Colours in Ordinary. Samuel Prout (September 17, 1783 - February 10, 1852) was …

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Samuel Purchas - Writings

Compiler of travel books, born in Thaxted, Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, then became vicar of Eastwood (1604) and rector of St Martin's, Ludgate (1614). His great works were Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World in all Ages (1613) and Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes (1625), based on the papers of Hakluyt and archives of the East India Company. Sam…

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Samuel R Berger - Convicted of mishandling classified terror documents

US public official and lawyer. Educated at Cornell and Harvard, he practised law with a Washington firm (1973–7, 1981–92), and also served as the State Department's deputy director of policy and planning (1977–80). Formerly the Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (1993–6), he was appointed Assistant in Clinton's second administration. He is the author of Dollar Harv…

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Samuel Rawson Gardiner

Historian, born in Ropley, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, taught at King's College, London (1871–85), and became a fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford (1884). The first instalment of his great History of England from the Accession of James I to the Restoration appeared in 1863, and at his death he had brought the work down to 1656. His other works include The Thirty Years' War (…

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Samuel Richardson - Early life, Marriage and Children, First Publication, Publication of Pamela, Other works

Novelist, born in Mackworth, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He was apprenticed to a printer, married his master's daughter, and set up in business for himself in London, where he became the centre of a wide circle of friends. Pamela (1740), his first novel, is ‘a series of familiar letters now first published in order to cultivate the Principles of Virtue and Religion’, and this was the aim of all h…

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Samuel Ringgold - Life and career, Ringgold's children

US soldier, born in Washington Co, Maryland, USA. The son of a congressman, he trained at West Point (1818). At the head of a corps of ‘flying artillery’, he advanced his guns to within 100 yards of the Mexican lines at Palo Alto (8 May 1846), but was mortally wounded there and died a few days later. Samuel Ringgold (January 15, 1770 – October 18, 1829), a Republican, he served in the U…

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Samuel Rutherford Crockett

Popular novelist, born in Little Duchrae, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University and New College, Edinburgh, and became a Free Church minister in Penicuik. He wrote sardonic congregational sketches, of which 24, collected as The Stickit Minister (1893), brought immediate fame. Resigning the ministry for full-time writing in 1895, he wrote a variety of books, inc…

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