Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 64

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Robert Pitcairn

British sailor. He was a midshipman on board the Swallow in July 1767 when he was the first to sight the island now named after him. In 1789, Pitcairn I was to become the refuge of the Bounty mutineers. Robert Pitcairn (born 1836) was a Scottish-American railroad executive who headed the Pittsburgh Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad in the late 19th century. Pitcairn was born…

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Robert Powell

Actor, born in Salford, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He worked in repertory, appeared with the Royal Shakespeare Company, and toured with the Bristol Old Vic. He became widely known through his role in the television series Jude the Obscure (1971), and for his title role in the Franco Zeffirelli film for television, Jesus of Nazareth (1977). His feature film roles include Secrets (1971), The Thirty…

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Robert Raikes - Sunday School

Philanthropist and pioneer of the Sunday-School movement, born in Gloucester, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. In 1757 he succeeded his father as proprietor of the Gloucester Journal. His pity for the misery and ignorance of many children in his native city led him to start a Sunday school (1780) where they might learn to read and repeat the Catechism. He lived to see such schools spread througho…

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Robert Rainy

Theologian, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow and at New College in Edinburgh, and became a Free Church minister in Huntly (1851) and Edinburgh (1854). From 1862 to 1900 he was professor of Church history in the New (Free Church) College in Edinburgh, becoming its principal in 1874. He organized the union of the Free and United Presbyterian Churches in 1900 as the United Free …

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Robert Rauschenberg - Biography

Painter, born in Port Arthur, Texas, USA. He studied at the Kansas City Art Institute (1946–7), the Académie Julien, Paris (1947), and with Josef Albers and John Cage at Black Mountain College, North Carolina (1948–50). Travelling widely, he was based in New York City from 1950, where he and Jasper Johns paved the way for pop art of the 1960s. He worked with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, …

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Robert Recorde

Mathematician, born in Tenby, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge, then practised medicine in London. He wrote the first English textbooks on elementary arithmetic and algebra, which became the standard works in Elizabethan England, including The Ground of Artes (1543) and The Whetstone of Witte (1557). He was in charge of mines in Ireland, but died in prison after losi…

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Robert Redfield

Cultural anthropologist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied law at Chicago and Harvard universities, then a trip to Mexico inspired him to change to anthropology. He conducted field research in an Aztec community near Mexico City (1926), on which he based the acclaimed Tepoztlán, a Mexican Village (1930). From 1930 he was a research associate for the Carnegie Institute, Washington, DC, be…

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Robert Remak

Physician and pioneer in electrotherapy for the treatment of nervous diseases, born in Poznan, WC Poland (formerly Posen, Prussia). He studied at the University of Berlin, went into medical practice, and assisted at the university in an unpaid capacity because, as a Jew, he was not allowed to teach. He discovered the fibres of Remak (1838), and the nerve cells in the heart now called Remak's gangl…

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Robert Rice Reynolds

US senator, born in Weaverville, North Carolina, USA. A lawyer, he served in the US Senate (Democrat, North Carolina, 1932–45). As chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee and a member of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, he opposed the USA entering World War 2. Robert Rice Reynolds (18 June 1884 - 13 February 1963) was a Democratic U.S. senator from the state of North Ca…

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Robert Ridgway

Ornithologist, born in Mount Carmel, Illinois, USA. At age nine he was making coloured drawings of birds he shot. He was the protégé of the zoologist Spencer Baird, who when he became secretary of the Smithsonian Institution appointed Ridgway curator of birds at the US National Museum (1880–1929). He undertook field studies, but it was his writings that gained him the reputation as the country'…

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Robert Ripley - Biography, Trivia, Chronology

Illustrator, cartoonist, and writer, born in Santa Rosa, California, USA. He began as a tombstone polisher, worked on newspapers in San Francisco (1909–13), and moved to New York City to work for the Globe (1913). He changed his first name and began his Believe It or Not! cartoons of oddities (1918). His syndicated feature made him wealthy, and he lived on an island in Long Island Sound he called…

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Robert Schuman - Biography, Miscellaneous

French statesman and prime minister (1947–8), born in Luxembourg. He held several government posts after World War 2, and as foreign minister (1948–52) proposed the Schuman plan (1950) for pooling the coal and steel resources of West Europe, which came to fruition in the European Coal and Steel Community. He was president of the EEC Assembly (1958–60). Robert Schuman (June 29, 1886 – S…

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Robert Smalls

Civil War hero, sailor, and US representative, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, USA. His mother was an African-American slave, but as he grew up learning the trade of sailmaker and rigger, he became a familiar figure on the Charleston waterfront. Having gained considerable skill at piloting boats along the South Carolina and Georgia coasts, he was forced by the Confederates to pilot the Planter, …

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Robert Smith

Secretary of the navy and secretary of state, born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. He served as Thomas Jefferson's secretary of the navy (1801–9), and maintained a blockading squadron against the Barbary pirates with very limited funds. He was secretary of state (1809–11), but he feuded with President James Madison and was forced to resign. …

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Robert Smith Surtees

Journalist and novelist, born in The Riding, Northumberland, NE England, UK. He practised as a lawyer, and later became a justice of the peace and High Sheriff of Durham Co. He started the New Sporting Magazine in 1831, where he introduced John Jorrocks, a sporting Cockney, whose later adventures were contained in the highly popular Jorrock's Jaunts and Jollities (1838) and in Hillingdon Hall (184…

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Robert Smithson

Land artist, born in Passaic, New Jersey, USA. He studied at the Art Students' League (1955–6) and the Brooklyn Museum School. He took up Minimal Art in the 1960s, but from c.1966 began to exhibit his ‘non-sites’ - maps of sites he had visited, together with samples of rocks and soil. He is best known for such earthworks as the ‘Spiral Jetty on the Great Salt Lake, Utah’ (1970). He was killed…

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Robert Smythson

English architect. Trained as a mason, his first recorded work was at Longleat (1568), which he may have designed. His masterpiece was Wollaton Hall, Nottingham (1580–8), a mock mediaeval castle, made up of classical and Flemish Mannerist elements. He developed a new vertical plan, with the great hall set transversely, which revolutionized the spatial possibilities of contemporary buildings. He s…

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Robert South

High Church theologian, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, was ordained in 1658, and in 1660 was appointed public orator of Oxford. His vigorous sermons, full of mockery of the Puritans, delighted the restored Royalists. He became domestic chaplain to Clarendon, prebendary of Westminster in 1663, canon of Christ Church in 1670, and rector of Islip in 1678, but his outspokenness prevented an…

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Robert Southey - Life, Major works, Wikipedia Links, Trivia

Writer, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He studed at Oxford, left without a degree, then studied law and settled in Keswick, where he was associated with Wordsworth and Coleridge. Originally a radical in politics, his views mellowed, and in 1809 he began to contribute to the Tory Quarterly Review. His literary output was considerable, and many of his short poems are familiar, such as ‘Inchcape R…

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Robert Southwell - Early life in England, Arrest and imprisonment, Trial and execution, Legacy

Poet and martyr, born in Horsham, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied at Douai and Rome, and was ordained as a Jesuit in 1584. He travelled to England as a missionary in 1586, aiding persecuted Catholics, but was betrayed, tortured, and executed. Beatified in 1929, he is known for his devotional lyrics (such as ‘The Burning Babe’), and for several prose treatises and epistles. Saint Robert…

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Robert Stephenson - Overview, In fiction

Civil engineer, born in Willington Quay, Northumberland, NE England, UK, the son of George Stephenson. He studied at Newcastle upon Tyne and Edinburgh, assisted his father in surveying the Stockton and Darlington Railway, worked as a mining engineer in Colombia, then managed his father's locomotive engine-works at Newcastle. In collaboration with his father, he designed the famous engine the Rocke…

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Robert Stirling - Biography

Clergyman and inventor, born in Perth, Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK. He studied for the ministry at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, was ordained in the Church of Scotland (1816), and was minister of Galston, East Ayrshire (1837–78). In the same year he patented a hot-air engine operating on what became known as the Stirling cycle, in which the working fluid (air) is heated externa…

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Robert Stuart

Trader, born in Callander, Central, C Scotland, UK. He emigrated to Canada (1807) and joined the Pacific Fur Co (1810). He was active in the Astoria colony (1810–12) and headed the American Fur Co in the upper Great Lakes area (1820–34). He settled in Detroit and became superintendent of Indian affairs for Michigan (1841–5). Robert Stuart was born in Ireland in about 1812 to Thomas Stuar…

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Robert Swain Peabody

Architect, born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. His partnership (1870–1917) with John Goddard Stearns Jr (1843–1917) was the foremost Boston firm for 30 years, completing more than 1000 stylistically diverse commissions, and training numerous young architects. Robert Swain Peabody Born 1845 in New Bedford, Massachusetts, Died September 23, 1917 in Marblehead, Massachusetts. …

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Robert Swinhoe

Naturalist and consular official, born in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), E India. He went to Hong Kong in 1854, and was posted to Amoy in 1855. He was on the naval expedition that captured Beijing, negotiated the Treaty of Tiensin (1860), and became British consul in Formosa (1861–6), Amoy (1866–9), and Ningpo (1871–5). He compiled the first checklist of Chinese birds (1871). Swinhoe's pheasant, …

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Robert Underwood Johnson

Editor and poet, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. Raised in Centerville, IN, he studied at Earlham College and in 1873 joined the staff of Scribner's Monthly. Named associate editor of the magazine (1881), by then called Century, he edited the famous Century series of Civil War recollections that later became Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (4 vols, 1887). A leading conservation…

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Robert Venturi

Architect and writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Princeton, then worked for Louis Kahn before establishing the Philadelphia firm with John Keiser Rauch (1930– ) that became Venturi, Rauch, Scott Brown and Associates (1958). He spearheaded the reaction against Modernism by embracing historical and popular architectural styles, most notoriously the common commercial stri…

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Robert W(oodrow) Wilson

Physicist and radio astronomer, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He was a fellow in radio astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (1962–3), then joined Bell Laboratories (1963). In 1964 he and his collaborator Arno Penzias detected microwave noise in the constellation Cassiopeia that proved to be residual radiation from the ‘big bang’ at the creation of the universe. For this discovery …

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Robert Wilson

Epic theatre-maker, director, designer, and sculptor, born in Waco, Texas, USA. America's most flamboyant post-modern creator of theatrical spectacle, his early training was as a painter in Texas, Paris, and New York City. In contrast with traditional theatre, he mixes a combination of movement, contemporary music, and exciting imagery. His productions, which tend to investigate history, science, …

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Robert Young

Film and television actor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A graduate of the Pasadena Playhouse, he appeared as a leading man in Hollywood films of the 1930s and 1940s, including And Baby Makes Three (1949). He starred in two television series, Father Knows Best (1954–62), winning two Emmys, and Marcus Welby, MD (1969–76). Thereafter he appeared in occasional television films. Robert Youn…

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Roberto (Crispulo) Goizueta - Life, Career at The Coca-Cola Company, Philanthropy, The Goizueta Business School at Emory University

Food and beverage company executive, born in Havana, Cuba. A Yale-educated engineer, he joined Coca-Cola as a quality control and research specialist in 1954. As president, chairman, and chief executive officer, he proved an aggressive and successful marketing and corporate strategist. He stunned the country in 1985 by changing Coke's formula, a decision reversed within weeks after a public outcry…

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Roberto Benigni - Biography, Other media, Additional Reading, Filmography (director)

Film director, actor, writer, and producer, born in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy. At the age of 10 he became a member of a troubadour act in Tuscany, improvising songs and poetry. He then moved to Rome and started working with various experimental theatre groups. His film debut as an actor came with Berlinger ti Volgio Bene (1976, Have You Berliner). Later films as an actor include Il Minestrone (1980),…

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Roberto Calasso - Bibliography

Writer, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. The editorial director of the Adelphi publishing house, he often employs a fragmentary narrative technique in novels which give a new treatment to ancient Indian myths (Ka, 1996) or re-interpret Greek mythology moving between the old legends and the poets who reworked them (Le nozze di Cadmo e Armonia, 1988). Other works include Monologo fatale (1969), …

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Roberto Farinacci - Prominence, In World War II

Italian statesman, born in Isernia, SC Italy. Among the first to join the Fascist movement, he organized the Fascist squads in the Cremona province, became a deputy (1921) and party leader (1925–6), a member of the Fascist grand council (1935), and a minister of state (1938). An ardent racialist and anti-Semite, notorious for his extremism and pro-Nazi tendencies, he edited the Regime Fascista, t…

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Roberto Gerhard - Life, Works, Stylistic Evolution, Selected List of Works, Sources

Composer, born in Valls, NE Spain. He studied piano with Granados (1915–6), and composition with Felipe Pedrell (1916–22) and Schoenberg (1923–8). He left Barcelona to settle in England in 1939, becoming a British subject (1960). There he wrote most of his music, which was characterized by virtuosic orchestral, rhythmic, and melodic inventiveness. He composed ballets, an opera The Duenna (1945

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Roberto Rossellini - Life and work, Other filmography

Film director, born in Rome, Italy. His first independent film was Roma, città apperta (1945, Rome, Open City), made while it was still under German occupation, often with hidden cameras in a style which came to be known as ‘neo-Realism’. It was followed by Paisà (1946, Paisan) and Germania, anno zero (1947, Germany, Year Zero). Later films on spiritual themes, and his liaison with Ingrid Berg…

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robin

A bird of the thrush family Turdidae (44 species), usually with a red breast; especially the Eurasian/N African robin (Erithacus rubecula). The name is also used for some Australasian flycatchers (28 species) and for the Jamaican tody (Family: Todidae). Robin is the name of some birds: Robin may also refer to: …

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Robin Cook - Background and personal life, Parliamentary career, In government, Death and funeral, Controversy over death, Bibliography

British statesman, born in Bellshill, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University, trained as a teacher, then became an MP in 1974. He was opposition spokesman for the Treasury and economic affairs (1980–3), then held various posts in the shadow cabinet, including spokesman on health and social security (1987–92). He managed the leadership campaigns of Neil Kinnock (198…

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Robin Cousins - Navigation

Ice skater, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He trained at the Bristol Ice Dance and Figure Skating Club (1968–80), and in 1980 became only the second British male to win an Olympic figure-skating gold medal. Other achievements include the European Championship gold (1980) and World Championship silver medals (1979, 1980), and he was World freeskating champion for three successive years (1978–80…

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Robin Goodfellow

In English 16th-c and 17th-c popular belief, a mischievous fairy who would do housework if duly rewarded. He was also called Puck or Hobgoblin. His characteristic activities are listed in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream (2.i). Robin Goodfellow in English folklore is a euphemistic personification of a half-tamed, troublesome fairy or hob-goblin, a prankster who is the domesticated as…

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Robin Hood - Ballads and tales, Connections to existing locations, Ballads, Popular culture

Legendary 13th-c outlaw who lived in Sherwood Forest in the N Midlands, England, celebrated in ballads dating from the 14th-c. He protected the poor, and outwitted, robbed, or killed the wealthy and unscrupulous officials of Church and state. The legend may have had its origins in the popular discontent that led to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. In many stories Robin's nemesis is the despoti…

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Robin Knox-Johnston - Life, Publications

Yachtsman, born in London, England, UK, the first person to circumnavigate the world non-stop and single-handed, 14 June 1968–22 April 1969. He is also holder of the British Sailing Trans Atlantic Record (1986: 10 days, 14 h, 9 m), and he co-skippered Enza achieving the world's fastest circumnavigation under sail (1994: 74 days, 22 h, 17 min, 22 s). In 2006 he came out of retirement to compe…

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Robin Williams - Filmography, Discography, Television guest appearances

Film actor and entertainer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied acting at the Juilliard School in New York City, then settled in San Francisco and developed a nightclub act. He starred in the television comedy series Mork and Mindy (1978–82), made his film debut in Popeye (1981), and became known for his versatile and energetic performances. He earned an Oscar nomination and a Golden Globe…

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Robley (Dunglison) Evans

US naval officer, born in Floyd Court House, Virginia, USA. He was commander of the Atlantic Fleet (1905–7), and commanded the first segment of the round-the-world cruise of the American battle fleet (1907–8). Rear Admiral Robley Dunglison Evans (18 August 1846 - 3 January 1912), commanded the U.S. Navy's "Great White Fleet" on its world-wide cruise of 1907-1908. Born in Floyd…

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Rocco Buttiglione - Previous political experience, Nominee for the European Commission, Turin Administrative Election, Financial investigations, Publications

Italian politician and philosopher, born in Gallipoli, NW Turkey. He was the leader of the PPI (Italian Popular Party) in 1994–5, but left the party in July 1995 when its left-wing joined the ‘Ulivo’ coalition. He then founded a new political movement, CDU or Cristiani Democratici Uniti (United Christian Democrats). Rocco Buttiglione (born June 6, 1948) is an Italian Christian Democrat p…

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Rochdale - Etymology, Twin towns, Architecture, Transport, The co-operative movement, Notable residents, Sport, Arts

53°38N 2°09W, pop (2001e) 205 200. Town in Greater Manchester, NW England, UK; on the R Roch, 16 km/10 mi NE of Manchester; railway; textiles (especially cotton), engineering; Co-operative Society founded here in 1844; football league team, Rochdale. Rochdale is a large town in the north-west of England. Historically part of Lancashire, Rochdale rose to prominence during t…

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Roche limit

The lowest orbit at which a satellite can withstand tides raised within it by its parent planet. French mathematician Edouard Roche (1820–83) studied rotating liquid masses, and noted in 1848 that, if a moon orbited close enough to its parent planet, the stresses would exceed the strength of rock, tearing the satellite apart. This mechanism could explain the presence of rings around some planets.…

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Rochester (UK) - Cities and towns, Organizations

51°24N 0°30E, pop (2000e) 25 500. Town in the Medway Towns urban area and Rochester upon Medway district, Kent, SE England, UK; W of Chatham; an important early settlement at a ford over the R Medway; railway; 12th-c cathedral; 11th-c castle; Gad's Hill nearby, the home of Charles Dickens. Rochester may refer to: Also: in Australia in the United Kingd…

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Rochester (USA) - Cities and towns, Organizations

43°10N 77°37W, pop (2000e) 219 800. Seat of Monroe Co, W New York, USA; port on Genesee R, 10 km/6 mi from L Ontario; first settled, 1811; city status, 1834; airfield; railway; university (1850); optical and photographic instruments, machines and tools; International Museum of Photography, Rochester Museum, Memorial Art Gallery; Lilac Festival (May). Rochester may refer to: …

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rochet - Roman Usage, Anglican Use

A white, full-length, linen robe. It is worn by bishops, especially of the Anglican Communion, on ceremonial occasions. A rochet is a vestment generally worn by a Roman Catholic or Anglican Bishop in choir dress. The word stems from the Latin rochettum (from the late Latin roccus, connected with the Old High German roch, roc and the A.S. In the Roman Catholic Church,…

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Rock Hudson - Biography, Filmography, Awards, Sources

Film actor, born in Winnetka, Illinois, USA. He had had no acting experience before being given his first chance in films, but he underwent intensive grooming to become one of the biggest box-office idols of the 1950s, starring with Doris Day in the comedy hit Pillow Talk (1959). Other films include A Farewell to Arms (1958), Tobruk (1967), and Ice Station Zebra (1968). In the 1970s he went on to …

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Rock Island

41º30N 90º34W, pop (2000e) 39 700. Seat of Rock Island Co, NW Illinois, USA; at junction of the Rock and Mississippi rivers; 125 km/78 mi NW of Peoria; first settled by Sauk and Fox Indians and named in 1841; Black Hawk lived here; birthplace of Gabriel Almond, Marshall Fredericks, Henry Wallace, Frederick E Weyerhaeuser; Chicago and Rock Island Railroad built the first bridge across the Mis…

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rock music - Origins, British rock, Development of a counterculture (1963-1974), 1970s rock genres

A type of popular music, originally called rock and roll, which spread throughout the USA and Europe in the 1950s. It began as a basically simple musical style, dominated by a strong dance beat and by the use of the electric guitar. It developed out of country and western, and more particularly from rhythm and blues - a style which previously had been played almost exclusively by US black artists.…

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Rockefeller Center - History, Radio City Music Hall, The GE Building (RCA Building), Art, Flags

A complex of 14 skyscrapers commissioned by John D Rockefeller Jr (1874–1960) and built (1931–40) in Manhattan, New York City. The centre now consists of 21 buildings housing offices, restaurants, shops, cinemas, broadcasting stations, and the Radio City Music Hall. Rockefeller Center is a complex of 19 commercial buildings covering 22-acres between 48th and 51st Streets in New York. Rock…

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rocket - Overview, History, Net thrust, Accidents

A self-propelling device in which the fuel substances needed to produce the propulsion are carried internally. The term most commonly refers to space vehicles, although it can also apply to distress rockets and fireworks. In addition, rockets are used to power missiles, and for supersonic and assisted-take-off aeroplane propulsion. Rockets work by burning fuel inside a combustion chamber. Both the…

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Rockwell Kent - Biography, Works

Artist, born in Tarrytown, New York, USA. He studied with William Merritt Chase in 1900, and became well known as a painter, book designer and illustrator, explorer, writer, sailor, and political activist. His output of wood engravings, lithographs, textiles, oils, and watercolours was inspired by the great outdoors, and he was involved in the organization of the 1910 Exhibition of Independent Art…

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Rocky Marciano - Biography, Legacy

Heavyweight boxing champion, born in Brockton, Massachusetts, USA. He first took up boxing as a serviceman in Britain during World War 2, turned professional in 1947, and made his name when he defeated the former world champion, Joe Louis, in 1951. He won the world title from Jersey Joe Walcott the following year, and when he retired in 1956 was the only undefeated world heavyweight champion, with…

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Rococo - Historical development, Rococo in different artistic modes, Rococo "worldliness" and the Roman Catholic Church

In art history, the period following the late Baroque in European art and design. It flourished especially in France and S Germany c.1700–50, until superseded by the Neoclassical taste spreading from Rome. Whereas Baroque was dramatic and powerfully theatrical, Rococo sought effects of charm and delicacy on a small scale - surface effects rather than bold masses. It was therefore most successful …

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Rod Serling - Awards and Honors, Legacy

Television scriptwriter, born in Syracuse, New York, USA. He studied at Antioch College, then began writing radio scripts before securing a radio staff job in Cincinnati. The author of over 200 television plays, he first wrote for television in 1951, and won the first of six Emmy Awards for Patterns (1955). He created, wrote, and hosted the popular anthology series The Twilight Zone (1959–64) and…

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Roddy Doyle - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at University College, Dublin, then taught English and geography at a local school, and began writing in his spare time. His first success came with The Commitments (1987), the first of the internationally acclaimed Barrytown trilogy, which he completed with The Snapper (1990) and The Van (1991). Later novels include Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha (1993, Booker…

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rodent - Size and range of order, Classification

A mammal of worldwide order Rodentia (3 suborders, 30 families, 1702 species); successful in most environments; 40% of all living mammal species are rodents; eats a wide range of food; chisel-like upper and lower incisor teeth grow continuously, kept short by gnawing; suborders are Myomorpha (mouse-like rodents, 1137 species), Sciuromorpha (squirrel-like rodents, 377 species), and Hystricomorpha (…

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rodeo - Criticism of rodeos, Notable rodeos worldwide, Rodeo Associations, Links to external animal welfare sites

A US sport, consisting mainly of competitive riding and a range of skills which derive from cowboy ranching practices. The events include bronco riding with and without saddle, bull riding, steer wrestling, calf roping, and team roping. In bronco riding, for example, the cowboy must stay on a wild bucking horse for a set time holding with only one hand, points being awarded for style to the horse …

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Roderick (Milton) Chisholm

Philosopher, born in North Attleboro, Massachusetts, USA. After earning a Harvard doctorate (1942), he taught philosophy at Brown University (from 1946), specializing in theory of knowledge and philosophy of science. His works include Perceiving: A Philosophical Study (1957). Roderick M Chisholm (Seekonk, Massachusetts, 1916 -- Providence, Rhode Island, 1999) was an American philosopher, kn…

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Roderick MacKinnon

Biochemist, born in Burlington, Massachusetts, USA. He studied chemistry at Brandeis University (1978) and attended Tufts University School of Medicine (1982), later joining the faculty at Harvard Medical School. In 1996 he moved to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, NY, where he became professor and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics. He shar…

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Rodney Robert Porter

Biochemist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied there and at Cambridge, worked at the National Institute for Medical Research (1949–60), St Mary's Hospital Medical School, London (1960–7), and became professor at Oxford (1967). His work on antibodies from 1949, together with studies by Gerald Edelman and others, enabled him to propose an overall molecular structure for anti…

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Rodolphe Kreutzer

Violinist, born in Versailles, NC France. He studied with his father, and from 1784 until 1810 was one of the leading concert violinists in Europe. He also taught at the Paris Conservatoire (1793–1826), conducted at the Opera (from 1817), and composed. He became friendly with Beethoven, who dedicated a sonata to him. Rodolphe Kreutzer (November 16, 1766 - January 6, 1831) was a French viol…

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roe deer - Physical appearance, Habitat and diet, Behaviour and life cycle, Reproduction

A small true deer (Capreolus capreolus) native to Europe and Asia; the smallest European deer (shoulder height, 75 cm/30 in); short upright antlers with three tines; virtually no tail; white rump; inhabits open woodland edges. The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. The two species meet at the Caucasus Mountains, wi…

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Roelof Frederik Botha - Diplomat and Lawyer, Politician, Namibian Independence, National unity

South African politician. After a career in the diplomatic service (1953–70), he entered politics and was elected to parliament. He became South Africa's permanent representative at the UN, then ambassador to the USA. He returned to domestic politics in 1977, becoming foreign minister in the government of P W Botha and that of F W de Klerk. In 1994–6 he served as minister for minerals and energy…

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Roermond - Population centres, The city of Roermond, History, Anthem, Shopping area, Green belt, Monuments, Notable natives

51º12N 6º00E, pop (2002e) 45 100. Agricultural and manufacturing market town in Limburg province, SE Netherlands; at the confluence of the Roer and Maas rivers; captured by William the Silent in 1572; retaken by the Spaniards and remained a Spanish or Austrian possession until it was returned to Holland (1815); birthplace of Louis Beel, Joseph Cals, Louis Raemaekers, Charles Ruijs de Beerenbro…

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Rogation Days

In the Christian Church, the three days before Ascension Day, once observed with fasting, processions, and prayers to God for a successful harvest (rogation, Lat rogare, ‘to ask’). Rogation days are the three days (Rogation Monday, Rogation Tuesday and Rogation Wednesday) immediately before Ascension Thursday in the Christian liturgical calendar. The word "Rogation" comes from…

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Roger (Charles Louis) Guillemin

Neuroendocrinologist, born in Dijon, France. He was an anti-Nazi resistance fighter in France during World War 2, then received his MD from Lyons (1949). He emigrated to the University of Montreal (1951–3), then went to the USA to join Baylor University (Texas) (1953–70). He collaborated with pioneer endocrinologist Andrew Schally on hypothalamic hormones which regulate the pituitary (1955–62),…

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Roger (David) Casement - Casement in Africa, The Putumayo, Irish revolutionary, Capture, The Black Diaries and Casement's sexuality

British consular official, born in Dun Laoghaire (formerly Kingstown), Co Dublin, E Ireland. He acted as consul in various parts of Africa (1895–1904) and Brazil (1906–11). In 1903 the British government ordered him to investigate conditions on the rubber plantations in Congo Free State (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and, in 1910 on the cruel treatment of workers along the Putumayo River in …

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Roger (Eliot) Fry - Early life and relationships, Career

Art critic, aesthetic philosopher, and painter, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and is mainly remembered for his support of the Postimpressionist movement in England. He propounded an extreme formal theory of aesthetics, seeing the aesthetic quality of a work of art solely in terms of its formal characteristics. He was director of the Museum of Art in New York City (1905–10). When he…

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Roger (Eugene) Maris - Early life, Major league career, Awards, honors, and life after baseball, Trivia

Baseball player, born in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA. During his 12-year career as an outfielder (1957–68), mostly with the New York Yankees and St Louis Cardinals, he hit a career 275 home runs and was twice voted the American League Most Valuable Player (1960–1). In 1961 he slammed 61 home runs to break Babe Ruth's single season record of 60 home runs set in 1927. The reaction to his breaking Ruth…

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Roger (Huntingdon) Sessions - Books

Composer, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Harvard and Yale universities, and also under Ernest Bloch, then spent some time in Europe. He later taught in the USA, working at the universities of Princeton (1935–45, 1953–65) and California, Berkeley (1945–52), and at the Juilliard School, New York City (from 1965). His compositions include eight symphonies, a violin concerto, piano and c…

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Roger (Nash) Baldwin - Biography

Social activist, born in Wellesley, Massachusetts, USA. He taught sociology and was chief probation officer in St Louis, MO before serving prison time as a conscientious objector during World War 1. He was the director (1920–50) and national chairman (1950–5) of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) that he had helped to found. During this time, the ACLU defended many controversial clients. …

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Roger (Randall Dougan) Revelle - Career

Oceanographer and sociologist, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. He worked at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where his tectonic studies of the Pacific Ocean led to major contributions to the theory of seafloor spreading. After his interests broadened, he became a professor of population policy at Harvard (1964–76), then joined the University of California, San Diego to be professor of s…

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Roger (Thomas) Staubach - College career, Naval career and Vietnam service, NFL career, Retirement

Player of American football, born in Silverton, Ohio, USA. The 1963 Heisman Trophy winner at the Naval Academy, he fulfilled his naval obligation before turning professional in 1969. Four times National Football League (NFL) passing leader, he quarterbacked the NFL Dallas Cowboys to four conference titles and victories in Super Bowls VI and XII. His ability to bring his team from behind in the clo…

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Roger (Ward) Babson

Statistician, business forecaster, and writer, born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, USA. An indifferent student, he was pushed by his father to study bookkeeping and engineering. He set up the Business Statistical Organization Inc (1904) and published the Composite Circular and the Babsonchart, which advised his clients on when to buy and sell their stocks, bonds, and commodities. He established the…

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Roger Adams - Early life and education (1889-1916)

Chemist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied in Germany, then joined the University of Illinois in 1916. He was influential in changing the emphasis of chemistry education in the USA from pure research towards a meshing of academic and industrial needs, and his university became particularly noted for providing chemists for industry. He is also regarded as one of the founders of the mod…

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Roger Angell - Essays and books, Sources, Links

Writer and editor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Harvard (1942), and served in the US Air Force (1942–6). He was a senior editor at Holiday Magazine (1947–56) and a fiction editor and general contributor to the New Yorker (1956). Considered the dean of baseball writers, his books include The Summer Game (1972), Season Ticket (1988), and Once More Around the Park (1991). He …

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Roger Ascham

Humanist, born in Kirby Wiske, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he became reader in Greek (c.1538). In defence of archery he published Toxophilus (1545), which ranks among English classics on account of its style. He was tutor to the Princess Elizabeth (1548–50), and later became Latin secretary to Queen Mary I. His principal work was The Scholemaster, a treatise on …

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Roger Atkinson Pryor - Early life and career, Civil War, Postbellum activities

US representative, born in Petersburg, Virginia, USA. A journalist (1852–9), he served in Congress (Democrat, Virginia, 1859–61), resigning to join the Confederate army. He later became a lawyer and judge in New York City (1866–1919). Roger Atkinson Pryor (July 19, 1828 – March 14, 1919) was an American jurist, politician, newspaper editor, and Confederate general during the American C…

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Roger Bacon - Early life, Life and works, In fiction, Quotes

Philosopher and scientist, probably born in Ilchester, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford and Paris, and gained a reputation for diverse and unconventional learning in philosophy, magic, and alchemy. He seems to have returned to Oxford in 1247 to develop his interests in experimental science and, more surprisingly, to become a Franciscan. But he suffered censorship and eventually impri…

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Roger Corman - Career, Filmography, Bibliography

Film director and producer, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He made his film debut as a director in 1955 and went on to specialize in low-cost horror films, graduating to more expensive ventures such as The Masque of the Red Death (1964). Although long ignored by serious students of film, he later gained almost cult status with the recognition that his work anticipated various themes of ‘po…

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Roger Cotes

Mathematician, born in Burbage, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1705, and professor of astronomy and natural philosophy in 1706. In 1713 he took holy orders. He collaborated with Isaac Newton in revising the second edition of Newton's Principia, and contributed a preface defending Newton's methodology. Roger Cotes is known…

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Roger Edward Collingwood Altounyan

Physician and medical pioneer, born in Syria of Armenian–English extraction. He spent his summer holidays with his four sisters in the Lake District, where they met the author Arthur Mitchell Ransome and became the real-life models of the children in his Swallows and Amazons series of adventure books. He qualified as a doctor, later joining a pharmaceutical company, where he developed the drug so…

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Roger Federer - Grand Slam singles finals, Tennis Masters Cup singles finals, Masters Series singles finals, Titles (52)

Tennis player, born in Basel, Switzerland. He won the Wimbledon boys' singles and doubles titles in 1998 and turned professional later that year. At Wimbledon 2001 he caused a sensation by knocking out reigning singles champion Pete Sampras in the fourth round. In 2003, following a successful season on grass, he became the first Swiss man to win a Grand Slam title when he became Wimbledon singles …

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Roger Fenton

Photographer, born in Heywood, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He was a founder and the first honorary secretary of the Photographic Society in 1853. In 1855 he went to the Crimea as the world's first accredited war-photographer, using the large cameras and wet-plates of the period to record the serving officers and men and the conditions of the campaign. It is for this work that he is best known, alt…

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Roger Hargreaves

Children's writer, born in Cleckheaton, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He began a career in advertizing and turned to writing after creating the storybook character ‘Mr Tickle’ for his son Adam in 1971. A hugely popular series of Mr Men books followed, numbering 43 in all, which he also illustrated. In 1981 he began the equally successful series of 30 Little Miss books which were written for his…

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Roger McGough - Life and work, Books

Poet and performer, born in Liverpool, NW England, UK. He studied at Hull University. He became known as one of the ‘Liverpool Poets’ together with Adrian Henri (1932–2000) and Brian Patten (1946– ). A poet of bizarre irony and wit, he is well-known for his public readings. He established his reputation with the publication of Frinck, A Day in the Life of, and Summer with Monika (1967). Other …

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Roger Milla - Career

Footballer, born in Yaounde, Cameroon. He began his career with African side Leopard Douala (1968–73) before moving to France where his clubs included Monaco (1979–80), Bastia (1980–84), and St-Etienne (1984–86). After 52 goals in the French league, he retired to the French Reunion Islands to play for Saint Pierre, helping them win the local league title in 1990. He was tempted out of retireme…

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Roger of Wendover

Chronicler, and Benedictine monk at the monastery of St Albans. He revised and extended the abbey chronicle from the Creation to the year 1235, under the title Flores historiarum (Flowers of History). The section from 1188 to 1235 is believed to be Roger's first-hand account. The chronicle was later extended by Matthew Paris. Roger of Wendover (died May 6, 1236), probably a native of Wendov…

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Roger Peyrefitte

French novelist. He won the competition for the Quai d'Orsay, became the ambassador's secretary in Athens, then was recalled to Paris (1938–40). He was dismissed in 1945 amid the scandal of his novel Les Amitiés particulières (Prix Renaudot, 1944). There followed La Mort d'une mère (1950), Les Ambassades (1951), Les Clès de Saint-Pierre (1955), and Propos secrets (2 vols, 1976). He also wrote…

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Roger Quilter - Selected works

Composer, born in Brighton, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He studied in Germany and lived entirely by composing, holding no official posts and making few public appearances. His works include an opera (Julia), a radio opera (The Blue Boar), and the Children's Overture, based on nursery tunes, but he is best known for his songs. Roger Quilter (November 1, 1877–September 21, 1953), was an En…

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Roger Sherman - Early life, Legal, political career, Family

US statesman, born in Newton, Massachusetts, USA. He lived in Connecticut from 1743. First elected to the State Assembly in 1755, he became a judge of the superior court (1766–89) and Mayor of New Haven (1784–93). A signatory of the Declaration of Independence, as a delegate to the Convention of 1787 he took a prominent part in the debates on the Constitution. Roger Sherman (April 19 (O.S…

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Roger Sherman Baldwin

US governor, senator, and abolitionist, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. The grandson of Roger Sherman, he served as the Whig governor of Connecticut (1844–6) and as a US senator (Whig, Connecticut, 1847–50). Known for his abolitionist sympathies, he was the defence counsel for the African slaves arrested in the Amistad case in 1841. Roger Sherman Baldwin (January 4, 1793–February 1…

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Roger Tory Peterson

Ornithologist, born in Jamestown, New York, USA. He began observing and drawing birds as a boy, and pursued an artist's education in New York City at the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design. He taught art and science in Brookline, MA for several years before publishing his Field Guide to the Birds of Eastern North America in 1934. With its novel and easy-for-the-novice pointers …

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Roger Vadim - Biography, Marriages, Filmography:

Film director, born in Paris, France. His sensational Et Dieu créa la femme (1956, And God Created Woman), starring his wife Brigitte Bardot as a sex-kitten, was a massive box-office success, and paved the way for further sex-symbol presentations of his later wives, Annette Stroyberg in Les Liaisons dangereuses (1959, Dangerous Liaisons), Jane Fonda in Barbarella (1968), and his lover, Catherine …

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Roger Vitrac

Poet and playwright, born in Pinsac, SWC France. Excluded from the Surrealist movement as a result of his poems Connaissance de la mort (1927), with Artaud he co-founded the short-lived Théâtre Alfred Jarry. He displayed a grating humour in his plays, of which the masterpiece remains Victor ou les Enfants au pouvoir (1928), which opened the way to the new theatre. Roger Vitrac (1899–195…

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Roger W(olcott) Sperry

Neurobiologist, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. He was a research fellow at Harvard (1941–6), worked at the neurological diseases laboratory of the National Institutes of Health (1952–3), then joined the California Institute of Technology (1954–84). He demonstrated that neural circuitry is specifically ‘wired’ for particular functions, and he pioneered experiments in which he severed the …

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Roger Williams

Religious leader, born in London, UK. By 1629 he had become a Church of England minister, but his sympathy for the Puritans led him to emigrate to Massachusetts in 1630. His unorthodox views on religious toleration and on the rights of Indians brought about his banishment by the Massachusetts General Court (1635). With a few followers, he founded Providence, the first Rhode Island settlement (1636…

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Rogers Hornsby - Quotes

Baseball player, born in Winters, Texas, USA. During his 23-year career as a second baseman (1915–37), mostly with the St Louis Cardinals and Chicago Cubs, he posted a lifetime batting average of ·358, the second highest in major league history. Three times he batted over ·400 in a season, his 1924 average of ·424 being the highest ever in modern major league baseball. An outspoken and controv…

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Roh Tae-Woo

South Korean statesman and president (1988–92), born in Sinyong, Kyongsan, SE South Korea. He studied at the Korean Military Academy (1951–5), became commanding general of the Capital Security Command in 1979, and helped General Chun seize power in the coup of 1979–80. Retiring from the army in 1981, he became minister for national security and foreign affairs (1981–2), and minister for home a…

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Roland - The Roland of history, Creating a legend

Semi-legendary French knight, hero of the Chanson de Roland (11th-c, Song of Roland). The most celebrated of the Paladins of Charlemagne, he is said to have been the nephew of Charlemagne, and the ideal of a Christian knight. The only evidence for his historical existence is a passage in Einhard's Life of Charlemagne (c.830–3), which refers to Roland as having fallen at Roncesvalle. Boiardo's Orl…

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Roland (G - Life, Works and ideas, Influence, Key terms, Bibliography, Works on Roland Barthes

Writer, critic, and teacher, born in Cherbourg, NW France. After researching and teaching he began to write, and his collection of essays entitled Le Degré zéro de l'écriture (1953, trans Writing Degree Zero) immediately established him as France's leading critic of Modernist literature. Other works include Mythologies (1957). His literary criticism avoided the traditional value judgments and i…

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Roland Bainton - Works, Notes and references

Congregational minister and Reformation scholar, born in Ilkeston, Derbyshire, C England, UK. Taken to Canada by his father in 1898, he was educated at Whitman College and Yale University. He taught Church history at Yale Divinity School (1920–62), and became a leading scholar of the Protestant Reformation in America. Bainton's father was a pacifist, and he himself married a Quaker. …

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Roland Freisler - Trivia

German lawyer and politician, born in Celle, NC Germany. He joined the Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) in 1925, rose to become secretary of state (Staatssekretär) in the Prussian Ministry of Justice (1933–4), served in the Reichsjustizministerium (1934–42), and became president of the Volksgerichtshof (People's Court) in 1942. He was one of the most radical proponents of t…

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Roland Hayes - 1942 Arrest

Tenor, born in Curryville, Georgia, USA. A son of former slaves, he studied in the USA and Europe before his 1917 Boston debut. In the 1920s he performed concerts across Europe and the USA, and was acclaimed for both his performance of classical lieder and his Negro spirituals. His farewell performance was at Carnegie Hall in 1962. Roland Hayes (3 June 1887–1 January 1977), a lyric tenor,…

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Roland Petit

Choreographer and dancer, born in Paris, France. He trained at the Paris Opéra Ballet, and became its leading dancer (1943). In 1948 he founded Les Ballets de Paris de Roland Petit, which toured widely in Europe and the USA. He created a repertory of new ballet, and was also responsible for the ballet sequences in the film Hans Christian Andersen (1952), danced by his wife, Zizi (Renée) Jeanmair…

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role - Role in functionalist and consensus theory, Role in interactionist or social action theory

A part played by an actor. In social psychology, the term is extended to refer to the part played by an individual in a given set of social circumstances (eg the role of ‘mother’ or ‘leader’). Role-playing is the active performance of lines of action in a particular social setting; also, the conscious adoption of such lines of action, in situations of pretence, deception, or simulation. Role-p…

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Rolf Boldrewood

Novelist, born in London, UK. His family emigrated to Australia in 1830. He was educated in Sydney, then became a squatter in Victoria and later a police magistrate and an inspector of goldfields. His 17 novels depict life at the cattle stations and diggings, and include Robbery under Arms (1888) and Babes in the Bush (1900). Thomas Alexander Browne (August 6, 1826 - March 11, 1915) was an …

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Rolf Harris - Music and art, The Opening Ceremony of the 1982 Commonwealth Games, "Stairway to Heaven"

Entertainer and artist, born in Bassendean, Perth, Western Australia. He won a radio ‘Amateur Hour’ competition at the age of 18, and after graduating from the University of Western Australia, went to London in 1952 where he studied art. While there he performed at the Down Under Club, and in 1954 started working for the BBC children's department. He returned to Perth in 1960 to present a childr…

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Rolf Hochhuth

Playwright, born in Eschwege, C Germany. He studied at Heidelberg and Munich. His play Der Stellvertreter (1963, The Representative), focusing on the role of the Pope in World War 2, excited controversy and introduced the fashion for ‘documentary drama’. Later plays have touched on other sensitive issues: Soldaten (1967, Soldiers) on the war morality of the Allies, and Juristen (1980, trans The …

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rolfing - Development, Theory and practice, Parallels

A system of deep massage, developed by Dr Ida Rolf (1896–1979), and also known as structural integration. It was designed to break down abnormal connective tissue formed as the result of defective posture, and thereby allow readjustment. A course of treatment commences with the patient being photographed from front, back, and sides to detect abnormal posture and muscle tension. During the course …

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roller

A crow-like bird of the widespread Old World family Coraciidae (11 species); usually blue and brown; inhabits woodland or open country; eats insects and small vertebrates; nests in hole; somersaults in flight when displaying (hence its name). The name is also used for the cuckoo-roller (Family: Leptosomatidae) and the ground-roller (Family: Brachypteraciidae). It is also a breed of canary. …

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roller skating - Inline skating, Competitive Skating, Group Skating, Cross Country Skating, Skating federations

A pastime first seen in Liège, Belgium, in 1760. The modern four-wheeled skate was introduced by the US inventor James L Plymton in 1863. As a sport it developed in the late 19th-c, and competitions exist as for ice skating: individual, pairs, dancing, and speed skating. Blade-type skates are now replacing the corner-wheel model. The four-wheeled turning roller skate, or quad skate, with f…

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Rollie Fingers - Trivia

Baseball pitcher, born in Steubenville, Ohio, USA. Sporting a handlebar moustache, he was baseball's premier relief pitcher during his 17-year career with the Oakland Athletics, San Diego Padres, and Milwaukee Brewers (1968–85). By retirement, the right-hander had saved more games (341) than any pitcher in major league history (a record surpassed in 1992 by Jeff Reardon). He was elected to baseba…

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Rollo

Viking leader and first duke of Normandy. As leader of the Norman pirates settled at the mouth of the Seine, he attacked (910) Paris and Chartres. He secured from Charles III of France in 911 a large district on condition that he defend it against attack, be baptized, and become Charles's vassal. This grant was the nucleus of the Duchy of Normandy, and Rollo was baptized (912) as Robert. Rollo's d…

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Rollo (Reese) May - Biography, Accomplishments, Quotes by Rollo May, Bibliography

Psychoanalyst, born in Ada, Ohio, USA. He studied psychology at Columbia University, theology under Paul Tillich, and psychoanalysis with Erich Fromm. He taught at various universities throughout his career, but from 1958 was most regularly affiliated with the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry in New York City. Influenced by Tillich's book The Courage to Be (1952), an introduction to E…

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ROM

Acronym for read-only memory, a type of computer memory, usually integrated circuits, which can only be read from; the data is fixed during the manufacture of the chip. ROM is used where the data does not have to be altered; the data also remains intact even if the electrical power is removed. ROM, Rom, or rom is an abbreviation and name that may refer to: In Computers and Mathe…

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Rom

A travelling people whose origins lie in the subcontintent of India, now concentrated in S Europe, but found throughout the world; popularly called Gypsies, but not by the people themselves. Their language, Romani, is derived from Sanskrit, and varies from country to country. Many speak the national language of the country where they live, or a combination of Romani and the local language. They ha…

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Romain Gary - Biography, Selected bibliography, Filmography, Reference

French novelist, born in Vilnius, Lithuania. Trained as an aviator, he joined the Free French Forces during World War 2, earning the Croix de Guerre and Compagnon de la Libération, and for 20 years after the war served in the French diplomatic service. His first novel, L'Education européenne (1945), won immediate acclaim and was later revised and reissued in English as Nothing Important Ever Die…

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Romain Rolland - Bibliography

Writer, born in Clamecy, C France. He studied in Paris and Rome, and in 1910 became professor of the history of music at the Sorbonne. He resigned in 1912 to devote himself to writing, published several biographies and a 10-volume novel, Jean-Christophe (1904–12), and in 1915 was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. He lived in Switzerland until 1938, completing another novel cycle, several pl…

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Romaine Brooks - Life and career, Influences, Legacy and modern criticism

Painter, born in Rome, Italy. The child of wealthy and erratic Americans, her mother was in Rome because her husband had deserted her and she was seeking medical help for her mentally disturbed son. Brought to New York City, Romaine was virtually abandoned by her mother at age seven, and only rejoined her in London after attending a school in New Jersey (1882–6). After being placed in different E…

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Roman (Osipovich) Jakobson

Linguist, born in Moscow, Russia. The founder of the Moscow Linguistic Circle (which generated Russian formalism), he moved in 1920 to Czechoslovakia (starting the Prague Linguistic Circle), and finally in 1941 to the USA, where he taught at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology until his death. His many books and papers on language have had a great influence on linguistic and lite…

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Roman architecture - See also:

A form of classical architecture in which the clear, expressive use of the column and horizontals by the Greeks was replaced by a plastic use of rounded forms such as the arch, dome, and vault. There is greater reliance on the wall, combined with a more decorative use of architectural orders. The development of concrete used in conjunction with brick, along with a great deal of engineering skill, …

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Roman art - Early influences, General Style, ==Painting, Sculpture

Historically the most important artistic tradition in the ancient world, if not in all Western history, which has seen a whole series of classical (ie Roman) revivals from the early Middle Ages down to the 18th-c. Roman artists owed a strong debt to Hellenistic Greek art, especially in painting and sculpture, and many classical Greek statues survive only as Roman copies. However, in portraiture, e…

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Roman Curia - History

An organization in the Vatican (Rome) which administers the affairs of the Roman Catholic Church under the authority of the pope. It is comprised of congregations (administrative), tribunals (judicial), and offices (ministerial), all as defined in canon law. The Roman Curia - usually (but simplistically) called the Vatican - is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and …

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Roman Law - Development of Roman law in antiquity, Important concepts of Roman law, Afterlife of Roman law

The corpus of Roman Law starts with the primitive code, the Twelve Tables (450 BC), and ends with Justinian's complex codification (AD c.530). In the intervening centuries Rome grew from a tiny city-state into a vast world empire and exchanged a Republican form of government for a monarchical one. Roman law reflects these changes: under the empire, the emperor himself gradually became the sole sou…

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Roman numerals - Symbols, IIII or IV?, Modern non-English speaking usage, Alternate forms, Table of Roman numerals

The Roman symbols for numbers, which have a fixed value, and do not use the concept of place-value. The symbols generally used are I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, and M = 1000 (the symbols L and D were later developments). In general, symbols were placed in decreasing order of size, eg XVI = 16. A symbol may be repeated once, twice, or three times (eg XVIII = 18),…

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Roman question - Background, Law of Papal Guarantees, Lateran treaties, In literature

The problem posed by the presence in C Italy of the Papal States and the obstacle they represented to Italian unity. It came to the fore with the first Roman Republic (1798–9), and flared up during the Risorgimento, increasing with the second Roman Republic (1848–9). It caused a split between the neo-Guelphs and moderate Catholics on one side and neo-Ghibellines and revolutionaries on the other.…

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Roman Republic - Location, The structure of republican Rome, Culture of republican Rome, Legends, History, Figures of the Republic

The name of the two states that were established in Rome, the first in 1798, the second in 1849. After Napoleon's troops occupied the city, the Roman Jacobins declared it a republic and jailed Pope Pius IV. A constitution, similar to that of France in 1795, was promulgated, but soon the economic crisis, combined with the new regime's excesses, caused it to fall to the Austro-Russian army in 1799. …

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romance

A literary genre which may be traced back to late Classical times, with Longus' Daphnis and Chloe and Apuleius's Golden Ass (both 2nd-c AD). The romance proper, as a tale (in verse or prose) of courtly love or pastoral idyll, flourished in late mediaeval and Renaissance Europe. There were three main sources: the Classical (Alexander, Troy, Thebes); Arthurian legend; and ‘the matter of France’ (C…

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Romance languages

The languages which developed from the ‘vulgar’ or spoken form of Latin used throughout the Roman Empire. The major ones are Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian, all of which are official languages in their respective states. There are also several other varieties, such as Sardinian, Rhaetian (dialectal variants in N Italy and Switzerland), and Catalan, used mainly in NE Spain. Co…

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romances - Track listing

In Spanish literature, a form generally thought to have developed after the decline of the epics, deriving from them the verse-form for ballads in general, the subject for very many, and even the detailed content for a few; essentially of anonymous folk origin. The first indigenous epics are also the sources of the first Spanish ballads, but ballads may have been composed on epic themes concurrent…

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Romanesque architecture - Regional varieties

The form of architecture prevalent in W Europe 10th–12th-c AD, so called because of the Roman elements - columns and round arches - which are used in un-Roman ways to decorate apses, facades, towers, and naves with many tiers of arcades. The use of rib vaults signified the introduction of Gothic architectural forms. Its greatest monuments are huge vaulted churches richly decorated with sculpture,…

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Romania - Name, History, Government and politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Gallery, International rankings

Official name Republic of Romania, Romanian Republica Rom?nia Romania (Romanian: România /ro.mɨˈni.a/) is a country in Southeastern Europe. The name of Romania (România) comes from Român ("Romanian"), which is a derivative of the word Romanus ("Roman") from Latin. The fact that Romanians called themselves with a derivative of Romanus (Romanian: Român/Rumân) is ment…

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romanization

The use of the Roman alphabet to replace a language's writing system constructed on a different principle. This procedure has been very common in language planning, especially in countries where the native script is non-alphabetic in character, as in Chinese logographic writing or the Japanese katakana syllabary. Romanized versions also exist for several alphabetic systems, such as Arabic and Hind…

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Romanization

In antiquity, the process whereby the subject peoples of W Europe adopted the language and customs of the Romans. At first involuntary, under the Empire it became a deliberate government policy. Roman-style towns were built in the less developed provinces, and the provincial aristocracy were encouraged to learn Latin and participate in local government. The prizes could be, in the first instance, …

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Romano Prodi

Italian statesman, prime minister (1996–8, 2006– ), and president of the European Commission (1999–2004), born in Scandiano, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He studied in Milan and at the London School of Economics, and worked in universities in Italy and the USA before becoming an MP. He was industry minister (1978–9) and twice president of IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale) (1982–9, 1…

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Romanticism (art) - Characteristics, Music, Visual art and literature, Nationalism

In the visual arts, as in literature, an attitude of mind, rather than a style. Between c.1760 and c.1850 the range of subjects greatly expanded. Some were chosen for their heightened emotional qualities, such as the death-bed scenes by Greuze, David, and West, or horrific disasters, such as ‘The Raft of the Medusa’ (1819) by Géricault. Others were chosen for their exotic appeal, as with Delacr…

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Romanticism (literature) - Characteristics, Music, Visual art and literature, Nationalism

A large-scale movement of the mind in the late 18th/early 19th-c, which affected the whole of human understanding and experience. The Renaissance made humanity the measure of the universe; Romanticism placed the individual at the centre of his/her own world. This was partly the work of philosophers, from the solipsist Berkeley and the sceptical Hume to Kant, with his dynamic model of the mind; but…

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Romanticism (music) - Characteristics, Music, Visual art and literature, Nationalism

Music particularly of the period c.1810–1910, in which subjective emotion is felt to take precedence over objective detachment, content over form, colour over line, and the lyrical and poetic over the architectonic. The Romantic period in music saw the growth of the modern symphony orchestra, an increased and more integral use of chromaticism, a general expansion of the inherited genres of opera,…

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Rome - History and demographics, Geography and climate, Government and politics, Economy, City layout and sites of interest

41°53N 12°30E, pop (2000e) 2 820 000. Capital city of Italy, Lazio region, WC Italy; on the R Tiber, 27 km/17 mi from the Tyrrhenian Sea (E); on the left bank are the Seven Hills of Rome - the Capitoline (50 m/165 ft), Quirinal (52 m/172 ft), Viminal (56 m/185 ft), Esquiline (53 m/175 ft), Palatine (51 m/168 ft), Aventine (46 m/152 ft), and Caelian (50 m/165 ft) - on which the…

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Rome (USA) - History and demographics, Geography and climate, Government and politics, Economy, City layout and sites of interest

34º15N 85º10W, pop (2000e) 35 000. County seat of Floyd Co, NW Georgia, USA; located at the confluence of the Etowah and Oostanaula rivers, which join to form the R Coosa, 88 km/55 mi NW of Atlanta; birthplace of Martha McChesney Berry, Elias Boudinot, John Towers, Stand Watie; railway; cotton market; lumber, textiles, clothing. Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of It…

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Romulus and Remus - Life before Rome, The founding of Rome, War with the Sabines

In Roman legend, the twin sons of Mars and the Vestal Virgin Rhea Silvia; an example of an invented myth, to explain the name of the city. They were thrown into the Tiber, which carried them to the Palatine, where they were suckled by a she-wolf. In building the wall of Rome, Remus made fun of the work and was killed by Romulus or one of his followers. Having founded Rome, Romulus was later carrie…

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Ron Chernow - Life and career

Journalist and biographer, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He studied English literature at Yale and at Cambridge University, UK and began a prolific career as a freelance journalist. His first book, The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance (1990), traced the history of four generations of the J P Morgan family, and won the 1990 National Book Award for non-f…

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Ronald (Arbuthnott) Knox - Life, Radio hoax, Bible Version, Autobiography, Novels, Reference

Theologian and essayist, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became a lecturer (1910), but resigned in 1917 on being converted to Catholicism. He was then ordained, and appointed Catholic chaplain to the university (1926–39). He wrote an influential translation of the Bible, and several works of apologetics, as well as detective novels. His autobiograp…

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Ronald (George Wreyford) Norrish

Chemist, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and was professor of physical chemistry there (1937–65). His research was in the field of photochemistry and chemical kinetics. He collaborated with George Porter to develop flash photolysis and kinetic spectroscopy for the investigation of very fast reactions, and they shared the 1967 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. …

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Ronald (Harry) Coase - "The Nature of the Firm", "The Problem of Social Cost", The Ronald Coase Institute

Economist, born in London, UK. Educated in England, he worked as a statistician in the British War Cabinet before emigrating to the USA in 1951. After teaching at the University of Virginia (1958–64), he taught at the University of Chicago Law School until his retirement (1964–79). He is known for formulating his theories through visiting work sites and for advancing his views in plain English a…

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Ronald (Myles) Dworkin - Biographical sketch, Theory of equality, Participant in Public Debate, Bibliography

Legal scholar, born in Wooster, Massachusetts, USA. A leading theorist of jurisprudence, his work challenges strict adherence to the letter of the law in favour of individual liberties and moral principles, in books such as Taking Rights Seriously (1977), A Matter of Principle (1985), A Bill of Rights for Britain (1990), and Freedom's Law (1996). He taught at Yale (1962–9), then at Oxford, concur…

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Ronald (William Fordham) Searle

Artist, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He served in World War 2, and the drawings he made during his three years' imprisonment by the Japanese helped to establish his reputation as a serious artist. After the war he became widely known as the creator of the macabre schoolgirls of ‘St Trinian's’. He settled in France in 1961. He also designed animated films, such as Dick Deade…

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Ronald (Wilson) Reagan - Early life, Marriages, Early political career, Governor of California

US statesman and 40th president (1981–9), and film actor, born in Tampico, Illinois, USA. He studied at Eureka College in Illinois (1932), and went to work as a sportscaster for several radio stations in the Midwest. Discovered by a Hollywood agent, he joined Warner Brothers, making his debut in Love is On the Air (1937). During his acting career he appeared in a total of 52 feature films, his be…

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Ronald Colman - Academy Awards and Nominations, Filmography

Film and stage actor, born in Richmond, SW Greater London, UK. He joined the army and at the outbreak of World War 1 was sent to France where he was seriously wounded at the Battle of Messines. Invalided out of service, he turned to acting and after some stage success in London went to Hollywood in 1920. His dashing good looks, mellifluous voice, and gentlemanly manner made him a popular romantic …

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Ronald Stevenson

Composer, pianist, and writer on music, born in Blackburn, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He studied at the Royal Manchester College of Music. He champions music as a world language, seeking in his works to embrace a broad spectrum of international culture (an ‘ethnic aesthetic’). His compositions include the 80-minute Passacaglia on DSCH for piano, concertos for piano and violin, choral works, and…

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Ronaldinho - Club career, National team, Honours

Footballer, born in Porto Alegre, Brazil. He began his career in 1997 with Gremio de Porto Alegre, moving to French side Paris Saint-Germain in 2001. In his Brazilian national team debut in 1999 he scored his first international goal, against Venezuela, to win the Copa America, and was a key player in his team's victory in the 2002 World Cup. In 2003 he signed for Barcelona, his honours with the c…

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Ronaldo (Luiz Nazario de Lima)

Footballer, born in Itaguai, Brazil. A forward, he played for Cruzeiro, Brazil, then PSV Eindhoven and Barcelona, moving to Inter Milan in 1997 and Real Madrid in 2002. While at Barcelona he scored a Spanish league record of 34 goals in a season, his team also winning the European Cup Winners' Cup and the Spanish cup final. He has been FIFA World Footballer of the Year three times (1996, 1997, 200…

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Ronda

36°46N 5°12W, pop (2000e) 34 200. Picturesque town in Málaga province, Andalusia, S Spain, on R Guadalevin; railway; famous for its school of bullfighters; clothes, wine, leather, soap; Fiesta of La Reconquista (May), fiesta and fair (Sep). Ronda is a city in the Spanish province of Málaga. The Rio Guadalevín runs through the city, dividing it in two and carving out the steep El Tajo…

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rondeau

An Old French verse form of 13 or 15 (usually octosyllabic) lines, in three stanzas, using only two rhymes. It was popular in 16th-c France, and among the French Romantics (eg de Musset), and was imported into England in the late 19th-c (eg by Dobson, Swinburne). Rondeau may mean: …

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rondel

A mediaeval French verse form related to the triolet and rondeau. It is usually a 13-line poem using only two rhymes in its three stanzas, with a two-line refrain which opens the poem and recurs at lines seven and eight. "Rondel" (from Old French, the diminutive of roont "round", meaning "small circle") may refer to: …

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rondo

A musical structure in which restatements of the initial theme are separated by contrasting episodes, eg on the pattern A–B–A–C–A–B–A, perhaps with an introduction and a coda. In the sonata rondo, the ‘B’ theme of this scheme is stated first in a related key, returning in the home key, and the ‘C’ theme may be replaced by development. Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a…

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Ronnie Barker - Beginnings, Success, Personal life

Comic actor, born in Bedford, Bedfordshire, SC England, UK. An amateur performer, he made his professional debut at Aylesbury Repertory Theatre in Quality Street (1948). An affable figure, adept at precisely detailed characterizations, tongue-twisting comic lyrics, and saucy humour, his many radio and television appearances include The Frost Report (1966–7), the widely popular Porridge (1974–7),…

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Ronnie Corbett - Early Life and Career, Rise to Fame, The Two Ronnies, Recent Life

Comedian, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. After national service in the Royal Air Force, and 18 months as a civil servant, he entered showbusiness. Spotted in Danny La Rue's nightclub by David Frost, he appeared on television in The Frost Report (1966–7) and Frost on Sunday (1968–9). His diminutive stature, impish sense of fun, and comic monologues soon gained him national popularity. His te…

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Ronnie O'Sullivan - Performance timeline

Snooker player, born in Wordsley, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, C England, UK. Brought up in Essex, he proved a talented young player and turned professional in 1992. His achievements to date include the British Open (1994), two World Championship titles (2001, 2004), the European Open (2003), and a number of UK championship titles, including the Masters (1995, 2005). He began the 2004–5 season w…

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Ronnie Scott - Life and career, Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club, Discography

Jazz saxophonist and night club owner, born in London, UK. After visiting New York as a member of the band aboard the Queen Mary, he returned to England and disseminated the modern bebop style. He had been a soloist in several great European jazz orchestras, as well as a leader in his own right. In 1959 he opened a club in London's Soho district, and this quickly became an international jazz centr…

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rood screen - Notable British examples, Symbolic significance, Destruction and restoration

An ornamental partition used to separate the altar and the choir from the nave. The name derives from Anglo-Saxon rood, ‘cross, crucifix’. The Rood screen was a common feature in late medieval church architecture, dividing the chancel from the nave. It was often surmounted by a loft (called the Rood Loft) on which stood the Rood itself, a large figure of the crucified Christ, set hi…

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root (botany) - Root structure, Root growth, Types of roots, Rooting depths, Economic importance

The part of a plant's axis which usually lies underground, absorbing water and nutrients, and anchoring the plant in the soil; also commonly serving as a storage organ. It originates as the radicle, the embryonic root of the seed, and develops in one of two basic ways, either by repeated branching of the radicle to form a mass of fibrous lateral roots or by forming a central taproot with relativel…

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root (linguistics)

The basic element (morpheme) of a word, to which affixes can be added to give derived forms. For example, from the root kind, we may derive un-kind, kind-ly, kind-ness, etc. The root carries the core meaning of the word, and prefixes modify that meaning in regular ways. In addition, the suffixes carry grammatical information, marking the form's part of speech, as in kind-ly (adjective), kind-ness …

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root nodule

A small, tumour-like swelling on the roots of some plants caused by the invasion of benign micro-organisms which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates to the benefit of the host in return for sugars. An example is the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium, associated with all members of the pea family Leguminosae. Root nodules occur on the roots of plants that associate with symb…

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rope - History, Styles of rope construction, Handling rope, Punitive uses, Line

A length of thick fibre used to secure objects together. The fibres are twisted or plaited for added strength, and can be natural (eg hemp, sisal, flax, jute, cotton) or synthetic (eg nylon, polyester). Synthetic fibre ropes are lighter and stronger, but they can be stretched more. Heavy ropes, such as those used to tie large ships to jetties, may have a diameter of up to 25 cm/10 in, though mos…

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Roque de los Muchachos Observatory

An astronomical observatory on La Palma in the Canary Is, owned by Spain but used by various nations. Its largest instrument is the 4·2 m/165 in Anglo-Dutch William Herschel Telescope, part of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes which comprises the 2·5 m/100 in Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1 m/39 in Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope. Other large reflectors are the 2·5 m/100 in Nordic Optical…

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rorqual

A baleen whale of worldwide family Balaenopteridae (6 species); throat has 10–100 longitudinal furrows, allowing it to expand when feeding; small dorsal fin near tail; female larger than male; comprises blue, sei, fin, minke, Bryde's, and humpback whales. Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. Most rorquals are fairly strictly oceanic:…

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Rory (Keith Ogilvy) Bremner

Satirical impressionist, writer, and performer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at King's College, London, and began performing in tours and one-man shows in 1985. He made several series for BBC television (1986–92) and Rory Bremner - Who Else? for Channel 4 (1992– ), as well as a number of videos. Awards include the Top Male Comedy Performer BAFTA (1994, 1995, 1996) and the Royal…

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Rosa (Lee McCauley) Parks - Early years

Civil-rights activist, born in Tuskagee, Alabama, USA. After briefly attending Alabama State University, she married and settled in Montgomery, AL, where she gained employment as a tailor's assistant in a department store (1955). Contrary to most early portrayals of her as merely a poor, tired seamstress, who on the spur of the moment refused to surrender her seat in a bus to a white passenger, sh…

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Rosa Lee Nemir - History, Models, Auto racing, Technology

Paediatrician, born in Waco, Texas, USA. One of the first women to become a full professor of paediatrics, she spent her career at the New York University medical school (1930–91). A pulmonary and paediatrics specialist, she studied the effects of steroids on tuberculosis and was the first to use the drug rifampin to treat the disease. She promoted medical careers for women through various nation…

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Rosa Luxemburg - Life, Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organization, Criticism of the October Revolution, The Role of the Party

Revolutionary, born in Russian Poland. She became a German citizen in 1895, and emigrated to Zürich in 1889, where she studied law and political economy. With the German politician Karl Liebknecht she formed the Spartacus League, which later became the German Communist Party. She was arrested by right-wing irregular troops, the Freikorps, in Berlin, and brutally murdered during the Spartacus revo…

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Rosa Ponselle - Vaudeville, Met debut and early operatic career, Appearances abroad and later operatic career, Retirement, The voice

Soprano, born in Meridan, Connecticut, USA. Her career began in vaudeville. At Caruso's suggestion she appeared as Leonora in La forza del destino at the New York Metropolitan (1918), where she sang in leading French and Italian grand opera roles until 1937, also appearing at Covent Garden (1929–31). She later taught and directed opera in Baltimore. Rosa Ponselle (January 22, 1897 – May …

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Rosalba Carriera - Biography

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy. She was famed for her flattering portraits and miniatures, some of them in pastel, especially on ivory. She moved to Paris (1720), where she received many famous commissions, including one of Louis XV as a child. Rosalba Carriera (October 7, 1675 – April 15, 1757) was a Venetian Rococo painter. Born in Venice, Carriera was one of the most inf…

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Rosalind (Elsie) Franklin - Background, Education and Career, Illness and death, Controversies after death, Posthumous recognition

X-ray crystallographer, born in London, UK. She studied chemistry at Cambridge, and worked in research associations in Britain and in Paris (1947–50) before joining a research group at King's College, London (1951–3). There she extended the X-ray diffraction studies by Maurice Wilkins on DNA, and obtained exceptionally good diffraction photographs using a hydrated form of DNA; these were of grea…

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Rosalyn S(ussman) Yalow - Reference

Medical physicist, born in New York City, USA. She studied at Hunter College, New York City, and the University of Illinois. From 1947 she turned her attention to nuclear medicine at the Bronx Veterans Administration Hospital. There she developed radio-immunoassay, a technique for measuring minute concentrations of active biological substances such as hormones. Director of the Berson Research Labo…

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Rosalyn Tureck

Pianist, conductor, writer, and teacher, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She made her debut at age 11 with the Chicago Symphony, and won a fellowship to the Juilliard School of Music in New York at age 16. She became professor of music at the universities of California, San Diego (1966–72), Maryland (1981–5), and Yale (1991–3). Celebrated for her interpretations of Johann Sebastian Bach, she fo…

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Rosalynn Carter - Early life, Marriage and family, First Lady of Georgia, Campaigning, First Lady of the United States

US first lady (1977–81), born in Plains, Georgia, USA. She married Jimmy Carter in 1946, and after helping him run his family peanut farm, she campaigned actively for him in 1976. An active first lady, she spoke out on human rights, travelled abroad, and sat in on many cabinet meetings. Deeply hurt by Carter's failure to be re-elected, she recovered to join him in his post-presidential activities…

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Rosario - History, Institutions, Government, Geography and urban structure, Transportation, Communications, Culture, Sister cities, Sources

33°00S 60°40W, pop (2000e) 1 214 000. Chief city in Santa Fe province, and third largest in Argentina; on the R Paraná, NW of Buenos Aires; Argentina's largest inland port, founded in 1725; airport; railway; university (1968); distribution centre and export outlet for local agricultural provinces; steel, machinery, cars, food processing; racecourse; golf club, boat club, aero club in the fas…

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rosary - History, Rosary beads, The Mysteries, Days of recitation, Other forms of the Catholic rosary

A form of religious meditation, found in several religions, in which a sequence of prayers is recited using a string of beads or a knotted cord, each bead or knot representing one prayer in the sequence. In Christianity, it most commonly refers to the Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, one of the most popular of Roman Catholic devotions. This is a sequence of one Our Father, ten Hail Marys, and on…

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Roscius - Reference

Roman comic actor, a slave by birth. He became the greatest comic actor in Rome, and was freed from slavery by the dictator, Sulla. He gave Cicero lessons in elocution, and was defended by him in a lawsuit. Quintus Roscius Gallus (c. Endowed with a handsome face and manly figure, he studied the delivery and gestures of the most distinguished advocates in the Forum, especially Q …

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Roscoe Conkling - Relationship with Chester Arthur

US politician, born in Albany, New York, USA. The son of a prominent judge and himself a lawyer, he served as a Republican in the US House of Representatives (1859–63, 1865–7) and the US Senate (1867–81). Famed for his florid oratory, he was one of the most influential politicians of his day, leader of the powerful New York Republican machine, and an open foe of civil service reform. Nominated …

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Roscoe Pound - Early life, Law career, Criminal Justice in Cleveland, Quotes

Legal scholar and botanist, born in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Considered one of the nation's leading jurists outside the Supreme Court, he taught for many years at the University of Nebraska (1892–1903), at Northwestern (1907–9), at the University of Chicago (1909–10), and then at Harvard Law School (1910–47). During his early career as a botanist, he discovered a rare lichen thereafter named Ro…

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Roscoe Turner - Background, Barnstorming, Air Racing, Post racing years, Awards, External Links

Aviator, born in Corinth, Massachusetts, USA. He served in the Balloon Service during World War 1 and then worked as a circus lion-tamer, parachute jumper, and stunt flyer. A colourful personality, in the 1930s he broke transcontinental speed records seven times and won many awards for his flying. Roscoe Turner,(September 29.1895--June 23, 1970) was, arguably, the most notable and, certainl…

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rose - Species, Diseases, Cultivation, Care, History, Perfume, Rose hips, Notable rose growers

A member of a genus of well-known shrubs or scrambling perennials, nearly all native to the N hemisphere. So-called climbing roses do not climb in a true sense, but grow up through other vegetation or similar supports, and are prevented from slipping back by the tough, often hooked, prickles on the stems. The leaves are pinnate, with three or (usually) more oval, toothed leaflets; they are semi-ev…

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Rose Hawthorne (Mother Alphonse) Lathrop

Catholic nun, born in Lenox, Massachusetts, USA. The daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne, she was raised and educated abroad, married George Parsons Lathrop (1871) and with him converted to Catholicism (1891); they later separated. After his death (1898) she became a Dominican nun and founded a home for terminally ill cancer patients (eventually moved to Hawthorne, NY) and a community of nuns devoted …

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Rose O'Neal Greenhow - Life prior to the Civil War, Espionage during the Civil War, Life after capture

Confederate spy, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. The widow of a prominent physician, Robert Greenhow, she passed information on Union battle strategy to Confederate generals. She was tried for treason (1862) and exiled, then went to England and amassed gold for the Confederate cause. She died in a shipwreck off North Carolina. Rose O'Neal Greenhow (1817–October 1, 1864) was…

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rose of Jericho

A much-branched annual (Anastatica hierochuntica), growing to 15 cm/6 in, native to N Africa and W Asia; flowers small, white, cross-shaped. When the plant dies in the dry season, the spreading branches curve inwards, forming a basket-like ball which blows about like a tumbleweed, only expanding and releasing seeds from the pods when wetted by rain. (Family: Cruciferae.) …

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rose of Sharon

A semi-evergreen shrub (Hypericum calycinum) native to SE Europe and W Asia; rhizomatous; stems to 60 cm/2 ft, slender; leaves elliptical; flowers 7–8 cm/2¾–3 in diameter, 5-petalled, pale yellow with darker stamens. It is widely planted for ornament and ground cover. (Family: Guttifereae.) The Rose of Sharon is a flower of uncertain identity mentioned in English language translation…

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Rose Pesotta

Labour leader, born in Derazhnya, Ukraine. The daughter of grain merchants, she was well educated, and as a young girl adopted anarchist views. In 1913 she emigrated to New York City and worked in a blouse factory, and soon joined a local branch of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU). She worked to advance the education of the workers, and was elected to the ILGWU's executive bo…

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Rose Tremain - Selected bibliography

Novelist and short-story writer, born in London, UK. She studied at the Sorbonne and the University of East Anglia, and published her first novel, Sadler's Birthday, in 1976. Later novels include The Cupboard (1981), Restoration (1989), Sacred Country (1992, James Tait Black), Music and Silence (1999), and The Colour (2003). Her books of short stories include Evangelista's Fan (1994) and The Darkn…

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rose window - Further reading

A round window with mullions or tracery radiating outwards from the centre. It is commonly associated with Gothic architecture, and is also known as a wheel window. Most commonly, and especially in Gothic architecture, a rose window is a circular stained glass window, with mullions and traceries that generally radiate from the centre. While it is commonly believed that during the Roma…

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Roseanne - Biography, Television Work, Filmography

Actress and producer, born in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. After an unsettled youth, and a period during the early 1980s as a stand-up comedy performer, she made a breakthrough into television, hosting a number of specials and series, and becoming especially known for her realistic, unglamorized sitcom Roseanne (1988–97). Her film credits include She-Devil (1989), The Final Nightmare (1991), and Bl…

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Roseau - Overview, History, City life, Scenery, Notable people

15°18N 61°23W, pop (2000e) 15 000. Seaport and capital town of Dominica, Windward Is; on SW coast; cathedral (1841); trade in tropical fruit and vegetables; thermal springs nearby; Victoria Memorial Museum; badly damaged by hurricane, 1979. Roseau, population 14,847 (2001 census), is the capital of Dominica. It is a small and compact urban settlement surrounded by the Caribbean Sea, the…

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rosella

An Australian parrot, related to the budgerigar; inhabits woodland and open country; can be an agricultural pest. (Genus: Platycercus, 8 species.) A rosella is one of 5-8 species of colorful Australian parrots in the genus Platycercus. flaveolus (sometimes considered a separate species) Green Rosella, Platycercus caledonicus (formerly considered a subspecies of the Yellow Rosella) Pla…

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Rosemary Clooney - Biography, Best-known songs

Singer, born in Maysville, Kentucky, USA. She joined Tony Pastor's orchestra in 1945, singing duets with her younger sister, Betty. In 1950, she recorded a dialect song, ‘Come On-a My House’ and became a pop star, following it with a string of hits including ‘Hey There’ (1951) and ‘This Ole House’ (1952). She co-starred in the film White Christmas (1954) and for television hosted The Rosemar…

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Rosemary Harris - Selected filmography, Awards

British actress. She made her debut in New York City in 1952, and later appeared with the Bristol Old Vic and the Old Vic in London. She has appeared in over 140 roles in more than 30 years on the English and American stage, including affiliations with some of the great theatre companies on both sides of the Atlantic. Her early years gained her experience in English repertory theatre - she …

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Rosemary Radford Ruether

Theologian, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Professor of applied theology at Garrett–Evangelical theological seminary, Evanston, she has written extensively on women and theological issues. Her books analyse the effects of male bias in official Church theology, and seek to affirm the feminine dimension of religion and the importance of women's experience. They include Sexism and God-Talk (19…

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Rosenberg - Place names and locations, Family name, Rozenberg

Alleged spies: Julius Rosenberg (1918–53) and Ethel Rosenberg (1915–53), husband and wife, both born in New York City, USA. They were part of a transatlantic spy ring uncovered after the trial of Klaus Fuchs in Britain. Julius was an engineer with the US Army Signal Corps, and Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, worked at the nuclear research station at Los Alamos. They were convicted of passing …

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Rosetta S Hall

Physician and missionary, born in Liberty, New York, USA. Besides conducting groundbreaking medical and educational work in Korea, she also championed the education of sight- and hearing-impaired persons there (1890–1933). She was the founder of both the Baldwin Dispensary, later to become the Lillian Harris Memorial Hospital (1892), and the Women's Medical (Training) Institute in Seoul (1928). …

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Rosetta Stone - History, Modern-era discovery, Software projects, Further reading

A black basalt slab with a trilingual inscription in Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphic and demotic found in 1799 at Raschid, near Alexandria, on the Rosetta branch of the R Nile. Cross-correlation by Thomas Young and, particularly, Jean François Champollion allowed hieroglyphs to be deciphered for the first time, and provided the key to the Ancient Egyptian language. It is now in the British Museum…

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rosewood

A high-quality wood scented like roses, because of the presence of aromatic gum. It is obtained from various trees of the genus Dalbergia, native to the tropics and subtropics, which have pinnate leaves and pea-flowers. (Family: Leguminosae.) Another classic rosewood is Dalbergia latifolia known as (East) Indian rosewood or sonokeling. All the real rosewoods belong to the genus Dalbergia, b…

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Rosh Hashanah - Date, Traditions and customs, In the Hebrew Bible, In rabbinic literature

The Jewish New Year (1 Tishri), which falls in September or October. During the New Year's Day service, a ram's horn is blown as a call to repentance and spiritual renewal. Rosh Hashanah (IPA: [ˈroʊʃ hɑˈʃɔnə]) (Hebrew: ראש השנה,?ro’sh ha-shānāh) is literally translated as "head of the year", and idiomatically refers to the Jewish New Year. In fact, Judai…

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Rosika Schwimmer

Feminist and pacifist, born in Budapest, Hungary. As a journalist she was active in the Hungarian women's movement, and was a co-founder of a feminist-pacifist group. She became vice-president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and was Hungarian minister to Switzerland (1918–19). In 1920, fleeing from the country's anti-Semitic leadership, she emigrated to the USA, where s…

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rosin - Uses, Production, Properties, Sources

A resin obtained as the residue from the distillation of turpentine, melting point c.120°C; also called colophony. Its colour varies from colourless to dark brown. It is used as a flux in soldering. Rosin, formerly called colophony or Greek pitch (Pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin t…

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Roskilde - The city of Roskilde, Schools in Roskilde, Transportation

55°39N 12°07E, pop (2000e) 51 000. Port and ancient town at S end of Roskilde Fjord, Zealand, Denmark; capital of Denmark, 10th-c–1443; Peace of Roskilde (1658), by which Denmark lost land E of The Sound to Sweden; railway; university (1970); engineering, foodstuffs, distilling, tanning; triple-towered cathedral (12th-c); Viking Ships museum. Roskilde is a municipality (Danish, kommune…

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Rosny

Pseudonym of the brothers Joseph Henri Boëx (1856–1940) and Séraphin Justin François Boëx (1859–1948), French novelists, born in Brussels, Belgium. Their vast output of social novels, naturalistic in character, includes L'Immolation (1887) and L'Impérieuse Bonté (1905). After they separated in 1908, the older Rosny wrote L'Appel au bonheur (1919), and La Vie amoureuse de Balzac (1930); the…

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Ross Dependency - Postage stamps, Disputes, Flag

Land area 413 500 km²/159 600 sq mi; permanent shelf ice area 337 000 km²/130 000 sq mi. Antarctic territory administered by New Zealand (since 1923), including all the land between 160°E and 150°W and S of 60°S; no permanent inhabitants; scientific stations near L Vanda and at Scott Base on Ross I. The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in…

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Ross Sea

Extension of the Pacific Ocean between Marie Byrd Land and Victoria Land in New Zealand's territory of Antarctica; S arm covered by the Ross Ice Shelf; McMurdo Sound (W) generally ice-free in late summer, an important base point for exploration; main islands, Roosevelt (E) and Ross (W); active volcano (Mt Erebus) on Ross I. The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica betw…

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Ross Winans - Railroad Work, Civil War politics, The Cigar Ship

Inventor and manufacturer, born in Sussex Co, New Jersey, USA. He had his first experience of railroads while selling horses to the Baltimore & Ohio in 1828, and he soon designed an improved wheel for rail cars that set the standard for a full century. He worked for the B&O for a time before establishing his own railroad machinery business, later producing a streamlined hull design for steamships.…

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Rostock - Transport, Sights

54°04N 12°09E, pop (2000e) 258 000. Industrial port and capital of Rostock county, N Germany; at the mouth of R Warnow, on the Baltic Sea; founded, 12th-c; former Hanseatic League port; badly bombed in World War 2, rebuilt in the 1950s; chief cargo port of former East Germany; railway; rail ferry to Denmark; university (1419); shipyard, marine engineering, fish processing, electronics; navigat…

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Rota

pop (2000e) 2850; area 85 km²/33 sq mi. One of the three major islands in the N Mariana Is, W Pacific, 51 km/32 mi NE of Guam; length, 18 km/11 mi; airport; sugar cane, sugar refining; site of ancient stone columns. …

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Rotherham - Town centre, shopping and entertainment, History, Culture, Sport, Politics, Twin towns, Famous people from Rotherham

53°26N 1°20W, pop (2001e) 248 200. Town in South Yorkshire, N England, UK; on the R Don, 9 km/5 mi NE of Sheffield; railway; coal, iron, steel, machinery, brassware, glass; late Gothic All Saints Church, Chantry Chapel of Our Lady (1383). Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, England, built upon the River Don near the confluence of the Don and the Rother. It is the main town in the …

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rotifer - Structure and form, Reproduction

A microscopic aquatic animal with an unsegmented body typically covered by a horny layer which may be thickened into plates; lacks a muscular body wall; swims by means of a ring of beating hair-like structures (cilia) that resembles a spinning wheel; group contains c.1800 species; also known as wheel animalcules. (Phylum: Rotifera.) The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic, and near-mic…

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Rotorua - Tourism

38°07S 176°17E, pop (2000e) 58 000. Health resort in North Island, New Zealand; in a region of thermal springs, geysers, and boiling mud; Whakarewarewa (Maori village); Maori arts and crafts centre. Rotorua is a district located on the southern shore of Lake Rotorua in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. Rotorua is connected to the north by State Hig…

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rotten borough - Rotten boroughs, Pocket boroughs, End of the rotten boroughs, Modern usage, Rotten boroughs in fiction

The name given to certain British parliamentary boroughs before the Great Reform Act of 1832. These had few voters, had lost their original economic function, and were usually controlled by a landowner or by the Crown. Elections were rarely, if ever, contested. Examples were Gatton, Dunwich, and Old Sarum. Most rotten boroughs were disfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832. The term "rotten b…

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Rotterdam - Harbour, History and recent developments, Demographics, Geography, Education, Museums, Culture, Architecture and skyline, Sports, Shopping

51°55N 4°30E, pop (2000e) 617 000. Industrial city and chief port of The Netherlands, in South Holland province, W Netherlands; at the junction of the R Rotte with the Nieuwe Maas, 24 km/15 mi from the North Sea; major commercial centre of NW Europe since the 14th-c; city centre almost completely destroyed by German bombing, 1940; Europort harbour area inaugurated, 1966; approach channel dee…

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rottweiler - Temperament, Miscellaneous

A German breed of dog, developed around the Alpine town of Rottweil to protect and herd cattle; agile, with heavy muscular body and neck; powerful muzzle and short soft ears; short black and tan coat; tail docked short; popular guard dogs; attracted adverse publicity in the late 1980s, following reports of several fatal attacks on children. A Rottweiler is a medium-large, robust and powerfu…

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Roubaix

50°42N 3°10E, pop (2000e) 103 000. Industrial and commercial town in Nord department, NW France; on the Belgian border, 11 km/7 mi NE of Lille; chartered in 1469; centre of N France textile industry; textile machinery, clothing, carpets, plastics, rubber products; 15th-c Gothic Church of St-Martin. …

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Rouen - Administration, History, Sights, Miscellaneous

49°27N 1°04E, pop (2000e) 108 000. River-port and capital of Seine-Maritime department, NW France; on right bank of R Seine, 86 km/53 mi NW of Paris; fifth largest port in France; former capital of Upper Normandy; scene of trial and burning of Joan of Arc, 1431; badly damaged in World War 2, but reconstructed largely as a Ville Musée (museum town); road and rail junction; university (1967);…

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Rough Riders - Formation and early history, Assault on Santiago, Aftermath, Last Survivors, Organizational data

The nickname for the First US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, commanded during the Spanish–American War (1898) by Colonel Leonard Wood (1860–1927) and Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. The Rough Riders' ‘charge’ up San Juan Hill in Cuba (1 Jul 1898) was actually carried out on foot. "The Rough Riders" was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regimen…

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roulette - Board depiction (American Roulette), Bet odds table (American Roulette)

A casino game played with a spinning wheel and ball. The wheel is divided into 37 segments numbered 0–36, but not in numerical order (some wheels have a 38th segment numbered 00). All numbers are alternately either red or black except the 0. Punters bet, before and during the spin of the wheel (until the croupier stops all betting with the call ‘Rien ne va plus’), on the landing place of the ba…

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rounders - Overview, Common Rules, GAA Specific Rules, NRA Specific Rules

An outdoor bat-and-ball game from which baseball probably derived. Very popular in England, the first reference to rounders was in 1744. Each team consists of nine players, and the object, after hitting the ball, is to run around the outside of three posts before reaching the fourth and thus scoring a rounder. Although it is generally considered a school game, rounders is played at internat…

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Rovaniemi - History, Rovaniemi today, Facts and Figures, External links and references

66°29N 25°40E, pop (2000e) 34 800. Capital city of Lapp province, Finland; 160 km/99 mi N of Oulu, just S of the Arctic Circle; established, 1929; airfield; railway; river access to the Baltic; centre for timber trade; largely destroyed by fire (1944–5), and rebuilt by Alvar Aalto, who laid out the main streets in the design of a reindeer's antlers. Rovaniemi (Roavenjárga in Norther…

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rove beetle - Ecology, Systematics

An elongate, dark- or metallic-coloured beetle, usually with short, truncated wing cases; most are predators on other insects, some feed on fungal spores; common in leaf litter and damp habitats. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Staphylinidae, c.30 000 species.) The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than hal…

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rowan - Etymology, and other names

A slender deciduous tree (Sorbus aucuparia), growing to 20 m/65 ft, native to Europe; leaves pinnate with 5–8 pairs of toothed leaflets; flowers creamy, in large clusters; berries red, rarely yellow; also called mountain ash. It is often planted as a street or garden tree, together with several pink- or white-flowered species from Asia. (Family: Rosaceae.) The rowans are plants of the Fa…

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Rowan (Sebastian) Atkinson - Early life, Selected television appearances, Filmography, Discography

Comic actor and writer, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. He studied electrical engineering at the universities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Oxford, first appeared in Oxford University revues at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, and in 1981 became the youngest performer to have had a one-man show in the West End. Subsequent appearances include The Nerd (1984), The New Revue (1…

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Rowan Williams - Biography, Appointment as Archbishop, Theological Views, Social Involvements, Ecumenism, The Anglican Communion, Recent Events, Works

Anglican clergyman, born in Swansea, SC Wales, UK. He studied theology at Christ's College, Cambridge, and after research at Oxford returned to Cambridge in 1977, where he spent nine years in academic and parochial work. He was professor of divinity at Oxford (1986–92), and was consecrated Bishop of Monmouth in 1992, becoming Archbishop of Wales in 2000. In 2002 he succeeded George Carey as Archb…

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Rowland Hill

Popular preacher, born in Hawkstone Park, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge where, influenced by Methodism, he gave open-air sermons despite opposition from the authorities, and became an itinerant preacher after his ordination as curate (1773). Receiving an inheritance, he built Surrey Chapel, Blackfriars Rd, London, for his own use. He helped to found the Religious Tract Societ…

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Roy (Broadbent) Fuller - Books

Poet and novelist, born in Oldham, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He trained as a solicitor, and served in the Royal Navy during World War 2. His first collection, Poems, appeared in 1939, and his war-time experiences prompted The Middle of a War (1942) and A Lost Season (1944). His later poetic works include Brutus's Orchard (1957) and Retreads (1979). His novels include Second Curtain (1953) and Im…

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Roy (David) Eldridge - Reference

Trumpet player, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. A passionate improviser, able to play with ease in the ultra-high register, he was in demand as a featured soloist with top bands of the 1930s, such as McKinney's Cotton Pickers and the Teddy Hill and Fletcher Henderson Orchestras. He continued to perform until suffering a stroke in 1980. Roy David Eldridge (January 30, 1911 – Februar…

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Roy (Maurice) Keane

Footballer, born in Cork, Ireland. The all-round midfielder left Ireland in 1990 when he joined English club Nottingham Forest for £25 000. Only three years later Alex Ferguson paid £3·75 million to bring him to Manchester United, a record between British clubs at that time. Keane was made club captain in 1997 following the retirement of Eric Cantona. His honours with the club include the Leag…

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Roy Bean - Early life, Marriage and children, Justice of the peace, Movies, Roller Coaster

Frontier figure, born in Mason Co, Kentucky, USA. He left Kentucky for California in 1847, and seems to have spent the next 15 years in such enterprises as gold seeking and cattle rustling. He joined a band of Confederate irregulars during the Civil War, then followed the railroad construction crews as a saloon keeper and gambler. In 1882 he settled in the Texas camp of Vinegaroon, had it renamed …

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Roy Best

Prison warden, birthplace unknown. He was for 20 years the so-called ‘iron boss’ of the Colorado state penitentiary in Canon City (1932–52). There he won a national reputation by instituting an innovative dietary and work regimen that included the liberal use of physical punishment. Acquitted twice (1951–2) on charges of embezzlement and flogging prisoners, he died shortly before the end of a …

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Roy Castle

Entertainer, born in Scholes, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. A talented musician, dancer, and actor, he starred in cabaret, theatre, film, and television, becoming known for such programmes as BBC television's Record Breakers. Following his death from lung cancer, the Roy Castle Cause for Hope Foundation, a research centre into the disease, was launched in Liverpool in 1994, with building complete…

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Roy Cazaly

Legendary Australian Rules footballer, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. Leaping master of the high mark (jumping high in the air above other players to catch the ball), the call ‘Up there Cazaly’ was chanted by South Melbourne crowds and became a rallying cry for Australian troops in World War 2. A star player for St Kilda (1913–20), he was named Champion of the State in 1920, and tra…

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Roy Chadwick

Aeronautical engineer, born in Farnworth, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at the Manchester College of Technology, and joined the AVRO company in 1911, designing and manufacturing aeroplanes. During World War 1 he designed many famous types, including the Avro 504 trainer, and in World War 2 produced the Manchester and Lancaster heavy bombers. Following the war he designed the jetpr…

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Roy Chapman Andrews - Early life and education, Career, Sources, Books

Naturalist and explorer, born in Beloit, Wisconsin, USA. He is best known as the discoverer, in Mongolia, of fossil dinosaur eggs, but he made many and valuable contributions to palaeontology, archaeology, botany, zoology, geology, and topography. He made several expeditions to C Asia, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History, of which he became director (1935–42). Roy Chapman A…

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Roy Harris - Character, reputation and style characteristics, The Symphonies, Other notable works

Composer, born in Lincoln Co, Oklahoma, USA. A truck driver, he turned to music at 24, and after tuition in California won a Guggenheim scholarship, enabling him to study in Paris under Nadia Boulanger. He later held positions in Californian universities as a teacher of composition. His music is ruggedly American in character, as in his symphonic overture When Johnny Comes Marching Home (1935). He…

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Roy Lichtenstein - Early years, Further reading and viewing

Painter, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the Art Students' League, New York City (1939), and at Ohio State College, and taught at Ohio State, New York State, and Rutgers universities. From the early 1960s he produced many of the best-known images of American Pop Art, especially frames from comic books complete with speech balloons, enlarged onto canvases and painted in primary colours in…

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Roy Orbison - Biography, Legacy, Discography

Country-pop singer and songwriter, born in Vernon, Texas, USA. He began playing in public at the age of eight on local radio stations, and was discovered in his early teens by the record producer Norman Petty. Moving to the Sun record label, he had his first minor success in 1956, then spent four years writing for other artists. He re-emerged with the hit single ‘Only The Lonely’ (written for El…

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Roy Wilkins - Early career, Leading the NAACP

Journalist and civil rights leader, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He edited an African-American weekly, the St Paul Appeal, before joining the staff of the Kansas City Call, a leading black weekly. In 1931 he served as executive assistant secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, became editor of the organization's newspaper, Crisis (1934–49), and was then ap…

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Royal (Earl) House - Reigning sovereign Houses, Deposed or extinct sovereign Houses

Inventor, born in Rockland, Vermont, USA. Raised in Pennsylvania, he had no formal education but showed great mechanical aptitude at an early age. In 1844, after several years of effort, he perfected a telegraph that printed out messages in the alphabet. Improved Morse systems gradually superseded his printing telegraphs during the 1850s, and he later designed efficient glass insulators. An…

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Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) - History, Current leadership, Admissions

A London theatre school founded in 1904 by Beerbohm Tree, and granted its Royal Charter in 1920. The leading drama school in the country, it is located in Chenies Street. George Bernard Shaw bequeathed to the Royal Academy a third part of his royalties while his copyright lasts. Major refurbishment of its Malet Street premises began in 1997, and was completed in 2001. It was established in …

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Royal Academy of Music - The Academy, People

A London conservatory founded in 1822, opened in 1823, and granted its royal charter in 1830. It moved to its present location in Marylebone, London in 1912. The Royal Academy of Music (sometimes abbreviated to RAM) is a music school in London, England and one of the leading music institutions in the world. The Academy is situated on Marylebone Road in central London, adjacent t…

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Royal Air Force (RAF) - Mission, History, Structure of the RAF, RAF Personnel, Aircraft, RAF deployments, Symbols, flags and emblems

Britain's air force, established 1 April 1918, combining the existing forces of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. Vital to Britain's survival in two World Wars, today the RAF comprises three Commands: Strike, Support, and RAF Germany. Responsibility for operating Britain's nuclear deterrent was transferred from the RAF's bomber squadrons to the Royal Navy's Polaris submarine …

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Royal Albert Hall - Introduction, History, Famous concerts

Concert hall built (1867–71) in memory of Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, located S of Kensington Gardens, London, UK. Designed by British army engineer, Major General H Y D Scott, the hall is an oval arena with a domed roof constructed of iron and glass. The brick exterior is decorated with a terracotta relief depicting the development of the arts and sciences. With se…

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royal assent - United Kingdom, Commonwealth

A legal stage through which a bill has to pass in the UK before it becomes law. Because the legislature in the UK is the Monarch-in-Parliament, after a bill has passed through both Houses of Parliament, the monarch's assent is required in order that it may become law. This approval is a formality; it has never been withheld in modern times. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method …

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Royal Astronomical Society - Meetings, Associated Groups, Presidents, Medals, Other activities

A society founded in 1820 in London, UK for “the encouragement and promotion of astronomy and geophysics”. Its main functions are to publish the results of astronomical and geophysical research, to maintain as complete a library as possible, and to meet regularly for discussion. It received a Royal Charter in 1831. The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) began as the Astronomical Society of …

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Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) - History, Ranks and uniform, Current strength, Future equipment

Australia's air force, established in 1921, formed from the wartime Australian Flying Corps. Poorly equipped with donated British government aircraft, it was under threat of being divided between the army and the navy until 1932. Its strength in the mid-1920s was 1200 men and 128 aircraft, but in the late 1930s it was expanded and improved, and by the mid-1980s it had 22 000 personnel. The RAAF s…

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Royal Australian Navy (RAN) - Future

Australia's Navy, established in 1911, formed from the naval forces of the Australian colonies at Federation (1901). Based on the British Royal Navy, it had an early success in 1914 in sinking the German raider Emden, and saw action in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and the Pacific. In the inter-war years, it was greatly reduced in size: by 1939, it had only 5440 personnel; but by 1945 this figure h…

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Royal College of Music - Museum of instruments, Other collections

A London conservatory founded by royal charter in 1883 and opened that year. It moved to its present location in Prince Consort Road in 1894. The Royal College of Music is a prestigious music school located in Kensington, London. Founded in 1882 as a successor to the National Training School for Music by the then-Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), the school opened in 1883 with…

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Royal College of Surgeons of England - History, Fellows, Buildings, Hunterian and Wellcome Museums

The origins of the College lie in the union of surgeons and barbers by Henry VIII in 1540 to form the Company of Barber-Surgeons. During the 18th-c the surgeons broke away to form the separate Company of Surgeons (1745) with its own hall close to the Old Bailey and Newgate Prison. In 1797 it relocated to its present site at Lincoln's Inn Fields. In 1800 the Company was granted a Royal Charter to b…

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Royal Commission

In the UK, a body appointed by the sovereign on the prime minister's recommendation to investigate and report on the operation of laws which it is proposed to change. It may also deal with social, educational, or other matters about which the government wishes to make general, long-term policy decisions. A Royal Commissioner has considerable powers, generally greater even than those of a ju…

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Royal Court Theatre - Bibliography

Theatre in Sloane Square, London, UK, founded in 1888. A grade II listed building, it was closed in 1996 for major refurbishment and reopened in early 2000. The theatre is known for its support of the works of new writers and as a platform for emerging talent. The Royal Court Theatre is a not-for-profit theatre in Sloane Square, in the Chelsea area of London. It is noted for its contributio…

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royal fern

A perennial fern (Osmunda regalis) with thick rhizomes forming large clumps, native to wet or boggy places throughout temperate regions; fronds to 3 m/10 ft, bi-pinnate; fertile fronds with small upper leaflets bearing numerous brown sporangia. (Family: Osmundaceae.) …

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Royal Geographical Society - Research Group, Awards and Grants

A society founded in London in 1830 for the ‘advancement of geographical science’. Membership is open to all who are interested in the subject, and the society has been responsible for a number of scientific expeditions. The Royal Geographical Society is a learned society, founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the p…

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Royal Horticultural Society - RHS Gardens, RHS Flower Shows, Britain in Bloom, Medals and awards, RHS libraries, Publications

A society founded in the UK in 1804 ‘for the improvement of horticulture’; it received its Royal Charter in 1809. An experimental garden is maintained at Wisley, Surrey; shows and competitions, most notably the Chelsea Flower Show, are held annually. The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) was founded in 1804 in London, England as the Horticultural Society of London, and gained its present …

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royal household - The Royal Household in England and Great Britain, The Royal Household in Scotland

In the UK, the collective term for those departments which serve members of the royal family in matters of day-to-day administration. In mediaeval times no distinction existed between the sovereign's ministers and personal servants; a survival of this earlier fusion of posts is to be found today in the titles of government Whips, such as Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household.…

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Royal Institution - History, The Royal Institution today, The Faraday Museum

In the UK, a learned scientific society founded in 1799 by the physicist, Count Rumford. Its laboratories became Britain's first research centre, used in the 19th-c by Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday. Lectures are still given at its headquarters in Albemarle Street, London, notably the Christmas lectures for young people. The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the…

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royal jelly - Cultivation, Uses, Other meanings of royal jelly

A highly nutritious substance produced by the salivary glands of the worker bees to nourish the queen bee and those larvae that are destined to become queens. There are many anecdotal reports of its beneficial effects on humans, both as a general ‘tonic’ and also as a means of alleviating a range of complaints, such as rheumatoid arthritis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Analysis has shown that ro…

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Royal Marines (RM) - Role, Command, Control and Organisation, Training, Traditions and insignia

Britain's Marine force, which can trace its origin to the Lord High Admiral's Regiment first raised in 1664. The title Royal Marines was conferred in 1800. The first RM Commando units were raised in 1942. His/Her Majesty's Royal Marines, also known as the Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navy's Light Infantry, the United Kingdom's amphibious force and specialists in Arctic and Mounta…

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Royal Military Academy

Military academy situated in Sandhurst, Berkshire, England, UK. It developed from the Royal Military Academy (founded 1799) at Woolwich, London, and the Royal Military College which was established (1802) by royal warrant at Great Marlow, and moved to Sandhurst in 1812. The present academy was formed in 1947. The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British …

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Royal Mint - History

The British government department responsible for manufacturing metal coins. The London mint probably dates from AD 825, and since the mid-16th-c it has enjoyed a legal monopoly of coinage. It is now situated in Llantrisant, S Wales, 7 km/4 mi outside Pontypridd. The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland…

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Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) - The RNLI in action, Classes of lifeboats in service, Roll of honour

In the UK, a rescue organization manned by volunteers and financed by voluntary contributions, founded by Sir William Hillary (1771–1847) in 1824 as the Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck, changing to its present name in 1854. The modern RNLI operates over 200 lifeboat stations and maintains over 250 active vessels. The offshore boats are powerful self-righting…

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Royal Navy (RN) - Role, Command, Control and Organisation, Titles and naming, History, The Royal Navy today, Current Deployments

The naval branch of the British armed forces. A national English Navy is as old as Saxon times, but the Royal Navy as such originates in the time of Henry VIII, when a Navy Board and the title of Lord High Admiral were established. The primary instrument of British imperial expansion in the 18th-c and 19th-c, it reached the peak of its global power at the end of World War 2, when it had more than …

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Edinburgh Royal Observatory

An observatory at Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK, founded in 1818. A pioneer of new techniques in astronomy, it houses the UK Astronomy Technology Centre, responsible for developing instrumentation for UK astronomers. The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (ROE) is located on Blackford Hill in the south of the city of Edinburgh. …

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Royal Opera House - History, Opera at the Royal Opera House after 1945

The home of the Royal Ballet and the Royal Opera in Bow Street, London, UK. Three successive buildings have occupied the site since the Theatre Royal opened there in 1732. The present building, by Edward Middleton Barry (1830–80), opened in 1858. It was closed for refurbishment, 1997–9. The Royal Opera House is an opera house and performing arts venue in London. The building serves as the…

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royal prerogative - The Royal Prerogative in the United Kingdom, The Royal Prerogative in the Commonwealth Realms

The set of powers, most of which are ill-defined, remaining within the preserve of the British monarch. These include the power to declare war, make treaties, appoint judges, pardon criminals and, most significantly, dissolve Parliament. In practice all these powers are taken on the advice of, and in effect made by, the prime minister and other government ministers. While prerogative powers…

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Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) - Key productions, Artistic directors, Notable actors past and present

An English theatre company based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire and London, UK which has as a primary objective the regular production of Shakespeare's plays. It was developed out of the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre by Peter Hall between 1960 and 1968. Under his leadership and then that of Trevor Nunn, a major international reputation was established by the early 1970s. Adrian Noble took ove…

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Royal Society (RS)

In the UK, a prestigious scientific institution - the oldest in the world to have enjoyed continuous existence. The inaugural meeting was held in Gresham College, London in 1660, and in 1662 Charles II granted a charter to the Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge. Isaac Newton was its president, 1703–27. A Royal Fellow of the Royal Society is elected to the Fellow…

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Royal Television Society (RTS) - History, Activities, Awards

A society formed in 1927 in London, UK, for the furthering of the “new scientific medium of television”. Granted its royal title in 1966, the society now represents over 4000 members from the broadcasting industry, with regional centres in the UK, Ireland and North America. Each runs its own programme of lectures, workshops, masterclasses, awards, and social events. The Royal Television S…

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Royal Victorian Order - History, Composition, Vestments and accoutrements, Chapel, Precedence and privileges

An order of knighthood instituted in 1896 by Queen Victoria, designed to reward distinguished service to the sovereign. There are five classes: Knights and Dames Grand Cross (GCVO), Knights and Dames Commander (KCVO/DCVO), Commanders (CVO), Lieutenants (LVO), and Members (MVO). The motto is ‘Victoria’ and the ribbon blue with red and white edges. The Royal Victorian Order is an order of c…

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Royall Tyler - Sources

Lawyer, judge, and playwright, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After reading law, he served in the American Revolution and then began practising law, first in Portland, ME (1780–5) and then in Boston (1785–91). He volunteered for service in the force that quelled Shays Rebellion in 1787, the very year that his comedy, The Contrast, became the first professionally produced play (in New York C…

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RR Lyrae variable

A type of variable star, all with approximately the same luminosity. This gives a key to finding distances in space, because the identification of an RR Lyrae is the key to its absolute luminosity; by comparing this to the observed magnitude, the distance is inferred. RR Lyrae variables are variable stars often used as standard candles. RR Lyrae are pulsating Horizontal branch s…

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rubber - Explanation, Sources, Chemical makeup, History, Properties, Current sources of rubber, Uses

A resilient, elastic substance obtained from a variety of unrelated, latex-producing, tropical trees. These include Cearà rubber (Manihot glaziovii), Panama rubber (Castilla elastica), and indiarubber (Ficus elastica), but easily the most important source is Parà rubber (Hevea braziliensis), an evergreen tree native to Brazil. Raw rubber, or caoutchouc, is obtained from the milky latex exuded by…

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Rube Foster

Baseball player, manager, and executive, born in Calvert, Texas, USA. Nicknamed Rube for outpitching Hall of Fame player Rube Waddell, he rose through the ranks from star player (1902–17) to club owner, emerging as the dominant figure in black baseball after pitching and managing his 1910 Leland Giants, who dominated African-American baseball for the following decade, to a 126–6 record. Friend a…

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Rube Goldberg - Early life, Main career, Late life, Rube Goldberg machines, References in culture

Cartoonist, born in San Francisco, California, USA. Originally an engineer, he began his career as a sports cartoonist in San Francisco in 1905. He created the syndicated newspaper comic strips, Boob McNutt (1916–33) and Lala Palooza in the 1930s. His most whimsical character was Professor Butts, whose complicated inventions to achieve simple ends, such as using ropes, pulleys, buckets, and small…

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rubella - Symptoms, Risks, Rubella in popular culture

A highly infectious disease, caused by a virus, that affects older children and young adults; also called German measles. Although a trivial short-lived illness, limited to fever and a rash, it is important because women who are infected in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy are likely to have children with congenital abnormalities such as deafness, blindness, and brain damage. A vaccine to prevent t…

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Rubik's Cube - History, Workings, Solutions, Rubik's Cube in mathematics and science

A mathematical puzzle named after its inventor, Hungarian architect Ernö Rubik (1944– ). A coloured cube is divided into 26 small incomplete cubes (cubelets), of which 6 are centres which can only turn in place, 8 are corners, and 12 are edges; the last 20 can all be shifted in position. There are c.4·3 × 1022 combinations, but only one possible way of getting all six sides to form a differe…

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ruby

A gem variety of corundum, coloured deep crimson to pale red by the presence of minor impurities of chromium. The best specimens come from Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. …

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Ruby Dee - Filmography

Stage, film, and television actress, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. She played a wide range of roles, from Shakespeare's Cleopatra to Lutiebelle in Purlie Victorious. She was married to Ossie Davis. Ruby Dee and her late husband, actor Ossie Davis, were well-known civil rights activists. Dee and Davis wrote a joint autobiography titled "With Ossie and Ruby", in which they discuss…

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rudbeckia

A biennial or perennial, native to North America; large flower-heads, characterized by the conspicuous conical receptacle in the centre, giving rise to the alternative name of coneflower; outer ray florets red, yellow, or orange. It is often grown as an ornamental. (Genus: Rudbeckia, 15 species. Family: Compositae.) …

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