Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 63

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Richard Burton - Early acting career, Hollywood and later career, Personal life, Academy Awards nominations, Selected filmography, Stage career

Stage and film actor, born in Pontrhydfen, Neath and Port Talbot, SC Wales, UK. The 12th child (possibly grandchild) of a coalminer, Richard Jenkins, he was brought up in his sister's house after his mother's death. He was befriended by his English teacher, Philip H Burton, who encouraged his acting and study of English, and eventually adopted him. He went to Oxford, and in 1943 changed his name t…

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Richard Carlile - Early life, Politics and publishing, Peterloo and The Republican, The Devil's Chaplain, Jailed again

Journalist and radical reformer, born in Ashburton, Devon, SW England, UK. A disciple of Thomas Paine, he sold the prohibited radical weekly Black Dwarf throughout London in 1817. He was imprisoned several times for his publications, which included his Political Litany, Paine's works, and a journal, The Republican (1819–26). Richard Carlile (9 December 1790 – 10 February 1843) was an imp…

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Richard Challoner

Roman Catholic clergyman and writer, born in Lewes, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He studied at Douai (1704) and was ordained in 1716, remaining there as a professor until 1730. He then served as a missionary priest in London, becoming Bishop of Debra (1741) and Vicar Apostolic of the London district (1758). His best-known works are the prayer book, The Garden of the Soul (1740), and his revision o…

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Richard Chamberlain - Biography

Actor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. Trained as a dramatic actor, he appeared in television series in the 1950s including Gunsmoke, then gained great popularity as the lead in Dr Kildare (1961–6). Desiring to change his image as a lightweight television actor, he moved to England, where he played serious roles, including Hamlet, in various British stage productions. He then returned to th…

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Richard Chancellor

English seaman, chosen in 1553 as ‘pilot-general’ of Sir Hugh Willoughby's expedition in search of a Northeast Passage to India. The ships were parted in a storm, and Chancellor proceeded alone into the White Sea, travelling overland to Moscow, where he concluded a treaty giving freedom of trade to English ships. In 1555 he made a second voyage to Moscow, aboard the Edward Bonaventure, but was s…

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Richard Chenevix Trench

Anglican clergyman, philologist, and poet, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Cambridge, became curate in 1841 to Samuel Wilberforce, and during 1835–46 published six volumes of poetry. He was rector of Itchenstoke 1845, professor of theology in King's College, London (1847), Dean of Westminster (1856), and Archbishop of Dublin (1864–84). In philology he popularized the scientific study of w…

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Richard Cobbold - Life, Work

Writer, born in Ipswich, Suffolk, E England, UK. He wrote Margaret Catchpole (1845) and other works, and for 50 years was rector of Wortham, near Diss. Richard Cobbold (1797–1877) was a British writer. Born in 1797 in the Suffolk town of Ipswich into a large and affluent family who made their money from the brewing industry. Their name lives on in Ipswich in the fi…

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Richard Cobden - Early years, First publications, First steps in politics, Corn laws, Tribute and sojourn, Peace campaigner

Economist and politician, ‘the apostle of free trade’, born in Heyshott, West Sussex, S England, UK. He worked as a clerk and commercial traveller in London, then went into the calico business, settling in Manchester. In 1835 he visited the USA, and the Levant (1836–7), after which he published two pamphlets preaching free trade, nonintervention, and speaking against ‘Russophobia’. In 1838 he…

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Richard Cosway

Miniaturist, born in Tiverton, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied with Thomas Hudson (1701–79) in London, and became a fashionable painter of portraits, patronized by the Prince of Wales. The use of watercolour on ivory is a notable feature of his work. In 1781 he married the artist Maria Hadfield (1759–1838), also a miniaturist. Richard Cosway (5 November 1742 – 4 July 1821) was a leadi…

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Richard Courant

Mathematician, born in Lubliniec, S Poland (formerly Lublinitz, Germany). He studied at Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia), Zürich, and (as a pupil of David Hilbert) Göttingen universities, where he became professor in 1920, founding the Mathematics Institute in 1929. In 1933 he was forced by the Nazis to retire, and after a year at Cambridge he went to the USA, where he became professo…

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Richard Cox

Clergyman and Protestant reformer, born in Whaddon, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became headmaster of Eton, and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford (1547–52). On the accession of Mary I he was imprisoned, and went into exile in Frankfurt, where he was a bitter opponent of John Knox and his Calvinist doctrines. Back in England, he was appointed Bishop of Ely (1559–80). …

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Richard Crashaw - Life, Works, Reference

Religious poet, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, went to Paris, became a Catholic (1644), and in 1649 was given a Church post in Loretto, Italy. He is best known for his volume of Latin poems, Epigrammatum sacrorum liber (1634, A Book of Sacred Epigrams), and Steps to the Temple (1646). Richard Crashaw (c. 1613 - August 25, 1650), English poet, styled "the divine," was part of t…

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Richard Croker

US politician, born in Co Cork, Ireland. His family came to New York City when he was three years old. He worked as a machinist and led a street gang, was a prize fighter, and became involved in Democratic Party politics by serving as an aide to John Kelly of Tammany Hall. Croker was elected alderman (1868), and when Kelly replaced the ousted (1871) ‘Boss’ Tweed as the boss of New York City (187…

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Richard Cromwell - Early years and family (1626-1653), Move into political life (1653-1658)

English statesman, the third son of Oliver Cromwell. He served in the parliamentary army, sat in parliament (1654, 1656), and was a member of the Council of State (1657). In 1658 he succeeded his father as Lord Protector (his two elder brothers having died); but he soon fell out with parliament, which he dissolved in 1659. He recalled the Rump Parliament of 1653, but found the task of ruling beyon…

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Richard D'Oyly Carte - Life and Career, Primary works as a composer

Theatrical impresario, born in London, UK. After working in his father's musical instrument-making business he became a concert agent, and from 1875 produced the first operettas by ‘Gilbert and Sullivan’, with whom he formed a partnership. In 1881 he built the Savoy Theatre in London, the first to be lit by electricity. Another theatre building, a Royal English Opera House (1887), failed. After …

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Richard Dacoury - Career in clubs, Club Honours, International career

French basketball player, voted best player in 1985. He has been French champion nine times; eight with Limoges and once with PSG Racing in 1997. He won the Coupe des Coupes in 1988, and was French champion with PSG Racing in 1997. He has been selected over 230 times for the French national team, making him the most decorated player in France. 1981-1992 French National Team, 166 appearances…

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Richard Dadd - Life and work, Legacy

Painter, born in Chatham, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy Schools, travelled extensively in Europe and the Middle East, and was considered a promising young artist. However, in 1843 he suffered a mental breakdown, murdered his father, and spent the rest of his life in asylums. He is best known for the fantastically detailed fairy paintings which made up the bulk of his output…

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Richard Dehmel - Life, Literary work, Works

Poet, born in Brandenburg, EC Germany. He wrote intellectual verse showing the influence of Nietzsche. His works include Weib und Welt (1896, Woman and World) and Schöne wilde Welt (1913, Beautiful, Wild World). Dehmel, son of a forester, finished school in 1882 in Berlin and studied natural sciences, economy and philosophy at the university. In 1889, he married Paula Oppenheim…

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Richard Demarco

Artist, broadcaster, and teacher, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at the College of Art (1949–53), and became a leading promoter of modern art in Scotland, especially at the Edinburgh Festival since 1967, and has presented annual programmes of theatre, music, and dance. He was co-founder of the Traverse Theatre Club, and director (1966–92) of the Richard Demarco Gallery. Ri…

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Richard Dreyfuss - Biography, Filmography

Actor, born in New York City, USA. After working on Broadway and in repertory, he gained attention with his roles in Dillinger (1973) and American Graffiti (1973). He became well known following his performances in Jaws (1975), Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), and The Goodbye Girl (1977, Oscar). Later films include Down and Out in Beverly Hills (1986), Stakeout (1987), Postcards from the…

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Richard Estes

Painter, born in Keewane, Illinois, USA. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1952–6), and in 1959 moved to New York City. For several years he worked in the illustration and advertising industry before becoming a full-time painter in 1966. In the late 1960s he began painting precise copies of photographs, particularly of New York street-scenes. His meticulously detailed ‘Super-Realist’ …

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Richard Estes

Painter, born in Evanston, Illinois, USA. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1952–6), and became a member of the super realists, who focused on industrial landscapes and a photographic approach to art. His eerie street scenes, such as ‘Victory Theatre’ (1968) and ‘Canadian Club’ (1974), are typical of his work. At an early age, Richard's family moved to Chicago. As a young adu…

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Richard Fleischer

Film director, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. The son of film cartoon animator Max Fleischer, he studied psychiatry at Brown University, RI, where he became interested in directing musical comedy productions and subsequently moved to Yale Drama School. He later joined a touring theatre group and was spotted by a talent scout from RKO-Pathé and employed in their New York office making Pathé new…

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Richard Foreman - Prizes and awards

Director, producer, and playwright, born in New York City, New York, USA. An avant-garde dramatist, he was the founder of the Ontological-Hysteric Theatre in New York in 1968. He also designed sets for New York's Public Theatre, among others. Richard Foreman (born in New York on 10 June 1937) is a playwright and avant-garde theater pioneer; His work has been primarily done at th…

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Richard Foxe

Clergyman, born in Ropsley, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, Cambridge, and Paris, and became bishop successively of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester. In 1517 he founded Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Richard Foxe (c. 1448 - October 5, 1528) was an English churchman, successively Bishop of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, Lord Privy Seal, and…

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Richard Gere - Selected filmography

Actor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the University of Massachusetts, became a pop musician, and went on to gain extensive experience in the theatre, which included the London production of Grease (1972). He received acclaim for an off-Broadway appearance in Killer's Head (1975), then made his screen debut with a small role in Report to the Commissioner (1975). His films i…

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Richard Gibson

Painter of miniatures. He was a page to Charles I and Henrietta Maria, and the king gave away the bride when he married Anne Shepherd (1620–1709), like himself only 1·15 m/3 ft 10 in tall. He later made several portraits of Cromwell and was himself painted by Lely. Richard Gibson (born 1 January 1954 in Kampala, Uganda) is a British actor, is probably best known for his role as the arc…

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Richard Goldstone - Early life, Judge and Justice, The Goldstone Commission: Defusing apartheid

Leading liberal judge and human rights campaigner, born in Boksburg, NE South Africa. He studied at the the University of Witwatersrand, was called to the bar, and practised as a commercial advocate in Johannesburg. In 1980 he was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of South Africa. He developed an interest in the less powerful members of society and the rights of the individual. He particularl…

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Richard Hakluyt

Geographer, born in Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he lectured in geography, and was ordained some time before 1580. He wrote widely on exploration and navigation, notably his Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589; 3 vols, 1598–1600). He also introduced the use of globes into English schools. Made a prebendary of Westminster in 160…

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Richard Hamilton

Pop Art painter, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy Schools and the Slade School of Art, London, and taught at the Central School of Art and Crafts, London, and Durham University. During the 1950s he devised and participated in several influential exhibitions, notably ‘This is Tomorrow’ (1956, London). This introduced the concept of Pop Art, of which he became a leading pioneer.…

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Richard Harding Davis - Partial list of works

Journalist, and writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Starting as a newspaper reporter in Philadelphia and then New York (1886–91), he was managing editor of Harper's Weekly (1891–93) but spent most of his later career as a freelance, travelling and writing articles, as well as fiction and drama. One of the most popular reporters of his day, he covered half a dozen conflicts, includin…

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Richard Henry Lee - Quotes, Political offices

Legislator and Revolutionary statesman, born in Westmoreland Co, Virginia, USA. He strenuously opposed the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts. He became a leader of the radical wing of the Virginia House of Burgesses, where he was associated with Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry. In June 1776 he introduced the resolution in Congress which led directly to the drafting of the Declaration of Independ…

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Richard Hofstadter - Biography, Published works

Historian, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. An interdisciplinary pioneer and major seminal influence in American intellectual and political history, he received his doctorate from Columbia University (1942) and taught there (1946–70), training a generation of graduate students. His doctoral thesis, Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 (1944), won the Beveridge Award from the American H…

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Richard III

King of England (1483–5), born in Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, C England, UK, the youngest son of Richard, Duke of York. He was created Duke of Gloucester by his brother, Edward IV, in 1461, accompanied him into exile (1470), and played a key role in his restoration (1471). Rewarded with part of the Neville inheritance, he exercised viceregal powers in N England, and in 1482 recaptured B…

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Richard John Neuhaus

Minister and writer, born in Pembroke, Ontario, Canada. A minister's son, he left home at age 14 and succeeded in business before he became the Lutheran pastor of a largely black congregation in Brooklyn, NY (1961–78). Active in the protest movements of the 1960s, he became more conservative in response to later events, maintaining that the Moral Majority groups were correct in their emphasis, if…

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Richard Jordan Gatling

Inventor, born in Maney's Neck, North Carolina, USA. The son of a planter, he taught at a school and ran a country store, but he was observant of the agricultural practices all around him and spent his time inventing such devices as a rice-sewing machine (patented 1839) and a steam plough (1857). By 1862 he had received a patent for a rapid-fire multi-barrel weapon; technically speaking it was not…

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Richard King

Steamboatman and rancher, born in Orange Co, New York, USA. He left a jewellery apprenticeship and worked as a steamboatman for some 20 years. In 1852 he purchased 15 500 acres in S Texas, and by the end of his life he had expanded the property to include over 600 000 prime acres and 100 000 head of cattle. Although he was said to be ruthless and autocratic in acquiring and running the King Ran…

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Richard Krautheimer

Architectural historian, born in Fürth, Germany. A specialist in early Christian and mediaeval architecture who later turned to the baroque period, he was an early exponent of architectural iconography. His works include Corpus Basilicarum Christianarum Romae (1937–70). He taught at Vassar College (1937–52) and the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (1952). Richard Krautheimer (…

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Richard Kuhn - Life, Scientific work and Nobel Prize

Biochemist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Munich, was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, and became professor at Heidelberg University from 1929. He was noted for his work on the structure and synthesis of vitamins A and B2, and on carotinoids. He was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, but was forbidden to accept it by the Nazi government (he received the prize after World…

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Richard Le Gallienne - Works

Writer, born in Liverpool, NW England, UK, the father of Eva Le Gallienne. In 1891 he became a London journalist, but later lived in New York City. He published many volumes of prose and verse, the best of which are Quest of the Golden Girl (1896), The Romantic Nineties (1926), and From a Paris Garret (1936). Richard Thomas Le Gallienne (1866 - 1947) was an English man of letters, very much…

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Richard Llewellyn - Selected works of Richard Llewellyn

Writer, born in St David's, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, UK. He established himself, after service with the regular army and a short spell in the film industry and journalism, as a best-selling novelist with How Green Was My Valley (1939), a novel about a Welsh mining village. It was filmed under the direction of John Ford in 1941. Later works include The Flame of Hercules (1957) and I Stand on a Quie…

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Richard Lovelace

English Cavalier poet. He studied at Oxford, SC England, UK, and in 1642 was imprisoned for presenting to the House of Commons a petition from the royalists of Kent ‘for the restoring the king to his rights’, and was released on bail. He spent his great estate in Kent in the king's cause, assisted the French in 1646 to capture Dunkirk from the Spaniards, and was flung into jail on returning to E…

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Richard Lower

Physician and physiologist, born in Tremeer, Cornwall, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and worked with Thomas Willis in London. With Robert Hooke he collaborated in a series of experiments on the role of the lungs in changing the colour of the blood. His Tractatus de corde (1669, Treatise on the Heart) was a major work on pulmonary and cardiovascular anatomy and physiology. He also conducted…

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Richard Mansfield - Life and career, Trivia

Stage actor, born in Berlin, Germany. The son of English parents, he went to the USA (1872) and thereafter alternated between America and England, first attracting attention in light opera productions in London, then moving over to the New York theatre in 1883. One of the last in the fading style of romantic acting, his most famous roles were as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1887), Beau Brummel (1890), a…

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Richard March Hoe

Inventor and industrialist, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of a British-born manufacturer of printing presses, he joined his father's company at age 15 and, with a cousin, took over the business three years later. His Hoe rotary press, which printed on a cylinder instead of a flat plate, went into operation at the Philadelphia Public Ledger in 1847. By 1865 a competitor had develope…

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Richard Mather

Protestant minister and writer, born in Lancashire, NW England, UK. The father of Increase Mather and grandfather of Cotton Mather, he was educated locally and taught school nearby before attending Brasenose College, Oxford. In 1619 he was ordained a minister, but was twice suspended (1633, 1634) by the Anglican Archbishop Laud due to his nonconformist beliefs. He emigrated to Boston (1635), serve…

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Richard Mentor Johnson - Childhood and family, Elected office

US vice-president and senator, born in Beargrass (now Louisville), Kentucky, USA. Raised on the frontier, he studied law and was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1802. He served in the US House of Representatives (1807–19). He enlisted for the War of 1812 and took part in the Battle of the Thames (1813) in which he was wounded; his claim that he killed Tecumseh was never proven. He moved to the US…

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Richard Montgomery - Legacy

American soldier, born in Co Dublin, Ireland. Commissioned in the British army (1756), he saw service in America during the French and Indian War, then resigned to settle in America (1773). He married the daughter of the wealthy New Yorker, Robert Livingston (1718–75), and supported the patriots in their resistance to Britain. He was promoted brigadier-general in the Continental army (Jun 1775), …

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Richard Morris Hunt - References:

Architect, born in Brattleboro, Vermont, USA. The first American admitted to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1846), he worked with Hector Martin Lefuel on the Pavillion de la Bibliothèque of the Louvre (1854–5). He opened a practice (1855) and an atelier in New York, training among others Frank Furness and George B Post. An eclectic stylist, he designed many houses and university and public bui…

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Richard Mulcaster

Educationist, probably born in Cumbria, NW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and Oxford, was a brilliant Greek and Oriental scholar, and became first headmaster of Merchant Taylors School. He advocated university training for teachers, and other reforms well in advance of his time. In 1582 he published his famous The First Part of the Elementairie, which included a list of 7000 words in his pro…

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Richard Nash

Dandy, born in Swansea, SC Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford, held a commission in the army, and in 1693 entered the Middle Temple. He then made a shifty living by gambling, but in 1704 became master of ceremonies at Bath, where he conducted the public balls with a splendour never before witnessed. His reforms in manners, his influence in improving the streets and buildings, and his leadership in fa…

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Richard Neutra

Architect and writer, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to the USA (1923) and, working with R M Schindler and also alone, he designed uncompromisingly Modernist houses and schools, mostly in California, incorporating such innovations as steel framing, as for Lovell (Health) House (1929), Los Angeles. Later, with Robert Alexander (1949–mid-1960s), he tackled larger public projects. His books i…

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Richard Olney

Lawyer and cabinet member, born in Oxford, Massachusetts, USA. A brilliant if forbidding Boston lawyer (1859–93), he was President Grover Cleveland's attorney general (1893–5), best known for ending the Pullman strike led by Eugene Debs, but he did go on to support the rights of organized labour. As secretary of state (1895–7), he settled the boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guian…

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Richard Parkes Bonington

Painter, born near Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. About 1817 his family moved to Calais, and there and at Paris he studied art, and became a friend of Delacroix. His first works were exhibited in the Salon in 1822, mostly sketches of Le Havre and Lillebonne. He excelled in light effects achieved by the use of a large expanse of sky, broad areas of pure colour, and the silhouetting of …

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Richard Petty - Racing career, Life after racing, Races won, Teams, Trivia

Stock-car racing driver, born in Level Cross, North Carolina, USA. Beginning professional car racing in 1958, he became the holder of numerous National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) records. He won the Daytona 500 and the NASCAR national championship each seven times during 1964–1981. With over 200 victories, he started more races, won more races, and made more money than any sto…

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Richard Price

Moral philosopher and Unitarian minister, born in Tynton, Monmouthshire, SE Wales, UK. A preacher in London, he established his reputation with the Review of the Principal Questions in Morals (1758). He was admitted to the Royal Society in 1765 for his work on probability. His Observations on Reversionary Payments (1771) helped to establish a scientific system for life-insurance and pensions. Amon…

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Richard Pryor - Early life and career, Mainstream success, The freebasing incident and its aftermath, Marriages, Later life, Death

Comedian, born in Peoria, Illinois, USA. He worked in small clubs before being discovered by Johnny Carson in 1966. He appeared in Las Vegas and in films including The Lady Sings the Blues (1972), Uptown Saturday Night (1974), Stir Crazy (1980), and Superman III (1982). With his expressive face, speedy wit, and raunchy language, he created a variety of characters on stage and screen, but his drug …

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Richard Pynson - Bibliography and Sources

Printer, born in Normandy, NW France. He studied at the University of Paris, learned printing in Normandy, and practised his trade in England. In 1497 his edition of the Latin poet Terence appeared, the first classic to be printed in London. He became printer to Henry VIII (1508), and introduced roman type in England (1509). Richard Pynson (born 1448 in Normandy, died 1529) was one of the f…

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Richard Redgrave

Subject painter, born in London, UK. Inspector-general of art schools from 1857, he was much involved with the circle of Sir Henry Cole, and edited the Journal of Design and Manufactures. With his brother Samuel (1802–76) he wrote A Century of English Painters (1866) and Samuel also wrote Dictionary of Artists of the English School (1874). Richard Redgrave (30 April 1804 - 14 December 1888…

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Richard Roberts

Inventor, born in Carreghova, Mid Glamorgan. An uneducated quarry worker, he had extraordinary mechanical skills, and went on to work for John Wilkinson and Henry Maudslay. In 1816 he established his own machine-tool business in Manchester, where he built one of the first metal-planing machines. His firm of Sharp, Roberts and Company manufactured a spinning mule as well as railway locomotives, beg…

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Richard Savage

English poet and satirist. He declared himself the illegitimate son of the 4th Earl Rivers, led a dissipated life, and came to prominence as the subject of a biography by Dr Samuel Johnson (1744). His work includes Miscellaneous Poems (1728), The Convocation (1717), and the moral and descriptive poem in five cantos, ‘The Wanderer’ (1729). Richard Savage (c. Savage's parentage,…

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Richard Serra - Sculpture, Video art, Trivia

Sculptor, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied art at California (Berkeley) and Yale universities, then went to Paris and Florence before settling in New York City. In the late 1960s he produced a series of films, and began manufacturing austere minimalist works from sheet steel, iron, and lead. Notable are the long arcs of sheet metal which can span city squares, and the cubic struc…

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Richard Simon

Theologian and biblical scholar, born in Dieppe, NW France. He became a member of the Oratory in Paris (1659), where he lectured on philosophy and catalogued oriental manuscripts. His free-thinking Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1678) led to his expulsion from the order. He retired to Dieppe, where he died, and is regarded as the father of Biblical exegesis. It was shortly before thi…

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Richard Stoker

Composer, pianist, artist, and writer, born in Castleford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music with Lennox Berkeley, and in Paris with Nadia Boulanger. A professor at the Royal Academy (1963–87), his varied compositions include the opera Johnson Preserv'd (1967), works for piano and organ, string quartets, film and stage scores, and many choral works. He edited…

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Richard Strauss - History, Principal works, Sources

Composer, born in Munich, SE Germany. He studied at Munich and Berlin, and conducted at Meiningen, Munich, Weimar, Bayreuth, and Berlin. He is best known for his symphonic poems, such as Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (1894–5, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks) and Also sprach Zarathustra (1895–6, Thus Spoke Zarathustra), and his operas, notably Der Rosenkavalier (1911) and Ariadne auf Naxos…

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Richard Tauber

Tenor, born in Linz, N Austria. He established himself as one of Germany's leading tenors, particularly in Mozartian opera. After 1925 he increasingly appeared in light opera, notably Lehár's Land of Smiles, which he brought to London in 1931. This won him great popularity, repeated by his part in his own Old Chelsea (1943), and appearances in several films. He appeared at Covent Garden in 1938, …

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Richard Tottel

Printer, based in London, UK. From his shop at the Star in Hand inn at Temple Bar, Fleet St, he published Thomas More's Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulacion (1553), John Lydgate's The Falls of Princes (1554), and the Earl of Surrey's translations of parts of the Aeneid. He also compiled an anthology of contemporary Elizabethan poetry, Songes and Sonettes (1557), containing the chief works of Su…

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Richard Trevithick - Childhood and early life, Trevithick's first job, Family, The high pressure engine

Engineer and inventor, born in Illogan, Cornwall, SW England, UK. He became a mining engineer at Penzance, and between 1796 and 1801 invented a steam carriage which ran between Camborne and Tuckingmill, and which in 1803 was run from Leather Lane to Paddington by Oxford St. He later went to Peru and Costa Rica (1816–27), where his engines were introduced into the silver mines. Richard Trev…

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Richard Trumka

Union leader, born in Nemacolin, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of an Italian-American mother and a Polish-American coalminer, he spent some seven years of his youth working in the coal mines. He took an active role in the local branch of the United Mine Workers union (UMW) but then left the mines to take a degree in accounting from Pennsylvania State University and a law degree from Villanova. In 197…

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Richard Tucker

Opera tenor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He started singing in synagogues as a child and was working as a fur salesman in New York when he married the sister of established tenor, Jan Peerce, who challenged him to take voice lessons. He made his Metropolitan Opera debut in 1945, becoming an internationally popular lyric tenor. He continued to sing as a cantor on special occasions. …

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Richard Upjohn

Architect, born in Shaftesbury, Dorset, S England, UK. Apprenticed to a cabinet-maker, he emigrated in 1829 and became an architect in Boston (1934–8). His first and best-known major building was Trinity Church, New York City (1839–46), which definitively linked the Protestant Episcopal Church with the Gothic Revival style. He designed many residences and public buildings, and his later ecclesia…

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Richard Virenque

French cyclist. The first Frenchman to receive a medal in the Tour de France since Fignon in 1989, he came second in the 1997 Tour, wearing the Maillot Jaune for a day. He was best climber of the Tour in 1994–7 and third in the world road championships in 1994. He was a member of the Festina squad which was expelled from the 1998 Tour de France following allegations concerning drug-taking. …

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Richard Watson Gilder

Editor and writer, born in Bordentown, New Jersey, USA. As editor of what became the Century Magazine (1881–1909), he helped make it one of the most distinguished literary magazines of its time. He was also a prolific poet, and wrote several studies of Abraham Lincoln. Richard Watson Gilder (1844 – 1909) was an American poet and editor. Gilder was born at Bordentown, New Jers…

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Richard Wilson - Television, Films, Theatre Direction

Physicist, born in London, UK. He went to the USA in 1950 to be a research associate at Rochester (1950–1) and Stanford (1951–2) while concurrently teaching at Christ Church, Oxford (1948–53). He joined Harvard in 1955. A specialist in both elementary particles and environmental physics, he was an outspoken advocate of the need for atomic power. Richard Wilson, OBE (born July 9, 1936) is…

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Richard Wilson - Television, Films, Theatre Direction

Landscape painter, born in Penygroes, Powys, E Wales, UK. He began as a portrait painter, but after a visit to Italy (1752–6) turned to landscapes. In London in 1760 he exhibited his ‘Niobe’, and was recognized as one of the leading painters of his time. In 1776 he became librarian to the Royal Academy. Richard Wilson, OBE (born July 9, 1936) is a Scottish actor and theatre director, bes…

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Richard Wilson - Television, Films, Theatre Direction

Actor and director, born in Greenock, Inverclyde, WC Scotland, UK. He trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and became well known as a theatre actor and director during the 1980s. His first television role was in 1972, in the series My Good Woman, other appearances including Crown Court (1973–84) and Only When I Laugh (1979–82). His film work includes roles in A Passage to India…

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Richie Benaud - Cricket, Media career, Quotes

Cricketer, broadcaster, and international sports consultant, born in Penrith, New South Wales, SE Australia. He played in 63 Test matches for Australia (captain in 28), including three successful tours of England (1953, 1956, 1961). An all-rounder, he scored 2201 Test runs, including three centuries, and took 248 wickets with subtle leg-spin bowling. Upon retirement he became a well-known cricket …

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Richmal Crompton

Writer of children's books, born in Bury, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. She studied at London, and taught Classics at Bromley High School until she contracted poliomyelitis in 1923. She wrote the first of the ‘William’ books (Just William) in 1922, and had written 40 of them before her death. Richmal Crompton Lamburn (November 15, 1890–January 11, 1969) was a British writer, most …

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Richmond (Maine) - Schools and universities, People

44º05N 69º47W, pop (2000e) 1800. Town in Sagadahoc Co, Maine, USA; located on the Kennebec R, 27 km/17 mi S of Augusta; incorporated, 1823; heart of the historic Tidewater Kennebec region; birthplace of De Alva Standwood Alexander. Richmond may refer to one of the following persons: …

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Richmond (Pearson) Hobson

US naval officer, born in Greensboro, Alabama, USA. He became a naval hero during the Spanish-American War. He served as a US representative (Democrat, Alabama, 1907–15) and wrote several books, including America Must Be Mistress of the Seas (1902). Richmond Pearson Hobson (17 August 1870 - 16 March 1937) was a United States Navy admiral who served from 1905-1915 as a Congressman from Alab…

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Richmond (UK) - Schools and universities, People

51°28N 0°19W, pop (2001e) 172 300. Borough of SW Greater London, UK; on the R Thames; includes the suburbs of Twickenham, Richmond, and Barnes; railway; engineering, plastics; Hampton Court Palace, Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew Gardens), Ham House. Richmond may refer to one of the following persons: …

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Richmond (Virginia) - Schools and universities, People

37°33N 77°27W, pop (2000e) 197 800. Port and capital of state in E Virginia, USA, on the James R; settled as a trading post (Fort Charles), 1645; state capital, 1779; scene of Virginia Convention (1788) for the ratification of the Federal Constitution; Confederate capital during the Civil War; captured by Union forces, 1865; airfield; railway; three universities (1804, 1832, 1865); corporate h…

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ricin - Toxicity and manufacture, Potential medicinal use, Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent, Patent

An extremely toxic protein present in the castor bean (Ricinus communis) of the family Euphorbiaceae, which has been used as a deadly poison in political assassinations. It has been proposed as a chemical warfare agent. Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measu…

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Rick Barry - Professional career, Basketball career, Basketball blood

Basketball player, born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA. After playing for the University of Miami (1962–5), he played forward for the San Francisco (later Golden State) Warriors, the Houston Rockets, and the American Basketball Association (ABA) New York Nets (1966–80). He is the only player ever to lead both the National Basketball Association and ABA in scoring. He was elected to basketball's H…

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Rick(y) Nelson - Singles discography

Popular singer, born in Teaneck, New Jersey, USA. He sang on his parents' television show, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet (1957), and that year had his first hit songs ‘I'm Walking’ and ‘A Teenager's Romance’. In the late-1950s and early-1960s his records were regularly played on the radio. After a decline in his popularity, his single, ‘Garden Party’ (1972), sold over a million copies.…

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rickets

A disorder of infants and growing children resulting from a deficiency of vitamin D. There is a failure to calcify the growing ends of long bones (eg the femur and radius), and the soft bones are prone to deformities; bowing of the legs and curvature of the spine are typical. Swelling and enlargement of the ends of the ribs in front of the chest is known as the 'rickety rosary'. …

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Rickey (Henley) Henderson - Early years, Early playing career with the Athletics, Stolen base king, Later years — career milestones

Baseball player, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. An outfielder for the Oakland Athletics and New York Yankees (1979), he was known for his sometimes highstrung temperament and his always prolific base-stealing. His 130 stolen bases in 1982 set a new major league record, and in 1991 he broke Lou Brock's lifetime record (938). A solid ·290 hitter with power, he was one of the game's greatest lead-o…

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Ricky (Dene) Gervais - Background, Career, Accolades, Other work, Controversy, Awards, Trivia

Actor, writer, and director, born in Reading, Berkshire, S England, UK. He studied biology at University College London, and had various jobs, including manager of rock group Suede and DJ for a London radio station, before trying his luck at comedy. He shot to fame with his role as branch manager David Brent in the BBC television cult show The Office (2001–2), a series he co-wrote and co-directed…

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Ricky Leacock - Filmography, Films about Leacock, Literature

Documentary film-maker, born in the Canary Islands, Spain. Born to British parents, he began making films at age 14, then went to the USA at age 17. After serving as a combat cameraman with the US Army in World War 2, he worked with Robert Flaherty and other important American documentary film-makers. He was among the pioneers in using portable equipment and the cinéma vérité style, and founded…

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riddle - Ancestry, Poetic Form, Riddle Game, Modern television, Charades, Famous Riddles

An utterance, often cast in a traditional form, whose intention is to mystify or mislead; a linguistic guessing game. In Europe, riddles tend to be short questions, usually posed for humorous purposes, and generally restricted to children's games and conversation. In Africa, however, they are widely used by adults, often comprising cryptic statements of a philosophical character. In ancient Greece…

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Ridgeway - Roads and pathways, Towns and places, People, Other "Ridgeway" references

A long-distance footpath in England running 137 km/85 mi from Beacon Hill, Buckinghamshire, SC England, to Overton Hill, Wiltshire, S England, UK. The modern path follows the Great Ridgeway, a prehistoric trading route (used by drovers in the 18th-c); it also follows the old Icknield Way for a stretch. There are several towns and other places named Ridgeway: In England: …

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Rievaulx Abbey - Sources

A ruined 12th-c Cistercian abbey, located in a deep valley in the North Yorkshire Moors National Park, Ryedale district, North Yorkshire, England, UK. The monastery was founded during the Christianizing mission of St Bernard of Clairvaux in N England. Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey, headed by the powerful Abbot of Rievaulx, located in the small village of Rievaulx (pronounced '…

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rifle - Overview, History, 19th Century, 20th Century

A type of firearm developed into a practical weapon in the mid-19th-c in which the barrel of the gun is internally grooved in a spiral form. The bullet is spun as it passes down the bore, the spin stabilizing it in flight and thus increasing its accuracy. Bolt-action magazine rifles firing smokeless powder cartridges transformed infantry firepower by the end of the 19th-c, but their technology rem…

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rifleman - Uses

A small, wren-like bird (Acanthisitta chloris), native to New Zealand and nearby islands; male with green back and pale underparts; inhabits woodland; feeds in trees on insects and spiders; nests in hole in tree; formerly also called riflebird. (Family: Xenicidae.) Rifleman is a private soldier in a rifle unit of infantry. Originating with the 16th century handgunners and the 17…

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rift valley

An elongated trough in the Earth's crust bounded by normal faults; also termed a graben. It is a region of tension in the Earth's crust arising from crustal plates moving apart, and is associated with volcanoes, such as Kilimanjaro in the East African Rift valley. Rift valleys also form along mid-ocean ridges. In geology, a rift valley is a valley created by the formation of a rift. The Gre…

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Riga - Population, Sister cities

56°53N 24°08E, pop (2000e) 836 000. Seaport capital of Latvia; on the R Daugava, near its mouth on the Gulf of Riga; founded as a trading station, 1201; member of the Hanseatic League, 1282; capital of independent Latvia, 1918–40, and from 1991; occupied by Germany in World War 2; airport; railway; university (1919); military base; shipbuilding, machinery, metalworking, woodworking, chemicals…

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right ascension - History

One of the two co-ordinates, used with declination for specifying position on the celestial sphere; the celestial equivalent of longitude. It is the angular distance measured E along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the intersection of the hour circle passing through the body. Units are hours, minutes, and seconds, and one hour of right ascension is 15°. RA is measured in h…

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right to silence - History, Worldwide

In most legal jurisdictions, a right which protects criminal suspects from answering questions put to them by the relevant authority or from giving any evidence. In the UK, police are required to caution suspects about their right to silence and right to legal advice. The drawing of any adverse inference from this silence is in the court's discretion. However, if suspects fail to account for objec…

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right whale

A baleen whale; large head (up to 40% of total length); three species: right whale (Balaena glacialis) from temperate seas; bowhead or Greenland right whale (Balaena mysticetus) from the Arctic, with the longest baleen plates (4·5 m/14¾ ft) of any whale; pygmy right whale (Caperea marginata) from sub-Antarctic seas. The name is also used for right whale dolphins (genus: Lissodelphis, 2 species…

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rigor mortis

A temporary stiffening of the body after death because of the depletion of adenosine triphosphate and phosphoryl creatinine within skeletal muscle fibres. The time of onset depends to some extent on the cause of death and environmental temperature, but usually begins 3 hours after death, and is completed by 12 hours. The effects persist for 3–4 days, after which flaccidity returns. Rigor m…

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Rijeka - History, Main sights, Transportation

45°20N 14°27E, pop (2000e) 172 900. Seaport town in W Croatia, on R Re?ina, where it meets Rijeka Bay on the Adriatic coast; Croatia's largest port; former Roman base (Tarsatica); occupied by the Slavs, 7th-c; naval base of the Austro–Hungarian Empire until 1918; ceded to Italy, 1924; ceded to Yugoslavia, 1947; airfield; railway; ferries; university (1973); shipyards, oil refineries; Trsat ca…

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Rijksmuseum - Some of the paintings in the museum

A Dutch word generally used to indicate the national art gallery in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The collection, which is amongst the finest in Europe and is unrivalled in its holdings of Dutch masters, derives from that of the Nationale Kunst-Galerij, opened in 1800. The present building was designed by Petrus Cuypers and erected in 1877–85. In 1885 the museum moved to its current location…

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Rila Monastery - History, Complex, Gallery

A monastery in the Rila Mountain range, Bulgaria, founded by Ivan Rilski (876–946), which became a great spiritual centre. In the 14th-c, when it was at the height of its wealth and power, a vast monastery was erected - most of which was destroyed by fire in 1833. The present complex was built in 1834–60, and is a world heritage site. The Monastery of Saint John of Rila, better known as t…

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rille - Etymology, Structures, Formation

A straight or winding valley on the Moon. Linear rilles are caused by faults in the Moon's crust. Sinous rilles, with a U-shaped cross-section, are related to the lava tubes in volcanic regions such as Hawaii, and mark places where molten lava has flowed in the past. Rille is typically used to describe any of the long, narrow depressions in the lunar surface that resemble channels. See Risl…

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Rimini - History, Night life, Transportation, Famous residents, Sources and external links

44º04N 12º34E, pop (2001e) 131 400. City in Emilia-Romagna region of N Italy, on the Riviera del Sole of the Adriatic; at the junction of the Roman Aemilian Way and Flaminian Way; occupied by Romans (268 BC); under Papal States control (1509); annexed to the Kingdom of Italy (1860); birthplace of Federico Fellini and Aurelio Bertola de' Giorgi; railway; Roman Arch of Augustus (c.27 BC); amphit…

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rinderpest

An infectious disease of ruminant mammals; also known as cattle plague. It is characterized by blood in the faeces, fever, and swelling of the mucous membranes. Rinderpest (RP) is an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and some species of wildlife, it is commonly referred to as cattle plague. …

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ring (chemistry)

In chemistry, a closed group of atoms. For carbon compounds, rings of five or six atoms are the most stable. …

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ring (computing)

A computer network topology in which the computers are connected to the linking cable in the form of a ring. Messages are sent around the ring from one computer to the next, and picked up by the one to which the message is addressed. …

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ring of fire

A belt of major earthquake and volcanic activity around the Pacific Ocean, defining the boundary between crustal plates. Ring of Fire can refer to: …

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ringworm - Types, Symptoms and diagnosis, Treatment

A common skin disease resulting from a fungal infection of the outer layers of the skin. The infection spreads outwards from a single site, forming a reddened ring, while the centre tends to heal. It usually affects the scalp, groin, and the clefts of the toes. Ringworm, also known as Tinea, is a contagious (excluding tinea versicolor) fungal infection of the skin. Ringworm is v…

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Rio (Gavin) Ferdinand - Biography, Controversy

Footballer, born in Peckham, SE London, UK. A defender, he joined West Ham United as a schoolboy in 1995 and made his senior debut for the club in 1996. During the 1996–7 season he spent a period on loan to Bournemouth before returning to West Ham. He joined Leeds United in 2000 for a record fee of £18 million. He made his England debut in 1997, was a member of the England squad for the FIFA Wor…

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Rio de Janeiro - History, Climate, Social conditions, Airports, Famous Cariocas, Important Colleges, Parks and Squares, Miscellaneous, Sister cities

22°53S 43°17W, pop (2000e) 6 968 000. Port capital of Rio de Janeiro state, SE Brazil, on the Bahia de Guanabara; covers an area of 20 km/12 mi along a narrow strip of land between mountains and sea; Pão de Açucar (Sugar Loaf Mountain) rises to 396 m/1299 ft; two airports (Galeão, Santos Dumont); railway; metro; three universities (1920, 1940, 1950); discovered, 1502; first settled by …

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Rio Grande (Mexico) - Names and pronunciation, Literature

Río Bravo, Río Bravo del Norte. River in SW USA and N Mexico; rises in the Rocky Mts, SW Colorado; flows SE through New Mexico, then along the Texas–Mexico border; enters the Gulf of Mexico E of Brownsville; length 3033 km/1885 mi; major tributaries the Pecos and Conchos; used for irrigation and flood-control; navigation forbidden by international agreement beyond Brownsville. Known as…

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Riot Act - The introduction and purpose of the act, The Act's main provisions

Legislation in Britain concerned to preserve public order, first passed at the beginning of the Hanoverian era in 1714. When 12 or more people were unlawfully assembled and refused to disperse, they were, after the reading of a section of this Act by a person in authority, immediately considered felons having committed a serious crime. Frequent use was made of the Act in the 18th-c. Its use declin…

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Ripoll

42°12N 2°12E, pop (2000e) 11 200. Township of Spain, in the province of Gerona; mechanical, textile, food and tanning industries, sawmills; noted for its Benedictine monastery, founded by Guifré I ‘the hairy’ in 879 and consecrated in 888; Lombard Romanesque church, consisting of five naves, seven apses and two towers; its portico is the most important iconographic unit in Catalunya. …

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Ripon - Minster, Monastery, Education, Population, Transport

54°08N 1°31W, pop (2000e) 13 700. Town in North Yorkshire, N England, UK; reckoned to be England's second oldest town; light engineering; racecourse; Cathedral of St Peter and St Wilfrid (7th–15th-c); 13th-c Wakeman's House; Fountains Abbey ruins nearby. Ripon is a small cathedral city in Yorkshire, 214 miles NNW of London, England. The city had a population of 16,468 at the 2001 censu…

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Rita Dove - Career, Bibliography, Quotes

Poet, born in Akron, Ohio, USA. She began writing verse when young, but only became serious about poetry while attending Miami University, Ohio. She studied a year in Germany (her husband, Fred Viebahn, was a German playwright and novelist), then earned an MFA at the University of Iowa. She joined the English faculty at the University of Virginia (1989). Her poetry, such as the 1987 Pulitzer Prize…

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Rita Hayworth - Filmography

Film actress, born into a show business family in New York City, USA. Her nightclub appearances as a Spanish dancer led to a succession of small roles in B-pictures. Blossoming into an international beauty after dyeing her hair red, she partnered both Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly in musicals of the 1940s, and found her best-known lead in Gilda (1946). A pin-up of US servicemen, her Hollywood career…

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Rita Levi-Montalcini

Neurobiologist, born in Turin, Italy. While a practising physician, she resisted German occupation by hiding in Florence and aiding war refugees (1943–5). She taught at the University of Turin (1945–7), then went to the USA to join Washington University (St Louis) (1947–77). Her studies of nerve growth factor, isolated (1952) from cultures of mouse tumour cells, won her and collaborator Stanley…

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Rita Mae Brown - Early life, Writing career, Most notable relationships

Writer, born in Hanover, Pennsylvania, USA. She studied at New York University, where she began her feminist and radical lesbian activism which she continued into the 1970s, working for national political organizations. She then withdrew to concentrate on her writing. Her zesty, best-selling first novel, Rubyfruit Jungle (1973), was followed by other fiction, poems, essays, and screenplays. Later …

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Rivaldo - Honours

Footballer, born in Recife, Brazil. After serving his apprenticeship with Paulista Recife, he signed his first professional contract with FC Santa Cruz in 1991, before moving to Mogi-Mirim, and then the legendary São Paulo club SC Corinthians in 1993. His next move was to rivals SE Palmeiras, where he won his first Brazilian championship in 1994. Joining Deportivo de La Coruña in 1996, he notche…

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river - Topography, Rating systems, Flooding, Management, River lists, Rivers in myth and fiction

A body of flowing water restricted to a relatively narrow channel by banks. It typically originates as a stream in high ground from springwater or run-off from rainwater or a glacier, and moves downhill, eroding a channel which grows as tributaries join the flow, and often carving out major valleys. In its middle stages the river flows more slowly, and meanders begin to form; while in its mature s…

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River Phoenix - Filmography

Film actor, born in Madras, Oregon, USA. He made his film debut in Explorers (1985), and received a Best Actor Oscar nomination for his role in Running on Empty (1988). Later films include Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) and Love You To Death (1990). He was finishing the filming of Dark Blood, when he collapsed and died from a massive drug overdose. His siblings, Joaquin, Rain, Liberty, …

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Riviera

The Mediterranean coast between Toulon, France, and La Spezia, Italy. It is a narrow coastal strip bordered by the Alps to the N, and includes many holiday resorts. Riviera can also refer to: …

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Riyadh - Population, City districts, Tourism, Gallery

24°41N 46°42E, pop (2000e) 3 044 000. Capital city of Saudi Arabia; formerly a walled city; airport; railway; three universities (1950, 1957, 1984); communications centre; commerce, oil refining, dates, fruit, grain; over 1000 mosques, royal palace; ‘Solar Village’ to the N, a prototype project for use of solar power; target of terrorist suicide bomb attacks, May 2003. Riyadh (Arabic…

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road rage - Manifestation, Road rage nursery, Medicalization, Penalties, Road rage on the Web

Aggressive behaviour while driving a motor vehicle on a public highway. There is no specific road rage offence in England and Wales, but such behaviour may involve a breach of other laws. If the aggressor causes injury, he or she may face conviction for murder, causing death by reckless driving, battery, or some other offence. Road rage is a term used to refer to criminally violent behavior…

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roadrunner

A ground-dwelling cuckoo, native to SW USA and Central America; long tail and legs; head with short crest; inhabits dry open country; eats invertebrates, small vertebrates and eggs; territorial; nests in tree or cactus. (Genus: Geococcyx, 2 species.) Roadrunner may mean: …

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Roald (Engelbregt Gravning) Amundsen - Amundsen's Polar Treks', Later life, Death, Legacy, Bibliography

Explorer, born in Borge, SE Norway. From 1903 to 1906 he sailed the Northwest Passage from E–W, and located the Magnetic North Pole. In 1910 he set sail in the Fram in an attempt to reach the North Pole, but hearing that Peary had apparently beaten him to it, he switched to the Antarctic and reached the South Pole in December 1911, one month ahead of Captain Scott. In 1926 he flew the airship Nor…

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Roald Dahl - Biography, Writing, List of works, Sources

Writer, born in Llandaff, Cardiff, S Wales, UK, of Norwegian parents. Educated at Repton School, he worked for the Shell Oil Co in London and Africa, then served as a fighter pilot in the RAF during World War 2. He specialized in writing short stories of unexpected horror and macabre surprise, such as in Someone Like You (1953) and Kiss, Kiss (1960). His children's books display a similar taste fo…

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Roald Hoffmann - Life and work

Chemist, born in Zloczow, Poland (now Zolochëv, Ukraine). He went with his family to the USA (1949) and joined the faculty of Cornell (1965). By providing mathematical rules that predict when and where a particular chemical reaction will result in a product of greater bonding and stability than the starting reagents (1970), he changed the way chemical experiments are designed. He shared the Nobel…

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Rob Reiner - Biography, Political activism, Television, Film, Trivia

Film actor, director, and producer, born in New York City, USA. He appeared in a number of small films before becoming known for his role in All in the Family (1971–8, 2 Emmys), later roles including Postcards from the Edge (1990), Sleepless in Seattle (1993), The First Wives Club (1996), and EDtv (1999). He made his directorial debut in 1984 with This Is Spinal Tap, and acted as producer as well…

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Rob Roy

Highland outlaw, born in Buchanan, Stirling, C Scotland, UK. Initially he was a grazier, but by 1712 he was in debt to James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose, and began a life of briganding, chiefly at the expense of Montrose. He was distrusted by both sides during the Jacobite rebellion (1715), stealing from both without favour. After the rebellion he continued to raid Montrose, and was eventually ca…

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robbery - English law

The taking of personal property from the person or immediate presence of another against his or her will through the use of violence or intimidation. A threat of violence is sufficient. Robbery and assaults with intent to rob are punishable with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. Robbery is the crime of seizing property through violence or intimidation. Under section 8(1) …

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Robbie Fowler - Honours

Footballer, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He joined Liverpool Football Club in 1990 when aged 16, and made his debut in 1993, scoring the winning goal for his team. His honours include the Coca-Cola (League) Cup (1995), and in 2001 the UEFA Cup and the FA Cup. He has twice been voted the Professional Football Association's Young Player of the Year (1995, 1996). He made his full in…

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Robbie Williams - Biography, Recent career, Lifestyle and love life, 2006 Close Encounters Tour, Discography

Pop singer, born in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, C England, UK. At age 16 he joined British boy band Take That (1991), leaving four years later to pursue a solo career. His albums include Life Thru a Lens (1997), Sing When You're Winning (2000), his tribute album to Frank Sinatra, Escapology (2002), Intensive Care (2005), and Rudebox (2006). Among his hit singles to reach number 1 in the UK char…

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Robert (Abram) Bartlett

Explorer, born in Brigus, Newfoundland, Canada. He began his Arctic explorations in 1897 and twice captained Robert E Peary's ship Roosevelt (1905–6, 1908–9). He became a US citizen (1911) and a lieutenant commander in the US naval reserves (1920). He commanded the Karluk on Stefansson's expedition (1913–14) and when it was frozen and crushed in the Arctic ice, he walked across the ice to Siber…

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Robert (Alexander) Schumann - Biography, Legacy, Compositions

Composer, born in Zwickau, E Germany. He studied law at Leipzig, then turned to music, and particularly the piano, but after injuring a finger in 1832, he gave up performing for writing and composing. He produced a large number of compositions, until 1840 almost all for the piano. He then married Clara, the daughter of his piano teacher, Friedrich Wieck, after much opposition from her father, and …

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Robert (Anthony) Stone - Bibliography

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at New York University (1958–60) and at Stanford (1962–4). He worked for the New York Daily News as a copyboy and caption writer (1958–60), and held a variety of other jobs until he became a free-lance writer in England, California, and South Vietnam (1967–71). He taught at Princeton, Amherst, and Stanford, among other institutions, and …

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Robert (Augustus) Toombs - Early life, Public service, From Unionist to Confederate, Secession and Civil War, Final years

US representative, senator, Confederate cabinet member, and soldier, born in Washington, Georgia, USA. A lawyer and wealthy plantation owner, he served Georgia in the US House of Representatives (Whig, 1845–53) and in the US Senate (Democrat, 1853–61), and was one of the more active and outspoken proponents of preserving slavery and states' rights. He led Georgia to secession, then became the Co…

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Robert (banker) Barclay

British banker, under whom in 1896 the merger of 20 banks took place to form Barclay & Co Ltd. In 1917 the name was changed to Barclay's Bank Ltd. Robert Barclay (c. 1648 – October 3, 1690), one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Religious Society of Friends and a member of the Clan Barclay. Barclay was born at Gordonstown in Morayshire. David Barclay of Urie had ser…

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Robert (Burns) Motherwell

Painter, born in Aberdeen, Washington, USA. He studied at the California School of Fine Arts, San Francisco (1932), majored in philosophy at Stanford University (1932–6) and Harvard (1937–8), and worked under Meyer Schapiro at Columbia University (1940–1). He was based in New York City, and his first paintings were influenced by Piet Mondrian, as in ‘Spanish Picture with Window’ (1942). By 19…

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Robert (Charles) Benchley - Early life, Humour Style, Film work

Humorist, critic, and parodist, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. He worked first at Vanity Fair, and then as a drama critic for Life (1920–9) and The New Yorker (1929–40). He was at his most brilliant writing sketches, which surfaced in several collections including From Bed to Worse (1934) and My Ten Years in a Quandary, and How They Grew (1936). His humour derives from the predicament of…

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Robert (Chase) Townsend - Trivia

Business executive, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He had an early career in investment and international banking at American Express Co (1948–62) before moving over to Avis Rent-a-Car. As president and chairman, he introduced the ‘We Try Harder’ advertising campaign that built the firm into a major industry competitor (1962–5). He was later adviser and senior partner of Congre…

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Robert (Choate) Darnton

Historian, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Harvard and Oxford (1964 DPhil), and began as a reporter for the New York Times in New York and England before commencing a teaching career at Harvard (1965–8) and Princeton (1968). His interest in the social history of ideas resulted in a series of studies of books, writers, and public opinion in pre-Revolutionary France, including T…

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Robert (De Courcy) Ward - Early work and education, Major work, Later work

Climatologist and geographer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Associated with Harvard University (1890–1913), he was an American pioneer in climatology, publishing a much-needed student text, Practical Exercises in Elementary Meteorology (1899). Editor of the American Meteorological Journal (1892–6), he helped found the Immigration Restriction League in 1894. The first professor of climatolo…

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Robert (Earl) Hayden - Life, Career, Bibliography

Poet, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He studied at the University of Michigan (1938; 1942; 1944 MA), and taught there from 1969. He wrote powerful poetry, sometimes using African-American themes, as in The Night-Blooming Cereus (1972). Robert Hayden (August 4, 1913 - February 25, 1980) was a United States African-American poet, essayist, and educator. Born as Asa Bundy Sheffey,…

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Robert (Edge) Pine - Partial filmography

Painter, born in London, UK. He emigrated to the USA (1784), and settled in Philadelphia. A noted portrait painter, his subjects included George Washington and his family. Robert has made guest appearances in many TV shows, some of those shows include Gunsmoke, Barnaby Jones, Lou Grant, Knight Rider, Magnum P.I. as Thomas' father in a flashback episode, Star Trek Voyager (as an Akriti…

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Robert (Elder von) Musil - Biography, Trivia, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Klagenfurt, S Austria. He was trained as a scientist (he invented a chromatometer) and as a philosopher. During World War 1 he was an officer, and drew on his experience for Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Törless (1906, trans Young Törless), a story of life inside a military academy. Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften (1930–42, The Man Without Qualities, 1969), his unfinished masterp…

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Robert (Elwood) Bly - Life, Career, Bibliography

Poet and writer, born in Madison, Minnesota, USA. He studied at St Olaf College, MN (1946–7), Harvard (1950 BA), University of Iowa (1956 MA), and eventually settled in Moose Lake, MN. He was a magazine founder and editor, and is known for translations as well as for his own poetry. His Iron John: A Book About Men (1990), a controversial work propounding his views on the need for modern men to re…

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Robert (Forman) Six - Business career

Airline executive, born in Stockton, California, USA. Using family money, he established Valley Flying Service in 1929. In 1937, after having worked in China as a pilot, he borrowed money and bought a 40 per cent interest in Varney Speed Lines, renamed Continental Airlines in 1938. Continental successfully competed against industry giants for the 46 years of Six's presidency. Robert Six sta…

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Robert (Francis Withers) Allston

Farmer and US governor, born in Waccamaw, South Carolina, USA. He trained at West Point (1821), then spent a year on the Geodetic Coastal Survey, but family matters called him home to oversee the rice plantation. An innovative farmer, he improved cultivation methods and developed prize-winning varieties of seeds (1855, Paris Exposition), and published Memoir on Rice (1843). In addition to farming,…

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Robert (Frederick) Blum - Biography

Painter, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He lived in New York City but travelled frequently. He was commissioned to illustrate Sir Edwin Arnold's ‘Japonica’ (1890–1), and the influence of Japan in his work is evident in his major painting, ‘The Ameya’ (1892). Robert Blum (10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848) was a German politician and member of the National Assembly of 1848. …

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Robert (Gabriel) Mugabe - Early life, Anti-colonial conflict, Government of Zimbabwe, Honours, Personal, Movies, Contemporaries, Events, Parties

First prime minister (1980– ) and president (1987– ) of Zimbabwe, born in Kutama, Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia). Largely self-educated, he became a teacher in 1942. After short periods in the National Democratic Party and Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), he was briefly detained, but escaped to co-found, with Ndabaningi Sithole, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU). After a 1…

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Robert (Gordon) Sproul

University president, born in San Francisco, California, USA. His 44-year career at the University of California culminated in a presidential term (1930–58) in which the university gained an international reputation for excellence. Controversy arose from his unsympathetic treatment of students opposed to the draft in World War 2, and his acquiescence in the loyalty oath ordered by the Regents in …

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Robert (Harry) Lowie

Cultural anthropologist, born in Vienna, Austria. The son of a merchant who brought his family to the USA in 1893, he graduated from the City University of New York (1901), taught in the public schools, and took a PhD at Columbia University under Franz Boas (1908). In 1907–21 he was on the staff of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. He taught at the University of California,…

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Robert (Helmer) Macarthur

Ecologist, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied mathematics at Yale, changed to zoology, and from 1965 was professor of biology at Princeton. His early work on birds led him to devise methods for quantifying ecological factors. He categorized animals as ‘R’ species (opportunistic, with rapid reproduction and development, short lives, and high mortality), and ‘K’ species (larger, slo…

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Robert (Houghwout) Jackson

Judge, born in Spring Creek, Pennsylvania, USA. He served as counsel to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934–6) and to the Department of Justice (1936–40). He was US attorney general (1940–1) when President Franklin D Roosevelt appointed him to the US Supreme Court (1941–54). After World War 2, he served as chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg war crimes trials (1945–6). The name Robert J…

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Robert (John) Wagner - Early career, Personal life, Television, Remarriage to Natalie Wood, Return to film, Aaron Spelling lawsuit

Film and television actor, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He attended Black-Foxe Military Institute, then won an acting contract with Twentieth Century–Fox. He played juvenile leads in a succession of war, Western, and adventure films, such as The True Story of Jesse James (1957). His greatest popularity has been in television series, where his boyish romantic appeal, suave manner, and light hum…

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Robert (Joseph) Barro

Economist, born in New York City, New York, USA. His principal contributions include promotion of the ‘new classical macroeconomics’, including business cycles and monetary policy. He joined the faculty of the University of Rochester in 1975. In 1976, he authored a second influential paper, "Rational expectations and the role of monetary policy", in which he argued that information asymme…

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Robert (Julius) Trumpler - Honors

Astronomer, born in Zürich, N Switzerland. He studied at Zürich and Göttingen universities, moved to America in 1915, then worked at the Lick Observatory, CA (1918–38) and the astronomical department of the University of California, Berkeley (1938–51). In 1922, by observing a solar eclipse, he was able to confirm Einstein's theory of relativity. He made extensive studies of star clusters and …

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Robert (Lee) Frost - Biography, Works, Pop Culture

Poet and teacher, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied at Dartmouth College (1892) and Harvard (1897–9) but never took a degree. He was a mill worker and teacher (1892–7), a farmer in New Hampshire (1900–12), and lived in England (1912–15) where his first volume of poems, A Boy's Will, was published (1913). Upon his return to New Hampshire he settled on a farm but taught at many …

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Robert (Lowell) Coover - Selected works

Writer, born in Charles City, Iowa, USA. After studying at several universities he served in the US Navy (1953–7), then taught philosophy at various colleges. His first novel, The Origin of the Brunists (1966, Faulkner Award), established him as a postmodernist who recombined elements of mythology, Bible stories, and popular culture. His fiction, which often explored dogmatic extremism, included …

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Robert (Mearns) Yerkes - Education and early career, Intelligence testing, National Research Council, Primatology pioneer, Publications

Psychobiologist and primate researcher, born in Breadysville, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Harvard, where he taught comparative psychology (1901–17). During World War 1, at the University of Minnesota, he promoted the development of intelligence tests for servicemen. With Edward L Thorndike and John B Watson, he was among the first American advocates for the study of animal behaviour. He deve…

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Robert (Merton) Solow - Biography, Economic Contribution, Selected Works

Economist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He is best known for his path-breaking work on capital and growth. His theory of capital concentrates not on the measurement of capital but on how the rate of return on capital is determined. His theory of growth fine-tuned so-called ‘sources-of-growth accounting’ includes estimates of aggregate production functions and technological advances. He …

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Robert (Michael) Gates - Biography, Awards and decorations, Sources, Further reading

Public official and intelligence officer, born in Wichita, Kansas, USA. He studied at William and Mary College and Indiana University, gaining a PhD in international relations. He entered the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), served on the White House national security staff (1974–9), and became deputy national security adviser under President George Bush, before his appointment as director of t…

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Robert (Oxton) Bolt - Bibliography

Playwright, born in Sale, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Manchester University, served in the RAF and worked as a teacher before achieving success with A Man for All Seasons (1954). Other plays included The Tiger and the Horse (1960) and State of Revolution (1977). He also wrote screenplays, including Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Dr Zhivago (1965), Ryan's Daughter (1970), and The …

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Robert (Quaker) Barclay

Quaker, born in Gordonstoun, Moray, NE Scotland, UK. He studied at the Scots College in Paris, returning to Scotland (1664), where he became a Quaker in 1667. He published many tracts in defence of Quakerism, especially Apology for the True Christian Divinity (1678). He became one of the proprietors of East New Jersey in 1682, and was appointed its nominal non-resident governor. Robert Barc…

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Robert (Ranke) Graves - Life, Career

Poet and novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, served in the trenches in World War 1, became professor of English at Cairo, and after 1929 lived mainly in Majorca. His best-known novels are I, Claudius (Hawthornden and James Tait Black prizes) and its sequel, Claudius the God (both 1934), which were adapted for television in 1976. He wrote several autobiographical works, notably Good…

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Robert (Seymour) Bridges - Poems, Major Works

Poet, born in Walmer, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, qualified in medicine, and practised in London. He published three volumes of graceful lyrics (1873, 1879, 1880), wrote several plays, the narrative poem Eros and Psyche (1885), and other works, including a great deal of literary criticism. He was also an advocate of spelling reform. From 1907 he lived in seclusion at Oxford, publis…

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Robert (Silliman) Hillyer

Poet and teacher, born in East Orange, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Harvard (1917 BA), where he was a publisher of Eight Harvard Poets (1917) - a volume including the work of Hillyer, e e cummings, and John Dos Passos, among others. After graduation, he and Dos Passos served in the ambulance corps in France. Hillyer taught at Harvard (1919–20), and wrote essays, novels, and many volumes of refl…

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Robert (Vincent) Daniels

Slavic specialist, politician, and writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He joined the staff at the University of Vermont (1964), directed the Center for Area Studies (1962–5), chaired the history department (1964–9), and was director of an experimental programme of the College of Arts and Sciences (1969–71). A Vermont state senator (1973–82), he focused his concerns on health care and s…

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Robert (White) Creeley - Life, Bibliography

Poet and writer, born in Arlington, Massachusetts, USA. He studied for a while at Harvard, then worked at a variety of jobs until he began to write. During the 1950s he studied and taught at the Black Mountain College, NC and later became visiting professor at a number of US universities. From 1978 he was professor of poetry at the State University of New York. One of the originators of the Black …

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Robert (Wilfred Levick) Simpson

Composer and writer, born in Leamington, Warwickshire, C England, UK. He studied with Herbert Howells, and was a BBC music producer in London (1951–80). His works included 11 symphonies, 14 string quartets, concertos for piano and flute, as well as a great deal of chamber music, and published studies of Nielsen and Bruckner. Robert Simpson or Bob Simpson may refer to: British: …

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Robert (William) Burchfield

Scholar and lexicographer, born in Wanganui, New Zealand. He studied at Victoria University College in Wellington, and entered Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar (1949) where he became a lecturer in English language (1952–63), then a tutorial fellow (1963–79) and senior research fellow at St Peter's College (1979–90). In 1957 he was appointed editor of a new Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary …

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Robert (Williams) Wood

Physicist, born in Concord, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, Chicago, and Berlin universities, and became professor of experimental physics at Johns Hopkins (1901–38). He carried out research on optics, spectroscopy, and ultrasonics, and was the first (in 1897) to observe electric-field emission, the basis of the field emission microscope. He wrote Physical Optics (1905), some fiction, …

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Robert (Woodruff) Anderson

Playwright, born in New York City, New York, USA. Best known for Tea and Sympathy (1953), the story of a schoolboy accused of homosexuality, his later plays include You Know I Can't Hear You When the Water's Running (1967). There have been many well-known people named Robert Anderson, including: …

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Robert Adam - Business, Projects, Public life, Further reading

Architect, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, E Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh and in Italy (1754–8), and became architect of the king's works (1761–9), jointly with Sir William Chambers. He established a practice in London in 1758, and during the next 40 years he and his brother James Adam (1730–94), succeeded in transforming the prevailing Palladian fashion in architecture by a series of romanti…

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Robert Adams

Surgeon, born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he studied medicine in Europe and returned to Dublin where he set up a practice. He became surgeon to the Jervis Street and Richmond hospitals, and surgeon to the queen in Ireland (1861). In 1827 he described a condition known as the Adams–Stokes syndrome, with colleague William Stokes. Robert Adams or the diminutive, Bob Adams…

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Robert Adamson

Chemist and pioneer in photography, born in Scotland, UK. In 1843 he helped David Hill apply the Calotype process of making photographic prints on silver chloride paper. Working together, they produced some 2500 Calotypes, mainly portraits but also landscapes (1843–8). Robert Adamson (January 19, 1852 – February 8, 1902) was a Scottish philosopher. He was born in Edinburgh. A…

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Robert Alfred Theobald

US naval officer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He engaged in heated debates with Captain Richmond K Turner at the Naval War College (1936–8) regarding the relative importance of naval and air forces. He commanded the North Pacific Force (1942–3). In the publication The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor (1954), he criticized President Franklin Roosevelt Robert Alfred "Fuzzy" Theobald…

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Robert Altman - Early life and career, Industrial film experience, First feature film, Television work, Film career continues, Filmography

Film director, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. After serving in World War 2 as a pilot, he took up writing for radio and magazines, then produced industrial films. His first feature film was The Delinquents (1957). He gained instant recognition for M*A*S*H (1970), and went on to direct and/or produce a series of highly individualistic films, noted especially for their simultaneous layers of di…

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Robert Anderson

US soldier, born near Louisville, Kentucky, USA. He trained at West Point (1825), then served in the Mexican War. As an artillery officer, he commanded the Federal garrison at Fort Sumter, SC, surrendering there (13 Apr 1861) after a 34-hour bombardment that signalled the start of the Civil War. He spent most of the rest of the war keeping Kentucky in the Union until disabilities forced his retire…

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Robert B(urns) Woodward - Early life and education, Early work, Later work and its impact, Honors and awards

Biochemist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was affiliated with Harvard throughout his entire career (1938–79). Because of the practical applications of his work, he also served as a consultant for various companies. During World War 2 he achieved the first synthesis of quinine, and he went on to become world famous for his synthesi…

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Robert Baillie (of Jerviswood)

Presbyterian conspirator, a native of Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK, who joined Monmouth's supporters in London. On the discovery of the alleged Rye House Plot (1683) to murder Charles II of England and James, Duke of York, he was arrested and sent to Scotland. He was tried at Edinburgh, condemned to death on flimsy evidence, and hanged. Robert Baillie (1602-1662), Scottish divine and histori…

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Robert Baldwin

Canadian statesman, born in Toronto (formerly York), Ontario, SE Canada. He was called to the bar in 1825, and became a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada in 1829. He condemned the Rebellion of 1837 and supported the Union of Upper and Lower Canada. With Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine he was joint prime minister of the united province of Canada (1842–3, 1848–51). Robert Baldwi…

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Robert Bennet Forbes

Merchant and writer, born in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, USA. The brother of John Murray Forbes, at age 13 he entered the China-trade business of his two uncles, James and Thomas H Perkins, and stayed with the company when it merged to become Russell & Co (1830). In 1839 he became head of the company and ignored the British boycott of Canton during the Opium Wars. Owner of several ships, he supp…

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Robert Blake

English naval commander, born in Bridgwater, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and led the life of a quiet country gentleman until he was 40. Returned for Bridgwater in 1640 to the Short Parliament, he cast in his lot with the parliamentarians. In the Civil War his defence of Taunton (1644–5) against overwhelming odds proved a turning point in the war. Appointed admiral in 1649, he …

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Robert Bloomfield

Poet, born in Honington, Suffolk, E England, UK. A shoemaker's apprentice, he wrote The Farmer's Boy in a garret. Published in 1800, it proved very popular. He subsequently published Rural Tales (1802) and Wild Flowers (1806). Robert Bloomfield (December 3, 1766 - August 19, 1823), was an English poet. He was born of a poor family in the village of Honington, Suffolk. The poem t…

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Robert Boyle - Early years, Middle years, Later years, Scientific investigator, Important works, Further reading

Chemist and natural philosopher, born at Lismore Castle, Co Waterford, S Ireland. He was educated at Eton, went to the European mainland for six years, then devoted himself to science. Settling at Oxford in 1654, with Robert Hooke as his assistant, he carried out experiments on air, vacuum, combustion, and respiration. In 1661 he published his Sceptical Chymist, in which he criticized the current …

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Robert Bresson - Biography, Legacy, Filmography (as director), Bibliography

Film director, born in Bromont-Lamothe, C France. At first a painter and photographer, he started serious work in the cinema with Les Anges du péché (1943, The Angels of Sin), but it was his next production La Journal d'un curé de campagne (1951, Diary of a Country Priest) which brought international acclaim, subsequently repeated with Un Condamné à mort s'est echappé (1956, trans A Man Esca…

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Robert Bridges - Poems, Major Works

Iron manufacturer and magistrate, born in England, UK. He went to Massachusetts in 1641 and was the only magistrate in Lynn for many years. He took specimens of bog ore from the Saugus River to London (1642) and in 1643 formed ‘The Company of Undertakers for the Iron Works’, the first iron works established in America. Robert Seymour Bridges, OM, (October 23, 1844 – April 21, 1930) was …

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Robert Broom

Palaeontologist, born in Paisley, Renfrewshire, W Scotland, UK. He studied medicine at Glasgow, and practised in Australia before moving to South Africa in 1897. He was appointed professor of zoology and geology at Victoria College (1903–10), and in 1934 became palaeontologist at the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. In 1947 he found a partial skeleton of the hominid Australopithecus, including the pel…

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Robert Brown

Botanist, born in Montrose, Angus, E Scotland, UK. He studied at Aberdeen and Edinburgh, and in 1798 visited London, where his ability so impressed Sir Joseph Banks that he was appointed naturalist to Matthew Flinders's coastal survey of Australia (1801–5). He brought back nearly 4000 species of plants for classification. In 1810 he received charge of Banks' library and collections, and when they…

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Robert Browne

Clergyman, founder of the Brownists, born in Tolethorpe, Leicestershire, C England, UK. After graduating from Cambridge (1572), he became a schoolmaster in London, and an open-air preacher. In 1580 he began to attack the established Church and gathered a congregation of supporters at Norwich. In 1581 they sought refuge in Holland where he published (1582) several treatises that are generally regar…

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Robert Browning - Youth, Early career, Marriage and major monologues, Late success, Trivia, Timeline

Poet, born in London, UK, the husband of Elizabeth Barrett. The son of a clerk, he received scant formal education. His early work attracted little attention until the publication of Paracelsus (1835). Bells and Pomegranates (1841–6) included several of his best-known dramatic lyrics, such as ‘How they Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix’. In 1846 he married Elizabeth Barrett, and with her …

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Robert Bruce

King of Scots (1306–29) as Robert I, and hero of the Scottish War of Independence. As Earl of Carrick, in 1296 he swore fealty to Edward I of England, but soon joined the Scottish revolt under Wallace. In 1306 he quarrelled with John Comyn, his political rival, stabbing him to death; then assembled his vassals and was crowned king at Scone. He was forced to flee to Ireland, but returned in 1307 a…

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Robert Burns - Biography, Burns' works and influence, Honours, Line note references, General references

Scotland's national poet, born in Alloway, South Ayrshire, SW Scotland, UK. The son of a poor farmer, his education was thoroughly literary, and he studied the technique of writing, influenced also by the popular tales and songs of Betty Davidson, an old woman who lived with his family. On his father's death (1784) he was left in charge of the farm. At the same time his entanglement with Jean Armo…

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Robert C(ooper) Grier

Judge, born in Cumberland Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He was president judge of the district court of Allegheny Co, PA (1833–46) when President James Polk appointed him to the US Supreme Court (1846–70). He concurred with the Court in the Dred Scott decision (1857). Robert Cooper Grier (March 5, 1794-September 25, 1870), was an American jurist. Grier was a political organizer for t…

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Robert Campbell

Trapper and capitalist, born in Aughlane, Ireland. By 1825 he had arrived in St Louis, MO and, with William Sublette, formed the company Sublette and Campbell. He became a hotel owner and bank president and served as an Indian commissioner (1851, 1869). There are a number of notable Robert Campbells: …

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Robert Campin

Artist, born in Tournai, W Belgium. He was called the Master of Flémalle from his paintings of Flémelle Abbey near Liège. About 1400 he settled in Tournai, where Rogier van der Weyden was one of his pupils. Robert Campin (1378 – April 26, 1444) is sometimes considered the first great master of Flemish painting. Art historians have always been eager to trace the beginnings o…

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Robert Capa - Career, Legacy, Bibliography

Photojournalist, born in Budapest, Hungary. He recorded the Spanish Civil War (1935–7), covered China under the Japanese attacks of 1938, and reported World War 2 in Europe from the Normandy invasion onwards. He was killed by a landmine in the Indo-China fighting which preceded the war in Vietnam. Robert Capa (Budapest, October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954) was possibly the most famous war ph…

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Robert Carlyle - Filmography

Actor, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. At age 21 he enrolled in acting classes at the Glasgow Arts Centre and formed his own acting group called Raindog. He became known for his role in the television series Hamish Macbeth (1995–7), and his film credits include Trainspotting (1996), The Full Monty (1996), Angela's Ashes (1999), The Beach (2000), and The Mighty Celt (2005). Robert Carlyle …

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Robert Carrier - Death

Chef, cookery writer, and restaurateur, born in Tarrytown, New York, USA. He was taught to cook by his grandmother, with whom he often stayed as a child, and later adopted her French surname. After US army service in Europe during World War 2, he worked in Paris for a US radio station for a time, and also learnt about French cooking at a friend's restaurant. He moved to England in 1953, became foo…

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Robert Carter

Colonial official and landowner, born in Lancaster Co, Virginia, USA. He served in the Virginia Assembly (1691–2, 1695–9) and the Council (1699–1732). A large landowner himself, he became the agent for the wealthy Fairfax family in 1702 and used his position to become one of the wealthiest men in the colonies. His political and economic position earned him his nicknames. Robert Carter or…

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Robert Catesby

Chief conspirator involved in the Gunpowder Plot, born in Lapworth, Warwickshire, C England, UK. A Catholic of wealth and lineage, he had suffered much as a recusant both by fines and imprisonment. He was imprisoned in 1601 for his part in the abortive uprising of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and again in 1603 for promoting a Spanish invasion. He was shot dead while resisting arrest after t…

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Robert Chambers - W. Chambers, publishers, Vestiges, Book of Days

Publisher and writer, born in Peebles, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK, the brother of William Chambers. He began as a bookseller in Edinburgh (1818), and gave his leisure to literary composition, writing many books on Scottish history, people, and institutions, and contributing regularly to Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. His son Robert Chambers (1832–88) became head of the firm in 1883, and con…

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Robert Charles Winthrop

US representative and senator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After studying law in Daniel Webster's office, he served in the state legislature before his election to the US House of Representatives (Whig, Massachusetts, 1840–50), and was also Speaker of the House (1847–9). Appointed to succeed Daniel Webster in the US Senate (1850–1), he was defeated for re-election by anti-slavery forces…

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Robert Cohan

Dancer, choreographer, teacher, and director, born in New York City, USA. He trained with Martha Graham and danced with her company, becoming co-director in 1966. He moved to London as artistic director of the new London Contemporary Dance Theatre in 1967, choreographing works with a wide range of subject matter. He then started the London Contemporary Dance School with Robin Howard, and developed…

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Robert Colquhoun

Artist, born in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, W Scotland, UK. He studied at the Glasgow School of Art, and in Italy, France, Holland, and Belgium. His enigmatic, dreamlike figures (such as ‘Girl with a Circus Goat’) are usually presented in a characteristic colour scheme of reds and browns. Robert Colquhoun (1914 - 1962) was a Scottish, painter, printmaker and theatre set designer. …

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Robert D(aniel) Murphy

Diplomat and business executive, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. His long diplomatic career began in 1920. He helped to negotiate with Vichy France (1940) and was ambassador to Belgium (1949–52) and Japan (1952). He was President Eisenhower's personal representative in Lebanon (1958), and later served as a chairman and director for Corning Glass International. Robert Daniel Murphy (1894…

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Robert Dale Owen

Social reformer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He taught briefly in New Lanark, Scotland, where his family owned the cotton mills, and occasionally he ran the factories in his father's absence. Influenced by his father Robert Dale, whose theory of social reform was based on co-operation, practical education, and humane working conditions, he emigrated with his father to the USA (1825) to set up…

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Robert de Cotte - Notes

Architect, born in Paris, France. Assistant to his brother-in-law, Jules Hardouin Mansart, he succeeded him as chief architect to Louis XIV in 1700 and completed his chapel at Versailles. He was one of the creators of the Regency style of architecture, designing numerous town houses in Paris and the provinces. Other works include the Château des Rohan in Strasbourg and the Hôtel de la Vrillière…

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Robert De Niro - Selected Filmography, Complete Filmography, Salary, Academy Awards and Nominations

Actor and director, born in New York City, USA. A student of acting with Stella Adler (1902–92) and Lee Strasberg, he worked off-Broadway, making his film debut in 1965. He received Oscars for his supporting role in The Godfather, Part II (1974), and for his portrayal of boxer Jake La Motta in Raging Bull (1980). His many films include Taxi Driver (1976), The Deerhunter (1978), Midnight Run (1988…

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Robert de Sorbon

Theologian, and founder of the Sorbonne, born in Sorbon, N France. He studied in Reims and Paris, and in 1251 was appointed canon of Cambria. In 1258 he became canon of Paris and chaplain to the court, thus acting as confessor to Louis IX. He founded the Maison de Sorbonne in 1259, a theological college for the poor, which has since become one of the most prestigious colleges of the University of …

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Robert Delaunay

Painter, born in Paris, France. At first a stage designer, he turned to painting in 1905. He was associated with Der Blaue Reiter (1911–12), but is principally known as the co-founder of Orphism. He painted many pictures of Paris (particularly of the Eiffel Tower), and his research into colour orchestration as applied to abstract art was influential. Delaunay concentrated on impressionism,…

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Robert Dinwiddie

Colonial administrator, born in Germiston, near Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He was appointed collector of customs for Bermuda (1727) and surveyor-general for southern America (1738). Appointed lieutenant-governor of Virginia in 1751, he tried to prevent French occupation of the Ohio district in 1753. In 1755 General Edward Braddock was defeated near Fort Duquesne in Ohio, thus precipitating the Frenc…

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Robert Dodsley

Playwright and publisher, born in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. In 1735 his Toy Shop was performed at Covent Garden, through Pope's influence, with great success. He set up as a bookseller, but still continued to write plays, such as Rex et Pontifex (1745), and Cleone (1758). He published work by Dr Johnson, Pope, and others, and founded the Annual Register with Edmund Burke in 1759. …

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Robert Doisneau - Biography

Photographer, born in Montrouge, NC France. He became renowned worldwide for his photographs, the most famous of which is probably ‘Le Baiser de l'Hotel de Ville’ (1954). Robert Doisneau (April 14, 1912 - April 1, 1994) was a French photographer noted for his frank and often humorous depictions of Parisian street life. Among his most recognizable work is Le baiser de l'hôtel …

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Robert Donat - Filmography

Actor, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He worked on the stage in the 1920s, and had many leading film roles over the next 20 years, including The Thirty-nine Steps (1935), Good-bye, Mr Chips (1939, Oscar), The Young Mr Pitt (1942), and The Winslow Boy (1948). Ill health limited his later career, and his final appearance was in The Inn of the Sixth Happiness (1958), shortly …

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Robert Duvall - Partial filmography

Actor, born in San Diego, California, USA. He began as a stage actor and made his film debut in To Kill a Mockingbird (1963). He earned Oscar nominations for The Godfather (1972), Apocalypse Now (1979), and The Great Santini (1980), before winning the award for Tender Mercies (1983). Later films include Falling Down (1993), The Apostle (1997), and Thankyou for Smoking (2005). Robert Selden …

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Robert Edmond Jones

Set designer, producer, and director, born in Milton, New Hampshire, USA. Beginning in 1915 with his set design for The Man Who Married a Dumb Wife, he was in rebellion against the trend towards realism. Eliminating unnecessary detail, he created symbolic and expresionistic settings that were much admired. Critic John Mason Brown described him as a designer who understood ‘the poetry of the undec…

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Robert Emmet - Background, 1803 rebellion, Emmet's fate, Legacy, Additional reading

Irish patriot, born in Dublin, Ireland. He left Trinity College, Dublin, to join the United Irishmen, and travelled on the European mainland for the Irish cause, at one point meeting Napoleon. In 1803 he plotted an insurrection against the English, but it proved a failure. He was captured and hanged in Dublin. Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 - 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist rebel le…

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Robert Ferguson - Further reading

Conspirator, born near Alford, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. In 1662 he was ousted as a Presbyterian from the vicarage of Godmersham in Kent. For 10 years he played a leading part in every treasonable scheme against the last two Stuart kings, and twice had to flee the kingdom; but after the Revolution of 1688, of which he published a history (1706), he conspired as busily for the Jacobite cause.…

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Robert Finley

Presbyterian clergyman, educator, and organizer, born in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Ordained a Presbyterian minister, he served the parish at Basking Ridge, NJ with great devotion and success (1795–1817). In connection with his pastoral work, he conducted a school for boys that was considered one of the best in the nation. He was also trustee of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) (1807–1…

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Robert Fitzroy - Background, HMS Beagle's second voyage, Governor of New Zealand, Meteorology, The Origin of Species

Naval officer and meteorologist, born near Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, E England, UK. In command of the Beagle he surveyed the coasts of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (1828–30). In 1831, accompanied by Charles Darwin as scientific observer, he circumnavigated the globe in the Beagle, and collaborated with Darwin in publishing in 1839 a Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of HMS Adventure and Beagle…

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Robert Fludd - Gwynedd connection

Physician, mystic, and pantheistic theosophist, born in Bearstead, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford. Influenced by Paracelsus, he recognized three cosmic elements - God (archetypus), world (macrocosmos) and man (microcosmos). He wrote a treatise in defence of Rosicrucians, Apologia compendiaria fraternitatem de Rosea Croce (1616). Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus …

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Robert Frank - Background and early photography career, The Americans, Films, Return to still images

Photographer and film-maker, born in Zürich, Switzerland. A free-lance fashion and film photographer in Zurich (1943–7), he emigrated to New York (1947), where he was befriended by Alexey Brodovitch, art director at Harper's Bazaar. During 1947–51 he did free-lance fashion and advertising photography for Harper's and The New York Times among others, travelling on assignment to South America and…

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Robert Fulton - Life and career, First Commercial steamboat, Later life, Trivia

Engineer, inventor, and artist, born in Lancaster Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He worked as a jeweller's apprentice, gunsmith, and painter in Philadelphia before he went to England (1786) to study under the artist Benjamin West. He remained abroad for the next 20 years, abandoning painting for his interest in mechanical and engineering inventions. Fascinated by water transport systems, he published A Tr…

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Robert Garioch

Poet and translator, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University, spent most of his professional career as a teacher in Scotland and England, and became writer-in-residence at Edinburgh University (1971–3). He wrote in the Scots language, and translated into Scots a wide variety of works. His prose works included Two Men and a Blanket (1975), an account of his experienc…

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Robert Garnier

Poet and playwright, born in La Ferté Bernard, NW France. He studied law at Toulouse and practised at the Paris bar before returning to his home region. He was the most distinguished of the predecessors of Corneille. His Oeuvres complètes (2 vols) include eight acclaimed tragedies, of which perhaps the best are Antigone (1580) and Les Juives (1583). Robert Garnier (Ferte Bernard, Maine) c…

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Robert Garrett

Financier, born in Lisburn, Ireland. The family emigrated to a farm in Cumberland Co, PA (1790), and at age 17 he moved to Baltimore as clerk in a produce and commission house. By 1820 he had founded Robert Garrett & Sons, a wholesale grocery and commission business. Interested in developing trade with the American West, he promoted the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad as well as the city of Baltimore. A…

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Robert Gernhardt

Writer and illustrator, born in Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia). With numerous exhibitions to his credit, he was particularly known for his prize-winning children's books, written with his wife, such as Der Weg durch die Wand (1983). A notable satirist, he ranged from the political (Wie Konrad Adenauer einem Wähler zu denken gab, 1965) to comic nonsense (Das Buch Otto, 1984). His poetry included Wö…

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Robert Goodloe Harper - Early life, Political career in South Carolina, Political career in Maryland, Retirement

Lawyer and public official, born near Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA. He served briefly during the American Revolution, graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1785, and settled in Ninety Six, SC, where he practised law, taught at schools, and entered politics. He became a prominent Federalist leader in the US House of Representatives (SC, 1795–1801) before leaving public servi…

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Robert Gould Shaw - Early life and career, Civil War, Memorials, Further reading

US soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The son of abolitionists, he enlisted in the Union army early in the Civil War. In April 1863 he assumed command, initially with some reluctance, of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, the first Northern black regiment to see combat. He was killed in July that year leading a charge on Fort Wagner, South Carolina. He and the events leading to this fateful…

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Robert Grant Aitken - Honors

Astronomer, born in Jackson, California, USA. He was professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of the Pacific (1891–5), then joined Lick Observatory, CA, where he became director (1930–5). His discovery of more than 3000 double stars gained him the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1932. Robert Grant Aitken (December 31, 1864 – October 29, 1951) was an Ameri…

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Robert Gray - Early life, Explorations, Namesakes

Navigator and explorer, born in Tiverton, Rhode Island, USA. A naval veteran of the American Revolution and then a merchant seaman, he became a fur trader in Boston. He commanded the Columbia for most of its 42 000-mile voyage (1787–90), the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe. After a refitting in Boston, he took the Columbia around to the Northwest coast near Vancouver I, and in th…

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Robert Greene - Life, Writing, Greene and Shakespeare

Playwright, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge, moved to London, and began to write a stream of plays and romances, his most popular work being the comedy Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (c.1589). He helped to lay the foundations of English drama, and his Pandosto (1588) was a source for Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. In his final years, his work grew more s…

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Robert Grosseteste - Works, Biography

Scholar, bishop, and Church reformer, born in Stradbroke, Suffolk, E England, UK. He studied at Oxford and Paris, taught theology at Oxford, then became Bishop of Lincoln in 1235. He undertook the reformation of abuses in the Church, which brought him into conflict both locally and with the papacy. Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175 - October 9, 1253), English statesman, scholastic philosopher, th…

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Robert Guiscard - Background, Early years, Rule

Norman adventurer, the son of Tancred de Hauteville, who campaigned with his brothers against the Byzantine Greeks, and created a duchy comprising S Italy and Sicily. In 1059 the papacy recognized him as Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. He ousted the Byzantines from Calbria by 1060, then conquered Bari (1071) and captured Salerno (1076). In 1081 he crossed the Adriatic, seized Corfu, and defe…

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Robert Hamer - Selected filmography

Film director, producer, and scriptwriter, born in Kidderminster, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and first worked as a clapper-boy for the Gaumont film studio. Later at Ealing Studios he directed many successful films, including Pink String and Sealing Wax (1945), It Always Rains on Sunday (1947), Kind Hearts and Coronets (1949), Father Brown (1954), and School for Scound…

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Robert Henri - Early life, Education, Work, Quotations, Bibliography

Realist painter, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. On his return to Philadelphia he taught at the Women's School of Design (1891–6), and became an ardent advocate of Realism in art, beginning a movement which, in the first decade of the 20th-c, came to be known as the Ashcan school. In 1898 he began teaching at the New …

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Robert Henry Thurston

Mechanical engineer and educator, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. He was a pioneer and innovator in technical education. In 1871 he was asked to organize the department of mechanical engineering at the newly-formed Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ. He drew up a four-year course of instruction that included training students on actual research. To this end, he solicited research …

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Robert Henryson

Scottish mediaeval poet. He is usually designated a schoolmaster of Dunfermline, and he was certainly a notary in 1478. His works include The Testament of Cresseid; Robene and Makyne, the earliest Scottish specimen of pastoral poetry; and a metrical version of 13 Morall Fabels of Esope, often viewed as his masterpiece. Robert Henryson (c. He is thought to have been connected wit…

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Robert Hibbert

Merchant and philanthropist, born in Jamaica. A slave-owner in Jamaica, he moved to England, UK, and in 1847 founded the Hibbert Trust, whose funds set up the Hibbert Lectures (from 1878), and also aided the Hibbert Journal (1920–70). Robert Hibbert (1770 - 1849) was the founder of the Hibbert Trust. The third and posthumous son of John Hibbert (1732-1769), a Jamaica merchant, …

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Robert Hofstadter

Physicist, born in New York City, New York USA. He performed research at Princeton (1939–40), then taught at the University of Pennsylvania (1940–1) and City College, NY (1941–2). After working for the National Bureau of Standards (1942–3) and Norden Laboratories Corp (1943–6), he returned to teaching at Princeton (1946–50), then Stanford (1950–80). He shared the 1961 Nobel Prize for Physic…

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Robert Hooke - Achievements, Hooke and Newton, Hooke the architect, Mass media

Chemist and physicist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became curator of experiments to the Royal Society (1662), and in 1677 was appointed its secretary. He formulated the law governing elasticity (Hooke's law), and invented the balance spring for watches. The Gregorian telescope and microscope are materially his inventions, with which he made important obs…

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Robert Indiana - LOVE

Painter and graphic designer, born in New Castle, Indiana, USA. He studied art in Indianapolis, in Ithaca, NY, and at the Art Institute of Chicago. Settling in New York City in 1956, he began making hard-edged abstract pictures and stencilled wooden constructions, as part of the early Pop Art movement. His best-known images are based on the letters LOVE, as featured in his first one-man show in Ne…

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Robert J(ohn) Braidwood - Life, Work

Archaeologist and anthropologist, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He studied at Michigan University (1933), and held appointments at the University of Chicago (1933–76) and directed fieldwork in Iraq, Iran, and Turkey (1947). In 1937 he married Linda Schreiber (1909–2003), also an archaeologist, and together they pioneered interdisciplinary scientific studies in archaeology, publishing widely on…

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Robert Jastrow - Views on controversial issues, Selected television appearances, Selected publications

Physicist and writer, born in New York City, USA. Involved in the theoretical aspects of space exploration and the early development of NASA, he was director of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (1961–81). He joined the faculty of Dartmouth College in 1973, and became director of the Mt Wilson Institute, CA in 1990. His books include Red Giants and White Dwarfs (1963) ,Journey to the Stars …

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Robert Jay Lifton - Biography, The Wellfleet Psychohistory Group, Theory of thought reform, Studies of war and atrocity survivors

Psychiatrist and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He taught at Yale (1961) and was director of the Center on Violence and Human Survival at John Jay College (New York City) (1985). His main interest throughout his career was to understand and write about how disturbing historical events and processes affect the individual. His best-known writings are in the form of psychohistories. Fo…

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Robert Jenkins

English merchant captain, engaged in trading in the West Indies. In 1731 he alleged that his sloop had been boarded by a Spanish guarda costa (coastal guard), and that, though no proof of smuggling had been found, he had been tortured, and had his ear torn off. He produced the alleged ear in 1738 in the House of Commons, and so helped to force Walpole into the ‘War of Jenkins' Ear’ against Spain…

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Robert Joffrey

Dancer, choreographer, teacher, and ballet director of Afghan descent, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. He studied at the School of American Ballet and New York's High School of Performing Arts, and made his debut in Roland Petit's Ballets de Paris in 1949. He choreographed his first ballet in 1952, and within a few years had formed the Joffrey Ballet, which toured America by the middle of the de…

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Robert Johnson - Life and career, Influence, Songs, Films about Robert Johnson, Other

Musician, born in Hazelhurst, Mississippi, USA. A singer-guitarist, he was the most celebrated and legendary of the Mississippi Delta bluesmen. An itinerant performer, he played on street corners and in juke joints throughout the Deep South before he was poisoned to death at the age of 27. He recorded 29 songs in Dallas and San Antonio (1936–7), most of which are staples of the blues and rock rep…

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Robert Kee - Works

British broadcaster and writer. He studied at Oxford, joined the RAF, and was shot down over The Netherlands, spending four years in a prisoner-of-war camp. His first novel, A Crowd Is Not Company (1947), reflected this experience and won him the Atlantic Award for literature. Other novels include The Impossible Shore (1949) and A Sign of the Times (1955). He worked for Picture Post (1948–51), an…

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Robert Lansing

US statesman and lawyer, born in Watertown, New York, USA. An Amherst graduate, he practised international law (1892–1915) and edited the Journal of International Law (1907–28). As secretary of state (1915–20), he angered the Chinese by giving Japan favourable trading rights. He did not support the League of Nations, and was dismissed for running cabinet meetings during President Wilson's illne…

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Robert Lee Bullard - World War I, Post war, Retirement

US soldier, born in Lee Co, Alabama, USA. The shy, sickly son of a planter, he changed his first name to honour the Confederate commander. He trained at West Point (1885), and saw combat on the W frontier and in the Philippines (1900–1), and in 1918 his 1st Division became the first US division to occupy a section of the front line in France. He retired in 1925 and devoted his remaining years to …

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Robert Lee Hayes - National Football League career, Death, Pro Football Hall of Fame eligibility

Track and field athlete, and player of American football, born in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. A gold medal winner in the 100 m and 4× 100 m relay in the 1964 Olympics, he starred as a pass receiver and kickoff return specialist for the National Football League Dallas Cowboys (1965–74) and San Francisco 49ers (1975). He was inducted into the Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1976. Robert L…

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Robert Lee Moore - Life, Topologist, Unusual teacher, Political aspects

Mathematician, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He was associate editor of the American Mathematical Society's Transactions (1914–27). A noted professor, he taught for many years at the University of Texas (1923–68) and was credited for using axiomatics as a tool in set-theoretic topology, what he called point-set topology. Robert Lee Moore (14 November 1882, Dallas Texas – 4 October 1974 Au…

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Robert Lehman - Personalities of Wall Street

Banker and art collector, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Yale, joined the family banking business, Lehman Brothers (1919), and became principal partner (1921–64). He financed a variety of major enterprises, such as department stores, airlines, and film and television companies. A generous art patron, his art collection - strong in Gothic tapestries and European paintings - was donated …

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Robert Ley - Early life, Labour Front head, Strength Through Joy, Wartime role

German politician, born in Niederbreidenbach, W Germany. He joined the Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NDSAP) in 1924 and was promoted to Gauleiter in the Rheinland (1925). A member of the Landtag in Prussia (1928) and member of the Reichstag (1930), he succeeded Gregor Strasser as chief of staff of the Politische Organisation of the NDSAP, and was Reichsorganisator in 1934. Followi…

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Robert Lindsay

Actor, born in Ilkeston, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London (1968–70), and went on to join a repertory company in Exeter. He gained work in the West End and in television, and became well known as ‘Wolfie’ in the popular sitcom Citizen Smith (1977). He has gone on to a prolific career in television, films, and the stage, including Shakespearean …

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Robert Livingston Stevens

Engineer and inventor, born in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, the son of John Stevens. He began at an early age to assist his father in the design and construction of steamboats, becoming an important figure in naval design. In 1830 he became president and chief engineer of the Camden & Amboy Railroad and Transportation Co. He invented the inverted-T railroad rail and spike, as well as the cow-catcher,…

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Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson - Early life, Marriage and travels, Journey to the Pacific, Last years, Modern reception, Bibliography

Writer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh, became a lawyer (1875), then turned to writing travel sketches, essays, and short stories for magazines. The romantic adventure story Treasure Island (1883) brought him fame, and entered him on a course of romantic fiction which included Kidnapped (1886), The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), The Master of Ballantrae …

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Robert Love Taylor

US representative, senator, and governor, born in Carter Co, Tennessee, USA. Elected to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Tennessee, 1879–81), governor of Tennessee (1887–91, 1897–9), and to the US Senate (1907–12), he won fame and fortune as a popular speaker. Robert Love Taylor (July 31, 1850–March 31, 1912) was a U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1879 to 1881, Govern…

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Robert Lowth

Clergyman and scholar, born in Winchester, Hampshire, S England, UK. In 1741 he became professor of poetry at Oxford, in 1766 Bishop of St David's and of Oxford, and in 1777 Bishop of London. His publications include a Life of William of Wykeham (1758) and a new translation of Isaiah (1778). He was one of the first to treat the Bible poetry as literature in its own right. His highly prescriptive E…

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Robert Ludlum - Selected bibliography, Filmography

Writer and actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He served in the Marine Corps (1944–6) and studied at Wesleyan (1951 BA). He became a Broadway and television actor (1952–60), and a theatre producer in New Jersey (1957–70) and New York City (1960–9). With the publication of his first espionage novel, The Scarlatti Inheritance (1971), he became a successful full-time writer of suspense f…

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Robert MacBryde

Painter, born in Ayr, South Ayrshire, SW Scotland, UK. He worked in industry for five years before studying at the Glasgow School of Art, and later worked with Robert Colquhoun, painting brilliantly-coloured Cubist lifes and, later, brooding Expressionist figures. Robert MacBryde (1913 - 1966) was a Scottish still-life and figure painter and a theatre set designer. MacBryde was …

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Robert MacNeil

Television journalist and presenter, born in Montreal, Canada. After starring in a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation TV children's show, he worked for Reuters in London, then joined the National Broadcasting Company as a correspondent (1960–5). Co-presenter for WNBC in New York, he left to work as reporter for Panorama, a British Broadcasting Corporation documentary series (1966–70). Senior corr…

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Robert Maillart - Development and Use of Reinforced Concrete, Analytical Methods, Other Bridges

Civil engineer, born in Bern, Switzerland. He studied at the Zürich Polytechnic, worked with Hennebique, then set up on his own. He was one of the first to work on three-hinged, reinforced concrete arch bridges in the Swiss Alps, designing some remarkable examples, including the bridge over the Inn at Zuoz (1901) and the spectacular curving Schwandbach Bridge at Schwarzenburg (1933). He also desi…

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Robert Mannyng - Upbringing, His works, His legacy

Chronicler and poet, born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. In 1288 he entered the nearby Gilbertine monastery of Sempringham. His chief work is the poem Handlynge Synne (c.1303), a landmark in the transition from early to later Middle English, and a colourful picture of contemporary life. His chronicle The Story of England (1338) is a literary work of historical fiction. Robert Mann…

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Robert Mapplethorpe - Biography, His work, Bibliography

Photographer, born in New York City, USA. He studied painting and sculpture at the Pratt Institute in New York, after which he concentrated on photography, mounting his first exhibition in 1976. His often controversial work featured large-scale, highly-stylized black and white portraits of male nudes. A major retrospective of his work was presented by the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1988. He…

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Robert Merle - Bibliography

French novelist and essayist, born in Tebessa, N Algeria. An agrégé in English, he published his war memoirs and novels inspired by English genres, including Week-end à Zuydcoote (1949, Prix Goncourt), La Mort est mon Métier (1953), Un Animal doué de raison (1967), and Maleville (1972). Between the ages of 70 and 95, he wrote Fortune de France, a vast historical sequence of novels in thirteen…

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Robert Merrill - Listen to

Baritone, born in New York City, USA. The son of immigrant parents from Warsaw, his mother was a concert singer and gave him his first singing lessons. He later studied with Samuel Margolis in New York, and sang popular music before making his operatic debut in 1944, joining the Metropolitan Opera in 1945 where he remained a favourite for 30 years. He also appeared in recitals, with orchestras, in…

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Robert Minor - Career as a Cartoonist, Becoming a Communist, Last Years

Cartoonist and radical activist, born in San Antonio, Texas, USA. A distant relative of Sam Houston, he was an editorial cartoonist for the St Louis Post-Dispatch (1904) who joined the Socialist Party (1907), but was drawn to anarchism. After visiting France (1912), he became a cartoonist for the New York World (1913), but was dismissed after providing a cartoon for the radical Mother Earth. He wa…

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Robert Mitchum - Life and career, Trivia, Filmography, Discography, References and further reading

Film actor, born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. After a youth spent as a labourer, vagrant, and professional boxer, he went to Hollywood, where he found employment in the film industry as an extra (1943). A prolific leading man particularly associated with the post-war film noir thriller, his laconic, heavy-lidded manner was deceptively casual, disguising a potent screen presence. His films incl…

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Robert Morley - Biography

Actor and writer, born in Semley, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He trained in London, and appeared on the London and Broadway stages. In his film career, from 1938, he played many individual character parts, including the title role in Oscar Wilde (1960). His appearances continued into the 1980s, with Loophole (1980) and Sky High (1986). He was well known for his edited collections, such as Robert Mor…

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Robert Morris

Merchant, banker, and public official, born in or near Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He arrived in Maryland c.1747 to work for his father, a tobacco exporter, then went to Philadelphia where he joined the Willings' shipping firm. By 1754 he had formed a partnership with Thomas Willing, and their mercantile firm became one of the most prosperous in the colonies. Although by no means a radi…

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Robert Morris

Sculptor and mixed media artist, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. He studied engineering and art, and after moving to San Francisco in 1950 became active as a painter and in improvisatory theatre. He settled in New York City in 1961, specializing in minimalist works, earthwork projects, and scatter pieces. Robert Morris is the name of: Robert Morris can also refer to institut…

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Robert Moses - Early life and rise to power, Influence, Triborough Bridge, Post-war city planning, Car culture

Public administrator, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Independently wealthy (he seldom accepted any salary), he was educated at Yale, Oxford, and Columbia universities as a political scientist. He began his government career in New York City's Bureau of Municipal Research (1913) with an attempt to reform the civil service along the lines of his graduate thesis. In 1919 he became chief-of-staf…

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Robert Nivelle

French soldier, born in Tulle, SC France. He was an artillery colonel in 1914, and made his name when in command of the army of Verdun by recapturing Douaumont and other forts (1916). He was commander-in-chief for several months (1916–17), but his Aisne offensive failed, and he was superseded by Pétain. General Robert Georges Nivelle (October 15, 1857 – March 22, 1924) was a French mili…

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Robert Nozick

Political philosopher, born in New York City, New York, USA. After earning a 1963 doctorate from Princeton, where he taught (1962–5), he held posts at Harvard (1965–7) and Rockefeller University (1967–9) before becoming a professor at Harvard in 1969. His seminal study, Anarchy, State and Utopia (1974), which won a National Book Award, stressed the primacy of individual rights, and he was gener…

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Robert O'Hara Burke - Early Years, Military Career, Police Career, Australia, Burke and Wills Expedition

Traveller and explorer of Australia, born in St Clerans, Co Galway, W Ireland. He studied in Belgium, served in the Austrian army (1840), joined the Irish constabulary (1848), and emigrated to Australia in 1853. As leader of the Burke and Wills expedition (1860), he was one of the first white men to cross the Australian continent from S to N. Both Burke and Wills died of starvation on the return j…

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Robert Owen - Biography, Children, Works by Owen, Works about Owen

Social and educational reformer, born in Newtown, Powys, E Wales, UK. Apprenticed to a draper, in 1800 he became manager and part owner of the New Lanark cotton mills, Lanarkshire (now a world heritage site), where he set up a social welfare programme, and established a ‘model community’. His socialistic theories were put to the test in other experimental communities, such as at Orbiston, near G…

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Robert Pack

Poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Dartmouth (1951 BA) and Columbia University (1953 MA). He taught at Barnard (1957–64) and Middlebury College (Vermont) (1964). Associated with the Bread Loaf Writers Conference, Middlebury, VT (1973–93), he won many awards for his poetry. Some critics consider him the heir to the sensibilities of Robert Frost, as seen in Waking to My Name…

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Robert Patterson

American soldier, born in Co Tyrone, Ireland. Immigrating to the USA as a boy, he served in the War of 1812 with the Pennsylvania militia, and in the Mexican War as a major-general of volunteers. He prospered from the sugar industry and cotton mills, and was a promoter of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Reactivated as a major-general, he commanded Union forces around Harpers Ferry, VA (1861) and was cr…

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Robert Penn Warren - Life, Career, Bibliography

Poet and writer, born in Guthrie, Kentucky, USA. He studied at Vanderbilt University (1925 BA), the University of California, Berkeley (1927 MA), Yale (1927–8), and Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar (1930 B Litt). At college he had joined with other poets known as the ‘Fugitives’ or ‘Southern agrarians’ to promote Southern conservative values, even defending segregation in I'll Take My Stand (1930),…

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