Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 62

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Raymond Burr - Life and acting career, Showing charity, Relationships, Fiji, The Raymond Burr Performing Arts Centre

Television actor, born in Westminster, Canada. Coming from Canada to study at Stanford University, he began as a stage actor, appearing in regional theatre before moving into television dramas and films. He starred as the burly detective in the Perry Mason (1957–66) and Ironside (1967–75) series, winning two Emmys. He went on to appear in several TV mini-series and in extended versions of Perry …

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Raymond Carver - Life, Writing, Works

Poet and short-story writer, born in Clatskanie, Oregon, USA. He taught at the universities of Iowa, Texas, and California. His collections include Will You Please Be Quiet, Please? (1976), and Cathedral (1983). In a Marine Light: Selected Poems appeared in the year he died. Raymond Clevie Carver, Jr. (May 25, 1938 – August 2, 1988) was an American short story writer and poet. Carver is c…

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Raymond Duchamp-Villon

Sculptor, born in Damville, NW France, the half-brother of Marcel Duchamp and brother of Jacques Villon. He studied medicine, then took up sculpture (1898) and was greatly influenced by Rodin. In 1910 he joined the Cubists and exhibited at the Section d'Or with his brothers. His masterpiece, ‘Horse’ (1914), represents the highest ideals of Cubist sculpture. He was gassed in 1916 and died two yea…

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Raymond Queneau - Biography, Queneau and Surrealists, Bibliography

Poet, novelist, and humorist, born in Le Havre, NW France. He studied at the Sorbonne, and in 1924 became involved with the Surrealists, along with Pierre Naville. After working as a reporter, he was appointed a reader for the prestigious Encyclopédie de la Pléiade, becoming director in 1955. The best of his poetry is contained in Les Ziaux (1943), Petite Cosmogonie Portative (1950), and Si tu t…

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Raymond Radiguet

Novelist and poet, born in Saint-Maur, NC France. A precocious protégé of Jean Cocteau, he took Paris by storm with his poetry and drama as a teenager, but is best known for his masterpieces Le Diable au Corps (1923, The Devil in the Flesh) and Le Bal du Comte d'Orgel (1924, trans Count Orgel Opens the Ball). He led a dissipated life and died of typhoid. Raymond Radiguet (June 18, 1903

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Raymond Williams - Life, Publications, Biographical and critical studies

Social historian, critic, and novelist, born in Pandy, Monmouthshire, SE Wales, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1961, and professor of drama (1974–83). He wrote Culture and Society (1958), which established his reputation as a cultural historian, followed by The Long Revolution (1961) and Marxism and Literature (1977), amongst others. He was active in New Left intellectua…

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rayon - History, Major fiber properties, Gallery of textures, Physical structure of rayon, Production method, Producers

A textile fibre formed from cellulose (a constituent of wood pulp), first produced late in the 19th-c. Improvements in manufacturing methods have made modern rayon fibres important as domestic and industrial materials. Rayon is produced from naturally occurring polymers and therefore it is not a synthetic fiber, but a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. Rayon was only produced as a f…

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reactance

In alternating current circuits containing inductors and capacitors, the factor which determines the phase relationship between current and voltage; symbol X, units ? (ohms). It is the imaginary part of impedance, controlling the power input to the circuit. In the analysis of an alternating-current electrical circuit (for example a RLC series circuit), reactance is the imaginary part of imp…

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reaction time (RT) - Factors

The interval between the onset of a signal and the initiation of a voluntary response to it. The time (rarely less than a fifth of a second) varies according to the complexity of the situation, the number of possible alternative signals, and the choice of available responses. Measures of RT are used by psychologists to make inferences about processes in the central nervous system, and in applicati…

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reactive armour - Explosive reactive armour, Non-explosive and non-energetic reactive armour, Electric reactive armour

A form of protection for military vehicles such as tanks against the kind of ‘hollow-charge’ warhead typically used in infantry-fired antitank missiles; developed in Chobham, Surrey, it is also known as Chobham armour. This warhead is designed to burn its way through the armoured metal skin of the vehicle in a hot jet of gas and molten metal, rather than to smash its way in using simple kinetic …

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Reading (UK)

51°28N 0°59W, pop (2001e) 143 100. Unitary authority (from 1998) and former county town of Berkshire, S England, UK; at the junction of the Kennet and Thames Rivers, 63 km/39 mi W of London; a centre of the textile industry in mediaeval times; railway; university (1926); rapidly developing commercial centre; brewing, boatbuilding, food processing, metal products, engineering, electronics, pr…

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Reading (USA)

40º20N 75º56W, pop (2000e) 81 000. Seat of Berks Co, SE Pennsylvania, USA; on R Schuylkill, 80 km/50 mi NW of Philadelphia; incorporated as a city, 1847; former hat-making industry in early 19th-c; birthplace of Spencer Fullerton Baird, Daniel Boone, Wallace Stevens; railway; airfield; steelworks using local coal; optical goods. Reading may be: An activity: A p…

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Real Madrid - Notable Former Players, Selected former managers, Presidents, Formula One Sponsorship

Spanish football club, based in Madrid. Founded in 1902, it was a founder member of the Spanish League in 1928. Real have never been relegated and have been champions a record 29 times and cup winners 17 times. Their rivalry with Barcelona reflects regional and political tensions within Spain. The club was made world famous by winning the first five European Cup finals between 1956 and 1960, and i…

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real presence - Different understandings, Consecration, presidency and distribution

The belief that the body and blood of Christ are actually present in the bread and wine at communion (Eucharist/Mass). The nature of Christ's presence became the subject of great controversy at the Reformation. The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figurati…

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real tennis - History, Manner of play, Tennis in literature, Tennis in film

An indoor racket-and-ball game played on a walled court, similar to rackets, but containing specifically designed hazards. A derivation of the French jeu de paume (‘palm [of hand] game’), which was first played in the 11th-c. The racket developed in the 16th-c, and the game became very popular in the following century. Today, however, it is a minority sport, having been eclipsed by lawn tennis a…

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real-time computing - Hard and Soft real time systems, Real time and high performance, Design methods, Key people

A notion which applies to those computing systems where near-simultaneous response to input data is a necessary requirement; examples include air-traffic control, point-of-sale terminals, military applications, and vehicle control. Interactive computing on larger computers is generally time-shared, and does not place the user in a real-time computing environment. In computer science, real-t…

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Realism (art and literature)

In art criticism, a term (especially with a capital R) referring to the deliberate choice of ugly or unidealized subject-matter, sometimes to make a social or political point. Thus Courbet's ‘Stonebreakers’ (1849) represented the hardship of the poorest class in France. Realism with a small ‘r’ is often used rather vaguely as the opposite of ‘abstract’. More generally, in literature and art,…

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realism (philosophy of science)

The theory that scientific theories do describe the way the world really is, and succeed each other as progressive approximations to a fuller truth. It is opposed to instrumentalism. The terms Realism or Realist (in reference to an adherent of "Realism"), may refer to... ...in ethnics: ...in international relations: ...in law: ...in philosophy…

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realism (philosophy)

The theory supporting the common-sense view that the world and its contents do not depend for their existence on the fact that some mind (whether human or divine) is aware of them. Plato and others held that universals (eg ‘redness’) or abstract entities (eg numbers) have a real existence outside the mind and apart from their instances. It is opposed to idealism, phenomenalism and nominalism. …

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reasoning - Areas of reasoning, Types of logical reasoning

Mental activity in which the reasoner moves from given information to a novel conclusion, in a series of steps that the reasoner can justify. Reasoning may be deductive, arriving at a conclusion from a set of premises (eg proving a theorem in mathematics), or inductive, when we try to create a new generalization based on available evidence. Psychologists have debated whether reasoning is based on …

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Rebecca (Diane) Wright - Idol Performances

Ballet dancer and teacher, born in Springfield, Ohio, USA. She began ballet training under Josephine Schwarz with the Dayton Ballet, and in 1964 won a Ford Foundation scholarship to study dance. After graduation, she became a principal dancer with the Joffrey Ballet (1966–75) and the American Ballet Theatre (1975–82), partnering some of the finest ballet interpreters of her generation, including…

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Rebecca Gratz

Philanthropist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The daughter of prosperous merchant Michael Gratz, she helped found the Philadelphia Orphan Society (1815). In 1838 she founded the first Hebrew Sunday School Society and was its president until 1864. She is said to have been the inspiration for Rebecca in Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe. Rebecca Gratz (March 4, 1781 - August 27, 1869) was…

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Rebecca Harding Davis - Life and Work, Works, Online Texts

Writer, born in Washington, Pennsylvania, USA. The mother of Richard Harding Davis, she was largely self-educated, and first attracted attention with ‘Life in the Iron-Mills’, published in Atlantic Monthly (1861), and with her realistic Civil War stories. Her novels portraying the bleak lives of factory workers, including Margaret Howth (1862), and African-Americans, such as Waiting for the Verd…

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Rebecca Nurse

Witchcraft victim, born in Yarmouth, E England, UK. She was excommunicated and hanged from a tree in 1692 at the height of the witch craze in Salem, Massachusetts. In 1712 the same pastor who had excommunicated her formally and publicly cancelled the excommunication. Rebecca Nurse's four original members have been on different routes before coming together to form one solid band. …

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Rebecca Riots - The Rebecca Riots in fiction

A popular protest movement by Welsh peasants and agricultural labourers in W Wales in the late 1830s and early 1840s. An important target of the hostility was the heavy tolls imposed at toll-gates, but the riots were an expression of more general discontent with low wages and poor conditions. The rioters took their text from Genesis 24:60: ‘And they blessed Rebecca and said unto her, let thy seed…

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Rebellions of (1837)

1 A rebellion in Lower Canada (Quebec) generated by stalemate between the elected Legislative Assembly and the appointed Executive Council over control of provincial revenues. Led by Papineau and his Parti Patriote, it sought to locate authority in the largely Canadian Assembly. It was crushed by government troops after several brief confrontations. 2 Later in 1837, a rebellion in Upper Canada (On…

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rebus - Rebuses and Heraldry, Examples, Rebuses and game shows

The enigmatic representation in visual form of the sounds of a name or word. As a form of visual pun, rebuses are often used to puzzle or amuse, such as a drawing of a ray-gun (= ‘Reagan’), or the letters CU (= ‘see you’); some have become part of everyday writing, such as IOU (= ‘I owe you’). They are an ancient means of communication, being found in early forms of picture-writing. …

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recession - Causes of recessions, The Great Depression

An economic situation where demand is sluggish, output is not rising, and unemployment is on the increase. Not as severe a downturn as a depression, a recession is usually identified when gross domestic product falls for two successive quarters. Recession in the UK occurred in 1974–5 and 1980–2, and was internationally widespread in 1990–3. A recession is defined in macroeconomics as a d…

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Recife - History, Photos, Geography, Tourism and recreation, Local Music, Main Neighborhoods, Sports, Crime, Shark Attacks

8°06S 34°53W, pop (2000e) 1 586 000. Port capital of Pernambuco state, NE Brazil, at the mouth of the R Capibaribe; consists of Recife proper (on a peninsula), Boa Vista (on the mainland), and Santo António (on an island between the two), all connected by bridges; most important commercial and industrial city in the NE; airport (Guararapes); two universities (1951, 1954); sugar, sugar refini…

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Reciprocity

A movement begun in British North America during the 1840s for the bilateral reduction of tariffs between the British colonies and the USA; it resulted in the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854. The treaty negotiations represented an important step in the growth of Canadian political autonomy. Arrangements became a source of discord in Washington, however, and the Treaty was dissolved by the USA in 1866. …

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recitative

A type of musical declamation which allows the words to be delivered naturally and quickly, and is therefore indispensable in those types of all-sung opera, oratorio, and cantata in which dialogue and narrative are interrupted by long or numerous arias. ‘Simple recitative’ (recitativó semplice or secco) is accompanied only by continuo; ‘accompanied recitative’ (recitativó accompagnato or str…

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recombinant DNA - Uses, Plasmids and recombinant DNA technology

Hybrid (recombinant) nucleic acid molecules generated by genetic engineering technology through the use of restriction enzymes (present in many micro-organisms) that can cut double-stranded DNA molecules at a specific sequence, usually 4–8 base pairs. Each enzyme recognizes a different base sequence. DNA fragments produced by the cleavage with a particular restriction enzyme can be joined and the…

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Reconstruction - Wartime proposals and legislation, Johnson's presidential reconstruction: 1865–66, Radical Reconstruction: 1866–77

The period after the American Civil War when the South was occupied by Northern troops, while major changes went forward in its way of life. These included the destruction of slavery and the attempted integration of the freed black people. Reconstruction brought three amendments to the US Constitution, as well as bitter dispute over the extent of the needed changes. Resistance to it among white So…

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reconstruction (linguistics) - Wartime proposals and legislation, Johnson's presidential reconstruction: 1865–66, Radical Reconstruction: 1866–77

The process by which the sound system of an undocumented parent language can be ‘constructed’, by comparing the words in languages known (or suspected) to be related; also called internal reconstruction. Thus, the Indo-European form p?eter (‘father’) is reconstructed by comparing such variants as Latin pater and Gothic fadar. An analysis of the systematic correspondences between p- and f- in t…

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recorder (law) - How the instrument is played, History, Types of Recorder, Makers, Recorder Ensembles, Bibliography

In the legal system of England and Wales, a part-time judge. Those appointed are barristers or solicitors. Recorders sit mainly in the Crown Court. There are also Recorder's Courts in the USA, chiefly handling criminal cases at the municipal level. The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes—whistle-like instruments which incl…

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recorder (music) - How the instrument is played, History, Types of Recorder, Makers, Recorder Ensembles, Bibliography

A type of end-blown duct flute in two or three jointed sections, with seven fingerholes and a thumbhole. It is made of wood or (in recent times) plastic in various sizes, the most common being the descant and the treble. By the end of the 18th-c it was superseded by the transverse flute, but it was revived in the 20th-c as a school instrument and for playing early music, and several modern compose…

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rectifier - Half-wave rectification, Full-wave rectification, Peak loss, Rectifier output smoothing, Applications

A device that changes alternating current (AC), which continuously reverses direction, into direct current (DC), by allowing it to flow in one direction only. Electric lights and motors use alternating current, but in general most electronic equipment needs direct current. Semiconductor diodes can be used as rectifiers. A rectifier is an electrical device, comprising one or more semiconduct…

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rector - Academic rectors, Ecclesiastical rectors, Rectorates in politics and administration, Compound titles, Sources and references

In the Church of England, the parish priest receiving full tithe rents; in other Anglican churches, generally a parish priest. In Roman Catholicism, the term denotes the priest in charge of a religious house, college, or school. In some countries (eg Scotland), it refers to the senior officer of a university, elected by students. The word "rector" also appears in many modern languages, such…

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rectum - Medical procedures, The rectum in human defecation, Sexual stimuli

That part of the gastro-intestinal tract between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal. When gastro-intestinal contents enter the rectum, the individual has the urge to defaecate. Partial (mucous membrane and submucosa layer) or complete (whole thickness of the rectal wall) prolapse of the rectum is relatively common, and has many causative factors (eg muscle damage during childbirth, poor muscle t…

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recycling - History, Benefits, Drawbacks, Recycling techniques, Criticism, Recycling by region

Putting waste substances back into productive use, a procedure advocated by many conservationists. It is a means of reducing the demand on non-renewable resources, and of preventing problems of pollution and waste disposal. Examples include the pulping of waste paper to make recycled paper, the existence of bottle banks to collect used glass, and the smelting of metals from scrap. Incentives for r…

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Red Adair - Fire at the Wellhead

Fire-fighting specialist, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He worked as a pharmacy messenger and railroad labourer before joining the oil industry, where his courage and skill at dealing with fires came to the attention of Myron Kinley, with whom he formed a business in 1941. They developed the technique of using directional explosives, enabling charges to be delivered with great accuracy. He was call…

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red admiral

A large butterfly found widely in the N hemisphere; upperside of wings black with scarlet bands and patches of white and blue; caterpillars commonly found on nettles; overwinter as adults. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Nymphalidae.) …

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red algae - Fossil record, Taxonomy, Species, Red Algae as food

A large and diverse group of alga-like plants, ranging in form from single cells to large differentiated bodies; reddish colour stems from the mixture of photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins, and carotenoids inside the cells; reproduction involves the production of an egg cell inside a specialized organ (oogonium) receptive to the male gamete. (Class: Rhodophyceae.) The…

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Red Allen

Jazz trumpeter and singer, born in Algiers, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. As a boy, he marched alongside his father's famous New Orleans Brass Band. In Chicago in 1927, he joined King Oliver's band and travelled with it to New York, where he made his first recordings. He played the Mississippi steamboats (1928–9), then joined Fletcher Henderson's orchestra (1932–4). He recorded prolifically, but …

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Red Army (China) - Origins, Personnel, Weapons and Equipment, From the Civil War to the 1930s, World War II

Communist army built up by Zhu De at Mao Zedong's Jiangxi soviet after 1927. It was distinguished by more egalitarian command, disciplined treatment of civilians, the dissemination of political ideas, and the use of guerrilla tactics. It retreated N on the Long March (1934–5) to escape Nationalist pressure. Between 1936 and 1945 it grew from 22 000 to 900 000. In the civil war after 1945, it de…

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Red Army (USSR) - Origins, Personnel, Weapons and Equipment, From the Civil War to the 1930s, World War II

The Red Army of Workers and Peasants (RKKA, Rabochekrest'yanshi Krasny), the official name of the army of the Soviet Union (1918–45). It was the most important land force engaged in the defeat of Nazi Germany (1941–5), and later became the most powerful land force in the world. The short forms Red Army and RKKA' refer to the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Кр

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Red Auerbach - Early years, Coaching, Executive, Executive, Personal life

Basketball coach, born in New York City, USA. He took up basketball at high school and joined the college team at George Washington University, where he also began coaching. After service in the navy during World War 2, he made his professional coaching debut with the Washington Capitols and led them to two division titles (1947, 1949). In 1950 he took over as coach of the Boston Celtics and devel…

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Red Barber - Early years, Brooklyn Dodgers, New York Yankees, Later life, Honors

Baseball broadcaster, born in Columbus, Mississippi, USA. He was the broadcaster for the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Yankees (1939–66), and was known for his colourful phrases such as ‘sitting in the catbird seat’. He enjoyed a ‘revival’ in the final decade of his life as a weekly sports commentator on the National Public Broadcasting System, and was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame…

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Red Buttons - Filmography, Awards

Comedian and actor, born in Manhattan, New York City, New York, USA. While attending school in the Bronx he worked as a bellhop and singer at a local bar, earning his stage name from his red hair and buttoned uniform. He began working in burlesque on Broadway, and following army service in World War 2 returned to nightclub work. In 1951 he gained some acclaim for his role in an episode of the tele…

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Red Cloud - Early life, Red Cloud's War, The end of peace, His last days

Oglala Sioux chief, born near the Platte R in present-day Nebraska, USA. He was chosen chief over the hereditary candidate because of his intelligence, strength, and bravery. In 1865–8 he led and effectively won ‘Red Cloud's war’, closing the Bozeman trail (in present-day Montana), and forcing the US government to destroy its forts along the trail and to sign the Fort Laramie Treaty (1868), in …

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red deer - Appearance, Behavior, Breeding, gestation and lifespan, DNA studies on Red Deer subspecies, Protection from predators

A true deer (Cervus elephas) widespread in the temperate N hemisphere (introduced in Australia and New Zealand); also known as the Bactrian deer, Yarkand deer, maral, shou, hangul, or (in North America) wapiti or elk; sometimes farmed; pale brown in summer, darker in winter. Each antler usually has five tines (the Swedish form); if each has six, the stag is a Royal; if each has seven, it is a Wils…

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red dwarf

A small, cool star, 0·5–0·1 the mass and diameter of the Sun, and 100–100 000 times fainter than the Sun. Red dwarfs are probably the most abundant type of star, but are difficult to see because they are so dim. Two of the nearest stars to the Sun, Proxima Centauri and Barnard's Star, are red dwarfs. According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red dwarf star is a small and …

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red fox - Distribution, Physical description, Habitat and diet, Behaviour, Reproduction, Foxes and humans

A fox native to Europe (Vulpes vulpes), temperate Asia, N Africa, and North America (introduced in Australia); usually red-brown with white underparts (red fox); sometimes black (black fox), silvery grey (silver fox), or with a black cross on the back (cross fox). The Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most familiar of the foxes. The largest species within the genus Vulpes, the Red …

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red giant - Earth's Sun, Red giants in fiction

A cool red star, 10–100 times the radius of the Sun, and hundreds of thousands of times as luminous, but of similar mass. It develops in a late stage of stellar evolution, after the main sequence, when hydrogen in the core is exhausted and the outer layers expand. According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; …

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Red Grange - NFL career, Famous Comments about Grange, Trivia

Player and coach of American football, born in Forksville, Pennsylvania, USA. His achievements as a running back in the 1920s earned him his byname. He played for Illinois University (1923–5), and signed for the Chicago Bears in 1925. He retired from playing in 1935, and became a sports commentator on radio and television. Harold (Red) Edward Grange (June 13, 1903 – January 28, 1991), wa…

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Red Grooms

Sculptor, painter, and performance artist, born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, the New School for Social Research, NY, and the Hans Hofmann School, MA, then settled in New York City (1957). He founded Ruckus Productions (1963), a multi-media environmental and performance company, and is known both for his lifesize installations and for his impromptu happe…

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Red Guards

Young radical Maoist activists (mostly students) who spread the 1966 Cultural Revolution across China, destroying whatever was ‘old’, and rebelling against all ‘reactionary’ authority. The first Red Guards were a group formed in Qinghua University in Beijing on whom Mao bestowed his blessing at a mass rally in the capital in 1966. Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia forme…

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Red Norvo

Jazz musician, born in Beardstown, Illinois, USA. He was a xylophonist and vibes player who worked as a sideman with Victor Young's Radio Orchestra in Chicago (1927) and Paul Whiteman's Orchestra (1928–32). After two years of freelance recording work in New York, he led his own orchestra, featuring his wife, vocalist Mildred Bailey, until 1944. He alternated thereafter between leading his own sma…

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Red River (China) - Rivers and their namesakes, Other Red Rivers

River rising in C Yunnan province, China, SW of Kunming; flows SE into Vietnam to meet the Gulf of Tongking in a large delta, 32 km/20 mi E of Haiphong; length, c.800 km/500 mi. Red River may refer to the following: See also: Red River Expedition, a disambiguation page listing various expeditions of that name …

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Red River (USA) - Rivers and their namesakes, Other Red Rivers

River in S USA; rises in N Texas in the Llano Estacado; forms the Texas–Oklahoma and Texas–Arkansas borders; above Baton Rouge, enters two distributaries; the Atchafalaya R flows S to the Gulf of Mexico; the Old R joins the Mississippi; length 1966 km/1222 mi; major tributaries the Pease, Wichita, Washita, Little, Black; used for flood-control, irrigation, hydroelectricity; navigable to Shreve…

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Red River Colony

A British colony founded by the Earl of Selkirk in Rupert's Land (Manitoba) on the Assiniboine and Red Rivers in 1812. It was an English- and Gaelic-speaking colony in an area dominated by Indian and Métis fur traders and farmers. It was the focus of ethnic, racial, and commercial rivalries, culminating in the Battle of Seven Oaks (1816). From the 1820s, anglophone Protestant ‘country-born’ set…

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Red River Rebellion - Background, Riel emerges as a leader, Provisional government, Canadian resistance and the execution of Scott

A movement for self-determination in 1869–70 by the resident Métis population of Red River Colony, Canada (now Manitoba), which broke out when control over trading rights passed from the Hudson Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada. Led by Louis Riel, the Métis and anglophone ‘mixed-bloods’ established a provisional government (1870). Armed conflict followed, and a leader of a failed Anglo-Pr…

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Red Rum

(1965–95) Racehorse. Trained by Ginger McCain, he is the only horse to have won the Grand National steeplechase at Aintree three times - in 1973 and 1974, ridden by Brian Fletcher, and in 1977, ridden by Tommy Stack. Red Rum is buried on the Aintree finish line. "Rummy" became a national celebrity, opening supermarkets and annually leading the Grand National parade. Several books have been…

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Red Sea - History, Oceanography, Geology, Living Resources, Mineral resources, Desalination Plants, Facts and Figures at a Glance

area c.453 000 km²/175 000 sq mi. NW arm of the Indian Ocean, between the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia; occupies the rift valley which stretches S into the African continent; connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Suez Canal; divided into the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba by the Sinai Peninsula (NW); a narrow sea, up to 360 km/225 mi wide, 2335 km/1450 mi long; maximum d…

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Red Skelton - Early life, Films, Radio, Television, Off the air, Aftermath, Listen to

Entertainer, born in Vincennes, Indiana, USA. As a child he toured the midwest in a medicine show, and later gained fame as a variety performer of stage, radio, television, and films. He was voted the outstanding new radio star in 1941, and is remembered for the NBC television programme The Red Skelton Show (1951–71). He gave a farewell performance at Carnegie Hall in 1990. Richard Bernard…

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Red Square - Origin and name, Recent history, Sights

The central square of Moscow. Its Russian name (Krasnaya Ploshchad) derives from the Old Slavonic krasny (‘beautiful’ or ‘red’). The translation of ‘red’ became established only in the 20th-c. Historically the site of executions, demonstrations, and processions, the square became the scene of parades every May and November. Coordinates: 55°45′15″N, 37°37′12″E Red…

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red squirrel - Physical description, Ecology and behaviour, Conservation, Taxonomy and distribution

A small tree-dwelling squirrel; coat reddish-brown (dark brown or white forms exist); inhabits woodland, especially coniferous forest; four species: the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) from Europe and Asia, and the North American red squirrels or chickarees of genus Tamiasciurus. The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), is a species of tree squirrels (genus Sciurus). Red Sq…

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Red Terror

(1918–21) The Bolshevik campaign of terror and anarchy that followed the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was carried out systematically by the Cheka (Secret Police) and loosely-organized Red Army forces during and after the Russian Civil War (1918–20) against potential political opponents and ‘class enemies’ - especially the bourgeoisie, former aristocracy, and peasants who resisted the seizing…

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Redd Foxx - Biography, TV Work, Filmography

Comedian and television actor, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. A gravelly voiced and furrow-faced comedian, for years he had a near legendary reputation for his scatalogical humour to be heard only in venues frequented by African-Americans. Then the television sitcom ‘Sanford and Son’ (1972–7) catapulted him to fame and fortune. Although he retained his popularity with audiences, no other show…

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Redding - People, Places

41º19N 73º22W, pop (2000e) 8300. Residential rural town in Fairfield Co, Connecticut, USA; settled by John Read in 1714; incorporated, 1767; birthplace of Joel Barlow; during 19th–20th-c was a popular summer resort for affluent New Yorkers; town hall (1883); public library (1909) donated by Mark Twain; declared a national historic district (1993). Redding may mean: …

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redpoll

Either of two species of finch of genus Carduelis, especially the common redpoll, with subspecies mealy redpoll, lesser redpoll, and Greenland redpoll (Carduelis flammea); also the Arctic redpoll or Hornemann's redpoll (Carduelis hornemanni); native to the N hemisphere, and introduced in New Zealand. (Family: Fringillidae.) The Redpolls are a group of small passerine birds in the finch fami…

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redshift - Measurement, characterization, and interpretation, Mechanisms, Observations in astronomy

The displacement of features in the spectra of astronomical objects, particularly galaxies and quasars, towards the longer wavelengths. This is generally interpreted as a result of the Doppler effect resulting from the expansion of the universe. In physics and astronomy, redshift occurs when the visible light from an object is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum. More generally, red…

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redstart

An Old World thrush of genus Phoenicurus (11 species), Sheppardia (2 species), or Rhyacornis (2 species); also, a New World warbler of genus Myioborus (11 species) or Setophaga (1 species). …

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reduced instruction set computer (RISC) - Pre-RISC design philosophy, RISC design philosophy, Early RISC, Later RISC, Alternative term

A computer using a very small and relatively simple instruction set, which allows faster processing and greater compatibility in design between computers. The reduced instruction set computer, or RISC, is a CPU design philosophy that favors a simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. The idea was originally inspired by the discovery that…

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reducing agent - Common reducing agents, Common reducing agents and their products, Sources

A substance which reduces another in a chemical reaction, being itself oxidized in the process. An important example is hydrogen gas (H2), which is oxidized to water when it reduces a metal oxide. In order to tell which is the strongest reducing agent, change the sign of its respective reduction potential in order to make it oxidation potential. …

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reduction

A chemical process involving the gain of electrons, always accompanied by oxidation, the loss of electrons. It often involves the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen by a compound. Reduction or reducing may also refer to: …

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reductionism - Varieties of reductionism, History

In philosophy, an attempt to explain or define one set of concepts or theories in terms of another which is more basic or less complex. For example, the view that human behaviour can be ‘reduced to’ animal behaviour, or animal behaviour to the physical laws of matter (so that psychology and biology reduce to physics). Reductionism in philosophy is a theory that asserts that the nature of …

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redundancy

Dismissal of employees whose work is no longer needed. This may occur through a fall in the demand for their products, through new labour practices of outsourcing the work to a self-employed worker, or through technical progress leading to mechanization or automation of production. If the need for labour falls slowly, adjustment may be possible through natural wastage, ie not replacing those who l…

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redwing

A thrush native to Europe, Asia, and N Africa (Turdus iliacus); speckled breast, red sides, and cream ‘eyebrow’; migrates S in autumn, often with fieldfares. The name is also used for the red-winged blackbird (Family: Icteridae) and the redwing francolin (Family: Phasianidae). …

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reed - People, Other

A tall grass (Phragmites australis) with far-creeping rhizomes, found almost everywhere; stout, erect stems 2–3 m/6–10 ft high; panicle nodding, soft, dull purple. It forms vast beds in swamps or shallow water, and is used for good-quality thatch. (Family: Gramineae.) …

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reed organ - Stops

A musical instrument in which reeds, brought into play by means of one or more keyboards, are made to vibrate freely by air under pressure from bellows. Smaller models, such as the harmonium, have only one manual, and the bellows are powered by a foot treadle; larger ones may have two manuals and a pedalboard, the bellows being operated by a separate lever or by an electric motor. Reed organs were…

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reed warbler

An Old World warbler, especially the reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) from Europe, SW Asia, and Africa; inhabits reed beds and parks; eats insects, berries, and molluscs. (Genus: Acrocephalus, 14 species.) …

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reel - Uses, Motion Picture Terminology

In photography, (1) a flanged spool on which long lengths of film or tape may be wound, or (2) the roll of motion-picture film that forms a convenient length for handling a section of a programme during editing and printing. A typical feature film comprises 5 or 6 reels, each 500–600 m/1600–2000 ft in length. Other issues affecting the core size include: With material such a…

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referendum - Terminology, Procedure and status, Criticism, Multiple-choice referendums, Referendums by country

A device of direct democracy whereby the electorate can pronounce, usually for or against, on some measure put before it by government; also known as a plebiscite. In some countries a petition of sufficient voters can put an issue to a referendum. Most commonly referenda are held on constitutional changes (eg women's suffrage, as in Switzerland), rather than on government policy. A referend…

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reflection - In music

In physics, the bouncing off from a suitable surface of a beam of light, sound, or other wave at an angle equal to that of the incident beam. Light is reflected by shiny (eg metal) surfaces, and at a change in refractive index (eg in passing from air to glass). Sound is reflected by hard, smooth surfaces and in passing through a change in air density. Reflectance is the measured ratio of incident …

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reflexology - History, Theory, Reported reactions, Alleged long-term effects, Current practice, Scientific view

An ancient system of diagnosis and treatment, dating from c.3000 BC, based on the belief that an image of the entire body, including the internal organs, is represented on the surface of the foot. Although reflexology zones do not correspond exactly to acupuncture meridians, diagnosis is based on the same principles as found in traditional Chinese medicine, where illness is seen as due to blockage…

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Reform Judaism - 19th-century Reform Judaism in Germany, Confirmation ceremonies, Development of American Reform Judaism

A movement beginning in early 19th-c Germany for the reform of Jewish worship, ritual, and beliefs in the light of modern scholarship and knowledge. Greater emphasis is placed on the ethical teachings of the prophets than on ritual law, and reason and experience are primary in the assessment of belief. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest stream of Judaism in America and its sibling …

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Reform Party

A Canadian political party, established to articulate discontent in the W of the country. It captured the third largest number of seats in the 1993 general election, almost all from Alberta and British Columbia. The Reform Party could be any of the following: Defunct parties: See also: List of political parties …

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Reformed Church in America - History, Ecumenical relations, RCA colleges and seminaries, Sources

A Christian denomination established in 1628 with the organization of the Collegiate Church for the early Dutch Reformed settlers. It gained its independence in 1770, was incorporated as the Reformed Protestant Church in 1819, and adopted its current name in 1867. In 1784 it established the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, the oldest Protestant seminary in the USA. The Reformed Church in…

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Reformed Churches - History, Form of governance, Reformed Churches worldwide

Churches deriving from Calvin's Reformation in 16th-c Geneva, adopting a conciliar or presbyterian form of Church government. They are now worldwide in extent, with most being members of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine, which first arose especially …

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reformism - Reformism in the United Kingdom's Labour Party

Any doctrine or movement that advocates gradual social and political change rather than revolutionary change; most commonly applied to socialism. The underlying premise is that democratic procedures provide the most suitable means through which to build social change. Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately cha…

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refraction

A change in the direction of a wave as it passes from one medium to another in which the wave velocity is different, for example a sound wave passing from hot to cold air. It is expressed by Snell's law, sin ?A/sin ?B = constant. The illustration shows a wave having a velocity in substance B which is less than its velocity in substance A. If the wave was light and substance A was a vacuum, sin…

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refractive index - Dispersion and absorption, Anisotropy, Nonlinearity, Inhomogeneity, Applications

A measurement of the ratio of velocity of light (or other electromagnetic wave) in a vacuum to that in matter; symbol n; always greater than 1; n(air) = 1·0003, n(water) = 1·33, so the velocity of light in water is about 75% of that in air. The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a material is the factor by which the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation is slowed in th…

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refrigerator - History of development, The impact of the refrigerator on the home, How a refrigerator works, Features

An insulated enclosed space, with a cooling mechanism to reduce its temperature, which preserves foodstuffs for short periods. The earlier ice-house used ice as a coolant, but from c.1875 mechanical means were introduced (originally for ship's refrigerators), compressing a coolant outside to allow it to expand inside and thus absorb heat. From c.1910 domestic models were available, and became larg…

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refuse-derived fuel (commercial)

Garbage from which metallic and mineral inclusions have been removed, so that it can be fed into a suitably designed furnace. It is often used for generating electricity or district heating. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by shredding municipal solid waste (MSW) or steam pressure treating in an autoclave. Noncombustible materials such …

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refuse-derived fuel (domestic)

The product of small-scale fermentation of domestic and animal waste to produce gas (methane) for domestic use. The process has been promoted particularly in some rural areas in Third World countries. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by shredding municipal solid waste (MSW) or steam pressure treating in an autoclave. Noncombustible mater…

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regal

A small portable reed organ, in use during the 16th–17th-c. The wind pressure was maintained by two small bellows directly behind the keyboard. Regal may refer to: …

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Regensburg - History, Main sights, Economy, Transportation, Notable Residents

49°01N 12°07E, pop (2000e) 126 000. Commercial city in Oberpfalz district, Germany; at confluence of R Regen and R Danube, 104 km/65 mi NE of Munich; well-preserved mediaeval city; Imperial Diets held here (1663–1806); bishopric; railway; river harbour; university (1962); electrical engineering, chemicals, clothing, sugar refining, carpets, river craft, brewing; Gothic cathedral (13th–16th…

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regent

The person appointed to act for the monarch if he/she is incapacitated, unavailable, or under l8. In the UK, it is customary for the next heir to the throne to be regent: from 1811 to 1820 the Prince of Wales (later George IV) acted as regent because of the supposed insanity of his father, George III. "A Person appointed to administer a State because the monarch is a minor or is absent or i…

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regent

In the Republic of The Netherlands, an administrator of a public body or institution, chosen from the ruling classes in Dutch towns and making up a small oligarchy of patrician businessmen, sharing office among themselves, and intermarrying. In the Netherlands East Indies the title was used for senior native officials. "A Person appointed to administer a State because the monarch is a minor…

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reggae - Origins, Roots reggae, Rockers, Newer styles and spin-offs, Lyrical themes, Reggae music festivals

A type of popular music, of Rastafarian Jamaican origin but drawing on Afro-American traditions and later influenced by rock. Many reggae songs spring from a social malaise; they are usually accompanied by electric guitars, piano, organ, and drum set. Among prominent reggae artists were Bob Marley and the Wailers. Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. T…

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Reggie Jackson - Youth and early career, Oakland championships, A hard-won title in The Bronx

Baseball player, born in Wyncote, Pennsylvania, USA. He began an athletic career at Arizona State University, but turned to baseball. He joined the Kansas City (later Oakland) Athletics (1968–75), establishing himself as a versatile player, with exceptional skill as a hitter. He transferred to the Baltimore Orioles in 1976, then signed for the New York Yankees, where he became renowned for brashn…

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Regina

50°30N 104°38W, pop (2000e) 188 800. Capital of Saskatchewan province, on Moosejaw Creek, SC Canada; founded, 1882 as capital of Northwest Territories; named in honour of Queen Victoria; provincial capital, 1905; centre of grain, potash, and oil industries; airport; railway; university (1917); grain trade, oil refining, steel, engineering, meat processing, canning; Royal Canadian Mounted Polic…

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Regina Resnik

Mezzo-soprano, born in New York City, New York, USA. She made her concert debut as a soprano in Brooklyn (1942) and her operatic debut that year in New York. Her first Metropolitan Opera appearance came in 1944. After a successful decade of singing internationally, she began (1955) performing mezzo-soprano roles with comparable success. While performing into the 1970s, she also began directing ope…

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Reginald John Campbell

Clergyman, born in London, UK. He entered the Congregational ministry in 1895, and was pastor of the City Temple, London (1903–15). In 1907 he startled the evangelical world by his exposition of an ‘advanced’ New Theology. He became an Anglican in 1916. Reginald John Campbell (1867-1956), British Congregationalist divine, son of a United Free Methodist minister of Scottish descent, was b…

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Reginald Maudling - Youth, Early political career, Ministerial office in the 1950s, Board of Trade, Chancellor of the Exchequer

British Conservative statesman, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, was called to the bar (1940), and served in the air force during World War 2. He entered parliament in 1950, became minister of supply (1953–7), paymaster-general (1957–9), President of the Board of Trade (1959–61), colonial secretary (1961), Chancellor of the Exchequer (1962–4), and deputy leader of the Opposition in 19…

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Reginald Pecock

Theologian and writer, born in Laugharne, Carmarthenshire, SW Wales, UK. A fellow of Oxford, he was ordained (1421), became Bishop of St Asaph (1444–50), and Bishop of Chichester (1450–58). Involved in several theological controversies of the day, he compiled many treatises in English. In 1457 he was denounced for having written in English, and for making reason paramount to the authority of the…

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Regiomontanus - Biography, Regiomontanus and Astrology

Mathematician and astronomer, born in Königsberg (Lat Mons Regius, hence his pseudonym), Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He studied at Vienna, and in 1471 settled in Nuremberg where a rich patrician, Bernard Walther, offered him an observatory. He established the study of algebra and trigonometry in Germany, and wrote on a variety of applied topics. In 1474 he was summoned to Rome by Sixtus IV…

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regionalism (politics)

A movement whereby the inhabitants of a region stress their individual or separate identity from other regions. This can be based on factors such as linguistic differences (eg in Belgium), religious differences (eg Northern Ireland), and ethnic differences (eg the Kurdish population in Iraq). It may result in war, as seen in the 1990s conflict between some of the regions of former Yugoslavia. …

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register

A variety of language defined by the social context in which it is deemed appropriate for use, such as religion, law, science, advertising, journalism, or conversation. Each register can be identified by a range of linguistic features which together distinguish it from other registers in the language. Traditional religious language is usually one of the most distinctive in English, making use of s…

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regolith - On the Earth, On the Moon, On asteroids

The layer of fine powdery material on the Moon produced by the repeated impact of meteorites. It is up to 25 m/80 ft thick. Similar dust probably covers many other objects in the Solar System. Regolith (Greek: "blanket rock") is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. On Earth, the regolith is considered to be "everything between fresh rock and fresh air"…

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regression

One of many defence mechanisms in which the individual returns to behaviour more apposite to an earlier age. This can be a component of a psychotherapy process and can also occur in physical illness; for example, a man with a severe injury to the spine but who was able to feed himself insisted on his wife feeding him with a spoon during the acute phase of his illness. …

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regulator

The non-ministerial head of a government department which controls privatized industries in England and Wales. In the 1980s and 1990s, a large number of state-owned enterprises were sold off as monopolies, in some cases without any real competition. Many of these corporations provided essential services to the public, so control and accountability were not transferred to the purchasers. These func…

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rehabilitation

In medicine, the process of helping a patient return to normal life or attain the best possible lifestyle following a serious illness or injury. It may involve physiotherapy and occupational therapy to help the body regain its optimal level of functioning. Rehabilitation may refer to: …

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Reich - Reich, German, Etymology and cognates

The term used to describe the German Empire. The Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) was regarded as the First Reich, and unified Germany after 1870 was referred to as the Second Reich (Kaiserreich). After 1933, the enlarged Germany envisaged in Hitler's plans was known as the Third Reich. The term Reich was part of the German names for Germany for much of its history. The German name for the "Ho…

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Reichsdeputationshauptschluss - Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, Secularisation, Mediatisation

The last resolution of the Reichsdeputation (a committee of the former Reichstag) dated 25 February 1803: partition of most of the ecclesiastical principalities and Reichsstädte to compensate the German sovereigns for the loss of the areas left of the Rhine to France. Thus Prussia, Bavaria, Baden, and Württemberg gained large areas, France acquired allies in S Germany, and Prussia's position vis…

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Reichskammergericht

The highest court in the Holy Roman Empire (1495–1806). It had its seat initially in Frankfurt am Main, then in Speyer (1526–1689) and in Wetzlar. Head of the Reichskammergericht was the Kammerrichter, who was appointed by the emperor and assisted by 16 associate judges nominated by the Reichsstände. Its jurisdiction covered civil cases, all fiscal matters, and civil claims against subjects of …

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Reichskommissar

In the German Reich from 1871 to 1945, the commissioner for the government (Reichsregierung) and in the Weimar Republic also for the president (Reichspräsident) in charge of special administrative tasks. Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissionary of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner; (under the Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag) and on 15 December 1890 formally annexed to Ge…

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Reichskonkordat - History, Terms, and violations, Meaning of the Concordat, After World War II

An agreement concluded (20 Jul 1933) between the German Reich and the Holy See regulating the position of the Catholic Church within Germany. It assured the freedom of religious practice, but restricted the organizational and co-operative activities to cultural, religious, and charitable purposes. From the beginning the Reichskonkordat was violated by the NS Regime, but it gave Rome a means of pro…

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Reichstag fire - Van der Lubbe's execution

The deliberate burning down of Germany's parliament building (27 Feb 1933), shortly after the Nazi accession to power. A deranged Dutch ex-communist, van der Lubbe, was accused of arson and executed. The new Nazi government, insisting that the act was evidence of a wider communist conspiracy, used the situation to ban and suppress the German Communist Party. Communist conspiracy was certainly not …

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Reichswehr - Reference

German forces formed of professional soldiers according to the regulations of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. It consisted of the Reichsheer (100 000 men) and the Reichsmarine (15 000 men). According to the treaty an airforce was not allowed, nor the ownership of submarines, tanks, or heavy artillery. The Reichswehr listen?(help·info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) fo…

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Reign of Terror - Background, The Terror, The End, Treatment in fiction, Treatment in film, Treatment in television

(1793–4) The extreme phase of the French Revolution, characterized by the systematic execution of political opponents of the Jacobins and supposed sympathizers of the Counter-Revolution, who were brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal and guillotined. 40 000 people are thought to have been killed in Paris and the provinces. The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or sim…

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reincarnation - Overview, Reincarnation in various religions, traditions and philosophies, Research and debate

The belief that, following death, some aspect of the self or soul can be reborn in a new body (human or animal), a process which may be repeated many times. This belief is fundamental to many Eastern religions, such as Hinduism and Buddhism, and is also found in more modern, Western belief systems such as theosophy. Alleged past-life regressions, where a hypnotized person appears to ‘remember’ p…

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Reinhard Bendix

Sociologist, born in Berlin, Germany. A 1938 immigrant to the USA, he studied at the University of Chicago, and spent most of his academic career at the University of California, Berkeley, first with the sociology department (1947–61), and then with the political science department (1962–91). He wrote many books on the sociology of industrial society, political sociology, and the German sociolog…

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Reinhard Gehlen - Military service, Post World War II, Gehlen Org, Bundesnachrichtendienst

German general, born in Erfurt, C Germany. In 1942–5 he was head of the Fremde Heere Ost department. He provided the US occupational force with secret archives compiled by him, and created at their request a secret service organization called ‘Organisation G’ mainly directed against the states of the Eastern Block. Acquired by the BD in 1955, the organization was renamed Bundesnachrichtendienst…

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Reinhard Heydrich - Early life, Family, Possible Jewish ancestry, His younger brother's anti-nazism, Trivia

Nazi politician and deputy-chief of the Gestapo, born in Halle, EC Germany. He joined the violent anti-Weimar ‘Free Corps’ (1918), and served in the navy (1922–31), quitting to join the Nazi Party. He rose to be second-in-command of the secret police (Gestapo), and was charged with subduing Hitler's war-occupied countries, which he did by ordering mass executions. In 1941 he was made deputy-pro…

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Reinhard Scheer - Table showing rank and date of promotion, Reference and further reading

German admiral, born in Obernkirchen, NC Germany. He went to sea as a naval cadet in torpedo craft. As vice-admiral he commanded the 2nd Battle Squadron of the German High Seas fleet at the outset of World War 1. He succeeded as commander-in-chief in 1916, and was in command at the indecisive Battle of Jutland (1916). An advocate of all-out submarine warfare, he briefly became chief of the admiral…

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Reinhard Selten - Books by Reinhard Selten

Economist, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied mathematics at Frankfurt-am-Main, and later worked at universities in California, Berlin, and Bielefeld before moving to the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University in Bonn in 1984. He shared the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1994 for his contribution to the analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-co-operative games.…

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Reinhold Niebuhr - Personal history, Political efforts, Philosophical writings, Influence and honors

Protestant theologian, born in Wright City, Missouri, USA. The son of a clergyman and brother of theologian Helmut Richard Niebuhr, he was educated at Elmhurst College (Illinois), Eden Theological Seminary (Missouri), and the Yale Divinity School. Initially a theological liberal and an active Socialist, his experience as pastor of working-class Bethel Evangelical Church in Detroit (1915–28) gradu…

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relapsing fever

A group of diseases resulting from infection with spirochaete bacteria of the genus Borrelia, transmitted to humans by body lice or ticks. One of these is Lyme disease. There is a ‘bulls eye’ rash at the site of the bite accompanied by fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. Complications include widespread skin rashes and inflammation of the joints, heart, and brain. It tends to occur in ep…

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relational database - Definitions, Contents, Relational operations, Normalization

A form of organizing data in a computer in which each entity type is stored separately as a table, and the relationships between entities are stored as another table. In the database for the present encyclopedia, for example, the individual entries are stored in one file, and the relationships between entries (such as the indexing of the words in the entries, which controls the alphabetical order)…

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relative density - Specific Gravity of water, Specific gravity of Biogas, Methane properties, The kidneys and specific gravity

Density measured relative to some standard, typically water at 20°C; symbol d, expressed as a pure number; measured using hydrometers; formerly called specific gravity. For example, for alcohol, density ? = 789 kg/m3, d = 0·791. where Since water's density is 1.0 × 10 in SI units, the relative density of a material is approximately the density of the material measured in…

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relativism - Advocates of relativism, Postmodern relativism, Relativism: pro and con, The Catholic Church and relativism

The view that there are no objective or universally valid truths and values; they are all dependent on and ‘relative to’ the culture, society, or circumstances of the individual. This doctrine often arises from observations of human diversity of an anthropological kind; in philosophy it goes back at least as far as Protagoras and the Sophists. Relativism consists of various theories each …

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relay - Operation, Types of relay, Applications, Relay application considerations, Protection relay, Overcurrent relay

An electrical or solid-state device, operated by changes in input, which is used to control or operate other devices connected to the output. Most relays are used in electrical circuits, though they may have mechanical input or output. They have a range of applications in telephone exchanges, switches, and automation systems. A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under contr…

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releasing hormone

One of a group of hormones produced in different parts of the hypothalamus, and stored and released by the neurones of the median eminence of the hypothalamus in response to stimuli from the brain. It is transported to the front lobe of the pituitary gland, where it stimulates or inhibits the release of a specific pituitary hormone (eg growth-hormone-releasing hormone). Previously known as a relea…

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religion - Definition of religion, Religious belief, Related forms of thought, Etymology

A concept which has been used to denote: (1) the class of all religions; (2) the common essence or pattern of all supposedly genuine religious phenomena; (3) the transcendant or ‘this-worldly’ ideal of which any actual religion is as an imperfect manifestation; and (4) human religiousness as a form of life which may or may not be expressed in systems of belief and practice. These usages suffer f…

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rem

In radioactivity, an old measure of dose equivalent; symbol rem; equal to absorbed dose in rad multiplied by relative biological effectiveness, 1 rem = 0·01 Sv (sievert, SI unit); an abbreviation of röntgen equivalent in man; classed as a unit in temporary use with SI units. REM is an acronym for: …

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REM

US rock band formed in 1980 in Athens, Georgia: Michael Stipe (1960– , vocals), Peter Buck (1956– , guitar), Michael Mills (1958– , bass), and Bill Berry (1958– , drums); their name may or may not derive from the acronym for ‘rapid eye movement’. Their music is more melodic, and with more engaging lyrics, than much rock. Their best known song is probably the melancholic ‘Losing My Religion

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Rembrandt (Harmenszoon van Rijn) - Works, Life, Periods, themes, and styles, Museum collections, A selection of famous works

Painter, born in Leyden, W Netherlands. He studied under various masters, and was introduced to Italian art. His early works include religious and historical scenes, unusual in Protestant Holland. He settled in Amsterdam (1631), where he ran a large studio and took numerous pupils. ‘The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp’ (1632, The Hague) assured his reputation as a portrait painter. In 1634 he…

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Rembrandt Peale - Major works

Painter, born in Bucks Co, Pennsylvania, USA, the son of Charles Willson Peale. Based in Philadelphia, he travelled widely in Europe and was a founder of the Pennsylvania School of the Fine Arts (1805) and president of the American Academy of Fine Arts, New York (1826). His most famous allegorical painting is ‘Court of Death’ (1820). …

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Remco Campert - Primary bibliography, Literary prices received

Novelist and poet, born in The Hague, W Netherlands. A member of the Movement of Fifty, he wrote his first poems, Vogels vliegen toch (Birds Will Fly), in 1951. Recurring themes are on poetry as such, and the impossibility of expressing oneself in poetry, balancing the romantic ideal of pure love and the ultimate poem with sober reality. His poetry is more accessible than that of most poets of his…

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Remembrance Sunday

In the UK, the Sunday nearest 11 November (formerly Armistice Day), on which are commemorated those who died in the two world wars. A two-minute silence is observed at 11 am. There are special church services, and wreath-laying ceremonies at war memorials. In the United Kingdom Remembrance Sunday is the Sunday nearest to 11 November - Remembrance Day, which is the anniversary of when hosti…

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Remonstrants

Christians adhering to the Calvinistic doctrine of Jacobus Arminius (17th-c Holland), whose followers were also known as Arminians. They were named after the ‘Remonstrance’, a statement of Arminian teaching dating from 1610. Small in number, they were influential among Baptists, and in Methodism and Calvinism. Remonstrants, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of…

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remora - The fishing fish, Mythology, Trivia

Slender-bodied fish (Remora remora) widespread in warm seas; large sucking disc on upper surface of head, with which it attaches firmly to other fish, especially sharks; length up to 45 cm/18 in; also called shark-sucker. (Family: Echeneidae, 3 genera, 8 species.) Remoras or suckerfish are elongate brown fish in order Perciformes and family Echeneidae. Remoras are primarily tr…

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remote sensing - Data acquisition techniques, Data processing, History

A method of measuring the characteristics of an object without touching it. The term is usually applied to images of the Earth taken by satellites, and to cameras in aircraft which can be used to map different phenomena; examples include cloud cover from METEOSAT, and land-use patterns from LANDSAT. In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the measurement or acquisition of information of an…

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R

Renaissance scholar and poet, born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, near Chartres, NC France. Referred to by Ronsard as ‘le peintre de la nature’, from 1554 he was a member of La Pléiade, a literary group that sought to enrich French literature by reviving classical tradition. His chief works remain Petites Inventions (1557) and La Bergerie (1565–72), a collection of pieces in the pastoral vein of which

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R - Life, Works, Selected works, Quotation

Critic, poet, and novelist, born in Bazoche en Houlme, NW France. He studied law at Caen, then joined the Bibliothèque Nationale (1881), but was dismissed in 1891 for publishing an allegedly unpatriotic article entitled ‘Le Joujou Patriotisme’ in the Mercure de France which he had co-founded. He belonged to the Symbolist school, publishing Le Latin mystique (1892), Fleurs de Jadis (1893), and C…

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R - Life, Works, Selected works, Quotation

Poet, novelist and critic, born in Bazoches-en-Houlme, NE France. Having been dismissed from his post at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (1891), because of an allegedly unpatriotic article in Mercure de France, of which he was a co-founder, he lived the life of a recluse. His creative work, which was in the Symbolist vogue, includes Sixtine (1890, trans Very Woman) and Un Coeur virginal (1907, …

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Renaissance - Historiography, Early Renaissance, Italian Renaissance, The Renaissance Spreads

From the French for ‘re-birth’, referring to the revival of classical literature and artistic styles at various times in European history. Such renaissances occurred in the 8th–9th-c, in the 12th-c, and in the 14th–16th-c. The first, or Carolingian Renaissance, centred upon the recovery of classical Latin texts in cathedral schools. The second, or Twelfth-century Renaissance, was marked by the…

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Renaissance architecture - Origins of Renaissance Architecture in Italy, Spread of Renaissance Architecture, Legacy of Renaissance architecture

The rediscovery and application of classical and especially Roman architectural forms and principles in 15th-c and 16th-c W Europe. It is particularly associated with Italy, and the work of such architects as Alberti, Bramante, Brunelleschi, Michelangelo, Palladio, Raphael, Giulio Romano, Giuliano da Sangallo, and Vignola. Renaissance architecture is also to be found in England, such as the Queen'…

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Renata Tebaldi - Early years, International career

Operatic soprano, born in Pesaro, E Italy. At age 15 she entered Parma Conservatory, made her debut at Rovigo in 1944, and was invited by Toscanini to appear at the re-opening of La Scala, Milan in 1946, where she sang until 1954. During her career she appeared at many opera houses, and enjoyed a long association with the Metropolitan Opera, New York City (1955–73). She made many recordings, most…

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Renate Dorrestein

Novelist and journalist, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In her work she transposes the genre of the 19th-c Anglo-Saxon Gothic novel to modern times, producing novels which are both cruel and fantastic, blowing up reality to grotesque dimensions. A collection of her columns from the feminist magazine Opzij was published in Korte Metten (Short Shrift), and she was awarded a prize for the way sh…

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Renate Rubinstein - Biography, Prizes, Bibliography

Writer, born in Berlin, Germany. A student of political and social science, she was mainly known for her columns under her pseudonym, in which she expressed her views on issues such as feminism, disarmament, and the Palestinian issue. As a novelist, she made a great impression with Niets te verliezen en toch bang (1978, Nothing to Lose Yet Afraid) and Nee, heb je (1985, Take It or Leave It; Aspect…

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Renato Dulbecco

Virologist, born in Catanzaro, Italy. He performed research at Turin (1940–7), then went to the USA as a bacteriologist at the University of Indiana (1947–9), where he worked with his former Turin colleague Salvador Luria on bacterial viruses. He moved to the California Institute of Technology (1949–63) at the invitation of Max Delbrück, under whose direction he conducted research on polio vir…

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Renato Guttuso - Biography

Artist, born in Palermo, Sicily, S Italy. He worked for some time in Milan, and settled in Rome in 1937. He was associated with various anti-Fascist groups from 1942 to 1945, and much of his work reflects this experience. After the war he began to paint dramatic Realist pictures of the lives of the Italian peasants. Renato Guttuso (26 December 1911 – 18 January 1987) was one of the major …

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Renfrew

55º88N 441W, pop (2001e) 20 100. Royal burgh in Renfrewshire, Scotland, UK; near the R Clyde, 8 km/5 mi W of Glasgow; birthplace of Hunter Davies and John Macquarrie; Inchinnan Church was once owned by the Knights Templars before being rebuilt and there are graves from the order in the churchyard. Renfrew may be: People: Scottish geography: …

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renin - Function, Secretion

A hormone, produced by the kidneys, which promotes the conversion of angiotensinogen (a plasma protein) into angiotensin I, the inactive precursor of the physiologically active angiotensin II. The function of the latter is to constrict the arterioles (thereby raising blood pressure), and to stimulate aldosterone secretion and thirst. It is the most important blood vessel constrictor known. …

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Rennes - Administration, Geography, Sights, History, Economy, Culture, Miscellaneous

48°07N 1°41W, pop (2000e) 207 000. Industrial and commercial city, and capital of Ille-et-Vilaine department, NW France; at confluence of canalized Ille and Vilaine Rivers, 309 km/192 mi SW of Paris; capital of Brittany, 10th-c, and now its economic and cultural centre; largely rebuilt after major fire, 1720; badly bombed in World War 2; airport; road and rail junction; archbishopric; univer…

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rennet - Sources, Uses, Production of natural calf rennet, Alternative coagulants

An extract from the stomach of most young animals, but particularly the calf and the lamb, which contains the enzyme rennin. It causes the main milk protein casein to precipitate, thus allowing the milk to clot, forming a hard curd with the release of a watery whey rich in sugar (lactose) and whey protein. Rennet is commercially available, sometimes being used in recipes and the manufacture of che…

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Reno

39°31N 119°48W, pop (2000e) 180 500. Seat of Washoe Co, W Nevada, USA, on the Truckee R; settled, 1859; developed with arrival of railway, 1868; airport; university (1874); noted for its casinos; formerly (before laws generally became less restrictive), couples wanting a quick divorce would drive to Reno; Reno Rodeo (Jun), National Air Races (Sep). Reno may refer to: Places:…

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renormalization - Prehistory: Self-interactions in classical mechanics, Divergences in quantum electrodynamics, Renormalized and bare quantities

A mathematical procedure in quantum field theories for avoiding infinite results in calculations by a careful redefinition of basic quantities such as mass and charge. The requirement of renormalization, as displayed for example by quantum electrodynamics, is regarded as prerequisite for a useful theory. In quantum field theory (QFT) and the statistical mechanics of fields, renormalization …

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Rensis Likert - Biography, Central aspects of his theories, Books

Psychologist and management theorist, born in Cheyenne, Wyoming, USA. At the University of Michigan (1946–70) he was founding director of the Institute for Social Research (1949–70), working on large organizations and theories of management. His major contributions included the development of a survey methodology that laid the groundwork for probability sampling, the Likert scale for measuring a…

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repertory grid - Introduction, Using the Repertory Grid

A technique developed by the US psychologist George Kelly (1905–66) for eliciting a respondent's view of some aspect of the world. Respondents produce their own list of characteristics (constructs) on which they rate items (eg colleagues). The structure of this grid of constructs and items can be used to describe how the respondent sees the world. The technique has been much used in management tr…

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repetitive strain injury (RSI) - Specific conditions, Warning signs, Treatment

A term used to describe a variety of types of soft tissue injury caused by repetitive motion, poor posture, or excessive stress of a body part. It includes tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome (affecting the thumb and hand), and some sports injuries such as tennis elbow. Injuries may be work-related, due to typing or using tools, and may be prevented by a suitable working environment, eg correct sea…

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reptile - Classification of reptiles, Evolution of the reptiles, Systems

An animal of the class Reptilia (6547 species), which evolved from primitive amphibians; most live on land; breathe with lungs, not gills; dry waterproof skin with horny scales (not separated, like those of a fish, but folds of skin); may moult outer skin regularly; one small bone (the columella or stapes) in the ear, and several bones forming either side of the lower jaw (unlike mammals); use Sun…

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Repubblica Sociale Italiana (RSI)

The state established in the German-controlled area of CN Italy after the 9th September 1943; also called Repubblica di Salò, from the name of its capital. Its head of state was Mussolini, who was also leader of the new republican Fascist party. The RSI was noted for the ruthless persecution of partisans operated by special forces such as X MAS and the Black Brigades. Its most important political…

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republic - Characteristics of republics, Examples of republics, Republics in political theory

A form of state and government where, unlike a monarchy (which is hereditary), the head of state and leader of the government are periodically appointed under the constitution. It thus covers most modern states, and in this respect the term has lost something of its earlier meaning and appeal as an alternative to systems where political power was hereditary. Republics now vary considerably in form…

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Republican Party

One of the two main parties in US politics, created in 1854 out of the anti-slavery movement that preceded the Civil War. It found almost immediate success when Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, and held the presidency except for four terms until Franklin D Roosevelt in 1933, when the Depression led to a major turnaround in Republican fortunes, and the Democrats became the clear major…

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requiem - The Roman Catholic Liturgy, Musical compositions, Non-Catholic requiems, 20th century developments, Famous Requiems

In the Roman Catholic Church, a Mass for the dead. In addition to its liturgical use, it has become a musical form, of which there are many outstanding examples, eg requiems by Mozart, Fauré, and Britten. The Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and, in a wholly di…

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resale price maintenance (RPM) - United Kingdom law

The action of manufacturers in fixing the prices at which their products may be resold by retailers. While RPM does not necessarily imply a price-fixing cartel by manufacturers, it makes such a cartel much easier to enforce. RPM was stopped in the UK by the Restrictive Trade Practices Act (1956) and the Retail Prices Act (1964), except for a few special cases, such as the (now abandoned) Net Book …

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research and development (R)

The process of using labour, materials, and capital to enable a firm to produce a particular product in the future. New products and techniques require expensive testing for effectiveness, durability, and safety. R&D is carried on in a wide variety of sectors, but is concentrated in what are termed ‘high-tech’ industries, including electronics, aviation, atomic energy, and pharmaceuticals. All t…

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reserpine - History, Uses today, Side effects

A drug present in the shrub Rauwolfia serpentina which has been widely used for centuries in Hindu medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including hypertension, insomnia, and mental disorders. More recently it has been used in the West as a sedative, and in psychosis. It has now been superseded by more potent, safer drugs. It is still sometimes used in hypertension. Reserpine…

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reserve currency

A currency which countries choose to hold as foreign exchange reserves. In theory this could be issued by an international institution such as the International Monetary Fund, but historically national currencies have been used. A country needs two things to make its currency appear attractive to others to hold as reserves. Its currency must be expected to maintain its value relative to others, wh…

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Resia Pass

Pass S of the Austrian-Italian border and just E of the Swiss frontier; 1504 m/4934 ft high and 1·6 km/1 mi long; it separates the Unterengadin section of the Inn River valley in Austria from the Adige River valley, Italy. The Resia Pass (Italian: Passo di Resia, German: Reschenpass) is an Alpine pass (1504 m) located at the Italian-Austrian border, close to the border with Switzerland…

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resin - Formation, Chemistry, Derivatives, Synthetic resins, Uses, Resin Sculpture

A natural or synthetic polymer which softens on heating. The term is loosely used to include any polymer, as in ‘ion-exchange resins’. Plants produce resins for various reasons, which relative importances are debated among botanists. It is known that resins seal the plant's wounds, kill insects and fungi, and allow the plant to eliminate excess metabolites. Formed in spe…

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resistance

A measure of the potential difference U needed to produce direct current I in an electrical circuit component; symbol R, units ? (ohm); R = U/I by definition. It measures a component's ability to restrict current flow. Resistance causes energy loss from a circuit by heating. I/R is called conductance. Resistance may refer to: In physics: In biology: In …

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Resistance (Netherlands)

Opposition to the German occupation of The Netherlands (1940–5). Open opposition was impossible, though there were well publicized and popularly supported cases of strikes, either general or in particular industries, against the persecution of the Jews and, after the Allied invasion of Europe, to hinder German troop movements. Otherwise the resistance consisted of small-scale operations: protecti…

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resistivity

The electrical resistance of a metre cube of material, constant for a given material at a specific temperature; symbol ?, units ?.m (ohm.metre). At 0°C, for copper (a good conductor), ? = 1·55 × 10?8 ?.m; for germanium (a semiconductor), ? = 0·5 ?.m approximately; for glass (an insulator), ? = 1011?.m approximately. 1/? is conductivity. …

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resistor - Nonideal characteristics, Types of resistor, Identifying resistors, Four-band axial resistors, Calculations, Foil resistor

A component in an electrical circuit designed to introduce a known resistance to the flow of current. Resistance changes with temperature rise, increasing in metals, and falling in semiconductors. It also varies with the size of the conductor, rising as it becomes longer or thinner. The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the…

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resonance - Examples, Theory, Quantum mechanics, 'Old Tacoma Narrows' bridge failure

A condition obtained when the frequency of the force driving an oscillating system matches a natural frequency of the system. It is characterized by especially large amplitudes of oscillation at these specific frequencies. In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with high amplitude when excited by energy at a certain frequency. Examples are the acoustic re…

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respiration

A physiological term with a range of related meanings: (1) the act of breathing, whereby terrestrial animals move air in and out of their lungs, and aquatic animals pump water through their gills; (2) the uptake of oxygen from and the release of carbon dioxide to the environment; and (3) the metabolic processes by which organisms derive energy from foodstuffs by utilizing oxygen (aerobic respirati…

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respirator - Modern respirator technology

A mechanical method of delivering oxygen to and removing carbon dioxide from patients who are unable to breathe for themselves. It expands the lungs intermittently through a tube introduced into the trachea. Simple portable apparatus is available that can be operated by hand when short-term ventilation is required. For more prolonged use, a number of automated machines are available. The original …

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restitution - (1) Restitution for wrongs, (2) Restitution to reverse unjust enrichment

An equitable remedy to restore property to its owner; also, a substantive legal doctrine to prevent the unjust enrichment of a defendant who has caused goods or money to be transferred by mistake, compulsion, illegality, or lack of authority. It is designed to prevent a defendant from the benefit of his or her own wrongful act. It is known as quasi contract in civil law. For the Physics ter…

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Restoration

The return of Charles II to England (Jun 1660) at the request of the Convention Parliament, following the collapse of the Protectorate regime; but many royal prerogative powers and institutions were not restored. The bishops and the Church of England returned, but Parliament took the lead in passing the Clarendon Code (1661–5) outlawing dissent from the Book of Common Prayer (1662). The severe re…

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restriction fragment length polymorphism - Method, Result

Cloned sequences of DNA which can be used for gene mapping by traditional methods of genetic analysis. In agriculture, the use of RFLP has greatly assisted the mapping and analysis of quantitative characters such as disease resistance, processing quality, or yielding capacity, thus simplifying and accelerating the breeding of genotypes carrying desired combinations of characters. In molecul…

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restrictive covenant - Racism in the United States

An obligation created by deed whereby one person (the covenantor) undertakes a negative obligation for the benefit of another (the covenantee). In the context of land, a restrictive covenant may be transmitted to burden subsequent owners of a property - for example, a promise not to build. In many jurisdictions, such as in England and Wales and the USA, discriminatory restrictive covenants (eg, a …

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resurrection - Islam, Modern India, Modern Finland, Bodily disappearances, Additional reading, Citations

A form of re-animation of a person after death, the belief in which can be traced to late Biblical Judaism and early Christianity. The nature of the new corporeality, the timing of the transformation, and the matter of whether all people would be raised from the dead or only the ‘just’ have been variously expressed in Jewish and Christian literature, but the emphasis on some form of revival of t…

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Reticulum

A small S constellation near the Large Magellanic Cloud. Reticulum (IPA: /rəˈtɪkjələm/, Latin: reticle), is one of the minor southern constellations. …

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retina - Anatomy of vertebrate retina, Physical structure of human retina, Diseases and disorders, Diagnosis and treatment, Research

The innermost lining of the vertebrate eyeball, which transmits information about the visual world to the brain. It consists of an outer pigmented layer and an inner (cerebral) layer of photosensitive cells (rods and cones) and neurones. The cerebral layer radiates out from the optic disc (the region where the nerve fibres leave the eyeball to form the optic nerve) to the periphery, gradually redu…

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retinol - Nutrition, Closely related chemicals, Genetically engineered vitamin A enriched rice

The active form of vitamin A. In the diet, retinol is found in margarine, oily fish, and dairy fats. It acts to maintain the integrity of skin and lung (epithelial tissue) and is also involved in the synthesis of visual purple, which determines our ability to adapt vision to darkness. Vitamin A deficiency leads to a reduced ability to adapt to darkness, and a severe deficiency leads to permanent b…

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retriever

A sporting dog belonging to one of several breeds developed to assist hunters. When game has been shot, the retriever is sent to the point where it fell to collect it and bring it to the hunter. A retriever is a type of gun dog that retrieves game for a hunter. Although spaniels and some pointing breeds routinely retrieve game, and many retrievers are skilled in finding game, retrieve…

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retrovirus - Description of virus, Reproduction

A virus c.100 nm in diameter, with an outer envelope enclosing the core. The genetic information is stored in a molecule of single-stranded ribonucleic acid. It is characterized by the occurrence of a special enzyme (reverse transcriptase) within the virus particle. (Family: Retroviridae.) A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. Retroviruses rely on the enzyme…

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returns to scale - Returns to scale, Economies of scale, Network effect, Formal definitions

The way in which the efficiency of processes, firms, or industries depends on the level of output. Under constant returns to scale, long-run average cost is independent of the level of output. With decreasing returns to scale, efficiency falls and average cost rises as output increases. With increasing returns to scale, efficiency rises and average cost falls as output increases. In agriculture, b…

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Reuben Nakian

Sculptor, born in Long Island, New York, USA. He studied at the Art Students League (1912), was an apprentice to Paul Manship (1916), shared a studio with Gaston Lachaise (1920–3), then moved to Stamford, CT (1944). He specialized in animal and heroic subjects, and later, expressionistic sculptures, such as ‘The Dance of Death’ (1967). Reuben Nakian was an American sculptor, illustrator,…

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Reubin (O'Donovan) Askew

US governor, born in Muskogee, Oklahoma, USA. After putting himself through college and law school, he served in the Florida legislature (Democrat, 1959–71), opposing school segregation. As governor of Florida (1971–9), he initiated tax reform, improved the penal system, and established an environmental protection agency. A US representative for international trade negotiations (1979–81), he la…

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R

pop (2000e) 730 000; area 2512 km²/970 sq mi. Island in the Mascarenes archipelago, Indian Ocean, 800 km/500 mi E of Madagascar; capital, St-Denis; timezone GMT +4; established as a French penal colony, 1638; overseas department, 1946; part of an administrative region, 1973; administers several uninhabited small islands nearby; several volcanoes, one active, rising to Le Piton des Neiges a…

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Reus

41º10N 1º05E, pop (2002e) 90 200. Industrial and commercial city in Tarragona province, Cataluna, NE Spain; located at the foot of the Sierra de la Musara, 10 km/6 mi WNW of Tarragona; birthplace of Antonio de Bofarull y de Brocá, Gabriel Ferrater, Marià Fortuny i Marsal, Antonio Gaudí; airport; railway; commercial development began c.1750 after the founding of an English colony; textiles…

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revelation - Verbal, Non-verbal propositional, Through historical development of faith, Divine Revelation in Islam

Generally, the disclosure of what was previously unknown or not clearly apprehended, usually by divine or preternatural means. In religion, it is used to refer to disclosures by God or the divine as distinguished from that attained by the human processes of observation, experiment, and reason. Many Pagan religions, which believe in being in harmony with nature and respecting the earth we li…

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reverberatory furnace - Applications and comparison with blast furnace, History

A furnace in which the contents are not heated directly by the burning fuel, but by hot flames diverted by the roof of the furnace so as to play down on the material to be heated. Although mainly known in steel making, it is also used in other processes such as glass making or ceramics. A reverbatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace which characteristically isolates the materia…

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Reverdy Johnson - References and external links

Lawyer and public official, born in Annapolis, Maryland, USA. He studied at St John's College (1811), was admitted to the bar (1816), and became a nationally prominent authority on constitutional law. He sat in the US Senate (Whig, Maryland, 1845–9) and was briefly attorney general. He successfully argued in the Dred Scott case (1857) that as a slave Scott could not be a citizen and therefore had…

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revisionism - Revisionism in the Socialist movement, Marxist definition of revisionism, Historical revisionism, Territorial revisionism, Fictional revisionism

Most commonly, a doctrinal deviation from the ideological stance of a communist party or state; also, the critical re-assessment of Marxist theories. In general, the term has polemical overtones, and is applied to opponents thought to have broken with Marxist–Leninist orthodoxy. In the era of polycentrism in the communist movement, it has been used by communist parties to attack each other's clai…

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revolution - Etymology, Study of revolutions, Political and socioeconomic revolutions, Cultural, intellectual and philosophical revolutions, Technological revolutions

A change of regime in a country followed by a major reconstitution of the political, social, and economic order. The emphasis is on complete change, though continuities have been a feature of almost all major revolutions. This is notable in Marxism, which not only advocates social and political change by revolution, but also how revolution comes about. Revolutions are normally viewed as involving …

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Revolutions of (1848) - Before 1848, Legacy

A succession of popular, violent uprisings in various W and C European countries during 1848–9, some fuelled by political and economic grievances against established governments, often inspired by liberal and socialist ideas, others by demands for national independence from foreign rule, as in the Italian states, Bohemia, and Hungary. Nobles and the middle class wanted more representation in gove…

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revolver - Loading and unloading, Action, Use with silencers, Automatic revolvers, Invention and early patents

A single-barrelled pistol with a revolving breech containing chambers for cartridges (usually six), which automatically brings a new cartridge into alignment for firing after each shot. The first practical example was produced by Samuel Colt in 1835, using the action of cocking the firing hammer to revolve the cylinder barrel. A revolver is a multishot firearm, usually a handgun, in which t…

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Rewi Alley - After Liberation, Works

Writer and teacher, born in Springfield, Canterbury, New Zealand. After service in World War 1 and a failed farming venture, he went to China in 1927. There he spent the rest of his life promoting the concept of industrial co-operative education. From 1938 he was involved with the Gung Ho (‘work together’) scheme, and from 1945 at Shandan in China he directed a model school to teach peasants how…

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rex - People, Animals, Machines/Objects

A domestic cat with an unusually thin curly coat; a foreign short-haired variety; three forms: Cornish, Devon, and German. A rex with a dark face, legs, and tail (like a Siamese) is called a si-rex. The name rex is also used for a rabbit with a short outer coat. …

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Rex (Ernest) Warner - Works, Translations

Writer, Greek scholar, and translator, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was a teacher of classics in England and Egypt, director of the British Institute at Athens, (1940s), and professor of English at Connecticut (1964–74). He is best known for his later historical novels, such as The Young Caesar (1958) and Pericles the Athenian (1963), and for his novels …

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Rex (John) Whistler - Works

Artist, born in Eltham, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at the Slade School of Art in London, and in 1926 was commissioned to decorate the Tate Gallery Refreshment Room. He went on to excel in the rendering of 18th-c life, ornament, and architecture, particularly in book illustration, murals, and designs for the theatre and ballet. One of his most important patrons was Charles, 6th Marquess of An…

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Rex (Todhunter) Stout - Biography, Works, Movie Adaptations, Television

Writer, born in Noblesville, Indiana, USA. His family moved to Topeka, KS when he was young, and he attended local schools. He joined the navy (1906–8), then held a variety of jobs in different locations. He lived in Paris (1927–9) and upon his return began a long and successful writing career. His first mystery novel, Fer-de-Lance (1934), introduced Nero Wolfe, a fat, brilliant, orchid-loving d…

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Rexford (Guy) Tugwell

Economist and public official, born in Sinclairville, New York, USA. An economics professor at Columbia University when recruited to join Franklin Roosevelt's ‘Brain Trust’ in 1932, he became head of the Resettlement Administration in 1935. He pushed through an ambitious programme to resettle rural poor in new greenbelt towns before resigning (1936). He was governor of Puerto Rico (1941–6) and …

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Reye's syndrome

A rare but frequently fatal illness that tends to follow a viral infection, although aspirin has also been implicated. There are fatty deposits in the liver, and swelling of the brain leading to confusion and coma. It is named after an Australian pathologist, R D K Reye (1912–78), who wrote about the condition in 1963. …

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Reynaldo Hahn - Child Prodigy, Si mes vers avaient des ailes, Maestro Hahn, Paris Opéra

Naturalized French composer, born in Caracas, Venezuela. He arrived in Paris at the age of three. A pupil of Dubois and Massenet at the Conservatoire, he became a friend of Proust (he inspired the character Jean Santeuil) and of Sarah Bernhardt. In 1945–6 he was Directeur de l'Opéra. Gifted with a pleasant voice, he composed some charming melodies, such as ‘Si mes vers avaient des ailes’, and …

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rhapsody

A piece of music in which the composer allows his imagination to range more or less freely over some theme, story, or idea, without regard for any prescribed structure. Lizst's Hungarian Rhapsodies and Rachmaninov's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (a set of free variations) are examples of what is essentially a Romantic genre. In art and literature, rhapsody may mean: Rhapsody m…

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Rhea (astronomy)

The fifth natural satellite of Saturn, discovered in 1672; distance from the planet 527 000 km/327 000 mi. It is the second largest moon of Saturn, diameter 1530 km/950 mi; orbital period 4·518 days. Rhea may refer to, People (surname), People (given name), …

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rhea (ornithology)

A South American ratite, resembling the ostrich, but smaller (up to 1·5 m/5 ft), duller plumage, and larger wings; inhabits open country with long-stemmed vegetation; eats plants, insects, and small vertebrates; can swim; also known as the ema, nandu (nhandu), or American ostrich. (Family: Rheidae, 2 species.) Rhea may refer to, People (surname), People (given nam…

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Rheims - Administration, Geography, History, Sights, Wine, Sport, Notable residents, Affiliations

49°15N 4°02E, pop (2000e) 189 000. Historic town in Marne department, NE France; on right bank of R Vesle, 133 ENE of Paris; port on Aisne–Marne Canal; bishopric since 4th-c, now an archbishopric; former coronation site of French kings; extensive damage in World War 1; scene of German surrender, 1945; road and rail junction; university (1967); textiles, chemicals, metallurgy, building, wholes…

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Rheinische Zeitung

A German daily paper founded on 1 January 1842 in Cologne as an organ of bourgeois liberal politics. Its official chief editor from October 1842 until March 1843 was Karl Marx. His collaborators on the paper included Engels, Fröbel, Herwegh, and A H Hoffmann von Fallersleben. Publication was forbidden on 31 March 1843, and succeeded by the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in 1848. The Rheinische Ze…

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rheology - Scope, Dimensionless numbers in rheology

The study of the deformation and flow of materials subjected to force. It includes the viscosity of liquids and gases, strain and shear due to stresses in solids, and plastic deformation in metals. Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress. In practice, rheology is principally concerned with extending the "classical" dis…

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rhetoric - History, Eastern Rhetoric

The spoken and written language of persuasion. Rhetoric has had a chequered history. In the classical and mediaeval world, it was a formal branch of learning concerned with the techniques and devices required to persuade or convince an audience. Leading early analysts included Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian, who developed theories of successful speech-making. Subsequently it came to signify ela…

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rheumatic fever - General information, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Prevention

A common disease of children and adolescents in Asia and Africa, arising from an immunological reaction to preceding infection with certain strains of Streptococcus (eg scarlet fever). It is characterized by fever, a flitting arthritis (in which pain and swelling moves from joint to joint), and inflammation of the heart (carditis). While joint involvement rarely leads to persisting deformity, seri…

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rheumatism

A non-specific name given to aches and pains in muscles, particularly in the shoulders and back, and common in older people. The absence of fever and serological abnormalities distinguishes the condition from inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The term "rheumatism" is still used in colloquial speech and historical contexts, but is no longer frequently used in medical or technical literature; …

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Rhijnvis Feith

Novelist and poet, born in Zwolle, NC Netherlands. The most sentimental Dutch writer of his time, he found inspiration in Percy, Young, Goethe, Klopstock, and Herder. Many of his poems were later included in Protestant song books. Among his followers was the writer Elisabeth Post, and among his opponents, who regarded his sentimentalism as demoralizing, were H Van Alphen, J Bellamy, J Kinker, and …

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rhinoceros - Rhinoceros horns

The second largest land animal (after the elephant), native to S and SE Asia and Africa; a perissodactyl mammal of the family Rhinocerotidae; skin tough, usually with few hairs; long head with small eyes placed well forward; nose with ‘horn(s)’ made from fibrous outgrowths of the skin; five species: Indian (or greater one-horned) rhinoceros, with stud-like lumps on skin; Javan (or lesser one-hor…

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Rhode Island - Geography, History, Law and government, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Food, Cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams

pop (2000e) 1 048 300; area 3139 km²/1212 sq mi. New England state in NE USA, divided into five counties; ‘Little Rhody’ or the ‘Ocean State’; smallest US state, but the second most densely populated; one of the original states, 13th to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1790; gave protection to Quakers in 1657 and to Jews from the Netherlands in 1658; capital, Providence; major cities, W…

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Rhodes - Geography, History, Important historical monuments, Trivia

pop (2000e) 95 400; area 1398 km²/540 sq mi. Largest island of the Dodecanese, Greece, in the SE Aegean Sea, off SW coast of Turkey; length 72 km/45 mi; maximum width 35 km/22 mi; fourth largest Greek island; crossed by a long ridge of hills, rising to 1215 m/3986 ft; originally settled by Mycenean Greeks, 1400 BC; statue of the Sun-god Chares was one of the Seven Wonders of the World;…

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Rhodesian ridgeback - Appearance, Temperament, History, Health, Miscellaneous

A national breed of dog of South Africa; large muscular body with thick neck and long muzzle; ears pendulous; short golden coat; hairs along spine grow forwards, forming a ridge; originally used to hunt lions. The Rhodesian Ridgeback is a breed of dog from Southern Africa. The breed originated in Rhodesia where the first breed standard was written in 1922 and the Parent club formed by Franc…

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rhododendron - Diversity, Toxicology, Rhododendron Societies

An evergreen shrub or small tree, sometimes an epiphyte, native to N temperate regions but concentrated in the area where the great Asian rivers break through the E Himalayas and in New Guinea, and found only on acid soils; leaves alternate, usually oval, leathery; flowers in clusters at tips of main branches, funnel or bell-shaped; sepals sometimes reduced to a rim; 5–10 petals and stamens. Seve…

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Rhodope Mountains - Geography and climate, People, Mythology

Range of mountains stretching NW–SE in SW Bulgaria and NE Greece, rising to 2925 m/9596 ft at Musala; length 290 km/180 mi; a major climatic divide between C Bulgaria and the Aegean; Bulgarian forestry area. The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: Родопи, Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа план…

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rhubarb

A long-lived perennial herb (Rheum rhaponticum), related to dock, and native to Siberia; basal leaves large, heart-shaped, wavy, with green or red stalks; leaves can be poisonous; flowers small, white, 6-petalled, in large spreading inflorescence. A number of hybrids and cultivars are grown for the edible leaf-stalks. During the first Opium War, the Chinese believed the interruption of Chinese rhu…

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Rhyl - Tourist attractions, Famous people, Infamous people

53°19N 3°29W, pop (2000e) 24 400. Seaside resort town in Denbighshire, NE Wales, UK; in Abergele-Rhyl-Prestatyn urban area; at mouth of Clwyd R; railway; furniture, tourism; funfair, promenade, Floral Hall, Sun Centre, Pavilion Theatre. Rhyl (Welsh: Y Rhyl) is a seaside town located on the Irish Sea, in the administrative county of Denbighshire and the traditional county of Flintshire, …

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rhyme - History, Types of rhyme, Rhyme in English, Rhyme in French, Rhyme in Hebrew, Rhyme in Greek

The repetition of the same or a similar syllable, for rhetorical effect, typically at the end of a poetic line. Rhyme was rarely found in the classical literatures, developing only with late Latin - it is suggested, to aid memorizing and recitation. There is a limitless variety of rhyme schemes, from the simple rhyming couplet to ‘open’ rhyme schemes such as that employed in Milton's Lycidas. Se…

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rhyolite

A silica-rich volcanic igneous rock with a composition approximately equivalent to granite. It is fine-grained or glassy, because of rapid cooling, and occurs in several forms. This page is about a volcanic rock. For the satellite system, see Rhyolite/Aquacade. Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic (acidic) composition (typically >69% SiO2 -- see the TAS c…

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rhythm - Types

A pattern marked by the regular recurrence of elements, found in speech, music, dance, and other forms of behaviour, and more generally in the cyclical changes of nature (such as the seasons). In speech, rhythm is most noticeable in the metrical patterns of poetry. In music, it is the constituent that has to do with metre, note-lengths, and accent rather than with pitch. Music is said to be ‘stro…

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rhythm and blues - Original rhythm and blues, Contemporary R, Samples, See also

A type of popular music dating from the 1940s and 1950s which combined melodic and textual features of the blues with the rhythm section of a pop group (electric guitars, keyboards, and drum set). It was an important forerunner both of rock and roll and of soul music. Rhythm and blues (aka R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed …

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Rialto Bridge

A bridge spanning the Grand Canal in Venice. It was built in 1588–92 by Antonio da Ponte. The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) is a bridge spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. It is the oldest bridge across the canal and probably the most famous in the city. The first dry crossing of the Grand Canal was a pontoon bridge built in 1181 by Nicolò Barattieri. …

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rib

A curved, twisted strip of bone passing around the thorax from the vertebral column to articulate indirectly with the sternum by its costal cartilage. There are twelve pairs in humans, of which the eleventh and twelfth are not attached at the front (floating ribs). As they pass around the thorax the ribs curve downwards as well as forwards. They provide protection for the lungs, heart, and great v…

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ribbonfish - Species

Elongate, slender-bodied fish (Lepidopus caudatus) widespread in the tropical and warm temperate N Atlantic, and in parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans; length up to 2 m/6½ ft; head pointed, jaws bearing powerful teeth; body compressed and tapering, tail fin reduced or absent; dorsal fins extend entire length of body, pelvics absent; also called scabbardfish. (Family: Trichiuridae.) T…

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Ribe - History of Ribe, Ecclesiastical history, Attractions, Education in Ribe, Friendship towns, Trivia

55º21N 8º46E, pop (2001e) 8000. Town in Ribe county, SW Jutland, Denmark; on the R Ribe, 6·5 km/4 mi from the North Sea; Denmark's oldest town, first mentioned in 862; bishopric, 948; birthplace of Kjeld Abell and Jacob Riis; well-preserved mediaeval town with many half-timbered houses and cobblestone streets; cathedral (1142–66) restored in 1904. Established in the first decade of t…

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riboflavin - Nutrition, Clinical Uses

A B vitamin (B2), an essential active component (co-enzyme) involved in energy transfers in cells, found especially in green vegetables, milk, eggs, liver, and yeast. A simple deficiency of riboflavin is rare; where one occurs, it is usually associated with multiple deficiencies of several vitamins. Milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, yeast, almonds and mature soybeans are good sou…

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ribosome - Overview, Ribosome locations

A complex of RNA (ribosomal RNA or rRNA) and several proteins which exist in bacteria and the cytoplasm of nucleated (eucaryotic) cells. Ribosomes occur both as free particles within the cell and as particles attached to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum in eucaryotic cells. Ribosomes account for a large proportion of the total RNA in a cell. In combination with other molecules (in partic…

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Ricarda Huch - Texts, Elocution

Writer, historian, and feminist, born in Brunswick, NC Germany. She studied at Zürich, taught at a girls' school there, travelled extensively in Italy, and finally settled in Munich in 1910. A neo-Romantic, she rejected naturalism, and wrote novels, social and political works, and works on religious themes. The first woman to be admitted to the Prussian Academy of Literature in 1931, she resigned…

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Riccardo Giacconi - References and further reading

Astrophysicist, born in Genoa, Italy. He studied and taught at the University of Milan (PhD 1954), then joined Indiana University as a Fulbright Fellow in 1956. He went on to teach at Harvard (1973–82) and Johns Hopkins University (1982), and directed the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (1981), specializing in X-ray astronomy. He shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Physics for pioneeri…

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rice - Cultivation, Preparation as food, World production and trade, Rice Pests, Cultivars

An important cereal grass (Oryza sativa), with open panicles, drooping with numerous grains. It is the premier food plant of Asia, and was grown in China from before 4000 BC. It is cultivated in flooded paddy fields, with many varieties adapted to different water-levels. Recent breeding programmes have produced successful, high-yielding, semi-dwarf varieties. Upland rice is low-yielding, but does …

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Richard (Adolf) Zsigmondy - Life and work

Chemist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Munich University, carried out research at Berlin, taught at Graz, and became professor at Göttingen (1908–29). A pioneer of colloid chemistry, in 1903 he introduced the ultramicroscope, a device to assist the observation of colloidal size particles which are too small to be visible in a normal microscope. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemist…

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Richard (Alan) Meier - Works

Architect, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Cornell University and established a New York practice (1963) designing houses and housing projects, commercial buildings, and, particularly in the 1970s and 1980s, museums. His Modernist designs were typically simple, often sculptural forms in which space is extended vertically and exteriors are painted white. He designed the Bronx Develop…

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Richard (Arthur Warren) Hughes

Writer, born in Weybridge, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, co-founded and directed the Portmadoc Players (1922–5), and was vice-president of the Welsh National Theatre (1924–36). He wrote the first radio drama, Danger, for the BBC (1924), and a collection of poems Confessio juvenis (1925). He travelled widely in Europe, America, and the West Indies, and eventually settled in Wales …

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Richard (Carl) Jeffrey - Selected bibliography

Philosopher and logician, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After earning a Princeton doctorate in philosophy (1958), he taught engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1959–60) and philosophy at Stanford (1960–4), City College of New York (1964–7), and the University of Pennsylvania (1967–74), then became a professor at Princeton. His specialties included decision and probabili…

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Richard (David) Briers - Personal life, Television career, Theatre, Other work

Actor, born in Croydon, S Greater London, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and made his London debut in Guilt and Gingerbread (1959). He became well known on television in such series as Brothers-in-Law, Marriage Lines, The Good Life, and Ever Decreasing Circles, and the later Monarch of the Glen (2000–2). His films include A Chorus of Disapproval (1989), In The Bleak …

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Richard (David) Ellmann

Biographer and academic, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He studied at Yale University, then taught at Northwestern University (1951–68), Yale (1968–70), and Oxford (1970–1987). He is best known for his biographies of Yeats (1949), Oscar Wilde (1987), and James Joyce (1959). Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American literary critic and biographer of Irish…

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Richard (Douglas James) Baker

Broadcaster and author, born in London, UK. He studied in Cambridge, worked as an actor and teacher, and joined the BBC as an announcer in 1950. He became known as a television newsreader (1954–82), and as a commentator on major state occasions. He also introduced the television productions of BBC Promenade Concerts (1960–95), and has presented many radio series, such as Start the Week with Rich…

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Richard (Erskine Frere) Leakey - Paleontology, Conservation, Politics, Bibliography

Palaeoanthropologist, born in Nairobi, Kenya, the second son of L S B and Mary Leakey. From an early age he worked in the field with his parents, and with the archaeologist Glynn Isaac on the E shores of L Turkana (1969–75), discovering crania of Australopithecus boisei (1969), Homo habilis (1972), and Homo erectus (1975). He was appointed administrative director (1968) of the National Museum of …

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Richard (Evelyn) Byrd - Attempt to fly over the North Pole, 1926, Trans-Atlantic flight, 1927

Aviator and explorer, born in Winchester, Virginia, USA. The brother of Harry Flood Byrd and son of the lawyer who founded the Byrd political dynasty in Virginia, he joined the navy's aviation service in 1917, five years after graduating from Annapolis. On 9 May 1926, he and his co-pilot Floyd Bennett made the first flight over the North Pole, flying the round trip from Spitsbergen I. Both men rec…

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Richard (Frederick) Dimbleby - Early life, Career in television, Family, Richard Dimbleby lecture

Broadcaster, born in Richmond on Thames, SW Greater London, UK. He was educated at Mill Hill School, near London, and worked on the editorial staff of various newpapers before joining the BBC in 1931. He became the Corporation's first foreign correspondent, its first war correspondent, and was the first radio man to go into Berlin and Belsen at the end of World War 2. In the post-war era he establ…

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Richard (Gary) Brautigan - Life, Legacy, Books

Novelist and poet, born in Tacoma, Washington, USA. He performed public readings in San Francisco, becoming an inspiration to the ‘flower children’. His writing is highly imaginative and often surreal. His first novel was the humorous A Confederate General from Big Sur (1964). This was followed by the critically acclaimed Trout Fishing in America (1967) and the collected poems, The Pill Versus t…

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Richard (George) Adams

Novelist, born in Newbury, Berkshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and after wartime service in the army worked as a civil servant in the Department of the Environment (1948–74). He made his name as a writer with the best-selling Watership Down (1972), an epic tale of a community of rabbits. Later books include Shardik (1974), The Plague Dogs (1977), The Iron Wolf (1980), The Bureaucrats …

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Richard (Ghormley) Eberhart - Early career 1904 to 1945, Later career 1945 to 2005, Written works, Further reading

Poet and teacher, born in Austin, Minnesota, USA. He studied at the universities of Minnesota, Dartmouth, Cambridge, England and Harvard, then worked as a teacher (1933–41) and, after service in World War 2, for a family business (1946–52). He taught at Dartmouth (1956–70), and was a consultant in poetry to the Library of Congress (1959–61). His books of poetry include Undercliff (1953), Selec…

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Richard (Harris) Barham

Humorist, born in Canterbury, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was ordained (1813), and in 1821 received a minor canonry of St Paul's Cathedral. In 1837 he began his series of burlesque metrical tales under his pseudonym which, collected under the title of The Ingoldsby Legends (3 vols, 1840–7), became popular for their irreverent humour, irony, and esoteric learning. Richard Ha…

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Richard (Howard Stafford) Crossman - Quotation, Works

British statesman, born in Cropredy, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became a philosophy tutor, and was leader of the Labour group on Oxford City Council (1934–40). In 1938 he joined the staff of the New Statesman. In 1945 he became a Labour MP, and under Wilson was minister of housing and local government (1964–6), then secretary of state for social services and head…

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Richard (Ira) Bong - Full list of victory credits

Aviator, born in Superior, Wisconsin, USA. The greatest US fighter ace of World War 2, he shot down 40 Japanese aircraft in three combat tours in the Southwest Pacific (1942–4). He was killed in the crash of an experimental P-80 jet near Los Angeles. Richard "Dick" Ira Bong (September 24, 1920 – August 6, 1945), a pilot in the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF), is a recipient of the Medal of …

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Richard (Joseph) Howard - Works

Poet, critic, and translator, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. As a poet he became known for his historical dramatic monologues, and he received a Pulitzer Prize for Untitled Subjects (1969). His many translations introduced modern French fiction to American audiences. His verse translation of Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal (1983) won an American Book Award. Richard Howard is a distinguished A…

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Richard (Joseph) Hughes

US governor and judge, born in Florence, New Jersey, USA. A lawyer, he served as a New Jersey county and superior court judge before opening his own practice in 1957. As Democratic governor (1962–70), he fought unsuccessfully for a state income tax to improve the education system. As New Jersey Supreme Court chief justice (1974–9), he presided over the historic case that allowed Karen Ann Quinla…

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Richard (Leo) Simon

Publisher, born in New York City, New York, USA. With his friend, Max Schuster, he founded the publishing firm of Simon & Schuster (1924) and helped develop it through such best-selling ideas as the first crossword-puzzle book. It was shortly before this time that there were sown the seeds of that enmity with the Port-Royalists which filled Simon's life with many bitter troubles. Simon's cr…

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Richard (McClure) Scarry - Busytown breakthrough, Personal life and family

Illustrator and writer of children's books, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Boston Museum School of Fine Arts, then served in the US army in the Mediterranean and North Africa. Didactic, detailed, and scatty, his output was prolific, and he was hugely popular with children tolerant of his formulaic approach. Typical titles are What Do People Do All Day? (1968) and Hop Aboard, Her…

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Richard (McGarrah) Helms

Intelligence officer, born in St Davids, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied in Switzerland and in the USA at Williams College, becoming a journalist, then joining the US Navy in 1942. After World War 2 he joined the newly formed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and rose to become the organization's director in 1966. He was dismissed by President Nixon in 1973 after refusing to help block an investiga…

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Richard (McKay) Rorty - Career

Philosopher, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Chicago and Yale universities, and taught at Yale, Wellesley College, and Princeton, before becoming professor of humanities at Virginia University (1982–98), and professor of comparative literature at Stanford (1998– ). In 1979 he published the controversial Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, which mounted a forceful and dramatic attack o…

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Richard (Milhous) Nixon - Early years, House and Senate: 1946-1952, Vice presidency, 1968 election

US statesman and 37th president (1969–74), born in Yorba Linda, California, USA. Born to Quaker parents, he graduated from Whittier College (California) (1934) and Duke University Law School (1937). He practised law in Whittier, CA and briefly served with the Office of Price Administration (1942) before enlisting in the US Navy during World War 2 (1942–6). He won a seat in the US House of Repres…

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Richard (Phillips) Feynman - Biography, Further reading

Physicist, born in Far Rockaway, New York, USA. He worked on the Manhattan Project at Princeton (1941–2) and Los Alamos (1942–5), while continuing to pursue his interest in quantum electrodynamics. Accepting Bethe's offer to join Cornell University (1945–50), he developed pictorial representations of space-time behavioural probabilities of particle interactions, now known as Feynman diagrams. H…

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Richard (Purdy) Wilbur - Life, Career, Bibliography

Poet and translator, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Amherst (1942) and Harvard (1947) universities, and taught at many institutions, notably at Wesleyan University (1957–77). Based in Cummington, MA, he has won acclaim for his translations as well as for his own lyrical poetry, as in New and Collected Poems (1988). Later works include The Pig in the Spigot (2000). He is widel…

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Richard (Reid) Ingrams

Writer and journalist, born in Westcliffe-on-Sea, Essex, SE England, UK. He was educated at Shrewsbury School and University College, Oxford. In 1962 he founded, together with Peter Cook and Willie Rushton (1937–96), the satirical magazine Private Eye, whose editor he remained until 1986. In 1992 he founded The Oldie, a lively magazine for older readers. He was television critic for The Spectator…

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Richard (St John) Harris - Biography, Academy Award Nominations, Grammy Nominations Wins, Trivia, Filmography, Discography

Actor, born in Limerick, Co Limerick, SW Ireland. He studied at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, and immediately joined Joan Littlewood's company in The Quare Fellow (1956). He remained with the Littlewood company for some years and became established as a name in the West End production of The Ginger Man (1959). He made his screen debut in the comedy Alive and Kicking (1958), then be…

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Richard (Thomas) Dunwoody - Synopsis

Jockey, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Champion jockey in 1993–5, he was Grand National winning rider in 1986 and 1994. He rode at least 100 winners in Britain every season from 1989–90. In 1999, he rode home his 1679th winner, setting a National Hunt record, and retired at the end of that year. The Dragon and the Prince or The Prince and the Dragon is a Serbian fairy tale collect…

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Richard (Walker) Bolling

US representative, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Vanderbilt University, and worked in educational administration before joining the army (1941–6), where he fought in the Pacific and served in Japan under General MacArthur. Awarded a Bronze Star, he was veterans' adviser to the University of Kansas before going to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Missouri, 1949–83)…

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Richard Addinsell

Composer, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. A student of law at Oxford, he went on to study music in London, Berlin, and Vienna. He composed much film music, including the popular ‘Warsaw Concerto’ for the film Dangerous Moonlight (1941). Richard Addinsell (January 13, 1904 - November 14, 1977) was a British composer, best known for his Warsaw Concerto and film music. …

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Richard Adler - Selected works, Awards and nominations

Composer and lyricist, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of teacher-pianist Clarence Adler, he studied at the University of North Carolina and served in the US Navy before concentrating on composing. He collaborated with lyricist Jerry Ross on the award-winning musicals The Pajama Game (1954) and Damn Yankees (1955). After Ross's death (1955), Adler's works for the stage during the 196…

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Richard Aldington - Early life, World War I, Later life, Works, The Religion of Beauty

Writer, born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at London University, and in 1913 became editor of The New Freewoman (renamed The Egoist in 1914), the periodical of the Imagist school. His experiences in World War 1 led to his best-known novel, Death of a Hero (1929). He published several volumes of poetry, The Viking Book of Poetry of the English-Speaking World (1941), and many c…

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Richard Allen

Methodist minister and church founder, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Born a slave, he was sold as a child to a farmer in Delaware. He converted to Methodism as a young man and then converted his owner, who gave him his freedom. While working at odd jobs, he educated himself and travelled throughout the mid-Atlantic states preaching; by 1874 he was accepted as a Methodist preacher and re…

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Richard Avedon - Photography Career, Famous photographs, Books by Richard Avedon

Photographer, born in New York City, USA. Educated at a public school, he was called up to the photography division of the US Merchant Marine (1942–5), then became a fashion photographer for Harper's Bazaar (1945–65). He was the inspiration for Funny Face (1957), acting as visual consultant for the film, and his first exhibition was at the Smithsonian Institution in 1962. Known for his stark por…

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Richard Axel - Key Papers

Biochemist, born in New York City, New York USA. He studied at Columbia University (1967) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1970). Returning to Columbia in 1978 as Professor of Pathology and Biochemistry, he joined the Howard Hughes Medical Institute there in 1984. In 2004 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Linda B Buck for their discoveries of odorant recepto…

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Richard Bache

Merchant, born in Settle, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. The son-in-law of Benjamin Franklin, he emigrated to New York City (1765), settled in Philadelphia, and in 1767 married Sarah Franklin. During the Revolution he was on the Board of War, and succeeded his father-in-law as postmaster general (1776–82). His family firm issued private insurance policies and engaged in business with the West In…

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Richard Bancroft

Anglican clergyman, born in Farnworth, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He graduated from Cambridge in 1567, and after a series of preferments was consecrated Bishop of London in 1597. He attended Queen Elizabeth I during her last illness, and took the lead at the Hampton Court Conference. He succeeded Whitgift as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1604, and assisted in re-establishing episcopacy in Scotland.…

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Richard Baxter - Early life and education, Early ministry, 1638-1660

Nonconformist clergyman, born in Rowton, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He adopted Nonconformist views as minister at Kidderminster (1640–60). During the Civil War, his sympathies were almost wholly with the Puritans, and after Naseby he acted as army chaplain. At the Restoration he was appointed a royal chaplain, but in 1662 the Act of Uniformity drove him out of the Church of England. Frequently p…

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Richard Beer-Hofmann - Works

Writer, born in Vienna, Austria. After adopting the Jewish faith, he emigrated to New York in 1938 via Zurich. He was a friend of Hugo von Hoffmannsthal and Arthur Schnitzler. In his dramatic works, such as Jaákovs Traum (1918) and Der Junge David (1933), and the story Der Tod Georgs (1900), he drew on the Old Testament for inspiration. Richard Beer-Hofmann (born 11 July 1866 in Vienna —…

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Richard Ben-Veniste - Works

Lawyer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Assistant US attorney in New York (1968–73), he headed the special Watergate task force that analysed President Nixon's ‘White House tapes’ (1973–5) and wrote about it in Stonewall (1977). He was a partner in a Washington law firm (1975–82), and then opened his own practice. Richard Ben-Veniste (born January 3, 1943), a member of the 9/11 C…

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Richard Bentley - Early life, Academic work, Relationships and personal life, Legacy

Classical scholar, born in Oulton, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became archdeacon of Ely and keeper of the Royal Libraries (1694) and a fellow of the Royal Society (1695). He established an international reputation with his dispute with Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery (1697–9), in which he proved that the so-called Epistles of Phalaris were spurious. He was appoin…

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Richard Bohringer - Filmography includes

Actor and singer, born in Paris, France. He began making films at the end of the 1970s, including Truffaut's Le Dernier Métro (1980), Diva (1981, director J J Beineix), Subway (1985, director L Besson), Le Paltoquet (1986, director M Deville), and Le sourire (1994, director C Miller). …

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Richard Brinsley (Butler) Sheridan - Early life, Career, Politics

Playwright, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Harrow, turned immediately to writing, and settled in London. In 1775 appeared the highly successful comedy of manners, The Rivals, and this was followed by several other comedies and farces, notably The School for Scandal (1777). He became manager of Drury Lane Theatre in 1778, and a Whig MP (1780–1812). He proved to be a great parliamentary ora…

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Richard Brome - Note, External Links

Jacobean playwright, of whom little is known except that he had been in his earlier days servant to Ben Jonson. He wrote as many as 24 popular plays, notably The Northern Lass and The Jovial Crew. Virtually nothing is known about Brome's private life. Repeated allusions in contemporary works, like Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, indicate that Brome started out as a servant of Jonson, i…

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Richard Brothers

British religious fanatic and ex-naval officer, born in Newfoundland, E Canada. He announced himself in 1793 as the ‘nephew of the Almighty’, apostle of a new religion, the Anglo-Israelites. In 1795, for prophesying the destruction of the monarchy, he was sent to Newgate and subsequently to an asylum. Richard Brothers (December 25, 1757 – January 25, 1824) was born at Admiral's Cove New…

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Richard Burbage

Actor, born in London, UK. He was the leading performer with Shakespeare's company, the Chamberlain's (later the King's) Men, from 1594 until his death, and was the first creator on stage of many of Shakespeare's greatest roles, including Hamlet, Othello, Richard III, and Lear. He performed at the first permanent public playhouse (The Theatre) built by Richard's father James in 1576, then from 159…

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