Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 6

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Annibale Caro

Scholar and writer, born in Civitanova Marche, Marche, EC Italy. He was involved in a literary dispute with Ludovico Castelvetro in which he defended linguistic invention against the rigid orthodoxy of the Bembo school (Apologia, 1558). Among his works are a fresh and original comedy, Gli straccioni (1544), two volumes of letters Lettere familiari (1573–5), and the collection of poems Rime (1557)…

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Annie Besant - Early life, Reformer and Secularist, Socialist, Marxist, Theosophist, President, Krishnamurti, The Home Rule Movement, Later years

Theosophist, born in London, UK, the sister-in-law of Sir Walter Besant. After her separation in 1873 from her husband, the Rev Frank Besant, she became vice-president of the National Secular Society (1874). A close associate of Charles Bradlaugh, she was an ardent proponent of birth control and Socialism. In 1889, after meeting Madame Blavatsky, she developed an interest in theosophy, and went ou…

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Annie Girardot

Actress, born in Paris, France. After acting in the Comédie Francaise she appeared in a number of popular films opposite Jean Gabin. She went on to become one of the most popular stars in the 1960s, appearing in La Proie pour l'ombre (1961, director A Astruc) and Vivre pour vivre (1967, director Claude Lelouch). Later films include Le Cavaleur (1979, director Philippe de Broca) and Les Misérable…

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Annie Jump Cannon - Education, Harvard Observatory, Awards and honors

Astronomer, born in Dover, Delaware, USA. She became deaf through contracting scarlet fever, entered Radcliffe College to study astronomy, and was appointed to the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1896. She reorganized the classification of stars in terms of surface temperature, and developed great skill in cataloguing them. Her classification of over 225 000 stars brighter than 9th or…

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Annie Oakley - Biography, Representations on stage and screen, Media, Trivia

Rodeo star and sharp-shooter, born in Darke Co, Ohio, USA. She learned to shoot at an early age, and married Frank E Butler in 1876 after beating him in a shooting match. They formed a trick-shooting act, and from 1885 toured widely with the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show. A tiny woman just under five feet tall, from 30 paces she shot cigarettes from her husband's lips and the lips of Kaiser Wilhelm …

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annulment - Grounds for annulment, Islam

A judicial declaration of nullity of marriage. A null marriage is one that was never valid (ie it is void), for example because it involved parties within the prohibited degrees of affinity or consanguinity, or because it became invalid (voidable) due to the behaviour of one of the parties (eg an inability or refusal to consummate the marriage). The term also refers to an incorrectly made bankrupt…

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Annunciation - The Annunciation in the Bible, Eastern traditions, Related dates, Annunciation in the Quran

The angel Gabriel's foretelling to Mary of the birth of Jesus and of the promise of his greatness (Luke 1.26–38). Many of the features of this account are parallel to the annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1.5–25). The feast day (25 Mar) is also known as Lady Day. In Christianity, the Annunciation is the revelation to Mary, the mother of Jesus by the archangel Gabriel tha…

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anode - Flow of electrons, Electrolytic anode, Battery or galvanic cell anode, Vacuum tube anode, Diode anode

In electrolysis and gas discharge tubes, the positive electrode from which electrons leave the cell or tube. In a battery, the anode is the negative terminal by which electrons leave the battery. An anion is a negative ion that moves towards the positive anode in electrolysis. An anode (from the Greek άνοδος = 'going up') is the electrode in a device that electrons flow out of to retu…

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anomie - Anomie as individual disorder, Anomie in literature and film

A personal or wider social condition in which individuals or society at large no longer identify with or feel guided by customary norms and values. In individuals, the concept embraces extreme despair, and a sense of alienation from society, which may lead to suicide. Society at large is said to be ‘anomic’ when its members no longer agree on a fundamental normative and moral order. The term was…

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Anopheles - Life stages, Malaria transmission and control, Preferred sources for blood meals, Patterns of feeding and resting

The malaria mosquito, found in all major zoogeographical regions. The adult females transmit a malaria-causing agent when taking blood from vertebrates. The males feed on nectar and plant fluids. The larvae are aquatic, feeding at the water surface using short feeding bristles. (Order: Diptera. Family: Culicidae.) Anopheles is a genus of mosquito (Culicidae). Some species of Ano…

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anorexia nervosa - Terminology, Diagnosis and clinical features, Causes and contributory factors, Prognosis, Incidence, prevalence and demographics, Treatment

A psychological illness which mainly affects young women, characterized by significant weight loss (usually deliberately induced), an unrealistic fear of being overweight, and a loss of normal menstrual functioning. There is a distortion of body image, and sufferers are frequently hyperactive, have faddish eating habits, and some have depressed mood. The term was first used by the English physicia…

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Ansbach - Boroughs, Sister cities, Famous people

49º17N 10º34E, pop (2001e) 39 700. Capital of Middle Franconia, Bavaria, SC Germany, on the R Rezat; city developed around an 8th-c Benedictine abbey; passed to Russia (1791), then Bavaria (1806); became residence of the Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern family (1331); birthplace of Karl Altenstein, Ernst von Bandel, Caroline of Ansbach, Georg Ernst Stahl; road and rail junction; Romanesqu…

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Anschluss - Situation before the Anschluss, The Anschluss of 1938, Reactions and consequences of the Anschluss

The concept of union between Austria and Germany, prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles (1919), but with some support in both countries after the collapse of the Habsburg Empire and Austria's diminished status. Hitler, himself an Austrian, pursued the idea once in power. In 1938, after the resignation of Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg, and under the threat of military force, he brought Austria i…

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Ansel (Easton) Adams - Life

Photographer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. His work is notable for his broad landscapes of W USA, especially the Yosemite in the 1930s. He was one of the founders with Edward Weston of the f/64 Group (1932), and helped to set up the department of photography at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (1940). He was a prolific writer and lecturer, always stressing the importance of ima…

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Anselm Kiefer - Life and work

Avant-garde artist, born in Donaueschingen, SW Germany. He began law studies at the University of Freiburg but left to pursue a career in art. A pupil of Joseph Beuys in Düsseldorf, he makes ‘books’ from photographs or woodcuts, sometimes cut or worked over. Some critics have seen ‘Fascist’, others mediaeval or Nordic, symbolism in his work. During the 1970s he painted a series of landscapes …

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Anson Burlingame

US representative and diplomat, born in New Berlin, New York, USA. He was a member of the US House of Representatives (Free-Soil, Massachusetts, 1855–9; Republican, Massachusetts, 1859–61). He served as ambassador to China (1861–7), where he deeply impressed the Chinese with his integrity and helpfulness. In 1867 China appointed him head of their first diplomatic mission to Europe. He died in S…

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ant - Ancestry, Morphology, Development, Communication and behavior, Ant cooperation and competition, Types

A social insect, characterized by a waist of 1–2 narrow segments, forming perennial colonies in nests made in wood, soil, plant cavities, or other constructions. The nest contains one or more fertile queens, many wingless, sterile workers, and winged males that fertilize queens during mass nuptial flights. Most ants scavenge animal remains; some are predators; others feed on fungi, seeds, or hone…

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Antananarivo - History, Present day, Sister cities

18°52S 47°30E, pop (2000e) 1 076 000. Capital of Madagascar, on a ridge in the EC part of the island; altitude c.1350 m/4400 ft; divided into upper and lower towns; birthplace of François Bayle; airport; railway; university (1955); textiles, tobacco, leather, food processing; two cathedrals, Queen's palace, Ambohitsorahitra palace, museum of art and archaeology, Zoma market, casinos, Moham…

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Antar

Arab poet and warrior, born of a Bedouin chieftain and a black slave near Medina, W Saudi Arabia. The author of one of the seven Golden Odes of Arabic literature, and the subject of the 10th-c Romance of Antar, he is regarded as the model of Bedouin heroism and chivalry. The term Antar can refer to several articles: …

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Antarctic Circle

Imaginary line on the surface of the Earth at 66°30S, marking the southernmost point at which the Sun can be seen during the summer solstice, and the northernmost point at which the midnight Sun can be seen in S polar regions. The area south of this circle is known as the Antarctic, and the zone to the north is the Southern Temperate Zone. The continent of Antarctica forms a la…

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Antarctica - History, Geography, Geology, Climate, Population, Flora and fauna, Politics, Economy, Transport, Research

S Polar continent, area nearly 15·5 million km²/6 million sq mi; surrounded by ice-filled ring of ocean waters containing scattered island groups; mainly S of 65°S, almost entirely within the Antarctic Circle; c.22 400 km/14 000 mi coastline, mainly of high ice cliffs; indented by Ross and Weddell Seas; divided into Greater and Lesser Antarctica, separated by the Transantarctic Mts, high…

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antbird

A forest-dwelling bird native to the New World tropics; eats insects, spiders, lizards, frogs; follows army ants, feeding on animals they disturb; includes antpittas, antthrushes, antwrens, antvireos, antshrikes, and gnateaters. (Family: Formicariidae, 236 species.) …

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anteater - Family order, Gallery, Similar animals

A mammal, native to Central and South America, which eats ants and termites; an edentate group, comprising four species: giant anteaters (inhabiting grassland), northern and southern tamanduas (grassland or forest), and silky anteaters (forest); numbats are also known as banded anteaters, and pangolins as scaly anteaters. (Family: Myrmecophagidae.) Anteaters are the four mammal species of t…

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antelope - Physical characteristics, Behaviour, Species, Hybrid antelope, Cultural aspects

A hoofed mammal, found mainly in Africa; classified as gazelles (tribe: Antilopini), four-horned antelopes (tribe: Boselaphini), spiral-horned antelopes (tribe: Strepsicerotini), dwarf (or pygmy) antelopes (tribe: Neotragini), grazing antelopes (subfamily: Hippotraginae, including horse-like antelopes of the tribe Hippotragini, and ox-antelopes of the tribe Alcelaphini), pronghorns (subfamily: Ant…

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antenna (biology)

One of a pair of specialized sensory appendages on the head of an invertebrate animal; insects typically have one pair, crustaceans two pairs; varies in shape and size: long and thin in shrimps, feather-like in moths, club-shaped in weevils. Antennae (singular antenna) are paired appendages connected to the front-most segments of arthropods. In crustaceans, they are biramous and present on …

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antenna (technology)

The component of a radio or television system by which electromagnetic signals are transmitted or received; also known as the aerial. In high-frequency practice, additional elements termed reflectors and directors are included to increase directional efficiency. In music: In broadcasting: Antena may refer to: …

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anthem - History

A sacred vocal composition to an English text, often from the Book of Psalms. 16th-c composers, including Byrd and Tallis, wrote numerous examples, but the anthem was not included in the rubric of the Anglican liturgy until 1662. Purcell excelled in the genre, and also in the instrumentally-accompanied anthem which flourished after the Restoration. The notion later developed a secular sense, refer…

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Anthonie Heinsius

Dutch statesman, born in Delft, W Netherlands. He became Pensionary of Delft (1679) and from 1689 until his death was Grand Pensionary of Holland. He was a close associate of William III of Orange and his envoy in France in 1682. After William's death he continued his policies and opposed the English expansion of the War of the Spanish Succession. He did not foresee the fall of Marlborough and Eng…

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Anthony (Dymoke) Powell - Childhood, Youth, Early adult life, Powell in the 1930s, The approach of war, Early war years

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, worked in publishing and journalism before World War 2, and by 1936 had published four satirical novels, beginning with Afternoon Men (1931). After the war he began the series of novels he called A Dance to the Music of Time (1951–75; televised, 1997) - 12 volumes, covering 50 years of British upper middle-class life and attitudes. At Lady Molly…

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Anthony (Evan) Hecht - Life, Career, Bibliography

Poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. He began studying at Bard College, NY (1944), but at the outbreak of World War 2 was drafted into the US Army 97th Infantry Division, serving in Europe until discharged in 1946. Granted his BA in absentia in 1944, after the War he continued his studies at Kenyon College, OH and Columbia University (MA 1950). His first poetry collection, A Summoning of St…

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Anthony (Frederick) Blunt - Biography, Blunt in fiction

Art historian and Soviet spy, born in Bournemouth, Dorset, S England, UK. In 1926 he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, and became a fellow there in 1932. Influenced by Guy Burgess, he acted as a ‘talent-spotter’, supplying to him the names of likely recruits to the Communist cause, and during his war service in British Intelligence with MI5 was in a position to pass on information to the Sovie…

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Anthony (Neil) Wedgwood Benn - Family background, Political career, Retirement, Aphorisms, Diaries and other works

British statesman, born in London, UK, the son of Viscount Stansgate. He studied at Oxford, and became a Labour MP (1950–60). He was debarred from the House of Commons on succeeding to his father's title, but was able to renounce it in 1963 having fought a campaign to introduce a law allowing such an action, and was re-elected to parliament the same year. He was postmaster-general (1964–6), mini…

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Anthony (Ward) Clare - TV Programmes, Radio Programmes, Books

British psychiatrist and broadcaster. He studied at University College Dublin, and London University, became registrar at St Patrick's Hospital, Dublin (1967–9), then was appointed professor in the Department of Psychological Medicine at St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, London (1982–8), and professor of clinical psychiatry, Trinity College, Dublin (1985–95). His many broadcasts includ…

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Anthony Burgess - Life, Achievement, Trivia, Works, Further reading

Writer and critic, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Xaverian College and Manchester University, lectured at Birmingham University (1946–50), worked for the Ministry of Education, and taught at Banbury Grammar School (1950–4). He then became an education officer in Malaya and Brunei (1954–9), where his experiences inspired his Malayan Trilogy (1965). His many…

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Anthony Burns - Further reading

Fugitive slave, born in Stafford Co, Virginia, USA. He converted to the Baptist faith and became a ‘slave preacher’. He escaped from Richmond on a ship and reached Boston (1854), but was soon arrested and identified under the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Law (1850). Bostonians fought to keep him free, and it cost $100 000 and hundreds of soldiers to put down the demonstrations before he was…

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Anthony Comstock - References in fiction and culture

Reformer, born in New Canaan, Connecticut, USA. A Civil War veteran, he worked as a shipping clerk and retail salesman (1865–73), eventually in New York City, and pursued legal actions against book dealers selling allegedly obscene material. In 1873 he won passage of federal legislation prohibiting the mailing of obscene material. As secretary to the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice (…

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Anthony Davis

Composer and jazz pianist, born in Paterson, New Jersey, USA. A leader of avant-garde musicians at Yale, in 1973 he formed Advent, a free-jazz group, with trombonist George Lewis. He played in several ensembles that bridged jazz and classical forms. His compositions are structured around complex, atonal lines, though meditative simplicity is also achieved through repetition. His opera, X, based on…

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Anthony Francis Lucas - Early life, Visit to U.S., Spindletop, Inventions and Applications, Heritage

Geologist and engineer, born in Spalato, Austria. He went to the USA in 1879. Drawing on his geological knowledge, he drilled for and struck oil at Spindletop, near Beaumont, TX in 1901, the first of the great Texas oil finds. He became world famous but received small financial reward for his work. Anthony Francis Lucas (September 9, 1855–September 2, 1921) was responsible for the first s…

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Anthony Hope

Writer, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and in 1887 was called to the bar; but after the success of his ‘Ruritanian’ romance The Prisoner of Zenda (1894) he turned entirely to writing. He was knighted in 1918. Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins, better known as Anthony Hope, (February 9, 1863 – July 8, 1933) was a British novelist, born in London, and best remembered today for his short…

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Anthony Minghella

Director and screenwriter, born in Ryde, Isle of Wight, S England, UK. The son of Italian parents, he studied at the University of Hull and began a career as playwright and theatre director. His credits as film director/writer include Truly, Madly, Deeply (1991), Mr Wonderful (1993), The English Patient (1996, Oscars for Best Film and Best Director), The Talented Mr Ripley (1999), Cold Mountain (2…

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Anthony Perkins - Personal life, Quote, Filmography

Actor, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Columbia University, and made his film debut in 1953 while still a student. After several early films, such as Friendly Persuasion (1956), he achieved international fame as the maniacal Norman Bates in Hitchcock's Psycho (1960), with its three sequels (1983, 1986, 1990). Although he played many other parts on stage and screen, this role was the peak…

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Anthony Quinn - History, Trivia, Family, Painting and writing

Film actor, born in Chihuahua, Mexico. Of Irish-Mexican parentage, he grew up in the USA, and after a few stage roles he made his film debut in Parole! (1936). For many years he was confined to small parts as an ethnic or exotic, usually as a menacing foreigner or Indian. The status of his roles changed when he won Oscars for Viva Zapata (1952) and Lust for Life (1956) and gained critical acclaim …

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Anthony Trollope - Biography, Reputation, Trollope's works on television, Trollope's works on radio, Works, Quotations

Novelist, born in London, UK. He joined the Post Office in 1834, working as a clerk, and introduced the pillar-box for posting letters before his retirement in 1867. In 1841 he became postal surveyor in Ireland, where he began to write. His first novel in the ‘Barsetshire’ series, The Warden, appeared in 1855, and was followed by such successful books as Barchester Towers (1857), Framley Parsona…

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Anthony Wayne - Early life, Revolutionary War, Political career, Northwest Indian War, Legacy

US soldier, born in Wayneboro, Pennsylvania, USA. A Revolutionary war hero, he gained his nickname because of his courage on the battlefield. He fought in many important battles during 1775–8, and demonstrated his military excellence in his surprise attack on and capture of Stony Point (1779). In 1780 he took quick action that prevented a British seizure of West Point after Benedict Arnold's betr…

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anthracene - Synthesis, Reactions, Uses

C14H10, melting point 216°C. A colourless, cancer-causing, aromatic compound isolated from coal tar. Its blue fluorescence is used in scintillation counters to detect ?-particles. Oxidized to anthraquinone, it is the raw material for the alizarin series of dyestuffs. A classis method for the preparation of anthracene in the laboratory is by cyclodehydration of o-methyl- or o-methylene-subs…

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anthrax

A disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis. It predominantly affects animals, but may be contracted by humans in contact with contaminated wool and leather, or pastures used by infected animals, where bacterial spores can remain active for years. There are localized skin lesions which enlarge, ulcerate, and become black (‘malignant pustules’). Blood poisoning, pneumonia, and deat…

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anthropic principle - More anthropic coincidences, Origin of the anthropic cosmological principle, Variants of the anthropic principle

A suggestion, due originally to Fred Hoyle in the 1950s, that humans exist because physical laws governing the universe exhibit special features. For example, if gravitation were stronger relative to electromagnetism than it actually is, stars such as our Sun would burn out too quickly for life to evolve nearby. If the strong nuclear force were slightly weaker relative to electromagnetism, the onl…

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anthropological linguistics - Related fields, Recent work

The study of language variation and use in relation to the cultural patterns and beliefs of speech communities. It frequently examines linguistic evidence for allegiance to religious, occupational, or kinship groups. Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. This strongly overlaps the field of linguistic anthropology, which is the bra…

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anthropology - Historical and institutional context, Anthropology in the United States, Anthropology in Britain, Anthropology in France

The scientific study of human beings, traditionally identified as a ‘four-field’ discipline, encompassing archaeology, social and cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, and even linguistics. The primary concern of archaeologists is ‘digging up history’ - recovering and documenting the material remains of past communities. Cultural and social anthropologists study particular living soc…

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anthropometry - History, Modern anthropometry and biometrics, Notes and references, Resources

The comparative study of the dimensions of the human body and their change with time. The main dimensions examined include weight, height, skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, relative limb lengths, and waist-to-hip ratios. Standard charts exist to allow a comparison of an observed anthropometric value with the range of normality within a group (eg the growth of a child). The study also shed…

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anthropomorphism - In religions and mythologies, In rhetoric, In literature, Common usage, In logical reasoning

The application to God or gods of human characteristics, such as a body (as in Greek mythology), or the mental, psychological, or spiritual qualities of human beings. It is often used to indicate insufficient appreciation of transcendence and mystery of the divine. Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics and qualities to non-human beings, objects, natural, or supernatur…

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anthroposophy - History, Possibility of a union of science and spirit, Conception of the human being

An esoteric system of belief developed by Rudolf Steiner, asserting that the key to understanding the universe lies in new modes of human spiritual development and apprehension. Anthroposophy is a "spiritual science" founded by Rudolf Steiner. Anthroposophical research attempts to investigate and describe a spiritual world that, it seeks to show, resides behind the world of human sens…

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Anti-Comintern Pact

An agreement between Germany and Japan, concluded in 1936, which outlined both countries' hostility to international communism. The Pact was also signed by Italy in 1937, followed by other nations in 1941. In addition to being specifically aimed against Soviet Russia, it also recognized Japanese rule in Manchuria. The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on Novem…

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anti-hero - History

A central character in a novel or play who deviates from or contradicts conventional values and behaviour. Famous examples are Hašek's hero in The Good Soldier Schweik (1921–3), and Yossarian in Heller's Catch-22 (1961). In literature and film, an anti-hero has widely come to mean a fictional character who has some characteristics that are antithetical to those of the traditional hero. An…

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Anti-Masonic Party - History

(1830–6) A US group dedicated to driving Freemasons out of public life, arising from the highly publicized disappearance (1826) of the author of a book revealing Masonic secrets. It was the first ‘third party’ in the USA, nominating a presidential candidate in 1832 at the first national party convention. It declined after 1836. The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movem…

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Anti-Saloon League - References

A US organization established in 1893 which inaugurated a nation-wide campaign in 1895, with the aim of forbidding alcoholic drink by amending the US Constitution and by state and local anti-alcohol laws. It was primarily responsible for the adoption of Prohibition. The League remained in being during and after the Prohibition period (1920–33), and became part of the National Temperance League in…

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Antibes - Administration, History, Antibes culture

43°35N 7°07E, pop (2000e) 73 900. Fishing port and fashionable resort on the Riviera, in Alpes-Maritimes department, SE France; facing Nice across a long bay; best known for its luxurious villas and hotels sheltered by the pines of Cap d'Antibes; 3 km/1¾ mi W, Napoleon landed with 1000 men on his return from Elba in 1815; railway; perfumes, flowers, olives, fruit, chocolates; Roman remains;…

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Antichrist - In the Old Testament, Later texts and apocrypha, The expected role of the Antichrist

A notion found in the Bible only in the Johannine Letters, referring sometimes to a single figure and at other times to many who are adversaries and deceivers of God's people. In later centuries, it was conceived as a supreme evil figure, often identified with one's opponents. The Old Testament prophets referred to this End Times world leader who will dominate the whole world until the Mess…

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anticline

A geological fold structure in the form of an arch, with the younger strata at the top of the succession. It is formed as a result of compressional forces acting in a horizontal plane on rock strata. In structural geology, an anticline is a fold that is convex up or to the youngest beds. On a geologic map, anticlines are usually recognized by a sequence of rock layers that are p…

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anticyclone - Terminology, Formation, Structure, Evolution, Motion, Effects

A meteorological term for a high pressure system. Anticyclones are areas of generally clear skies and stable weather conditions. They occur in a variety of sizes and modes of origin, and warm anticyclones are a semi-permanent feature of subtropical areas (eg the Azores and Hawaiian high pressure zones). A blocking anticyclone may persist for several weeks, travelling very slowly and diverting depr…

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antifreeze - Further reading

A substance added to water in the cooling system of an engine to prevent the system freezing during cold weather. This is necessary since water expands when it freezes, and this can lead to cracking in those parts of the engine where the cooling system is circulated. Substances used as anti-freeze include ethanol and methanol, which can evaporate from water solution; ethylene-glycol does not evapo…

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Antigone - Daughter of Oedipus, In Literature, Daughter of Eurytion

In Greek mythology, a daughter of Oedipus, King of Thebes. After the Seven Champions had attacked the city, Antigone buried the body of her brother Polynices (one of the attackers), so defying King Creon's order that such a traitor should remain unburied. She was condemned to death by starvation, but hanged herself. In Sophocles' play of the same name, Antigone becomes a symbol of the individual's…

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Antigonus I - Hesiod's Cyclopes, Homer's Cyclopes, Origins, In popular culture

Macedonian soldier, one of the generals of Alexander the Great. After Alexander's death, he received the provinces of Phrygia Major, Lycia, and Pamphylia. On Antipater's death in 319 BC, he aspired to the sovereignty of Asia, and waged incessant wars against the other generals, making himself master of all Asia Minor and Syria. In 306 BC he assumed the title of king, together with his son Demetriu…

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Antigua and Barbuda - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Places of interest, Culture, Famous Antiguans, Trivia, Foreign relations

Local name Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda is an island nation located in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Antigua (IPA: [ænˈtiːgə]) and Barbuda (IPA: [bɑrˈbjuːdə]) are located in the middle of the Leeward Islands in the Eastern Caribbean, roughly 17 degrees north of the equator. Antigua and Barbuda are part of the Lesser Antilles arch…

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Antilles - Background, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles

The whole of the West Indies except the Bahamas; Greater Antilles include Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico; Lesser Antilles include the Windward Is (S), Leeward Is (N), and the Netherlands Antilles off the coast of Venezuela. The Greater Antilles are made up of continental rock, as distinct from the Lesser Antilles, which are mostly young volcani…

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antimony

Sb (Lat stibium), element 51, melting point 631°C. A metalloid in the nitrogen family; common oxidation states 3 and 5; expands on solidifying. It is used in type-metal alloys, and also as an impurity in germanium to make n-type semiconductors. Antimony (IPA: /anˈtɪməni/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic numbe…

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antinomianism - Antinomianism in the Tanakh, Antinomianism in the New Testament, Antinomianism among Christians, Antinomianism in Islam

A doctrine in Christian theology to the effect that Christians are exempt from ordinary moral laws and should be governed instead by divine grace and individual conscience. The first ‘antinomian controversy’ was between Luther and Agricola during the Reformation. Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, "against" + νομος, "law"), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in t…

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Antioch - Geography, History of Antioch, Archaeology

36°12N 36°10E, pop (2000e) 138 000. Capital of Hatay province, S Turkey; near the Mediterranean, 90 km/56 mi W of Aleppo (Syria); founded, 300 BC; centre of early Christianity; destroyed by earthquake, 526; tobacco, olives, cotton, grain; archaeological museum. Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντ…

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Antipater - Career under Philip and Alexander, The fight for succession, Regent of the Empire

Judaean prince, the son of Herod the Great by his first wife. He conspired against his half-brothers and had them executed, then plotted against his father, and was himself executed five days before Herod died. Nothing is known of his early career until 342 BC, when he was appointed by Philip to govern Macedon as his regent while the former left the country for three years of hard and succe…

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Antipater (of Idumaea) - Career under Philip and Alexander, The fight for succession, Regent of the Empire

A chieftain who dominated Jewish history from the 60s BC until his death. The father of Herod the Great, he was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea in 47 BC. He died by poisoning. Nothing is known of his early career until 342 BC, when he was appointed by Philip to govern Macedon as his regent while the former left the country for three years of hard and successful campaig…

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Antipater (of Macedon) - Career under Philip and Alexander, The fight for succession, Regent of the Empire

Macedonian general. He was highly trusted by Philip II of Macedonia and Alexander the Great, and was left by the latter as regent in Macedonia (334 BC). He discharged his duties with great ability, both before and after the death of Alexander. Nothing is known of his early career until 342 BC, when he was appointed by Philip to govern Macedon as his regent while the former left the country …

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antiphon (chant) - Polychoral Antiphony

In the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox liturgies, a chant with a prose text which precedes or follows a psalm. It is linked with the practice of antiphonal psalmody, in which verses were sung alternately by two groups of singers, or by soloist and choir. A collection of antiphons is known as an antiphoner. An antiphon is a response, usually sung in Gregorian chant, to a psalm or some othe…

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Antiphon (orator) - Polychoral Antiphony

The earliest of the 10 Attic orators. He belonged to the oligarchical party, and was influential in establishing the government of the Four Hundred (411 BC). On its fall he was condemned to death, in spite of a noble defence. An antiphon is a response, usually sung in Gregorian chant, to a psalm or some other part of a religious service, such as at Vespers or at a Mass. The word…

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Antiphon (philosopher) - Polychoral Antiphony

Greek philosopher and Sophist. Nothing is known of his life, but he is generally distinguished from Antiphon the orator. He is important as the author of two works, On Truth and On Concord, which survive in fragmentary form. An antiphon is a response, usually sung in Gregorian chant, to a psalm or some other part of a religious service, such as at Vespers or at a Mass. The word …

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antipodes - Geography, Etymology, Historical significance, List of antipodes

Any two places which are on the opposite sides of the Earth when connected by a straight line passing through the centre of the Earth. For example, the Antipodes Is, New Zealand, 49°42S and 178°50E and the Baie de la Seine, France, 49°45N and 1°W are antipodes. The term is also loosely used by Europeans to refer to Australasia. In geography, the antipodes (from Greek anti- "opposed" and…

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antipope - A list of significant antipopes

In the Roman Catholic Church, a claimant to the office of pope in opposition to one regularly and canonically appointed. Antipopes featured prominently in the period of Great Schism in the Western Church (1378–1417). They included Clement VII and Benedict XIII (in Avignon, France) and Alexander V and John XXIII (in Pisa, Italy). An antipope is a person who makes a widely accepted claim to …

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antiproton - Occurrence in Nature, Uses

The antiparticle partner of the proton; symbol ?. Spin and mass are as for the proton, but the charge is ?1. Discovered in 1955, antiprotons are created in particle accelerators by the collisions of protons with nuclei, and can in turn be accelerated and used in particle physics experiments. In mid-June 2006, CERN succeeded in determining the mass of antiproton, which they measured at 1836.…

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antiseptic - Use in surgery, Some common antiseptics

A substance which kills or prevents the growth of micro-organisms (germs). The practice of using chemicals to control the suppuration of wounds and the spread of disease, and preserving dead bodies (embalming) was widespread centuries before micro-organisms were understood. Lister introduced the practice of antiseptic surgery (using phenol) in 1865. Commonly used antiseptics include alcohols, phen…

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Antisthenes

Greek philosopher, thought to be co-founder, with his pupil Diogenes, of the Cynic school. He was a rhetorician and a disciple of Gorgias, and later became a close friend of Socrates. Only fragments of his many works survive. Antisthenes (c. In his youth he studied rhetoric under Gorgias, perhaps also under Hippias and Prodicus. So eager was he to hear the words of S…

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antithesis - In fiction

In The Netherlands, a term used by the Protestant Abraham Kuyper to describe the relationship between the confessional (Catholic and Orthodox Protestant) parties and those not based on Christian principles (and therefore pagan!). The main confessional parties before World War 2 were the Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP), the Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP), and the Christian Historical Union (CHU).…

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Antlia

A small S hemisphere constellation. Antlia (IPA: /ˈantliə/, Latin: pump) is a relatively new constellation as it was only created in the 18th century, being too faint to be acknowledged by the ancient Greeks. …

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antlion - Trapping prey

The larva of a nocturnal, damselfly-like insect with a long abdomen and lightly patterned wings. Antlion larvae prey on other insects, typically lying in wait, often at the base of a steep-sided, conical trap into which the prey fall. (Order: Neuroptera. Family: Myrmeliontidae, c.600 species.) Antlions are a family of insects in the order Neuroptera, classified as Myrmeleontidae, from the G…

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Antofagasta - Geography, History, People, Transport, Education, Sources

23°38S 70°24W, pop (2000e) 249 100. Port and capital of Antofagasta region, Chile; largest city in N Chile; developed with 19th-c mineral and agricultural trade; airport; railway; 2 universities; exports nitrates and copper; metal refining; huge anchor high in mountains was used as navigational aid by shipping; regional, geological, and anthropological museums; public gardens and beaches, spor…

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Antoine (Pierre Joseph Marie) Barnave - In Dauphiné, States-General and Assemblies, Views, Downfall and execution

French revolutionary, born in Grenoble, E France. He studied law, and became a member of the new National Assembly (1789), where he established a reputation as an orator, and helped to carry through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. He brought back the royal family from their abortive flight to Varennes (1791), but subsequently developed royalist sympathies, advocated a constitutional monarchy…

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Anto - Biography, Principle works

Theologian, philosopher, lawyer, and mathematician, born in Paris, France. Ordained in 1641, he was the last child of the prominent Arnauld family which was closely linked to the history of Jansenism and Port-Royal, in Paris. He attacked the Jesuits in his De la fréquente Communion (1643) and supported Jansenius' work, the Augustinus. He was a controversialist, and his activities as head of the J…

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Antoine Coypel

Painter, born in Paris, France, from a distinguished family of painters. Influenced by Carracci and Poussin, he became director of the Academy (1714), was ennobled (1717), and made first painter to the king. His themes were historical, and his most famous work is the ceiling of the chapel at Versailles, which achieves its effect through the use of trompe l'oeil (1708). Antoine Coypel (1661 …

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Antoine Coysevox

Sculptor, born in Lyon, SC France. He went to Paris in 1657 and was appointed court sculptor to Louis XIV) in 1666. He was responsible for much of the Baroque decoration at the Palace of Versailles, most notably the Galérie des Glaces and the Salon de la Guerre. He also produced works for the Trianon, Marly, Saint-Cloud, and the Invalides. A brilliant portraitist of artists, friends, and high soc…

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Antoine de Montchr - Montchrestien's theater

Writer and playwright, born in Falaise, NW France. His works include Economie Politique (1616), and the tragedies Sophonisbe (1596) and L'Ecossaise (1601). Antoine de Montchrestien (Falaise in Normandy c. Son of an apothecary named Mauchrestien and orphan at a young age, Montchrestien came under the protection of François Thésart, baron de Tournebu and des Essarts, and became the va…

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Antoine Joseph Sax

Musician and inventor, born in Dinant, Belgium. With his father he invented (patented 1845) a valved brass wind-instrument he called the sax-horn, also the saxophone, the saxtromba, and the sax-tuba. He moved to Paris to promote his inventions, and in 1857 was appointed as an instructor at the Paris Conservatoire. He failed to make a commercial success of his products, was involved in lengthy laws…

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Antoine Meillet - Antoine Meillet and Homeric Studies, Publications

Philologist, born in Moulins, C France. A great authority on Indo-European languages, he was professor at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes (1891–1906), and at the Collège de France from 1906. His standard works encompass Old Slavonic, Greek, Armenian, Old Persian, comparative Indo-European grammar, and linguistic theory. Antoine Meillet (Paul-Jules-Antoine Meillet, November 11, 1866 - Septembe…

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Antoine Pesne

Historical painter, born in Paris, France. He first studied under his father, Thomas Pesne, and his great-uncle Charles de la Fosse. Continuing his studies in Paris, he was influenced by Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillière, and also went to Italy. In 1707 he was appointed court portraitist to Frederick I of Prussia. Under Frederick II he decorated the interiors of various royal palaces an…

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Antoine-Louis Barye

Sculptor and painter, born in Paris, France. The son of a Parisian goldsmith, he became the greatest of the ‘animaliers’, creating bronze animal statues, now in the Louvre. He was also one of the major Romantic artists of the 19th-c, painting landscapes in the Barbizon style. He executed the equestrian Napoléon for Ajáccio, Napoléon's birthplace. Antoine-Louis Barye (September 24, 1796…

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Antoinette Bourignon

Religious mystic, born in Lille, N France. Believing herself called to restore the pure spirit of the Gospel, she fled from home and entered a convent. In Amsterdam (1667) she gathered followers and printed enthusiastic works, but was driven out. Bourignonism so prevailed in Scotland in c.1720 that until 1889 a solemn renunciation was demanded from every entrant into the ministry. Antoinett…

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Anton (C G A) de Kom

Suriname nationalist, born in Paramaribo, Suriname. After mixing in left-wing circles, and with Mohammed Hatta in Amsterdam in the 1920s, he returned to Suriname in 1933, where he was arrested for his nationalist activities and returned to The Netherlands. He was in the resistance during the war, was arrested in August 1944, and died in Neuengamme. Cornelis Gerard Anton de Kom (22 February …

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Anton (Friedrich Ernst von) Webern - Biography, Webern's music, List of works, Further reading, Software

Composer, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied under Schoenberg, and became one of his first musical disciples, making wide use of 12-tone techniques, which led to several hostile demonstrations when his works were first performed. For a while he worked as a conductor and tutor in various cities, before settling in Mödling in 1918. His works, which include a symphony, cantatas, several short orche…

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Anton (Grigoryevich) Rubinstein - Life, Composition, Other Rubinsteins

Pianist and composer, born in Vykhvatinets, Russia. He studied in Berlin and Vienna, and settled in St Petersburg (1848), where he taught music and took a part in founding the Conservatory, of which he was director (1862–7). He made concert tours in Europe and the USA, gaining widespread acclaim. His compositions include operas, oratorios, and piano concertos. His brother Nikolay (1835–81) found…

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Anton (Joseph) Cermak - Early life and career, Campaign, Mayor, Death

US representative and mayor, born in Kladno, Bohemia. He went to the USA as an infant, began his working life as a coal miner, and rose to become a prosperous businessman. A power in Chicago Democratic politics, he served four terms as a state legislator (from 1903), as well as holding other state and city offices. Elected Mayor of Chicago (1931), he was killed in 1933 by a gunman aiming at presid…

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Anton (Pavlovitch) Chekhov - Early life, Early writings, Early maturity, Sakhalin, Social conscience, Melikhovo, Late plays, Longer stories, Yalta, Death

Playwright and master of the short story, born in Taganrog, SW Russia. He studied medicine at Moscow, and began to write while a student. His first book of stories (1886) was successful, and gradually he adopted writing as a profession. His early full-length plays were failures, but when Chayka (1896, The Seagull) was revived in 1898 by Stanislavsky at the Moscow Art Theatre, it was a great succes…

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Anton Ackermann

German politician, born in Thalheim, S Germany. A member of the German Communist Party (KPD), he was instrumental in founding the German Democratic Republic's future ruling party, the German Socialist Unity Party (SED), in 1946. Until 1948 he was a proponent of the ‘special German way to socialism’. Expelled from the SED Central Committee in 1954, he was rehabilitated in 1956. Anton Acker…

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Anton Bruckner - Biography, Works, Reception in the 20th Century, Sound samples

Composer and organist, born in Ansfelden, N Austria. He held several posts as organist, and became professor of composition at the Vienna Conservatory (1868–91). His fame chiefly rests on his nine symphonies (the last unfinished), but he also wrote four impressive Masses, several smaller sacred works and many choral works. His music, which shows the influence of Wagner and Schubert, was given a m…

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Anton Drexler

German politician, born in Munich, SE Germany. He was a founder-member of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, and from 1920 of the Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), becoming leader (1920–1) and later honorary head. He took no part in the newly formed NSDAP in 1925. Drexler was also a member of a völkisch political club for affluent members of Munich society known as the Thul…

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Anton Ivanovich Denikin

Russian soldier, born near Warsaw, Poland. He entered the army at the age of 15, and rose to be lieutenant-general in World War 1. After the Revolution of 1917 he led the White Army in the S against the Bolsheviks (1918–20). He won the Ukraine, but was defeated by the Red Army at Orel (1919), and in 1920 resigned his command and escaped to Constantinople. Thereafter he lived in exile in France (1…

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Anton Mauve

Painter, born in Zaandam, The Netherlands. Regarded as one of the greatest landscapists of his time, he was influenced by Corot and Milet, and painted country scenes. From 1878 he lived in Laren, where he founded the Dutch Barbizon school. Anton Rudolf Mauve (September 18, 1838, Zaandam – February 5, 1888, Arnhem) was a Dutch realist painter whose work very early on influenced his cousin …

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Anton Raphael Mengs - Biography, Rivalry, Selected works, Publications, Reference

Painter, born in Aussig, E Germany. He studied under his father at Dresden, eventually settled at Rome, and directed a school of painting. A close friend of Winckelmann, he became the most famous of the early Neoclassical painters. In Madrid (1761–70, 1773–6) he decorated the dome of the grand salon in the royal palace with the ‘Apotheosis of the Emperor Trajan’. Anton Raphael Mengs (Ma…

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Anton Reinhard Falck

Dutch politician and lawyer, born in Utrecht, W Netherlands, a follower of Kant. He was secretary at the embassy in Madrid (1802–6), and under King Louis Napoleon (1806–10) head of the department of foreign affairs and secretary-general of colonies, resigning in 1810 when The Netherlands were incorporated into France. As captain of the national guard in Amsterdam (1813) he kept order after the F…

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Anton Seidl

Conductor, born in Budapest, Hungary. A protégé of Wagner, he conducted opera widely before going to New York's Metropolitan Opera (1885) to establish the Wagnerian repertoire. He also conducted the New York Philharmonic from 1891. Anton Seidl (7 May 1850 – 28 March 1898) was a Hungarian conductor. His chance as a conductor came when, on Wagner's recommendation, he was appoi…

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Antonello da Messina - Biography, Style and legacy, Selected works

Painter, born in Messina, Sicily, S Italy. He was the only major 15th-c Italian artist to come from Sicily. An accomplished master of oil painting, he helped popularize the medium, his style being a delicate synthesis of the northern and Italian styles. In 1475 he was working in Venice where his work influenced Giovanni Bellini's portraits. His first dated work, the ‘Salvator Mundi’ (1465), and …

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Antoni Zygmund

Mathematician, born in Warsaw, Poland. Fleeing Nazism, he emigrated to the USA (1940), where he taught longest at the University of Chicago (1964). A National Academy of Sciences member and recipient of the National Medal of Science (1986), he did pioneering research in hard analysis. He wrote six books and over 180 papers. Antoni Zygmund (December 25, 1900 – May 30, 1992) was a Polish bo…

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Antonia White - Early life, Relationships, Writing career, personal strifes, Legacy

Novelist, born in London, UK. She was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, Roehampton, and her first novel, Frost In May (1933), is a largely autobiographical account of the heroine's convent education. Later novels include The Sugar House (1952) and The Hound and the Falcon (1965). She also wrote a play, Three In A Room (1947), children's stories, and translated many works from French, in…

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Antonin Artaud - Biographical Information, Artaud's Theatre of Cruelty, Philosophical views, Influence

Playwright, actor, director, and theorist, born in Marseille, S France. A Surrealist in the 1920s, in 1927 he co-founded the Théâtre Alfred Jarry. He propounded a theatre that dispensed with narrative and psychological realism, dealing instead with the dreams and interior obsessions of the mind. His main theoretical work is the book, Le Théâtre et son double (1938, The Theatre and its Double).…

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Antonin Scalia - Early life, Legal career, Legal philosophy and approach, Jurisprudence in practice, Important cases

Judge, born in Trenton, New Jersey, USA. He practised law (1960–7) and taught (1967–71) before joining the Nixon administration as executive counsel (1971–7). President Reagan named him to the US Court of Appeals (1982–6) and to the US Supreme Court (1986). Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Cour…

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Antonine Maillet - Works

Novelist, born in Buctouche, New Brunswick, E Canada. Her novels are rooted in the geography, history, and people of Acadia, and after the success of La Sagouine (1971) and Pelagie-La-Charrette (1979), she dominated contemporary Acadian literature. The Prix Goncourt was awarded to her for Pelagie-La-Charrette, bringing her overnight fame in France. Following high school, she received her BA…

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Antonine Wall - Construction, Wall abandoned, Grim's dyke

A defensive barrier built by the Roman Emperor, Antoninus Pius, in AD 142, at the N end of the British province. Constructed of turf upon a foundation of cobbles, the ‘wall’ ran from the Forth estuary to the Clyde. Construction of the Antonine Wall began in 142, during the reign of Antoninus Pius, by Quintus Lollius Urbicus and was completed in 144. The wall stretches 60 kilometres (37 mi…

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Antoninus Pius - Life, In later scholarship

Roman emperor, born in Lanuvium. He inherited great wealth, and in 120 was made consul. Sent as proconsul into Asia by Emperor Hadrian, in 138 he was adopted by him, and the same year came to the throne. His reign was proverbially peaceful and happy. In public affairs he acted as the father of his people, and the persecution of Christians was partly stayed by his mild measures. In his reign the em…

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Antonio (Lucio) Vivaldi - Biography, Style and influence, Posthumous reputation, Major works, Media

Violinist and composer, born in Venice, NE Italy. He was ordained in 1703, but gave up officiating, and was attached to the Conservatory of the Ospedale della Pietà at Venice (1703–40). The 12 concertos of L'Estro Armonico (1712) gave him a European reputation, and The Four Seasons (1725), an early example of programme music, proved highly popular. He also wrote many operas, sacred music, and ov…

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Antonio Banderas

Actor, born in Málaga, S Spain. He studied drama, eventually moving to Madrid where he performed in plays including Historia de los Tarantos and La hija del aire. There he met Pedro Almodóvar who gave him a small part in the film Laberinto de Pasiones (1982) and from then on he worked exclusively with Almodóvar in such films as Matador (1985) and La ley del deseo (1986). Early in the 1990s, lar…

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Antonio Canova - Early life in Possagno and Venice, Career in Rome, Trips to France and England, Last projects

Sculptor, born in Possagno, NE Italy. He studied at Venice and Rome, and came to be regarded as the founder of a new Neoclassicist school. His best-known works are the tombs of popes Clement XIII (1787–92) and XIV (1783–7), several statues of Napoleon, and one of his sister Princess Borghese reclining as Venus Victrix (1805–7). In 1802 he was appointed by Pius VII as curator of works of art. …

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Antonio Fogazzaro - Works

Writer, born in Vicenza, Veneto, NE Italy. A Catholic, in his work he described the crisis of the Italian middle classes after the country's unification. He attempted, like his mentor Giacomo Zanella, to reconcile his religious faith and science. That, and his support of Modernism, in 1905 led to the banning of his book Il santo by the Catholic Church. The main theme of his books is the characters…

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Antonio Gades

Dancer and choreographer, born in Elda, Alicante, SE Spain. The leading dancer of the Pilar López Company from 1953, he popularized flamenco and other Spanish dances. He formed his own company, Ballet Antonio Gades, in 1963 and was also the first director (1978–80) of the National Ballet of Spain. Together with Vicente Escudero and Antonio Ruiz Soler, he is considered one of the three great figu…

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Antonio Gramsci - Life, Thought, Influence

Italian political leader and theoretician, born in Ales, Sardinia, Italy. Brought up in poverty, he studied at Turin University, helped found a left-wing paper, L'ordine nuovo (1919, The New Order), and was active in promoting workers' councils in factories. Dissatisfied with moderate, reformist Socialism, he helped to establish the Italian Communist Party (1921), which he represented at the Third…

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Antonio Machado (y Ruiz)

Poet and playwright, born in Seville, SW Spain. He studied at the Sorbonne, became a French teacher, and wrote lyrics characterized by a nostalgic melancholy, among them Soledades, galerías y otros poemas (1907), and Campos de Castilla (1912). With his brother Manuel (1874–1947), he also wrote several plays. Antonio Machado y Ruiz (July 26, 1875 – February 22, 1939) was a Spanish poet a…

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Antonio Pollaiuolo - Major works

Goldsmith, medallist, metal-caster, and painter, born in Florence, NC Italy. He cast sepulchral monuments in St Peter's in Rome for Popes Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII. One of the first painters to study anatomy and apply it to his art, he was skilled in suggesting movement. His brother Piero (1443–96) was associated with him in his work. Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo (January 17, 1432/1433

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Antonio Rosmini(-Serbati) - Works

Theologian and philosopher, born in Rovereto, N Italy (formerly Austria). Ordained in 1821, he founded the Institute of the Fathers of Charity in 1828. He later developed an interest in political affairs, became an adviser to Pope Pius IX (1848), and worked for a federation of the Italian states under the pope as permanent president, embodied in his La constituzione secondo la giustizia sociale (1…

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Antonio Rossellino

Renaissance sculptor, born in Florence, NC Italy, the youngest brother and pupil of Bernardo Rossellino. He is best known for sculptural reliefs of the Madonna and Child, and portrait busts, most notably that of the Florentine ‘Matteo Palmieri’ (1468). His style is less austere than his brother's, and his preference for suggesting movement is well demonstrated in his most important monument, the…

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Antonio Salandra

Italian politician, prime minister (1914–16), and jurist, born in Troia, Puglia, SE Italy. A deputy from 1886, he held various ministerial posts including agriculture (1899), treasury (1906), and finance (1909), and became prime minister in 1914. When World War 1 erupted he tried to gain territorial concessions from the Austro-Hungarians in exchange for Italy's neutrality. When that failed, he ne…

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Antonio Salieri - Biography, Works, Salieri and Mozart, Recent popularity, Modern references

Composer, born in Verona, NE Italy. He arrived in Vienna at 16, and worked there for the rest of his life, becoming court composer (1774) and Hofkapellmeister (1788). He wrote over 40 operas, an oratorio, and Masses, and became a famous rival of Mozart. Raised in a prosperous family of merchants, Salieri studied violin and harpsichord with his brother Francesco, who was a student of Giusepp…

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Antonio Segni

Italian politician, prime minister (1955–7, 1959–60), and president (1962–4), born in Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. He was a member of the Christian Democrat Party and a deputy in the Constituent Assembly. As agriculture minister (1946–51), he was responsible for the land reform scheme (1949). He held a number of ministerial posts and was twice prime minister. President of the republic in 1962, he…

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Antonio Solario

Painter, born in Civita, in the Abruzzi, C Italy. Originally a blacksmith, he painted frescoes in the Benedictine monastery at Naples. Antonio Solario, also known as Lo Zingaro (The Gypsy) (c. His father is said to have been a traveling smith. To all appearance Antonio was born at Civita in the Abruzzi, although it is true that one of his pictures is signed Antonio de Solario …

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Antonio Soler - Selected discography

Composer, born in Olat, Gerona, NE Spain. At the age of six he was enrolled in the Escolanía de Montserrat (Children's Choir), where he studied the organ and composition. He became chapel master in Lleida and later in the Escorial, where he joined the order of San Jerónimo. He was the most important 18th-c Spanish composer, both of instrumental and religious music. The influence of Scarlatti is …

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Antonio Tabucchi - Early life, More works, Works

Writer, born in Pisa, Tuscany, W Italy. An expert in Portuguese literature, he has written popular works whose main themes are the ambiguity and hidden meaning of everyday life. They include the short stories Donna di Porto Pim e altre storie (1983) and I volatili del Beato Angelico (1987), and the novels Piazza d'Italia (1975), Notturno indiano (1984), L'angelo nero (1991), Requiem (1992), and La…

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Antonio van Diemen

Dutch colonial administrator, born in Culemborg, SC Netherlands. Following bankruptcy as an Amsterdam businessman, he went to the Netherlands East Indies in 1618 under the assumed name of Thonis Meeuwisz of Utrecht, to bypass the United East India Company (VOC) rules against employing bankrupts. There he attracted the attention of Jan Pietersz Coen, who employed him in increasingly important posts…

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Antonio Vivarini

Painter, the founder of the Vivarini studio, born in Venice, NE Italy. He first worked in partnership with his brother-in-law Giovanni d'Alemagna, and later with his brother Bartolommeo Vivarini. His paintings, often of Madonnas and saints, show the influence of Gentile da Fabriano, Mantegna, and Bellini. Antonio Vivarini (Antonio of Murano) (c. He came from the school of Andrea…

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Antony (Mark David) Gormley - Major works, Proposals not taken forward

Sculptor, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, then attended Goldsmith's School of Art and the Slade School of Fine Art in London. His work has featured in many solo and group exhibitions around the world, and among his awards is the Turner Prize in 1994. Later projects include the giant steel statue ‘The Angel of the North’ (1998) near Gateshead in Tyneside, and a 29 m/95 ft high meta…

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Antony Hewish

Radio astronomer, born in Fowey, Cornwall, SW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and spent his career there, becoming professor of radio astronomy (1971–89). In 1967 he began studies, using a radio telescope of novel design, on the scintillation (‘twinkling’) of quasars (a class of radio stars). This led him and his student Susan Jocelyn (Burnell) Bell (1943– ) to discover the first radio st…

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Antony Tudor - Major works

Dancer and choreographer, born in London, UK. He studied with Marie Rambert, and created the celebrated Lilac Garden (1936). He formed the London Ballet (1938–40), then moved to New York's Ballet Theatre (now American Ballet Theatre), where Pillar of Fire (1942) and Romeo and Juliet (1943) were among his triumphs. He was director of the Metropolitan Opera Ballet School, and tutored at the Juillia…

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Anubis - Embalmer, Anubis in modern culture

An Egyptian god associated with death. He has the head of a jackal or wild dog of the desert. Guard of the necropolis, he takes part in the process of embalming. Anubis is the Greek name for the ancient jackal-headed god of the dead in Egyptian mythology whose hieroglyphic is more accurately spelled Anpu (also Anup, Anupu, Wip, Ienpw, Inepu, Yinepu, or Inpw). Prayers to Anubis have be…

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Anuradhapura - Anuradhapura The City, Demographics

8°20N 80°25E, pop (2000e) 45 000. Capital of Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka, 205 km/127 mi N of Colombo; Sri Lanka's first capital; founded, 4th-c BC; Sri Mahabodhi Tree, allegedly the oldest tree in the world (2200 years), all that remains of the Bo tree beneath which Buddha found Enlightenment, a world heritage site; Thuparama Dagaba, built to enshrine the collarbone of Buddha. An…

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anus - Structure, Role in defecation, Role in sexuality, Puberty, Health, Cosmetics, Pathology, Additional images

The terminal part of the gastro-intestinal tract, opening into the natal cleft between the buttocks; the lower limit of the anal canal. In conjunction with the rest of the anal canal, it is guarded by internal and external sphincters under autonomic and voluntary control respectively. It may exhibit bleeding during defaecation, as a result of haemorrhoids. In anatomy, the anus (from Latin

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ANZAC

Acronym for Australia and New Zealand Army Corps, a unit in which troops from both countries fought during World War 1 in the Middle East and on the Western Front. Anzac Day (25 Apr) commemorates the Gallipoli landing in 1915; the fighting lasted until Jan 1916, during which time 7600 were killed and 19 000 wounded. Australian and British law prohibit the word ‘Anzac’ from commercial use. …

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Anzia Yezierska

Writer, born in Plinsk, Poland. She emigrated to New York City with her parents (c.1901), and studied domestic science at Columbia University. She lived in the ghetto of the Lower East Side, taught cooking (1905–13), was reportedly romantically involved with John Dewey, educator and philosopher, and was married twice. She wrote short stories, notably Hungry Hearts (1920), and on the basis of that…

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ANZUS - Treaty structure, History

Acronym for the treaty concluded in 1951 between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States for mutual security in the Pacific against armed attack. The treaty, which remains in force indefinitely, encompasses not only the metropolitan territories of the three, but also island territories under their jurisdiction, their armed forces, and their aircraft and shipping. The Australia, New Ze…

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aorta - The course of the aorta, Features, In popular culture

The largest blood vessel in the body, which conveys oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body. It is conveniently divided into three parts: (1) the ascending aorta, passing upwards, backwards, and to the right, giving branches to the heart, (2) the aortic arch, running backwards and crossing to the left side, giving major branches to the head and upper limbs, an…

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Aosta

45°43N 7°19E, pop (2000e) 37 600. Capital town of Aosta province, Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy; in the fertile valley of the Dora Baltea, ringed by the Alps; Gran Paradiso National park; largely French-speaking; birthplace of St Anselm; railway; important traffic junction for routes across the Alps; iron and steel, publishing, textiles, tourism, wine making, woodworking; cathedral, old town surroun…

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Aozou Strip

A 100 km/60 mi-wide strip of mountainous desert in N Chad, NC Africa; area 114 000 km²/44 000 sq mi; disputed territory on the frontier with Libya, which occupied the area in 1973; Libya's claim based on an unratified 1935 agreement between France and Italy; returned to Chad by Libya, 1994; area rich in uranium and mineral deposits. The Aozou Strip (alternatively, Aouzou Strip) is a…

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Apache - Name and synonymy, History, Modern Apache groups, Culture

North American Indians who dominated much of the SW during the 19th-c; divided into many smaller groups, lacking any centralized organization. From 1861 they fought against Federal troops in the Apache and Navajo wars, eventually surrendering in 1886. Population c.57 000 (2000 census). Apache is the collective name for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United Sta…

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apatite

A common phosphate mineral widely distributed in minor quantities in many igneous and metamorphic rocks; most varieties can be represented by the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl). It crystallizes as hexagonal prisms, in various colours, mostly green. Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH,…

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ape - Historical and modern terminology, Biology, Cultural aspects of non-human apes, History of hominoid taxonomy

An anthropoid primate; comprises the lesser apes (gibbons) and great apes (orang-utan, gorilla, chimpanzee); differs from most monkeys in having no tail and in using arms to swing through trees, not by walking along branches. (Family: Pongidae, 10 species.) Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. Under current classification, there are two fami…

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Apelles - Works, Painters' colours

Greek painter, probably born in Colophon, Asia Minor. He visited Macedon, where he became the friend of Alexander the Great, and is said to have accompanied him on his expedition to Asia. None of his work has survived, but his fame lives in ancient writings. Much of what we know of Apelles is derived from Pliny's Natural History, xxxv. This onetime general of Alexander disliked Apelles whil…

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aperture (cinematography) - Application, In photography, History

The rectangular opening in a camera or other projector at which each frame of film is held stationary while it is exposed; also called the film gate. In some contexts, especially in photography and astronomy, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture stop rather than the physical stop or the opening itself. For example, in a telescope the aperture stop is typically the edges of …

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aperture (optics) - Application, In photography, History

The opening, usually circular, through which light enters an optical system, such as a camera lens. It is often adjustable in diameter by means of an iris diaphragm to control the intensity of light transmitted - the ‘stop’ of a lens system. In some contexts, especially in photography and astronomy, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture stop rather than the physical stop or the …

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aperture synthesis

A method of combining several small telescopes to simulate some properties of very large telescopes. It has been used successfully at radio frequencies to enable astronomers to see fine detail in sources. The technique was developed by UK astronomer Martin Ryle at Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge, UK. Aperture synthesis is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a col…

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aphasia - Classification of aphasia, Types of aphasia, Aphasia in popular culture

A disorder of language caused by brain damage; also (especially in the UK) known as dysphasia. The patient appears intellectually and physically capable of using language (eg there is movement of the tongue and lips and no deafness) but suffers from a variety of linguistic disabilities. There are many different types: one important distinction is between Broca's aphasia (a disorder of production, …

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aphid - Anatomy, Diet, Reproduction, Evolution, Gallery

A soft-bodied bug that feeds on plant sap. Aphids have complex life cycles, typically including several asexually reproducing generations of live-bearing females, and one sexually reproducing generation per year. Many species produce wax for protection. Others produce honeydew, and are tended by ants. About 4000 species are known, mainly from the N hemisphere, including some that are serious pests…

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Aphra Behn - Early life, Life in England, writing career, work as a spy

Writer and adventurer, born in Wye, Kent, SE England, UK. She was brought up in Suriname, where she claimed to have made the acquaintance of the enslaved negro prince Oroonoko, the subject afterwards of one of her novels, in which she anticipated Rousseau's ‘noble savage’. She returned to England in 1663, then became a professional spy for Charles II in Antwerp, sending back political and naval …

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Aphrodite - Origins, Worship, Birth, Adulthood, Consorts and children, Surnames and titles, In popular culture

The Greek goddess of sexual love, said to have been born from the sea-foam at Paphos in Cyprus. This indication of an Eastern origin to her cult is borne out by resemblances to the worship of Ishtar. Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη) was the Greek goddess of love, lust, beauty and sexuality. The Greek Aphrodite has numerous equivalents: Inanna (Sumerian counterpart), Ishtar (…

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APL

Abbreviation of A Programming Language, a scientific computer programming language, developed in the 1960s. It is of special interest to mathematicians. APL is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: …

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apocalypse - Characteristic features, The end of the world, The Apocalypse as the "end of the age"

A literary genre which can be traced to post-Biblical Jewish and early Christian eras; it especially comprises works in highly symbolic language which claim to express divine disclosures about the heavenly spheres, the course of history, or the end of the world. The most famous example is the Book of Revelation in the New Testament. The notion also includes works such as Ad Zuiderent's early colle…

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apocalypse - Characteristic features, The end of the world, The Apocalypse as the "end of the age"

A literary genre which can be traced to post-Biblical Jewish and early Christian eras; it especially comprises works in highly symbolic language which claim to express divine disclosures about the heavenly spheres, the course of history, or the end of the world. The most famous example is the Book of Revelation in the New Testament. The notion also includes poems by Blake and Yeats (‘The Second C…

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Apollo asteroid

An asteroid whose orbit crosses that of the Earth, but whose average distance from the Sun is greater than that of the Earth (ie more than one astronomical unit, 150 million km/93 million mi). Well-known Apollo asteroids include: …

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Apollonius - Plot

Greek grammarian, the first to reduce Greek syntax to a system. He wrote a treatise On Syntax and shorter works on pronouns, conjunctions, and adverbs. Dyskolos (The Grouch) is an Ancient Greek comedy by Menander, the only one of his plays, or of the whole New Comedy, that has survived in complete form. A papyrus manuscript of the complete Dyskolos dating to the third century wa…

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Apollonius of Perga - Life and major work, Other works, Published editions

Greek mathematician, born in Perga, Anatolia. He was the author of the definitive ancient work on conic sections which laid the foundations of later teaching on the subject. Apollonius was probably born some twenty-five years later than Archimedes, i.e. about 262 BC He flourished in the reigns of Ptolemy Euergetes and Ptolemy Philopator (247-205 BC). After the Conics in eight Books ha…

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Apollonius of Tyana - Biography, Historical impact, Apollonius in modern culture

Greek philosopher and seer, born in Tyana, Cappadocia. A zealous neo-Pythagorean teacher, he was hailed as a sage and a worker of miracles. He was worshipped after his death, and a century later Philostratus wrote a largely apocryphal history presenting him as a sort of heathen rival to Christ. Apollonius of Tyana (c. 1-c. 100 AD) was a Neo-Pythagorean philosopher and teacher of Greek origi…

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apologetics - Colloquial usage, Technical usages, Varieties of Christian apologetics, Apologetics in other religions

A branch of theology which justifies Christian faith in the light of specific criticisms or charges. An early example is Justin Martyr's Apology (2nd-c). Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. Early uses of the term include Plato's Apology (the defense speech of Socrates from his trial) and some works of early Christian apologists, such …

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apomixis - Further reading

Asexual reproduction without fertilization in plants, in which meiosis and fusion of gametes are suppressed. Apomixis also includes vegetative reproduction, in which part of a plant becomes detached and may develop into a separate individual. In botany, apomixis is asexual reproduction, without fertilization and modified meiosis.The modified meiosis caused seeds that are genetically identic…

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Apostles' Creed - Origin of the Creed, Text of the Creed, English translations, Liturgical use in Western Christianity

A statement of Christian faith widely used in Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches, and recognized by the Orthodox Churches. It stresses the trinitarian nature of God (as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) and the work of Christ. In its present form, it dates from the 8th-c, but its origins go back to the 3rd-c. The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum), sometimes titled Symbol of the …

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Apostolic Constitution - Examples of apostolic constitutions

One of the most solemn documents issued in the name of a pope, concerned with major matters of doctrine or discipline for the Roman Catholic Church at large. An apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. The use of the term constitution comes from Latin constitutio, which referred to any important law …

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apostolic succession - Mainstream Christianity, Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Sources and external links

The theory that a direct line of descent can be traced from the original apostles of Christ through episcopal succession to the bishops of the present-day Church which supports it, guaranteeing preservation of the original teaching of the apostles. This is now disputed by most New Testament scholars, but features in Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican teaching. In Christianity, the doctr…

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Apostolo Zeno - Works, Critical evaluation

Scholar, born in Venice, Veneto, NE Italy. He was one of the founders of the classicist Accademia degli Amici and of the Giornale dei letterati d'Italia (The Italian Scholars' Journal) and in 1718 was made court poet in Vienna by Charles VI. He wrote oratorios but was renowned for his librettos (for Scarlatti, Vivaldi, and Händel, among others), and produced melodramas in the style of the Arcadia…

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apothecary - Noted apothecaries

In most countries an old term for a pharmacist at a time when drugs were crude and mostly derived from plants. In England, apothecaries were general medical practitioners; the Society of Apothecaries was founded by James I in 1617 and gained further powers over the next two centuries. As a licensing body, the examinations it sets are subject to approval by the General Medical Council. In ad…

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Appalachian Mountains - Name origin and pronunciation, Regions, The chief summits, Geology, Flora and fauna, Influence on history

Mountain system in E North America extending from the Gulf of St Lawrence SW to C Alabama (2570 km/1600 mi); a series of parallel ranges separated by wide valleys; highest peak Mt Mitchell (2037 m/6683 ft), North Carolina; the Older Appalachians in the E include (from N to S) the Shichshock, Notre Dame, White and Green Mts, the Berkshire Hills, and the Blue Ridge Mts; the C band of Folded or N…

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Appaloosa - Registration

A breed of horse; height, 14–15 hands/1·4–1·5 m/4·7–5 ft; short tail; dark with pale spots, or pale with dark spots; sometimes dark with pale hindquarters; name often used for these markings; also called Apaloochy or Palouse. The Appaloosa is a horse breed, in which the horse has one of several distinct patterns of spots. Another theory holds that when spotted horses went out of sty…

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appeal - How an appeal is processed, United States

A legal procedure whereby a superior court considers an application by a party to a case concerning the decision reached in a lower court or tribunal. In criminal cases, the appeal may concern the verdict and/or the sentence. In civil cases, it may concern a subsidiary factor, such as the amount of damages awarded or the actual decision itself. Appeals may involve matters of fact or law, as in the…

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appeasement - Different views on appeasement, Appeasement of Hitler, Appeasement's effect on the Second World War

A foreign policy based on conciliation of the grievances of rival states by negotiation and concession to avoid war. The term is most often applied to the British and French unsuccessful attempts before World War 2 to prevent German and Italian expansionism and to satisfy Hitler's demands over German grievances arising out of the Treaty of Versailles. As a result, Hitler remilitarized the Rhinelan…

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appendicitis - Causes, Signs, symptoms and findings, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

The obstruction and inflammation of the appendix; one of the commonest surgical emergencies. Clinical presentation is with abdominal pain, initially generalized, then localizing to the lower right side of the abdomen and becoming more severe, accompanied by nausea and fever. If the appendix is not removed surgically, it may perforate leading to generalized peritonitis and death. Appendiciti…

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Appian Way - History, Monuments along the Via Appia

The first of Rome's major trunk roads, constructed in 312 BC by Appius Claudius Caecus. It ran initially from Rome SE to Capua. Later it was extended across the peninsula to Brundisium on the Adriatic coast. The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) was the most important ancient Roman road. Its importance is indicated by its common name, recorded by Statius (Sylvae, 2.2): The Romans se…

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apple - Cultural aspects, Apples as food

A small deciduous tree; flowers white or pinkish, in clusters, appearing with the oval leaves; fruit a swollen, fleshy receptacle (or pome), containing a core, which is the real fruit. Crab apples are wild species native to N temperate regions with smooth leaves and small, sour fruits. All eating and cooking apples - over 1000 cultivars - belong to the cultivated apple of gardens and orchards (Mal…

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applet - Interfaces, Attributes, Examples

A short program, written in a language such as JAVA, which can be called from a Web document while the document is being processed by a browser. When the applet is called, it is downloaded from the Web site and run in the user's machine. The JAVA language has been designed to allow applets to operate in user's machines without presenting a threat to user security. Applets usually have some …

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applied linguistics

The application of linguistic theory, practice, and methodology to situations which present language-related tasks or problems. The most well-established field is that of language teaching and learning, particularly with reference to foreign languages. Here, the linguist can contribute such useful background information as a contrastive analysis of the structures of the learner's native language a…

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apraxia

Difficulty in controlling voluntary movements of the limbs or vocal organs; also called dyspraxia. In particular, there may be an inability to control sequences of sounds or gestures. The intention to act or communicate is present, but the patient cannot carry it out. …

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apricot

A deciduous shrub or small tree (Prunus armeniaca) 3–10 m/10–30 ft, native to China and C Asia, and widely cultivated; flowers white or pale pink, appearing before the broadly oval, toothed leaves; fruits globose, velvety, 4–8 cm/1½–3 in, yellow or orange; flesh tart becoming sweet; stone ridged along one edge. (Family: Rosaceae.) …

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apse - Definition, Parts of the apse

A semi-circular or polygonal vaulted recess in a church, usually at the end of a chapel or chancel. It was originally used to contain the praetor's chair in a Roman basilica. The epithet "apsidal" may be applied to the exedra of classical architecture, a feature of the secular Roman basilica, which provided some prototypes for Early Christian churches. The apse as a semicircular…

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Apus

A rather small and inconspicuous S hemisphere constellation. Apus (IPA: /ˈeɪpəs/, Latin: bird of paradise or swallow, from Greek: απους, meaning "no-feet") is a faint southern constellation, not visible to the ancient Greeks. …

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Aqaba - History, Tourism, Transportation

29°31N 35°00E, pop (2000e) 77 000. Seaport in Maan governorate, East Bank, SW Jordan, at N end of the Gulf of Aqaba, on the border with Israel; Jordan's only outlet to the sea; airport; railway; an ancient trade route through the Red Sea–Jordan rift valley; container terminal facilities; phosphates, thermal power, fertilizers, timber processing, tourism; popular winter seaside resort. …

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aquamarine

A variety of the mineral beryl, used as a gemstone. It is transparent, usually sea-green or bluish-green. Aquamarine (Lat. aqua marina, "water of the sea") is a gemstone-quality transparent variety of beryl, having a delicate blue or turquoise color, suggestive of the tint of seawater. Aquamarine is a beryl with a hexagonal crystal structure and a chemical formula of Be3Al…

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aquarium - History and development, Function and design, Ecology, Public aquaria

A building suitably equipped for the display of aquatic plant and animal life. The first public aquarium was the Aquatic Vivarium, in Regent's Park Zoo, London, which opened in 1853. In recent times open-air dolphinariums have become popular for the displaying of dolphins, and underwater oceanariums can be found in popular tourist resorts, such as Disney World in Florida. Small tanks are available…

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aquatint - The technique of aquatint, Famous examples

A form of etching which gives a tonal effect like a wash drawing (shaded with diluted ink or watercolour, applied with a brush). The copper plate is dusted with a thin layer of powdered resin, which is fixed to the metal by heating. When immersed in acid, the plate is bitten all over, but as a mass of tiny specks rather than as lines. Gradations of tone from pale grey to deep (but not solid) black…

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aqueduct - Ancient aqueducts, Modern aqueducts, Uses of aqueducts, Notable aqueducts

An artificial channel for the conveyance of water. The Romans built thousands of miles of aqueducts to bring water to their towns. Many are in the form of arch bridges, and some of these spectacular structures, such as the Pont du Gard at Nîmes, France, still survive. Although famously associated with the Ancient Romans, aqueducts were devised centuries earlier in the Middle East, where pe…

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aquifer - Classification

Water-bearing rock strata, commonly sandstones or chalk with high porosity and permeability. They provide much of the world's water supply, which may be exploited directly by sinking wells or pumping into a reservoir. The chalk in the London Basin (UK) and the Dakota sandstone (USA) are important aquifers. An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated …

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Aquila (astronomy)

A constellation, the Eagle, on the celestial equator, seen during midsummer in the N hemisphere. Its brightest star is Altair, distance 5·1 parsec. Aquila may refer to: People: Places: Entertainment and literature: Craft: Organisations: …

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Aquila (translator)

Translator of the Old Testament into Greek, a native of Sinope. He is said to have been first a pagan, then a Christian, and finally a Jew. Aquila may refer to: People: Places: Entertainment and literature: Craft: Organisations: …

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Aquileia - History

45°46N 13°22E, pop (2000e) 3350. Town in Udine province, Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy; on the R Natissa; settled by the Carnians, conquered by the Romans in 181BC; important route to the Balkans; capital of Venetia and Histria provinces under August; in 381 hosted the Council that condemned Arianism; sacked by Huns, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and Lombards, its population repairing to the Grad…

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Aquitaine - Geography, History, Demographics, Food and drink

pop (2000e) 2 924 000; area 41 308 km²/15 945 sq mi. Region of SW France comprising the departments of Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques; united with Gascony under the French crown, 11th-c; acquired by England on the marriage of Henry II to Eleanor of Aquitaine, 1152; remained in English hands until 1452; chief town, Bordeaux; drained by rivers Garonne,…

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Arab League - Membership, Comparisons with other organizations, Administration, Timeline, Arab League Summits, Organization

A League of Arab States, founded in 1945, with the aim of encouraging inter-Arab co-operation. The League's headquarters was established in Egypt, but moved to Tunis after the signing of Egypt's peace treaty with Israel in 1979. It returned to Cairo in 1990. The first US–Arab Economic Forum took place in Detroit, MI in 2003. In 2006 the Arab League had 22 member states, including the Palestine Na…

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Arabella Stuart - People named Stewart, Places named Stewart, Other

English noblewoman, the daughter of Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox, the younger brother of Lord Darnley. During the reign of Elizabeth I, she was recognized as second in succession to the English throne after her first cousin, King James VI of Scotland. When he became James I of England (1603), he had her imprisoned (1609), fearful of his position if she married. After her release she met and in 1…

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arabesque - History, Description and symbolism

Flowing linear ornament, based usually on plant forms. It occurs widely throughout history, but is especially favoured by Islamic artists. An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborative application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. The choice of which geometric forms are to be used an…

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Arabian Sea

area 3 863 000 km²/1 492 000 sq mi. NW part of the Indian Ocean; principal arms include the Gulf of Oman (NW) and the Gulf of Aden (W); bounded N by Pakistan and Iran, E by India, W by Oman and South Yemen; depths of 2895 m/9498 ft in the N to 4392 m/14 409 ft in the SW; trade route between Indian subcontinent, Persian Gulf states, and Mediterranean. Ocean trade routes have cro…

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Arabic literature - Pre-Islamic literature, The Qur'an and Islam, Islamic scholarship, Arabic poetry

The great age of classical Arabic literature was from the 6th-c to the 12th-c, followed by a revival in the 20th-c in poetry and through the introduction of new forms of drama and fiction. The earlier literature was almost exclusively in poetry, with the oral tradition permitting the cultivation of poetic forms of great complexity, such as the pre-Islamic qasida, represented in the celebrated Mual…

1 minute read

arachidonic acid

A polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbons and 4 unsaturated bonds. It is stored in cell membranes, and when released gives rise to the prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Arachidonic acid is synthesized in the body from linoleic acid (18 carbons, 2 double bonds), which is an essential component of the diet in that it cannot be synthesized by humans. Arachidonic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid…

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Arachne - Afterwords, Popular television

In Greek mythology, an excellent weaver from Lydia, who challenged Athena to a contest. When Arachne's work was seen to be superior, Athena destroyed it, and Arachne hanged herself. Athena saved her, but changed her into a spider. The fable of Arachne (also Arachné) is a late addition to Greek mythology, recorded in Ovid, Metamorphoses. Arachne's name simply means "spider" (αραχνη). …

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Arafura Sea

area 1 037 000 km²/400 000 sq mi. Section of the Pacific Ocean, bounded N and NE by Indonesia and New Guinea, and S by Australia; shallow depths (27–55 m/90–180 ft) because of underlying continental shelf. The sea lies over the Arafura Shelf, part of the Sahul Shelf. When sea levels were low during the last glacial maximum, the Arafura Shelf, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres St…

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Arag - History, List of Chancellors

pop (2000e) 1 194 000; area 47 669 km²/18 400 sq mi. Autonomous region of NE Spain; featureless upland region largely occupying the basin of the R Ebro; Pyrenees in the N; sparsely populated; almonds, figs, vines, and olives grown by irrigation near rivers; a former kingdom (11th–15th-c), controlling much of N Spain, and conquering parts of S Italy in the 14th–15th-c. Aragon (Cas…

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aragonite

A mineral form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), occurring in some high-pressure alpine metamorphic rocks, sedimentary carbonate rocks, and in the shells of certain molluscs of which it forms the lining (mother-of-pearl). Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells, as well as the calciferous exoskeletons of warm- and cold-water corals. Because the mineral deposition in mollusk shell…

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Aral Sea - Ecological problems, Bioweapons facility on the Vozrozhdeniya Island, Development of the Aral Sea

Inland sea, E of the Caspian Sea, mainly in Kazakhstan; world's eighth largest lake (previously fourth), originally c.65 000 km²/25 000 sq mi, c.420 km/260 mi long, 280 km/175 mi wide, maximum depth 70 m/230 ft; contains several small islands; generally shallow, with little navigation; sodium and magnesium sulphate mined along shores; diversion of water from rivers supplying the sea fo…

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Aran Islands - Population, Tourism, Traditional life, Aran Island sweater, The Aran currach, Bibliography

Group of three islands (Inishmor, Inishmaan, Inisheer) off SW coast of Galway Co, Connacht, W Ireland; at the mouth of Galway Bay; each has an airstrip with flights from Carnmore, near Galway; boat service from Rossaveel; several monastic ruins and Dun Aengus fort. The Aran Islands (Irish: Oileáin Árann) are a group of three islands located at the mouth of Galway Bay, on the west coast of…

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Aranjuez - Transportation, Population, Government and Administration, Economy, Local media, Persons, Tourism

40°2N 3°36W, pop (2000e) 36 000. Spanish town in the province of Madrid; irrigated region, producing fruits and vegetables; industrial branch of Madrid for antibiotics, photographic material, sugar, paints; Royal Palace, scene of the mutiny against Godoy which led to the abdication of Carlos IV in favour of his son Fernando VII. Aranjuez is a town in the southern part of Autonomous Comm…

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araucaria

An evergreen conifer, native to much of the S hemisphere except Africa; branches horizontal, in whorls; leaves usually scale-like, sometimes large; all produce edible seeds and useful timber, often sold as parana pine. (Genus: Araucaria, 18 species. Family: Araucariaceae.) Araucaria is a genus of coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae. There are 19 species in the genus, with a highly …

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Arawak - Economy, Culture, Religion, government, foreign affairs, European contact and genocide, Survivors

American Indians of the Greater Antilles and South America. In the Antilles, they settled in villages and cultivated cassava and maize; frequently attacked by the Caribs, many were later killed by the Spanish. In South America, they lived in isolated small settlements in tropical Amazonian forests, and practised hunting, fishing, and farming. A few survivors live along the coastal strip of Guyana …

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arbitration - History, Nature of Arbitration, Arbitration Agreement, Arbitral tribunal, Arbitral Awards

The settlement of a dispute by reference to an independent party, the arbitrator (in Scotland, the arbiter). Contracts may provide for disputes to be settled in this way, in an attempt to avoid proceedings in the courts. There are specialist trade tribunals engaged in settling business disputes, such as the London Maritime Arbitrators Association and the Grain and Feed Trade Association. The Ameri…

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Arbor Day - History, China, South Korea, United States of America

In the USA, New Zealand, and parts of Canada and Australia, a day (whose date varies from place to place) set apart each year for planting trees and increasing public awareness of the value of trees; first observed in the State of Nebraska, USA, in 1872. Arbor Day is a holiday that encourages the planting and care of trees. Arbor Day was established by J. The Great P…

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arboretum - Later examples, Artistic

A botanical garden, or a section of a botanical garden, used for the display and study of trees, shrubs, and vines. An arboretum is a botanical garden primarily devoted to trees and other woody plants, forming a living collection of trees intended at least partly for scientific study. The first arboretum was the Arboretum Trsteno, near Dubrovnik in Croatia. Its start date is unk…

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Arc de Triomphe - Miscellaneous, Gallery

A triumphal arch commemorating Napoleon's victories, designed by Jean Chalgrin and erected (1806–35) in the Place Charles de Gaulle, Paris. It is 49 m/162 ft high and 45 m/147 ft wide. The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris that stands in the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly the Place de l'Étoile, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. The monument …

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Arcadia (Ancient Greece) - Transportation, Communications, Television, Provinces, Municipalities and communities, Sports Teams

The mountainous area in the centre of the Peloponnese. Its inhabitants claimed to be pre-Dorian, and the oldest settlers of Hellenic stock in Greece. Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; Arcadia has 4 provinces: See also: List of settlements in the Arcadia prefecture Asteras Tripolis is the Greek football club from the town of Tripolis,Greece. …

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Arcadia (mythology) - Transportation, Communications, Television, Provinces, Municipalities and communities, Sports Teams

An ideal pastoral existence; also known as Arcady. Et in Arcadia ego is a proverbial expression found engraved on a tombstone in a painting by Poussin, usually taken to mean that death is present, even in the ideal world. Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; Arcadia has 4 provinces: See also: List of settlements in the Arcadia prefecture Asteras Tri…

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Arcadius

Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, born in Spain. After the death of his father, Emperor Theodosius (395), he received the E half of the Roman Empire, the W half falling to his brother Honorius. An ineffectual ruler, he was dominated by his ministers and by his wife (married 395), Empress Eudoxia (?–404). Flavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of th…

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Arcangelo Corelli - Biography, Major works, Media, Selected works available under 'libre' licenses

Composer, born in Fusignano, N Italy. From c.1675 he lived in Rome, where he was in great demand as a violinist, spending the last 22 years of his life in the service of Cardinal Ottoboni. His Concerti grossi, and his solo and trio sonatas for violin, mark an epoch in chamber music, and greatly influenced a whole generation of composers. Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1…

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Arcesilaus

Greek philosopher, born in Pitane, Aeolia. He became the sixth head of the Academy founded by Plato, and under his leadership the school became known as the ‘Middle Academy’ to distinguish it from Plato's ‘Old Academy’. Arcesilaus modelled his philosophy on the critical dialectic of Plato's earlier dialogues but gave it a sharply sceptical turn, directed particularly against Stoic doctrines. …

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arch - History, Construction, Technical aspects, Other types

Part of a building, or a structure in its own right, made up of wedge-shaped stones or other pieces over an opening, which support both each other and any weight above. All classical and Norman arches are semicircular; other styles use a variety of shapes, including the elliptical, horseshoe, lancet, ogee, pointed, segmental, and Tudor. A relieving or discharging arch has no opening, being placed …

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Archangel - In Judaism, In Christianity, In Islam, Other traditions

64°32N 40°40E, pop (2000e) 425 000. Port and capital city of Archangel oblast, European Russia; on R Severnaya Dvina, on an inlet of the White Sea; one of the largest sea and river ports in the state; harbour often icebound in winter; founded, 1584; airfield; railway; fishing, clothing, footwear, shipbuilding, transport equipment, timber; monastery dedicated to the Archangel Michael. An…

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archbishop - Western Christianity, Eastern Christianity

A bishop appointed to have jurisdiction over other bishops; often, the head of a province. The title sometimes refers to a bishop exercising special functions. In Eastern Churches, a hierarchy of archbishops is recognized. In Western Christianity, an archbishop is entitled to a few extra privileges that a simple bishop does not receive. Roman Catholic archbishops are allowed ten tassles a s…

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archdeacon

A clergyman in the Anglican Church responsible for the administration of the whole or such part of a diocese as the bishop may authorize. The office formerly existed also in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. An archdeacon is a senior position in some Christian churches, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the Eastern Christian Churches (Orthodox Churches…

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archerfish

Any of the Asian marine and freshwater fishes renowned for their ability to dislodge or shoot down insect prey by spitting drops or jets of water over distances up to 3 m/10 ft; body length up to 25 cm/10 in. (Family: Toxotidae.) The archerfishes (or archer fishes) are a family (Toxotidae) of fish notable for their habit of preying on insects and other small animals by shooting them dow…

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archery - History, Equipment, Shooting technique and form, Physics of bows and arrows, Hunting, Modern competitive archery, Related

The use of the bow and arrow, one of the first weapons used in battle. Until the development of gunpowder in the 14th-c, the bowman was the most powerful member of any army. When archery was no longer used in warfare its practice decreased, but in the late 17th-c it gained popularity as a sport. The governing body, the Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc was formed in 1931. In competition,…

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archetype - Jungian archetypes, Archetypes in fiction

(Gr ‘original pattern’) A prototype or permanent form of an event (birth/death), character (rebel/witch), or disposition. The concept owes much to J G Frazer's study The Golden Bough (1890–1915) which traces elemental patterns of myth and ritual, and to the studies in psychology of Carl Jung. Seen as recurring in life, archetypes are a fertile source of images in art and literature. An a…

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Archibald Alexander

Protestant clergyman and educator, born near Lexington, Virginia, USA. The son of a merchant farmer, he underwent a religious conversion in 1789, began to evangelize, and proved to be a fluent and persuasive preacher. Ordained in the Presbyterian ministry (1794), he served two terms as president of Hampden-Sidney College (1796–1801, 1802–7). He became a professor at the newly established Princet…

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Archibald Campbell Tait - Biography, Notable accomplishments, Summary, Reference

Anglican clergyman, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow and Oxford universities, and became a fellow of Balliol College. He entered the Church of England in 1836, and was an opponent of the Oxford Movement, protesting in 1841 against John Newman's Tract 90. He became headmaster of Rugby (1842), Dean of Carlisle (1849), and Bishop of London (1856). He showed firmness and broad…

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Archibald Constable

Publisher, born in Carnbee, Fife, E Scotland, UK. He began as a bookseller in Edinburgh, then drifted into publishing, and was chosen as publisher of the Edinburgh Review (1802). He published for all the leading writers of the time, and his quick appreciation of Scott became the envy of the book trade. In 1812 he purchased the copyright of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; but in 1826 came the financi…

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Archibald Cox - Early life and law career, Watergate special prosecutor, Death and legacy

Professor of law and solicitor general, born in Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. A widely published expert on labour law and long-time professor at Harvard (1946–61, 1965–84), he served as solicitor general of the United States under presidents John F Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson (1961–5). He became widely known as director of the office of the Watergate special prosecution force (1973), and was di…

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Archibald Henderson - Biography

US marine officer, born in Virginia, USA. In a long career of mostly peacetime service, he was commandant of marines from 1820 until his death, and oversaw important reforms in the corps' organization. Commissioned in 1806, he saw service during the War of 1812, and led marines in combat in the Seminole War in Florida in 1837. Brevetted brigadier-general for gallantry in that conflict, he became t…

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Archibald MacLeish - Biography, Literary work, Awards, Quotes

Poet, writer, and public official, born in Glencoe, Illinois, USA. He studied at Yale (1915 BA) and served in World War 1 before receiving an LLB from Harvard (1919). He practised law in Boston (1920–3) and then set off to Europe to concentrate on his writing, which came under the influence of T S Eliot and Ezra Pound. He returned to the USA to become editor of Fortune in New York City (1928–38)…

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Archibald Scott Couper

Organic chemist, born in Kirkintilloch, East Dunbartonshire, WC Scotland, UK. He studied classics at Glasgow and philosophy at Edinburgh, then turned to chemistry, and studied in Paris under Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817–84). In 1858 he asked Wurtz to present to the French Academy a paper in which he argued that carbon had a valence of two or four; and that its atoms could self-link to form chains.…

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Archibald Thorburn

Bird artist, born in Lasswade, Midlothian, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at St John's Wood School of Art in London, and his first paintings were hung in the Royal Academy when he was only 20. He painted the majority of the plates of the monumental Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British Isles (1885–97). He also published British Birds (4 vols, 1915–16), British Mammals (1920), and the immense…

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Archie (Mason) Griffin - Professional football career

Player of American football, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. The only player to win two Heisman Trophies (1974–5), he gained over 5000 yards as a four-year starting halfback and three-time All-American at Ohio State. Archie Mason Griffin (born August 21, 1954) is a former American football running back remembered in sports as college football's lone two-time Heisman trophy winner. …

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Archie Carr

Herpetologist, born in Mobile, Alabama, USA. He spent his career at the University of Florida, Gainsville (1933–87), with concurrent affiliations at the Escuela Panamericana Honduras (1945–9) and the American Museum of Natural History (1951–87). He made major contributions to the ecology of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Florida. His classic conservationist book, The Windward Road (1956), …

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Archie Moore - Before Boxing, Professional Boxing Career, First Retirement, Acting Career, Personal life

Boxer, born in Benoit, Michigan, USA. His actual date of birth is uncertain (by his own account), but he was still the oldest man to hold a world title; he also reigned longer than any light-heavyweight champion - nine years, one month. He was 39 (or 36) when he beat Joey Maxim for the light-heavyweight title in 1952. He had 228 professional bouts and won 194, knocking out a record 141 opponents. …

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Archie Shepp - Life and career

Jazz musician, born in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. Raised in Philadelphia, he studied drama at Goddard College before emerging in 1960 as a saxophonist with Cecil Taylor, whose ensemble was appearing in the off-Broadway production of The Connection. Throughout the 1960s he was a spokesman for the jazz avant-garde and a leader of the Jazz Composers Guild and other collectives. In 1964 he began l…

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Archimedes - Discoveries and inventions, Writings by Archimedes

Greek mathematician, born in Syracuse. He probably visited Egypt and studied at Alexandria. In popular tradition he is remembered for the construction of siege-engines against the Romans, the Archimedes' screw still used for raising water, and his cry of eureka (‘I have found it’) when he discovered the principle of the upthrust on a floating body. His real importance in mathematics, however, li…

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architecture - Scope, Architectural history

The art or science of building; particularly used to differentiate between building and the art of designing buildings. In the latter context, there has been great division of opinion as to what exactly constitutes architecture. The most usual standpoint is typified by Ruskin in The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849): ‘Architecture is the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by ma…

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archon - Ancient Greece, Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Gnostic Archons

In ancient Athens, an annually appointed public official whose duties were mainly legal and religious; each year nine were chosen. In the early literary period of ancient Greece the chief magistrates of various Greek city states were called Archons. In Athens a system of three concurrent Archons evolved, the three office holders being known as the Archon Eponymous, the Polemarch…

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Arctic - Pollution, Nature and natural resources, Environmental impact assessment, International cooperation and politics, A strategic military region

Area in the N hemisphere which lies N of the tree-line or, more loosely, to the N of the Arctic Circle; Arctic conditions of climate, vegetation, and life-forms obtain in Greenland, Svalbard, and the N parts of Canada, Russia, Alaska, and Iceland. There are numerous definitions of the Arctic region. Socially and politically, the Arctic region includes the northern territories of the eight A…

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Arctic Circle

An arbitrary boundary marking the southernmost extremity of the northernmost area of the Earth; the area to the N of the tree-line; placed at 66°17N, but often defined as the area N of 70°N. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Everything north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south of this circle …

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Arctic Council - History of the Arctic Council, Arctic Council Membership, Observers to the Arctic Council

An organization formed in 1996 by seven countries bordering the Arctic Ocean: Canada, Denmark (for Greenland), Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and the USA, plus Finland. Based in Ottawa for the first two years, it would advise governments on issues to do with the protection and development of the Arctic's aboriginal peoples. The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum which …

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Arctic fox - Habits, Population and distribution

A fox widespread on Arctic land masses (Alopex lagopus); hairy feet and small ears; eats lemmings, birds, hares, fish, carrion; coat thickens in winter; two forms: one white in winter, brown in summer; the other (blue fox of Greenland) pale blue-grey in winter, darker blue-grey in summer. The arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), also known as the polar fox, is a small fox native to cold Arctic regi…

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Arctic Ocean - Geography, History, Climate, Natural resources, Natural hazards, Plantlife, Major ports and harbors

Body of water within the Arctic Circle; world's smallest ocean, 13 986 000 km²/5 400 000 sq mi; frozen all year except in marginal areas; greatest depth, Eurasia Basin, 5122 m/16 804 ft; forms the cold East Greenland Current and the Labrador Current; hummocky icefields in winter, pack-ice during summer, carried S by surface currents (generally melting N of the major shipping lanes); une…

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Arctic tern - Distribution and migration, Physical description and taxonomy, Reproduction, Ecology and behaviour, Conservation status, Appearances on stamps

A small tern found worldwide (Sterna paradisaea); migrates further than any other bird (approximately 36 000 km/22 000 mi per year); spends N summer in the Arctic, and N winter in the Antarctic. The Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has a circumpolar distribution, breeding colonially in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe, Asi…

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Ardashir I - Early years, Religion and state, War with Rome

King of Persia (224–41), and founder of the new Persian dynasty of the Sassanids. He overthrew Artabanus IV, the last of the Parthian kings in AD c.226. He entered into battle with Alexander Severus (232), and though Alexander celebrated victory in Rome, Ardashir took Armenia and Persian power was firmly established. He was succeeded by Shapur I. Ardashir I (early Middle Persian Arđaxšē…

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Arduino - Hardware Versions, Development Team

King of Italy (1002–14), the son of Dodone, Count of Pombia. He became Marquis of Ivrea (c.990) and, with the support of the lay feudal lords, was crowned at Pavia (1002) and recognized as King of Italy in the N and C of the country. Opposed by the powerful lords of the clergy and by Emperor Henry II, in 1014 he gave up the throne and retired to Fruttuaria Abbey. Arduino is an open source …

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Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) - Scotland, List of AONBs by Country

An area in England and Wales which does not merit National Park status, but where special measures are needed to preserve its natural interest and beauty. They are generally smaller than National Parks, and are the responsibility of local authorities and the Countryside Commission. An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an area of countryside with significant landscape value in Eng…

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Arecibo Observatory - General information, Design and architecture, Discoveries, Other usage, Arecibo in popular culture, Threatened Closure

A radio astronomy observatory in Puerto Rico, opened in 1963. A natural hollow has been lined with metal panels to create the world's largest single radio telescope, 305 m/1000 ft in diameter. Coordinates: 18°20′36.6″N, 66°45′11.1″W The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner…

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Areopagus

In ancient Greece, the name for the hill in Athens which was the seat of the oldest council of state, and also for the council whose meetings took place there. The name means ‘the hill of Ares’ (the god of war). The Areopagus or Areios Pagos (Greek Ἄρειος Πᾶγος) is the 'Hill of Ares', north-west of the Acropolis, which in classical times functioned as the chief homicide court…

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Arequipa - World Heritage Site, Recent Events, Notable people from Arequipa

16°25S 71°32W, pop (2000e) 758 000. Capital of Arequipa department, S Peru; in a valley at the foot of El Misti volcano; altitude 2380 m/7808 ft; built on the site of an ancient Inca city; main commercial centre for S Peru; airfield; railway; two universities (1828, 1964); wool, textiles, soap; cathedral (1612, rebuilt 19th-c), La Companía church, Puente Bolívar, Santa Catalina convent. Th…

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Ares - Ares' symbols, Ares in cult, The founding of Thebes, Consorts and Children

The Greek god of war, son of Zeus and Hera, often perceived as hostile, rather than as a national deity, as in other mythologies. He represents the sudden violence of battle, and often helps foreigners rather than the Greeks. In Greek mythology, Ares (in Greek, Άρης — "battle strife") is the son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. The Romans identified him as Mars, the Roman god of w…

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Aretha Franklin - Discography

Soul singer, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. The daughter of Detroit clergyman C L Franklin, she sang in church choirs as a child and at age 14 joined her father's travelling gospel revue. Although she began recording at age 18, it was at Atlantic Records (1966) that she worked with experienced rhythm-and-blues musicians and was encouraged to use her gospel roots. In 1967 she gained fame with the…

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Arethusa

In Greek mythology, a nymph who was pursued by the river-god Alpheus from Arcadia in Greece to Ortygia in Sicily. She was changed into a spring and Alpheus mingled his waters with hers. The myth attempts to account for the fresh-water fountain which appears in the harbour of Syracuse and was believed to have flowed under the Ionian Sea. Arethusa means "the waterer". …

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Arezzo - Geography and statistical information, History, Main sights, Notable people from Arezzo, Sports, Twin cities

43°28N 11°53E, pop (2000e) 93 000. Capital town of Arezzo province, Tuscany, NW Italy; 80 km/50 mi SE of Florence; on the site of an Etruscan settlement; engineering, textiles, furniture, pottery, leather, jewellery making (gold); antiques centre, trade in olive oil and wine; birthplace of Petrarch; Church of Pieve di Santa Maria (12th–14th-c); Gothic cathedral (begun 1277); mediaeval joust…

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Argenteuil

Town in the Val-d'Oise region, on the north bank of the R Seine, NW Paris, France; name comes from silver (argent) deposits exploited by the Gauls; 7th-c convent where Héloïse became prioress (c.1118–29), later a monastery. …

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Argentina - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Flora and fauna, Economy, Population, Demographics, Culture, Science and technology, Communications

Official name The Argentine Republic, Span La República Argentina Argentina is a country in southern South America. Argentina occupies a continental surface area of 2,791,810 km² (1,078,000?sq?mi) between the Andes mountain range in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east and south. The country claims the British overseas territories of the Falkland Islands …

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argon

Ar, element 18, boiling point ?189°C. The commonest of the noble or rare gases, with no known compounds, it makes up about 1% of the Earth's atmosphere, and is fractionally distilled with difficulty from oxygen (boiling-point ?183°C). It is used to provide inert atmospheres, especially inside incandescent light bulbs. Argon (IPA: /ˈɑːgɒn/) is a chemical element designated by the symbo…

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Argonauts - Story, Spoken-word myths — audio files, The Argonauts in literature, The Argonauts on film

In Greek mythology, the heroes who sailed in the ship Argo to find the Golden Fleece. Under Jason's leadership they sailed through the Symplegades (presumably the Dardanelles) and along the Black Sea coast to Colchis. Their return is variously described, and may have included a river-passage to the North Sea. In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: Αργοναύται) were a ban…

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Argos - History, Other Info

37°38N 22°43E, pop (2000e) 22 500. Ancient town in Peloponnese region, S Greece, in a fertile plain near the Gulf of Argolikos; involved in wars with Sparta, 7th–4th-c BC; railway; commercial and agricultural centre; many archaeological remains. Coordinates: 37°37′N 22°43′E Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos, IPA /'argos/) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnese near Naf…

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argument

In mathematics, the angle made with the real axis by the line joining the origin to the point P representing the complex number z. When the complex number is written in the form r(cos ?+isin ?), ? is the argument. In mathematics, science (including computer science), and engineering, an argument is, generally speaking, an independent variable or input to a function. It may also mean…

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Argus

In Greek mythology, 1 A watchman with a hundred eyes, appointed by Hera to watch over Io; after Argus was killed by Hermes, the eyes were placed in the tail of the peacock. >> Io (mythology) 2 The name of Odysseus's dog, who greeted his master on his return after 20 years absence, and then died. There are five figures in Greek mythology named Argus or Argos (Άργος). The son of Zeus and…

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Argyll and Bute - Places of interest, Islands

area 6930 km²/2675 sq mi. Unitary authority in West Scotland created in 1996, incorporating most of the historic county of Argyllshire which became part of Strathclyde in 1974; rural area, NW of Glasgow conurbation; the district includes the island of Bute, chief town Rothesay. Argyll and Bute (Earra-Ghaidheal agus Bòd in Gaelic) is both one of 32 unitary council areas; …

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aria - Media

A song with an Italian text, especially one which forms part of a larger work, such as an opera, oratorio, or cantata. The ‘da capo’ or ternary structure (A–B–A) of most Baroque arias is often referred to simply as ‘song form’. The aria first appeared in the 14th century. Aria could also mean a melodic scheme (motif) or pattern for singing a poetic pattern, such as a sonnet. in about …

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Ariadne - Minos and Theseus, Naxos, The Goddess Ariadne, In later culture

In Greek mythology, the daughter of the King of Crete (Minos). She enabled Theseus to escape from the labyrinth by giving him a ball of thread. He fled with her, but deserted her on the island of Naxos; there she eventually became the wife of Dionysus. Ariadne, in Greek mythology, was daughter of King Minos of Crete and his queen, Pasiphaë. According to the legend, Minos attack…

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Ariel Sharon

Prime minister of Israel (2001–6) and soldier, born in Kfar Maalal, a communal farm in W Palestine, the son of Russian immigrant parents. In 1942 he joined the Jewish military underground organization, the Haganah, fought in the Arab–Israeli War of 1948–9, and went on to a series of command positions, notably in the Yom Kippur War (Oct 1973). His political career began when he won a seat in the…

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aril

The outgrowth surrounding a fertilized seed or ovule. It is often fleshy and brightly-coloured, as in the berry-like arils of the yew and spindle tree, but also hairy or spongy, as in the buoyant seeds of water lilies. An aril (or arillus) is a fleshy covering of certain seeds formed from the funiculus (attachment point of the seed). The aril may create a fruit-like structure (c…

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Aristaeus

In Greek mythology, a minor deity of the countryside, who introduced bee-keeping, vines, and olives. He pursued Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus, who trod on a snake and died; in revenge her sister dryads killed his bees. Proteus told him to sacrifice cattle to appease the dryads, and in nine days he found bees generated in the carcasses. A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus or Aristaios …

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Aristarchus of Samos - Heliocentrism, Size of the Moon, Distance to the Sun

Alexandrian astronomer who seems to have anticipated Copernicus, maintaining that the Earth moves round the Sun. Only one of his works has survived. The only work of Aristarchus which has survived to the present time, On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon, is based on a geocentric world view. Archimedes wrote: Aristarchus thus believed the stars to be infinitely far awa…

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Aristarchus of Samothrace

Alexandrian grammarian and critic, best known for his edition of Homer. He wrote many commentaries and treatises, edited several authors, and was the founder of a school of philologists. He was in charge of the Library of Alexandria for over 30 years. Aristarchus (Ἀρίσταρχος, 220? He established the most historically important critical edition of the Homeric poems, an…

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Aristide (Joseph Bonaventure) Maillol - Other links

Sculptor, born in Banyuls-sur-Mer, C France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and spent some years designing tapestries. The latter half of his life was devoted to the representation of the nude female figure in a style of monumental simplicity and classical serenity, such as ‘Mediterranean’ (c.1901, Museum of Modern Art, New York City) and ‘Night’ (1902, Dina Vierny Collection, Paris).…

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Aristide Briand

French statesman and prime minister (1909–11, 1913, 1915–17, 1921–2, 1925–6, 1929), born in Nantes, W France. He was founder (with Jean Jaurés) of L'Humanité, and framer of the law for the separation of Church and state (1905). A socialist, he was 11 times elected French premier, and also served as foreign minister (1925–32), helping to conclude the Kellogg–Briand Pact (1928), outlawing wa…

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Aristide Bruant

Cabaret singer, born in Courtenay, C France. From a family of architects, he took up music and wrote songs that were realistic, in slang, or anarchistic, such as ‘Mini Peau de Chien’, for the cabaret of the Chat Noir. His silhouette, with its red scarf and hat, was immortalized by Toulouse-Lautrec in many posters, including that for his cabaret, L'Ambassadeur. He also wrote a novel, La Loupiote.…

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Aristides

Athenian soldier and statesman. He became chief archon (489–488 BC), but about 483 BC his opposition to Themistocles' naval policy led to his ostracization. When the Persians invaded in 480 BC Aristides returned from banishment to serve at the Battle of Salamis, and was the Athenian general at Plataea (479 BC). Through him, Athens, not Sparta, became the ruling state of the Delian League. …

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Aristides

Greek Christian apologist. He wrote an early Apology for the Christian Faith, mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome, which came to light late in the 19th-c. Aristides (Greek Ἀριστείδης, 530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed "the Just". Plato called him the only man in Athens worth admiring. Of his early life we are only told that he became a follower of the state…

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Aristippus

Greek philosopher, a native of Cyrene in Africa, hence the name of his followers, the Cyrenaics, who became an influential school. Their main doctrines were hedonism and the primacy of one's own immediate feelings. He became a pupil of Socrates at Athens, and taught philosophy both at Athens and Aegina, but lived much of his life as a voluptuary in Syracuse, at the court of Dionysius the tyrant. …

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Aristophanes - Surviving plays, Dated non-surviving plays, Undated non-surviving plays

Greek playwright. He is said to have written 54 plays, but only 11 are extant. His writings fall into three periods. To the first period, ending in 425 BC, belong The Acharnians, The Knights, The Clouds, and The Wasps, the poet's four masterpieces, named from their respective choruses, and Peace, in all of which full rein is given to political satire. To the second, ending in 406 BC, belong The Bi…

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Aristotle - Biography, Methodology, Aristotle's epistemology, Aristotle's metaphysics, Aristotle's ethics

Greek philosopher, scientist, and physician, one of the greatest figures in the history of Western thought, born in Stagira, Macedonia. In 367 he went to Athens, where he was associated with Plato's Academy until Plato's death in 347 BC. He then spent time in Asia Minor and in Mytilene (on Lesbos). In 342 BC he was invited by Philip of Macedon to educate his son, Alexander (later, the Great). He r…

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Aristotle (Socrates) Onassis - Life

Millionaire shipowner, born in Smyrna, W Turkey. At 16 he left Smyrna for Greece as a refugee, and from there went to Buenos Aires, where he made a fortune in tobacco and was for a time Greek consul. Buying his first ships (1932–3), he built up one of the world's largest independent fleets, and was a pioneer in the construction of super-tankers. His first marriage, to Athina, daughter of Stavros …

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arithmetic - Number theory

The practical skill of calculating with numbers, in contrast to number theory. The four operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined over the set of all real numbers, and used essentially for practical results. Examples include the total cost of buying two items, one costing 30p and the other 40p (addition); the change received from a $5 bill when buying an item co…

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Arius - Problems with sources, Early life and personality, Arius starts a controversy, Arius' doctrines

Founder of Arianism, born in Libya. He trained in Antioch, and became a presbyter in Alexandria. He claimed (c.319) that, in the doctrine of the Trinity, the Son was not co-equal or co-eternal with the Father, but only the first and highest of all finite beings, created out of nothing by an act of God's free will. He won some support, but was deposed and excommunicated in 321 by a synod of bishops…

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Arizona - Demographics, Economy, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 5 130 600; area 295 249 km²/114 000 sq mi. State in SW USA, divided into 14 counties; the ‘Grand Canyon State’; Spanish exploration, 1539; part of New Spain (1598–1821), then included in newly-independent Mexico; acquired by the USA in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) and the Gadsden Purchase (1853); a separate territory, 1863; until 1886 frequently attacked by Apache…

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Arjan Dev

Sikh leader, the compiler of the Adi Granth in 1604, born in Goindwal, Punjab, India. The text used today is an expanded version of his original compilation and is revered by all Sikhs. He began the construction of the Harimandir, or Golden Temple, at Amritsar, and extended the social reforms and missionary work begun by earlier gurus. After the Mughal emperor Akbar died, his successor, Jahangir, …

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Arjuna - Personality, In Exile, Arjuna and Hanuman, Outbreak of war, The Kurukshetra war, After the War

An Indian hero. In the Bhagavadgita, he hesitates before entering the battle, knowing the killing which will ensue. His charioteer, Krishna, urges him to fulfil the action which is his duty as a warrior, explaining that the whole universe needs the fulfilment of actions which advance God's will. Arjuna was a master archer and played a central role in the conflict between the Pandavas and th…

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Ark of the Covenant - Terminology, Description, Prophets' mentions, History, Fate of the Ark, Present location, Media references, Further reading

A portable wooden chest overlaid with gold and having a cherub with extended wings mounted at each end of the golden lid (the ‘mercy seat’). In the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament it is described as having many successive functions - containing the two tablets of the Decalogue, serving as a symbol of the divine presence guiding Israel, and acting as a safeguard in war. Biblical traditions suggest it …

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Arkansas - Geography, Demographics, Economy, Transportation, Important cities and towns, Education, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 2 673 400; area 137 749 km²/53 187 sq mi. State in SC USA, divided into 75 counties; the ‘Land of Opportunity’; the first white settlement established by the French as part of French Louisiana, 1686; ceded to the US as part of the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; included in the Territory of Missouri, 1812; became a separate territory, 1819; joined the Union as the 25th state, 1836…

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