Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 58

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Persephone - The abduction myth, Modern scholarship on Persephone, Consorts/children

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Demeter and Zeus, originally called Kore (‘maiden’); known as Proserpine in Latin. She was gathering flowers at Enna in Sicily when Hades abducted her and made her queen of the Underworld. There she ate the seeds of the pomegranate, which meant (in fairy lore) that she was bound to stay; but a compromise was arranged so that she returns for half of every year …

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Persepolis - Construction, Archaeological Research, Site, Ruins, The Gate of All Nations, Apadana Palace, The Throne Hall

The site in the mountains of Iran of the palaces and graves of the Achaemenid rulers of Persia; a world heritage site. Selected originally by Darius I, the site was extensively developed by his successors Xerxes and Artaxerxes. It was sacked by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. Persepolis (Old Persian: 'Pars', New Persian: تخت جمشید, 'Takht-e Jamshid') was an ancient ceremonial capital…

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Perseus (astronomy) - Origin at Argos, Adventures with the Gorgons, Marriage with Andromeda, The oracle fulfilled, King of Mycenae

A N hemisphere constellation, in the Milky Way. Fairly easy to see, it includes a double cluster of stars visible to the naked eye, as well as the famous variable star Algol. The Perseid meteors radiate from it every August. Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first o…

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Perseus (mythology) - Origin at Argos, Adventures with the Gorgons, Marriage with Andromeda, The oracle fulfilled, King of Mycenae

In Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Danae. Danae's father put her and the young Perseus in a chest which floated to Seriphos, and he grew up on the island. The king ordered Perseus to fetch the head of Medusa, otherwise he would take Danae by force. With Athene's help Perseus asked the way of the Graiae, killed the Gorgon, and used its head to rescue Andromeda and save his mother. Perse…

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Pershing missile - Development, Pershing I, Pershing Ia, Pershing II, Pershing Ib and Pershing 2 RR, Elimination

A medium-range, land-based missile with a nuclear warhead, deployed by the US Army in West Germany from 1983 onwards as part of NATO's theatre nuclear force modernization programme. The Pershing II supplanted the earlier Pershing I. Pershing was a family of solid-fueled two-stage medium-range ballistic missiles designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the PGM-11 Redstone missile as …

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Persian Empire - Name, History, Timeline, Persia in fiction

An empire created by the Achaemenids in the second half of the 6th-c BC through their conquests of the Medes, Babylonians, Lydians, and Egyptians, extending from NW India to the E Mediterranean. Although it was overthrown by Alexander the Great in the 330s BC, its administrative structure, the satrapal system, survived. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over t…

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Persian Gulf - Geography, Oil and gas, Naming dispute, British residency

area 238 800 km²/92 200 sq mi. Arm of the Arabian Sea, connected to it via the Gulf of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz; bounded N by Iran, NW by Iraq and Kuwait, W by Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and S by the United Arab Emirates; largest islands, Bahrain and Qeshm (Iran); length 885 km/550 mi; maximum width 322 km/200 mi; average depth 100 m/325 ft; important source of oil; pipeline (N) link…

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Persian literature - Classical Persian literature, Dictionaries, Persian phrases, The influence of Persian literature on world literature

A literature which begins with 10th-c court poetry, represented by Rudagi (died 954). Firdausi (935–1020) composed the Shahnama or Book of Kings, the vast national epic on legends of Iran, establishing a Golden Age that lasted until the 15th-c. Earlier in this period we have the quatrains or rubaiyyat of the mathematician Omar Khayyam (1034–1130), the odes or qasida of Anvari (12th- c) and Khaqa…

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persimmon - Fruit, Culinary use, Wood

Any of several species of ebony, widely cultivated for their fleshy berries, which are edible but very astringent until fully ripe; also called date plums. The best known are the Chinese or Japanese persimmon, or kakee (Diospyros kaki), fruit 7·5 cm/3 in, globose, yellow to orange, native to E Asia; the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), fruit c.3·5 cm/1½ in diameter, orange, native…

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Persius - Life, Work

Satirist, born of a distinguished equestrian family in Volaterrae, Etruria. He was educated in Rome, where he came under Stoic influence. He wrote fastidiously and sparingly, leaving at his death only six admirable satires, the whole not exceeding 650 hexameter lines. These were published by his friend Caesius Bassus after his death. Dryden and others have translated them into verse. Persiu…

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personal computer (PC) - History, Uses, Configuration, Laptop computers, Non IBM-compatible personal computers

A term used to describe microcomputers in general, and also used by the firm of IBM in its range of microcomputers. However, with microcomputers becoming increasingly powerful and widely used in industry and commerce, the initial significance of the term has begun to wane. A personal computer (PC) is usually a microcomputer whose price, size, and capabilities make it suitable for personal u…

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perspective

In art, any method whereby the illusion of depth is achieved on a flat surface. Various methods have existed in addition to the ‘scientific’ one-point system invented by Brunelleschi c.1420. Most are based on the fact that objects appear smaller in proportion to their distance from the beholder, and that receding parallel lines appear to meet on the horizon at what is called the vanishing point.…

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Perth (Australia) - Geography, Sport, Other

31°58S 115°49E, pop (2000e) 1 263 000. State capital of Western Australia, near the mouth of the Swan R; the commercial, cultural, and transportation centre on the W coast; founded, 1829; city status, 1856; rapid development after the discovery of gold and the opening of Fremantle harbour (1897); fourth largest city in Australia; airport; railway; four universities (1911, 1975, 1987, 1990); t…

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Perth (Scotland) - Geography, Sport, Other

56°24N 3°28W, pop (2000e) 42 900. Administrative centre of Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK; on R Tay, 50 km/30 mi N of Edinburgh; scene of assassination of James I (1437); railway; whisky, insurance, glass making, printing, agricultural supplies, tourism; Dalhousie castle, art gallery and museum, St John's Kirk (15th-c); festival of arts (May); agricultural show (Jun). Places in Aus…

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perturbation theory - Examples, History, Perturbation orders, First-order non-singular perturbation theory

A mathematical technique frequently used to obtain approximate solutions to equations describing physical systems that are too complicated to solve exactly. The problem is rewritten in two portions: one which can be solved exactly, and a smaller part (the perturbation) which allows the calculation of corrections to the first answer in terms of a sequence of ever-decreasing terms. The technique is …

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Peru - History, Politics of Peru, Cities, Geography, Economy, Military, Demographics, Culture, Folkloric expressions, Transportation, Cuisine, Sports

Official name Republic of Peru, Span República del Peru Peru, officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: Perú or República del Perú pron. In addition to being known as the cradle of the Inca empire, Peru is the home of many indigenous ethnic groups. Archaeological evidence present in sites located in the caves of Piquimachay (Ayacucho), Chivateros, Lauricocha, Pai…

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Perugia - History

43°07N 12°23E, pop (2000e) 145 000. Capital town of Perugia province, Umbria, C Italy, on a hill 493 m/1790 ft above the Tiber valley, 141 km/88 mi N of Rome; founded by Etruscans; taken by Romans, 295 BC; archbishopric; railway; university (1276); agricultural products, textiles, cement, printing, tanning, furniture, pasta, chocolate, cultural activities, tourism; Cathedral of San Lorenzo…

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Pervez Musharraf - Family background, Early life, Military career, Coup d'état, Presidential elections, Electoral College elections

Pakistani military leader and president (1999– ), born in New Delhi, NC India. He emigrated with his family to Karachi, Pakistan in 1947, when Pakistan was separated from India. On leaving college in Lahore he joined the army and was a career soldier for 35 years. He fought in the 1965 and 1971 wars against India and was awarded a medal for bravery in 1965. After graduating from the Army Command …

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Pescasseroli

41º48N 13º47E, pop (2001e) 2000. Village in the upper Sangro valley, L'Aquila province, EC Italy; centre and headquarters of the National Park of Abruzzi (founded 1922); birthplace of Benedetto Croce; church of San Paolo (12th-c); summer and winter resort; ice-skating, ski-slopes; feast of SS. Pietro e Paolo (Jun), feast of Madonna del Carmine (Jul), Lamb Festival (Jul). Pescasse…

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Peshawar - History, Geography and climate, Demographics, Culture, Educational institutions, Sites of interest, Famous people, Transport

34°01N 71°40E, pop (2000e) 907 000. Capital of North-West Frontier province, Pakistan; 172 km/107 mi W of Islamabad and 16 km/10 mi E of the Khyber Pass; city of the Pathan people; under Sikh rule, early 19th-c; occupied by the British, 1849; birthplace of Mulk Raj Anand; airfield; railway; university (1950); major trade centre on the Afghan frontier; textiles, leather, food processing, co…

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pesticide - Types of Pesticides, History, Regulation, Effects of pesticide use, Pesticide residues in food, Dangers of pesticides

A natural or synthetic agrochemical used to kill insects, rodents, weeds, fungi, or other living things which are harmful to plants, animals, or foodstuffs. Pesticides are designed to target a specific pest in a specific environment, without harming other organisms. However, exposure to long-term or large doses of some pesticides may be toxic to humans and animals, and biological controls are incr…

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petal

One of the second whorl of flower parts, collectively termed the corolla. It is usually large and brightly coloured to attract pollinators, but is sometimes pale, reduced, or absent. A petal (Greek: leaf, tablet), regarded as a highly modified leaf, is one member or part of the corolla of a flower. The corolla is the name for all of the petals of a flower; In a "typical" flower the pe…

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Pete Maravich - Basketball career, Later life, Legacy, Awards and records, Further reading

Basketball player, born in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a three-time National Collegiate Athletic Association scoring leader at Louisiana State University (1968–70), virtually rewriting the National Collegiate Athlete Association record book. Among his many records, he averaged 44·2 points per game. He went on to play for the National Basketball Association Atlanta Hawks, New Orleans Jaz…

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Pete Rozelle - Early life, Commissioner, Retirement and death

Executive of American football, born in South Gate, California, USA. He was serving as Los Angeles Rams general manager when he was selected as National Football League (NFL) commissioner in 1960. In his 30 years as commissioner (1960–89), he guided the league through a ‘war’ and subsequent merger with the American Football League, fought off challenges by two other rival leagues, and led the N…

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Pete Sampras - Titles (66), Grand Slam singles finals, Masters Series singles finals, Performance timeline

Tennis player, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He turned professional in 1988, and went on to become the youngest men's US Open champion (1990), a title he subsequently won in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 2002. The most successful player of his generation, his other notable achievements include the Association of Tennis Professionals Tour World Championship title (1991, 1994, 1996–7), Wim…

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Peter (Albert David) Singer - Applied ethics, Meta-ethics and foundational issues

Philosopher, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He was educated at the universities of Melbourne and Oxford, then taught at New York University before becoming professor of philosophy at Monash University in 1977, where he is associated with the Centre for Human Bioethics. His writing focuses on ethics, particularly in relation to animals and the environment. Also known as a political acti…

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Peter (Barker Howard) May - External references

Cricketer and administrator, born in Reading, S England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and was one of the last great amateur cricketers, first capped for Surrey in 1950. He played in 66 Tests for England (41 as captain), scoring 4537 runs at an average of 46·77, and in all first-class matches scored 27 592 runs, at an average of 51, including 85 centuries. His highest score, 285 not out, at the E…

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Peter (Bradford) Benchley - Early life, Jaws, Subsequent career, Death, Work

Novelist, journalist, and screenwriter, born in New York City, New York, USA, the son of writer Nathaniel Benchley and grandson of the humorist Robert Benchley. As a child, he made many trips with his family to Nantucket Island, MA where he developed a lifelong interest in sharks. He studied at the Philips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, and graduated from Harvard University in 1961. Taking up a …

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Peter (Bruce) Lilley - Offices held

British statesman and writer, born in Hayes, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became an investment adviser. He was elected an MP in 1983, then became parliamentary private secretary to Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson (1985–7), economic secretary (1987–9) and financial secretary (1989–90) to the Treasury, and secretary-of-state for trade and industry (1990–2) and for …

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Peter (Carl) Goldmark

Engineer and inventor, born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied at the universities of Vienna and Berlin, and emigrated to the USA in 1933. He worked in the laboratories of the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), where he developed the first practical colour television system, used for experimental transmissions in New York City in 1940. He led the team that invented the long-playing record (1948), a…

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Peter (Charles) Doherty

Immunologist, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. He studied veterinary science at the universities of Queensland and Edinburgh, and with Zinkernagel carried out research into the immune system, using laboratory mice, at the John Curtin School of Medical Research at the Australian National University, Canberra, in the 1970s. In 1988 he moved to the St Jude Children's Research Hospital at t…

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Peter (Edward) Cook

Comedian and actor, born in Torquay, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and first achieved prominence as one of the writers and performers of Beyond the Fringe (1959–64), and a sequel Behind the Fridge (1971–2). He invented the stage character E L Wisty, a forlorn figure perplexed by the complexities of life. From 1965 to 1970 he collaborated with Dudley Moore in the irreverent telev…

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Peter (Ferdinand) Drucker - Basic ideas, Awards and Critique, List of publications, Books about Peter Drucker

Writer and management consultant, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to the USA in 1937, and had a varied early career as an economist, journalist, and philosophy professor before settling into a career teaching management and social sciences at New York University (1950–71) and the Drucker School of Management in Claremont, CA (1971). A consultant to major corporations, he also wrote prolific…

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Peter (Gerald) Hain - Early life in South Africa, Move to the UK, Publications

British politician, born in Nairobi, Kenya. His family moved to the UK in 1966 on account of their anti-apartheid activity, and he was educated at London and Sussex universities. He was active in the anti-apartheid movement in the UK, and particularly prominent in successful campaigns to prevent tours by South African sports teams. Chairman of the Young Liberals (1971–3) and active in the anti-Na…

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Peter (Hardeman) Burnett

Public official, born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. He went to Oregon (1843) and later led a group of goldseekers to California (1848), where he briefly served as John A Sutter's attorney. He was the first governor of California (1849–51) and president of the Pacific Bank in San Francisco. Peter Hardeman Burnett (November 15, 1807 – May 17, 1895) was California's first Governor, serving …

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Peter (Henry) Barnes - Early years, Mature works, Later life, Reference

Playwright and writer of screenplays, born in London, UK. His only major commercial success was The Ruling Class (1968). Later plays, which include The Bewitched (1974), Laughter (1978), Red Noses (1985), and Sunset and Glories (1990), show him to be a master of non-naturalistic techniques drawn from Elizabethan theatre, mediaeval and 19th-c farce, German Expressionist drama, and the commedia dell…

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Peter (Jack) Gay - Works, Reference

Historian, born in Berlin, Germany. Emigrating to the USA as a youth (and changing his name that in German means ‘joyous’ or ‘gay’) he took degrees in political science and history (PhD Columbia University, 1951), and later took a degree in psychoanalysis (1983). He taught at Columbia (1947–69) before becoming Sterling Professor of History at Yale (1969). He is known for his often controversi…

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Peter (John) Snow - Trivia

Broadcaster and writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Oxford, joined the army, then became a newscaster and reporter for ITN (1962–6), and a diplomatic and defence correspondent (1966–79), joining the BBC as presenter of Newsnight in 1979. From 1974 to 2005 he became well-known as the co-presenter of general election programmes and his ‘swingometer’ coverage of results as they were an…

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Peter (Joseph William) Debye - Early life, Scientific contributions prior to the Nobel Prize, His Nobel Prize, War years, Later life

Physicist and chemist, born in Maastricht, The Netherlands. He held a series of teaching posts at Swiss, Dutch, and German universities while he pursued his research in physical chemistry. In 1912–13 he introduced the concept of the molecular electric dipole moment, which led to new understandings of ionization and molecular structure, and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1936). He e…

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Peter (Lindsay) Weir - Filmmaking in the United States, Themes and celebrity, Filmography

Film director, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at Sydney University, joined a local television station in 1967, and began directing short films with Count Vim's Last Exercise (1967). His first feature film was The Cars that Ate Paris (1974), but he came to the forefront of the Australian film industry with the languid ghost story Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) and Gallipol…

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Peter (Mason) Opie - Reference

British children's literature specialist, folklorist, and anthologist. In 1943 he married Iona (Margaret Balfour) Archibald (1923– ), and the birth of their first child prompted them to study the folklore of childhood. They published The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes in 1951, acknowledged widely for its scholarship as well as its sense of humour. They subsequently amassed a peerless collect…

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Peter (Racine) Fricker

Composer, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music, and became musical director of Morley College, London (1952–64), professor of music at the University of California, Santa Barbara (1964–5), then resident composer there. Influenced by Bartók and Schoenberg, he wrote several symphonies, the oratorio The Vision of Judgement (1957–8), and other chamber, choral, and keyboard …

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Peter (Richard) Nichols - Plays

Playwright, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He worked as an actor and schoolteacher before he began writing television plays in the early 1960s. His first stage success came with A Day In The Death Of Joe Egg (1967, filmed 1971). Other works include the screenplays Catch Us If You Can (1965) and Georgy Girl (1967), and the plays Privates on Parade (1977, filmed 1983), A Piece of My Mind (1986), a…

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Peter (Robert) Garrett - Music and activism, Australian federal politics

Popular singer and political activist, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at the Australian National University and the University of New South Wales, and became a lawyer. During 1997–2002 he was lead singer with the band Midnight Oil, which has achieved considerable fame in Australia and abroad, many of their songs dealing with issues such as Aboriginal land rights, conser…

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Peter (Seamus) O'Toole - Early life, Career, Personal life, Academy Award nominations, Selected filmography, Stage appearances

Actor, born in Connemara, Co Galway, W Ireland. A journalist and member of the submarine service, he attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, before joining the Bristol Old Vic, where he made his professional debut in 1955. West End success and a season with the Royal Shakespeare Company established his stage reputation, while his performance in Lawrence of Arabia (1962) made him an int…

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Peter (Stephen Paul) Brook - Influences, Major Productions for the RSC, Films, Honors, Books

Theatre and film director, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and his involvement in the theatre began while at university. He directed many classical plays at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, went to Stratford in 1947, and was also director of productions at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (1947–50). Famous for his innovatory approach, during the 1950s he worked on many productions …

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Peter (Sydney Ernest Aylen) Lawford - Biography, Filmography

Actor, born in London, England, UK. The son of a British World War 1 hero, Sir Sydney Turing Lawford, he spent an itinerant childhood, eventually settling in the USA with his parents. He became an American citizen in 1960. An arm injury sustained as a child kept him out of World War 2, and he went to Hollywood where he gained a contract with MGM, starring in his first major film, A Yank at Eton in…

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Peter (Ulrich) Weiss - Life, Selected works

Playwright, film-maker, and novelist, born in Nowawes, NE Germany. He fled Nazi Germany, and settled in Sweden in 1939, becoming famous with his first play, The Persecution and Assassination of Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade (1964), known more simply as Marat/Sade. His next play, The Investigation (1965), was a documentary ba…

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Peter (Victor) Ueberroth - Growing up, Trans International Airlines, The 1984 Olympics, Baseball Commissioner, Post-Baseball activities, Further reading

Businessman, baseball commissioner, and Olympics chairman, born in Evanston, Illinois, USA. He was both athletic and entrepreneurial from an early age, and after graduation from college he went on to become the operations manager and vice-president of the Trans International Airline (1959–62). He then formed his own company, Transportation Consultants International (1963–79). Invited in 1979 to …

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Peter (Ware) Higgs

Theoretical physicist, born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. He studied at Kings College London, and between 1954 and 1960 held posts at the University of Edinburgh, Imperial College London, and University College London. In 1960 he returned to Edinburgh as lecturer in mathematical physics, becoming professor of theoretical physics (1980–96). He is best known for the Higgs p…

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Peter (William) Redgrove - Works

Poet and writer, born in Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, SE England, UK. He was educated at Taunton School and at Cambridge, where he became a friend of Ted Hughes and a founder member of an association of poets, the Group. A gifted and imaginative poet, his books include The Moon Disposes: Poems 1954–87 (1987). He produced numerous novels, plays, and non-fiction works, including a pioneering work …

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Peter Abelard - Life, Reception, Philosophical work, Bibliography, Music, Written works, Cultural references

Theologian, born near Nantes, W France. He studied under Roscellinus and Guillaume de Champeaux (c.1070–1171). As lecturer in the cathedral school of Notre Dame in Paris, he became tutor to Héloïse, the 17-year-old niece of the canon Fulbert. They fell passionately in love, but when their affair was discovered, they fled to Brittany, where Héloïse gave birth to a son. After returning to Paris…

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Peter Abrahams

Novelist, born in Vrededorp, NE South Africa. Most of his work was produced in exile. The impoverished township where he was born is vividly recreated in a memoir, Tell Freedom (1954). His third novel, Mine Boy (1946), won critical notice. His mature work produced novels which dealt mainly with the political struggles of black people, such as A Wreath for Udomo (1956), A Night of their Own (1965),…

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Peter Ackroyd - Works, Television / documentary

Writer, born in Acton, London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and spent some time at Yale. He is chiefly known for his biographical studies of Pound, T S Eliot, Dickens, and Thomas More, and also for his fiction, which includes The Last Testament of Oscar Wilde (1983), Hawksmoor (1985, Whitbread), First Light (1989), Dan Leno and the Limehouse Golem (1994), Milton in America (1996), and The Lambs of…

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Peter Agre

Biochemist, born in Northfield, Minnesota, USA. He studied at Augsburg College, Minneapolis (1970) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (1974), and after various academic posts became professor of biological chemistry at Johns Hopkins in 1993. He shared the 2003 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Roderick MacKinnon for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes, Agre's con…

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Peter and Paul Fortress - Gallery

A stronghold founded in 1703 by Peter the Great on a small island in the Neva R delta, then called Ingermanland, an area seized from Sweden during the Northern War (1700–21), and around which the city of St Petersburg sprang up. The fortress, which was notorious throughout the 19th-c for its political prison, has been a museum since 1922. The Peter and Paul Fortress (Russian: Петроп

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Peter Artedi

Swedish ichthyologist and botanist, known as ‘the father of ichthyology’. He wrote Ichthyologia, a systematic study of fishes, edited by Linnaeus, his closest friend, and published in 1738. The classification of animals and plants in his work inspired Linnaeus. Peter Artedi (February 22, 1705 – September 27, 1735) was a Swedish naturalist and is known as the "father of Ichthyology." In …

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Peter Barlow

Physicist, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. His New Mathematical Tables (1814) were reprinted as late as 1947 as Barlow's Tables. He also worked on the strength of ship's timbers, on tidal engineering, and on ship's magnetism and its correction. The Barlow lens is an achromatic lens used as an astronomical eyepiece and in photography. Peter Barlow (October 1776—March 1, 1862) was …

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Peter Behrens

Architect and designer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. Trained as a painter, he was appointed director of the Dusseldorf Art and Craft School (1903–7). In 1907 he became artistic adviser to Walther Rathenau at the AEG electrical company in Berlin, for whom he designed a turbine assembly works (1909) of glass and steel, a landmark in industrial architectural style. He was professor at Dusseldorf and …

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Peter Bichsel

Writer, born in Lucerne, C Switzerland. He wrote mainly satirical stories depicting the everyday life of the petty bourgeoisie, and became known with Eigentlich möchte Frau Blum den Milchmann kennenlernen (1964). Later works include Kindergeschichten (1969), Der Busant (1985), Irgendwo anderswo (1986), and the collected essays Im Gegenteil. Kolumnen 1986–1990 (1990) and Gegen unseren Briefträge…

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Peter Bogdanovich - Eruption into Stardom, Commercial Demise, The Dorothy Stratten Affair, Later Years, Filmography, Reference

Film director, born in Kingston, New York, USA. His particular interest was in reviving the film genre of the 1930s and 1940s. His second film, The Last Picture Show (1971), depicting social change in a 1950s Texas town, received critical acclaim, though the sequel, Texasville (1990), was less successful. Later films include Noises Off (1992) and The Thing Called Love (1993). Peter Bogdanov…

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Peter Carey - Biography, Awards, Bibliography

Writer, born in Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, SE Australia. He attended Geelong Grammar School before beginning a career as an advertising copywriter. His first book, The Fat Man in History (1974), was a collection of short stories, and he was quickly regarded as an innovative force in Australian writing. Later books include Bliss (1981), Illywhacker (1985), Oscar and Lucinda (1988, Booker), The Tax In…

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Peter Cooper - History, Death, Trivia

Engineer, manufacturer, and philanthropist, born in New York City, New York, USA. With little formal education, he worked in various trades, laying the basis for his fortune by making glue and isinglass. In 1828 he started an iron works in Baltimore, MD where he built the first steam locomotive in the USA, Tom Thumb. Although it lost a famous race with a horse-drawn train in 1830, he helped advanc…

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Peter Cornelius - Works

Composer, born in Mainz, WC Germany, the nephew of Peter von Cornelius. Going to Weimar in 1852, he became devoted to Liszt, Wagner, and the New German school, and produced his famous comic opera, Der Barbier von Bagdad (1858, The Barber of Baghdad), and his grand opera, Der Cid (1865). Cornelius played violin and composed lieder from an early age, and began studying composition with Heinri…

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Peter Cushing - Biography

Actor, born in Kenley, Greater London, UK. He studied at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, making his stage debut in 1935. A trip to the USA resulted in his Hollywood film debut in The Man in the Iron Mask (1939). After the war he established himself as a classical actor with the Old Vic Company (1948–9). He was chiefly known for his long association with the Gothic horror films produced b…

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Peter Dawson

Bass-baritone, born in Adelaide, South Australia. He won a solo competition at Ballarat, Victoria, in 1901 and the following year left for London, where he studied for three years. He made his debut at Covent Garden in 1909, and appeared regularly in oratorios, but he was best known for his ballad singing. He was a prolific recording artist, using a variety of pseudonyms, including Will Danby, Hec…

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Peter De Vries - Selected works

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Calvin College and Northwestern University, and in 1943 became a regular staff contributor to the New Yorker, where he developed the comic manner later displayed in such novels as The Tunnel of Love (1954) and The Mackerel Plaza (1958). His upbringing in the Dutch Reformed Calvinist faith provided the background of his …

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Peter de Wint - Selected Paintings

Water-colourist, born in Stone, Staffordshire, C England, UK, of Dutch descent. His fame rests on his watercolour illustrations of English landscape, English architecture, and English country life. Among them are ‘The Cricketers’, ‘The Hay Harvest’, ‘Nottingham’, ‘Richmond Hill’, and ‘Cows in Water’. Many of his works are in Lincoln Art Gallery. Peter De Wint (21 January 1784 - 30…

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Peter Falk - Television Work

Film and television actor, born in New York, USA. After serving in the merchant marines, he earned an MBA at Syracuse University and worked for the Connecticut budget bureau. Taking up amateur theatre, he made his stage debut off Broadway in 1955. From 1958 he enjoyed a modest success in such films as The In-Laws (1979) and in various television dramas. Having lost the use of his right eye in an a…

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Peter Faneuil

Merchant, born in New Rochelle, New York, USA. Of Huguenot descent, he went to Boston and became the favourite of his uncle Andrew, from whom he inherited a large fortune (1738). He offered to donate a public marketplace to Boston. The hesitant townspeople approved the gift by a vote of 367 in favour, 360 opposed (1740). He died as the building was being completed. Peter Faneuil (June 20, 1…

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Peter Finch - Other, Filmography

Actor, born in London, UK. He worked in Australia in vaudeville, radio, and film during the Depression but later returned to Britain, portraying a wide variety of film roles, as in The Nun's Story (1959), Sunday, Bloody Sunday (1971), and Network (1976), for which he received the first-ever posthumous Oscar. Peter Finch (28 September 1912 – 14 January 1977) was an English-born actor with …

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Peter Gabriel - Genesis, Solo career, WOMAD and other projects, Recent work, Discography

Singer and songwriter, born in Surrey, SE England, UK. He co-founded the rock group Genesis, but left to pursue a solo career in 1975. His LP Peter Gabriel (1977), the first of four such named albums, was a number 7 hit in the UK. Renowned for the visual effects which accompany his videos, a collection of video hits was released as CV (1988), topping the UK music video chart. In 1982 he inaugurate…

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Peter Greenaway - Films, Television

Film-maker and painter, born in Newport, SE Wales, UK. Trained as a painter, he first exhibited at the Lord's Gallery in 1964. Employed at the Central Office of Information (1965–76), he worked as an editor and began making his own short films, gaining a reputation on the international festival circuit with such works as A Walk Through H (1978) and The Falls (1980), before The Draughtsman's Contr…

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Peter Guthrie Tait - Early years, Middle years, Later years, Private life

Mathematician, born in Dalkeith, Midlothian, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at the universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge, and became professor of mathematics at Belfast (1854) and professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh (1860–1901). He was a major influence in the development of mathematical physics. He wrote on quaternions, thermodynamics, and the kinetic theory of gases, and collaborated wi…

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Peter Hacks - Life

Writer, born in Breslau (now Wroclaw, SW Poland). He studied sociology, philosophy, and literature in Munich before moving to East Berlin (1955), where he worked for the Brecht Ensemble and became a freelance writer in 1963. His comedies, mainly written in verse, reveal Brecht's influence, and include Der Eröffnung des indischen Zeitalters (1955) and Das Volksbuch von Herzog Ernst (1955). He uses…

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Peter Handke - Early life, Career, Works, List of works, English editions

Writer, born in Griffin, Kärnten, S Austria. He first studied law in Graz, then became known for his Publikumsbeschimpfung und andere Sprechstücke (1966) which questioned traditional theatre methods and the role of language itself, following the Austrian philosophical tradition of Wittgenstein and Popper. The nature of language is also the subject of the pantomime Kaspar (1968) and his early nov…

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Peter Harrison

Architect, born in York, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. Settling in Newport, RI (1740), he introduced Palladianism to New England in public buildings designed for Newport, Boston, and Cambridge (1748–61), and assembled the colonies' most important private architectural library. Peter Harrison (1716-1775) was born in York, England and emigrated to Rhode Island in 1740. Peter Harrison and h…

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Peter Huchel - Life, Works

Writer, born in Berlin, Germany. He wrote for the literary periodical Die literarische Welt before becoming resident playwright and producer at the broadcasting company in East Berlin. His realistic nature poetry, such as Der Knabenteich (1932), shows the influence of Loerke and Lehmann. The later poetic works, written after his move to West Germany, contain political elements. He also wrote sever…

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Peter (of Russia) I

Tsar of Russia (1682–1721) and emperor (1721–5), born in Moscow, Russia, the son of Tsar Alexey and his second wife Natalia Naryshkin. He became accomplished in mechanics, with an abiding interest in military and naval technology. He was joint tsar with his mentally retarded half-brother, Ivan, under the regency of their sister, Sophia (1682–9). In 1697–8 he travelled to Germany, Holland, Engl…

1 minute read

Peter (of Serbia) I

King of Serbia, born in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslavia), the son of Prince Alexander Karadjordjevi? (reigned 1842–59). He fought in the French army in the Franco-Prussian war (1870–1), and was elected King of Serbia in 1903. In World War 1 he accompanied his army into exile in Greece in 1916. He returned to Belgrade in 1918, and was proclaimed titular king of the Serbs, Croat…

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Peter (of Russia) II

Tsar of Russia (1727–30), born in St Petersburg, Russia. The grandson of Peter I the Great, he was named heir to the throne by Catherine I and was crowned at age 11. Catherine had named the Supreme Privy Council to act as regent for Peter under the guidance of Alexander D Menshikov, who arranged the betrothal of his own daughter with Peter. Peter objected and asked the Dolgoruky family for help. …

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Peter Jackson - Biography, Style, Awards, Jackson's cameo roles, Trivia, Footnotes and References

Film director, writer, and producer, born in Pukerua, North Island, New Zealand. He started work as an apprentice photo-engraver and began making amateur short films in his spare time, eventually producing a science fiction feature called Bad Taste (1987) which has become a cult classic. His first professional work was the horror film Braindead (1992), and he went on to further success with Heaven…

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Peter Jay

British writer, broadcaster, and businessman. He studied at Oxford, then worked at the Treasury (1961–7), as a financial journalist (1967–77), and as a presenter for ITV (1972–7). He was ambassador to the USA (1977–9), then returned to television, becoming presenter of TV-AM (1983) and A Week in Politics (1983–6, Channel 4). He has been a senior executive for several organizations, and a memb…

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Peter Lind Hayes

Radio and television comedian and actor, born in San Francisco, California, USA. Abandoned by his father, he occasionally joined his mother (whose maiden name he adopted) in vaudeville skits at the age of nine, and appeared with her at New York's Palace Theater (1932). During 1932–42 he performed his comedy routines at his mother's nightclub in the San Fernando Valley, CA, and made several films.…

1 minute read

Peter Lombard

Theologian, born near Novara, N Italy. He studied in Bologna, at Reims, and in Paris, and, after holding a chair of theology there, became Bishop of Paris (1159). He was generally styled ‘Master of Sentences’, because of his collection of sentences from Augustine and others on points of Christian doctrine, with objections and replies. The theological doctors of Paris in 1300 denounced some of hi…

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Peter Lorre - Background, Emulating Lorre, Filmography

Actor, born in Rosenberg, Hungary. A student in Vienna, he acted in repertory theatre, gave one-man performances and readings, and gained international fame as the psychotic child murderer in the German silent-film classic M (1931). He left Germany in 1933, making his way to Hollywood, where he was succesfully cast in many sinister parts, including Mad Love (1935), Crime and Punishment (1935), The…

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Peter Mandelson - Early life, Work with Tony Blair, Cabinet post, First resignation, Second resignation

Politician, born in London, UK, the grandson of Herbert Morrison. He studied at Oxford, became a television producer for Weekend World (1982–5), and was then appointed Labour Party Director for Campaigns and Communications (1985–90). Elected as MP for Hartlepool in 1992, he became an Opposition whip (1994), and shadow Civil Service spokesman (1995). In 1996 he worked exclusively on the Labour Pa…

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Peter Marshall

Presbyterian clergyman, born in Coatbridge, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. Educated at the mining college there, he served in the navy before being called to the ministry. He graduated from Columbia Theological Seminary, Decatur, GA, and served pastorates in the South before his appointment in 1937 to the historic New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC. In 1948 he became chaplai…

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Peter Martins

Ballet dancer and choreographer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He trained at the School of the Royal Danish Ballet, and performed in its company (1965–9) before joining the New York City Ballet (1970). Key roles and a celebrated partnership with Suzanne Farrell propelled him to prominence as a dancer. He began choreographing with Calcium Light Night (1977), and in 1983 he was appointed co-ballet m…

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Peter Matthiessen - Bibliography

Novelist, travel writer, naturalist, and explorer, born in New York City, USA. He made anthropological and natural history expeditions to Alaska, the Canadian Northwest Territories, Peru, New Guinea, Africa, Nicaragua, and Nepal. His novels include Killing Master Watson (1990) and Bone By Bone (1999). He has also written a number of ecological and natural history studies, and won the National Book…

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Peter Mennin - Principal works

Composer, born in Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the Eastman College of Music, then taught at the Juilliard School, New York City (1947–58), became its president (1962–83), and was also director of the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore (1958–62). He rapidly established himself as a composer of large-scale works, composing nine symphonies, including The Cycle - a choral work to his own t…

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Peter Minnewit - Legacy, Trivia

Governor of the New Netherlands, born in Wesel, W Germany. In 1626, as governor in the service of the Dutch West India Company, he bought Manhattan Island from the Indians for goods to the value of 60 guilders: 10 shirts, 80 pairs of stockings, 10 guns, 30 bullets, 30 lbs of powder, 30 axes, 30 kettles, and a copper frying pan. He was recalled in 1631 for being too kind to the colonists. In 1673 h…

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Peter Minuit - Legacy, Trivia

Colonist, born in Wesel, Rhenish Prussia (now Germany). He became the first director-general of New Amsterdam, and in 1626 purchased Manhattan I from Algonquin Indians for 60 guilders (24 dollars). Later, he led an expedition under the Swedish flag and created the short-lived ‘New Sweden’ in present-day Delaware. Peter Minuit (1580–August 5, 1638) was a Dutch-Walloon from Wesel, North R…

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Peter Oliver

Judge, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A member of one of Boston's first social and political families, he graduated from Harvard (1730), served as a common pleas and superior court judge for 24 years, and became chief justice of the superior court (1771). He moved to Plymouth County, MA (1774) where he established an ironworks and built an imposing mansion, Oliver Hall. A prominent Loyalist, …

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Peter Rachman

Property developer and landlord, born in Poland. He survived persecution as a Jew by the Nazis, and moved to Britain in 1946. After working in a factory he began to acquire property in London, letting rooms at exorbitant rents to prostitutes and West Indian tenants, whom no-one else would house. By 1959, many of his tenants took him to tribunal, and he was obliged to sell off his properties. He ac…

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Peter Rosegger - Life, Selected works, Further reading

Writer, born in Alpl, Steiermark, SE Austria. He came from a poor background and was a tailor's apprentice before finding a patron who enabled him to go to the Handelsakademie in Graz. His writing, which was influenced by his friend Ludwig Anzengruber, was extremely prolific, and included novels, short stories, and poetry written in dialect, making him one of the most popular German-speaking chron…

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Peter Sellars

Stage director, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Harvard, became director of the Boston Shakespeare Company (1983–4), and directed the American National Theater at the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC (1984–6), where his radical staging of Sophocles' Ajax divided audiences and critics. He is internationally recognized as a daringly innovative director of opera, setting his pr…

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Peter Sellers - Biography, Marriages, Premature death and legacy, Filmography, Other Scripts, Comedy Singles, Albums

Actor and comedian, born in Southsea, Hampshire, S England, UK. After a spell as a stand-up comic and impressionist, he moved into radio. His meeting with Spike Milligan heralded The Goon Show (1951–9), which revolutionized British radio comedy. He made his film debut in 1951, and became one of the stalwarts of British film comedy, appearing in The Ladykillers (1955), I'm All Right Jack (1959), a…

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Peter Serkin

Pianist, born in New York City, USA, the son of Rudolf Serkin. He made his public debut at age 10, and from his teens had an active career as a recitalist and performer with orchestras. For some time he concentrated on contemporary music, and was co-founder of the new-music quartet, Tashi. Later he returned to performing the whole range of piano repertoire. He was born in New York City and …

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Peter Shilton - Local Boy Made Good, England Calls, Stoke City, Nottingham Forest and cups with Clough

Footballer, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. Starting his career with Leicester City at the age of 16, he also played for Stoke City, Nottingham Forest, Southampton, and Derby County. For the first four clubs he established a record by making over 100 league appearances for each of them. He made his international debut for England in 1970, and became the first England goalkeeper t…

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Peter Simon Pallas

Naturalist, born in Berlin, Germany. After studying medicine, he was appointed professor of natural history at the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg. He spent six years (1768–74) exploring the Urals, the Kirghiz Steppes, the Altai Range, part of Siberia, and the steppes of the Volga, returning with an extraordinary treasure of specimens. He wrote a series of works on the geography, ethn…

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Peter Snell - Olympic success, World records, New opportunities, Postage stamps

Athlete, born in Opunake, Taranaki, New Zealand. He was a surprise winner of the Olympic 800 m in 1960, but then went on to win gold in both the 800 m and 1500 m in the 1964 Olympics. He also achieved the Commonwealth Games ‘double’ in 1962, and set world records at 800 m and one mile (twice). In 1962 he broke the world mile record at Wanganui, New Zealand, on an outdated all-grass track, to…

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Peter Stein - Major productions

Theatre director, born in Berlin, Germany. From his very first production in 1967, he became established as a leading avant-garde director in Germany. Since 1970, he has been responsible for a series of collective creations at the Berlin Schaubuhne, where over a long rehearsal period the political and social context of a play is woven into an ensemble presentation. Peter Stein (born October…

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Peter Stuyvesant - Other Information

Dutch administrator, born in Scherpenzeel, The Netherlands. He became Governor of Curaçao, and from 1646 directed the New Netherland colony. He proved a vigorous but arbitrary ruler, a rigid sabbatarian, and an opponent of political and religious freedom, but did much for the commercial prosperity of New Amsterdam until his reluctant surrender to the English in 1664. Peter Stuyvesant (born…

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Peter Sutcliffe - Early life, Criminal Record, Arrest and trial, Controversy, The Byford Report, Related works

Convicted murderer, born in Bingley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. Employed at one time as a gravedigger, he shocked his workmates with his unnatural interest in corpses. He murdered 13 women over five years in N England and the Midlands. Many of his victims were prostitutes, the first being Wilma McCann, whose body was found in 1975. A lorry driver at the time, he was interviewed by the police o…

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Peter the Hermit

Monk, a preacher of the first Crusade, born in Amiens, N France. He served as a soldier, became a monk, and in 1095 preached throughout Europe, generating enthusiastic support for the Crusade. He led the second army, which reached Asia Minor, but was defeated by the Turks at Nicaea. He then accompanied the fifth army in 1096, which reached Jerusalem. Peter the Hermit (died 1131) was a pries…

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Peter Thomson - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. The first outstanding golfer to emerge from Australia after World War 2, he won the British Open three times in succession (1954–6), the only such feat in the 20th-c, and on two later occasions. He also played in Australia's winning World Cup teams of 1954 and 1959. DNP = Did not play DQ = Disqualified CUT = missed the half-w…

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Peter V(ivian) Daniel

Judge, born in Stafford Co, Virginia, USA. He served the Virginia legislature (1812–35) and as a US district judge (1836–41). President Van Buren named him to the US Supreme Court (1842–60), where he supported Jeffersonian principles. Peter Vivian Daniel (April 24, 1784-May 31, 1860), was an American jurist. Daniel was nominated to the United States Supreme Court in 1841 by M…

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Peter Van de Kamp - Life, Barnard's Star

Astronomer, born in Kampen, The Netherlands. He studied at Utrecht University, in 1923 emigrated to the USA, and worked at the Lick Observatory, CA, and at Virginia University. He became director of the Sproul Observatory in 1937, and professor at Swarthmore College, PA, retiring in 1972. His best-known work began in the 1960s with his deduction that some stars, other than the Sun, possess planets…

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Peter von Cornelius

Painter who influenced the revival of fresco painting in 19th-c Germany, born in Düsseldorf, W Germany. In 1811 he joined a group of painters (the Nazarenes) in Rome, and helped in the decoration of the Casa Bartoldi. He went to Munich in 1819, where he executed the large frescoes of Greek mythology in the Glyptothek and the New Testament frescoes in the Ludwigskirche. In 1841 he became director …

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Peter Voulkos - See also, Sources, Further reading

Potter, born in Bozeman, Montana, USA. A West Coast potter and sculptor, he led in the development of pottery as an art form, while influencing numerous students and achieving international status. With an MFA from California College of Arts and Crafts (1952), he taught at Black Mountain College (1953) where he was exposed to the avant-garde. On the University of California, Berkeley faculty (1959…

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Peter Warlock - Life, Works

Musicologist and composer, born in London, UK. Largely self-taught, in 1920 he founded The Sackbut, a spirited musical periodical. His works include the song cycle The Curlew (1920–2), the orchestral suite Capriol (1926), many songs, often in the Elizabethan manner, and choral works. Peter Warlock was a pseudonym of Philip Arnold Heseltine (October 30, 1894 - December 17, 1930), an Anglo-W…

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Peter Wilson

British auctioneer. He spent his whole working life at Sotheby's, the London art auctioneering saleroom. He became chairman in 1958, and by introducing new techniques, such as selling by satellite link simultaneously in New York City and London, made Sotheby's the most successful art saleroom in the world. There are several people named Peter Wilson or Pete Wilson: …

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Peter Wright

British intelligence officer, born in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He joined the Admiralty's Research Laboratory during World War 2 as a scientific officer, and transferred to MI5 (counter-intelligence) (1955–76). Here he specialized in the invention of espionage devices and the detection of Soviet ‘moles’. He bought a sheep ranch in Tasmania when he retired, and wrote his autobiogr…

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Peterloo Massacre - Background, Attack, Aftermath, Popular culture

(1819) The name given to the forcible break-up of a mass meeting about parliamentary reform held at St Peter's Fields, Manchester, NW England, UK; ‘Peterloo’ was a sardonic pun on the Waterloo victory of 1815. The Manchester Yeomanry charged into the crowd of some 60 000, killing eleven people. The incident strengthened the campaign for reform. The immediate effect was the passing of Six Acts (…

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Petra - History, Petra today, Petra in movies and popular culture, Gallery

30°20N 35°26E. Ancient rock-cut city in Maan governorate, East Bank, SW Jordan; capital of the Nabataean Arabs until their conquest by Rome in the early 2nd-c AD; wealthy commercial city for several centuries, controlling the international spice trade; approached only via a series of narrow ravines; numerous temples, tombs, houses, shrines, altars, and a great theatre carved out of red sandstone…

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Petra Kelly - External resources

German political activist, co-founder of the Green Party, born in Günzburg, S Germany. She moved to the USA at the age of 13 when her mother married a US serviceman, and became actively involved in the antiwar and civil rights demonstrations of the 1960s while a student at the American University, Washington. She returned to Germany, joined the Social Democratic Party, but quit in 1979 to help fo…

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Petrarch - Biography, Laura and poetry, Works, Sample of his poetry, Philosophy, Legacy

Poet and scholar, born in Arezzo, NC Italy. He studied at Bologna and Avignon, where he became a clergyman. In 1327 at Avignon he first saw Laura (possibly Laure de Noves, married in 1325 to Hugo de Sade), who inspired him with a passion which has become proverbial for its constancy and purity. As the fame of his learnings grew, royal courts competed for his presence, and in 1341 he was crowned po…

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petrel

A seabird of the order Procellariiformes (tubenoses): small species called petrels; larger species called albatrosses. They include fulmars, prions, shearwaters, gadfly petrels (all from the family Procellariidae), storm petrels (Family: Hydrobatidae), and diving petrels (Family: Pelecanoididae). Their body contains much fat; sailors used to push a wick through the bird and use it as a candle. …

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petroleum - Extraction, History, Means of producing oil

Crude oil, probably of biological origin, occurring as accumulations under impervious rock. Normally liquid, it ranges from being light and mobile to very viscous, and is often associated with gas or water. Its main constituents are a variety of hydrocarbons, but there may also be sulphur, nitrogen, or oxygen compounds. It is found chiefly in the USA, several republics of the former USSR, Middle E…

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petrology

The study of rocks: their composition, mineralogy, mode of occurrence, and origin. The subdisciplines include sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic petrology. Petrography is concerned with the textural and mineralogical description of rocks, often studied by optical microscopy of thin slices, while petrogenesis is concerned with their origin. Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on…

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Petronas Twin Towers - History, Comparison with other skyscrapers, Tenants of the Petronas Towers, Other facilities, Notable Events

Between 1998 and 2004, the tallest building in the world (each tower is 451·9 m/1483 ft), completed in Kuala Lumpur in 1996. It has 88 storeys, and was designed by Cesar Pelli and Associates. Taipei 101, Taiwan, is higher (509 m/1670 ft). The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were once the world's tallest buildings when measured from t…

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Petrus Apianus - Life and work, Selected works

Astronomer and geographer, born in Leisnig, E Germany. In Cosmographia (1524) he proposed determining longitude by measuring distance from the moon. He also observed (in 1531) that a comet's tail is always turned away from the sun. The Apianus crater on the Moon was named in his honour. He was born as Peter Bienewitz (or Bennewitz) in Leisnig in Saxony; In 1519, Apia…

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Petrus Christus

Painter, born in Baerle, Brabant, C Belgium, who became a master in Bruges in 1444. He is often said to have been the pupil or assistant of Jan van Eyck. He may have visited Italy, and it is thought that he was an important source for the transmission of the Eyckian technique to Italian painters, in particular Antonello da Messina. Petrus Christus (1410/1420–1475/76) was a Flemish painter…

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Petrus Peregrinus (de Maricourt) - About Epistola de magnete, The content of Epistola de magnete, Legacy, Sources

Scientist and soldier, born in Picardy, N France. A crusader (his Latin name means ‘pilgrim’), he was the first to mark the ends of a round natural magnet and call them poles. He also invented a compass with a graduated scale. Peter of Maricourt (Peter Peregrinus of Maricourt; French Pierre Pèlerin de Maricourt; Latin Petrus Peregrinus de Maharncuria) (fl. 1269) was a medieval French …

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Petrus Ramus - Chronological bibliography

Humanist and philosopher, born in Cuts, N France. He studied in Paris, became a lecturer on Classical authors, and undertook to reform the science of logic. His attempts excited much hostility among the Aristotelians, and his Dialectic (1543) which presented a controversial new system of logic was at first suppressed, but in 1551 he became professor of philosophy at the Collège de France. He late…

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petunia

A bushy, free-flowering annual (Petunia × hybrida) native to South America, with large, funnel-shaped flowers. It is a relative of the potato, and a popular garden plant grown for its brightly coloured, often striped flowers. (Family: Solanaceae.) …

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pewter

A grey alloy consisting mainly of tin with other constituents. Lead was formerly used, to increase hardness, but because of its toxicity this has now been replaced by antimony. Pewter is traditionally used in candlesticks, drinking vessels, and other utensils. Pewter is a metal alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent tin, with the remainder consisting of 1-4 percent copper, acting as…

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Peyton Randolph

Lawyer and statesman, born in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. He was King's attorney for Virginia (1748–75). Although fundamentally conservative, he supported the rising tide of colonial protest and was appointed to the first Continental Congress, where he served as its first president. Peyton Randolph Peyton Randolph (September, 1721 – October 21, 1775) was the first President …

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Phaethon - Phaethon

In Greek mythology, the son of Helios the Sun-god and Clymene. He found his way to his father's palace and asked to drive the chariot of the Sun. He swung it too near the Earth, and so Zeus destroyed him with a thunderbolt. He fell into the R Eridanos. …

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phagocyte

Any cell which engulfs and usually digests particles, micro-organisms (bacteria), or harmful cells. Many unicellular animals are phagocytic. In most multicellular animals, phagocytes fulfil a protective and cleansing role. In humans and other mammals, they occur in the blood (neutrophils, basophils, and monocytes), connective tissue, and the reticulo-endothelial system (tissue macrophages). …

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Phalaris

Tyrant of Acragas (modern Agrigento) in Sicily, notorious for his cruelty. On his overthrow, he suffered the same fate as his former victims: he was roasted alive in a bronze bull. Phalaris was tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, from approximately 570 to 554 BC. He was entrusted with the building of the temple of Zeus Atabyrius in the citadel, and took advantage of his po…

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phalarope - Habitat, Range

A sandpiper of the genus Phalaropus (3 species); widespread; breeds in N hemisphere, winters in S tropics; adapted for swimming; inhabits shallow water. The larger female is more colourful than the male, and takes several mates. The name Phalarope refers to any of three living species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae. Red and R…

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Phar Lap - Racing Record

New Zealand chestnut gelding which became Australia's most famous racing horse in the late 1920s and early 1930s. He won 37 of his 51 races in this period, but his greatest win was the 1930 Melbourne Cup. Taken to North America, he won a major race in Mexico but died several weeks later in San Francisco, probably from eating highly fermentable green pasture, although it was widely speculated at th…

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pharaoh - Etymology, Regalia

The title applied to the god-kings of ancient Egypt from the New Kingdom (c.1500 BC) onwards. Pharaohs were the chief mediators between their mortal subjects and the gods, and after death were believed to become gods themselves, as their mummified forms show; all have the attributes of the god Osiris - plaited beard, crook, and flail. Best known of the New Kingdom pharaohs are Tutankhamun (c.1352 …

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Pharaoh hound - Appearance, Temperament, Care, History, Health

A medium-sized breed of dog, developed in Egypt; similar in stature to the greyhound, but with ears large, broad, pointed, and held erect; coat short, reddish-brown or white with grey or reddish patches. The Pharaoh Hound is a breed of dog, a hound which has been classed variously as a member of the sighthound and pariah groups. It is the national dog of Malta, where it is called the …

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Pharisees - Background: The Religion of Ancient Israel, Pharisees in the Second Temple Era

An influential minority group within Palestinian Judaism before AD 70, mainly consisting of laymen; possibly originating out of the Hasidim who opposed the political aspirations of John Hyrcanus I (c.2nd-c BC). They were noted for their separation from the common people, and for their punctilious observance of written and oral laws regarding ritual purity, cleansings, and food laws, assuming even …

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pharmacology - Drug legislation and safety, Scientific background, Drugs used as medicines, Education

A branch of medical science which studies the actions, uses, and undesirable side-effects of drugs. The first descriptions of remedies from plant sources were made by the ancient Greeks and Chinese: over 30 drugs were known in 4th-c BC China, and a great 1st-c BC pharmacopoeia listed 365. Dioscorides' De materia medica (AD c.60) was the first basic Western pharmacopoeia. The Chinese knew 1748 drug…

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pharmacopoeia - Preparations

A book of standards for drugs, advising on identity, purity, and identification. In most countries there is an official pharmacopoeia, and any dispensed drug must comply with its standards. Pharmacopoeia (literally, the art of the drug compounder), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines…

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pharmacy - Disciplines, Pharmacists, Separation of prescribing from dispensing, Community pharmacy, Hospital pharmacy, Consultant pharmacy, Internet pharmacy

Originally the science of preparing, compounding, and dispensing medicines. Since more potent drugs have become available (mid-1940s), the scope of pharmacy has become increasingly concerned with more clinical functions, such as the checking of doses and drug interactions. Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is a transitional field between health sciences and chemical sciences…

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pharyngitis - Types

A sore throat; one of the commonest medical complaints, usually the result of bacterial or viral infection of the lining tissues of the pharynx. Pharyngitis is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. The major cause is infection, of which 90% are viral, the remainder caused by bacterial infection and rarely oral thrush (fungal can…

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pharynx - Parts, Additional images

A space formed by mucous membrane-covered muscle situated behind and communicating with the nose, mouth, and larynx. It extends from the base of the skull, and is continuous with the oesophagus below. The nasal part of the pharynx receives the opening of the auditory tube. In the oral part, the digestive and respiratory tracts cross, and during swallowing respiration is temporarily suspended. In t…

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phase (electricity)

In circuit theory, current and potential difference may be out-of-phase. If these are changing in time in a periodic way, then the maximums in current flowing through components such as inductors and capacitors will occur at different times from maximums in potential difference across these components. There will be a phase difference between the two. Phase may refer to: Phasing…

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phase (physics)

The fraction of a wave cycle completed by a time variable, where one complete cycle corresponds to 2? radians; alternatively, an argument of a function describing a wave. The phase difference, ? radians, represents the degree to which one wave leads or lags behind another; for ? = 0 or 2?, the waves are in phase; for ? = ?, the waves are antiphase. Phase shift refers to a change in phase, eg b…

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pheasant - Species in taxonomic order

A large, plump, ground-feeding bird, native to Africa (1 species) and Asia, and introduced elsewhere; short wings and fast, low flight; male brightly coloured with long tail; inhabits woodland or scrub; eats plant material and insects; many species bred and hunted for sport. (Family: Phasianidae, 48 species.) Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. This li…

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Pheidippides - Further reading

Long-distance runner from Greece. He was sent to Sparta to ask for aid against the Persians before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, and is reputed to have covered 150 mi in two days. Legend has confused him with the man who ran from the battlefield of Marathon to bring news of the victory to Athens. ("Fennel-field" is a reference to the Greek word for fennel, marathon, the origin of the n…

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phenol - Phenols, Properties, Production, Uses

C6H5OH, IUPAC hydroxybenzene, also called carbolic acid, used as an antiseptic in situations where its corrosive properties are not a problem. A major constituent of coal tar, it is also synthesized in large quantities, as it has applications in the manufacture of fibres, resins, dyes, drugs, and explosives. The word phenol is also used to refer to any compound which contains a six-membered…

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phenology - Phenological Records from the past, Modern phenological recording

The branch of biology which studies the timing of natural phenomena. Examples include seasonal variations in vegetation, and their relationship with weather and climate. Observations of phenological events have provided indications of the progress of the natural calendar since pre-agricultural times. In Japan and China the time of blossoming of cherry and peach trees is associat…

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phenomenalism - Historical overview, Phenomenalism and the bundle theory, Phenomenalism of the positivists, Other criticisms

In philosophy, the theory that statements about physical objects are in the end equivalent to statements about actual or possible perceptual experiences. The theory is associated with radically empiricist theories, such as those of Hume, Mill, and Ayer. In epistemology and the philosophy of perception, phenomenalism is the view that physical objects do not exist as things in themselves but …

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phenomenology - Historical overview of the use of the term, Husserl and the origin of his Phenomenology

A loosely defined philosophical movement begun by Husserl and developed by Scheler, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty. In its broadest sense it is a descriptive philosophy of experience. Its central method is to describe carefully one's conscious processes, concentrating on subjective experiences and suspending all beliefs and assumptions about their ‘external’ existence and causation. The re…

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phenotype

The outward appearance of a specific single gene. For example, the dominant mutation Ay in mice (the genotype) will give the phenotype of a yellow coat and obesity. The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size, eye color, or behavior that varies between individuals. Nev…

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phenylketonuria - Defects, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Therapy, Maternal phenylketonuria, Inheritance

A rare inherited disorder due to a defect in the metabolism of phenylalanine (an amino acid contained in protein). Phenylalanine accumulates in the body, and may cause mental deficiency. It can be detected in infancy by a screening test applied to urine, and if a strict phenylalanine-free diet is maintained, childhood development is normal. Phenylketonuria (PKU; IPA: UK /ˌfiːnʌɪlˌkiːt…

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pheromone - Origin of the term, Types of pheromones, Human pheromones

A chemical substance secreted to the outside by an animal, which has a specific effect on another member of the same species. Releasing pheromones elicit a particular behavioural response, such as mating or aggression. Priming pheromones cause a change in the physiology of the recipient, such as an effect on reproductive hormones. Pheromones are common in insects; they are also found in rodents an…

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Phidias

The greatest sculptor of Greece, born in Athens. He received from Pericles a commission to execute the chief statues for the city, and became superintendent of all public works. He constructed the Propylaea and the Parthenon, carving the gold and ivory ‘Athena’ there and the ‘Zeus’ at Olympia. Charged by his enemies with appropriating gold from the statue, he disappeared from Athens, presumabl…

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Phil Silvers - Stage credits, Filmography

Comic actor, born in New York City, USA. He made his professional debut in 1925, and his Broadway debut in 1939. Signed to a contract with MGM, he appeared as bald, bespectacled, hapless suitors and friends of the leading man in such films as Tom, Dick and Harry (1941) and Cover Girl (1944). After World War 2, he enjoyed several Broadway hits, including Top Banana (1951, Tony). The television seri…

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Phil Spector - Early life, Career, Influence, Eccentricity, Murder charges

Record producer and songwriter, born in New York City, New York, USA. While a teenager he recorded his first hit song and studied under producers and songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller. In 1961 he co-founded Philles Records, became sole owner (1962), and produced 20 hits in three years, working with such artists as the Crystals, Ben E King, and the Righteous Brothers. As a producer he broke…

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Philadelphia Phillies - Franchise history, Recent seasons, Team uniform, Fan support, Trivia, Season-by-Season Records

Major League baseball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, founded in 1883 by Alfred J Reach and Colonel John Rogers. Their most successful period was 1975–83, with nine straight winning seasons (a club record) and their first world championship. Former players include Grover Alexander (1911–17, 1930). The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball team based in Philadelp…

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philately - Types of philately, Organizations

The collecting and study of stamps and related matter, popularly known as stamp collecting. Rarity is the main cause of the high prices paid by some enthusiasts. Commemorative sets available for limited periods and stamps issued and franked on the first day of issue (‘first-day covers’) have a special appeal. Sales of these play an important role in the economies of some developing countries. Ph…

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Philetus Sawyer

US representative and senator, born in Whiting, Vermont, USA. He moved to Wisconsin, where he became a successful lumberman. He was elected to the US House of Representatives (Republican, Wisconsin, 1865–75) and to the US Senate (1881–93). Charged with corruption by Robert La Follette, he was defeated for re-election. Philetus Sawyer (September 22, 1816 – March 29, 1900) was an American…

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Philip

Wampanoag leader, born at Pawkunnakut in present-day Rhode Island, USA. Son of Massasoit, he became chief in 1661, and although he did not at first engage in open hostilities, he gradually came to resent the English colonists' increasing restrictions on the Indians' use of their own lands. In 1675 an Indian informer told the English he was planning a revolt; when the informer was killed, supposedl…

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Philip (Arthur) Larkin - Life, Career, Legacy

Poet, librarian, and jazz critic, born in Coventry, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford - an experience on which he based his first novel, Jill (1946). A Girl in Winter (1947) was his only other novel. His early poems appeared in the anthology, Poetry from Oxford in Wartime (1944), and in a collection The North Ship (1945). XX Poems was published privately in 1950. He became librari…

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Philip (Babcock) Gove

Lexicographer, born in Concord, New Hampshire, USA. He taught English at New York University (1930–42) while earning a PhD at Columbia University (1943). After serving in the US Navy (1942–6), he began a new career in lexicography when he was hired by G & C Merriam Co (1946) as editor of the successor to the second edition (1934) in its line of unabridged dictionaries. Webster's Third Internatio…

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Philip (Jerome Quinn) Barry - Plays

Playwright, born in Rochester, New York, USA. After serving with the US State Department in World War 1, he attended George Pierce Baker's ‘47 Workshop’ at Harvard, and began a lifetime career as a playwright. He gained most success with light social comedies, including Holiday (1928) and The Philadelphia Story (1939). His ambitions towards serious psychological and philosophical theatre could b…

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Philip (Milton) Roth - Life and career, Bibliography, Awards, Further reading and literary criticism

Writer, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Rutgers (1950–1), Bucknell (1954 BA), and the University of Chicago (1955 MA; further study, 1956–8). He gained overnight acclaim for Goodbye, Columbus (1959, National Book Award), a novella, and five short stories, but for many years he combined his writing career with teaching at such institutions as the University of Iowa (1960–2), the U…

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Philip (Morin) Freneau

Poet and journalist, born in New York City, New York, USA. A major early American poet, he won renown as ‘poet of the American Revolution’ for his burning anti-British satires at the Revolution's outbreak. After a hiatus in the West Indies, where he wrote lyric verse with Romantic elements, he was captured by the British at sea and imprisoned under harsh conditions described in The British Priso…

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Philip Astley - Trivia

Theatrical manager and equestrian, born in Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, C England, UK. In 1770 he started a circus at Lambeth, and built Astley's Amphitheatre (1798), once one of the sights of London. He also established amphitheatres in Paris and several other venues in Europe. Philip Astley (January 8, 1742–January 27, 1814) is regarded as the "father of modern circus." At the a…

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Philip Glass - Works, Trivia

Composer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. After composition studies at Juilliard, he went to Paris in 1964 to study with Nadia Boulanger, and later spent time in India studying the culture and traditions. Back in New York in the late 1960s, he organized a group to play his stripped-down, relentlessly repetitive music that was dubbed (along with that of Steve Reich and others) ‘minimalist’. Wit…

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Philip Guston - Life and work

Painter, born in Montreal, Quebec, SE Canada. His family moved to the USA in 1916, and he settled in New York City, where he was involved with the Federal Works of Art Project (1935–40), then taught at Iowa University (1941–5). His work of the 1950s was in the abstract expressionist style, but from the late 1960s he introduced brightly coloured and crudely drawn comic-strip characters into his p…

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Philip Hardwick - Pupil

Architect, born in London, UK. He designed the original Euston railway station, the hall and library of Lincoln's Inn, Goldsmiths' Hall, and Limerick Cathedral. Philip Hardwick (1792-1870) was an eminent English architect (son of architect Thomas Hardwick (junior) (1752-1829), and grandson of Thomas Hardwick Senior (1725-1798)). Hardwick was born at 9 Rathbone Place in Westminst…

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Philip Henslowe - Life, Business Interests, Henslowe's Diary, The History of the Diary

Theatre manager, born in Lindfield, West Sussex, S England, UK. Originally a dyer and starchmaker, in 1587 he rebuilt the Rose Theatre on Bankside, London, and afterwards managed the theatre at Newington Butts and The Swan on Bankside. From 1591 until his death he was in partnership with Edward Alleyn, founder of Dulwich College, who married his stepdaughter. Henslowe's business diary (1598–1609)…

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Philip (of Spain) II

King of Spain (1556–98) and Portugal (as Philip I, 1580–98), born in Valladolid, NWC Spain, the only son of Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Following the death of his first wife, Maria of Portugal, at the birth of their son, Don Carlos (1545), he married Mary I of England (1554), becoming joint sovereign of England. Before Mary's death (1558) he had inherited the Habsburg possessions…

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Philip (of Spain) III - Ancestors, Marriage and Issue

King of Spain, Naples, Sicily (1598–1621) and Portugal (as Philip II), born in Madrid, the son of Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife, Anna of Austria. Although exemplary in his private conduct, the new king was indifferent to the responsibilities of government and left that to his favourite, the Duke of Lerma. In 1599 he married his Habsburg cousin the Austrian archduchess Margaret, and their…

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Philip K(huri) Hitti - Biography, Works

Educator, historian, and writer, born in Shimlan, Lebanon (then part of Syria). He studied at the American University of Beirut (1908) and went to the USA in 1913. He earned his PhD at Columbia University (1915) and became a naturalized citizen in 1920. He was founder of the Syrian Education Society (1916) and taught Arabic literature at Princeton (1926–54). He wrote widely acclaimed books, inclu…

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Philip Kaufman

Film director and screenwriter, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. As an independent film-maker he wrote, produced, and directed his first film, Goldstein (1964), in collaboration with Benjamin Manaster. He also worked closely with his wife Rose, co-writer on The Wanderers (1979) and Henry and June (1990), and his son Peter, who produced Rising Sun (1993). He wrote the story for The Outlaw Josey Wale…

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Philip Kearny - Early life and career, Civil War, In memoriam

Soldier, born in New York City, USA. He became a cavalry officer, serving on the W frontier, then with the French army in Algiers. He lost his left arm in the Mexican War, and served with the French Imperial Guard at the Battles of Magenta and Solferino (1859). Returning to the USA at the outbreak of the Civil War, he was commissioned a brigadier general in the Union Army of the Potomac, and comma…

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Philip Livingston

Revolutionary patriot, born in Albany, New York, USA. He had cultural, intellectual, and political interests and was one of the founders of King's College (later Columbia) and NY Society Library. He served in the Continental Congress (1774–8) and signed the Declaration of Independence. Philip Livingston (January 15, 1716 – June 12, 1778), was an American merchant and statesman from New Y…

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Philip Massinger - Early life, Massinger and the King's Men, Death, Religion and politics, Style and influence

Playwright, born near Salisbury, Wiltshire, S England, UK. After leaving Oxford without a degree, he became a playwright apprenticed to Henslowe. Much of his work after 1613 is in collaboration with others, especially Fletcher. The City Madam (1632) and A New Way to Pay Old Debts (1633) are among his best-known satirical comedies. He is credited with having contributed, with Shakespeare, to portio…

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Philip Murray

Labour leader, born in New Glasgow, Scotland, UK. A coal miner from age 10, he emigrated to the USA in 1902. He held many offices within the United Mine Workers Union, climaxing with that of vice-president (1920–42). He and John L Lewis founded the Committee of Industrial Organizations (1935), and he was president of the Steel Workers Organizing Committee (1936) and succeeded Lewis as president o…

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Philip Pearlstein

Painter, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Following army service (1943–6), he worked as a graphic designer, and in 1949 moved to New York City. In the 1950s he produced bold landscapes, but from 1960 made detailed studies of the male and female nude. His work emphasizes the impersonal aspect of the subject, often omitting the head of his model to concentrate on an unidealized representation…

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Philip Pendleton Barbour

Judge, born in Barboursville, West Virginia, USA. He was a member of the Virginia legislature (1812–14) and the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Virginia, 1814–25, 1827–30). President Jackson named him to a federal district court in Virginia (1830) and to the US Supreme Court (1836–41). Philip Pendleton Barbour (May 25, 1783–February 25, 1841) was a Representative from Virginia …

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Philip Potter - Early life and career, Later life and career, Recordings

Ecumenical leader, born in Roseau, Dominica. After studying law, and pastoring a Methodist church in Haiti, he became secretary of the youth department of the World Council of Churches (1954). Appointed Methodist Missionary Society (London) field secretary for Africa and the West Indies (1960–7), and chairman of the World Student Christian Federation (1960–8), he was promoted director of World M…

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Philip Pullman - Brief biography, His Dark Materials, Philosophical and Religious perspective, Bibliography, Further reading

Novelist, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied English at Oxford and had various jobs before training as a teacher. From 1988 he worked as a part-time lecturer at Westminster College in Oxford, but left in 1996 to devote himself entirely to writing. Publishing works mostly for children, he gained success with his trilogy for young adults, His Dark Materials, comprising Northern Ligh…

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Philip S(howalter) Hench

Rheumatologist, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He worked with the Mayo Clinics at the University of Minnesota (1921–57). He was a pioneer in the pathology and therapy of gout before devoting his career to research on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). He coined the term ‘cortisone’ for biochemist Edward Kendall's ‘compound E’ isolate from the adrenal cortex, and devised treatments using corti…

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Philip Schaff - Bibliography

Protestant theologian, born in Chur, Switzerland. He studied at several German universities and took a theological degree in Berlin (1841). In 1844 he accepted the chair of theology at the German Reformed seminary in Mercersburg, PA, and later became a professor at Union Theological Seminary in New York (1870). An early ecumenicist, he foresaw the eventual unification of diverse Christian sects. H…

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Philip Seymour Hoffman - Filmography

Film and stage actor, born in Fairport, New York, USA. He became involved in theatrical productions at high school and later studied drama at the Tisch School of the Arts, New York University (1989). His breakthrough into feature films came with Boogie Nights (1997), and he quickly established his reputation in such films as Happiness (1998), Flawless (1999), State and Main (2000), and Cold Mounta…

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Philip Syng Physick

Surgeon, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. His desire to be a goldsmith was thwarted by his father's ambitions for him to pursue a medical career. After studying at the University of Pennsylvania and in London, he took his MD at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Back in Philadelphia he built up a private practice while also serving with the Pennsylvania Hospital (1794–1816) and teachi…

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Philip W(arren) Anderson

Physicist, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. He studied antenna engineering at the Naval Research Laboratories in World War 2, and at Harvard under John H Van Vleck. He was research scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratories (1949–84), visiting professor of physics at Cambridge (1967–75), and professor of physics at Princeton in 1975. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977 for his work on…

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Philip Webb - Projects

Architect and designer, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. After his training, he joined the practice of G E Street (1852), where he met William Morris, with whom he founded Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co in 1861, and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (1877). He designed several important houses, such as ‘The Red House’ in Bexley, Kent, for Morris (1859), ‘Clouds’ …

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Philip Wilson Steer

Painter, born in Birkenhead, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at Paris, and began as an exponent of Impressionism, to which he added a traditionally English touch. A founder of the New English Art Club, he taught at the Slade School of Art, London. He excelled as a figure painter, as shown in ‘Self-Portrait, The Music Room’ (Tate, London). Philip Wilson Steer OM (28 Dec 1860-18 Marc…

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Philip-Jacques de Loutherbourg

Painter and stage designer, born in Strasbourg, NE France. He studied at Strasbourg, and became a painter, studying under Carl Vanloo in Paris. A member of the French Academy at the early age of 26, he became well-known for his paintings of sea storms, battles, and landscapes. He travelled in Europe, where he was known for his innovative mechanized model theatres. These attracted the attention of …

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Philipp (Eduard Anton) Lenard - Photoelectric investigation, Later Years and Legacy, Books by Philipp Lenard

Physicist, born in Pressburg, Hungary (now Bratislava in the Slovak Republic). He was professor of physics at the universities of Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia), Aachen, Heidelberg, and Kiel, before returning to Heidelberg (1907–31). His main research concerned the properties of cathode rays, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905. Philipp Eduard Anton vo…

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Philipp Franz von Siebold - Career

Physician and botanist, born in Würzburg, SC Germany. He became medical officer to the Dutch in Batavia (now Djakarta), Java, and was stationed at a Dutch outpost in Nagasaki from 1823 to 1829, when he was expelled for obtaining too much information about Japan. He was largely responsible for the introduction of Western medicine into Japan, and Japanese plants into European gardens. In collaborat…

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Philipp Melanchthon - Early life and education, Professor at Wittenberg, Theological disputes, Augsburg confession

Protestant reformer, born in Bretten, SW Germany. His name is a Greek translation of his German surname, ‘black earth’. He studied at Heidelberg and Tübingen, and in 1516 became professor of Greek at Wittenberg and Luther's fellow worker. His Loci communes (1512) is the first great Protestant work on dogmatic theology. He also composed the Augsburg Confession (1530). Philipp Melanchthon …

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Philipp Nikodemus Frischlin

Writer, born in Balingen, SW Germany. The son of a parish priest, he was appointed professor of poetry and history in Tübingen in 1568, and after 1582 became a school director. Besides neo-Latin lyric poems he wrote German- and Latin-language plays, particularly satires and comedies (including the scholastic ‘Schuldrama’). These often employed a biblical theme and combined moralistic elements f…

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Philipp Scheidemann - Cabinet February 1919 - June 1919

Social Democratic politician, born in Kassel, C Germany. A journalist, he joined the Reichstag in 1903. He became minister of finance and colonies in the provisional government of 1918, and was the first chancellor of the republic in 1919. He was the subject of a failed assassination attempt in 1922. Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic poli…

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Philippa of Hainault - Reference

Queen consort of England, who married her second cousin Edward III at York in 1327. She brought Flemish weavers to England, encouraged coal-mining, and made the French poet and historian Jean Froissart her secretary. She is said to have roused the English troops before the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, and to have interceded with Edward for mercy for the burgesses o…

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Philippe Collet - Achievements

French pole-vaulter, considered one of the best in the world. He was five times French outdoor champion (1988–92) and three times indoor champion. …

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Philippe de Broca - Filmography as director includes

Film-maker, born in Paris, France. A former assistant to directors François Truffaut and Claude Chabrol, he made some 40 films most of which he wrote or co-wrote. His films are generally light-hearted comedies or exotic adventures, and his leading man of choice in a number of films was Jean-Paul Belmondo. He gained international success in the 1960s with such films as the espionage spoof L'Homme …

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Philippe de Champaigne

Painter of portraits and religious subjects, born in Brussels, Belgium. He studied in Brussels, then went to Paris (1621), where he assisted with decorations for the Luxembourg palace with Nicholas Poussin and in 1628 was appointed a portrait painter to Marie de Médicis, receiving commissions from Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu. His greatest portraits, more austere in style, were produced afte…

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Philippe de la Hire - Selected works

Engineer, born in Paris, France. He became a teacher of mathematics at the Collège Royal, and five years later professor at the Royal Academy of Architecture. His most notable work is the Traité de Méchanique (1695), in which he correctly analysed the forces acting at various points in an arch, making use of geometrical techniques now generally known as graphic statics. Philippe de La Hi…

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Philippe Desportes

Poet, born in Chartres, NC France. He was an official poet of great reputation, belonging to the second generation of La Pléiade, who became a favourite of Henry III. His Sonnets amoureux were an imitation of Ludovico Ariosto. Other works include Stances et Elégies (1573) and Les Amours d'Hippolyte, whose gracious villanelle remains famous - ‘Rosette, pour un peu d'absence...’. In 1583 he rece…

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Philippe Noiret - Awards, Filmography (partial)

Actor, born in Lille, N France. He performed in the Théâtre National Populaire and cabaret until 1956 when he appeared in Agnès Varda's La Pointe Courte. A versatile and talented actor, he appeared in many major films, including Thérèse Desqueyroux (1962, director G Franju), Chouans! (1988, director Philippe de Broca), Cinema Paradiso (1989, director G Tornatore), and Il postino (1994, direct…

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Philippe Sella

French rugby player. He played 3/4 centre, and holds the world record for selections (111). He made 31 tries (beaten only by Blanco), was five times captain of the French team, winner of the Grand Slam (1987), and twice French champion with Agen (1982, 1988). He played in 13 Five Nation tournaments and three World Cups. He retired in 1996. Philippe Sella (born 14 February 1962 in Tonneins) …

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Philippe Soupault

Poet and novelist, born in Chaville, NC France. He was co-founder with André Breton and Louis Aragon of the review Littérature (1919). In 1920 he co-wrote with Breton Les Champs magnétiques, his first major Surrealist work, which featured ‘automatic writing’. He later broke with Surrealism to write novels and essays, his novels including Le Nègre (1927), and Le Temps des Assassins (1945) abo…

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philippic

A denunciation in speech or writing, direct and often abusive. The term derives from Demosthenes' orations (c.350 BC) attacking Philip of Macedon. Cicero's In Verrem (70 BC), Swift's Drapier's Letters (1724), and the Letters of Junius (1769–72) are notable examples. A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. The term originates wit…

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Philippines - Politics and government, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture

Official name Republic of the Philippines, Pilipino Republika ng Pilipinas The Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is an island nation located in the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia, with Manila as its capital. It comprises 7,107 islands called the Philippine Archipelago, with a total land area of approximately 30…

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Philistines - History, Origin of the Philistines, Other uses of the term 'Philistine'

The ancient warlike inhabitants of the coastal area of the SE Mediterranean between present-day Jaffa and Egypt. They were constantly at odds with the Israelites of the hinterland - a struggle epitomized by the stories of Samson and of David and Goliath. The historic Philistines (Hebrew plishtim פלשתים) (see "other uses" below) were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan …

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Phillip A(llen) Sharp - Selected publications

Molecular biologist, born in Falmouth, Kentucky, USA. He helped pay his Union College (Kentucky) tuition by working on the family farm, took a PhD in chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana, went to the California Institute of Technology, and then to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. In 1974 he joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he also directed…

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Phillip Burton - Bibliography

US representative, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. An air force veteran, he was a lawyer in San Francisco (1956–64) before entering Congress (1965–83), where he led the Democratic reform group to remove old-time committee chairmen. Phillip Burton (June 1, 1926 - April 10, 1983) was a United States Representative from California. He died on April 10, 1983, in San Francisco, Cali…

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Phillips Brooks

Protestant religious leader, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1855), taught briefly, and was ordained an Episcopal minister in 1859. His famous hymn ‘O Little Town of Bethlehem’ was first sung in 1868. He served as pastor of Trinity Church (1869–91) and was university preacher at Harvard. His Lectures on Preaching were published in 1877, and he died not long after he w…

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Phillips curve

In economics, the shape of a curve in a diagram which shows the relationship between inflation and levels of unemployment. It derives from the work of the New Zealand economist A W Phillips (1914–75) in the early 1960s. It is normally assumed to show inflation as a decreasing function of unemployment, but curved so that high levels of unemployment are less effective in cutting inflation than low …

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Phillis Wheatley - Poetry, Later years, Writings

Poet, possibly born in Senegal, Africa. She was sold in slavery to the John Wheatley family in Boston, USA (1761), was educated by them, even learning Latin and Greek, and by the age of 13 was composing poems so sophisticated that many people charged she could not have written them. Sent to London with the Wheatley's son (1778), she was received in society, published her first volume of poems, the…

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Philo - Biography, Influence of Hellenism, Knowledge of Hebrew, Exegesis, Stoic influence, Attitude toward literal meaning, Numbers, Cosmology

Byzantine scientist. He wrote a treatise on military engineering, of which some fragments remain. He was probably the first to record the contraction of air in a globe over water when a candle is burnt in it. Philo (20 BC - 40), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judeaus, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. 5, § 2). The only event in his l…

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Philoctetes - In modern literature

A Greek hero, the son of Poeas, who inherited the bow of Heracles and its poisoned arrows. On the way to Troy he was bitten by a snake, and the wound stank, so that he was left behind on the island of Lemnos. It was prophesied that only with the arrows of Heracles could Troy be taken, so Diomedes and Odysseus came to find Philoctetes. His wound was healed and he entered the battle, killing Paris. …

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philodendron

An evergreen shrub, climber, or epiphyte with both clinging and aerial roots, native to warm regions of the New World; leaves varying with species, age, and position on plant, lance- to spear- or heart-shaped, sometimes deeply lobed; flowers tiny, grouped in a spadix surrounded by a large, showy spathe. Many are popular house plants. (Genus: Philodendron, 275 species. Family: Araceae.) …

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philosophy - Origin, Branches of philosophy, History of philosophy, Western philosophy, Eastern philosophy, African philosophy, Metaphysics and epistemology

Literally ‘love of wisdom’, a subject which deals with the most general questions about the universe and our place in it. Is the world entirely physical in its composition and processes? Is there any purpose to it? Can we know anything for certain? Are we free? Are there any absolute values? Philosophy differs from science, in that its questions cannot be answered empirically, by observation or …

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philosophy of science - Nature of scientific concepts and statements, Grounds of validity of scientific reasoning, Social accountability

A branch of philosophy, often approached through the history of science, which studies the nature of scientific theories, explanations, and descriptions, and relates them to general philosophical issues in epistemology, logic, or metaphysics. Organized empirical knowledge of the kind represented by successful science has often been taken as a model of human knowledge, against which other claimants…

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phlebitis - Signs and Symptoms, Phlebitis in popular culture

Inflammation of a vein, commonly associated with varicose veins. It often arises in association with thrombosis of the blood within veins, when it is referred to as thrombophlebitis. The veins of the leg are commonly affected, and the disorder may follow childbirth, a surgical operation, or stagnation of the blood from a prolonged dependency on the legs, such as during a long journey. Severe degre…

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phloem - Structure, Function, Origin, Nutritional use, Girdling

Tissue, composed of conducting cells and often supporting fibres, which transports sap from the leaves to other parts of a plant. It is either located in the vascular bundles or forms the inner bark of woody plants. It is complementary to xylem, but composed of living cells. In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, to all parts of…

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phlogiston theory - Theory, Challenge and demise, Enduring aspects, Bibliography

A theory, popular in the 18th-c, whereby a material undergoing combustion was held to lose a substance (phlogiston, from Gr ‘flame’) to the atmosphere. The theory was strongly defended, but became increasingly untenable as it became clear that the products of combustion always weigh more than the material burnt. The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory of combustion. …

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phlogopite

A member of the mica group of minerals, common in igneous rocks. Its composition is similar to biotite. Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish or reddish brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates. The occurrence of phlogopite mica within igneous rocks is difficult to constrain precisely because the primary control is rock composition as expected, but phlogopite is also contro…

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phlox

A mat-forming or erect annual or perennial, almost exclusively native to North America and Mexico; leaves in opposite pairs; flowers tubular with five notched lobes, often white, pink, or blue, sometimes fragrant, in dense terminal heads. (Genus: Phlox, 67 species. Family: Polemoniaceae.) …

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Phnom Penh - Geography and climate, History, Tourism, Transport, Administration, Sister cities

11°35N 104°55E, pop (2000e) 1 122 000. River port capital of Cambodia, at the confluence of Mekong R and Tonlé Sap (lake); founded by the Khmers, 1371; capital, 1434; abandoned as capital several times, but became permanent capital in 1867; under Japanese occupation in World War 2; after the communist victory of 1975, the population was removed to work in the fields; railway; several univers…

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phobia - Prevalence, Other uses of term, Clinical phobias, Non-clinical uses of the term

A reaction of extreme fear to an object or situation not ordinarily considered dangerous (eg open spaces, spiders, birds). Avoidance behaviour may occur. The major forms of phobia are simple phobia (in which people are afraid of a specific object or situation) and social phobia (in which they are concerned about their behaviour in front of others). A phobia (from the Greek φόβος "fear"…

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Phobos

The larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, discovered in 1877 by American astronomer Asaph Hall; distance from the planet 937 800 km/582 700 mi; diameter 27 km/17 mi; orbital period 7 h 39 min. Close approaches by several spacecraft have revealed an irregular, cratered, dark surface with low density, suggesting a similarity to carbonaceous meteorites and primitive asteroids. It is p…

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Phocion

Athenian soldier. He commanded a division of the Athenian fleet at Naxos (376 BC), helped to conquer Cyprus for Artaxerxes III (351 BC), crushed the Macedonian party in Euboea (341 BC), and the following year forced Philip II to evacuate the Chersonesus. After the murder of Philip (336 BC) he struggled at Athens to repress the reckless desire for war. On the death of Alexander (323 BC), he vainly …

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Phocis - Provinces, Municipalities, Persons, External link and references

The region in C Greece to the W of Boeotia, in which Delphi and the Delphic oracle were situated. Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; See also: List of settlements in the Phocis prefecture This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. …

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Phoebe (astronomy) - Books, Mythology, Nature, Radio and television, Railroads

The ninth natural satellite of Saturn, discovered in 1898; distance from the planet 12 950 000 km/8 047 000 mi; diameter 220 km/137 mi; orbital period 550·5 days. Phoebe or Phebe may refer to: Phœbe Snow was a fictional character created to promote the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, and, in later years, the name of a pair of passenger trains. …

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Phoebe (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a Titaness, identified with the Moon. Later she was confused with Artemis. Phoebe (pronounced "fē-bē") was one of the original Titans, one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia in Greek mythology. …

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Phoebus (Aaron Theodor) Levene

Biochemist, born in Sagor, W Russia. He qualified in medicine in St Petersburg in 1891, and in 1905 became a founder member of the Rockefeller Institute in New York City, applying chemistry to biological problems. His work established the nature of the sugar component which defines the two types of nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) before 1930, although it was not until 1953 that newer methods allowed Wa…

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Phoenicia - Origins, Phoenician trade, Decline, Important Phoenician cities and colonies, Language and literature, Phoenicians in the Bible

The narrow strip in the E Mediterranean between the mountains of Lebanon and the sea, where the cities of Arad, Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre were located. It derived its name from the Phoenicians; descendants of the Canaanites, they were the dominant people of the area from the end of the second millennium BC, and this was their base first for trading all over the Mediterranean and then, from the 8th-c…

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Phoenix (USA) - Astronomy and space exploration, Biology, Companies, Computing, Maritime (civil), Military, naval and air forces

33°27N 112°04W, pop (2000e) 1 321 000. State capital in Maricopa Co, SC Arizona, USA, on the Salt R; largest city in the state, and seventh largest in the USA; settled, 1870; state capital, 1889; airport; railway; hub of the rich Salt River Valley; important centre for data-processing and electronics research; computer components, aircraft, machinery, food products, textiles; popular winter a…

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Phoenix Islands

pop (2000e) 50 (all on Kanton I). Coral island group of Kiribati, S Pacific Ocean, c.1300 km/800 mi SE of the Gilbert Is; formerly an important source of guano; most inhabitants were resettled in the Solomon Is in 1978. …

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Phoenix Park murders

The murder in Dublin on 6 May 1882 of the recently appointed chief secretary for Ireland, Lord Frederick Cavendish (1836–82), and his under-secretary, Thomas Henry Burke (1829–82), by a terrorist nationalist group called ‘The Invincibles’. More murders followed during the summer. The British government responded with a Coercion Act. Five of the Phoenix Park murderers were arrested and hanged. …

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phoneme - Restricted phonemes, Neutralization, archiphoneme, underspecification

The smallest unit in the sound system of a language, capable of signalling a difference of meaning between words. For example, the English words pail and tail are distinguished by the initial consonant phonemes /p/ and /t/. The same phoneme will vary in its phonetic character, depending on the context in which it occurs; /t/, for instance, is pronounced with lips spread, in the word tan, but with …

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phonetics - External links and references, Bibliography

The study of the range of sounds which can be produced by the human vocal organs. Articulatory phonetics studies the movements of the vocal organs (such as the tongue, lips, and larynx); acoustic phonetics, the physical properties of the sound waves produced in speech; and auditory phonetics, the way in which the listener uses ear and brain to decode sound waves. Any study of speech which employs …

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phonics - Phonics in English, Different phonics approaches

A general method of teaching children to read by recognizing the relationship between individual letters and sounds. It builds up the pronunciation of new words by saying them sound by sound, as with the one-to-one correspondences between cat and [k-a-t]. More complex correspondences are gradually introduced, such as between the split sequence a...e and the pronunciation [ay] in dame. Many phonic …

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phonograph - Terminology, History, British and American, and Australian language usage differences

The first practical device for recording and reproducing sounds stored as grooves cut in cylinders, mainly of wax, rotated beneath a stylus by hand or clockwork. Demonstrated by Edison in 1877, it was initially intended as an office dictating machine, but came to be widely applied in home musical entertainment during the next half-century. The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common …

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phonology - Representing phonemes, Phoneme inventories, Other topics in phonology

The study of the sound system of a language, and of the general properties of sound systems. The human vocal apparatus is capable of a wide variety of speech sounds, but only a small number is used distinctively in any one language. Phonologists study the way the sound segments (or phonemes) are organized in languages (segmental phonology), and also the patterns of pitch, loudness, and other voice…

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phonon - Modelling phonons, Phonon behavior and properties

A wave which passes like a ripple through a solid, causing momentary displacement of atoms. Phonons are the quantum of lattice vibration, and exhibit particle-like properties, including the ability to scatter other particles, as observed in neutron diffraction. A grain of salt at room temperature contains about 1018 phonons. In physics, a phonon is a quantized mode of vibration occurring in…

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Phoolan Devi - Early life, Death, Film

Bandit and folk hero, born to a low-caste family in India. After a childhood of abuse and humiliation, she was kidnapped by bandits in Uttar Pradesh, then joined the gang, becoming the mistress of one of its leaders. Following a period of capture and further abuse, she escaped to become one of India's most notorious criminals, wanted for many robberies and for the revenge shooting in 1981 of over …

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phospholipid - Sphingomyelin

A special category of fats where a part of the molecule (the head) is highly polar and thus, unlike most fats, soluble in water (hydrophilic), while the remainder (the tail) is highly insoluble (hydrophobic). The head varies from one phospholipid class to another. Phospholipids are the main components of all biological membranes. In addition, they store arachidonic acid, a precursor of the prostag…

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phosphorescence - Equation

Light produced by an object excited by a means other than heat, where the light emission continues after the energy source has been removed; a type of delayed luminescence. The emission may continue for a fraction of a second or for hours, depending on the substance. The long after-glow on a television screen, after the television has been switched off, is an example of phosphorescence. In …

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phosphoric acid - Orthophosphoric acid chemistry

H3PO4. A tribasic acid, with three series of salts. It is generally a syrupy liquid, very hygroscopic; dehydration gives phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), which is an excellent drying agent. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is an inorganic mineral acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. The term "phosphoric acid" can also refer to a chemical or rea…

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phosphorus - Precautions, Compounds

P, element 15, the second element of the nitrogen group. It is not found free in nature, but may be prepared both as a very reactive, molecular, white form (P4), melting point 44°C, and as a variety of less reactive, high-melting polymeric solids with colours ranging from red to black. It is found in many minerals, particularly apatite, mainly as calcium phosphate. The white form of the element i…

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photochemistry - Main concepts

The study of chemical reactions brought about by the absorption of visible and ultraviolet light, and of those reactions that produce light. Reactions of the first type include those which convert light energy into electrical energy in solar cells. The decomposition or dissociation of molecules by exposure to light is known as photolysis. Photochemistry, a sub-discipline of chemistry, is th…

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photoconductivity - Application

The increase in conductivity of a material (usually a semiconductor, such as silicon or germanium arsenide) resulting from the exposure to light. Incoming light photons above a certain energy level cause the production of electron-hole pairs that aid conduction. The effect is exploited in light-sensitive detectors and switches, and in television cameras. Photoconductivity is an optical and …

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photocopying - How a photocopier works (using xerography), Invention, Use, Color photocopiers, Copyright issues, Forensic identification

The photographic reproduction of written, printed, or graphic work. Two processes can be used. In xerography an image of the original is focused on to a photosensitive surface (a selenium plate or cylinder), which converts light into electric charge. This electrostatic image attracts charged ink powder (toner), and the image is then transferred to a paper or other support, and permanently fixed by…

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photoelasticity - History, Principles

The change in the light-transmitting properties of a solid (eg glass or plastic) caused by stress; also called mechanically induced birefringence. It alters the polarization of transmitted light, and is observable by placing a suitable material between crossed Polaroids (ie having the transmission directions at right angles) and stressing the material. The coloured patterns formed are useful in en…

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photoelectric effect - Explanation

The emission of electrons from the surface of a metal as a result of irradiation with light. No electrons are emitted unless the wavelength of the light is less than some critical value, which depends on the material; and the energy of the emitted electrons depends not on the intensity of the light but on its wavelength. The correct interpretation, that light must comprise well-defined units havin…

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photoemission spectroscopy - Instrument details

A technique for studying the structure of atoms and molecules. Electromagnetic radiation directed on to a sample causes the emission of electrons, which are then detected. The use of X-rays allows the study of inner electrons; ultraviolet rays allow the study of bonding electrons. Photoemission Spectroscopy refers to two separate techniques/ X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS…

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photoengraving

Techniques for the creation of metal printing plates on cylinders carrying the image of continuous-tone (‘line’) and half-tone text and, particularly, illustrations for letterpress and gravure printing. Film produced by photographing the image to be communicated is exposed on the metal plate, which is already coated with a light-sensitive solution. After exposure and subsequent etching, the prin…

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photogrammetry - Photogrammetric methods

The use of photographic records to determine precise measurements. It is principally applied in map-making by aerial survey, but is also used for medical, forensic, and architectural purposes, where dimensional grids may be included or superimposed. Photogrammetry is a measurement technology in which the three-dimensional coordinates of points on an object are determined by measurements mad…

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photography - Photographic image-forming devices, Uses of photography, History of photography, Photography types, Photography styles

The recording and reproduction of images on light-sensitive materials by chemical processes. In 1816 Nicéphore Niepce in France tried to record the optical image formed in a camera obscura, and in 1822 succeeded in obtaining a photographic copy of an engraving superimposed on glass. By 1839 Daguerre had established a reliable process. About the same time in England, Fox Talbot discovered the proc…

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photomultiplier - Structure and operating principles, Usage considerations

A device for the electronic detection of light. Incoming light causes the emission of electrons from a surface via the photoelectric effect. A sequence of electrodes accelerates away the electrons, and gives a measurable current which signals the detection of a photon. Photomultipliers are constructed from a glass vacuum tube which houses a photocathode, several dynodes, and an anode. Incid…

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photon

The quantum or particle of light. Light and all other electromagnetic radiation comprises a stream of photons, each of which has energy E = h?, where h is Planck's constant and ? is frequency. Photons of yellow light have energy 3·4 × 10?19J. A household light emits c.1020 photons every second. Photons have no (rest) mass and are spin 1. In quantum theory they transmit electromagnetic force.…

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photonic crystal

An artificial crystal composed of regularly spaced light-reflecting elements, for example a square lattice of reflecting columns spaced about a micron apart. Light waves entering the side of the lattice are reflected from different columns and interfere, blocking the transmission of light of certain frequencies. Missing columns or missing rows of columns serve to trap light, so photonic crystals c…

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photoperiodism

The response of an organism to periodic changes, either in light intensity or, more usually, in the duration of the light period (daylength) in a natural or artificial light-dark cycle. Photoperiodism controls the timing of many events in the annual life cycle of plants, and in the seasonal reproductive cycles of some animals. Photoperiodicity is the physiological reaction of organisms to t…

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Photorealism

A style of modern painting, also called Hyperrealism or Superrealism. Pictures, often quite large, are meticulously painted in a style of extreme naturalism like a sharply-focused coloured photograph. Photorealism has flourished since the 1960s, especially in the USA. Photorealism is the genre of painting resembling a photograph, most recently seen in the splinter hyperrealism movement. How…

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photosphere

The visible surface of the Sun or a star. About 500 km/300 mi thick, it is the zone where the Sun's layers progress from being completely opaque to radiation to being transparent, hence the zone from which the light we see actually comes. The temperature is c.6000 K. When viewed at very high resolution, the photosphere has a mottled appearance (granulation). The Sun's photosphere has a t…

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photosynthesis - Overview, The evolution of photosynthesis, Molecular production, Discovery, Factors affecting photosynthesis

The complex process in which light energy is used to convert water and carbon dioxide into simple carbohydrates. Light-absorbing pigments, notably chlorophyll, found in chloroplasts, are essential to the process, which can be carried out only by green plants and photosynthetic bacteria. Plants are the main source of atmospheric oxygen, released as a by-product of photosynthesis. Photosynthe…

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phrenology - History, Popular culture, Related disciplines

The analysis of mind and character by the study of the shape and contours of the skull. It is based on the erroneous belief that this reflects the degree of development of the underlying regions of the brain, particularly those areas concerned with higher mental functions. It was popular in Europe during the early 19th-c. Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, "mind"; Phrenology has howe…

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Phrygia - Geography, Culture, Mythic past, History

The name of the kingdom in antiquity with which the legendary Midas is associated. At its widest extent around the beginning of the first millennium, it consisted of the C plateau of Asia Minor and its W flank. After its conquest by Lydia in the 6th-c BC, it never regained its political independence. In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: Φρυγία) was a kingdom in the west central part of the A…

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Phryne - Early life, Notoriety

Greek courtesan of antiquity, who reputedly was Praxiteles' model for his statue of Aphrodite. Accused of profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries, she was defended by the orator Hyperides, who threw off her robe, showing her loveliness, and so gained the verdict. Phryne (Φρυνη) was a famous hetaera (courtesan) of Ancient Greece (4th century BC) who adjusted her prices for customers dependin…

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Phuket

Largest island of Thailand, in the Andaman Sea, 900 km/560 mi S of Bangkok; a popular resort area; notable limestone caves and columns at Phang Nga Bay; marine biological centre; major outlet to the Indian Ocean; vegetarian festival (Oct); coasts devastated by tsunami disaster, Dec 2004, with many deaths. The Salang are an ancient Eurasian people, such as in reference to one group http://…

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Phyllis Kirk

Actress, born in Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. She studied acting in New York and appeared in several Broadway plays before moving to Hollywood where she gained success in the film House of Wax (1953) with Vincent Price. Later films included Johnny Concho (1956) and The Sad Sack (1957). On television she is best remembered for her role as Peter Lawford's wife in The Thin Man (1957–9). She retired …

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Phyllis Lehmann - People, Places

Classical archaeologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Wellesley College (1934) and New York University (1943 PhD), and taught at Smith College (1946–78) until her retirement. She was assistant field director of the excavations in Samothrace, of which her husband, Karl Lehmann, was director. She wrote a number of books, articles, and catalogues for exhibitions of classical …

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phylloxera - Fighting the "Phylloxera plague"

A dwarf, aphid-like insect that can kill grape vines; some larvae are short-beaked, and cause galls on vine leaves; others are long-beaked and suck at roots. (Order: Homoptera. Family: Phylloxeridae.) Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. …

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physalis

A soft-leaved annual or perennial; found almost everywhere, but many species native to America; salver-shaped, 5-petalled flowers, in which the calyx becomes enlarged and bladder-like, enclosing the berry in fruit. Several are important local crops. (Genus: Physalis, 100 species. Family: Solanaceae.) Physalis is a genus of plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae, native to warm temperate…

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physical chemistry - Importance of Physical Chemistry, Important physical chemists, Fictional physical chemist, Literature

The study of the dependence of physical properties on chemical composition, and of the physical changes accompanying chemical reactions. Physical chemistry is a combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and quantum mechanics. The relationships that physical chemistry tries to resolve include the effects of: Modern physical chemistry is…

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physical fitness - General fitness, Task-oriented fitness, Notable fitness instructors

The conditioning of the body so that it is able to endure longer and more strenuous periods of aerobic exercise. The capacity of the lungs, heart, and muscles to absorb oxygen, pump it round the body, and use it to generate energy are increased. Physical fitness is important to health because it is protective against illness, especially cardiovascular disease. In its most general meaning, p…

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physicalism - Token and Type, A priori and A posteriori, Reductive physicalism, Non-reductive physicalism, Materialism

In philosophy, the view that any empirical proposition can be expressed as a statement about publicly observable physical objects and events. The doctrine was developed by logical positivists such as Neurath and Carnap. Physicalism is the metaphysical position (associated particularly with Quine) that everything is physical; Likewise, physicalism about the mental is a position in philosophy…

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physician - Education and training, Regulation

Someone who is authorized to practice medicine, having passed an approved medical training course; commonly known as a doctor. A distinction is drawn with a surgeon, who is trained to practice surgery. The Royal College of Physicians of London was founded in 1518 by Thomas Linacre, with a charter from Henry VIII, and membership of the College is the standard qualification for medical specialists i…

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physics - Introduction, Connected Studies, Branches of physics, Classical, quantum and modern physics, Theoretical and experimental physics

The study of matter and forces, at the most basic level. Physics as a discernible discipline began during the Renaissance, with Copernicus' model of planetary motion and Galileo's mechanics. Astronomy and mechanics continued to dominate the field, with the work of Newton, Kepler, and others; Newton and Leibniz developed calculus, which Newton used to express his theorems of mechanics. Galileo, New…

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Physiocrats - Origins, Quesnay's Tableau Économique

A group of French economic and political thinkers of the later 18th-c, led by Quesnay, and committed to a priori principles of reason and natural law. Their theories made them critics of internal trade barriers, and controls and advocates of systematic economic reform. The physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. …

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physiological psychology

The study of the physiological processes in brain and body which underlie behaviour and psychological experience. This includes the physiology of the senses, the study of the electrical and chemical activity of the brain, the effects of drugs and hormones, the physiological correlates of mental disorders, and the consequences of brain damage. As background, psychiatrists are the only doctor…

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physiology - Areas of physiology

An experimental science concerned with the study of the functions of living things. Its scope is wide: some studies are concerned with processes that go on in cells (eg phagocytosis, photosynthesis); others with how tissues or organs work, and how they are controlled and integrated within the whole organism; yet others deal with how living things respond to their environment. Physiology makes use …

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phytic acid - Food science

A store of phosphorus present in most cereals and legumes; also called inositol hexaphosphate. This acid can bind such minerals as calcium, iron, and zinc, and reduce their bio-availability. Thus, iron may be less available from some vegetable sources than from some animal sources. However, its availability can be increased by consuming vitamin C at the same time. Phytic acid (known as inos…

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phytochrome - Isoforms, Biochemistry, Discovery, Genetic engineering

A pigment found in most groups of plants, which is involved in photoperiodic responses. A protein compound, it exists in two forms which absorb different kinds of light, and acts as a switch mechanism linked to environmental light conditions, such as daylength. It controls many activities, such as flowering and growth. Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect ligh…

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phytosaur - Early Discoveries, Differences from Crocodiles, Three Morphotypes, Evolutionary History and Relationships

An extinct reptile with a crocodile-like body; teeth inserted in sockets (thecodontic); known from the late Triassic period of North America, Europe, and Asia. (Subclass: Archosauria.) Phytosaurs - family Phytosauridae or Parasuchidae - were a group of large (2 to 12 meters long - average size 3 to 4 meters) semi-aquatic predatory archosaurs that flourished during the Late Triassic pe…

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Piacenza - History, Main sights, Dialect, Food, Famous inhabitants

45°03N 9°41E, pop (2000e) 111 000. Capital town of Piacenza province, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy; on R Po, 50 km/31 mi SE of Milan; birthplace of Giorgio Armani; railway; agricultural trade and machinery, cannaries, machine tools, pasta, leather goods, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; Palazzo Gotico (begun 1281), cathedral (12th–13th-c), Church of Sant'Antonino (11th–12th-c), Church of Santa Maria…

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piano - Early history, Development of the modern piano, The modern piano, The role of the piano

The most important domestic and recital instrument for over 200 years, first made by Cristofori in Florence in the last years of the 17th-c. The main difference between its mechanism and that of the earlier clavichord is that the hammers (tipped with felt) rebound after they have struck the string, and this made possible the dynamic contrasts from which the instrument derived its full name (pianof…

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piapiac

A crow native to C Africa (Ptilostomus afer); black with thick black bill and very long tail; inhabits open country and palm trees; eats insects (sometimes taken from the backs of large mammals) and palm fruit. (Family: Corvidae.) The Piapiac (Ptilostomus afer) is a member of the crow family, and is the only member of the genus Ptilostomus (Swainson, 1837). …

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Piazza del Popolo

Large square in the city of Rome, Italy. In the centre stands the Obelisk, erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1589. Over 3000 years old, it was brought to Rome by Augustus Caesar after the conquest of Egypt. Overlooking the square are the almost identical 17th-c twin churches of Santa Maria di Montesan and Santa Maria dei Miracoli, built under Pope Alexander VII. The Piazza has been used for many purpose…

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Picardy

pop (2000e) 1 893 000; area 19 399 km²/7488 sq mi. Region and former province of N France, comprising departments of Aisne, Oise, and Somme; bounded NW by the English Channel; flat landscape, crossed by several rivers (eg Somme, Oise) and canals; chief towns, Abbeville, Amiens, St-Quentin, Laon, Beauvais, Compiègne; chemicals, metalworking; scene of heavy fighting during World War 1. …

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picaresque novel - History, Influence on modern fiction

A novel which dealt originally with the comic misfortunes of a low-life character, as in the anonymous Spanish Lazarillo de Tormes (1553). It is now applied more loosely to the miscellaneous adventures of any character living on his or her wits, and often on the road. The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca", from "pícaro", for "rogue" or "rascal") is a popular subgenre of prose fiction …

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piccolo - Traditional use

A small transverse flute pitched one octave higher than the standard instrument. The piccolo is a small flute. Like the flute, the piccolo is normally pitched in the key of C, about one octave above the concert flute (making it, effectively, a sopranino flute). Fingerings on the piccolo correspond to fingerings on the flute, but sound an octave higher. In addition to the s…

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picketing - Types of picket, Disruptive picketing, Picketing and the law

The action by a trade union in an industrial dispute to try to persuade fellow-workers and others not to go to work, or do business with the company involved in the dispute. Pickets stand outside the gates of the factory or offices, and lobby all who would go in. Trade union legislation in the UK now limits picketing to the place where the picket actually works (primary picketing), and requires th…

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picric acid - Properties, History, Other

C6H2(NO2)3OH, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, melting point 122°C. A yellow solid, made by nitrating phenol. A weak acid, but stronger than phenol, it is a yellow dye and an explosive. Picric acid is the common term for the chemical compound 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, also known as TNP; trinitrotoluene), picric acid is an explosive. Modern safety precautions recommend storing picric acid wet.…

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Pictor

A small, inconspicuous S constellation, near the Large Magellanic Cloud. Pictor (IPA: /ˈpɪktə/, Latin: easel) is one of the minor southern (declination -50 to -60) constellations. …

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Picts - Society, Religion, History, Pictish kings and kingdoms, Language, Further reading

A general term coined by the Romans in the 3rd-c for their barbarian enemies in Britain N of the Antonine Wall, and then used to describe the subjects of kings ruling N and S of the E Grampians. The name derives from the local custom of body tattooing. They disappear from history soon after being united with the Scots under Kenneth I. Traces of their language and art - notably the enigmatic Pictis…

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