Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 57

Cambridge Encyclopedia

patchouli

A shrubby aromatic perennial (Pogostemon cablin) growing to 1 m/3¼ ft or more, native to the tropics and subtropics of SE Asia; stems square; leaves oval, toothed, in opposite pairs; flowers white, tubular, 2-lipped, in whorls. It yields an aromatic essential oil used in perfumery. (Family: Labiatae.) Patchouli (also patchouly or pachouli) is both a plant and an essential oil (patchouli …

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patent - Legal effect, Economic rationale, Criticism, History of patents, Obtaining a patent

A formal document which gives inventors the exclusive right for a period of years to exploit the product or process they have created, either by operating it themselves or by licensing others to use it. Patents thus form part of general intellectual property legislation, like copyright, or the registration of trade-marks. The exclusive monopoly is not conferred automatically, as in the case of cop…

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patent medicine - Patent medicines and advertising, Ingredients and their uses, The end of the patent medicine era

A medicine for which a patent was granted, or one to which the preparer affixed his or her name to indicate sole rights of sale. Patent medicines stemmed from the 1624 Statute of Monopolies in England which granted 14 years of protected monopoly for the sale of a branded medicine. Preparers of these medicines had the right to use ‘secret ingredients’, until the Pharmacy and Medicines Act of 1941…

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patent theatre

A theatre with letters patent from the Crown granting it the privilege of presenting plays publicly in London. Two such companies, ultimately resident at Covent Garden and Drury Lane, held these exclusive rights from 1660 until 1843, though Samuel Foote was granted a Patent at the Haymarket for the summer months from 1766. The patent theatres were the theatres that were licensed to perform …

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pathology - Scope of pathology, Pathologists' work, Tools of pathology, Branches of pathology, Related sciences

The scientific study of disease in humans and other living organisms. It involves the application of a wide range of analytical techniques to body cells, tissues, and fluids. Originally limited to gross post-mortem dissection of the body, ready access to blood and to tissue biopsies today allows the investigation of the living person. It encompasses the study of the causes of diseases, the detecti…

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Patiala - Education Center, Culture and traditions

Former princely state in present-day Punjab, NW India; an important region, the city of Patiala was founded as the capital in 1763; the state merged with independent India in 1948 and became part of the reorganized Punjab state in 1966. Patiala ਪਟਿਆਲਾ pronunciation?(help·info) is a city in the Punjab state of India. Patiala district is one of the famous princely cities of erstw…

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Patmos - Skala, History

area 34 km²/13 sq mi; pop (2000e) 2700. Island of the Dodecanese, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, off W coast of Turkey; chief town, Hora; St John the apostle lived here for two years; Monastery of St John (19th-c); resort beaches. Patmos (Greek, Πάτμος) is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea. It is one of the Dodecanese islands, it has a population of roughly 3,000 and an area of …

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Patna

25°37N 85°12E, pop (2000e) 1 077 000. Winter capital of Bihar, E India; on S bank of R Ganges, 467 km/290 mi NW of Kolkata (Calcutta); on site of ancient city of Pataliputra, capital of 6th-c Magadha kingdom; French trading post, 1732; university (1917); major rice-growing region; noted for its handicrafts (brassware, furniture, carpets); Sikh temple, mosque of Sher Shah. …

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patriarch - Patriarchs in Oriental Orthodox Churches, Patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church

The head of a family or tribe. In Biblical literature, usually applied either to the 10 purported ancestors of the human race prior to the Flood (Gen 5), or more commonly to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob's 12 sons (Gen 12–50). The 12 tribes of Israel are traced to the 12 sons of Jacob. see: Oriental Orthodoxy see: Eastern Orthodoxy see Roman Catholic Church …

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patriarch (bishop) - Patriarchs in Oriental Orthodox Churches, Patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church

An ecclesiastical title used since about the 6th-c for the bishops of the five important ecclesiastical centres of the early Christian Church: Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Rome. These bishops exercised influence and jurisdiction over the churches in the areas surrounding their cities. see: Oriental Orthodoxy see: Eastern Orthodoxy see Roman Cat…

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Patrice (Hemery) Lumumba - Path to Prime Minister, Deposed and arrested, Death of Lumumba, Lumumba's political legacy

Congolese statesman and prime minister (1960), born in Katako Kombé, C Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire, and earlier Belgian Congo). He studied at a Protestant mission school, wrote essays and poems, and became an accountant. He was imprisoned for embezzlement, and on his release became active in politics, founding and leading the Congolese National Movement. When the Congo became…

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Patrice Leconte - Filmography

Film-maker, born in Paris, France. His films include M Hire (1989), Le Mari de la Coiffeuse (1990), Tango (1993), and Le Parfun d'Yvonne (1994), all of which deal with unusual aspects of life. Among later films are Ridicule (1996), L'Homme du Train (2000), and Confidences trop intimes (2004). Patrice Leconte (born November 12, 1947, in Paris, France) is a French film director and screenwrit…

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Patricia (Daniels) Cornwell - Biographical information, Her writing, Controversies, Fiction Series, Omnibus, Andy Brazil, At Risk, Non-Fiction, Awards

Novelist, born in Miami, Florida, USA. After an unsettled childhood, she studied at Davidson College, North Carolina. Working as a police reporter, and (from 1984) in the Virginia medical examiner's office, she gained a wide range of experience which she put to use in her novels. In the 1990s she became one of the world's best-selling women novelists, producing a book each year, and known especial…

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Patricia (Hope) Hewitt - NHS never had it so good, Publications

British stateswoman, born in Camberra, Australia. Educated in Canberra, Cambridge, and Oxford, she worked in a number of voluntary organizations before becoming general secretary of the National Council for Civil Liberties (1974–83). She was policy co-ordinator and press secretary to the Labour leader Neil Kinnock (1988–9) before becoming deputy director of the left-leaning think-tank, the Insti…

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Patricia Highsmith - Early life, Personal life, Novels, Bibliography, Awards

Writer of detective fiction, born in Fort Worth, Texas, USA. She studied at Barnard College and Columbia University, New York City. Her first novel, Strangers on a Train (1949), became famous as a source of Hitchcock's 1951 film of that name, but her best novels are generally held to be those describing the criminal adventures of her psychotic hero, Tom Ripley, beginning with The Talented Mr Riple…

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Patrick (Arthur Sheldon) Hadley - Biography, Music

Composer, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and the Royal College of Music, learning composition under Vaughan Williams and conducting from Adrian Boult. He became professor of music at Cambridge (1946–62), where he established excellent male-voice chapel and secular choirs. He wrote his most significant work, a choral symphony entitled The Hills, in 1946.…

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Patrick (Christopher) Steptoe - Education, Laparoscopic Pioneer, Work with Edwards

Gynaecologist and reproduction biologist, born in Witney, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at King's College, London, and St George's Hospital, and became senior obstetrician and gynaecologist in the Oldham Hospitals (1951) and medical director of the Bourn Hall Clinic, Cambridgeshire (1980). From 1968, with Robert Edwards (1925– ), he worked on the problem of in vitro fertilization of hum…

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Patrick (John) Hillery - Early life, European Commissioner 1973-1976, President of Ireland

Irish statesman and president (1976–90), born in Miltown Malbay, Co Clare, W Ireland. He studied at Dublin. Following his election as an MP (1951), he held ministerial posts in education (1959–65), industry and commerce (1965–6), and labour (1966–9), then became foreign minister (1969–72). Before becoming president, he served as European Commissioner for social affairs (1973–6). Patri…

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Patrick (Ronayne) Cleburne - Early life, Service in the Confederate Army, Death and legacy

Confederate soldier, born in Co Cork, Ireland. A soldier in the British army, he emigrated to America and prospered as a druggist, and later as a lawyer, in Helena, AR. One of the toughest division commanders in Confederate service, he fought at Shiloh, Perryville, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga, and was killed in battle at Franklin, TN. Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or March 17, 1828

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Patrick (Sarsfield) Gilmore - Lyrics

Bandmaster, born near Dublin, Ireland. Having been taught music and the cornet by his town's regimental bandmaster, he toured with the band in Canada in 1846. Several years later he went to Massachusetts where he founded Gilmore's Band. During the Civil War he headed all the Union army's bands in the Department of Louisiana, and it was in New Orleans (1864) that he presented the first of his monst…

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Patrick (Victor Martindale) White - Childhood and adolescence, Travelling the world, The growth of White's writing career

Writer, born in London, UK of Australian parents. His youth was spent partly in Australia, and partly in England, where he studied at Cambridge. His first novel, Happy Valley, appeared in 1939, and after service as an intelligence officer in World War 2 he returned to Australia, where he wrote several novels, short stories, and plays, achieving international success with The Tree of Man (1954), an…

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Patrick F(rancis) Healy

Catholic priest and educator, born in Jones Co, Georgia, USA. A former slave, he was a brother of Bishop James Augustine Healy and, like him, was sent north to be educated in freedom. He was ordained a Jesuit (1864) after studying abroad. Besides teaching philosophy at Georgetown College (1866–9), he served (1873–82) as its president, greatly expanding the college through fund-raising. He largel…

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Patrick Ferguson - Service in the American Revolution, Sources

British soldier and inventor, born in Pitfour, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. He served in the army in Germany and Tobago. In 1776 he invented a breech-loading rifle, firing seven shots a minute, and sighted for ranges of 100–500 yd. With it he armed a corps of loyalists, who helped to defeat the Americans at the Battle of Brandywine (1777). He was killed at the Battle of King's Mountain, SC. …

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Patrick Henry - Biography, Trivia, Monuments and memorials

Orator and political leader, born in Hanover Co, Virginia, USA. He took up law in 1760 after failures in business and farming. He vigorously opposed the Stamp Act (1765), and was a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses. In 1775 he proposed revolutionary motions to the Virginia assembly, including one for the arming and training of militiamen. He carried the day with a speech that…

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Patrick Heron

Painter, writer, and textile designer, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at the Slade School of Art, London. He was art critic for the New Statesman and Nation (1947–50), and taught at the Central School of Art, London (1953–6). He travelled and lectured in Australia, Brazil, and the USA, and held numerous one-man exhibitions worldwide. In May 2004, 50 of his works, includ…

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Patrick Mboma - Honors and awards

Footballer, born in Douala, Cameroon. He emigrated to France with his family at age two. A mathematics graduate, his football career began with Stade de l'Est in Paris, from where he moved to local rivals Paris St Germain. His career did not take off until a loan spell at third division Chateauroux, where he scored 17 times in 29 games. In 1997 his suprising move to the J League in Japan proved de…

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Patrick Peyton - Biography

Catholic priest, born in Co Mayo, Ireland. Emigrating to the USA at age 19 and ordained in 1941, he promoted family prayer, especially the rosary, through massive rallies and radio and television programmes, often featuring Hollywood stars. He coined the saying ‘the family that prays together stays together’. Rev. Peyton worked tirelessly to promote the family recitation of the Rosary. He…

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Patrick Poivre d'Arvor - Biography, Trivia

Journalist, film critic, and television presenter, born in Reims, NE France. He has become the best-known journalist in television, as a presenter of Journal de 20 heures since 1976, and joint director of TFI since 1989. Patrick Poivre d'Arvor (born Patrick Poivre, September 20, 1947) is a French TV journalist and writer. Patrick Poivre was born in Reims, France. Patrick Poivre …

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Patrick Stewart - Filmography, Theatrical performances, References and external links

Actor and playwright, born in Mirfield, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He trained at Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, then worked in various repertory companies, joining the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1966. He has performed a wide range of theatre, film, and television roles, but is best known for his role as Captain Jean-Luc Picard in the follow-up series of Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987)…

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Patrick Suppes - Books by Suppes

Philosopher and educator, born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. After serving in the US Army Reserves (1942–6) and earning a doctorate in philosophy from Columbia University (1950), he joined the Stanford University faculty. In 1959 he became director of Stanford's Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences. As president of the American Educational Research Association (1973–4), he was a …

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Patrick Tracy Jackson

Cotton manufacturer, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, USA. Originally a merchant sea captain (1799–1808), he joined Francis Cabot Lowell (his brother-in-law), Nathan Appleton, and others to organize the Boston Manufacturing Co in Waltham, MA (1813). He was influential in the founding of Lowell, MA (1820) and built the Boston & Lowell Railroad. Patrick Tracy Jackson(14 Aug. 1780–12 Sep…

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Patroclus - Patroclus' genealogy, Life before the Trojan War, Trojan War activities, Relationship to Achilles

In Greek legend, the son of Menoetius; the faithful follower of Achilles at Troy. He went into battle wearing Achilles' armour, but was cut down by Hector. His death made Achilles return to the battle. In Greek mythology, as recorded in the Iliad by Homer, Patroclus, or Pátroklos (Gr. Menoetius was a member of the Argonauts in his youth. Polymele, daughter of Peleus, King of Ph…

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patron saint - Lists of patron saints

A saint who, by tradition or otherwise, has been chosen as the special intercessor and advocate in heaven of a particular place, person, occupation, or organization. The custom of having patron saints for churches arose from the practice of building churches over the tombs of martyrs. In those denominations of Christianity which believe in the intercession of saints, the patron saint of a p…

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Patsy Cline - Rise to Fame, Near-Fatal Car Accident, Height of Her Career, Tragic Death

Country music singer, born in Winchester, Virginia, USA. She played the piano and began singing country music while a teenager She adopted the last name of her first husband and retained it after divorcing him. In 1957 she won the Arthur Godfrey Talent Scouts contest and went on to record such hits as ‘I Fall to Pieces’ (1960) and ‘Crazy’ (1961). One of the first country performers to achieve …

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Pattadakal

An old town in Karnataka, SW India, which reached the height of its glory in the 7th–8th-c, when most of its temples (now designated world heritage monuments) were built. The most notable is the Lokeshwari or Virupaksha temple, a huge structure with sculptures that narrate episodes from Hindu epics. Pattadakal ಪಟ್ಟದಕಲ್ is a town in the Indian state of Karnataka famous for i…

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Pattaya - History, Administration, Recreation, Nightlife, Climate, Crime

12°57N 100°53E. Beach resort in E Thailand; on the NE shore of the Gulf of Thailand S of Bang Phra; the ‘Riviera’ of Thailand, with resort facilities. Pattaya (Thai: พัทยา, RTGS: Phatthaya) is a city in Thailand, located on the east coast of the Gulf of Thailand (12°55′39″N, 100°52′31″E), about 165 km southeast of Bangkok in the province of Chon Buri. …

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Patti (Lee) Smith - Beginnings, Early career, Retreat, Political engagement, Discography, Singles, Bibliography

Rock singer and songwriter, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She grew up in New Jersey and attended college on an art scholarship. In 1967 she moved to New York City where she gave poetry readings, wrote songs, and formed a band that defined the early punk culture and its music in the late-1970s. Their biggest hit, ‘Because the Night’ (1978), was written with Bruce Springsteen. In 1979 she abando…

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Patty Berg

Golfer, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. She took up golf at age 16, turned professional while attending the University of Minnesota, and in 1946 was the inaugural winner of the US Women's Open golf championship. In 1950 she was a founder and first president of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), and during her career won 60 professional tournaments, including a record 15 majors. …

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Patty Hearst - Biography, Documentaries about Hearst, Acting roles, Other Work

Heiress to William Randolph Hearst's empire, born in San Francisco, California, USA. The daughter of newspaper tycoon Randolph Apperson Hearst (d.2000), she was kidnapped in 1974 by the radical Symbionese Liberation Army. After brainwashing, she assumed the name ‘Tania’ and joined in their bank robberies. She was captured in 1975, tried, and sentenced to prison in 1976. Paroled in 1979, she marr…

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Pau - Main sights, Economy, Transportation, Pau Grand Prix, Births, Twin towns

43°19N 0°25W, pop (2000e) 88 000. Economic centre and capital of Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, SW France; on right bank of R Gave de Pau, 174 km/108 mi S of Bordeaux; former capital of Béarn province, 1464; health resort, winter sports centre; road and rail junction; engineering, textiles, brewing, tanning, tourism; natural gas nearby; birthplace of Henry IV of France, Charles XIV of S…

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Paul (-Charles Joseph) Bourget

Novelist and critic, born in Amiens, N France. The son of the mathematician, Justin Bourget (1822–87), he began as a poet, and several of his poems were set to music by Debussy. He published a series of brilliant essays tracing the sources of contemporary pessimism to the works of Stendhal, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Taine, and Reman. His early novels include Cruelle Enigme (1885), André Cornélis (1…

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Paul (Abraham) Dukas - Principal Works

Composer, born in Paris, France. Some of his music is classical in approach, but he tended mainly towards Impressionism. His best-known work is the symphonic poem L'Apprenti sorcier (1897, The Sorcerer's Apprentice). He also wrote several orchestral and piano pieces, and was professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire from 1927 until his death. Although Dukas wrote a fair amount of …

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Paul (Anthony) Samuelson - Academic accomplishments, Consultancy, Fields of interest, Publications, Miscellaneous, Impact, Books by Paul Samuelson

Economist, born in Gary, Indiana, USA. By age 26 he had obtained his PhD from Harvard and secured a teaching position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His distinguished career included writings on a wide variety of subjects in economics, including international trade, production theory, capital theory, financial analysis, growth theory, and the history of economic thought. His textboo…

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Paul (Beattie) MacCready - Awards and honors, Quotes

Aeronautical engineer and inventor, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He was the designer of the ultra-light aircraft Gossamer Condor, which in 1977 made the first man-powered flight over a one-mile course. Its successor, Gossamer Albatross, in 1979 crossed the 23 mi of the English Channel in just under three hours at a height of only a few feet, propelled and piloted by US racing cyclist, Bry…

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Paul (Belville) Taylor

Modern-dance choreographer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Swimming and painting scholarships took him to Syracuse University, and he subsequently studied modern dance with Merce Cunningham and Martha Graham. He began choreographing in 1954, and developed a highly original and witty style, which often uses classical music to contemporary effect. The Paul Taylor Dance Company was founded in…

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Paul (Bustill) Robeson - Early life and family, Education, Family, Actor and singer, Quotes, Notes

Stage actor, singer, and political activist, born in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. At Rutgers University, he was a two-year All-American in football, valedictorian, and a Phi Beta Kappa at a time when few African-Americans even attended college. He took a law degree at Columbia University, but turned to singing and acting, appearing internationally in plays, films, on concert stages, and on recordin…

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Paul (Charles William) Davies

Physicist and popularizer of science, born in London, UK. He studied at University College London, and became professor of theoretical physics at Newcastle (1980–90), then professor of mathematical physics at Adelaide, Australia (professor of natural philosophy, 1993). His numerous popular books on science, such as God and the New Physics (1983), Superforce (1995), and About Time (1995) reflect h…

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Paul (Charles) Morphy - Biography, Morphy's chess play, Notable chess games, Further reading

Chess player, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The son of a wealthy Irish-American father (the family name was originally Murphy) and French-Creole mother, he graduated from Spring Hill (Alabama) College with the school's highest honours ever and received a law degree from the University of Louisiana at age 18. Ineligible to practise until 21, he turned to chess. After winning the American cha…

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Paul (Chester Jerome) Brickhill

Writer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at Sydney University, and worked in journalism before serving with the Royal Australian Air Force during World War 2. Shot down in North Africa, he was for two years a prisoner-of-war in Stalag Luft III, Germany; he described his escape from the camp in The Great Escape (1951). He became the most successful non-fiction writer of the…

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Paul (D) Warfield

Player of American football, born in Warren, Ohio, USA. An all-pro pass receiver for the undefeated Miami Dolphins of 1972, he averaged more than 20 yards per catch over 13 National Football League seasons. Paul Dryden Warfield (born November 28, 1942 in Warren, Ohio) was a professional American football wide receiver in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1968, he caught 50 receptions and …

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Paul (Dudley) White

Cardiologist, born in Roxburg, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, practised at the Massachusetts General Hospital, then worked in London with Sir Thomas Lewis (1913–14), returning to the USA fired with enthusiasm over the value of the electrocardiogram. His major textbook, Heart Disease (1931), secured his international reputation, and successful treatment of President Eisenhower did much…

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Paul (Dundes) Wolfowitz - Early life and education, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

International relations expert and President of the World Bank (2005– ), born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He studied at Cornell University (1965) and the University of Chicago (1972), and taught at Yale (1970–3) and Johns Hopkins (1981) universities. He has written widely on the subject of national strategy and foreign policy, and in 1981 was appointed head of the US state department policy plan…

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Paul (E) Brown - High school and college coaching career, Professional leagues

Coach of American football, born in Norwalk, Ohio, USA. He achieved success at all coaching levels. His Massillon High School teams (1932–40) won state championships, his 1942 Ohio State University team was voted the national crown, and his professional Cleveland Browns (1946–62) won seven league titles. In 1968 he founded the Cincinnati Bengals. Extremely innovative, he brought classroom techni…

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Paul (Edward) Theroux - Biography, Literary work, Controversy, Film adaptations, List of novels, List of non-fiction books

Novelist and travel writer, born in Medford, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at the University of Maine (1959–60), the University of Massachusetts (1963 BA), and Syracuse University (1963). He was a lecturer in English in Malawi as a member of the Peace Corps (1963–5) but was expelled on a charge of spying. He continued to teach in Uganda (1965–8) and in Singapore (1968–71), then settled in Lon…

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Paul (Eliot) Green - Writings, Other artistic endeavours

Playwright, born near Lillington, North Carolina, USA. After interrupting his studies at the University of North Carolina, where he was a student of Frederick Koch, for service in World War 1, he began to write plays about Southern rural people, often dealing with the problems of African-American as well as white poor folk. He won a Pulitzer for In Abraham's Bosom (1926), which ends in a lynching.…

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Paul (Felix) Lazarsfeld - Bibliography

Sociologist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied mathematics, law, and social psychology at the University of Vienna, where he established a social psychology research centre before emigrating to the USA (1933). At Columbia University (1940–69) he founded the Bureau of Applied Social Research (1945), and later taught at the University of Pittsburgh (1970–6). A quantitative methodologist, he was …

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Paul (Frederick) Bowles - Childhood and youth, Later years, Selected works

Writer and composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of a dentist (whom he never forgave for working so hard on his teeth), he went to Paris in the late 1920s and had his poetry published in Transition. After studying with Aaron Copland and Virgil Thomson, he composed theatre music, film scores, and opera in the 1930s–1940s. He married the writer Jane Bowles in 1938. His first novel…

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Paul (Glee) Waner

Baseball player, born in Harrah, Oklahoma, USA. During his 20-year career as an outfielder (1926–45), mostly with the Pittsburgh Pirates, he posted a lifetime batting average of ·333, compiled 3152 hits, and won the Most Valuable Player Award in 1927. His brother Lloyd Waner (1906–82), who was called ‘Little Poison’, also played outfield for the Pirates. Both have been elected to baseball's H…

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Paul (Howard) Manship - Images

Sculptor, born in St Paul, Minnesota, USA. He studied in New York City and Philadelphia, and attended the American Academy in Rome (1908–12), where he was greatly influenced by antique sculpture. He then returned to the USA, and became renowned for his bronze figurative sculptures, which drew heavily on Roman and Greek sources. His many important commissions include the gilded ‘Prometheus Founta…

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Paul (Johannes) Tillich - Biography, Bultmann's influence, Theology, Political Views, Critical views, Bibliography

Theologian and philosopher, born in Starzeddel, E Germany. Educated in theology and philosophy and ordained a Lutheran minister (1912), he was a chaplain in World War 1, then pursued an academic career, but his religiously grounded Socialism and opposition to Hitler led to suspension from the University of Frankfurt in 1933. Emigrating to the USA, he held posts at Union Theological Seminary (1933

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Paul (John) Keating - Early life, Reforming Treasurer, Prime Minister, Defeat, Life after politics, Further reading

Australian statesman and prime minister (1991–6), born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He managed a rock-and-roll band before entering federal parliament as a member of the House of Representatives in 1969. He was minister for Northern Australia in the Whitlam Government in 1975, and president of the New South Wales Labor Party (1979–83). As Treasurer (1983–91), he was the main archit…

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Paul (Leonard) Newman - Background, Film career, Life outside the cinema, Filmography (as actor), Trivia

Film actor and director, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. He turned to acting after a knee injury ended a promising sports career. Studying at the Yale School of Drama and the Actor's Studio in New York City, he made his film debut in 1954, and became one of the key stars of his generation, portraying idealistic rebels in such popular films as Cool Hand Luke (1967) and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance …

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Paul (Leopold) Rosenfeld

Music and art critic, and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After studying at Yale (1912 BA) and Columbia University (1913 Litt B), he worked as a freelance writer for many periodicals, and published books on music and art. A supporter of the modern movement in the arts, his best-known work was 14 American Moderns (1924), a volume of essays on such notables as Alfred Stieglitz, Albert …

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Paul (Louis Charles Marie) Claudel - Work, Reputation

Catholic poet, essayist, and playwright, born in Villeneuve-sur-Fin, France. A convert at the age of 18, he joined the diplomatic service, and held posts in many parts of the world. His plays, such as L'Annonce faite à Marie (1912, The Annunciation to Mary) and his poetry, such as Cinq grandes odes (1910, Five Great Odes), are remarkable for their spiritual intensity. Paul Claudel (August …

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Paul (Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und) von Hindenburg - German army, Aftermath of the war, Presidency

German general and president (1925–34), born in Poznan, WC Poland (formerly Posen, Prussia). He studied at Wahlstatt and Berlin, fought in the Franco–Prussian War (1870–1), rose to the rank of general (1903), and retired in 1911. Recalled at the outbreak of World War 1, he won victories over the Russians (1914–15), but was forced to direct the German retreat on the Western Front (to the Hinden…

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Paul (Marie) Verlaine - Analysis, Works, Film

Poet, born in Metz, NE France. Educated in Paris, he joined the civil service, but mixed with the leading Parnassian writers, and achieved success with his second book of poetry, Fêtes galantes (1869). In 1872 he left his wife to travel with the young poet Rimbaud, but their friendship ended in Brussels (1873) when Verlaine, drunk and desolate at Rimbaud's intention to leave, shot him in the wris…

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Paul (Mark) Scott - Early life, Military service, Writing career, Sources

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied in London, then served with the Indian army in India and Malaya (1943–6), and worked as a literary agent until 1960. His reputation is based on four novels collectively known as The Raj Quartet (1966–74), comprising The Jewel in the Crown (1966), The Day of the Scorpion (1968), The Towers of Silence (1972), and A Division of the Spoils (1974), in which he…

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Paul (Pierre) Broca - Education and research, Speech research, Anthropology research, Anatomy research, Personal life, Broca's Legacy

Surgeon and anthropologist, born in Sainte-Foy-le-Grande, SW France. He was the first to locate the speech centre in the brain (Broca's area), and was also a major influence on the development of physical anthropology in France. Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 – July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. Broca was a brilliant student. Broc…

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Paul (Theodore) Winter - Career, Discography (partial)

Bandleader and composer, born in Altoona, Pennsylvania, USA. A child musician, he learned saxophone and toured with the Ringling Brothers Circus at age 17, and in 1961 his college sextet won a 23-country tour of Latin America. He formed the Paul Winter Consort (1967) and began mixing folk, classical, ethnic, and jazz forms, creating what he called ‘Earth music’, a prototype of New Age music. Ded…

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Paul (Vernon) Hornung - College career, Professional career, Honors and awards, Off the field

Player of American football, born in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. A Heisman Trophy-winning quarterback at Notre Dame, he became an All-NFL (National Football League) halfback with the Green Bay Packers, scoring a season-record 176 points in 1960. Paul Vernon Hornung (born December 23, 1935 in Louisville, Kentucky) was an outstanding all-around athlete who played college basketball but is best…

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Paul (Wayland) Bartlett

Sculptor, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. In Paris (1874) he attended the École des Beaux-Arts (1879), worked with Emmanuel Fremiet, and made Paris his home. Specializing in the sculpting of animal figures, he is known for the patina on his bronze sculptures, as in ‘The Bear Tamer’ (1887), and for the equestrian statue of Lafayette (1899–1908). Paul Wayland Bartlett (January 24, 18…

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Paul Auster - Biography, Writing, Published works, Other media

Novelist, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Columbia University, then lived in France for four years. Since 1974 he has published poems, essays, novels and translations. His use of detective-story techniques to explore modern urban identity is evident in The New York Trilogy (1985–6). Later books include The Music of Chance (1990), Leviathan (1992), Timbuktu (1999), Oracle Night (200…

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Paul Berg

Molecular biologist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Pennsylvania State and Western Reserve universities, and became professor of biochemistry at Washington University, St Louis, and from 1959 at Stanford University. He devised a method for introducing ‘foreign’ genes into bacteria, so causing the bacteria to produce proteins determined by the new gene; this method of genetic engineeri…

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Paul Bert - Life, Works

Physiologist and French republican statesman, born in Auxerre, C France. A professor at the Sorbonne (1869), he did pioneering work in studying blood gases, the toxic effects of oxygen at high pressure, and anaesthetics. Paul Bert (October 17, 1833 - November 11, 1886) was a French physiologist and politician. He was born at Auxerre (Yonne). After the revolution of 1…

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Paul Bettany - Awards and nominations, Selected filmography

Actor, born in London, England, UK. Born into a show business family, he left school at 16 and worked as a busker and street performer before enrolling at the Drama Centre in London. His stage debut was in a West End production of An Inspector Calls (1992), and his first feature film role was in Bent (1997). Later films include A Beautiful Mind (2001), Master and Commander (2003, BAFTA nomination …

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Paul Biya

Cameroonian president (1982– ) and prime minister (1975–82), born in Muomeka'a, Cameroon. He completed his studies at Paris University and from 1962 held a number of ministerial posts under President Adhidjo before being appointed prime minister. He was nominated as president-designate and there was a smooth transfer of power in 1982. Despite two attempts to overthrow him, he was re-elected in 1…

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Paul Butterfield

Musician, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A white singer–harmonica player, he began as a teenager to master the blues style of his hometown through performances with Muddy Waters and Little Walter. He studied at the University of Chicago (1959–61), then formed the racially integrated Butterfield Blues Band, which pioneered blues-rock, introduced the electric guitarists Mike Bloomfield and Elvin …

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Paul Cadmus - Education, List of Works, Biographical Works, Exhibitions, Sources

Painter, born in New York City, USA. Based in Weston, Connecticut, he was a provocative artist who combined wit and social protest. His most famous (and notorious) paintings are ‘The Fleet's In’ (1934), and ‘Fantasia on a Theme by Dr S’ (1946). Paul Cadmus (December 17, 1904 - December 12, 1999) was an artist born in New York City. In 1934 he painted The Fleet's In! while wo…

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Paul Carus

Philosopher, born in Ilsenburg, Germany. Emigrating to the USA in the early 1880s because of his liberal views, he preached reverence for science and espoused a monistic philosophy with pantheistic overtones in such works as Philosophy as a Science (1909). A prolific writer, he also helped found two important journals, The Open Court (1887) and the Monist (1890), and was director of the Open Court…

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Paul Celan - Early life, Life after the war, Exodus, Germany and German guilt, Celan's poetry, Bibliography

Poet, born in Cschernowszy, Romania, the son of German-speaking Jewish parents. Cschernowszy became a Jewish ghetto in 1941, and Celan's parents were deported to a concentration camp in 1942 while he was sent to a labour camp (1942–4). He moved to Paris in 1948 and took French citizenship. Mohn und Gedächtnis (1952), his first collection of poems to be published in Germany, won him immediate acc…

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Paul Cuffe - Early life, Political activity, Return to Africa movement

Seaman and reformer, born in Cuttyhunk, Massachusetts, USA. His father was of African descent, and his mother was a Native American. While a seaman, he and his brother John Cuffe appealed to the courts of Massachusetts to consider why those denied suffrage had to pay taxes (1780). Although unsuccessful at the time, their concerns were reflected in the act of 1783 by which African-Americans acquire…

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Paul de Man - Academic work, Wartime journalism and anti-Semitic writing, Influence and legacy

Cultural theorist, born in Belgium. Controversy has surrounded his writings for collaborationist journals during World War 2. After the war he emigrated to the USA, and taught at several universities, including Yale, where he became a leading exponent of the critical method known as deconstruction. His most important essays were published in Blindness and Insight (1971) and Allegories of Reading (…

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Paul Desmond - Media

Jazz alto saxophonist, born in San Francisco, California, USA. As soon as he joined Dave Brubeck's quartet in 1951, that band became one of the greatest international successes in jazz history. Two styles have seldom been so diametrically opposed and yet so complementary. Brubeck, the sober, dedicated organizer, played rollicking, noisy piano, and Desmond, the carefree, free-living bachelor, super…

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Paul Dessau - Works, Awards

Composer and conductor, born in Hamburg, N Germany. After studies in Berlin, he conducted opera at Cologne from 1919, Mainz from 1923, and the Berlin State Opera from 1925. During the Nazi era he moved to Paris (1933) and the USA (1939). From 1942 he collaborated with Brecht, writing incidental music for Mutter Courage and other plays. Like Brecht, he settled in East Berlin in 1948, and produced t…

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Paul Durand-Ruel - Life

Art dealer and patron, born in Paris, France. He inherited his father's Paris gallery in 1865, initially specializing in the Barbizon School and their contemporaries. After meeting Monet and Pissarro in London during the Franco-Prussian War, he bought many Impressionist paintings and championed their cause, promoting their work in France and abroad. He published publicity magazines such as Revue I…

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Paul Ehrlich - Biography, Magic Bullet, References and further reading

Bacteriologist, born of Jewish family in Strzelin, SW Poland. After studying at Leipzig, he carried out research at Berlin, becoming a pioneer in haematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. In 1910 he discovered a cure for syphilis (Salvarsan), and propounded the side-chain theory in immunology. He shared the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – Augus…

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Paul Elmer More

Critic and philosopher, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He studied at Washington University (St Louis), and at Harvard. With Irving Babbitt he led the New Humanism movement, promoting a neo-Christian philosophy which, he claimed, continued the Platonic tradition, and his narrow and pedantic views provoked strong reactions from H L Mencken and many others. His principal essays on literature and ph…

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Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Physical chemist, born in Cognac, W France. A founder of spectroscopy, he discovered gallium, samarium, and dysprosium. Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (April 18, 1838 - May 28, 1912) was a French chemist born in Cognac. In 1874 he wrote Spectres lumineux, spectres prismatiques, et en longeurs d'ondes destines aux recherche de chimie minerale, which was published in…

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Paul Fort

Poet, born in Reims, NE France. He established the Théâtre d'Art (1890–3) where he presented original plays, and recitals of Symbolist poetry. His own work includes the play Louis XI, curieux Homme, dedicated to Pierre Louÿs, and he collaborated on various reviews including Le Mercure de France, and founded and edited Vers et Prose (1905–14), which published the work of important Symbolist wr…

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Paul Gascoigne - Biography, After playing and management, Trivia

Footballer, born in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. He was an apprentice footballer with Newcastle United before turning professional in 1985. After Tottenham Hotspur signed him in 1988, he established himself as an outstanding player and a flamboyant personality, becoming a member of the England team, and had won 57 caps by the end of his international career. His goal scoring success h…

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Paul Gerhardt

Poet and hymn writer, born in Gräfenhainichen, EC Germany. The most important Protestant hymn writer after Luther, he was suspended from his duties as Lutheran pastor on several occasions for opposing the liberal church policies of Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg. His hymns are couched in simple, intimate terms, avoiding the excesses of the Baroque and espousing a personal relation…

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Paul Goodman

Writer, lecturer, and psychotherapist, born in New York City, New York, USA. His prodigious outpouring of poetry, fiction, city planning, social criticism, and gestalt therapy consistently articulated a vision of humanistic anarchism that made him the ‘father figure of the New Left’. His best-selling Growing Up Absurd (1960) defended dropping out of school, an institution he found repressive of …

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Paul Greengard - Research, Biography, Pearl Meister Greengard Prize, Trivia

Biochemist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Johns Hopkins University (1953), and became professor of pharmacology and psychiatry at Yale University School of Medicine (1968–83), and head of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University (from 1983). He shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel …

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Paul Harvey - Career, Awards, Family, Catchphrases and Quotes

Radio journalist, born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Hired as a radio announcer while still in high school, he worked in various Midwestern stations until he began his daily newscasts in Chicago in 1944. His syndicated commentaries were aired nationally from 1951. Descended from Baptist preachers, he designed his colourful broadcasts, Paul Harvey News and The Rest of the Story, to reach into the heartl…

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Paul Hindemith - Biography, Hindemith's music, Partial list of works, Trivia

Composer, born in Hanau, WC Germany. He studied at Frankfurt, then played violin in the Rebner Quartet and the Opera Orchestra (1915–23), which he often conducted. His works include operas, concertos, and a wide range of instrumental pieces. He also pioneered Gebrauchsmusik, pieces written with specific aims, such as for newsreels and community singing. His music was banned by the Nazis in 1934, …

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Paul (of Russia) I - Childhood, Early life, Ascension to the throne, Purported eccentricities, Foreign affairs, Assassination, Legacy

Tsar of Russia (1796–1801), born in St Petersburg, NW Russia, the son of Catherine II and Peter III (though his paternity has been debated). His father's murder and his mother's neglect exerted a baneful influence on his character, and after succeeding his mother to the throne he soon revealed his violent temper and lack of capacity, and irritated his subjects by vexatious regulations. He suddenl…

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Paul Ince

Footballer, born in Ilford, E Greater London, UK. A midfielder, he played for West Ham, Manchester United, and Inter Milan, signing for Liverpool (1997), Middlesbrough (1999), Wolverhampton Wanderers (2002–6), and Swindon Town (2006). In 2006 he became player-manager at Macclesfield Town. A member of the Euro 2000 team, he won 53 caps playing for England. …

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Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse

Writer born in Berlin, Germany. He was part of the Berlin literary circle Tunnel über der Spree, where he met such figures as Fontane, Eichendorff, Storm, and Geibel. Moving to Munich, he and Emanuel Geibel were the centre of the literary scene there. His novel L'Arrabiata was the first of over 150 novellas written during 1855–95 and largely forgotten today. He developed the Falkentheorie on the…

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Paul Kammerer

Biologist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied in Vienna, where he joined the Institute of Experimental Biology. He claimed to be able to prove that acquired traits could be inherited, and produced at Cambridge three generations of a species of toad where nuptial pads induced in the first had been inherited by the second and third generations (1923). However, after G K Noble of the American Museum…

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Paul Karrer - Biography

Chemist, born in Moscow, Russia. He studied at Zürich, where he became professor of organic chemistry (1919). He was the first to isolate vitamins A and K, and produced synthetically vitamins B2 and E. He shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1937. Paul Karrer (April 21, 1889 – June 18, 1971) was a Swiss organic chemist best known for his work on vitamins. Karrer was born i…

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Paul Klee - Life and work

Artist, born in Münchenbuchsee, near Bern, Switzerland. He studied at Munich and settled there, becoming a member of the Blaue Reiter group (1911–12). He then taught at the Bauhaus (1920–32), and after returning to Bern (1933) many of his works were confiscated in Germany. His early work consists of bright watercolours, but after 1919 he worked in oils, producing small-scale, mainly abstract pi…

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Paul Kruger - Youth, Leadership, Exile, Physical appearance, Legacy

President of the Transvaal (1883–1902), born in Colesberg, Cape Colony, SC South Africa. With his fellow-Boers he trekked to Natal, the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal, and won such a reputation for cleverness, coolness, and courage that in the first Boer War (1881) he was appointed head of the provisional government. In 1883 he was elected President of the Transvaal and held the post until …

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Paul Laurence Dunbar - Dunbar in Standard English and Dunbar in dialect

Poet and writer, born in Dayton, Ohio, USA. The son of former slaves, he attended public schools, worked as an elevator operator (1891–3), and spent most of his life in Dayton. He paid to publish his first book of poems, Oak and Ivory (1893), but his second book, Majors and Minors (1895), gained him the enthusiastic support of William Dean Howells, who wrote a preface to his third volume, Lyrics …

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Paul Martin - Early life, Candidacy for the Liberal Party leadership, Finance Minister, Becoming Prime Minister, Prime Minister

Photographer, born in Herbenville, France. Employed as a wood-engraver, he was an amateur photographer who used a concealed camera to record working people in the streets of London and on holiday at the seaside (1888–98). His London by Gaslight (1896) was recognized by the Royal Photographic Society, and his records were much used in the 20th-c to represent the realities of late-Victorian everyda…

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Paul Mellon - Childhood and Education, Marriage and Military Service, Establishment of Philanthropic Foundations, Philanthropy: Yale

Art collector and philanthropist, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, the son of Andrew Mellon. A graduate of Yale University (1929), he also studied English literature at Cambridge University, starting his art collection there, and presiding over his father's Washington art collection (1937–9). He served in the cavalry during World War 2. As chairman of two foundations set up to dispense the …

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Paul Moody

Inventor, born in Newbury, Massachusetts, USA. The son of a Revolutionary War officer, he went to work in a woollen mill at age 12 and soon became an expert mechanic. Beginning in 1814, he built and repaired mill machinery in partnership with Francis C Lowell, and designed a series of mechanical improvements that sped the development of the New England textile industry. He was a champion of the te…

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Paul Morand

Diplomat and novelist, born in Paris, France, the son of the playwright Eugène Morand (1854–1930). He joined the diplomatic service in 1912, and held posts in London, Rome, Madrid, Bangkok, Romania, and Switzerland. He composed poems, but became famous with his short stories, Ouvert la Nuit (1922) and Fermé la Nuit (1923), then novels with backgrounds informed by his travels, such as Bouddha vi…

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Paul Muldoon - Works, Awards¹

Poet, born in Portadown, Co Armagh, SE Northern Ireland, UK. He studied at Queen's University, Belfast, where Seamus Heaney was among his teachers. His works include New Weather (1973), Selected Poems (1986), Madoc: A Mystery (1990), Hay: Poems (1998), Moy Sand and Gravel (2002, Pulitzer), and Horse Latitudes (2006). He has also edited a controversial anthology, Contemporary Irish Poetry (1986). …

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Paul Muni - Early life and career, Broadway and Hollywood, Partial filmography, Academy Awards and nominations

Stage and film actor, born in Lemberg, Austria (now Lvov, Ukraine). He debuted in Chicago's Yiddish theatre. A superb character actor, he won two film Oscars, including that for The Story of Louis Pasteur (1936). Paul Muni (MYOO-nee) (September 22, 1895 – August 25, 1967) was an Academy Award-winning and Tony Award-winning versatile actor from the Golden Age of Hollywood. He w…

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Paul Philippe Cret

Architect and teacher, born in Lyons, France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and emigrated to Philadelphia in 1903. Particularly prolific during the 1920s, he designed civic and memorial buildings in a modern classical style adapted to steel-frame construction. Among his projects is the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, DC (1928–32). He became professor of design at the Uni…

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Paul Poiret

Fashion designer, born in Paris, France. The son of a cloth merchant, he started to make sketches and sell them, eventually joining Jacques Doucet in 1896, and later Worth. In 1904 he set up on his own. He loosened and softened women's clothes, producing a more natural outline; his ‘hobble’ skirt became famous. In 1914 he was the first president of Le Syndicat de Défence de la Grande Couture Fr…

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Paul Prudhomme

Chef, born in Opelousas, Louisiana, USA. In his early teens he set off on a 12-year apprenticeship with chefs around the USA, then returned to Louisiana and started the first of several restaurants, Big Daddy's Patio. In 1979, he and his wife, K Hinrichs Prudhomme, opened K-Paul's Louisiana Kitchen in New Orleans, which became widely known for both its traditional cajun and creole cooking and his …

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Paul Radin - Sources/Further Reading

Cultural anthropologist and linguist, born in Lodz, Poland. His rabbi father took the family to Elmira, NY (1884) and he went on to graduate from the City College of New York (1902). He studied under Franz Boas at Columbia and received a PhD in 1911. He did extensive fieldwork among the Ojibwa and Winnebago Indians and in Mexico, and his Primitive Man as Philosopher appeared in 1927. He taught at …

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Paul Revere - Early years, The midnight ride, War years, Later years

US patriot and silversmith, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He was an excellent silversmith and ardent patriot, but a mediocre military leader. A member of the Sons of Liberty, he became the primary express rider for the Boston Committee of Safety, and his famous ride to Lexington (1775) was only the best-known of the many courier services he performed. He later was court-martialled and acquit…

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Paul Reynaud - Early life and politics, Return to government, Prime minister and arrest, Postwar life

French statesman and prime minister (1940), born in Barcelonnette, SE France. Originally a barrister, he held many French government posts, and was premier (Apr to Jun) during the fall of France in 1940. He resigned rather than agree to an armistice with Germany, and was imprisoned by the Germans for the duration of World War 2. Afterwards he re-entered politics until losing his seat in 1962, and …

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Paul Ricoeur - Biography

Philosopher and theologian, born in Valence, SE France. A pupil of Gabriel Marcel, he studied at the University of Paris, and became professor at Strasbourg (1948–56), Paris-Nanterre (1956–70), and Chicago (1970). Influenced by Heidegger, Jaspers, and Husserl, his wide-ranging works cover topics such as the essence of language, individual action and will, and freedom and evil. He was an influent…

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Paul Sabatier - Reference

Chemist, born in Carcassonne, S France. He studied at the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Collège de France, and became professor (1884–1905) and dean (1905–30) at Toulouse. He did notable work in catalysis, discovering processes important for the margarine, oil hydrogenation, and synthetic methanol industries, and shared the 1912 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Paul Sabatier (August 3, 185…

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Paul Sandby

Painter, born in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK, the brother of Thomas Sandby. He has been called the father of the watercolour school. His career began as a draughtsman, but later, living at Windsor with his brother, he made many drawings of Windsor and Eton. His watercolours, outlined with the pen and only finished with colour, take the purely monochrome drawing of this school one st…

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Paul Scarron

Writer, born in Paris, France. During his 20s the onset of paralysis forced him to take up writing for a living, and he produced many sonnets, madrigals, songs, epistles, and satires. He is best known for his realistic novel, Le Roman comique (1651–7, The Comic Novel). In 1652 he married Françoise d'Aubigné (later, Madame de Maintenon). Paul Scarron (c. July, 1610 - October 6, 1660), Fre…

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Paul Shorey

Classicist, born in Davenport, Iowa, USA. After studying in America and Germany, he taught at Bryn Mawr (1885–92) and the University of Chicago (1892–1927), where he was the first professor of Greek. A friend of the great classicist Basil Gildersleeve, he published extensively on Plato, Aristotle, and Greek metrics. He also founded Classical Philology and gave the University of California Sather…

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Paul Signac - Biography, Painter, Writer

Artist, born in Paris, France. He exhibited in 1884 with the Impressionists, and was later involved in the neo-Impressionist movement. With Seurat he developed Divisionism (but using mosaic-like patches of pure colour rather than Seurat's pointillist dots), mainly in seascapes. In his writing he sought to establish a scientific basis for his theories. Paul Signac (November 11, 1863 - August…

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Paul Simon

Singer, composer, and lyricist, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. The son of teachers (his father also played double bass in a radio orchestra), he met Art Garfunkel (1942– ) in the sixth grade at their Queens (New York City) public school. Sharing an interest in sports and pop music, they began to sing together while Simon played the acoustic guitar, and soon they were performing at local social …

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Paul Soldner

Ceramist, born in Summerfield, Illinois, USA. Influential as ceramics professor at Scripps College (Claremont, CA), he is responsible for establishing Japanese raku firing techniques in American ceramics through nationwide workshops. Paul Soldner (b.1921) is an American ceramic artist who is credited with several important advancements in the field and is viewed by many as one of the most i…

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Paul Strand - Early modernist work, Film-making, France, Strand’s politics

Photographer, born in New York City, USA. He studied under Lewis W Hine, became a commercial photographer in 1912, and followed Alfred Stieglitz in his commitment to ‘straight’ photography. He collaborated with Charles Sheeler in the documentary film Manhattan (1921), and in 1933 was appointed chief of photography and cinematography in the Secretariat of Education in Mexico. From 1935 he produce…

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Paul Tortelier

Cellist, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, and made his debut there in 1931. Before World War 2 he played in orchestras in Monte Carlo and Boston, then achieved worldwide recognition as one of the leading soloists on his instrument. His son Yan Pascal Tortelier (1947– ) and daughter Maria de la Pau Tortelier (1950– ) are highly gifted players of the violin and piano r…

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Paul van Ostaijen - Poetry, Other publications, External links (all in Dutch)

Poet and writer, born in Antwerp, N Belgium. His first work, Music-hall (1916), was relatively romantic, compared with his second publication, Het sienjaal (1918, The Signal), which was expressionist and showed his love for and faith in humanity. In 1918–21 he lived in Berlin, where he became disappointed and disillusioned. In De feesten van angst en pijn (1928, Feasts of Fear and Pain), publishe…

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Paul Vidal de La Blache

Geographer, born in Pézenas, S France. Educated at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, he taught there (1877–98) before becoming professor of geography at the Sorbonne (1898–1918). He advocated a regional geography based on the intensive study of small physically defined regions such as the ‘pays’ of France, and of the interrelations of people with their environment. The founder of modern…

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Paul Whiteman

Bandleader, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. He was a violinist in the Denver Symphony Orchestra (1912–15) and the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra (until 1918). After brief service in the US Navy during World War 1, he became the leader of the orchestra at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco (1919). He moved this band to engagements in Atlantic City and New York (1920), toured with it in Europe (1…

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Paula Gunn Allen - Anthropological writings and literary criticism, Creative writing, Awards, Bibliography

Poet, novelist, and scholar of Laguna and Sioux, born in Cubero, New Mexico, USA. Of mixed Laguna Pueblo, Sioux, and Chicano heritage, she is a poet and novelist who incorporates feminist issues in works exploring Indian culture and personal experiences. She was primarily associated with the Native American Studies programme at the University of California, Berkeley. Her books include The Woman Wh…

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Paula Radcliffe - Later career, 2004 Olympics, Achievements, Personal bests, Bibliography

Athlete, born in Northwich, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. She won the world junior cross-country title in 1992 and steadily developed as a distance runner, twice winning the world cross-country long-course gold medal (2001, 2002). Other achievements to date include 5000 m gold at the 2002 Commonwealth Games, 10 000 m gold at the 2002 European Championships, three times women's winner of the London…

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Paule Marshall - Works, Quote, External Links

Writer, born in New York City, USA. Her parents emigrated from Barbados during World War 1, and she grew up in Brooklyn during the Depression. She graduated from Brooklyn College and worked for Our World Magazine. Her first novel, Brown Girl, Brownstones (1959), is regarded as a classic of African-American literature. Later books include The Chosen Place (1969), The Timeless People (1969), Praises…

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Pauli exclusion principle - Connection to quantum state symmetry, Consequences

The principle that no two electrons (or other fermions) may occupy exactly the same quantum state; formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. The principle is necessary to explain why electrons in atoms do not all collapse into a single state. It is a fundamental principle of quantum theory. The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. It …

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Pauline Collins

Actress, born in Exmouth, Devon, SW England, UK. She studied at the Central School of Speech and Drama in London, and after regular stage appearances she became known in the popular television series Upstairs, Downstairs (1971–3). Later series include Forever Green (1989–91), with actor husband John Alderton (married 1969), The Ambassador (1998), and Bleak House (2005). Her film credits include …

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Pauline Cushman

Actress and spy, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Of Spanish and French descent, she was raised in a frontier settlement with Indian children. She joined the New Orleans ‘Varieties’ (1851) and by 1852 had come to New York City where she gained some reputation as an actress. She joined a travelling show in Kentucky (1863) and, though secretly working for the Federal espionage branch, she pret…

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Pauline Frederick - Career, Personal life

Journalist, born in Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, USA. An award-winning broadcast news correspondent known for her coverage of international affairs, she was a noted United Nations correspondent for the National Broadcasting Company (1953–74). Pauline Frederick (b. 19 September 1938, Beverly Hills, California) was an actress best known for her Hollywood films. Born Pauline Beatrice …

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Pauline Hanson - Early life, Political background, One Nation, "Death" video, Declining popularity, Criminal action

Politician, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. She stood as a Liberal candidate for Oxley in the Queensland parliament in 1966, but backing was withdrawn when she made derogatory remarks about Aborigines. She won the seat as an Independent, and went on to form her own party, One Nation. One of the most controversial figures to emerge in Australian politics in the 1990s, in the 1998 Austra…

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Pauline Kael - Biography, Style and Influences, Nixon "quote", Trivia, Secondary sources

Film critic and writer, born in Petaluma, California, USA. She studied philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley (1936–40) before working at a variety of jobs, including writing film reviews. In 1965 she moved to New York City (1965) and worked for Life magazine. From 1968 until her retirement in 1991, she was reviewer for the New Yorker, with a brief spell working for Paramount Pictur…

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Paulinus

Roman Catholic missionary, and first archbishop of York. Sent to England with St Augustine in 601, he was consecrated bishop in 625 and went N with Princess Æthelburh of Kent on her marriage to the pagan King Edwin of Northumbria. He baptized Edwin and all his court in York at Easter, 627, and was made Bishop of York, becoming archbishop in 633. Edwin's death at the hands of the pagan Penda of Me…

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Paulo (Reglus Neves) Freire - Life, Awards, Theoretical Contributions

Philosopher and educator, born in Recife, Brazil. After a short-lived career as a lawyer, he turned to teaching and became the first director of the Department of Cultural Extension at Recife University (1961–4). Regarded as a socialist pedagogue, following the military coup of 1964 he was briefly jailed and then exiled. In Geneva he was appointed special educational adviser for the World Congres…

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Paulus Buys

Dutch politician, born in Amersfoort, C Netherlands. He was a favourite of William I of Orange, whose francophile policy he supported, but after his death argued for an English alliance. In 1585 he was a member of the embassy to England, persuading Queen Elizabeth to agree the Treaty of Westminster, which resulted in Leicester bringing an army to the Low Countries. Appointed minister of state by L…

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pavane - History, Dance, Modern use

A stately dance of the 16th–17th-c, probably of Italian origin; the name may derive from the town of Padua. It was often linked to a livelier dance, generally in triple time, known as a galliard (from Fr ‘merry’). The pavane, or pavan, is a processional dance common in Europe during the 16th century. The term also describes the special music accompanying the dance, often paired with a li…

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Pavia - History

45°12N 9°09E, pop (2000e) 86 000. Capital town of Pavia province, Lombardy, N Italy, on R Ticino; linked with Milan by canal; railway; university (1361); iron and steel castings, textiles, sewing machines; cathedral (begun 1487), Church of San Michele (1155), Church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro (1132, restored 19th-c); Pavia–Venice motorboat race (Jun). Pavia (population 71,000, pronoun…

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PAYE

An abbreviation of pay as you earn, a UK taxation system whereby income tax is deducted from a worker's pay by an employer before handing over the wage. The employer is therefore responsible for collecting the tax on behalf of the government. The amount to be collected is determined from tables issued by the tax authorities, and by reference to each person's tax code, calculated at the start of ea…

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Pazyryk - Discovery, Tattooed chieftain, The "Ice Maiden", Attribution, External links

In the Altai Mts, C Siberia, a group of frozen tombs of prehistoric nomad chieftains perfectly preserved by permafrost since their deposition in timber-lined burial chambers in the 4th-c BC. Embalmed, tattooed bodies survived, as well as furniture, wooden plates, horse trappings, clothing, felt rugs, and Chinese silk. Cannabis-smoking equipment was also recovered. Pazyryk is a local name fo…

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Pazzi - The conspiracy, The Pazzi Chapel, Palazzo Pazzi (Palazzo Pazzi-Quaratesi), The Pazzi in fiction

A rich Florentine merchant family, enemy of the Medici, against whom it plotted (the Pazzi conspiracy, 1478). The conspirators included Pope Sixtus IV, his nephew Girolamo Riario, the Archbishop of Pisa, F Salviati, and Bernardo Bandini, who aided Iacopo and Francesco Pazzi in the killing of Giuliano de' Medici and the wounding of Lorenzo de' Medici during a Mass in Florence Cathedral. Their attem…

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pea

A botanical term used as a suffix, referring to several plants of the family Leguminosae, but especially to members of the genus Pisum. The distinctive flower is typical of most of the family, having an upright petal (the standard), two spreading petals (the wings), and two lower petals which are partly joined along their length, and surround the ovary and stamens (the keel); the whole is sometime…

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pea crab

A small crab that lives inside marine bivalve molluscs, such as mussels and oysters, usually in shallow waters; pale in colour; last pair of legs armed with hooks for holding onto the host. (Class: Malacostraca. Order: Decapoda.) …

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Peace Corps - Purpose and function, Executive orders, Directors of the Peace Corps, Further reading

An agency of volunteers funded by the US government, established in 1961. Volunteers, who usually offer vocational training, numbered more than 10 000 in 52 countries in 1966, but in the 1980s the corps was asked to leave some countries hostile to US policies. Development has paralleled that of similar agencies in France, Germany, and the UK, with more emphasis now on the recruitment of skilled, …

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peach - Nectarines, Cultivation, Peaches in Asian tradition, Trivia

A small deciduous tree (Prunus persica), growing to 6 m/20 ft; leaves elliptical to oblong, pointed, toothed; flowers pink, rarely white, appearing before leaves; fruit globular, velvety 4–8 cm/1½–3 in, yellow flushed red with thick sweet flesh, stone grooved. Its origin is obscure: possibly native to China, it has long been cultivated, often as an espalier. (Family: Rosaceae.) The P…

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Peadar O'Donnell - Early life: War of Independence and Civil War, Spanish Civil War, Writings

Revolutionary and writer, born in Meenmore, Co Donegal, N Ireland. He became a guerrilla republican leader, opposed the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, was captured in Civil War fighting, and escaped after a 41-day hunger-strike. Editor of An Phoblacht, the official IRA newspaper, he left the IRA in 1934, and fought for the Spanish Republic (1936–7). His editorship of the literary monthly, The Bell (194…

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Peak District - Geography, Geology, Ecology, Economy, Transport, History, Activities, Visitor attractions, Conservation issues

National park in NC England, UK; area 1404 km²/542 sq mi; established in 1951; mainly in Derbyshire, with parts in adjacent counties; limestone uplands and woodlands (S, E); limestone caves, major tourist attraction, notably at Peak Cavern, near Castleton; moorlands and crags (N), walking and climbing area; highest point, Kinder Scout, 727 m/2088 ft. The Peak District is an upland are…

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peanut

An annual (Arachis hypogaea), growing to 50 cm/20 in, native to South America; leaves divided into four elliptical or oval leaflets; pea-flowers yellow, growing downwards after fertilization and drawing the young pods into the soil, where they ripen underground; also called groundnut or monkey nut. It is widely grown for the edible seeds (peanuts), used in confectionery and as a source of peanut…

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pear

A deciduous, usually thorny tree or shrub, native to Europe and Asia; leaves narrowly lance-shaped to broadly oval; flowers white or pinkish, in flat-topped clusters, appearing before or with the leaves; fruit round or top-shaped as well as pear-shaped. Its characteristic gritty texture is caused by the presence of stone-cells in the flesh of the fruit. It is widely grown as an orchard tree and or…

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Pearl (Fay) White - Early life, Career Rise, Fame, Alcoholism, Selected filmography:

Film actress, born in Green Ridge, Missouri, USA. She began as a child actress and with her earnings bought a horse. By age 13 she rode well enough to join a circus as an equestrienne, but an accident forced her to quit the circus, so she returned to acting. Working as a secretary for a film company, she was signed to replace a lead in a Western, The Life of Buffalo Bill (1910). She appeared in do…

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Pearl Bailey

Vocalist and actress, born in Newport News, Virginia, USA. An irrepressible show-business personality, she began as a dancer and won an amateur contest in Philadelphia (1933), which led to work in touring shows. In 1938 she won a singing contest at Harlem's Apollo Theatre and was subsequently featured with big bands led by Noble Nissle, Edgar Hayes, Cab Calloway, and Cootie Williams, with whom she…

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Pearl Harbor - Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, Films and books, Ships currently homeported at Pearl Harbor

US deep-water naval base on the island of Oahu in the US Pacific Ocean state of Hawaii, adjacent to Honolulu. A treaty of 1887 granted the USA rights as a coaling and repair base, and a naval base was established in 1908, with completion of a major military dry dock in 1919. The surprise bombing of the base by the Japanese (7 Dec 1941), sinking or disabling 11 battleships and cruisers, plus smalle…

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Pearl Islands

pop (2000e) 3900. Panamanian island group in the Gulf of Panama, Central America; over 180 islands, the largest being Isla del Rey, chief town San Miguel; pearl fishing in colonial times; now a wide range of fishing. Pearl Islands (or Archipiélago de las Perlas in Spanish) is a group of islands on the Pacific side of Panama in the Gulf of Panama. Contadora was said to be used …

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Pearl Primus

Modern dancer and choreographer, born in Trinidad, British West Indies. Arriving in the USA as a child, she took pre-medical science courses at Hunter College in New York City, and fell into dancing almost by chance while looking for laboratory work in 1940. The first African-American accepted by the New Dance Group, she made her solo debut (1944) to great critical acclaim. A powerful and dramatic…

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pearlfish

Elongate and very slender fish widespread in tropical and warm temperate seas, living inside sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and other marine invertebrates; length up to 30 cm/12 in; tail pointed, dorsal and anal fins long, pelvics absent; includes European Echiodon drummondi. (Family: Carapidae, 2 genera.) Pearlfish is a general name for a variety of marine fish species in the Carapidae fami…

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pearlite - Reference

A type of steel formed by an intimate intergrowth of iron with iron carbide. It has a lustrous sheen. A two-phase microstructure found in some steels and cast irons; Pearlite is a two-phased, lamellar structure composed of alternating layers of ferrite (88 wt%) and cementite (12%) that occurs in steel. Comprehensive information on pearlite …

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Peary Land

Region of N Greenland on the Arctic Ocean, forming a mountainous peninsula; its N cape, Kap Morris Jesup, is the most northerly point of land in the Arctic; not covered by ice; explored by Peary in 1892 and 1900. Peary Land is a peninsula in northern Greenland, extending into the Arctic Ocean. It reaches from Victoria Fjord in the west to Independence Fjord in the south and southeast, and …

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Peasants' Revolt - Events leading to the revolt, First protests, Storming the Tower of London, Smithfield, Literary mention

An English popular rising of June 1381, among townsmen as well as peasants, based in Essex, Kent, and London, UK, with associated insurrections elsewhere. It was precipitated by the three oppressive poll taxes of 1377–81, the underlying causes being misgovernment, the desire for personal freedom, and an assortment of local grievances. It was quickly suppressed. The Peasants' Revolt, Tyler

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Peasants' War - Causes, Social classes in 16th century Holy Roman Empire, Class Struggle and Reformation, Final failure, Anabaptists

(1524–5) Probably the largest peasant uprising in European history, raging through Germany, from the Rhineland to Pomerania. It sought to defend traditional agrarian rights and establish social equality and justice against lords and princes. Appealing to notions of divine law fostered by the Lutheran Reformation, it was denounced by Luther, and suppressed by the princes. Over 100 000 rebels were…

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peat - Geographic distribution, Peat formation, Classification of peat material, Characteristics and uses, Environmental and ecological issues

The partially decomposed remains of plants which accumulate and are preserved in waterlogged conditions in areas of cool, humid climate. Because it is an anaerobic environment, it is a good medium for the preservation of archaeological remains and also bodies, such as Grauballe Man (whose death is radiocarbon-dated to between 1540 and 1740 years ago) in Denmark. It is the first stage in the format…

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peccary - Species, Gallery

A mammal native to forest and dry scrubland in Central and South America; an artiodactyl, a New World equivalent of the Old World pig, but smaller, with three (not four) toes on each hind foot; tusks grow downwards (not upwards). (Family: Tayassuidae, 3 species.) The peccaries (also known by its Spanish name, javelina or pecarí) are medium-sized mammals of the family Tayassuidae. …

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pectin - Biosynthesis, Chemistry, Medical uses, Sources

A complex molecule (a homopolysaccharide) especially rich in galacturonic acid. It functions as a cement-like material in plant cell walls, particularly young primary cell walls, and is abundant in fruits such as apples. Under acidic conditions, pectin forms a gel, and it can be used as an edible thickening agent in processed foods. They are synthesised in the plant's Golgi appa…

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Pedanius Dioscorides

Greek physician, born in Anazarbus, Cilicia. He wrote De materia medica, the standard work on the medical properties of plants and minerals for many centuries. Pedanius Dioscorides (c. Dioscorides is famous for writing a five volume book De Materia Medica that is a precursor to all modern pharmacopeias, and is one of the most influential herbal books in history. The Materi…

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pediment (architecture)

In classical architecture, a triangular section of wall above the entablature and enclosed by the sloping cornices, ie a low-pitched gable. A broken pediment is one where the sloping sides do not meet at the apex. A pediment, also called a fronton, is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section, the "tympanum" or "thympanon", found above the horizontal structure …

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pediment (earth science)

A gently sloping surface cut into bedrock where there is a change in gradient, such as at the foot of a steep mountain slope, and extending towards an alluvial or river plain. There is some controversy as to their origin: competing explanations include erosion by rivers flowing from the mountainous area, and the transport of soil downslope by running water not confined to channels. A pedime…

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Pedro Albizu Campos - Nationalist Campaign, Later Years and Death, Legacy

Revolutionary, born in Ponce, Puerto Rico, USA. He studied at Harvard (1916 BS, 1923 LLB), then joined the Nationalist Party (1924) and was the most prominent independentista of his time. He was jailed (1936–47) for advocating the violent overthrow of the US administration of Puerto Rico. He masterminded a 1950 nationalist uprising in Puerto Rico and was accused of being behind the assassination …

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Pedro de Alvarado

Conquistador, a companion of Cortés during the conquest of Mexico (1519–21), born in Badajoz, SW Spain. He became governor of Tenochtitlán, where the harshness of his rule incited an Aztec revolt. He was sent by Cortés on an expedition to Guatemala (1523–7), during which he also conquered parts of El Salvador. He returned to Spain, and in 1529 was appointed governor of Guatemala. Pedro…

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Pedro de Valdivia - The expedition, Conquest of Chile, New initiatives, The uprising of 1553

Spanish soldier, born near La Serena, W Spain. He went to Venezuela (c.1534) and then to Peru, where he became Pizarro's lieutenant (1538). He commanded the expedition to Chile (1540), and founded Santiago (1541) and other cities, including Concepción (1550) and Valdivia (1552). In 1559, he attempted with a small force to relieve Tucapel, which was being besieged by the Araucanians, and was captu…

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Pee Wee Russell

Jazz clarinet player, born in Maple Wood, Missouri, USA. He travelled the American Midwest with bands from age 16. In 1925, he worked in St Louis with Frankie Trumbauer (1901–56) and Bix Beiderbecke, and thereafter was associated with their coterie of Chicago-based Dixielanders. As part of the entrepreneurial troupe of Eddie Condon (1905–73) for nearly two decades, he played frequently at Nick's…

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Peebles - Location, Historic features and traditions, Facilities, Peebles Hydro

55°39N 3°12W, pop (2000e) 7500. Town in Scottish Borders, SEC Scotland, UK; on R Tweed, 33 km/20 mi S of Edinburgh; textiles, tourism; Tweeddale museum; mediaeval Neidpath Castle nearby; 13 km/8 mi SE, Traquair House (oldest inhabited house in Scotland); birthplace of William and Robert Chambers. Peebles 55°39′N 3°11′W (Gaelic: Na Pùballan) is a burgh in the committee area of …

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peerage - Divisions of the Peerage, Hereditary peers, Life peers, Styles and titles, Privilege of Peerage, Counterparts

In the UK, holders of the title of duke, marquess, earl, viscount, or baron (whether hereditary or for life), who make up, in that order of precedence, the titled nobility. Their privileges have been much reduced in recent years, especially after the 1999 reform of the House of Lords, but they remain exempt from jury service. The Peerage Act 1963 permits a person inheriting a peerage to disclaim i…

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Pegasus (astronomy)

The seventh-largest constellation, conspicuous in the N hemisphere, and best known for its large square of four stars, one of which actually belongs to the neighbouring constellation of Andromeda. In Greek mythology, Pegasus (Greek: Πήγασος (Pégasos)) was a winged horse that was the son of Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and the Gorgon Medusa. Descriptions vary as to…

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Pegasus (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a winged horse, which sprang from the body of Medusa after her death. Bellerophon caught it with Athene's assistance. Various fountains sprang from the touch of its foot, such as Hippocrene on Mt Helicon. Finally it was placed in the sky as a constellation. In Greek mythology, Pegasus (Greek: Πήγασος (Pégasos)) was a winged horse that was the son of Poseidon, in …

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Peggy (Gale) Fleming - Competitive highlights, Navigation

Ice skater, born in San Jose, California, USA. A skater from age nine, she won the world championship three times (1966–8), and an Olympic gold medal in 1968 in Mexico City, where her elegant style won her worldwide acclaim. After skating in professional revues, she served as a commentator for ABC television. Peggy Gale Fleming (born July 27, 1948 in San Jose, California) is an American fi…

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Peggy Charren - Quotations

Consumer activist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She founded an art prints store (1951) and ran Quality Book Fairs (1960–5) in Newton, MA. The mother of two children, she became upset at the violence and other defects she saw on children's television programmes, and in 1968 founded Action for Children's Television in her suburban home. Her watchdog group became a national organization tha…

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Peggy Glanville-Hicks - Biography, Music, External links and Resources

Composer, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. She studied at the Melbourne Conservatory, at the Royal College of Music, London, and with Vaughan Williams and Nadia Boulanger among others. She was music critic of the New York Herald Tribune (1948–58), and director of Asian Studies at the Australian Music Centre from 1975. She wrote several operas including Nausicaa (1961), and much work for…

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Peggy Lee - Life, Biographies, Albums, Filmography

Popular singer, songwriter, and film actress, born in Jamestown, North Dakota, USA. She grew up milking cows and made her singing debut on a local radio show. She went on to sing with dance bands in the late 1930s, finally joining Benny Goodman's band, with which she recorded her first hit, ‘Why Don't You Do Right?’ (1942). In 1944 she embarked on a successful solo career, singing in nightclubs,…

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pegmatite - Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Economic importance, Nomenclature, Occurrence

Very coarse-grained igneous rocks with varied and sometimes exotic mineralogy due to concentrations of the rarer elements. They are commonly associated with the later stages of granite crystallization in dykes and sills, and are the source of many gem-quality and uncommon minerals. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatite, with crystals usually over 50mm in size. S…

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Peig Sayers - Life, Peig

Gaelic story-teller, born in Dunquin, Co Kerry, SW Ireland. She lived most of her life on the Great Blasket I. The disappearance of Gaelic from most parts of Ireland made her powers of recollection and her hold on traditional narratives deeply respected by scholars. Her prose is recorded in Peig (1935, edited by Máire Ní Chinnéide) and Machtnamh Sean-Mná (1939, An Old Woman's Reflections, tran…

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Pelagius - Beginnings, Persecutions, Pelagius and the Doctrine of Free Will, Death and Later, Possible Influences on Pelagius

British or Irish monk. He settled in Rome c.400, where he disputed with St Augustine on the nature of grace and original sin. His view that salvation can be achieved by the exercise of human powers (Pelagianism) was condemned as heretical by Church Councils in 416 and 418, and he was excommunicated and banished from Rome. Nothing more is known of him after that date. Pelagius (c. …

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pelargonium - History and use, Image Gallery

An annual or perennial, native mainly to S Africa; often slightly succulent, leaves rounded or ivy-shaped, variously lobed; flowers in a range of colours in clusters. They include the so-called ‘geraniums’ of horticulture, which fall into three main types: regals have spectacular flowers; zonals have leaves with bands of colour; and ivy-leaved have lobed leaves and trailing stems. (Genus: Pelarg…

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Pelasgians - Classical Greek uses, Modern theories

The name given by the Greeks to the indigenous, pre-Greek peoples of the Aegean region. Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgians (Greek: Pelasgoí, s. The ancient Greek references to the Pelasgians are confusing. However, it is agreed that the Pelasgians had spoken something that was not entirely intelligible to the speakers of Greek dialects of their own time. Wheth…

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Peleus

In Greek mythology, the King of Phythia in Thessaly, who had to capture Thetis, a nereid, before he could marry her. The gods attended the wedding feast. He was the father of Achilles. In Greek mythology, Pēleús (Greek: Πηλεύς) was the son of Endeis and Aeacus, King of Aegina, and father of Achilles. Peleus and Telamon, his brother, killed their half-brother, Phocus and …

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pelican - Systematics

A large aquatic bird from warm regions worldwide; bill long, with lower part sack-like; face naked; eats fish and crustaceans. (Genus: Pelecanus, 8 species. Family: Pelecanidae.) A pelican is any of several very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae. From the fossil record, it is known that pelicans have been around fo…

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pellagra - Symptoms, Epidemiology, History

A nutritional disease which results from a deficiency of niacin (a vitamin of the B group). It is common in Africa due to a combination of a low niacin diet and malabsorption of food. In severe form it is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhoea, and dementia. Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the…

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Pellegrino Rossi - Biography, Selected works

Jurist and politician, born in Carrara, Tuscany, NW Italy. He lectured in criminal law at Bologna University, then after 1815 went into exile in Switzerland and lectured first in Geneva and then in Paris. Appointed French ambassador to the Papal States in 1845, he used his influence on Pope Pius IX to convince him to implement reforms to modernize the state. Pellegrino Rossi (July 13, 1787 …

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Pelopidas

Theban general and statesman. Together with his friend Epaminondas, he established the short-lived Theban hegemony over Greece in the 360s BC. After playing a prominent part in the Theban victory over Sparta at Leuctra (371 BC), he subsequently operated mainly to the N of Greece in Thessaly and Macedonia. He was killed in battle against Alexander of Pherae. Pelopidas (d. He was …

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Peloponnese - Geography, Cities, Archaeological sites, Political organisation

pop (2000e) 1 125 000; area 21 379 km²/8252 sq mi. Peninsular region of Greece, the most southerly part of the Greek mainland, to which it is linked by the Isthmus of Corinth; bordered N by a range of hills, highest peak Killini (2376 m/7795 ft); chief towns, Argos, Corinth, Patras, Pirgos, Sparta, Calamata; a popular holiday region. The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελ

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Peloponnesian War - Sources, Prelude, The "Archidamian War", Peace of Nicias, Sicilian Expedition, The Second War

(431–404 BC) The war waged throughout the Greek world on land and sea by the Spartans and their allies against Athens and her allies. The underlying cause was Athenian imperialism and the fear this produced in the chief mainland city-states, notably Corinth and Sparta itself. Despite its length, there were few decisive engagements; in fact, so evenly balanced were the two sides that the war ended…

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Pelops - Story of Pelops, Apocrypha, Pelops (son of Agamemnon), Spoken-word myths - audio files

In Greek mythology, the son of Tantalus. As a child, his father served him up to the gods; Demeter ate part of his shoulder, but it was replaced with ivory and Pelops was brought back to life. In order to marry Hippodameia, he bribed Myrtilus, the charioteer of her father Oenomaus, to put a wax linch-pin in his chariot-wheel; after Oenomaus' death he also killed Myrtilus, and this brought a curse …

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pelvic inflammatory disease - Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Differential Diagnosis, Prognosis, Complications, Treatment, Prevention

An infection of the uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and surrounding tissues. It is usually caused by bacteria spreading from the lower genital tract (vagina and cervix). Infection may occur during delivery of a baby or insertion of contraceptive intrauterine devices, but is most commonly due to sexually transmitted organisms, especially chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoea. Infection may…

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pelvis (abdomen) - Sexual differences

The lowest region of the abdominal cavity. It contains part of the gastro-intestinal tract (coils of the small intestine, appendix (sometimes), sigmoid colon, and rectum), part of the urinary system (the bladder), and some of the internal reproductive organs (the ovaries and uterus in females; the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland in males). …

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pelvis (bone) - Sexual differences

A ring of bone which forms the limb girdle of the lower limb, and serves to transmit forces from the lower limbs to the trunk. It consists of the two hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx. It gives attachment to muscles of the trunk and lower limbs. …

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pelycosaur

A carnivorous fossil reptile known from the Carboniferous to the late Permian periods, mostly in North America; skull mammal-like with a single opening behind orbit for insertion of jaw muscles; typically with expanded sail along back, used for temperature regulation and possibly for signalling. (Subclass: Synapsida. Order: Pelycosauria.) The pelycosaurs (from Greek pelyx meaning 'bowl' and…

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Pembrokeshire

pop (2001e) 112 900; area 1590 km² / 614 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in SW Wales, UK; drained by the R Cleddau; administrative centre, Haverfordwest; other chief towns, Fishguard, Pembroke, Tenby; ferries to Ireland (Rosslare) from Fishguard; agriculture, oil refining (Milford Haven), dairy products, fishing, tourism; Caldy I priory and monastery; castles at Pembroke, Cilgerr…

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PEN - The ballpoint pen

Initials standing for ‘poets, playwrights, editors, essayists, novelists’, an international association, founded by C A Dawson Scott in 1921, to promote friendship and understanding between writers, and to defend freedom of expression within and between all nations. Publications include PEN International (reviews), and PEN New Fiction and PEN New Poetry, in alternate years. Ballpoints, fo…

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pen - The ballpoint pen

A writing or drawing implement used with ink. The modern pen developed from brushes (as used in Chinese calligraphy), reeds, and quills. By the mid 19th-c, metal pen nibs fixed to wooden stems had largely replaced quill pens, though they also needed to be dipped continually in ink. This problem was finally solved in 1884 by L E Waterman's invention of the fountain pen, with its reservoir and capil…

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penance - Sacramental Penance, Symbol, Not Sacrament, Penance in non-Christian faith traditions, Eastern Catholic Churches

Both the inner turning to God in sorrow for sin, and the outward discipline of the Church in order to reinforce repentance by prayer, confession, fasting, and good works. In the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, penance is a sacrament. Penance (via Old French penance from the Latin Poenitentia, the same root as penitence, which in English means repentance, the desire to be forgiven, see…

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Penang - Climate, Demography, Character of Penang, History, State government, Economy, Food, Arts and Culture, Architecture, Tourism, Education

pop (2000e) 1 421 000; area 1044 km²/403 sq mi. State in NW Malaysia; a coastal strip on the NW coast of the Malay Peninsula and the island (pulau) of Penang in the Strait of Malacca; first British settlement in Malaya; capital, Pinang (formerly George Town); rice, rubber, tin. Penang (pronounced /pə'næŋ/) (Malay: Pulau Pinang; All three names can refer either to the island of Pen…

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pencil - History, Manufacture, Colour of pencils, Pencils in space, Miscellaneous

In art, originally a brush, a meaning still found in the 18th-c. Drawing sticks of graphite encased in wood were in use by the 17th-c, but modern hard and soft pencils, in which the graphite is mixed with clay and fired in a kiln, were first devised in France c.1790 by French inventor Nicholas-Jacques Conté (1755–1805). Readily erasable, the pencil lends itself to sketches and temporary notes, a…

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pendulum - Basic principles

In its simplest form, a weight, suspended by a wire or rod from a firm support, allowed to swing freely to and fro under the influence of gravity. For a support of length l, the time taken for a there-and-back complete swing, the period T, is , where g is acceleration due to gravity. The period does not depend on the weight of the bob nor on the size of the swing (for small swings), which is why p…

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Penelope - Role in the Odyssey, Suitors

In Greek legend, the wife of Odysseus, who faithfully waited 20 years for his return from Troy. She tricked her insistent suitors by weaving her web (a shroud for Odysseus' father, Laertes, which had to be finished before she could marry), and undoing her work every night. Penelope is the wife of the main character, the king of Ithaca, Odysseus (also known as Ulysses in Roman mythology), an…

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Penelope (Margaret) Lively - Bibliography

Novelist and children's author, born in Cairo, Egypt. She settled in England, UK and studied at Oxford. Her first books were for children, and include The Ghost of Thomas Kempe (1973), A Stitch in Time (1976), and The Revenge of Samuel Stokes (1981). Her adult novels include Judgement Day (1980), Moon Tiger (1987, Booker), City of the Mind (1991), Spiderweb (1999), The Photograph (2002), and Makin…

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Penelope (Mary) Fitzgerald - Early life, Literary career, Bibliography

Novelist and biographer, born in Lincoln, EC England, UK. She studied at Somerville College, Oxford. Her first publication was a biography of Edward Burne-Jones (1975), followed by a portrait of her father, Edmund Knox, editor of Punch, and his three brothers, entitled The Knox Brothers (1977). Her fiction includes Offshore (1979, Booker Prize), Innocence (1986),The Gate of Angels (1990), and The …

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penetrance

The extent to which the effects of a gene can be seen in the phenotype. A gene is fully penetrant if all individuals carrying it show its effects, as in achondroplastic dwarfism. A gene is of reduced penetrance if it has no detectable effect in some individuals proved by pedigree studies to be carrying it, as in brachydactyly (abnormal shortness of fingers and toes). Penetrance is a term us…

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penguin - Species and habitats, Evolution, Anatomy, Mating habits, Penguins in popular culture, Gallery

A flightless seabird, native to S hemisphere; wings modified as flippers; feathers small, waterproof; mouth lined with fleshy, backward-pointing spines; eats fish, squid, krill, etc. (Family: Spheniscidae, 18 species.) Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. The number of pengu…

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penicillin - History, Developments from penicillin, Mode of action, Variants in clinical use, Semi-synthetic penicillins

An antibiotic produced by the mould Penicillium. In 1928 at St Mary's Hospital, London, Fleming first noted its activity against the bacterium Staphylococcus when his culture plate accidentally became contaminated with the mould. The work was taken up and developed 10 years later by Florey, Chain, and others at Oxford. Its remarkable clinical activity in infectious diseases was first demonstrated …

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Peninsular War - Background, Progress of the war, The guerrilla war, Consequences in Portugal, Consequences in Spain, Personalities

(1808–14) The prolonged struggle for the Iberian peninsula between the occupying French and a British army under Wellington (formerly Wellesley), supported by Portuguese forces. Known in Spain as the War of Independence and to Napoleonic France as ‘the Spanish ulcer’, it started as a Spanish revolt against the imposition of Napoleon's brother Joseph as King of Spain, but developed into a bitter…

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penis - Structure, Linguistics, Puberty, Erection, Size, Normal variations, Disorders affecting the penis, Penis replacement

A part of the male urogenital system composed mainly of erectile tissue and traversed by the urethra. It has a fixed root and a mobile body. The erectile tissue consists of three longitudinal columns (two corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum). The urethra traverses the corpus spongiosum, which is considerably smaller than the corpora cavernosa. The free end of the corpus spongiosum expands …

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penitential psalms

A set of seven Old Testament psalms - Psalms 6, 32, 38, 51 (Miserere), 102, 130 (De Profundis) and 143, although differently numbered in the Vulgate and many Catholic versions - which have been used in Christian liturgy since at least the early Middle Ages, when they were regularly recited on Fridays during Lent. They are mainly laments, although not all are directly concerned with repentance of s…

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Pennsylvania - History, Demographics, Economy, Sports, Food, State symbols

pop (2000e) 12 281 000; area 117 343 km²/45 308 sq mi. State in E USA, divided into 67 counties; the ‘Keystone State’; one of the original states of the Union, second to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1787; first settled by the Swedish, 1643; taken by the Dutch, and then by the British in 1664; region given by King Charles II to William Penn, 1681; scene of many battles in the America…

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pennyroyal

A species of mint (Mentha pulegium) native to Europe and the Mediterranean, and also found in N America, with creeping, mat-forming stems, pale green leaves, mauve flowers, and strong, slightly peppermint, scent. It is used for soups and stuffings, and is sometimes grown as a lawn plant. As a mildly spicy tea, it is sometimes recommended for its physiological effects or as a herbal remedy. However…

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Penrose tiling - Drawing the Penrose tiling

A means of covering a flat plane with a pattern having five-fold symmetry. Common coverings have three, four, and six-fold symmetries, using triangles, squares and hexagons, respectively. A simple regular pentagon, having five sides and five-fold symmetry, cannot cover a plane without leaving gaps. Penrose tiling (1974) fills the plane using two tiles, called darts and kites. One dart and one kite…

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pension - Types of pensions, Financing, Pension systems in various countries, Peculiar pension systems for the public sector

A payment made to an individual who has retired from work, on a weekly or monthly basis, related to the wage or salary being earned before retirement. Company pension schemes operate by receiving contributions from employees and employers; the funds are invested, and the pensions are paid from the proceeds of the investment. In the UK, a state-pension scheme (SERPS, or State Earnings Related Pensi…

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pensionaris

The chief legal officer of a town or province in the Republic of the Northern Netherlands. He acted as secretary at municipal meetings, and as spokesman and regional representative at meetings of the States, having great influence at higher authority because of the permanence of his position. The legal officer of the States was the Raadspensionaris and grand pensionary of the States-General. …

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Pentagon - Constructing a pentagon

The central offices of the US military forces and the Defense Department, in Arlington, Virginia, USA. The complex, which was designed by G E Bergstrom and built 1941–3, covers 14 ha/34 acres. It is composed of five 5-storey, pentagonal buildings. A section of the complex was destroyed on 11 September 2001 when an aircraft was deliberately flown into it in a terrorist attack. The area of …

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Pentateuch - Contents

The five Books of Moses in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, comprising Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy; also called the Torah. Although attributed to Moses since ancient times, the works as a whole are believed by modern scholars to be composed of several discrete strands of traditions from various periods (such as an early Judean source ‘J’; a N Israelite source ‘E’; a pri…

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pentathlon

A five-event track-and-field discipline for women, seldom contested, having been replaced in 1981 by the seven-event heptathlon: the events of the pentathlon were the 100 m hurdles, shot put, high jump, long jump, and 800 m. Another form is the modern pentathlon, a five-sport competition based on miltary training. The events are cross-country riding on horseback, epée fencing, pistol shooting, …

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pentatonic scale - Types of pentatonic scales, Tuning, Further pentatonic musical traditions

A musical scale with five notes in the octave, most commonly equivalent to the first, second, third, fifth, and sixth degrees of the major scale. In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. Pentatonic scales are very common and are found all over the world, including but not limited to the tuning of the Ethiopian krar and the Indonesian gamelan, the melodies of…

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Pentecost (Christianity) - The Baptism of the three-thousand, Traditions and holidays, When is Pentecost?, Etymology

A festival day in the Christian calendar, some 50 days after the death and resurrection of Jesus (seven weeks after Easter Sunday), commemorating the event in Acts 2 when the Holy Spirit was said to have come upon Jesus's apostles in Jerusalem, enabling them to ‘speak in other tongues’ to those present. In Acts 2.1, this occurred on the Jewish feast of Pentecost. In the English Church, this day …

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Pentecostalism - Beliefs, Theology, History, Pentecostal denominations and adherents, Studies

A modern Christian renewal movement inspired by the descent of the Holy Spirit experienced by the Apostles at the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2). It is marked by the reappearance of speaking in tongues, prophecy, and healing. The movement began in 1901 at Topeka, KS, and became organized in 1905 at Los Angeles. Rejected by their own churches, new churches were established, commonly called ‘Pe…

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penumbra - Related usages

An area of partial shadow. A partial eclipse of the Sun is visible from within the penumbra of the Moon's shadow when it falls on the Earth. The term is also used for the lighter periphery of a sunspot, around the dark central umbra. A penumbra is the part of a 'shadow' where the electomagnetic radiation source (such as light) is only partially blocked. Part of the EM Radiation passes throu…

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Penzance - History, Twinning, Transport, Politics and government, Economy, Environment, Places of interest, Sport

50°07N 5°33W, pop (2000e) 21 100. Town in Cornwall, SW England, UK; chief resort town of ‘the Cornish Riviera’, 40 km/25 mi SW of Truro; railway; ferry and helicopter services to Scilly Is; island castle of St Michael's Mount situated 4·8 km/3 mi E; tourism, horticulture, clothing; Chysauster Iron Age village (N). Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the…

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peony

A perennial herb or shrub, native to Europe (especially Greece), Asia, and W North America; leaves divided into lobed leaflets; flowers large, showy, ranging in colour from white or yellow to pink or red, up to 15 cm/6 in across, with 5–10 petals and numerous stamens. Many species, hybrids, and cultivars are grown as ornamentals. (Genus: Paeonia, 33 species. Family: Peoniaceae.) …

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people's democracy

A term applied by Soviet communists and their allies in the Soviet satellite states to the stage of society during or soon after the takeover of power by themselves. They regarded the ‘people's democracy’ as a transitional stage of a society's development from capitalism to socialism, under close control by the communist party. In a people's democracy there was some form of machinery for mass pa…

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pepper (Capsicum) - Plants, Popular culture

A native to the New World tropics. Related to the potato and tomato, it has similar white flowers but entire, glossy leaves and large, fleshy, edible berries in a variety of shapes and colours. Its hot, spicy flavour is due to the chemical capsaicin, contained in the placenta. Used whole or ground into powder, peppers include paprika, chillies, cayenne pepper, and red pepper, plus numerous purely …

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pepper (Piper) - Plants, Popular culture

A tropical shrub or climber (Piper nigrum) with long, slender spikes of minute flowers and small hard fruits. The dried, unripe fruits are called black peppercorns. Removal of the outer layer yields white peppercorns. Both are used whole or ground as spice or condiment. (Family: Piperaceae.) Pepper may refer to: The Piper genus, in the Piperaceae family, including: T…

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pepsin

A digestive enzyme, present in the gastric juice of vertebrates, which breaks down dietary protein into polypeptides of various sizes. It is secreted into the cavity of the stomach by the chief cells of the stomach, as an inactive pro-enzyme precursor (pepsinogen), and converted into pepsin by gastric HCl. It is active only in the acid environment of the stomach. Seven related pepsins have been id…

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peptic ulcer - Classification, Symptoms and signs, Stress and ulcers, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, Epidemiology, History

The ulceration of a small part of the lining of either the stomach or the duodenum, caused by erosion by gastric acid. Symptoms range from mild indigestion to episodes of severe upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Complications include haemorrhage, which may be severe, and perforation, which can lead to peritonitis. Predisposing factors include smoking, alcohol, stress, and irritant drugs …

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peptide - Peptide classes, Peptides in Molecular Biology, Peptide families, Notes on terminology

A molecule obtained by the partial hydrolysis of proteins, a short chain (oligomer) of amino acids. Longer polymers (generally 50 or more amino acids) are called polypeptides or proteins. The amide linkage in proteins is known as a peptide linkage. One convention is that those peptide chains that are short enough to be made synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides …

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Per Albin Hansson

Swedish politician and prime minister (1932–46), born in Fosie, near Malmö, SW Sweden. The son of a bricklayer, he had little schooling before starting work aged 12 as an errand boy. He joined the Club of Socialist Youths in Malmö (1902) and began editing various socialist newspapers (1905–24). Elected an MP for the Social Democrat Party (1918), he served as minister of defence, (1920–6) and …

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Perak - History, Economy, Administration, Demography, Transport, Local Specialties

pop (2000e) 2 765 000; area 21 005 km²/8108 sq mi. State in W Peninsular Malaysia; bounded W by the Strait of Malacca; watered by the R Perak; capital, Ipoh; one of the wealthiest states in Malaysia since the discovery of tin in the 1840s; Kinta Valley, the leading tin-mining area; rubber, coconuts, rice, timber. For the football team, see Perak football team Perak (Jawi…

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Sir Perceval - Composition, Early performances of Parsifal, Plot, Criticism and Influence, Listening to Parsifal

In the Arthurian legends, a knight who went in quest of the Holy Grail. In the German version (Parzival) his bashfulness prevented him from asking the right questions of the warden of the Grail castle, so that the Fisher King was not healed. Parsifal is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner. In Wagner's opera the hero Parsifal recovers the spear used to pierce Jesus Christ during his cru…

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perch

Name used for many of the freshwater fish in the families Percidae and Centropomidae, as well as several similar species in other groups; includes European Perca fluviatilis, widespread in lakes and quiet rivers; deep-bodied, length up to 50 cm/20 in; green and brown with dark vertical bands; popular with anglers, and fished commercially in some areas. Perca is the genus of fish referred …

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perching duck

A duck of the tribe Cairinini (8 species), including the genera Aix, Nettapus, Callonetta, Cairina, Chenonetta, and Sarkidiornis. They nest in holes or (muscovy duck) in hollows. The tribe also includes four species of geese, called perching geese. The perching ducks ("Cairininae" or "Cairinini") were previously treated as a small group of ducks in the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae, …

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Percival Lowell - Biography, Astronomy career

Astronomer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the brother of Abbott and Amy Lowell. Born to wealth, he prospered in business, then spent the years 1883–93 in Asia, which he wrote about in such books as Soul of the Far East (1888). By the early 1890s he was concentrating on astronomy, and he used his personal fortune to build and staff an observatory (now the Lowell) in Flagstaff, AZ. From 1894 …

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Percivall Pott - Life, Reference

Surgeon, born in London, UK. He became assistant and then senior surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, where he introduced many improvements to make surgery more humane. He wrote Fractures and Dislocations (1765), in which he described a compound leg fracture suffered by himself, still called Pott's fracture, and gave a clinical account of tuberculosis of the spine called Pott's disease. Pe…

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percussion cap - History

A small container holding an explosive charge - a development of firearm technology in the early 19th-c which led to the modern centre-fire cartridge used in small arms. The fall of a hammer ignites the percussion cap, which in turn detonates the main propellant charge in the cartridge. The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention needed to make fire-arms that could fire in any we…

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Percy (Aldridge) Grainger - Biography, Notable works

Composer and pianist, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. A child prodigy on piano, he studied in Melbourne and Frankfurt, and became a travelling virtuoso based in London. After making a sensational US debut (1915) with the piano concerto by his friend Grieg, he remained in the USA for most of the rest of his life. He championed the revival of folk music in such works as ‘Molly on the Sho…

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Percy (Harrison) Fawcett - Early life and career, Two more unconfirmed findings

Explorer, born in Torquay, Devon, SW England, UK. He entered the army at 19, rose to become lieutenant-colonel, and after service in Ceylon, Hong Kong, and elsewhere was in 1906 given a border delimitation assignment on behalf of the Bolivian government. This led to several hazardous expeditions in the Mato Grosso area in search of traces of ancient civilizations. In 1925 he disappeared with his e…

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Percy (Lavon) Julian

Chemist and inventor, born in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The grandson of a former slave, he studied at DePauw University, IN, and at Harvard, then taught chemistry at Howard University. Denied a professorship at Harvard on account of his race, he returned to DePauw. There in 1935 he synthesized the drug physostigmine, used to treat glaucoma. In 1936 he became director of research for the soya produ…

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Percy (Wallace) MacKaye

Playwright and poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Harvard (1897), taught in New York City (1900–4), and then settled in Cornish, NH. He had a strong interest in pageants and in amateur community theatre, and his pageant The Canterbury Pilgrims (1903) was made into an opera by Reginald De Koven (1917). Other plays using historical material were Jeanne D'Arc (1906), Sappho an…

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Percy Bysshe Shelley - Life, Shelley in fiction, Advocacy of vegetarianism, Family history, Legacy, List of major works

Poet and political thinker, born at Field Place, near Horsham, West Sussex, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, but was expelled for his pamphlet, The Necessity of Atheism (1811). He eloped to Scotland with Harriet Westbrook, married her and settled in Keswick, where he was influenced by William Godwin, and wrote his revolutionary poem Queen Mab (1813). He formed a liaison with Godwin's daughter,…

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Percy Lubbock - Works

Critic and biographer, born in London, UK. He became librarian of Magdalene College, Cambridge (1906–8). Among his writings are The Craft of Fiction (1920), Earlham (1922), a book of personal childhood memories, and studies of Pepys (1909) and Edith Wharton (1947). Percy Lubbock (June 4, 1879-1 August 1965) was an English man of letters, known as an essayist, critic and biographer. He was …

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Percy Shaw

British inventor. In 1934 while operating a small road repair business in Halifax, West Yorkshire, he devised the idea of self-cleaning, reflective road studs (‘cat's eyes’). He set up a factory to manufacture them, and became a millionaire. Percy Shaw was born in Halifax in West Yorkshire in 1890, the son of Jimmy Shaw, a dyer’s labourer, who worked at a local mill. …

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Percy W(illiams) Bridgman - About Bridgman

Physicist, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He studied physics at Harvard (PhD), and stayed on to teach there (1908–54), though he much preferred laboratory research to the classroom. He invented an apparatus to create extremely high pressures, proving experimentally that viscosity increases with pressure. He used this apparatus for such discoveries as a new form of phosphorous and dry ice,…

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Percy Williams

Sprint athlete, born in Vancouver, SW British Columbia, Canada. Winner of the 100 m and the 200 m Olympic gold medals in 1928, tying the Olympic record at 10·6 s in the second round of the 100 m. In 1930 he improved the world record to 10·3 s in the 100 m and won the Canadian title, the same year he won gold medals at 100 y and the sprint relay at the first Empire Games in Hamilton, Canad…

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Perdiccas

Macedonian general, the second-in-command to Alexander the Great. He became virtually regent of the empire after Alexander's death, but was soon murdered by mutineers from his own army. Perdiccas (Greek: Περδίκας; died May—June 320 BC) was one of Alexander the Great's generals. After Alexander's death in 323 BC he became regent of all Alexander's empire. He was son of …

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peregrine falcon - Range, habitat and subspecies, Threats, Trivia, Peregrine Falcon webcams

A fast, agile falcon (Falco peregrinus), found virtually worldwide, often near sea cliffs or in mountains; eats birds; dives vertically on prey, or chases in flight; also known as duck hawk. A popular choice for falconry, its numbers are declining because of insecticide poisoning, as they feed on seed-eating birds which have eaten treated grain. The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), some…

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Peregrine White

Colonist, born on the Mayflower in Cape Cod Bay, USA. His parents were William and Susanna White, and he was the first English child born in New England (another child, Oceanus Hopkins, had been born at sea). He became a captain of militia and settled in Marshfield, MA. Peregrine White (November 20, 1620-July 20, 1704) was the first English child born to the Pilgrims in the New World. He wa…

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perestroika - The perestroika program, Unforeseen results of reform, Conspiracy theories involving perestroika, Further reading

The process of ‘reconstructing’ Soviet society through a programme of reforms initiated from 1985 by General Secretary Gorbachev. Such reforms, meant to be consistent with the ideals of the 1917 revolution, were directed at relaxing state controls over the economy, eliminating corruption from the state bureaucracy, and democratizing the Soviet communist party and the workplace to strengthen work…

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perfect competition - Results, The shutdown point, Examples

A market situation described in economic theory where there are many buyers, many sellers, products are indistinguishable from each other, and there is perfect knowledge. The actions of any one individual cannot affect the market. Perfect competition is an economic model that describes a hypothetical market form in which no producer or consumer has the market power to influence prices. Firm…

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Pergamum (Asia Minor)

An ancient city in NW Asia Minor, which in Hellenistic times was the capital of the Attalids. Under their patronage it became a major centre of art and learning; its school of sculpture was internationally renowned, and its library came second only to that of Alexandria. Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, 39°7′N 27°11′E) was an ancient Greek c…

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Periander

Tyrant of Corinth, successor to his father, Cypselus. Under him, Corinth's power and position in the Greek world developed further, and he cultivated extensive links with foreign rulers. Later tradition remembered him as an example of a repressive tyrant, yet he was also included in the canon of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. The tyranny came to an end soon after his death. Periander (Greek:…

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Pericles - Early years, Political career until 431 BC, Peloponnesian War, Personal life, Assessments

General and statesman, of the aristocratic Alcmaeonid family, who presided over the ‘Golden Age’ of Athens, and was virtually its uncrowned king (443–429 BC). Politically a radical, he helped push through the constitutional reforms that brought about full Athenian democracy (462–461 BC). A staunch opponent of Sparta, it was his unremitting hostility to her and her allies that brought about the…

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periodic function - General definition, Translational symmetry

In mathematics, a function such that f(x + a) = f(x) for all x. If a is the smallest positive constant for which this is true, a is called the period. The commonest periodic functions are sine and cosine; the period of sin kx is 2?/k. In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values after some definite period has been added to its independent variable. …

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periodic table - Methods for displaying the periodic table

The method of listing the chemical elements in terms of increasing atomic number, so that the rows represent increasing occupancy of an electron subshell, and the columns represent equivalent numbers of valence electrons. The original table of Mendeleyev (1869) was based on atomic weight, but had several successes in predicting the existence and chemical properties of undiscovered elements. …

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peripheral nervous system (PNS) - Naming of specific nerves, Cervical spinal nerves (C1-C4)

That part of the nervous system arranged into a large number of nerves, which connects the central nervous system with other tissues of the body. It is divided into an autonomic part, involved in involuntary (automatic) responses, and a somatic part, comprising in humans the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and some 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which are involved in voluntary acts and in monitoring the ex…

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periscope - Early examples, Naval use

An optical instrument for viewing an object concealed from view by a barrier (usually higher than the observer's eye-level). The basic principle is the use of two mirrors, parallel but separated by some distance: light from the object being observed reaches the first mirror, is reflected downwards, then reflected again at the second mirror, its whole path being somewhat in the form of a Z. The eff…

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peritoneum - Development

The fluid-secreting lining of the abdominal cavity and part of the pelvic cavity. During embryonic development it becomes twisted and folded, because of the relative growth of different parts of the gastro-intestinal tract. The majority of the tract is suspended from the rear abdominal wall by folds of peritoneum. Peritoneal ligaments attach less mobile structures to the abdominal walls. St…

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peritonitis - Diagnosis and investigations, Causes, Treatment, Prognosis

Inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane lining the abdominal cavity, by infection or by irritant substances. The peritoneum may be regarded as the ‘policeman’ of the abdomen, in the sense that leakage from the stomach or intestine (as occurs in a perforation) causes layers of the peritoneum to stick to each other and confine the infection to a limited area; for example, a perforated appendi…

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periwinkle (botany)

An evergreen, creeping herb of the dogbane family (Apocynaceae), originally native to the island of Madagascar, now found in Europe, W Asia, and N Africa; slender, arching, or trailing stems; leaves oval, in opposite pairs; flowers white, mauve, or blue-purple, tubular with five flat, asymmetric lobes. Main species: common periwinkle (Genus: Catharanthus roseus) and lesser periwinkle (Genus: Vinca…

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perjury - Famous persons convicted of perjury

A crime committed by a person who, when giving evidence in a court under oath (or having affirmed or declared), deliberately makes a false statement or a statement which he or she does not believe to be true even if it is in fact true. The crime is essentially one of disregarding the oath: someone who makes several such false statements during a single case may be convicted of only a single perjur…

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Perkin Warbeck

Pretender to the English throne, born in Tournai, W Belgium. In 1492 he was persuaded by enemies of Henry VII to impersonate Richard, Duke of York, the younger of the two sons of Edward IV who had been murdered in the Tower of London (1483). With the promise of support from many quarters in England, Ireland, Scotland, and on the European mainland, he made two unsuccessful attempts to invade Englan…

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Perlis - History

pop (2000e) 233 000; area 818 km²/316 sq mi. State in NW Peninsular Malaysia, bounded N by Thailand, SW by the Strait of Malacca; smallest state in Malaysia; Langkawi Is lie offshore; capital, Kangar; rice, rubber, coconuts, tin. Perlis (Jawi ڨرليس) in full Perlis Indera Kayangan, is the smallest state in Malaysia. The capital of Perlis is Kangar and the royal capital…

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Perm - History, Sports

58°01N 56°10E, pop (2000e) 1 092 000. Industrial capital city of Permskaya oblast, NE European Russia, on R Kama; founded, 1723; airfield; railway; university (1916); heavy engineering, chemicals, oil refining, clothing, footwear. Perm (Russian: Пермь, IPA: [pʲɛrmʲ]) is a city in and administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia. During the early middle ages, t…

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permafrost - Continuous and discontinuous permafrost, Permafrost extent, Time to form deep permafrost, Construction on permafrost

Perennially frozen ground in low temperature regions of the Earth. It is underlain at depth by unfrozen ground, and also overlain by an active surface layer which thaws in summer and refreezes in the autumn. The pressure produced by the downfreezing from the surface on the unfrozen and moisture-laden lower part of this active zone may be released by cracking of the frozen surface layer, causing se…

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permalloy

An alloy of iron and nickel or iron and cobalt, which is easily magnetized and demagnetized, developed by Swedish engineer Gustav Elmen. The high magnetic permeability of permalloys is very useful for parts of electrical machinery subject to rapidly alternating magnetic fields. Their importance was realized in 1920 by the communication and telephone industry to make deep-sea communication telegrap…

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permeability

The ratio of magnetic flux density B in some material to the applied magnetic field strength H; symbol µ, units H/m (henrys per metre); B = µH. The permeability of the vacuum µo = 4? × 10?7 H/m is a fundamental constant appearing throughout magnetism. Equivalently, permeability µ is the ratio of magnetic field (the magnetic flux density B) produced in a material enclosed by some soleno…

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permittivity - Explanation, Vacuum permittivity, Permittivity in media, Measurement, Suggested readings

A measure of the degree to which molecules of some material polarize (align) under the influence of an electric field; symbol ?, units F/m (farads per metre). The permittivity of the vacuum is exactly 1/(µ0c2), where µ0 is the permeability of the vacuum and c is the velocity of light, giving the permittivity as ?o = 8·854 × 10?12 F/m, a universal constant appearing throughout electricity.…

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Peronism - Peronist policies, Peronism as fascism, Legacy

A heterogeneous Argentine political movement formed in 1945–6 to support the successful presidential candidacy of Juan Domingo Perón and his government thereafter. The movement later underwent division, some left-wing Peronists forming the Montoneros guerrilla group, but it survived Perón's death (1974). Despite continued internal disputes, the party won the presidency again in 1989. The ideolo…

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peroxide - Colloquial meaning, Organic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry

A compound containing the ion O22? or the group –O–O–. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important oxidizing agent and bleach. Organic peroxides are explosive. Peroxide has three distinct meanings: In common usage, peroxide is an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH or H2O2) sold for use as a disinfectant or mild bleach. This refers to the relative volume of oxygen gas …

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perpetual motion - Basic principles, Techniques, Invention history, Apparent "perpetual motion" machines, Perpetual motion in pop culture

Literally, motion which is never ending. The term usually refers to ‘perpetual motion machines’ that invariably violate energy conservation and represent their inventors' optimism. An example would be a car powered by a windmill whose blades are driven by the flow of air due to the car's motion. Superfluidity and the flow of electrical current in superconductors are examples of literal perpetual…

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Perpignan

42°42N 2°53E, pop (2000e) 111 000. Market town and resort capital of Pyrénées-Orientales department, S France; near the Spanish border, 154 km/96 mi S of Toulouse; settled in Roman times; capital of former province of Roussillon; chartered, 1197; scene of Church Council, 1408; united to France, 1659; road and rail junction; university (14th-c); trade in olives, fruit, wine; tourism; citade…

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Perqu - Geography, Economy, History

A verse-form consisting of a series of octosyllabic couplets to pose rhetorical questions usually preceded by a redondilla or quintilla linked with the verse couplet abba, ac, cd, de, ef. The first recorded perqué is a 14th-c satire by Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. Other practitioners of the form included Alonso Núñez Reinoso, Jiménez de Urrea, Garcí Sanchez de Badajoz, Juan del Encina, and Cerva…

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Perry - Real Perry, Commercial Light Perries

41º45N 81º08W, pop (2000e) 1200. Town in Lake Co, Ohio, USA; founded in 1815 and named in honour of Oliver Hazard Perry; incorporated, 1913; birthplace of William B Allison; maple sugar industry. Perry or pear cider is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. It is similar to cider, in that it is made using a similar process and often has a similar alcoholic content, aro…

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perry - Real Perry, Commercial Light Perries

An alcoholic beverage made from fermenting pears. Sour pears contain a high level of tannin, which make them unsuitable for eating. Perry is produced commercially in the UK, Germany, and France, and is especially popular in the UK. Perry or pear cider is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. It is similar to cider, in that it is made using a similar process and often has a sim…

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Perry (Gilbert Eddy) Miller - Books by Perry Miller

Literary historian and educator, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He was educated at the University of Chicago and taught American history at Harvard (1931–63), with time out to serve in World War 2. He pioneered the serious historical study of colonial literature and theology in his most influential work, The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century (1939), reinterpreting the Puritans through th…

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Perry Como - Early years, Professional singer, Television, A farewell concert from Ireland, Death, Trivia, Long Play Albums

Popular singer, born in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, USA. As a young man he worked as a barber. He sang with the Ted Weems band for six years and recorded many hit records in the 1940s and 1950s, including ‘Temptation’ (1945). His popularity on radio and on his television show, The Kraft Music Hall, earned him his nickname. Known for his smooth baritone crooning, he released the hit song ‘It's Imp…

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Perseids

A major meteor shower visible for a week or so before and after peaking on 12 August each year, the date on which the Earth crosses the orbit. The maximum hourly rate is c.70 meteors. They appear to radiate from the constellation Perseus, from which they take their name. This shower is associated with Comet Swift-Tuttle (discovered in 1862, reappeared in 1992), and consists of stony debris left by…

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