Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 54

Cambridge Encyclopedia

New York Yankees

Baseball team, founded as the New York Highlanders in 1903 and renamed the Yankees in 1913. Theirs is the most famous name in American sport, called by Sports Illustrated magazine ‘dynasty of dynasties’, winners of a record 26 World Series and 38 American League championships. Between 1949 and 1964 the Yankees won 14 AL championships in 16 seasons, including five consecutive World Series wins (1…

less than 1 minute read

New Zealand - History, Government, Foreign relations and the military, Local government and external territories, Geography, Flora and fauna

Local name Aotearoa (Maori) New Zealand is a country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean comprising two large islands (the North Island and the South Island) and numerous smaller islands, most notably Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands. In Māori, New Zealand is also known as Aotearoa, which is usually paraphrased in English as the Land of the Long White Cloud. The Realm…

less than 1 minute read

Newark (UK) - Places

53°05N 0°49W, pop (2000e) 33 400. Town in Nottinghamshire, C England, UK; at junction of a branch of the Trent and Devon Rivers, 25 km/15 mi SW of Lincoln; railway; foodstuffs, brewing, engineering, agricultural machinery, gypsum, limestone; Newark Castle place of King John's death; repeatedly under siege in Civil War. …

less than 1 minute read

Newark (USA) - Places

40°44N 74°10W, pop (2000e) 273 500. Seat of Essex Co, NE New Jersey, USA; port on the Passaic R and Newark Bay; largest city in the state (but a 16% decline in population between 1980 and 1990); an important road, rail, and air centre; settled by Puritans from Connecticut, 1666; city status, 1836; scene of race riots, 1967; airport; railway; university (1934); chemicals, electrical equipment; …

less than 1 minute read

Newbury - People, Places, Other

51º25N 1º20W, pop (2001e) 34 800. Town in W Berkshire, S England, UK; on R Kennet, 27 km/17 mi SW of Reading; birthplace of Francis Baily and Sir Alastair Pilkington; two English Civil War battles fought here (1643, 1644); racecourse; Greenham Common nearby; controversial by-pass opened, 1998; Vodafone headquarters, engineering, furniture, paper, cardboard, electronics, pharmaceuticals. …

less than 1 minute read

Newcastle (Australia) - Places, Other

32°55S 151°46E, pop (2000e) 472 300. City and major port in New South Wales, Australia; on the E coast, situated at the mouth of the Hunter R, 160 km/100 mi N of Sydney; founded as a penal settlement, 1804; scene of Australia's biggest earthquake (1989); the lower Hunter region contains the wine growing and resort area of Pokolbin; airfield; railway; university (1965); City Art Gallery has c…

less than 1 minute read

Newcastle (UK) - Places, Other

54°59N 1°35W, pop (2001e) 259 600. Administrative centre of Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK; part of Tyneside urban area; 440 km/273 mi N of London, on R Tyne, crossed by eight bridges; cultural, commercial, and administrative centre for the NE of England; site of a Roman bridge and fort; by legend an Anglo-Saxon monastic centre and town (‘Monkchester’); Norman castle founded 11th-c, rebuilt…

less than 1 minute read

Newcastle-under-Lyme - History, Economy, Transport, Politics, Education, Sites and Attractions, Sport, Famous people, Other Newcastles, Bibliography

53º00N 2º14W, pop (2001e) 122 000. Town in Staffordshire, C England, UK; 3 km/1¾ mi W of Stoke-on-Trent; birthplace of Philip Astley, Vera Brittain, Thomas Harrison; railway; high-technology industries, brick and tile manufacturing. Newcastle-under-Lyme, known simply as "castle" to many local people, is a busy market town/small city in Staffordshire, England, not to be confused with …

less than 1 minute read

Newfoundland (Canada) - First inhabitants, Discovery, colonization, and settlement, Reputation, Points of interest and major settlements

pop (2000e) 636 200; area 405 720 km²/156 648 sq mi. Island in E Canada, part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, separated from Labrador by the Strait of Belle Isle; a roughly triangular island, rising to 814 m/2671 ft (W); mainly a rolling plateau with low hills; a deeply indented coastline; several peninsulas, lakes, and rivers; Gros Morne National Park on W coast (area 1942…

less than 1 minute read

Newfoundland (zoology) - First inhabitants, Discovery, colonization, and settlement, Reputation, Points of interest and major settlements

A breed of dog, developed in Newfoundland; large, very thick-set, with an enormous heavy head; broad deep muzzle and small ears and eyes; very thick, black, double-layered, water-resistant coat; webbed feet. Newfoundland is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the tiny French ov…

less than 1 minute read

newly industrialized countries - Brief economic analysis, Historical Context, The Present Day

The formerly less developed countries which have built up considerable industrial production and exports over recent decades. This group includes the four ‘Asian Tigers’, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan, and also countries such as China, India, Malaysia, and Thailand in Asia, and Brazil and Mexico in Latin America. Newly industrialized countries account for an increasing proportion…

less than 1 minute read

Newport (Isle of Wight) - Regeneration, Transport, Education, Employment, Government, History

50°42N 1°18W, pop (2000e) 21 800. River port, market town, and administrative centre of Isle of Wight, S England, UK; on the R Medina, 8 km/5 mi from its mouth; Parkhurst prison nearby; construction equipment, valves, printing; 12th-c Carisbrooke Castle. Newport (Welsh: Casnewydd) is the third-largest city in Wales (after Cardiff and Swansea). Standing on the banks of the River Usk, i…

less than 1 minute read

Newport (Kentucky) - Regeneration, Transport, Education, Employment, Government, History

39º05N 84º27W, pop (2000e) 17 000. Seat of Campbell Co, Kentucky, USA; located near the confluence of the Ohio and Licking rivers; founded, 1791; named for Captain Christopher Newport who sailed the first English ship to Jamestown (1607); given charter, 1795; developed as a military outpost until 1893; birthplace of Thomas Anshutz and John T Thompson; East Row Historic District has many fine r…

less than 1 minute read

Newport (Rhode Island) - Regeneration, Transport, Education, Employment, Government, History

41°29N 71°19W, pop (2000e) 26 500. Seat of Newport Co, SE Rhode Island, USA; port at the mouth of Narragansett Bay; settled, 1639;city status, 1853; haven for religious groups, including Quakers and Jews; railway; several US Navy establishments; shipbuilding, electrical goods, jewellery, precision instruments; many palatial mansions (eg the Breakers), the sloop Providence, Tennis Hall of Fame;…

less than 1 minute read

Newport (Wales) - Regeneration, Transport, Education, Employment, Government, History

pop (2001e) 137 000; area 191 km² / 74 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in SE Wales, UK; administrative centre, Newport, on R Usk; steel, aluminium, electronics, chemicals, market gardening; Roman fort at Caerleon. Newport (Welsh: Casnewydd) is the third-largest city in Wales (after Cardiff and Swansea). Standing on the banks of the River Usk, it is the cultural capital and…

less than 1 minute read

news agency - Notable international news agencies, Commercial newswire services, Free online newswire services

An organization providing a general or specialized news service. Agencies range from large, publicly-quoted companies (eg Reuters) and state-owned concerns (eg Xinhua) to small private operations. Clients, especially the media, subscribe to the continuous (wire) service provided by the major agencies, or buy individual items locally. A news agency is an organization of journalists establish…

less than 1 minute read

newspaper - Content, Types of newspaper, Format, Circulation and readership, Advertising, Newspaper journalism, The future of newspapers

A regularly published account of recent events. Modern newspapers are printed, usually by offset lithography, on large sheets, folded once and inserted one within another, and published at daily, weekly, or (occasionally) monthly frequencies. Predecessors of the modern newspaper included official information sheets, as in the Roman Acta Diurna, hung in public places, and mediaeval manuscript news …

less than 1 minute read

newt - Characteristics, Development, Distribution

An amphibian of order Urodela; resembles the salamander, but adults spend summer or entire year in water; breeds in water; young (called the eft stage) live on land for 1–7 years. (Genera: Triturus, Taricha, Notophthalmus, Pleurodeles, Echinotriton. Family: Salamandridae.) Newts are small, usually bright-coloured semiaquatic salamanders of North America, Europe and North Asia, distinguishe…

less than 1 minute read

newton - Conversions

SI unit of force; symbol N; named after Isaac Newton; defined as the force which causes an acceleration of 1 m/s2 for an object of mass 1 kg. …

less than 1 minute read

Newton (Kansas) - Conversions

38°02N 97°22W, pop (2000e) 17 200. Town in Harvey Co, Kansas, USA; founded in 1871 and named by a group of Santa Fe Railroad stockholders after their hometown of Newton, MA; located 45 km/28 mi N of Wichita; large Mennonite population; Union Pacific and Burlington Northern/Santa Fe railroads; county courthouse; birthplace of Errett Bishop and Jesse M Unruh. …

less than 1 minute read

Newton (Massachusetts) - Conversions

42º21N 71º12W, pop (2000e) 83 800. Town in Middlesex Co, E Massachusetts, USA; on the Charles R, residential suburb 11 km/7 mi W of Boston; birthplace of Stephen Bailey, Matt LeBlanc, Ann Sexton, Charles A Stone; railway; light industries. …

less than 1 minute read

Newtonian telescope - Advantages of the Newtonian design

The first usable astronomical telescope with a parabolic mirror rather than a lens to focus light, and an internal flat mirror to deflect the image to an eyepiece, thus eliminating colour distortions. This optical arrangement is still popular for low-cost amateur telescopes. The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-17…

less than 1 minute read

Ngugi wa Thiong'o - Bibliography

Writer, born in Limuru, WC Kenya. He studied at Makerere and Leeds universities, and taught English at Nairobi University, where he became chairman of the department of literature (1972–7). His award-winning novel Weep Not, Child (1964) was the first novel in English by an East African. The theme of Kenya's struggle for independence is further explored in later novels, The River Between (1965), A…

1 minute read

Nguni - Social organization, Religion

A cluster of Bantu-speaking peoples of S Africa. Originally occupying present-day Natal and Transkei, they expanded rapidly in the early 19th-c in a series of migrations. The main groups today include the Zulu, Swazi, and Xhosa of South Africa and Swaziland; the Ndebele of Zimbabwe; and the Ngoni of Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania. All groups are organized under the control of powerful chiefs aided b…

less than 1 minute read

Niagara Falls - Formation, Impact on industry and commerce, Preservation efforts, The falls in entertainment and popular culture, Tourism

Two waterfalls in W New York, USA and S Ontario, Canada; between L Erie and L Ontario, on the international border; American Falls 55·5 m/182 ft high, 328 m/1076 ft wide; Canadian Falls, known as Horseshoe Falls, 54 m/177 ft high, 640 m/2100 ft wide; separated by Goat Island; Cave of the Winds behind the American Falls; Rainbow Bridge (1941) between Canada and USA below the falls; part of …

less than 1 minute read

Niamey

13°32N 2°05E, pop (2000e) 569 000. River-port capital of Niger; 800 km/500 mi NW of Lagos (Nigeria); airport; railway terminus; university (1971); textiles, metals, food processing, ceramics, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; markets selling cloth, leather, iron and copper craftwork; national museum, zoo, botanical gardens. Niamey, population 674,950 (2002 census), is the capital …

less than 1 minute read

Nias - Administration, Surfing, Culture, Transportation, Tsunami and earthquakes of 2004 and 2005

Island in the Indian Ocean, 125 km/78 mi off the W coast of Sumatra, Indonesia; 240 km/159 mi long by 80 km/50 mi wide; airfield; chief town, Gunungsitoli; populated by the agricultural Niah tribe; headhunting and human sacrifice recorded here as late as 1935; notable prehistoric stone sculptures; severely damaged by earthquake, Mar 2005. Nias (Indonesian: Pulau Nias, Nias language: T…

less than 1 minute read

NICAM - History of NICAM, How NICAM works, NICAM's unusual features, VHS recording of NICAM audio

An acronym for near instantaneously companded [ie compressed and expanded] audio multiplex, a digital system used in television transmissions which provides high-quality stereophonic sound. First used by the BBC in 1986, it is now found in several other countries. A decoder attached to a television set enables the viewer to receive stereo sound along with any television programme which has recorde…

less than 1 minute read

Nicaragua - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Further reading

Official name Republic of Nicaragua, Span República de Nicaragua Nicaragua (Spanish: República de Nicaragua, IPA [re'puβlika ðe nika'raɰwa]) is a democratic republic in Central America. The country's name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited the shores of Lago de Nicaragua before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and the Spanis…

less than 1 minute read

Nice - Administration, History, Culture, Places of interest, Education, Miscellaneous, Sources and References

43°42N 7°14E, pop (2000e) 358 000. Fashionable coastal resort on the Mediterranean Sea, and capital of Alpes-Maritimes department, SE France; encircled by hills on the Baie des Anges, 157 km/98 mi NE of Marseille; fifth largest city in France; airport; railway; university (1965); leading tourist centre; textiles, perfume, soap, olive oil, fruit, furniture; flower market in old town; cathedra…

less than 1 minute read

Nicene Creed - Nomenclature, History, Text

An expanded formal statement of Christian belief, based on the creed of the first Council of Nicaea (325). This is still publicly recited as part of the Eucharistic liturgies of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, as well as many Protestant Churches. The Nicene Creed, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed or Icon/Symbol of the Faith, is the most widespread Christian statement of faith. …

less than 1 minute read

Nichiren Buddhism - The founder, Nichiren, Schools, Doctrine and practices, Nichiren's writings

A sect founded by the Japanese Buddhist reformer Nichiren (1222–82); sometimes called the Lotus sect, because of his claim that the Lotus Sutra contained the ultimate truth. He attacked other forms of Buddhism, and called the nation to convert to true Buddhism. There are almost 40 subsects today. Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shūha) is a branch of Buddhis…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas (de Belleville) Katzenbach - Early life, Government service, Later years

Attorney general, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A prisoner of war in Germany (1943–5) and a Rhodes Scholar (1947–9), he was admitted to the New Jersey bar (1950), and became a member of the law firm, Katzenbach, Gildea & Rudner, in Trenton, NJ. He was general counsel to the Secretary of the Air Force while serving part-time as associate professor of law at Yale University (1952–6). H…

1 minute read

Nicholas (John Turney) Monsarrat - Life, Work

Novelist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, abandoned law for literature, and wrote three novels, and a play, The Visitors, which reached the London stage. During World War 2 he served in the navy, and out of his experiences emerged his best-selling novel, The Cruel Sea (1951, filmed 1953). The Story of Esther Costello (1953) repeated that success, followed by…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas (Philip) Trist

Lawyer and diplomat, born in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. He attended West Point but left to study law in the office of Thomas Jefferson (whose granddaughter he married). He entered the State Department in 1828 and was consul in Havana, Cuba (1833–41). Chief clerk of the State Department from 1845, he went to Mexico (1847) to negotiate an end to the war with Mexico. When charges that he was co…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Breton

Poet, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford and became a prolific writer of all kinds of verse, prose, and pamphlets. His best-known poem is ‘The Passionate Shepheard’ (1604). His prose Wits Trenchmour (1597) is a fishing idyll on which Izaak Walton drew for The Compleat Angler. Nicholas Breton (also Britton or Brittaine) (1545?-1626), English poet and novelist, belonged to an old fami…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Culpeper - Life, His Philosophy of Herbalism and Medicine, Influence of Culpeper's Work

Astrologer and physician, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and in 1640 began to practise astrology and medicine in Spitalfields. In 1649 he published an English translation of the College of Physicians' Pharmacopoeia, A Physical Directory, for which he was virulently lampooned, and in 1653 appeared The English Physician Enlarged, or the Herbal. Both books had an enormous sale. N…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Ferrar

Anglican clergyman and spiritual mystic, born in London, UK. After studying medicine, and a brief period in politics, he became a deacon in the Church of England (1626). At Little Gidding in Huntingdonshire he founded a small religious community which engaged in constant services and perpetual prayer, while carrying out a range of crafts, such as bookbinding. It was broken up by the Puritans in 16…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen

Economist, born in Constanza, Romania. After earning a mathematics degree from the University of Bucharest and a doctorate in statistics from the University of Paris, he emigrated to the USA in 1947. He spent two years teaching at Harvard before accepting a professorship at Vanderbilt University, where he remained until his retirement in 1976. His early achievements were based on highly technical …

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Grimald

Poet and playwright, born in Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge, became Ridley's chaplain, but recanted under Queen Mary I. He contributed 40 poems to Tottel's Songes and Sonettes (1557), known as Tottel's Miscellany, and translated Virgil and Cicero. He also wrote two Latin verse tragedies on religious subjects. Nicholas Grimald (or Grimoald) (1519-1562), En…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Hawksmoor - Hawksmoor's six London churches

Architect, born in East Drayton, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. His most individual contributions are the London churches, St Mary Woolnoth, St George's (Bloomsbury), and Christ Church (Spitalfields), as well as parts of Queen's College and All Souls, Oxford. He then worked for a time with Sir John Vanbrugh, helping him build Blenheim Palace for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, whe…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Herkimer

American soldier, born near present-day Herkimer, New York, USA. A veteran of the French and Indian War, he was made brigadier-general of militia when the American Revolution began, and was given responsibility for defending the Mohawk Valley of upstate New York against the British troops, the Loyalists, and their Indian allies. Wounded in an ambush near Oneida, NY (Aug 1777), he rallied sufficien…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Hilliard

Court goldsmith and miniaturist, born in Exeter, Devon, SW England, UK. He worked for Elizabeth I and James I, and founded the English school of miniature painting. Nicholas Hilliard (c.1547 – bur.January 7, 1619), the first true English miniature painter born in England, is said to have been the son of Richard Hilliard (1519–1594) of Exeter, Devon, England high sheriff of the cit…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas II

Pope (1058–61), born in Lorraine, NE France. During his short pontificate, his many reforms included issuing the Papal Election Decree (1059), in an effort to reduce political interference in papal elections by requiring the pope to be elected only by the college of cardinals. He favoured the elimination of simony, and attempted to eliminate the abuse and alienation of ecclesiastical property. …

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Longworth - Early years and education, Professional life and entry into politics, Majority Leader and Speaker, Legacy

US representative, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. The son of a wealthy, prominent Cincinnati family, he graduated from Harvard University and the University of Cincinnati Law School. He entered Republican politics, serving in the Ohio house (1899–1901) and senate (1901–3) before going to Congress (Republican, Ohio, 1903–13 and 1915–31). In 1906 he made a brilliant match when he married Alice L…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Mosley - Select novels

Writer, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, joined the army (1942–6), and published his first novel, Spaces of the Dark in 1951. Later novels include The Rainbearers (1955), Accident (1964, filmed by Joseph Losey in 1967), Hopeful Monsters (1990, Whitbread Prize), Children of Darkness and Light (1996), and Look at the Dark (2005). Among other works are a 2-volume biography of his parents, S…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Ray - Selected filmography

Film director, born in La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA. After studying architecture under Frank Lloyd Wright, he became an actor and occasional director for radio and the stage. His film directorial debut came with They Live by Night (1949). A specialist in depicting social rebellion, characterized by tense and restless camera movement, his films include Knock on Any Door (1949), Rebel Without a Cause (…

less than 1 minute read

Nicholas Udall

Playwright, born in Southampton, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became (c.1534) headmaster of Eton. His dismissal in 1541 for indecent offences did not affect his standing at court, and Edward VI appointed him prebendary of Windsor. He made many classical translations, but is chiefly remembered as the attributed author of the first significant verse comedy in English, Ralph Ro…

less than 1 minute read

Nicias

Wealthy politician and general, from Athens, prominent during the Peloponnesian War. A political moderate, he was opposed to the strident warmongering of Cleon and Alcibiades, and arranged the short-lived peace named after him (421 BC). Appointed commander in Sicily (416 BC), his lack of sympathy with his mission, along with bad luck, ill health, and sheer incompetence, led to the total destructio…

less than 1 minute read

Nick Faldo - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He had early successes in winning the Professional Golf Association championships in 1978, 1980, and 1981, and in 1987 won the Open Championship at Muirfield, UK, in appalling conditions, winning again in 1990 and 1992. In 1989 he won the US Masters, successfully defended his title in 1990, and won it again in 1996. His 23 Ryder Cu…

less than 1 minute read

Nick Johnson - Minor league career, Major league career, Injury, Awards

US government official and broadcast activist, born in Iowa City, Iowa, USA. A University of Texas Law School graduate, he fought for broadcast reform as a Federal Communications Commissioner (FCC) (1966–73). He wrote How to Talk Back To Your TV Set (1970), a manual for consumer advocates, and headed the National Citizens Communication Lobby in 1975. After leaving the FCC, he taught law at variou…

less than 1 minute read

Nick Nolte - Background, Quotes, Filmography

Film actor, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. He was thirty-five before he made his debut in the television mini-series Rich Man, Poor Man (1976), and achieved commercial success in 48 Hours (1982). Later films include Down and Out in Beverly Hills (1986), Lorenzo's Oil (1992), Jefferson in Paris (1995), Hotel Rwanda (2004), and Neverwas (2005). Nolte was born in Omaha, Nebraska. His father, Fr…

less than 1 minute read

Nick Park

Film animator and director, born in Preston, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He studied at Sheffield Hallam University (1980), and went on to study animation at the National Film and Television School in Beaconsfield, near London. In 1985 he joined Aardman Animations in Bristol, where his work included A Grand Day Out (1989), introducing the plasticine characters of Wallace and his dog Gromit. The fil…

less than 1 minute read

Nick Price - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Durban, E South Africa. His family moved to Zimbabwe, where he began playing golf as a child. At age 17 he won the Junior World Tournament in San Diego, and turned professional in 1977. Notable wins include the PGA World Series (1983), the United States PGA Championship (1992, 1994), and the British Open (1994). He finished the 1994 PGA tour as top money winner, having earned nearl…

less than 1 minute read

Nick Ross - Early life, Career, Away from broadcasting

Broadcaster and journalist, born in London, England, UK. He studied at Queen's University, Belfast, and joined the BBC in Northern Ireland in 1971. Moving to London, he became a reporter on such programmes as World At One, Today, and Newsdesk, becoming nationally known for his investigative reporting in Call Nick Ross (from 1987). He has also presented a wide range of news and discussion televisio…

less than 1 minute read

nickel

Ni, element 28, density 8 g/cm3, melting point 1450°C. A silvery metal, most commonly obtained from pentlandite, a complex sulphide of nickel and iron; it occurs uncombined only in some meteorites. The metal, which is weakly ferromagnetic, forms a protective oxide coating, and is used in coinage and cutlery, both as the free metal and as an alloy with copper (German silver). It is also an import…

less than 1 minute read

Nicola Fabrizi

Italian patriot and politician, born in Modena, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He took part in the 1831 Modena risings, escaping first to France and then to Malta. Back in Italy he fought for the Roman Republic (1849) and helped Carlo Pisacane and Giuseppe Garibaldi with their expeditions. He fought with Garibaldi at Aspromonte (1862) and in the 3rd Independence War in 1866. He became a deputy of the le…

less than 1 minute read

Nicola Pisano - Early life, Pulpit of the Pisa baptistery, Shrine of Saint Dominic (Bologna)

Sculptor, architect, and engineer, probably born in Apulia, SE Italy. His first great work was the sculpted panels for the pulpit in the Baptistery in Pisa, finished in 1260, whose powerful dramatic composition was carved in high relief. He collaborated with his son Giovanni on a pulpit for the cathedral at Siena (1268), and on the Fontana Maggiore in Perugia. Although working in a traditional Got…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolaas Beets

Poet, novelist, and essayist, born in Haarlem, W Netherlands. He was a minister of the church and later a professor of theology. His first literary works were Byronic poems, but he is best known for the famous Camera Obscura (1839), published when he was still a student in Leiden. He continued writing literary and theological essays and poetry until a grand old age. Nicolaas Beets (13 Septe…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolaas Bloembergen - Honors

Physicist, born in Dordrecht, The Netherlands. After completing studies at the State University of Leiden in his homeland, he went to the USA (1946) to take up a post as a research assistant at Harvard. He returned to the State University of Leiden to take his PhD (1947–8) but then came back to Harvard as a junior fellow, joining the faculty in 1951 and becoming the Gordon McKay professor of appl…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolai Gedda - Autobiography

Tenor, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at the Stockholm Academy, and made his operatic debut in Le Postillon de Longjuneau (1952) in Stockholm, which led to appearances in Paris and London. He sang most leading lyrical tenor roles in opera repertory, specializing in works by Lehár. The Swedish tenor Nicolai Gedda (born July 11, 1925) is a famous opera singer and recitalist. …

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas (Jack) Roeg - Spouses, Filmography, Further reading

Film director, born in London, UK. A noted cinematographer in the 1960s, his directorial career began in collaboration with Donald Cammell on Performance (1970). He made his debut as solo director with Walkabout (1971). Other films include Don't Look Now (1973), The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976), The Witches (1990), and Two Deaths (1996). …

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Cage - Filmography

Film actor, born in Long Beach, California, USA. He made his film debut in a small role in Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982), and became well known after his appearances in The Cotton Club (1984) and Peggy Sue Got Married (1986). He won critical acclaim for his performance as a suicidal alcoholic in Leaving Las Vegas (1995, Oscar). Later films include The Rock (1996), City of Angels (1998), Brin…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult - Biography, Works

French marshal, born in Saint-Amans-la-Bastide, S France. Created marshal of France by Napoleon in 1804, he led the French armies in the Peninsular War (1808–14) until defeated at Toulouse (1814). A skilled opportunist, he turned Royalist after Napoleon's abdication, but joined him in the Hundred Days, acting as his chief-of-staff at Waterloo. Exiled at the Second Restoration (1815) until 1819, h…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Lancret

Painter, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Académie de Peinture, and under Claude Gillot. He owed his popularity to his depictions of ‘fêtes galantes’, paintings of balls, fairs, and village weddings, which show the influence of Watteau. His works include L'Hiver and Le Moulinet. In 1719 he was elected to the Académie. Nicolas Lancret (January 22, 1690 - September 14, 1743), Fre…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Leblanc - Earlier days, The Leblanc process, Final days

Chemist and physician, born in Issoudun, C France. He trained as a physician, and became surgeon to the future Duke of Orléans in 1780. He devised a cheap, simple process for making sodium carbonate, essential in making glass, soap, and other chemicals. In 1791 he was granted a patent for his invention, and built a factory for its production. However, his factory was confiscated by the Revolution…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Louis de Lacaille - Principal Works

Astronomer, born in Rumigny, NE France. From 1750 to 1754 he led an expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, where he was the first to measure the arc of the meridian in South Africa, compiled a catalogue of nearly 10 000 S stars, Coelum Australe Stelliferum (1763, Star Catalogue of the Southern Sky), and introduced 14 new S constellations. Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (March 15, 1713 – M…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Malebranche

Philosopher, born in Paris, France. He joined the Catholic Oratorians in 1660, and studied theology until Descartes' works drew him to philosophy. His major work is De la recherche de la vérité (1674, Search after Truth), which defends many of Descartes' views, but explains all causal interaction between mind and body by a theory of divine intervention known as occasionalism. …

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Poussin - Early career, Early years in Rome, Poussin in France, Works, Historical reception of Poussin

Painter, born near Les Andelys, NW France. He went to Rome in 1624, and spent the rest of his life there, apart from a short visit (1640–2) to Paris. The greatest master of French Classicism, deeply influenced by Raphael and the Antique, his masterpieces include two sets of the ‘Seven Sacraments’ (1636–40, 1644–8). Nicolas Poussin (15 June 1594–November 19, 1665) was a French painter…

less than 1 minute read

Nicolas Slonimsky

Conductor, composer, and musicologist, born in St Petersburg, Russia. After studies in piano and composition at the St Petersburg conservatory, he went to the USA (1923) and embarked on a peripatetic career that centred during the 1920s and 1930s on conducting, with an emphasis on modern composers and occasional composing. He later turned to writing, most notably Music Since 1900 (4th edn 1971) an…

less than 1 minute read

Nicole (Mary) Kidman - Filmography, Discography, Awards

Film actress, born in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. At age four she moved with her parents to Sydney, Australia. As a schoolgirl she attended a local theatre group and, encouraged by director Jane Campion, made a notable film debut in Bush Christmas (1983). Her US breakthrough came with Dead Calm (1989), and success followed with Billy Bathgate (1991), To Die For (1995), Practical Magic (1998), and Eyes …

less than 1 minute read

Nicosia - History, Administration, Interesting sites, Transportation, Sports, Culture, Twinnings, Famous Nicosians

35°11N 33°23E, pop (2000e) 187 300. Capital city of Republic of Cyprus; on R Pedias, in the C of Mesaoria plain; capital since 12th-c; ‘Green Line’ divides the city into northern (Turkish) and southern (Greek) sectors; agricultural trade centre; textiles, food processing, cigarettes; old city surrounded by Venetian-built walls (late 16th-c); technical institute (1968); Cathedral of St John; …

less than 1 minute read

nicotine - Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Therapeutic uses, History and name, Further reading

C10H14N2. An alkaloid derived from pyridine, found in the leaves of the tobacco plant. It is a poisonous and addictive material, usually indulged in for its relaxing properties. It is also used as an insecticide. Nicotine is a hygroscopic, oily liquid that is miscible with water in its base form. Because of this, most nicotine is burned when a cigarette is smoked; Pharmacokineti…

less than 1 minute read

Niel Gow - Biography, Compositions

Violinist and songwriter, born in Inver, Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK. He composed nearly 100 tunes, and from his collection of Strathspey reels and singular skill with the bow, his name is still a household word in Scotland. Gow was born in Inver, Perthshire, as the son of John Gow and Catherine McEwan. He was widely considered the best fiddle player in Perthshire, an area which was r…

less than 1 minute read

Niels (Henrik David) Bohr - Biography, Kierkegaard's influence on Bohr, Relationship with Heisenberg, Books about Bohr

Physicist, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He studied at Copenhagen University, went to England to work at Cambridge and Manchester, and in 1920 founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, which he directed until his death. He greatly extended the theory of atomic structure when he explained the spectrum of hydrogen by means of an atomic model and quantum theory (1913). During World W…

less than 1 minute read

Niels (Wilhelm) Gade - Reference, See Also

Composer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He began as violinist, but on a royal grant studied at Leipzig, and became a friend of Schumann and Mendelssohn. He composed eight symphonies, a violin concerto, several choral works, and a number of smaller pieces. The Scandinavian element in his music distinguishes him from the Leipzig school. Gade was born in Copenhagen, the son of a joiner and inst…

less than 1 minute read

Niels Henrik Abel - See Also

Mathematician, born in Finnøy, N Norway. He showed mathematical genius by the age of 15, and in 1823 proved that there was no algebraic formula for the solution of a general polynomial equation of the fifth degree. He developed the concept of elliptic functions independently of Carl Gustav Jacobi, and the theory of Abelian integrals and functions became a central theme of later 19th-c analysis. …

less than 1 minute read

Niels Ryberg Finsen - The early years, Studies in medicine, Illness and death, Memory

Physician and scientist, born in the Faroe Is, Denmark. He studied and taught anatomy at the University of Copenhagen. He discovered the curative power of light, founded phototherapy, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1903. Niels Ryberg Finsen (December 15, 1860 – September 24, 1904) was a Faroese/Danish physician and scientist. Niels Finsen was bor…

less than 1 minute read

Nigel (Marlin) Balchin - Works

Novelist, born in West Lavington, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, after which he combined writing with his work as an industrial psychologist. During World War 2 he was scientific adviser to the Army Council, from which experience he wrote two well-known novels: Darkness Falls from the Air (1942) and The Small Back Room (1943). Later novels explore the problems of psychologicall…

less than 1 minute read

Nigel (Paul) Kennedy - Career, Discography, Instruments, Trivia

Violinist, born in Brighton, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He studied at the Yehudi Menuhin School, London, and the Juilliard School, New York City. He made his debut as a concert soloist in 1977, and has since played with many of the world's major orchestras, and alongside jazz violinist Stéphane Grappelli. He is noted for his unconventional style of dress, as well as for his remarkable playing a…

less than 1 minute read

Nigel Mansell - Complete Formula One results, Family

Motor-racing driver, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He entered Formula 1 racing in 1980. From 176 Grand Prix starts, he won 29 races from 26 pole positions. In 1992 he retired from Formula 1 racing after winning the driver's championship with eight wins. He joined the Haas-Newman Indy car racing team in the USA, becoming Indy car champion in 1993, his first year, briefly returne…

less than 1 minute read

Nigel Short

Chess player, born in Atherton, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He won the British Championship in 1977, became an international master in 1980, and in 1984 was the UK's youngest ever grandmaster. In 1993 he beat Jan Timmen to become the first UK grandmaster to qualify for a World Championship match, but was defeated by Gary Kasparov. He resigned from FIDE (the international chess organization) in 199…

less than 1 minute read

Nigella Lawson - Biography, Career

Journalist and cookery writer, born in London, England, UK. The daughter of politician Nigel Lawson, she studied medieval and modern languages at Oxford (1979) and went on to pursue a successful career in journalism, becoming deputy literary editor of The Sunday Times. Working as a freelance writer, she began a restaurant column in The Spectator and later wrote the food column for Vogue. Her first…

less than 1 minute read

Niger - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Foreign relations, Defense, Demographics, Culture, Media, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Republic of Niger, Fr République du Niger Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked sub-Saharan country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. 'the Niger parliament', 'Niger leader slain' or 'Niger's capital', 'Niger's people'. The citizens of Niger use the adjective 'nigérien'. Niger was an important economic crossroad,and the empir…

less than 1 minute read

Nigeria - History, Government and politics, Geography and climate, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Sport, Societal issues

Official name Federal Republic of Nigeria Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa and the most populous country on the African continent. Nigeria shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, Niger in the north, and borders the Gulf of Guinea in the south. The people of Nigeria have an ex…

less than 1 minute read

night heron

A short, stocky heron, found worldwide; inhabits water margins; eats small aquatic animals; usually feeds at night. (Tribe: Nycticoracini, 8 species.) …

less than 1 minute read

Night of the Long Knives - Background, The purge

The event which took place in Germany (29–30 Jun 1934) when the SS, on Hitler's orders, and with the pre-arranged support of the German army, murdered Röhm and some 150 other leaders of the Sturmabteilung (SA ‘storm troopers’). The aim was to crush the leftist political aspirations of the SA and to settle old political scores. Up to 1000 political opponents of Hitler and other Nazi leaders wer…

less than 1 minute read

nightjar - Species

A nocturnal bird of the widespread family Caprimulgidae (c.70 species); mottled brown with short bill; spends day camouflaged on ground or along branch; inhabits woodland or desert; eats insects. The name is also used for the tree nightjar (Family: Nyctibiidae) and the owlet nightjar (Family: Aegothelidae). Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very shor…

less than 1 minute read

nihilism - Etymology, Nihilism in Philosophy, Nihilism in America, Nihilism in Art, Further reading, Books on Nihilism

A term invented by Turgenev in connection with his character, the revolutionary Bazarov, in Fathers and Sons and later applied to other members of the Russian radical intelligentsia. It popularly denotes the disillusioned rejection of conventional moral values and institutions. Nihilism is a philosophical position, often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche (though he considered it something…

less than 1 minute read

Niki Lauda - Complete Formula One results

Motor-racing driver, born in Vienna, Austria. He was world champion racing driver in 1975, 1977 and 1984. In 1976 he suffered horrific burns and injuries in the German Grand Prix at the Nürburg Ring. Despite a series of operations, he remained a contender for the 1976 Japanese Grand Prix, but finally declined to race because of adverse weather conditions. He then refuted rumours that he had lost …

less than 1 minute read

Nikki Giovanni - Life, Works

Poet and writer, born in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. She studied at Fisk University, Tennessee (1960–1, 1964–7 BA), the University of Pennsylvania (1967), and Columbia University (1968). Based in Cincinnati, she taught at many institutions, including Mount St Joseph on the Ohio (1985). An African-American activist, she spoke out on family issues, as in The Woman and the Men (1975). Yolanda…

less than 1 minute read

Nikola Tesla - Early years, Middle years, Death and afterwards, Relations and friendships, Personal views, Education, Recognition and honors

Electrical engineer and inventor, born in Smiljan Lika, Croatia. He studied in Austria and Czechoslovakia, and worked as an electrical engineer in Paris before arriving in the USA (1884) to seek support for one of his inventions. He went to work for Thomas Edison, but resigned (1885) and set up his own laboratory. Never good at personal relations or business, he was forced out of his firm, but he …

1 minute read

Nikolaas Tinbergen - Origins, Contributions

Ethologist, born in The Hague, The Netherlands, the brother of Jan Tinbergen. He graduated in zoology at Leyden, and later taught there, and from 1947 at Oxford. His major concern was with the patterns of animal behaviour in nature, showing that many are stereotyped. His research covered several species, in relation to camouflage, learning behaviour, courtship, and aggression, and he also studied …

less than 1 minute read

Nikolai (Andreyevich) Rimsky-Korsakov - Legacy, Synesthesia, Overview of compositions

Composer, born in Tikhvin, NW Russia. Educated at the naval academy in St Petersburg, his early musical education was perfunctory, but his interest was kindled after meeting Balakirev in 1861. He sailed as a midshipman on a sailing ship (1862–5), after which he wrote his first symphony (1865). In 1871 he was made a professor at the St Petersburg Conservatory, where he was able to develop his tech…

less than 1 minute read

Nikolai (Vasilievich) Gogol - Provenance and early life, Literary evolution, Creative decline and death, Style, Influence and interpretations

Novelist and playwright, born in Sorochintsi, C Ukraine. In 1829 he settled in St Petersburg, and became famous through two masterpieces: Revizor (1836, The Inspector General), a satire exposing the corruption and vanity of provincial officials, and a novel, Myortvye dushi (1842, Dead Souls). He also wrote several short stories. He lived abroad for many years, mostly in Rome (1836–46), but return…

less than 1 minute read

Nikolai Yezhov - Biography

Soviet secret police chief, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia. A provincial party official, he was appointed by Stalin as head of the NKVD (1936), led the purge of army officers, and staged the show-trials (1937–8) that removed many of Stalin's potential rivals. He was replaced by Beria in December 1938, disappeared two months later, and is presumed to have suffered the same fate as his victims. …

less than 1 minute read

Nikolaus Lenau

Poet, born in Csatád, Banat, Hungary. His life has been viewed as that of a typical late Romantic figure, suffering from “Weltschmerz’ and an inability to come to terms with reality. Sporadic studies in Vienna were followed by a ruinous trip to Pennsylvania (1932), several failed engagements, and finally mental illness, dying in a madhouse. His poems of nostalgia, longing, and suffering are con…

less than 1 minute read

Nikolay Zabolotsky - Life and Influences, Work

Poet, born in the Russian provinces, who produced all his work during the Soviet era. During the experimental period of Russian art in the 1920s he was a member of the Oberiu (Society for Real Art) Movement. His collection of satirical poems, Columns (also translated as Scrolls), appeared in 1929. In 1938 he was arrested on trumped-up charges of conspiracy, and spent the next eight years in prison…

less than 1 minute read

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652–8), born in Veldemanovo, near Nizhni Novgorod, W Russia. He married and entered the clergy, but the death of his three children moved him to seek solitude in the Solovetski monastery on the White Sea. While visiting Moscow, he greatly impressed the young Tsar Alexey and Patriarch Joseph, who appointed him abbot of the Novospassky monastery there. His good works gained hi…

less than 1 minute read

Nikos Kazantzakis - Biography, Literary work, Quotes, Bibliography

Writer, born in Heraklion, Crete, Greece. He studied law at Athens, spent some years travelling in Europe and Asia, and published his first novel in 1929. He is best known for the novel Vios kai politia tou Alexi Zormpa (1946, trans Zorba the Greek, filmed 1964) and the epic autobiographical narrative poem, Odissia (1938, trans The Odyssey, a Modern Sequel). Nikos Kazantzakis (Νίκος Κ…

less than 1 minute read

Nilde Iotti

Italian politician, born in Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. A member of the Italian Communist Party, she became a deputy in 1946. She became a member of the party's leadership in 1962, and was president of the chamber of deputies from 1979 to 1992. Leonilde Iotti, commonly known as Nilde Iotti (April 10, 1920 - December 4, 1999) was an Italian politician, president of the Italian Ch…

less than 1 minute read

nimbus

Another word for the halo, circular or square, which surrounds the heads of sacred persons in much religious art. Originating on Greek vases, it is common in Roman art, from whence it was taken over by the early Christians. Buddha, too, occasionally has a nimbus. Nimbus may mean: …

less than 1 minute read

Nimrod - People, Places, Military aircraft, Other

In the Table of Nations (Gen 10), purportedly the son of Cush and great-grandson of Noah. He was a legendary warrior and hunter, and allegedly one of the first to rule over a great empire after the Flood, becoming King of Babylon and S Mesopotamia as well as of Assyria, where he is said to have founded Nineveh. In some rabbinic traditions, he was also considered the builder of the Tower of Babel (…

less than 1 minute read

Nimrud - Archaeology

The Upper Mesopotamian city which became the royal seat and military capital of the Assyrian Empire in the 9th-c BC. Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. Nimrud has been identified as the site of the biblical city of Calah or Kalakh [kä'läkh]. The palace, restored as a site museum, is one of only two preserved Assyrian palaces in …

less than 1 minute read

Nina (Mary) Bawden - Bibliography, Prizes and awards

Writer, born in London, UK. She studied at Oxford, and worked in town and country planning (1946–7). She has written several novels, including Who Calls the Tune (1953), Under the Skin (1964), Walking Naked (1981), Circles of Deceit (1987, televised 1990), Family Money (1991), and Nice Change (1997). In 2001 appeared Ruffian on the Stair. She is also well known as a writer of adventure stories fo…

less than 1 minute read

Nina Simone - Biography, Well known songs, In the media, Discography

Jazz singer, pianist, and composer, born in Tryon, North Carolina, USA. After studying piano and teaching music as a teenager, she attended Juilliard for a year, but failed to gain admission to Curtis Institute (Philadelphia), she believed, on account of her race. She turned to playing the piano and singing in Atlanta, GA nightclubs, first using the name ‘Nina Simone’ in 1954, and first won nati…

1 minute read

Nineteen Counties - The Nineteen Counties

An unsuccessful attempt by the government of New South Wales to limit the spread of settlement. The counties were proclaimed by Governor Darling in 1829, covering 9 million ha/22 million acres, and bounded (N) by the Manning R, (W) by the Wellington Valley, (S) by the Goulburn Plains, and (E) by the Pacific Ocean. The boundaries of the counties were ignored, and Pastoralists ‘squatted’ on the l…

less than 1 minute read

Nineveh - Surroundings, History, Nineveh in classical history, Archaeology, Biblical Nineveh

One of the most important cities of ancient Assyria, located E of the Tigris, and the site of royal residences from c.11th-c BC. It was founded in pre-historic times, although some Biblical legends associate its origin with Nimrod, and the temple of Ishtar is noted there in the Code of Hammurabi. It was at its height of importance in the 8th–7th-c BC under Sennacherib, but fell in 612 BC to the M…

less than 1 minute read

ninjutsu - 18 Ninjutsu Skills (Ninja Juhakkei), Schools of ninjutsu, Other schools

An armed Japanese martial art, whose origins are obscure because of the secrecy surrounding the Ninja, who were assassins. In the 1980s it became popular as a cult in the cinema and video world. Practitioners of ninjutsu have been seen as assassins for hire, and have been associated in the public imagination with other activities which are considered criminal by modern standards. …

less than 1 minute read

Niobe

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Tantalus and the wife of Amphion. She had twelve children (or more) and said she was better than any mother, including Leto. This provoked Leto's children, Apollo and Artemis, who killed all (or most of) the children, and turned the weeping Niobe into a weeping rock on Mt Sipylos. A mortal woman in Greek mythology, Niobe (Νιόβη), daughter of Tantalus…

less than 1 minute read

Nippur

The religious centre of the Sumerians, where their kings were crowned and perhaps also buried. It was never a political capital, but the seat of the god, Enlil, the head of the Sumerian pantheon. Coordinates: 32°10′N 45°11′E The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities o…

less than 1 minute read

Nirvana - Overview, Nirvāna and Samsāra, Nirvana in Buddhist Commentaries, Nirvāna in the Mahāparinirvāna Sūtra

In Buddhism, the attainment of supreme bliss, tranquillity, and purity, when the fires of desire are extinguished. The goal of Buddhists, it is neither personal immortality nor the annihilation of the self, but more like absorption into the infinite. Nirvāṇa (Devanagari निर्वाण, Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; The Buddha describes the ab…

less than 1 minute read

nitrate - Occurrence and history, Uses, Related materials, Effects on aquatic life

A salt of nitric acid, containing the NO3? ion, or a compound containing the covalently bonded –O–NO2 group. Potassium and sodium nitrates occur in nature (saltpetre or Chile saltpetre), and are used in food preservation, fertilizers, and explosives. Organic nitrates are highly explosive. The nitrate ion is the conjugate base of nitric acid. A nitrate salt forms when a positively charged …

less than 1 minute read

nitric acid - History, Chemistry, Synthesis and production, Uses

HNO3, melting point ?42°C. A strong, oxidizing acid, made commercially by the oxidation of ammonia (the Ostwald process), the overall reaction being: NH3 + 2O2?HNO3 + H2O. It is important in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals and explosives. The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), otherwise known as aqua fortis or spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (an…

less than 1 minute read

nitric oxide - Technical applications, Biological functions, Chemistry, Measurement of nitric oxide

NO, boiling point ?152°C. A colourless gas, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid. It reacts spontaneously with oxygen to give nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant. The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, …

less than 1 minute read

nitrite - Examples, Discussion

A salt of nitrous acid (HNO2), containing the ion NO2?, or a compound containing covalently bonded –O–N=O. Nitrites are the most effective means of reducing the growth of the bacteria causing botulism. Sodium nitrite plays a particular role in food preservation. See category for a bigger list. In inorganic chemistry, nitrites are salts of nitrous acid HNO2. …

less than 1 minute read

nitrocellulose

A chemical compound formed by the action of nitric acid on cellulose; first made in 1845 by German chemist Christian Friedrich Schonbein (1799–1868). Its explosive properties proved unmanageable until about 20 years later, when it was turned into the form known as gun cotton. Mixed with nitroglycerine, it forms the main constituent of some blasting explosives and propellants. Some forms of cellul…

less than 1 minute read

nitrogen - Notable characteristics of elemental nitrogen, Isotopes, Electromagnetic spectrum, History, Biological role, Modern applications

N, element 7, boiling point ?196°C. In the form of diatomic molecules (N2), it is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, of which it makes up 78%. It is obtained by the fractional distillation of air. The strength of the triple bond in N­N makes the gas almost inert, and it is commonly used when an inert atmosphere is required. Conversion of nitrogen to water-soluble forms, such as ammonia and…

less than 1 minute read

nitrogen cycle - The basics, Ammonia, Processes of the Nitrogen Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle in Aquariums

The dynamic system of changes in the nature of nitrogen-containing compounds circulating between the atmosphere, the soil, and living organisms. It includes the fixation of gaseous molecular nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds by micro-organisms, lightning, or other processes; the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and of nitrite to nitrate by aerobic organisms (nitrification); the decomposition of o…

less than 1 minute read

nitrogen fixation - Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Non-leguminous nitrogen fixing plants, Chemical nitrogen fixation

A means of converting atmospheric nitrogen to compounds usable as fertilizers. The need for such means, in the face of potential food shortage for a growing population, was seen to be an acute world problem in the late 19th-c. Attention was called to it in a famous speech to the British Association by Sir William Crookes in 1898. Nitrogen, which is essential for the nutrition of plants, is not dir…

less than 1 minute read

nitrous oxide - Chemistry, History, Manufacture, Uses, Safety, Nitrous oxide in an atmosphere

Boiling point ?88°C. Dinitrogen oxide, N2O, isoelectronic with carbon dioxide; also called laughing gas. It has a slightly sweet odour, and is used as a general anaesthetic for short periods, especially in dentistry. It is produced by the decomposition of ammonium nitrate: NH4NO3 ? N2O + 2H2O. Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound …

less than 1 minute read

Niue - History, Politics, Geography, Defence and foreign affairs

19°02S 169°55W; pop (2000e) 2100; area 259 km²/100 sq mi. Coral island in the S Pacific Ocean, 2140 km/1330 mi NE of New Zealand; main settlement, Alofi; timezone GMT +12; chief religion, Christianity; official language, English; New Zealand currency used; mainly coral, with a flat, rolling interior and porous soils; highest point, 70 m/230 ft; subtropical and damp climate; hurricanes i…

less than 1 minute read

Njazidja

11°45S 43°15E; pop (2000e) 250 800; area 1148 km²/443 sq mi. Largest island of the Comoros group in the Mozambique Channel; chief town, Moroni; steep mountains rise to the peak of Kartala, an active volcano (2361 m/7746 ft); timber. Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja and Ngasidja, and erroneously as Njazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. According t…

less than 1 minute read

Nnamdi Azikiwe

Nigerian statesman and president (1963–6), born in Zungeru, WC Nigeria. He studied at US universities, and in 1937 began to take a leading part in the Nigerian nationalist movement, becoming president of the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons. He became prime minister of the E region (1954–9), Governor-General of Nigeria (1960–3), and was elected the first president of the Nigerian r…

less than 1 minute read

Noah - Narrative, Textual analysis, Noah in later Abrahamic traditions, Notes and references

Biblical character, depicted as the son of Lamech. He is described as a ‘righteous man’ who was given divine instruction to build an ark in which he, his immediate family, and a selection of animals were saved from a widespread flood over the Earth (Gen 6–9). In the Table of Nations (Gen 10), Noah's sons (Japheth, Ham, and Shem) are depicted as the ancestors of all the nations on Earth. A simil…

less than 1 minute read

Noah Brooks

Journalist, born in Castine, Maine, USA. Journeying west as a young man, he co-founded a California paper, The Daily Appeal (1860). Later, as Washington correspondent of the Sacramento Union, he was a close adviser to President Abraham Lincoln. He became editor of the New York Tribune and New York Times (1871–84), and is also known as the author of two of the earliest boys' novels about baseball,…

less than 1 minute read

Noah Haynes Swayne - Related Links

Judge, born in Frederick Co, Virginia, USA. His abolitionism prompted a move from Virginia to Ohio, where he served as US district attorney (1830–9). He was practising law privately when President Lincoln named him to the US Supreme Court (1863–81). Swayne was born in Frederick County, Virginia. A devout Quaker (and to date the only Quaker to serve on the Supreme Court), Swayne was deeply…

less than 1 minute read

Noah Porter - Quotations

Clergyman and college president, born in Farmington, Connecticut, USA. A Congregational pastor, he became professor of moral philosophy (1846–92) and president of Yale (1871–86). Among his many philosophical works, The Human Intellect (1868) enjoyed the widest success. He expounded a conservative educational philosophy in American Colleges and the American Public (1871) and elsewhere. He …

less than 1 minute read

Noah Webster - Biography, Political vision, Speller and Dictionary, Religious Views, Sources

Lexicographer, born in West Hartford, Connecticut, USA. The son of a dairy farmer, he studied at Yale College (1778) and served under his father as a private in the American Revolution. He was admitted to the bar in 1781, but earned his living for some years as a teacher. In 1783 he published the first volume of A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. This small volume, in later editions …

less than 1 minute read

Noboru Takeshita

Japanese statesman and prime minister (1987–9), born in Kakeyamachi, SWC Japan. He trained as a kamikaze pilot during World War 2. After university and a brief career as a schoolteacher, he was elected to the House of Representatives as a Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) deputy in 1958, rising to become chief cabinet secretary (1971–2) and minister of finance (1982–6). He founded his own faction …

less than 1 minute read

noctilucent cloud

Very high altitude (80 km/50 mi) dusty clouds visible as a rippled or veiled structure after sunset during summer in each hemisphere. They consist of water ice frozen onto a dust core. Noctilucent clouds, also known as polar mesospheric clouds, are bright cloudlike atmospheric phenomena visible in a deep twilight. They are the highest clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, located …

less than 1 minute read

nocturne - Media

A piece of music, usually in a meditative, languid style. The title has been used for piano pieces by John Field (its inventor), Chopin, and Fauré, and for orchestral pieces by Mendelssohn and Debussy. A nocturne (from the French for "nocturnal") is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night. The name nocturne was first applied to pieces in th…

less than 1 minute read

Noele Gordon

Actress, born in London, UK. After studying at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, she worked in repertory and pantomime before such London successes as Diamond Lil (1948) and Brigadoon (1949–51). She became a household name as the owner of the motel in the television soap-opera, Crossroads (1964–81). Noele Gordon (December 25, 1919 - April 14, 1985) was a British film and televisi…

less than 1 minute read

Noginsk

55º51N 38º27E, pop (2001e) 116 800. City in W Russia; on the R Klyazma, E of Moscow; founded (16th-c) as Rogozhi, later called Bogorodsk (1781), renamed Noginsk (1930); birthplace of Pavel Alexandrov; major textile centre for processing cotton, silk, wool. Noginsk (Russian: Ногинск) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River. Founded in 1389 as R…

less than 1 minute read

Noh - Chant, Stage, props, costumes, Roles, Plays, Actors, Aesthetic, Masks in Noh plays

Classical theatre of Japan in which imitation, gesture, dance, mask-work, costume, song, and music are fused in a concise stage art. The philosophy, style and much of the repertoire was established by Kan'ami (1333–84) and his son Zeami (1363–1443). Five schools of Noh exist, and most of the plays they perform were written before 1600. Noh or Nō (Japanese: 能) is a major form of classic…

less than 1 minute read

Nolan Bushnell - Early years and personal life, Entrepreneurship, Other businesses and ventures

Inventor of the video game, born in Clearfield, Utah, USA. An engineering student with a part-time job in an amusement arcade, he determined to make available an arcade version of a computer game then only available on the college mainframe computer. When the first microprocessor chip became available (1971), he set up his own company, Atari, devised and built a simple tennis game, ‘Pong’ (1973)…

less than 1 minute read

nominalism - The problem of universals, Nominalism in Islamic philosophy, Varieties of nominalism

In metaphysics, the view that only individual things exist in the full sense. Universals and properties (eg ‘redness’) have no independent reality, but are just names. The American Heritage® Dictionary, Fourth Edition, defines nominalism as "the doctrine holding that abstract concepts, general terms, or universals have no independent existence but exist only as names." In this view…

less than 1 minute read

non-aligned movement - The origin of the Non-Aligned Movement, NAM Summit meetings, Member Countries, Observers

A movement of states which positively espoused the position of not taking sides in the major division within world politics between the USA and USSR. Non-alignment differs from neutralism in that it is associated with moves to mediate between the superpowers, and aims to make a direct contribution to the achievement of peace. The neutrality of non-aligned states is supposed to afford them increase…

less than 1 minute read

non-renewable resources - Carbon-based non-renewables, Production materials, Resource demand, Economic models

Resources (ie objects of material or economic use to society, such as minerals, timber, and fish) which have evolved or formed over such long time periods that their exploitation is not sustainable. They cannot be used without danger of exhaustion because of the timescale needed for new stocks to form. Examples include fossil fuel deposits (coal, oil, gas) and mineral deposits (iron, gold). Some n…

less than 1 minute read

nonsense verse - External Links

Verse which is written in defiance of sense and logic to satisfy the ear and the spirit rather than the intelligence. Edward Lear wrote famous examples, as did Lewis Carroll in the two Alice books; Spike Milligan (of the Goons) has made a modern contribution to the genre. Occasionally, previously non-existent words, such as chortle in Carroll's celebrated Jabberwocky poem, have passed into the lan…

less than 1 minute read

Noorderkwartier - History, Present

(1568–1648) The part of Holland N of the River Ij. In the early stages of the Eighty Years' War the Spaniards had taken Haarlem, Amsterdam was still on the side of the Spanish, and communictions with the States in The Hague were difficult. Local politicians, supported by the Earl of Leicester, tried to make the Northern Quarter independent of the rest of Holland, but failed, although it still enj…

less than 1 minute read

Nora Kaye

Ballerina, born in New York City, USA. She studied at the School of American Ballet and the New York Metropolitan Opera Ballet School. She joined American Ballet Theatre (ABT) at its inception in 1939, and soon became the leading dramatic ballerina of her generation, creating the role of Hagar in Antony Tudor's Pillar of Fire (1942), and appearing in other modern ballets as well as the classics. S…

less than 1 minute read

Norbert Rillieux

Engineer and inventor, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The son of a wealthy sugar plantation owner and one of his slaves, he was fully accepted by his father and given the educational, cultural, and material advantages of a white youth. He was sent to Paris to obtain an engineering degree, and stayed on to teach at his college, L'Ecole Central. During the next few years, while publishing a se…

1 minute read

Norbert Wiener - Biography, Anecdotes

Mathematician and communication theorist, born in Columbia, Missouri, USA. A child prodigy, he graduated from Tufts College at age 14, did graduate work at Harvard and Cornell, read philosophy at Cambridge University under Bertrand Russell, and then worked as an editor and taught philosophy and engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before settling into its mathematics department…

1 minute read

Norfolk (UK) - History, Physical geography, Economy and industry, Politics, Settlements and communications, Dialect, accent and nickname

pop (2001e) 796 700; area 5368 km²/2073 sq mi. County in E England, UK; low-lying, with fens in W; Norfolk Broads in E; drained by Yare, Ouse, Waveney, and Bure Rivers; county town, Norwich; other chief towns King's Lynn and Great Yarmouth, a major resort and fishing port; offshore natural gas; agriculture, turkeys, fishing, tourism; Grime's Graves (Neolithic flint mines), Sandringham royal …

less than 1 minute read

Norfolk (USA) - History, Physical geography, Economy and industry, Politics, Settlements and communications, Dialect, accent and nickname

36°51N 76°17W, pop (2000e) 234 400. Seaport and independent city, SE Virginia, USA, on the Elizabeth R; settled, 1682; city status, 1845; centre of fighting in the American Revolution and the Civil War; largest city in the state; airfield; railway; Norfolk State College (1935); headquarters of the US Atlantic Fleet, largest naval base in the world; shipbuilding, automobiles, chemicals machiner…

less than 1 minute read

Norfolk Island - Geography, History, Politics, Crime, Demographics, Transport and communications, Culture

29°04S 167°57E, pop (2000e) 2200; area 35 km²/13 sq mi; length 8 km/5 mi. Fertile, hilly island in the W Pacific Ocean, 1488 km/925 mi NE of Sydney, Australia; a British penal settlement in 1788–1806 and 1826–55; many people from the Pitcairn Is transferred here, 1856; an Australian external territory since 1913, governed by the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly, and represented in …

less than 1 minute read

norm-referenced test - Other types, Common use, Advantages and limitations

A test which compares candidates with each other, usually spreading marks over a normal distribution, with most in the middle and few at each extreme. Most conventional tests which give percentages of A to E grades are of this kind. A norm-referenced test is a type of test, assessment, or evaluation in which the tested individual is compared to a sample of his or her peers (referred to as a…

less than 1 minute read

Norman (David) Willis

Trade union leader, born in Ashford, W Greater London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and worked for two years for the Transport and General Workers' Union (TGWU) before national service (1951–3). He returned to the TGWU as personal assistant to the general secretary (1959–70) and as national secretary for research and education (1970–4), before being appointed assistant general secretary of the Tra…

less than 1 minute read

Norman (Edward) Shumway - External references

Cardiac surgeon, born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. He studied at Vanderbilt and Minnesota universities, then joined the faculty at the Stanford University School of Medicine in 1958, where he and his team were active in many aspects of cardiovascular surgery, including cardiac transplantation. He did much of the early experimental work in the field, before heart transplants were attempted in human…

less than 1 minute read

Norman (Ernest) Borlaug - Early life, education, and family, Career, Wheat research in Mexico

Microbiologist and agronomist, born in Cresco, Iowa, USA. In 1942 he directed pesticide research for E I DuPont Nemours and Co in Wilmington, DE. In 1944 he developed a disease-free strain of wheat for the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Agricultural Ministry to remedy the severe Mexican wheat crop failures. In 1954 he crossed a Japanese dwarf wheat strain with the new Mexican strain for a …

less than 1 minute read

Norman (George) Douglas - Life, Works, Norman Douglas in fiction

Travel writer, novelist, and essayist, born in Thüringen, Austria. Educated in England and Germany, he spent much of his life in continental Europe. His first book, Unprofessional Tales (1901), appeared under the pseudonym Normyx. Siren Land (1911), an exotic account of his travels in S Italy, was followed by Old Calabria (1915), Fountains of the Sun (1912), Alone (1921), and Together (1923). The…

less than 1 minute read

Norman (Kingsley) Mailer - Biography, References to Mailer in popular culture, Quotes

Writer, born in Long Branch, New Jersey, USA. He grew up in Brooklyn, excelled in the sciences in school, and majored in engineering at Harvard (1943 BS), but having written short stories and a novel before graduation, he was already committed to writing. He was drafted into the US Army (1944–6) and volunteered for combat in the Pacific. After the war, he enrolled at the Sorbonne in Paris (1947–…

less than 1 minute read

Norman (Mattoon) Thomas - Early years, Ordination, Politics, Presidential candidate, Causes, Later years

Reformer and socialist, born in Marion, Ohio, USA. An ordained Presbyterian minister (1911), he served among the poor of New York City and became convinced that traditional religions and political parties were not satisfying contemporary American needs. He helped establish the Civil Liberties Bureau of the American Union Against Militarism (1917), the precursor to the American Civil Liberties Unio…

1 minute read

Norman (Milton) Lear - Biography, Awards, Political and cultural activities, Notable TV productions

Television producer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. After spending only one year at Emerson College in Boston, he launched a television writing career with The Ford Star Review (1950). In 1959 he formed Tandem Productions with Bud Yorkin, producing a series of successful films as well as popular television shows. All in the Family which was derived from a British television programme but dre…

less than 1 minute read

Norman (Percevel) Rockwell - Biography, Work, Major works

Illustrator, born in New York City, New York, USA. Considered the most famous and popular illustrator in America, he studied at the Chase School of Art, Mamaroneck, NY (c.1908), the National Academy of Design (1909), and the Art Students League (1910), New York. He was an illustrator for major periodicals, including St Nicholas, Collier's, Life, Judge, Look, and most importantly, the Saturday Even…

less than 1 minute read

Norman architecture - Origin of the term, development into Gothic, Norman architecture in Normandy, Norman architecture in England

The form of architecture prevalent in 11th-c and 12th-c England, corresponding to the European Romanesque. Notable examples include Durham, Ely, Winchester, and Worcester cathedrals. The term may have originated with 18th century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English A…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Bel Geddes

Industrial and theatrical designer, born in Adrian, Michigan, USA. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, and in 1918 became stage designer at New York's Metropolitan Opera. From 1920 to 1937 his designs for Broadway plays, notably The Miracle (1923), and film sets marked him as an innovator in modern stage lighting. A vigorous self-promoter and a visionary, he pioneered industrial design wit…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Bethune - Biography, Motivations, Memory

Surgeon, born in Gravenhurst, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied at Toronto University, and became a specialist in chest surgery, especially the treatment of tuberculosis. He worked as a surgeon in the Spanish Civil War (1936–7), and was in China during the Japanese war (1938–9), where he became a national hero. Henry Norman Bethune, MD (March 3, 1890 – November 12, 1939) was a Canadian phy…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Cousins - Notable quotes, External Links

Editor, humanitarian, and writer, born in Union Hill, New Jersey, USA. As editor of the Saturday Review of Literature (later Saturday Review) (1942–71, 1973–7), he broadened its scope to include all the arts and many social concerns, thus expanding its audience. He was active in promoting various educational, humanitarian, and world-peace initiatives. His popular book, Anatomy of an Illness (197…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Dello Joio - Catalogue of works

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. A prolific composer in a lyrical and mildly Modernist idiom, he had his major successes in the 1940s and 1950s. Norman Dello Joio (born Nicodemo DeGioio on January 24, 1913) is an American composer. Norman Dello Joio's Official Website …

less than 1 minute read

Norman Dorsen

Lawyer and professor, born in New York City, New York, USA. Briefly in private practice (1958–60), he was president of the American Civil Liberties Union (1976–91) and a professor at New York University law school (1961). His many books include Our Endangered Rights (1984) and The Evolving Constitution (1987). Norman Dorsen is a professor at the New York University School of Law, and spec…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Granz

Concert impresario and record producer, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He borrowed money to stage a jazz concert at the Philharmonic Auditorium, and its success led to national and international tours called Jazz at the Philharmonic. His recording companies Clef (1951) and Norgran (1954) originally released his concert recordings. He discovered Oscar Peterson and became his manager, and als…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Hapgood

Editor and writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Particularly successful as the ‘muckraking’ editor of Collier's Weekly (1903–12), he later edited Harper's Weekly (1913–16) and Hearst's International Magazine (1923–5). He was also a drama critic and wrote several biographies. Norman Hapgood (1868-1937) was an American editor and critic, born in Chicago, Ill. He was dramatic critic of…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Lindsay - Bibliography

Artist, born in Creswick, Victoria, SE Australia. One of 10 children, three of his brothers and a sister also became artists. In 1895 he moved to Melbourne to work on a local newspaper with his brother Lionel, and in 1901 they joined the weekly Sydney Bulletin, where Lindsay was chief cartoonist for many years. In 1912 he settled in Springwood in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales, where…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Luboff

Choral conductor and arranger, born in Chicago, Ilinois, USA. After work in film and television, he formed the Norman Luboff Choir in 1963, which toured and recorded both popular and classical music. Norman Luboff (May 14, 1917 - September 22, 1987) was an American music arranger and choir director. Luboff studied at the University of Chicago after which he wrote programs and sang for…

less than 1 minute read

Norman Parkinson - Biography, Photography, Interesting facts, Quotations, Books

Photographer, born in London, UK. He was educated at Westminster School, London, and became apprenticed as a photographer. He opened his own studio in 1934, and became one of Britain's favourite portrait and fashion artists, with his work widely used in quality magazines. In the 1950s his advertising work took him to exotic locations all over the world, and he settled in Tobago in 1963, regularly …

less than 1 minute read

Norman Scott - Medal of Honor citation

US naval officer, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Entering the navy in 1907 and graduating from Annapolis in 1911, he served on destroyers in World War 1. He served on the US naval commission to Brazil (1937–9) and was a rear admiral by 1939. Leading a task force against the Japanese in the Solomon Is campaign, he went down with his ship, the USS Atlanta. Norman Scott (10 August 1889

less than 1 minute read

Norman Vincent Peale - Trivia

Protestant religious leader and writer, born in Bowersville, Ohio, USA. The son of a pastor-physician, he graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University (1920) and was ordained a Methodist Episcopal minister (1922). He held pastorates in Rhode Island and New York before beginning his long association with Marble Collegiate Reformed Church in New York City, where he was pastor (1932–84). In 1937 he estab…

less than 1 minute read

Normandy - Population, History, Culture

Former duchy and province in NW France, along the littoral of the English Channel between Brittany and French Flanders; now occupying the regions of Haute-Normandie and Basse-Normandie; leading state in Middle Ages; William Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066; focus of English–French dispute in 12th–14th-c, until became part of France in 1449; scene of Allied invasion, 1944; fertile agric…

less than 1 minute read

Normans - Norman characteristics, Normans and Normandy, Normans in England, Normans in Wales, Normans in Scotland

By the early 11th-c, a name (derived from ‘Northmen’, ie Vikings) applied to all the people inhabiting Normandy, a duchy (and later province) in N France, though probably only a small element was actually of Scandinavian descent. During the second half of the 11th-c and the first decades of the 12th-c, their achievements, especially as conquerors, were remarkable. They completed the conquest and…

less than 1 minute read

Norns - Overview, Modern popular culture

In Norse mythology, the equivalent of the Fates, three sisters who sit under the tree Yggdrasil and spin the web of Destiny, including that of individual human beings. Even Odin cannot unpick the web of the Norns. Their names are Urd (who knows the past), Verlandi (the present), and Skuld (the future). They also water the principal root of the world-tree. The Norns (Old Norse: norn, plural:…

less than 1 minute read

Norris (Dewar) McWhirter - Early life, Sports, Political activity, Record Breakers and later events, Selected bibliography

Publisher, writer, journalist, and broadcaster, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became chairman of the family business (1955–86). With his twin brother Ross McWhirter (1925–75) he founded an information service, McWhirter Twins Ltd (1950). They were invited by the managing director of Guinness Breweries to compile a book of records to settle arguments in public houses, and the firs…

less than 1 minute read

North African Campaign - Western Desert Campaign, Algeria-French Morocco Campaign (Operation Torch), Tunisia Campaign (Operation WOP)

(1940–3) A campaign fought during World War 2 between Allied and Axis troops. After an initial Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian forces were driven back deep into Libya, and Rommel was sent to N Africa with the specially trained Afrika Corps to stem a further Italian retreat. The British were driven back to the Egyptian border, though they defended Tobruk. They counter-attacked late in 1941, and…

less than 1 minute read

North America

Third largest continent, extending 9600 km/6000 mi from 70°30N to 15°N; Area c.24 million km²/9¼ million sq mi; separated from Asia by the Bering Strait; bounded by the Beaufort Sea (NW), Arctic Ocean (N), Baffin Bay and Davis Strait (NE), Atlantic Ocean (E), and Pacific Ocean (W); includes Canada, USA, and Mexico; numerous islands, including Baffin I, Newfoundland, and the West Indies; r…

less than 1 minute read

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) - Purpose and scope, History of the implementation, Effects

An association of the USA, Canada, and Mexico, established in 1992 to create a free-trade area covering all of North America, eliminating over a period of time customs duties and other restrictions; Chile likely to join in due course. In addition, it would open Mexico's closed financial industries to American and Canadian competition, erect barriers to prevent overseas companies from bypassing Ame…

less than 1 minute read

North Cape

71°10N 25°48E. Cape on N Magerøy I, N Norway; considered to be the most northerly point of Europe. Coordinates: 71°1′N 25°47′E Nordkapp is a municipality in the county of Finnmark, Norway. The municipality encompasses mainly the island of Magerøya, but also parts of the mainland east and west of the fjord of Porsangen. Most of the inhabitants li…

less than 1 minute read

North Carolina - Geography, History, Politics, Demographics, Economy, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams

pop (2000e) 8 049 300; area 136 407 km²/52 669 sq mi. State in SE USA, divided into 100 counties; the ‘Tar Heel State’ or ‘Old North State’; unsuccessful settlement on Roanoke I in the 1580s; part of the Carolina grant given by Charles II, 1663; named North Carolina, 1691; a royal province, 1729; location of Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (1775); twelfth of the original 13 st…

less than 1 minute read

North Dakota - Geography, Culture, Economy, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, State symbols, Attractions

pop (2000e) 642 400; area 183 111 km²/70 702 sq mi. State in NC USA, divided into 53 counties; ‘Sioux State’, ‘Flickertail State’; became part of USA in the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; included in Dakota Territory, 1861; separated from South Dakota to become the 39th state admitted to the Union, 1889; capital, Bismarck; other chief cities, Fargo, Grand Forks, Minot; sparsely populated; c…

less than 1 minute read

North German Confederation - List of member states

The state system and constitutional arrangement created in 1866 by Bismarck, chancellor of Prussia, following the Prussian defeat of Austria and the dissolution of the German Confederation. Utterly dominated by Prussia, the new Confederation was itself dissolved with the creation of the German Empire in 1871. North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund), came into existence in 18…

less than 1 minute read

North Island - Regions of the North Island, Cities and towns in the North Island, Geographic features

pop (2000e) 2 790 000; area 114 834 km²/44 326 sq mi. The smaller but more densely populated of the two major islands of New Zealand; separated from South Island by the Cook Strait; irregularly shaped with a long peninsula projecting NW; several mountain ranges; highest volcanic mountain, Ruapehu (2797 m/9176 ft); contains the largest of New Zealand's lakes, L Taupo (606 km²/234 sq …

less than 1 minute read

North Sea - History, Natural resources

area 520 000 km²/201 000 sq mi. Arm of the Atlantic Ocean between continent of Europe (E) and UK (W), from Shetland Is (N) to Straits of Dover (S); bounded by the UK, Norway, Denmark, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, and France; length c.950 km/600 mi; maximum width 650 km/400 mi; depths of 660 m/2165 ft near Norwegian coast; generally shallow, lying on wide continental shelf; irregu…

less than 1 minute read

North Sea oil - History, List of Areas/ Plays

Oil and gas deposits in the sedimentary rocks below the North Sea, first discovered in 1969 in Norwegian waters (the Ekofisk field) and in 1975 in the UK sector. The sea-bed is divided into national territories, with UK and Norway controlling most of the oilfields. By 1981 the UK had become a net exporter of crude oil. Reserves are estimated at 12 thousand million barrels. North Sea oil ref…

less than 1 minute read

North West Company - Beginnings, Frobisher-McTavish Deal, Late 18th/Early 19th Century, Personnel, North West Today

A trading partnership based in Montreal and Fort William, Canada, from the 1780s to 1821. It combined Scottish/Loyalist management with French-Canadian labour, and competed fiercely for the fur resources of the British North West along a chain of land forts. The ‘Nor'Westers’ merged into the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821. Today, the North West Company is a grocery vendor in remote communit…

less than 1 minute read

North York Moors - History, Geography and natural features, Wildlife, Economy

National park chiefly in North Yorkshire, England; area 1432 km²/553 sq mi; established in 1952; follows the coast N of Scarborough to Hambleton Hills (W); headlands and sandy beaches, open moorland and wooded valleys; Mount Grace Priory, Rievaulx Abbey, Byland Abbey. North York Moors National Park is a National Park in northern England. It has a population of about 25,000 T…

less than 1 minute read

North-West Rebellion - Background, Battle of Duck Lake, Frog Lake Massacre, Battle of Fish Creek, Battle of Cut Knife

A rebellion in 1885 along the N and S branches of the Saskatchewan R in Canada. Continuing Dominion neglect of Métis complaints lingering from the Red River Rebellion led to the return from exile in Montana of Louis Riel. Métis forces clashed with North-West Mounted Police at Duck Lake. Dominion troops were hurried to the region along the newly-completed Canadian Pacific Railway, where they conf…

less than 1 minute read

Northallerton - History, Present day, See Also

54º20N 1º26W. County town in Hambleton district, North Yorkshire, N England, UK; 23 km/14 mi S of Darlington; founded on the site of a Roman signal station; scene of the Battle of the Standard (1138); birthplace of Thomas Rymer; railway; All Saints Church (1120). Northallerton is a town in Northern England. It has served as the county town of the North Riding of Yorkshire and since 1974…

less than 1 minute read

Northampton - History, Government and politics, Transport links, Leisure and culture, Sport in Northampton, Twin towns, Celebrity associations

52°14N 0°54W, pop (2001e) 194 500. County town in Northamptonshire, C England, UK; on R Nene, SE of Coventry and 97 km/60 mi NW of London; originally a Saxon town; Thomas Becket tried here in 1164; destroyed by fire in 1675; designated a ‘new town’ in 1968; railway; footwear, leather goods, cosmetics, vehicle parts; 12th-c Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of four round churches in England…

less than 1 minute read

Northamptonshire - Geography, History, Politics, Economy, Transport, Media, Sport, Places of interest, Annual events, Colleges

pop (2001e) 629 700; area 2367 km²/914 sq mi. Agricultural county in C England, UK; drained by the Welland and Nene Rivers; county town, Northampton; cereals, livestock, sugar beet, potatoes, iron mining, shoemaking, printing, engineering. Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or N'hants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). …

less than 1 minute read

Northern Cape - Geography, Climate, Municipalities

One of the nine new provinces established by the South African constitution of 1994, in W South Africa; formerly part of Cape Provinces; largely semi-arid; NW frontier with Namibia formed by the Orange R; largest province, smallest population; pop (2000e) 785 000; area 363 389 km²/140 268 sq mi; capital, Kimberley; chief languages, Afrikaans (65%), Setswana (22%), Xhosa; diamonds, tourism …

less than 1 minute read

Northern Ireland - Demographics and politics, Cities, Variations in geographic nomenclature, Economy, History, Culture, Education, Further reading

(UK) Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom and covers 5,459?square miles (14,139?km²) in the northeast of the island of Ireland, about a sixth of the total area of the island. As an administrative division of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland was defined by the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, and has had its own form of devolved government in a similar manner…

less than 1 minute read

Northern Ireland Assembly - 'Virtual' Assembly, Composition, Powers and functions, Organisation

A 108-member governing body for Northern Ireland, established (following a referendum) as part of the Good Friday Agreement. It has responsibility for the policy areas of agriculture, economic development, education, environment, and health and social services. Elections (by proportional representation) to the body were held in 1998 with 10 parties represented, the largest being the Ulster Unionis…

1 minute read

Northern Province

One of the nine new provinces established by the South African constitution of 1994, in N South Africa; borders Botswana (NW), Zimbabwe (N), and Mozambique (NE); Limpopo R to the N; formerly part of Transvaal, and includes former homelands of Lebowa and Gazankulu; capital, Polokwane (formerly, Pietersburg); pop (2000e) 4 343 000; area 119 606 km²/46 168 sq mi; chief language, Pedi (56%),…

less than 1 minute read

Northern Territory - Aboriginal Australians, Geography, Demographics

pop (2000e) 194 400; area 1 346 200 km²/520 000 sq mi. One of the two mainland territories of Australia, covering about a sixth of the continent; part of New South Wales, 1824; annexed by South Australia, 1863; transferred to Federal Government control, 1911; achieved self-government, 1978; bordered N by the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria; mainly within the tropics; from Arnhem L…

less than 1 minute read

Northumberland - History, Physical geography, Environmental features, Economy and industry, Demographics, Politics, Culture, Media, People

pop (2001e) 307 200; area 5032 km²/1943 sq mi. County in NE England; bounded N by Scotland, E by the North Sea; Pennines in the W; rises in the N to 755 m/2477 ft at The Cheviot; drained by the Tyne, Blyth, Wansbeck, Coquet, Aln, and Till Rivers; Holy I and the Farne Is lie off the coast; Kielder Water (artificial lake, 1982); county town, Morpeth; chief towns include Berwick-upon-Tweed, A…

less than 1 minute read

Northumberland National Park

National park in NE England; area 1031 km²/398 sq mi; established in 1956; bounded S by Hadrian's Wall and N by the Cheviot Hills. Northumberland National Park is the northernmost national park in England. The park covers several distinct areas. There many archaeological sites, ranging from prehistoric monuments and Roman remains to Pele towers, constructed as a …

less than 1 minute read

Northumbria - History, Flag, Culture, Language, Further reading

The largest kingdom of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. It was originally composed of two independent kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira, divided by the R Tees, both settled by invading Angles c.500. Aethelfrith of Bernicia (593–616) united the kingdoms to form Northumbria, and added Scottish and Welsh territory. Edwin of Deira (612–32) accepted Roman Christianity in 627. After a period of anarchy Edwin was…

less than 1 minute read

Northwest Frontier - Geography, Climate, Demographics and Society, History, Government, Districts, Important Cities, Economy, Education, Folk Music, Social Issues

pop (2000e) 18 085 000; area 74 521 km²/28 765 sq mi. Federal province in Pakistan; bounded W and S by Afghanistan and N by India; crossed by the R Indus; linked to Afghanistan by the Khyber Pass, and thus of strategic importance; inhabited mainly by the Pathans, renowned for their warlike character; capital, Peshawar; livestock, grains, tobacco, fruit. The North-West Frontier Prov…

less than 1 minute read

Northwest Passage - First attempts after the Little Ice Age, Sir John Franklin expedition, McClure expedition

A route through the S Arctic Ocean, Arctic Archipelago, N Canada, and along the N coast of Alaska. From the 16th-c attempts were made to find it, but not until 1903–6 was it first traversed by Amundsen. The first commercial ship, an ice-breaking tanker, completed the route in 1969. The Northwest Passage is a sea route connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Arctic Archipelag…

less than 1 minute read

Northwest Territories - Demographics, Language

pop (2000e) 64 600; area 1 346 106 km²/519 597 sq mi. Canadian territory extending over the N of Canada, consisting of the Arctic islands, the islands in Hudson and Ungava Bays, and the land N of 60°N, between Hudson Bay and the Yukon territory; sparsely populated, two-thirds Athapaskan-speaking peoples and Inuit; capital, Yellowknife (since 1967); mining (lead, zinc, gold), handicrafts,…

less than 1 minute read

Norton (David) Zinder - Genetic transduction, Bacteriophage

Geneticist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Columbia and Wisconsin universities, and became professor of genetics at Rockefeller University, New York City (1964). Studies with mutants of the bacterium Salmonella led him to discover bacterial transduction (the transfer, by a phage particle, of genetic material between bacteria) and led to new knowledge of the location and behaviour of bac…

less than 1 minute read

Norton (Winfred) Simon - Business career, Art collection, Later life

Businessman and art collector, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. He spent much of his early years in San Francisco and attended college for a short time. He invested in the stock market, survived the crash of 1929, invested in the Hunt Foods & Industries Co, and made a fortune. His business success was legendary by the time he began collecting art, including old masters, sculpture, tapestries, and fu…

less than 1 minute read

Norway - History, Geography, Politics, Human rights in Norway, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, International rankings, Literature

Official name Kingdom of Norway, Norwegian Kongeriket Norge Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, located in Europe, and bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia. Archaeological finds indicate that there were people in Norway about 12,000 years ago. In the 9th century, Norway consisted of a number of petty kingdoms. The spread o…

less than 1 minute read

Norway spruce

The most common species of spruce (Picea abies) native to Europe and planted on a vast commercial scale. It is a source of timber, pitch, spruce beer, and, in Britain, Christmas trees. (Family: Pinaceae.) …

less than 1 minute read

Norwegian literature - Medieval poetry, Medieval prose, "Four Hundred Years of Darkness", Rebirth, National Romantic Period, Transition to Realism

The ballads, folk songs, and legends of the later Middle Ages, taken by Norwegian colonists to Iceland, provided the materials for the great sagas in Old Norse. Skaldic and Eddic poetry flourished at the same time. The Icelandic skald or court poet, Snorri Sturluson, composed his Prose Edda (c.1220) as a handbook on skaldic poetry as well as an account of ancient Nordic sagas and mythology. Copenh…

1 minute read

Norwegian Sea - Currents

area 1 383 000 km²/534 000 sq mi. N Atlantic sea bounded by NW coast of Norway and E coast of Iceland; depths in the Norwegian Basin reach 1240 m/4068 ft, and in the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone, close to the continental shelf, 2740 m/8989 ft; generally ice-free because of influence of warm N Atlantic Drift. The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocea…

less than 1 minute read

Norwich (UK) - Present day, Geography, Tourism, Travellers' comments, Famous names associated with the city

52°38N 1°18E, pop (2001e) 121 600. County town in Norfolk, E England; near the confluence of the Yare and Wensum Rivers, 160 km/100 mi NE of London; provincial centre for the largely agricultural East Anglia; major textile centre in 16th–17th-c; University of East Anglia (1964); North Sea reached via R Yare and Great Yarmouth (32 km/20 mi E); railway; commerce, engineering, printing, chem…

less than 1 minute read

Norwich (USA) - Present day, Geography, Tourism, Travellers' comments, Famous names associated with the city

41º31N 72º05W, pop (2000e) 36 100. Town in New London Co, SE Connecticut, USA; on the R Shetucket, 20 km/12 mi N of New London; incorporated, 1662; birthplace of Benedict Arnold, Isaac Backus, E Annie Proulx, Edith Roosevelt; sports stadium. Norwich is a city in East Anglia, in Eastern England, and the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. The suburban…

less than 1 minute read

Norwich School

A group of provincial English landscape painters, in oil and watercolour, working in Norwich 1803–34. Leading masters were Cotman and Crome. The Norwich Society of Artists was founded in 1803 and from 1805 until 1833 the Society held annual exhibitions of work in Norwich. Principal artists of the Norwich school include the self-taught John Crome, John Sell Cotman and Joseph Sta…

less than 1 minute read

nose - Human nose, Associated health risks, Shapes of the human nose, Culture, People famous for their noses

The protrusion from the front of the face above the mouth and below the eyes. Part of the respiratory tract, it consists of an external part (with a skeleton of bone and cartilage) and an inner cavity. The nasal cavity has a large surface area, because of the presence of scrolls of bone (the conchae) projecting into it from the side walls. It is covered mainly with respiratory epithelium, except i…

less than 1 minute read

Nostradamus - Biography, Works, Literary sources, Interpretations, Alternative views, Popular culture, Sources

Physician and astrologer, born in St Rémy, SE France. He became doctor of medicine in 1529, and practised in Agen, Lyon, and other places. He set himself up as a prophet in c.1547. His Centuries of predictions in rhymed quatrains (two collections, 1555–8), expressed generally in obscure and enigmatical terms, brought their author a great reputation. Charles IX on his accession appointed him phys…

less than 1 minute read

notebook

A very compact form of personal computer which can be accommodated inside a briefcase. Even so, most notebooks offer the same facilities as a desk-top personal computer. A notebook (also notepad, writing pad, etc.) is a virgin book of paper on which notes may be written. While many people use notepads in their daily lives, they are most commonly associated with students, who often car…

less than 1 minute read

nothosaur

A long-necked, marine reptile; flourished during the Triassic period, but extinct by the early Jurassic period; limbs well adapted for swimming. (Order: Sauropterygia. Suborder: Nothosauria.) Nothosaurs (order Nothosauria) were Triassic marine sauropterygian reptiles that may have lived like seals of today, catching food in water but coming ashore on rocks and beaches. …

less than 1 minute read

notochord - Development, Research, Additional images

A rod-like structure which extends almost the entire length of the body in larvae and some adult chordates. It lies behind the gut but below the nerve cord, providing flexible support for the body. It is replaced by the vertebral column in most vertebrates, but retained throughout life in certain marine animals (eg cephalochordates, lampreys). The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body fo…

less than 1 minute read

Notre Dame (de Paris) - Innovations, Features, Site history, Construction, The Organ, Alterations, vandalism, and restorations

An early Gothic cathedral on the Ile de la Cité in Paris. It was commissioned by Maurice de Sully, Bishop of Paris, in 1159 and constructed over a period of two centuries (1163–1345). The tremendous weight of its masonry has caused it to subside several feet. Notre Dame de Paris (French for "Our Lady of Paris", meaning the church in Paris dedicated to the Virgin Mary), often known simply …

less than 1 minute read

Nottingham - Geography, Education, Industry, Transport, Crime, Culture, Media, Dwellings within and around Nottingham

52°58N 1°10W, pop (2001e) 267 000. City and (from 1998) unitary authority in Nottinghamshire, C England, UK; on the R Trent, 200 km/125 mi NW of London; university (1948); Nottingham Trent University (1992, formerly Nottingham Polytechnic); founded by the Danes; became a city in 1897; Civil War started here in 1642; connected to both the Irish and North Seas by canal; railway; cigarettes, la…

less than 1 minute read

Nottinghamshire - History, Physical geography, Settlements and communications

pop (2001e) 748 500; area 2164 km²/836 sq mi. County in the R Trent basin of C England, UK; Pennines in W, remains of Sherwood Forest in SW; county town, Nottingham (unitary authority from 1998); chief towns include Worksop, Newark, Mansfield; arable and dairy farming, coal, gypsum, limestone, textiles, chemicals. Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Mi…

less than 1 minute read

Nouadhibou

20°54N 17°00W, pop (2000e) 83 000. Seaport capital of Dakhlet-Nouadhibou region, Mauritania, at N end of the Bay of Levrier; Mauritania's main seaport; linked by rail to the iron ore mines near Zouîrât; airport; iron ore trade, fish processing and refrigeration, industrial gas. Nouadhibou (Arabic: نواذيبو; It is situated on a 40-mile peninsula or headland called Ras…

less than 1 minute read

Nouakchott - Geography, History, Education, Culture

18°09N 15°58W, pop (2000e) 553 000. Capital of Mauritania, near the Atlantic coast; harbour 7 km/4 mi SSW; founded on an important caravan route, 1960; airport; salt, cement, insecticides, matches, trade in gums and grains; camel markets. Nouakchott (Arabic: نواكشوط or انواكشوط [alleged translation from berberic "The place of the winds"] Nawākšūṭ) is the capital an…

less than 1 minute read

Noucentisme - Prominent members

A Catalan literary movement named after the 1900s or 20th-c, usually taken to date from 1906, the year of Enric Prat de la Riba's manifesto La nacionalitat catalana and of the first International Congress of the Catalan Language, followed in 1907 by the founding of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans. D'Ors and other noucentistes aimed to overthrow the alleged ‘rusticity’ of 19th-c Catalan literatur…

less than 1 minute read

Noureddine Morceli

Athlete, born in Tenes, N Algeria. World champion over 1500 m in 1991 - the youngest ever - he repeated his success in 1993 and 1995. During the latter year he held the world record for 1500 m, the mile, 2000 m and 3000 m, and in 1996 was Olympic 1500 m champion. Noureddine Morceli (Arabic: نور الدين مورسلي‎) (born February 28, 1970) is a former Algerian athlete, winner…

less than 1 minute read

nouvelle cuisine - External Links, Further reading

A movement away from the elaborate food of classical cuisine to a simpler, more natural presentation. The approach began in the 1970s, and was given emphasis by the French chef Michel Guérard (1933– ). The first consideration is the quality of the fresh produce, with the aim of achieving lightness by using less fat and no flour in sauces. The movement has also been influenced by the Japanese sty…

less than 1 minute read

nova

In a binary star system near the end of its life, the phenomenon where one star becomes a giant, and its atmosphere spills over to its companion, a white dwarf. A nuclear explosion is triggered on the white dwarf, whose luminosity increases by 10 000 times (10 magnitudes) or more for a few months. The phenomenon can recur. Note: Please add all novae brighter than 6 mag …

less than 1 minute read

Nova Scotia - History, Government, Geography, Demographics and statistics, Other facts

pop (2000e) 1 050 000; area 55 490 km²/21 424 sq mi. Province in SE Canada; boundaries include the Atlantic Ocean (E, S, W), Bay of Fundy (W), Northumberland Strait (N), and Gulf of St Lawrence (NE); includes Cape Breton I to the NE, separated by the Strait of Canso, 3 km/1¾ mi wide, connected by causeway; province linked to the Canadian mainland by the isthmus of Chignecto; deeply ind…

less than 1 minute read

Novalis - Biography, Writing, Novalis in print, Novalis in English

Romantic poet and novelist, born in Oberwiederstedt, EC Germany. At Weissenfels (1795) he fell in love with a girl whose early death left a lasting impression upon him, and in whose memory he wrote the prose lyrics of Hymnen an die Nacht (1800, Hymns to the Night). He also published Geistliche Lieder (1799, Sacred Songs). He left two philosophical Romances, both incomplete, Heinrich von Ofterdinge…

less than 1 minute read

Novaya Zemlya - Geology, History

area 81 279 km²/31 374 sq mi. Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, between the Barents Sea (W) and Kara Sea (E), NW Russia; two large islands separated by a narrow strait; numerous offshore islands; length, 960 km/596 mi; glaciated land (N) gives way to tundra lowland (S); an extension of the Ural Mts, rising to heights above 1000 m/3000 ft; some settlement on heavily indented W coast; coppe…

less than 1 minute read

novel - Nomenclature, History, Important novels, Further reading

A work of fiction, most often in prose. The term (literally meaning ‘new’ or ‘news’) came into general use in the 18th-c to describe that form of fiction, deriving from classical epic and romance but incorporating features from other modes such as autobiography and travel writing, which centred on the life of an individual, as in Robinson Crusoe (1719) and Tom Jones (1749). Major Japanese nove…

1 minute read

novella - History, Novella versus novel

Originally a short story, as in Boccaccio's Decameron. The term is now used to define (if somewhat precariously) a prose fiction which is longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. Chinese novellas date from the 3rd-c BC. The genre was popular under the Tang (7th–10th-c) and constantly refined until the 18th-c. A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a …

less than 1 minute read

Novi Sad - Name, History, Geography, Politics, Demographics, Famous buildings, Important institutions, Infrastructure, Tourism, Famous or notable citizens

45°15N 19°51E, pop (2000e) 181 000. Commercial and industrial capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, N Serbia; on R Danube; formerly an important stronghold against the Turks; railway; university (1960); wine, fruit and vegetable trade, leather, textiles, tobacco; Niška Banja health resort nearby; bishop's palace, Petrovaradin castle, cathedral; international agricultural show (May)…

less than 1 minute read

Novosibirsk - Further reading

55°00N 83°05E, pop (2000e) 1 440 000. River-port capital of Novosibirskaya oblast, S Siberian Russia, on the R Ob; founded, 1893; on the Trans-Siberian Railway; university (1959); leading economic centre of Siberia; Kuznetsk Basin coal and iron deposits nearby; machines, metallurgy, chemicals, foodstuffs. Novosibirsk (Russian: Новосиби́рск, pronounced nə.və.sʲɪ.'bʲirsk…

less than 1 minute read

NTSC - History, Technical details, Comparative quality, Variants of NTSC, Evolution of the NTSC signal

Abbreviation of National Television Systems Commission, responsible for the coding system for colour television introduced in the USA in 1954, and since then generally adopted throughout the Americas and Japan for all 525-line 60 Hz transmission. The two colour difference signals are 90° out of phase and combined to form the chrominance signal. The colour of the final picture is critically depen…

less than 1 minute read

nuclear disarmament

A political movement which emerged soon after the advent of nuclear weapons, demanding their control, the limitation of their spread to non-nuclear weapon states, and their eventual abolition. Although the US and Soviet governments had some success in reaching arms limitation treaties, such as the Partial Test-Ban Treaty (1963), the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972, the US withdrew in 2002), an…

less than 1 minute read

nuclear fission - Physical overview

The splitting of a heavy atomic nucleus into two approximately equal portions, with the emission of free neutrons and energy; discovered by Otto Hahn in 1938. Induced fission is initiated by collisions with neutrons. Spontaneous fission is comparatively rare. Fission in uranium and plutonium forms the basic mechanism of nuclear power and atomic bombs. For the generation of electrical power …

less than 1 minute read

nuclear fusion - Overview, Requirements for fusion, Important fusion reactions

The fusing together of two lightweight atomic nuclei, typically isotopes of hydrogen or lithium, having a total rest mass which exceeds that of the products. The mass difference is made up by energy released in the process. To initiate fusion, the reacting species must be brought close enough together so that short-range nuclear forces come into play, as is possible in the high-temperature environ…

1 minute read

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - History, Uses of nuclear magnetic resonance, Theory of nuclear magnetic resonance

An analytic technique, important in chemistry, which relies on magnetic resonance involving protons. A sample is subjected to a strong magnetic field, causing the proton magnetic moments to precess. An additional variable radio-frequency magnetic field is applied, and the spectrum of absorbed frequencies measured. This spectrum reflects the proton's environment, so indicating the sample's structur…

less than 1 minute read

nuclear physics - History

The study of the properties and composition of the atomic nucleus. Early nuclear physics experiments include the study of natural radioactivity, and the demonstration of the existence of the nucleus in 1911. Modern experiments include the study of rapidly rotating ‘superdeformed’ nuclei, and of dense nuclear matter (quark-gluon plasma) formed by collisions of heavy nuclei. The nucleus is probed …

less than 1 minute read

nuclear proliferation - International cooperation, Unsanctioned nuclear activity, External links and references

The spread of nuclear weapons. Attempts at prevention include export controls, international inspection and verification agencies, and bans on both testing and production of weapons-grade material. The 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) requires non-nuclear signatories to reject nuclear weapons research and development. Nonsignatories include Israel, India, and Pakistan, all of which have…

less than 1 minute read

nuclear reactor - Applications, History, Nuclear power in electricity production, The future of the industry, Types of reactors

A device for producing a continuous supply of heat energy from nuclear fission. Certain radioactive atomic nuclei, on being struck by neutrons, generate additional neutrons. This is self-sustaining if the speed of the neutrons is not too great. A nuclear reactor therefore has (i) a ‘fuel’, which may be uranium 235 or 238, or plutonium 239; (ii) a moderator, to control the speed and number of neu…

1 minute read

nucleolus - Structure, Functions

A clearly defined and typically spherical structure within the nucleus of a eucaryotic cell, functioning as the site of the origin of ribosomes. It is composed of densely packed fibres and granules, rich in RNA and protein. In cell biology, the nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is a "sub-organelle" of the cell nucleus, which is an organelle. A main function of the nucleolus is the production and …

less than 1 minute read

nucleon - The proton, The neutron, Antinucleons, Quark model classification, Models of the nucleon

A collective term for both proton and neutron. It was suggested by Werner Heisenberg in 1932 that protons and neutrons appear to the strong nuclear force as two possible states of a single underlying particle. This particle, called the nucleon, was described in terms of a new quantum number called isospin. In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton…

less than 1 minute read

nucleophile - Nucleophilicity scales

An entity with an excess of electrons which tends to react at a positively charged centre. Anions and molecules with lone pairs of electrons (eg H2O and NH3) are nucleophiles. In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover as in nucleus and phile) is a reagent that forms a chemical bond to its reaction partner (the electrophile) by donating both bonding electrons. Nu…

less than 1 minute read

nucleosome - Nucleosome role in the Nucleus, Structure of the Core Particle

The basic unit into which the DNA is packed in the chromatin of eucaryotes. A nucleosome contains an octomer of proteins consisting of two copies each of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, around which is wrapped two-and-a-half turns (146 base pairs) of DNA. Other proteins will be involved in the packing; these will vary according to whether the DNA is active or silent. Nucleosomes appear to se…

less than 1 minute read

nucleosynthesis - Processes, Types of nucleosynthesis

The creation of chemical elements by nuclear reactions in stars and other cosmic explosions. Current theory suggests that the very early universe consisted only of hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen burning in stars, and nuclear explosions at the end of a star's life, have formed all other elements by transmutation. Carbon atoms in the ink on this page were made thousands of millions of years ago in an…

less than 1 minute read

nucleotide - Nomenclature, Chemical structures, Synthesis

A portion of a nucleic acid consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate group bonded together. There are four principal nucleotides in DNA: deoxyadenylic, deoxycytidylic, deoxyguanylic, and deoxythmidylic acids. In RNA, they are adenylic, cytidylic, guanylic, and uridylic acids. When the phosphate is missing, the residue is called a nucleoside. Nucleotide na…

less than 1 minute read

nucleus (astronomy)

The central core of a comet, about 1–10 km/½–6 mi across, consisting of icy substances and dust, or the central part of a galaxy or quasar, possibly the seat of unusually energetic activity within the galaxy. Nucleus usually refers to the center of something, but can mean: In science: In linguistics: In computer science: In music: …

less than 1 minute read

nucleus (biology)

The chromosome-containing structure found in the great majority of non-dividing eucaryotic cells; delimited from the surrounding cytoplasm by a double membrane; typically ovoid or spherical, sometimes irregularly shaped. The nucleus is essential for the long-term survival of the cell. However, it disappears temporarily during cell division, and may be lost in certain mature cells, such as mammalia…

less than 1 minute read

nucleus (physics)

The core of an atom, comprising various numbers of protons and neutrons, making up c.99·975% of an atom's mass. The number of protons equals the total positive charge of the nucleus, and equals the number of electrons in a complete atom. The nuclear components are bound together by strong nuclear force, sufficient to overcome electrical repulsions between the protons. The nucleus diameter is appr…

less than 1 minute read

Nueva Esparta - History, Municipalities and municipal seats

pop (2000e) 339 600; area 1150 km²/440 sq mi. State consisting of Caribbean islands, off the coast of Venezuela; consists of Margarita I, Coche, Cubagua and several smaller islands; capital, La Asunción; fishing, tourism. Nueva Esparta is one of the 23 states (estados) of Venezuela. Nueva Esparta (New Sparta) is a state having a small area, located to the northeast of Ven…

less than 1 minute read

nuisance - English Nuisance Law, Nuisance Law in the U.S.

A tort (or delict, in Scotland) which involves unreasonable interference by act or omission with the use or comfortable enjoyment of neighbouring property, such as by noise, smell, or smoke. The interference must be continuing and substantial to be actionable, and may depend on the locality and other circumstances. Nuisance may also be committed in relation to certain rights over land, such as a r…

less than 1 minute read

Nuku'alofa - History, Government, Transport

21°09S 175°14W, pop (2000e) 23 500. Port and capital town of Tonga, S Pacific; on Tongatapu I, 690 km/430 mi SE of Suva, Fiji; university; coconut processing; royal palace (1867). Nukuʻalofa, population 22,400 (1996), is the capital of Tonga. Nukuʻalofa is the most important commercial, transport and social center of Tonga. Nukuʻalofa proper is only a small …

less than 1 minute read

Nullarbor Plain - History, Geography, Climate, Transport

Vast plateau in SW South Australia and S Western Australia, between the Great Victoria Desert and the Great Australian Bight; extends 480 km/300 mi W from Ooldea, South Australia to Kalgoorlie, Western Australia; maximum height 305 m/1000 ft; consists of sand dunes and sparse vegetation (Nullarbor, ‘treeless’); crossed by the Trans-Australian Railway, the world's longest straight stretch of …

less than 1 minute read

nullification

A US legal doctrine that a state has the power to render laws of the federal government void within its borders. It was first tested by South Carolina during the ‘Nullification Crisis’ in 1832, over the issue of enforcing a federal tariff. That immediate issue was resolved by the Jackson administration's Force Bill. But in larger terms the problem was not resolved until the Civil War, and in som…

less than 1 minute read

Numa Pompilius

The second of Rome's early kings. According to tradition he ruled from 715 to 673 BC. He is described as a peaceful ruler, and was credited with organizing the religious life of the community. According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. Romans in the city, after Romulus died, elected a Sabine man to be king, so as to make him loyal to b…

less than 1 minute read

number theory - Fields, History, Quotations

The abstract study of the relationship between numbers, by which is meant positive rational numbers. An early problem was one of several solved by Diophantus: ‘Find three numbers such that their sum is a perfect square, and the sum of any two is a perfect square’ (41, 80, 320). In the 17th-c Fermat proved many results in number theory, leaving us his famous ‘last theorem’. The following theore…

less than 1 minute read

numbers

A concept used initially in counting, to compare the sizes of groups of objects. Natural numbers (or cardinal numbers) are the numbers used in counting, 1,2,3,4,5.... These are always whole numbers. The set of integers comprises all the natural numbers (the positive integers), zero, and the negative numbers...?3,?2,?1. The rational numbers are all the numbers that can be expressed in the form m/n,…

less than 1 minute read

numerical analysis - General introduction, Areas of study, Software

Methods of calculation involving successive approximations, such as iterative methods. For example, to find ?10 to any required degree of accuracy, if xn is a good approximation to ?10, use the algorithm (below) to find xn + 1, a better approximation. Great developments have been made recently in this field, encouraged by the suitability of computers for numerical methods. Numerical anal…

less than 1 minute read

numerology - Digit summing, History, Chinese numerology, Numerology and astrology, "Numerology" in science, In popular culture

The mystical study of numbers, derived mainly from Hindu and Arabic teaching, but also from Jewish and Chinese traditions. In the Chinese tradition, odd numbers are yang in quality and symbolize the celestial world, whereas even numbers are yin in quality and represent the terrestrial world. Pythagoras believed that the character of each of the nine numbers is linked to cosmic influences, and that…

less than 1 minute read

Numidia - History, Major cities

The Roman name for the region in N Africa to the W and S of Carthage. It roughly corresponds to modern Algeria. The name Numidia was first applied by Polybius and other historians during the 3rd century BC to indicate the territory west of Carthage, including the entire Maghreb as far as the river Mulucha (Muluya), about 100?miles west of Oran. At the end of the war the victorious Rom…

less than 1 minute read

numismatics - Subfields, History, Numismatists

The study and collecting of coins, notes, and other similar objects, such as medals. The first known coins were issued by the Lydians of Anatolia in the 7th-c BC. The first containing an accurate likeness of a reigning English monarch were minted in 1504, with the head of Henry VII. The first coins with milled edges were minted in France in 1639. The history of coin collecting dates from the Itali…

less than 1 minute read

nun - Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox Christian, Buddhist

A member of a religious order of women living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The term includes women living in enclosed convents, as well as sisters devoted to service of the sick or poor. In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. In Roman Cat…

less than 1 minute read

Nunavut - Geography, Major mines

A Canadian territory (area 2 093 190 km²/807 971 sq mi) created from a region formerly in E Northwest Territories, Canada, stretching from Manitoba to the North Pole; capital, Iqaluit. Its establishment was agreed in 1991 following negotiations between the federal government of Canada and Inuit leaders, and it was officially created on 1 April 1999. The population of c.29 000 is mainly Inu…

less than 1 minute read

Nunnally Johnson

Screenwriter, film producer, and director, born in Columbus, Georgia, USA. After many years as a newspaper reporter and then short-story writer, he went to Hollywood and began writing scripts in 1933. Over the following years he wrote countless scripts, ranging from such distinguished films as The Grapes of Wrath (1940) to The Dirty Dozen (1967). He also produced and directed films (1935–60), but…

less than 1 minute read

Nuremberg - Economy, Culture, Main sights, Transport, Sister cities, Nuremberg districts, Famous Citizens

49°27N 11°05E, pop (2000e) 511 000. Commercial and manufacturing city in Mittelfranken district, SC Germany; on the R Pegnitz and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, 147 km/91 mi NW of Munich; second largest city in Bavaria; scene of Mastersingers' contests during the Renaissance; annual meeting place of Nazi Party after 1933; badly bombed in World War 2; scene of German war criminal trials (1945–…

less than 1 minute read

Nuremberg Laws - Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, The Reich Citizenship Law

A series of racial laws promulgated in Nuremberg (15 Sep 1935) at a Reichstag meeting held during a Nazi Party rally, laying the foundation for the persecution of the Jews in Germany. They formed the hallmark of Nazi ideology following 1933 legislation to ban Jews from the professions, civil service, and the judiciary. The first law (Reichsbürgergesetz) deprived of German citizenship anyone of Je…

less than 1 minute read

Nuremberg Trials - Creation of the courts, Influence on the development of international criminal law

Proceedings held by the Allies at Nuremberg after World War 2 to try Nazi war criminals, following a decision made in 1943. An International Military Tribunal was set up in August 1945, and sat from November until October 1946. The charges were conspiracy against peace, crimes against peace, violations of the laws and customs of war, and crimes against humanity. Twenty-one Nazis were tried in pers…

less than 1 minute read

nurse shark - Distribution and habitat, Interaction with humans

Very large inoffensive shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) found in shallow waters of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic; length up to 4 m/13 ft; head broad with conspicuous barbels close to nostrils, fins broad; yellowish brown. (Family: Orectolobidae.) The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is a shark in the nurse sharks family, the only member of its genus Ginglymostoma. The nurse shar…

less than 1 minute read

nursery school - Preschool in the United Kingdom, Preschool in the USA, Day care

A school for children under the age at which schooling becomes compulsory. The teachers are usually trained, by comparison with playgroups, which make greater use of volunteer helpers. Provision varies, when it is non-statutory, according to where one lives. A nursery school or preschool is a facility providing preschool education or school for the education of very young children, precedin…

less than 1 minute read

nursing - History of nursing, Nursing as a profession, Nursing practice, Nursing specialties, Practice settings

The branch of medicine which provides care for the sick and injured, and assumes responsibility for the patient's physical, social, and spiritual needs that encourage recovery. Nurses comprise the largest single group of health workers. In developed countries the profession undergoes formal training prior to registration. Nurses are responsible for monitoring therapies, and increasingly have the a…

less than 1 minute read

nutation - Nutation of Earth, Values

In astronomy, the irregular ‘nodding’ of a rotation axis, particularly for Earth, discovered in 1748 by British astronomer James Bradley. It has an amplitude of 9 arc seconds and a period of 18·6 years, and results from the gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. The nutation of a planet is due to the fact that the tidal forces which cause the prece…

less than 1 minute read

nutcracker - Decorative, Functional

Either of two species of crow of the genus Nucifraga: the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) of Europe and Asia; and Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) of W North America. They inhabit coniferous forest, and eat insects, seeds, and young birds. (Family: Corvidae.) Nutcrackers in the form of wooden carvings of a soldier, knight, king, or other profession have existed since at least …

less than 1 minute read

nuthatch

A small bird of the family Sittidae (c.23 species), inhabiting rocks or woodland in the N hemisphere; short tail, sharp straight bill; eats insects (sometimes nuts); hunts by walking ‘head first’ down treetrunks or rock faces. The name is also used for the coral-billed nuthatch (Family: Hyposittidae) and the pink-faced nuthatch (Family: Daphoenosittidae). The nuthatches are a family, Sitt…

less than 1 minute read

nutmeg - Culinary uses, Essential oils, Nutmeg butter, History, World production, Risks and toxicity

An evergreen tree (Myristica fragrans) growing to 9 m/30 ft, native to the Moluccas, Indonesia; leaves oblong, fragrant; flowers waxy, yellow, 3-lobed bells; fruit 5–9 cm/2–3½ in, fleshy, pear-shaped, containing a single, large seed (the nutmeg) surrounded by a red aril from which mace is made. Both spices contain a narcotic, and are poisonous in large quantities. (Family: Myristicaceae.) …

less than 1 minute read

nutrition - Overview, History, Nutrition and Health, Nutrition and sports, Nutrition and longevity

The scientific study of all aspects of what organisms (in particular, human beings) eat. It involves the analysis of what people eat, the psychology of why they eat, what happens to food in the body, and how the balance of food affects health. Nutrition is deeply rooted in biochemistry and physiology, but also involves chemistry, psychology, sociology, statistics, economics, agriculture, and medic…

less than 1 minute read

Nuzi

An ancient town in Upper Mesopotamia, E of the Tigris. It was a flourishing Hurrian community in the second millennium BC, with strong commercial interests. Nuzi (or Nuzu) was an ancient Mesopotamian city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. …

less than 1 minute read

nyala

An African spiral-horned antelope; greyish-brown with thin vertical white lines; male with shaggy coat; two species: nyala (Tragelaphus angasi), found in dense undergrowth near water in SE Africa; and mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), from high forest in Ethiopia. …

less than 1 minute read

nylon - Chemistry, Bulk properties, Historical uses, Etymology, Uses

A generic term for the most widely-produced type of synthetic fibre, used commercially since 1938. It is a polyamide whose lightness and elasticity make it available for use both in fibre and solid form. It is also an extremely strong and hard-wearing material. Its uses are therefore varied, including ropes, tyre cords, engineering components, furnishings, and apparel. Nylon represents a fa…

less than 1 minute read

nymph (entomology) - Nymph classifications, Foreign adaptations

A feeding and growth stage in the development of insects, between hatching and the reorganization involved in attaining adulthood. The term is used only in relation to those insects in which the wings develop gradually and externally. In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue…

less than 1 minute read

nymph (mythology) - Nymph classifications, Foreign adaptations

In Greek mythology, one of the ‘young women’, nature-spirits, who live in streams (naiads), trees (hamadryads), the sea (nereids), as well as rocks and mountains; also those of a particular locality, who sometimes have a special name. They are long-lived but not immortal, and are fond of music and dancing. Unfortunately, people who see them become nympholept, filled with madness. In Greek…

less than 1 minute read

Nyons

44º22N 5º08E pop (2001e) 6600. Town in Drôme department, Rhône-Alpes region, SE France; part of the old town is mediaeval; Romanesque bridge (14th-c) on the R Eygues; birthplace of René Barjavel; rich agricultural area growing olives, apricots, cherries; wine-making; tourism; Alicoque festival (Feb), Olivades folk fête (Jul), performing arts festivals (Jul–Aug). …

less than 1 minute read

O(thniel) C(harles) Marsh

Palaeontologist, born in Lockport, New York, USA. He was educated at Yale and Yale's Sheffield School, and in Germany. A palaeontology professor at Yale (1866–99) and chief vertebrate palaeontologist of the US Geological Survey (1882–92), he discovered more than 1000 fossil vertebrates on expeditions to the W territories, amassing extensive collections for Yale's Peabody Museum. He helped establ…

less than 1 minute read

Oahu - Tourist attractions, Miscellaneous

pop (2000e) 920 000; area 1526 km²/589 sq mi. Third largest island of the US state of Hawaii; part of Honolulu County; chief town, Honolulu; rises to 1233 m/4045 ft at Kaala; sugar, fruit, tourism; naval base at Pearl Harbor. Oʻahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the "Gathering Place", is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in th…

less than 1 minute read

oak - Uses, Cultivation, Diseases and pests, Historical note on Linnaean species, References and notes

A member of a large genus of often massive and long-lived trees and also small shrubs, native to the N hemisphere; leaves deciduous or evergreen, usually shallowly lobed or with wavy margins; flowers tiny, perianth 4–7-lobed, males in catkins, females solitary or in clusters; fruit an acorn seated in a scaly cup. It is a traditional source of excellent timber, and also of cork and bark for tannin…

less than 1 minute read

Oak Ridge

36°01N 84°16W, pop (2000e) 27 400. Town in Anderson Co, E Tennessee, USA, on the Clinch R; founded by the US Government in 1942 to house workers developing the uranium-235 and plutonium-239 isotopes for the atomic bomb; the community was kept secret until after the first bombs were dropped in 1945; centre of atomic energy and nuclear physics research; nuclear fuel, nuclear instruments, electro…

less than 1 minute read

Oakes (botany) Ames

Botanist, born in North Easton, Massachusetts, USA. He taught and performed research at Harvard (1898–1941), and was instrumental in founding Harvard's Atkins Garden in Cienfuegos, Cuba (1900). His skilled administration (1937–45) brought Harvard's Botanical Museum to prominence. He amassed a large collection of orchid specimens (his specialty), and made major contributions to studies of their t…

less than 1 minute read

Oakes (politics) Ames

Businessman and US representative, born in Easton, Massachusetts, USA. At age 16 he began working at Oliver Ames & Co, his father's shovel factory, and when his father retired (1844), he took over the company with his brother, Oliver Jr. Their business flourished, riding the waves of the California gold rush, the Australian gold rush, the westward exodus, and the Civil War. Active in politics, he …

less than 1 minute read