Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 53

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Nadia Comaneci - Early life, Gymnastics competition career, Post retirement, Special skills

Gymnast, born in Onesti, C Moldova. Representing Romania, she was the star of the 1976 Olympic Games, when at the age of 14 (coached by Bela Karolyi) she won gold medals in the beam, vault, and floor disciplines. She retained the beam and floor exercise gold medals in 1980. In 1976 she became the first gymnast to obtain a perfect score of 10 for her performance on the parallel bars and beam. Later…

less than 1 minute read

Nadine Gordimer - Bibliography

Writer, born in Springs, E South Africa. She has lived in Johannesburg since 1948, and taught in the USA during the early 1970s. In novels such as A Guest of Honour (1971, James Tait Black), The Conservationist (1974, Booker), Burger's Daughter (1979), and A Sport of Nature (1987), she adopts a liberal approach to problems of race and repression, both in her native country and in other African sta…

less than 1 minute read

Nagaland - History, Geography and climate, Administration, Economy

pop (2001e) 1 988 600; area 16 527 km²/6379 sq mi. State in NE India; administrative centre, Kohima; governed by a 60-member State Assembly; rice, sugar cane, pulses, forestry, weaving; former territory of Assam; became a state in 1961; strong movement for independence amongst Naga tribesmen; talks with the Naga tribes underground movement resulted in the Shillong Peace Agreement, 1975. …

less than 1 minute read

Nagarjuna - Philosophy, English translations

Indian Buddhist monk-philosopher. He was the founder of the Madhyamika or Middle Path school of Buddhism. From studying his writings, it is clear that Nāgārjuna was conversant with the Nikaya school philosophies and with the emerging Mahāyāna tradition. According to Lindtner the works definitely written by Nagarjuna are: There are other works attributed to Nāgārjuna,…

less than 1 minute read

Nagasaki - History, Nagasaki in Western music and song, Sights, Events, Universities in Nagasaki, Sister cities

32°45N 129°52E, pop (2000e) 455 000. Capital of Nagasaki prefecture, W Kyushu, Japan; visited by the Portuguese, 1545; centre for Jesuit missionaries from 16th-c; one of the power centres of the Tokugawa Shogunate; target for the second atomic bomb of World War 2 (9 Aug 1945), killing or wounding c.75 000, and destroying over a third of the city; airport; railway; university (1949); fishing, …

less than 1 minute read

Nagorno-Karabakh - Politics, Divisions, Geography, History, Current situation

area 11 400 km²/4400 sq mi. Autonomous region in Azerbaijan, established in 1923 after the reversal (on Stalin's instigation) of a decision taken in 1921 by the Bureau of Caucasian Affairs to unite the region with Armenia; administrative centre, Stepanakert; in Karabakhsky and Murovdag ranges of the Caucasus; climate ranges from ?10°C in winter to 25°C in summer; majority of population Arme…

less than 1 minute read

Nagpur - Geography and Climate, History, Notable Institutions in Nagpur, Demographics, Culture, Major Localities, Economy, Education, Transport

21°08N 79°10E, pop (2000e) 1 905 000. City in Maharashtra, WC India; on R Pench, 675 km/419 mi NE of Mumbai; founded, 18th-c; scene of the final British overthrow of the Marathas, 1817–18; former capital of Berar and Madhya Pradesh states; airfield; railway; university (1923); cotton textiles, paper, metallurgy, trade in oranges. Nāgpur pronunciation?(help·info) ('Marathi:' 'न

less than 1 minute read

Naguib Mahfouz - Life and work, Works

Novelist, born in Cairo, Egypt. He graduated from Cairo University in 1934 and held administrative posts, but by 1939 had already written three novels. His later work was somewhat overshadowed by the notoriety surrounding The Children of Gebelawi (1961), serialized in the magazine Al-Ahram, which portrayed average Egyptians living the lives of Cain and Abel, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed. Islamic sch…

less than 1 minute read

Nahum - Historical context, Theme, The book

Old Testament minor prophet. He seems to have been an Israelite or Judaean who had been a captive in Nineveh, and prophesied the destruction of Nineveh by the Medes in 612 BC. Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. He wrote about the end of the Assyrian Empire, and its capital city, Nineveh, in a vivid poetic style. One account suggests th…

less than 1 minute read

Nahum Goldmann - Education, Pre-Nazi Germany, After World War II, Works by Goldmann

Zionist politician, born in Lithuania. He became head of the Zionistische Vereinigung in Deutschland (1926–33) but was forced to leave Germany in 1933 and emigrated first to Honduras and then to New York. He became representative of the Jewish Agency with the League of Nations (1935–40), promoted the foundation of the State of Israel, and was active in the restitution settlement (Wiedergutmachun…

less than 1 minute read

Nahum Tate - Life, Works, Whilst Shepherds Watch'd, Reference

Poet and playwright, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Dublin, and moved to London, where his first play was staged in 1678. He is known for his ‘improved’ versions of Shakespeare's tragedies, substituting happy endings to suit the popular taste, and with Dryden's help he wrote a second part to that poet's Absalom and Achitophel (1682). In collaboration with Nicholas Brady (1659–1726) he c…

less than 1 minute read

naiad - Types of Naiads, Individual Naiads, Further reading

In Greek mythology, a nymph who inhabits springs, rivers, and lakes. In Greek mythology, the Naiads (from the Greek νάειν, "to flow," and νἃμα, "running water") were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks, as river gods embodied rivers, and some very ancient spirits inhabited the still waters of marshes, ponds and lagoon-lakes, such …

less than 1 minute read

Nairobi - History, Culture, Geography, Climate, Parks and Gardens, Business and Economy, Tourism, Maps, Transport

1°17S 36°50E, pop (2000e) 1 833 000. Province and capital of Kenya; on the central Kenya plateau, 450 km/280 mi NW of Mombasa; largest city in E Africa; former seat of the British governor of Kenya; airport; railway; university (1956); centre of communications and commerce; textiles, chemicals, glass, agricultural trade; headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme Secretariat; …

less than 1 minute read

Namib Desert

Desert in W Namibia, along most of the Atlantic seaboard of Namibia; length, c.1300 km/800 mi; width, 50–160 km/30–100 mi; contains the highest sand dunes in the world. The Namib Desert is a desert in Namibia which forms part of the Namib-Naukluft National Park one of Africa's largest. The desert occupies an area of around 50?000?km², stretching some 1,000 miles (1,600 km) alon…

less than 1 minute read

Namibia - History, Administrative divisions, Geography, Tourism, Politics, Demographics, Foreign relations, Military, Notables

Local name Namibia Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa on the Atlantic coast. The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by Bushmen, Damara, Namaqua, and since about the fourteenth century AD, by immigrating Bantu who came with the Bantu expansion. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWA…

less than 1 minute read

Namur

50°28N 4°52E, pop (2000e) 105 500. Capital city of Namur province, SC Belgium, at confluence of Sambre and Meuse Rivers; key strategic point of the Belgian defence line on the R Meuse; conquered by the Germans in 1914 and 1940; railway; private university (1831); glass, porcelain, enamel, paper, steel; cathedral (1751–67), citadel (17th-c). Namur may refer to: …

less than 1 minute read

Nana Mouskouri - The early years, The middle years, The later years, Music genre, Partial discography

Singer, born in Chania, Crete, Greece. She studied at the Athens Academy of Music and released her first record in 1958. Her recording of ‘The White Rose of Athens’ (1962) became a major European hit and in the early 1970s she had a series of hit albums in the UK. During her career to date she has recorded over 1000 songs and received numerous gold and platinum discs. She was a member of the Eur…

less than 1 minute read

Nana Sahib

Prominent rebel of the Indian Mutiny, the adopted son of the ex-peshwa of the Marathas Baji Rao II (1796–1818). At the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny (1857) he became the leader of the Sepoys in Cawnpore, and organized the massacre of the British residents. After the collapse of the rebellion he escaped into Nepal, and died in the hills some time later. Nana Sahib (Dhondu Pant by birth) was…

less than 1 minute read

Nancy

48°42N 6°12E, pop (2000e) 104 000. Manufacturing city and capital of Meurthe-et-Moselle department, NE France; on R Meurthe and Marne–Rhine Canal, 285 km/177 mi E of Paris; former capital of Lorraine; part of France, 1766; road and rail junction; episcopal see; university (1572); iron and steel, boilers, catering equipment, glass, footwear, tobacco, yeast, brewing; 17th-c town hall, 13th-c …

less than 1 minute read

Nancy (Freeman) Mitford - Trivia

Writer, born in London, UK, the sister of Diana, Jessica, and Unity Mitford. Educated at home, she established a reputation with her witty novels such as The Pursuit of Love (1945) and Love in a Cold Climate (1949). After the war she settled in France and wrote major biographies, including Madame de Pompadour (1953), Voltaire in Love (1957), and Frederick the Great (1970). As one of the essayists …

less than 1 minute read

Nancy (Stevenson) Graves - Early life and studies, Work, Awards

Sculptor and painter, born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at Yale School of Art (1961 BFA; 1964 MFA), worked in Paris (1964–5) and Florence (1965–6), then settled in New York City (1966). She is known for her Bactrian camel series of the late 1960s, her biomorphic and moon films (1971–4), camouflage and aerial photo paintings, and also for her fanciful sculptures. Nancy G…

less than 1 minute read

Nancy Friday - Bibliography

Writer and popular psychologist, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. She attended Wellesley College and became a journalist and free-lance writer. She published several books based on her research into selected subjects of popular psychology, including My Secret Garden: Women's Sexual Fantasies (1973), My Mother/My Self: The Daughter's Search for Identity (1978), and Jealousy (1985). Nan…

less than 1 minute read

Nancy Lopez - Results in LPGA majors

Golfer, born in Torrance, California, USA. After an outstanding career in amateur golf, she turned professional in 1977 and won the Ladies' Professional Golf Association (LPGA) championship the following year. She was voted LPGA player of the year four times (1978–9, 1985, 1988), and set the record for the lowest 72-hole score of 268 (1985). She is married to former baseball star, Ray Knight. …

less than 1 minute read

Nancy Newhall

Writer and photographer, born in Swampscott, Massachusetts, USA. An art student who married Beaumont Newhall, she was curator of photography at the Museum of Modern Art (1942–5), writing books with Ansel Adams and Edward Weston. Nancy Wynne Newhall (May 9, 1908–July 7, 1974) was an American photography critic. She is best known for writing the text to accompany photographs by Ansel Adams…

less than 1 minute read

Nancy Reagan - Early life, Actress, Marriage and family, First Lady of California, First Lady of the United States

US first lady (1981–9), born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied drama at Smith College and became an actress in Hollywood where she met Ronald Reagan; they married in 1952. Fiercely protective of her husband, she was criticized by some for her interference in White House decision-making, but others pointed out that she provided a realistic counterweight to her husband's more casual and …

less than 1 minute read

Nanette Newman - Career, Personal life, Filmography

Actress and writer, born in Northampton, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. She trained at the Italia Conti Stage School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and appeared as a child in several films for the Children's Film Foundation. In 1959 she married Bryan Forbes, and has appeared in a number of his films, including The L-Shaped Room (1962), The Raging Moon (1971), and The Stepford Wiv…

less than 1 minute read

Nanjing - Geography and climate, History, Government and administrative division, Demographics, Transportation, Culture and art, Media, Tourism

32°03N 118°47E, pop (2000e) 2 987 000, administrative region 5 540 000. Capital of Jiangsu province, SE China, on the Yangtze R; founded, 900 BC; capital of China 220–589, 907–79, 1356–68 (renamed Nanjing, or ‘southern capital’), 1928–49; centre of Taiping Rebellion (1850–64); river port and trade centre; open port after the Opium War (1842), which concluded with the Treaty of Nanjin…

less than 1 minute read

nanotechnology - Fundamental concepts, Current research, Speculation, Societal implications, Further reading

The science of construction in which dimensions of the components are less than 100 nanometres (nm; 10?9 of a metre), this is c.100 000 times thinner than a human hair. The term was introduced by Nomo Taniguchi in 1974 to refer to mechanical machining methods. Top-down nanotechnology concentrates on manufacturing on this very small scale. Techniques such as photolithography are used to make trans…

1 minute read

Nantes - Main sights, Geography, Demographics, Famous people born in Nantes

47°12N 1°33W, pop (2000e) 256 000. Manufacturing and commercial seaport, and capital of Loire-Atlantique department, W France; at head of Loire estuary, 171 km/106 mi W of Tours; seventh largest city in France; 16th–18th-c centre of sugar and ebony trade; France's leading port in 18th-c; 19th-c decline, halted by construction of harbour at St-Nazaire and river dredging; major bomb damage in…

less than 1 minute read

Nantwich - History

53º04N 2º32W, pop (2001e) 28 000. Market town in S Cheshire, NWC England, UK; located on the R Weaver, 5 km/3 mi SW of Crewe; birthplace of David, 1st Earl Beatty, Sir William Bowman, John Gerard; Shropshire Union Canal to the W of the town; clothing, food products; many half-timbered buildings including Churche's Mansion (1557); remains of 14th-c castle, church of St Mary (14th-c); brine ba…

less than 1 minute read

Naomi

Biblical character described in the stories of the Book of Ruth as the mother-in-law of Ruth and Orpah. After Naomi was widowed, she returned from Moab to Bethlehem with her daughters-in-law, and attempted to arrange the marriage of Ruth with Boaz, one of the secondary kinsmen of Naomi's deceased husband. The offspring of this union was said to be the grandfather of David Naomi may refer to…

less than 1 minute read

Naomi (Mary Margaret) Mitchison - Biography, Bibliography, Note on her title

Writer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK, the sister of E S, J S, and R B Haldane. Educated at the Dragon School, Oxford, she won instant attention with her brilliant and personal evocations of Greece and Sparta in such novels as The Conquered (1923), When the Bough Breaks (1924), Cloud Cuckoo Land (1925), and Black Sparta (1928). In 1931 came the erudite Corn King and Spring Queen, which brough…

less than 1 minute read

Naomi Uemura - The Pole, Mount McKinley, Sources

Explorer and mountaineer, born in Tajima region, C Japan. He started climbing as a student at Meiji University, Tokyo. After solo ascents of Mont Blanc, Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, and Mt McKinley, he reached the summit of Everest with Teruo Matsura in 1970, becoming the first person to reach the highest peak on five continents. In 1978 he made a solo dog-sled journey of 450 mi from Ellesmere I to th…

less than 1 minute read

Nap Rucker

Baseball pitcher, born in Crabapple, Georgia, USA. During his 10-year career as a left-hander for the Brooklyn Dodgers (1907–16), he won 134 games and established himself as one of the game's most dependable pitchers. George Napoleon "Nap" Rucker (September 30, 1884 in Crabapple, Georgia - December 19, 1970 in Alpharetta, Georgia) was a left-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball player f…

less than 1 minute read

napalm - Usage in warfare, Composition, Napalm in popular culture

A munition (usually air-launched in canisters by aircraft) containing petroleum gel which uses flame for its destructive effects. It is designed for use against hard targets such as bunkers and armoured vehicles. Chemically, it is an aluminium soap of naphthenic and palmitic acids (which give the substance its name). Napalm is any of a number of flammable liquids used in warfare, often jell…

less than 1 minute read

Napata

An ancient city, situated on the W bank of the Nile in what is now the Sudan. It was the capital of the kingdom of Cush c.750–590 BC. Although political dominance passed to Meroe in that year, Napata remained the religious capital. Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of Khartoum, the present capital of Sudan. Some 300 years later, Napata became the capit…

less than 1 minute read

naphtha - Production of naphtha in refineries and uses, Examples

A mixture of hydrocarbons obtained either from coal tar or from petroleum. It has a boiling range of about 100–180°C. Naphtha from coal tar is mainly aromatic, containing much toluene, while that from petroleum is mainly aliphatic. Naphtha (not to be confused with Naphthalene) is a group of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used primarily as feedstocks in refineries f…

less than 1 minute read

naphthalene - Structure and reactivity, Production, Incidence in nature, Uses, Health effects

C10H8, melting point 80°C. A white, waxy solid, containing two fused benzene rings; obtained from the distillation of coal tar. It forms many derivatives, and is important as a starting material in the synthesis of dyestuffs and plastics. It is familiar as the main ingredient of mothballs. Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, wh…

less than 1 minute read

Napier

39°29S 176°58E, pop (2000e) 57 000. Seaport in Hawke's Bay on the E coast of North Island, New Zealand; largely destroyed by earthquake in 1931; much of the business area rebuilt in Art Deco style; a modern seaside city built largely on reclaimed land; airfield; railway; centre of a rich farming area; electronics, food processing, trade in wool, meat, fruit, pulp, tobacco. "Napier" is a…

less than 1 minute read

Naples - History, Main sights, Sports, Food and drink, The Neapolitan diaspora, Famous Neapolitans, Public transport

40°50N 14°15E, pop (2000e) 1 205 000. Seaport and capital city of Naples province, Campania, SW Italy; on the Tyrrhenian Sea, 189 km/117 mi SE of Rome; founded c.600 BC by refugees from Greek colony of Cumae; capital of Napoleon's Parthenopean Republic (1799) and of the Sicilian kingdom (1806); joined Kingdom of Italy, 1860; severely damaged in World War 2, and by earthquakes, 1980; archbis…

less than 1 minute read

Napoleonic Wars - Political effects of the wars, Military legacy of the wars, First Coalition 1792–1797, Second Coalition 1798–1801

(1800–15) The continuation of the Revolutionary Wars, fought to preserve French hegemony in Europe. They were initially a guarantee for the political, social, and economic changes of the 1789 Revolution, but increasingly became a manifestation of Napoleon's personal ambitions. The wars began with Napoleon's destruction of the Second Coalition (1800). After a peaceful interlude (1802–3) Britain r…

less than 1 minute read

Nara

34°41N 135°49E, pop (2000e) 359 000. Capital of Nara prefecture, S Honshu, Japan, 29 km/18 mi E of Osaka; first urban capital of Japan, 710; cultural and religious centre; centre of Japanese Buddhism; railway; women's university (1908); textiles, dolls, fans; Todaiji (East Great Temple, founded 743), housing massive bronze statue of Buddha (22 m/72 ft tall) in world's largest wooden buildi…

less than 1 minute read

Nara period - Nara period literature, Economic, social, and administrative developments

An episode in Japanese history when the first permanent capital was established at Nara (Heijo) between modern Kyoto and Osaka in AD 710. The oldest surviving Japanese poetry anthologies and histories date from this period, besides major Buddhist temples. Nara was abandoned as the capital in 784, and replaced in 794 by Heian (modern Kyoto). The Nara period (奈良時代, Nara-jidai) of the …

less than 1 minute read

Narayanganj - History

23°36N 90°28E, pop (2000e) 557 300. City in Narayanganj district, SE Bangladesh; on R Meghna, E of Dhaka; river port for Dhaka, and one of the busiest trade centres; collection centre for jute, hides, and skins; major industrial region, including jute mills, cotton textiles, leather, glass, shoes. Narayanganj is a city in central Bangladesh. The town got its name from Bicon …

less than 1 minute read

Narbonne - Geography, Notable people from Narbonne

43º19N 2º90E, pop (2002e) 46 800. Town in Aude department, Languedoc region, S France; located near to the Spanish border; in Roman times it was a thriving Mediterranean port, but is now located inland from the sea; the Canal de Robine (which joins the Canal de Midi) runs through the town centre; centre of local wine trade, serving the wine areas of Corbieres, Minervois, St Chinian, Fitou; bir…

less than 1 minute read

Narciso Yepes - Select Discography

Guitarist, born in Marchena, near Lorca, Spain. Making his solo debut in 1947, he later added four strings to the six of the regular guitar, to increase its sonority. He was awarded the Premio Nacional de Música in 1986. Narciso Yepes (1927 – 1997) was a Spanish classical guitarist. Born into a poor family on Lorca, Spain on November 14, 1927. When he was 13 he wa…

less than 1 minute read

narcissism - Narcissistic Culture, Narcissism as a genetic trait, Medical narcissism, Celebrating Narcissism

A condition of self-infatuation stemming from difficulties at an early stage of psychological development. It may manifest as exhibitionism, indifference to criticism, a presumption of special entitlement, and fantasies of unlimited sexual prowess, intelligence, or attractiveness. Narcissism describes the character trait of self love. The word is derived from Greek mythology. …

less than 1 minute read

narcissus

A bulb native to Europe, the Mediterranean region, and W Asia; leaves strap-shaped; flowers solitary or several on a long stalk, central trumpet or cup (the corona), surrounded by six spreading perianth-segments, white, yellow, or pink; the corona often contrasting, sometimes red. Horticulturally a division is made into daffodils, with the corona equalling or longer than the perianth, and narcissi…

less than 1 minute read

Narcissus

In Greek mythology, a beautiful youth who fell in love with his reflection in a pool; he pined away and was changed into a flower. Ovid says this was because of his cruelty to Echo. Narcissus may mean either: Other uses of the name include: …

less than 1 minute read

narcolepsy - Symptoms, Effects, Causes, Prevalence, Diagnosis, Treatment, Research, Coping with narcolepsy

An extreme tendency towards excessive sleepiness often associated with cataplexy, in which sleep onset is accompanied by dreaming. Sleep paralysis and hypnagogic (during the process of falling asleep) hallucinations are accompanying features. Genetic factors have recently been shown to be involved. Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (ED…

less than 1 minute read

Narses

Persian statesman and general, born in Armenia. He rose in the imperial household in Constantinople to be keeper of the privy purse to Justinian I. In 538 he was sent to Italy, but recalled the next year. In 552 Belisarius was recalled from Italy, and Narses succeeded him, defeated the Ostrogoths, took possession of Rome, and completely extinguished the Gothic power in Italy. Justinian appointed h…

less than 1 minute read

narthex

A transverse vestibule in a basilica church, either inside and before the nave, or outside the main facade. Alternatively, it may refer to any enclosed, covered space before the main entrance. The narthex of a church is the entrance or lobby area, located at the western end of the nave, at the far end from the church's main altar. Traditionally the narthex was a part of the church bui…

less than 1 minute read

Narvik - Geography, Seasons in Narvik, Economy and Communications, Recreation and tourism, Narvik in World War II

68°26N 17°25E, pop (2000e) 19 400. Seaport in Nordland county, N Norway; at W end of a peninsula in the Ofoten Fjord, opposite the Lofoten Is; airfield; terminus of the Lappland railway from the Kiruna iron-ore mines in Sweden; ice-free harbour; occupied by Germany, 1940; scene of World War 2 naval battles in which two British and nine German destroyers were lost. Coordinates: 68°25′…

less than 1 minute read

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) - History, NASA spaceflight missions, List of NASA administrators, Field installations, Aircraft, Awards and decorations, Related legislation

An independent agency of the US Government responsible for the civil space programme. It was established in 1958 by President Eisenhower based on the old National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Its headquarters is in Washington DC, where programme plans originate. Individual projects are implemented at different field centres: Ames Research Center (Mountain View, CA) for astrobiology a…

less than 1 minute read

Nassau (Bahamas) - Place names:, House of Nassau, Other types of things:

25°05N 77°20W, pop (2000e) 14 400. Capital of the Bahamas on NE coast of New Providence I; frequented by pirates during the 18th-c and captured briefly by Americans in 1776; Fort Nassau (1697), Fort Charlotte (1787–94), and Fort Fincastle (1793) built to protect the city from Spanish invasion; airport; a popular winter tourist resort. Nassau may mean the following: …

less than 1 minute read

Nassau (European history) - Place names:, House of Nassau, Other types of things:

A Burgundian noble family, who rose as servants of the Habsburgs, then rebelled against their authority in the Low Countries. They were made stadtholders of Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland, Counts of Nassau, and Princes of Orange by Charles V. The heirs to the titles, William of Orange (1533–84), and his brother Louis (1538–74), Count of Nassau, supported and led the Dutch Revolt (1566–1648) ag…

less than 1 minute read

nasturtium

An annual or perennial, trailing or climbing by twining leaf-stalks, native to Mexico and temperate South America; leaves rounded or lobed, stalk attached to centre of blade; flowers large, slightly zygomorphic, roughly trumpet-shaped with five petals and a backward-projecting spur, in shades of yellow, orange, and scarlet. Various species and numerous cultivars are grown for ornament. (Genus: Tro…

less than 1 minute read

Nat King Cole - Notable Songs, Discography (Albums), Filmography

Musician, born in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. He was raised in Chicago, where he made his recording debut in 1936 with Eddie Cole's Solid Swingers, a sextet led by his brother. He toured with a ‘Shuffle Along’ revue in 1937, then settled in Los Angeles where he played solo piano for a year. In 1939 he began recording for Decca with his original King Cole Trio, whose piano–bass-guitar instrumentat…

1 minute read

Natal (Brazil)

5°46S 35°15W, pop (2000e) 692 200. Port capital of Rio Grande do Norte state, NE Brazil; on the Atlantic coast at mouth of R Potengi, N of Recife; airfield; railway; university (1958); trade in sugar, cotton; cashew plantations; textiles; Marine Research Institute at Praia da Areia Preta; rocket base of Barreira do Inferno, 20 km/12 mi S; cathedral, 16th-c fort, Museu Câmara Cascudo. …

less than 1 minute read

Natalia (Romanovna) Makarova - Further reading

Ballerina, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia. After studying in St Petersburg, she joined the Kirov Ballet and became one of its outstanding ballerinas. She defected to the West while touring with the Kirov in London (1970). She joined the American Ballet Theatre in New York City as a principal dancer, and became a guest dancer with the Royal Ballet, Covent Garden, and other companies. Best known f…

less than 1 minute read

Natalia Bessmertnova - History, Title roles, Other important roles, Awards

Ballerina, born in Moscow, Russia. She trained at the Bolshoi Ballet School (1952–61), joining the company upon graduation. She has figured significantly in ballets devised by her husband Yuri Grigorovich, particularly Ivan the Terrible (1975). Natalia Igorevna Bessmertnova was the legendary Soviet prima ballerina of the Bolshoi Ballet. She was born in Moscow on July 19, 1941 a…

less than 1 minute read

Natalia Ginzburg - Life, Literary works

Writer, born in Palermo, Sicily, S Italy. She was interned by the Fascists (1940–3) together with husband Leone Ginzburg. She published her first short stories in the review Solaria, and progressed to novels that have as their main themes family life and memories of the past, such as Tutti i nostri ieri (1952), Lessico famigliare (1963), Caro Michele (1973), and La famiglia Manzoni (1983). Her pl…

less than 1 minute read

Natalie (Ann) Zemon Davis - Work

Historian, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. She studied at Smith and Radcliffe Colleges and the University of Michigan (1959 PhD), and taught at Brown University (1959–63), the University of Toronto (1963–71), the University of California, Berkeley (1971–8), and Princeton (1978). A foremost practitioner of the ‘new social history’, she engaged in almost anthropological research into the lives …

less than 1 minute read

Natalie Clifford Barney - Early life, Renée Vivien, Poetry and plays, Salon, Epigrams and novel, Major relationships

Hostess and writer, born in Dayton, Ohio, USA. Born into a wealthy family (her grandfather made railroad cars), she was educated at a French boarding school, becoming completely bilingual. She finished her schooling at a private school for girls in New York City (1894), then was introduced into society in Washington, DC. Her beauty, wealth, artistic talents, and personal charm led to several engag…

1 minute read

Natalie Wood - Early life and acting career, Relationships, Drowning at Catalina Island, Awards and nominations, Filmography, Television work

Film actress, born in San Francisco, California, USA, the child of Russian immigrants. She began as a child star, becoming known for her roles in Rebel Without a Cause (1955, Oscar nomination), Splendor in the Grass (1961), and West Side Story (1961, Oscar nomination). Later films included Bob and Carol and Ted and Alice (1969) and Meteor (1979). She drowned in a boating accident off Catalina Isla…

less than 1 minute read

Nataraja - Origin

One of the names of the Hindu deity, Shiva. As the Lord of the Dance he dances the creation of the universe. Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Shiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. The dwarf on which Nataraja dances is the demon Apasmara that symbolises the ignorance of dichotomy, which is defeated by the dance of Shiva. As the Lor…

less than 1 minute read

Natchez Trace - Origins of the Natchez Trace, Development and Disappearance of the Trace

A road built by the US army in the early 19th-c to link Nashville, TN, with the then pioneer outpost of Natchez in Mississippi, 725 km/450 mi distant. The road, which follows an earlier American Indian track, was designated a national parkway in 1939. The Natchez Trace was a 440-mile-long path extending from Natchez, Mississippi to Nashville, Tennessee, linking the Cumberland, the Tenness…

less than 1 minute read

Nathalie Baye - Filmography

Actress, born in Mainneville, NW France. After dance and theatre studies, her first film role was in Truffaut's La Nuit Américaine (1973). Her many later films include La Balance (1982, director Bob Swaim), Le Retour de Martin Guerre (1982, director Daniel Vigne), and La Baule-les-Pins (director Diane Kurys). …

less than 1 minute read

Nathalie Sarraute - Works (An Incomplete Listing)

Writer, born in Ivanova, W Russia. Her parents settled in France when she was a child, and she studied at the Sorbonne, at Oxford, and in Berlin before becoming a member of the French bar (1926–41). Her first book was a collection of sketches on bourgeois life, Tropismes (1939, Tropisms), in which she rejected traditional plot development. Known and widely translated as the leading theorist of th…

less than 1 minute read

Nathan (Mironovich) Milstein

Violinist, born in Odessa, S Ukraine. He began his concert career there in 1919, soon playing with Horowitz and Piatigorsky. He left Russia in 1925, gave recitals in Paris, and made his US debut under Stokowski in 1929. He became a US citizen in 1942. Nathan Mironovich Milstein (31 December 1903 — 21 December 1992) was a Ukrainian-born violinist who took United States citizenship in 1942 …

less than 1 minute read

Nathan Appleton - Biography

Manufacturer and banker, born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, USA. One of the founders of the cotton-mill industry in Massachusetts, he pursued both profits and attractive working conditions for his employees. As a US representative (Whig, Massachusetts, 1831–3) he argued for a protective tariff and for the Bank of the United States. He wrote Currency and Banking (1841) and was active in Boston's …

less than 1 minute read

Nathan Bedford Forrest - Early life, Military career, Postwar years and Ku Klux Klan, Posthumous legacy, Further reading

US soldier, born in Bedford Co, Tennessee, USA. With little formal education, he became a wealthy livestock dealer, planter, and slave trader. When the Civil War commenced, he enlisted as a private in the Confederate army, but by 1861 was a lieutenant-colonel in command of his own troop of cavalry. He participated in many of the early battles, including Shiloh, then began to operate on his own, us…

less than 1 minute read

Nathan Dane - Further reading

Lawyer and statesman, born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, USA. A delegate to the Continental Congress in 1785, and later a commissioner to revise the statutes of Massachusetts, he published a nine-volume General Abridgement and Digest of American Law, the first comprehensive work on US law (1823–9). He arranged that the income from this work be used to establish a chair in the Harvard Law School, pro…

less than 1 minute read

Nathan F(arragut) Twining

Aviator, born in Monroe, Wisconsin, USA. He trained at West Point and served eight years in the infantry before transferring to the air service. In World War 2, he took command of the newly-formed 13th Air Force in the Southwest Pacific (1942), and in 1944 went to the Mediterranean as commander of the 15th Air Force, which carried out the famous Ploesti oilfield raids under his direction. He retur…

less than 1 minute read

Nathan Hale - Background, Spy, The speech, Estimations of Hale, Hanging site(s), Other statues, Reference

American revolutionary officer, hero, and martyr, born in Coventry, Connecticut, USA. Educated at Yale, he became a schoolteacher, served in the siege of Boston (1775), and was commissioned captain (1776). He penetrated the British lines on Long Island to obtain information, but was captured by the British and hanged without trial the next day. His statue stands at the headquarters of the CIA at L…

less than 1 minute read

Nathan Straus

Merchant and philanthropist, born in Otterberg, Germany, the brother of Isidor and Oscar S Straus. His mother, Sara, brought the family to join her husband, Lazarus, in Georgia in 1854. They moved to New York after the Civil War and in 1866 Nathan joined L Straus & Sons, the family's crockery and glassware firm. In 1888 he and his brother Isidor became partners of R H Macy & Co, becoming its sole …

1 minute read

Nathanael

New Testament character, who appears only in John (1.45–51 and 21.2). He is said to have been brought to Jesus by Philip, and is one of the first to confess Jesus as ‘Son of God, King of Israel’. He does not appear by this name in any list of disciples in the synoptic Gospels, however; possibly he was not one of the 12 or even a historical individual at all, despite some attempts to identify hi…

less than 1 minute read

Nathanael Greene - Post-war activities

US general, born in Warwick, Rhode Island, USA. In the American Revolution, he fought (1775–6) at Boston, Trenton, the Brandywine, and Germanton, and in 1780 took command of the Southern army, which had just been defeated by Cornwallis. He was defeated by Cornwallis at Guildford Courthouse (1781), but the victory was so costly that Greene was able to recover South Carolina and Georgia, paving the…

less than 1 minute read

Nathanael West - Early life, Career as author, Death, His work, Published works, Further reading

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Tufts (1921) and Brown (1924 PhB), and lived in Paris for two years, where he finished his first novel. He changed his name legally in 1926. Until 1933 he was a manager of various inexpensive hotels belonging to his father in New York City while continuing to write, and then settled in California (1935) to become a screenwriter (1936–40)…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel (Jarvis) Wyeth

Trader and explorer, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He was active in the ice business of Frederic Tudor. A follower of Hall Kelley, he attempted to settle a commercial and agricultural colony in Oregon (1832–4). He built Fort Hall, but later sold it to the Hudson's Bay Co, and returned to the East and to selling ice to people in hot climates. Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth (January 29, 180…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel (Southgate) Shaler

Geologist and geographer, born in Newport, Kentucky, USA. He studied at Harvard (1862), served with the 5th Kentucky Battery in the Union army, then returned to assist Jean Louis Agassiz at Harvard, studying abroad afterwards. In 1868 he returned to Harvard for good, becoming an extremely popular professor, writing magazine articles and books, such as A First Book in Geology (1884). He headed the …

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Bacon - Trivia

Colonial leader, born in Suffolk, E England, UK. He emigrated to Virginia c.1674, where he became a landowner and planter. He opposed Governor Sir William Berkeley's Indian policies, and in 1676 he attacked the Pamunkey, Susquehanna, and Occaneechi tribes without a commission from Berkeley, who denounced him as a traitor. Bacon then marched on Jamestown, and when a compromise settlement failed, he…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Benchley

Writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the son of humorist Robert Benchley. He wrote a number of books for children, including Small Wolf (1972), Bright Candles (1974), and Walter, the Homing Pigeon (1981). The Off Islanders (1962) was later made into a successful film, The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming! (1966). His son, Peter Benchley (1940–2006), was also a novelist. …

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Bowditch - Life and work, Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, Legacy

Astronomer and mathematician, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. Self-taught after age 10, he worked in a ship's chandlery, and by 15 had compiled an astronomical almanac. He went to sea (1795–1803), serving as master on his last voyage. He began by correcting errors in the writings of others, especially John Hamilton Moore's Practical Navigator; his contributions were so extensive that by 1802 t…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Chipman

Jurist, born in Salisbury, Connecticut, USA. He negotiated the admittance of Vermont to the Union and sat intermittently on Vermont's Supreme Court (1787–1816). During those years he also served in Vermont's legislature, was a federal judge (1791–3), and spent a term in the US Senate (Federalist, Vermont, 1799–1805). He lectured at Middlebury College (1816–17), but deafness limited his later y…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Currier - Early years, Currier Ives, Personal and later life

Lithographer, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. After apprentice years under William S and John Pendleton in Boston, Philadelphia, and New York City, he established his own firm, issuing his first print in 1835. He made James Ives his business partner (1857), and the firm Currier & Ives became a household name, their hand-coloured prints portraying a wide spectrum of 19th-c…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Hawthorne - Biography, Writings

Writer, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. A descendant of a judge in the Salem witch trials, he spent a solitary, bookish childhood with his widowed and reclusive mother. After graduating from Bowdoin College, he returned to Salem and prepared for a writing career with 12 years of solitary study and writing interrupted by summer tours through the NE. After privately publishing a novel, Fanshawe (…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel L(ord) Britton

Botanist, born in New Dorp, Staten Island, New York, USA. Originally a geologist, he was an assistant in geology at Columbia University (1879–86), then taught geology, botany, and ecology there (1886–90). He became a professor of botany at Columbia (1891–6), then resigned to found and direct the New York Botanical Garden (1896–1929), with his wife Elizabeth Gertrude Knight Britton as its curat…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Lee

English playwright. He studied at Cambridge, failed as an actor, and produced nine or ten tragedies, marked by their extravagance of speech, between 1675 and 1682. His best-known play is The Rival Queens (1677), and with Dryden he wrote Oedipus (1678), and The Duke of Guise (1682). He lost his sanity and was confined to Bedlam for several years (1684–9, 1691). Nathaniel Lee (c. …

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Macon - External Links

US representative and senator, born in Edgecombe, North Carolina, USA. Although he came north to serve in the New Jersey militia (1777), he opposed the Constitution. He served in the North Carolina senate (1780–4) before going to the US House of Representatives (Republican, North Carolina, 1791–1815) and Senate (1815–28). A defender of slavery, he led the Republican opposition to any Federalist…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Parker Willis - Further Reading

Poet, writer, and editor, born in Portland, Maine, USA. He moved with his family to Boston (1812), and studied at Yale (1927 BA) where he was known as a poet. He became a journalist and founded the American Monthly magazine (1829). After moving to New York City, he worked as a foreign correspondent for the New York Mirror until 1836, and eventually became co-editor there. He was noted for epistola…

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Thayer - Children, Bibliography

Financier and philanthropist, born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, USA. He came from a family that included many distinguished ministers. He became a partner in a Boston commerce house, trading with the West Indies (1829), and later joined his brother in banking at John E Thayer & Brother (1840). He became the principal director (1857), and through railroad financing became one of the wealthiest men …

less than 1 minute read

Nathaniel Ward

Protestant religious leader, born in Haverhill, Suffolk, E England, UK. A member of a notable Puritan family, he studied at Emmanuel College (Boston) and Cambridge University, then practised law and entered the Anglican ministry in 1618. He served a London parish (1624–33) but was dismissed for nonconformism and emigrated to Massachusetts, where he accepted the pastorate of Agawam (now Ipswich) i…

less than 1 minute read

National Academy of Design - Members of the National Academy of Design

The main official academy of art in the USA. Founded in 1826, it still exists as an exhibiting society for the more traditionally-minded artists. The National Academy of Design, in New York City, now called simply The National Academy, is an honorary association of American artists, with a museum and a school of fine arts. It houses a public collection of over five thousand work…

less than 1 minute read

national accounts - Development, Main components

A set of accounts showing how much a nation has produced and consumed during some period, normally a year. This will cover the composition of goods and services produced, by sector; the division of expenditures between consumption, investment, government, imports, and exports; and the division of incomes between wages, profits, rents, interest, taxes, and transfer payments. It will also include a …

less than 1 minute read

national anthem - Types of anthem, Usage

The official song of a nation. Examples include: Canada's O Canada, composed by Calixa Lavallée and adopted in 1980; France's La Marseillaise, composed by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle and adopted in 1795; Japan's Kimigayo (‘His Majesty's Reign’), composed by Hayashi Hirimori, but not officially adopted; Germany's Deutschlandlied (‘Song of Germany’), composed by Haydn and adopted in 1950; the…

less than 1 minute read

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) - Organization, History

A group, open to all Americans, which aims to extend awareness among the country's African-American population of their political rights; founded in the USA in 1909. It has successfully used the courts, in the face of opposition from politicians, to remove certain legal barriers to the equal rights of blacks. It was also active in encouraging blacks to register for the vote during the voter regist…

less than 1 minute read

National Basketball Association (NBA) - Teams, Regular season, Important people, Rules named after a player, Awards

A professional sports league that gained worldwide acclaim for managing its players and marketing their skills. Founded just after World War 2, the league grew slowly during the 1950s and became more popular during the 1960s, when the Boston Celtics dominated the other teams. The 1970s was a period of slower expansion. Then in 1980 Larry Bird and Earvin ‘Magic’ Johnson started a decade where the…

less than 1 minute read

national curriculum - Principal Aims, Compulsory Subjects, Key Stages

A curriculum for all the schools in a country, usually devised by the central authority in the capital city. Some countries (eg France) have had one for many years; some (eg the USA) do not have one at all. England and Wales introduced one in 1988, consisting of three ‘core’ subjects (English, maths, science), and seven ‘foundation’ subjects (art, geography, history, music, physical education,…

less than 1 minute read

National Front (NF) - Former

A strongly nationalist political party in Britain which centres its political programme on opposition to immigration, and calls for the repatriation of ethnic minorities even if they were born in the UK. The party was created in 1960 by the merger of the White Defence League and the National Labour Party, and in its early years was a small neo-Nazi grouping. In the mid- and late 1970s it had some …

less than 1 minute read

National Gallery

An art gallery in London housing the largest collection of paintings in Britain, and one of the finest collections in the world. It was opened in 1824 in Pall Mall, but moved to its present premises in Trafalgar Square in 1838. A spacious extension, the Sainsbury Wing, designed by Robert Venturi, opened in 1991 to house the early Renaissance pictures. The first phase of a major redevelopment schem…

less than 1 minute read

National Gallery of Art - Buildings, Operations

A gallery endowed by Andrew W Mellon and opened in Washington, District of Columbia, USA in 1941. Although the museum is a branch of the Smithsonian Institution, it is administered independently. The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for construction and a substantia…

less than 1 minute read

National Gallery of Australia - Establishment, Development of the collection, Major Displays

An art gallery on the shores of L Burley Griffin in Canberra, opened in 1982. It houses a permanent collection showing the history of Australian art, including Aboriginal art, and includes collections of Asian and Pacific art, as well as international graphic arts and photography, African and Pre-Columbian art, a sculpture garden, and European art of all periods. The National Gallery of Aus…

less than 1 minute read

National Geographic Society - Founding of National Geographic Society, Publications, Television, Hubbard Medal

In the USA, a scientific and educational organization, founded in 1888. The knowledge gained from the exploration and research it funds is published in its monthly journal National Geographic. It had over 10 million members in 2006. The National Geographic Society, based in Washington, D.C. Its historical mission is "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting t…

less than 1 minute read

national guard

A militia or reserve military force. The US National Guard is organized on a state-by-state basis, its members voluntarily enlisting for military training and for service in aiding the civil power when called upon by the state governor. National Guard may refer to: Military forces Paramilitary organizations, which have both military and law enforcement missions …

less than 1 minute read

National Health Service (NHS) - History, NHS Policies and programmes, Structure, Criticism, Wikipedia project, Further reading

A system of health care established in the UK in 1948. World War 2 revealed the need for reform of the health and hospital services which had served up to that time. The new service was to be, and largely remains, a free service available to the whole population, without income limit, and funded out of general taxation. Existing municipal and voluntary hospitals were nationalized and came under th…

less than 1 minute read

National Heritage Memorial Fund

A fund set up in 1980 by the National Heritage Memorial Act as a memorial to those who have died in service for the UK. It is the successor of the National Land Fund, and is administered by the Department of the Environment. The fund is used for the purpose of helping in the acquisition, maintenance, and preservation of land, buildings, and objects of outstanding scenic, historic, architectural, a…

less than 1 minute read

National Hockey League - History, Game, Teams, Season structure, Notable players, Hockey rink, Rules, Television

The pre-eminent association of professional ice hockey teams in Canada and the USA. Established in 1917 at Montreal, it was originally composed of four teams from Ontario and Quebec, and later expanded to include larger numbers of teams from American cities. A championship series is played annually for the Stanley Cup. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization c…

less than 1 minute read

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) - Facilities, Measurements and Standards, NIST Features Specialized Facilities, Helping Secure the Homeland, People, Directors

A US government facility, established by Congress in 1901, researching and developing measurement methods, standards, and technology in support of industry, commerce, scientific institutions, and government; formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards. NIST maintains one of the world's most accurate atomic clocks, accurate to within a second per six million years, and a copy of the standard…

less than 1 minute read

national insurance - Introduction, Contribution classes, The National Insurance number, NIRS

A system whereby the state insures all its residents against illness, disability, unemployment, and old age. In the UK, for example, the National Insurance Scheme is funded by compulsory contributions on all workers above a low exemption limit and their employers. The National Insurance Fund then makes payments to individuals who are ill, unemployed, or retired. The contributions cover only a smal…

less than 1 minute read

National League - League history, Teams, NL presidents 1876–1999, Other leagues

A baseball league that grew out of the first professional league, the National Association (NA). It was founded in 1876 by William Hulbert, then owner of the NA Chicago White Stockings. The NA was a weak league beset by failing franchises and undisciplined players. As president of the new National League (1877–82), Hulbert introduced regular schedules, banned alcohol from baseball grounds, and wo…

less than 1 minute read

National Library of Australia - Collections, Facilities, PictureAustralia, National Directors

One of Australia's principal libraries, established in 1901 as the parliamentary library of the new federal government. In 1912, it became entitled to a copy of all Australian material. Re-housed in Canberra in 1968, it now holds over four million items. The National Library of Australia is located in Canberra, Australia. Established in 1960, the Library grew out of the Federal Parliamentar…

less than 1 minute read

National Library of Wales

The library was established by Royal Charter in 1907 and opened on its present site in Aberystwyth, W Wales, UK, in 1916; the main building was not completed until 1955. It is one of the six largest libraries in Britain, and as a Copyright (Legal Deposit) Library, it has the right to claim any work (books, periodicals, newspapers, music, maps) published in the British Isles. The National Li…

less than 1 minute read

National Park - Features preserved, Park mandates, Other sites designated for preservation

According to the United Nations, an area of educational and scientific importance for habitat and wildlife, of great beauty, and of recreational value, but which has suffered little human impact, so remaining a relative wilderness. It should also be protected from resource development and be relatively unpopulated. Examples include Yosemite National Park, USA, and Wood Buffalo National Park, Canad…

less than 1 minute read

National Party (Australia) - Africa, Asia, Australasia/Oceania, Europe, North America

The third largest party in Australia since 1920, originally named the Country Party. It grew out of rural dissatisfaction with the way governments had favoured urban areas, and concern over loss of population to the towns. The party is conservative in social matters, generally favours policies of free trade and low tariffs, and supports government public expenditure. Since 1923 it has been in coal…

less than 1 minute read

National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) - Locations

The principal radio astronomy observatory of the USA, with powerful telescopes at Green Bank, WV; Kitt Peak, AZ; and Socorro, NM (Very Large Array), and headquarters at Charlottesville, VA. The NRAO was established in the mid-1950s and acquired its first operational radio telescope in 1959. Instruments at Green Bank include a 100×110 m dish, the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, c…

less than 1 minute read

National Road - History

A road built in the early 19th-c from Cumberland, MD, to Vandalia, IL, and eventually to St Louis, MO. Its construction and repair were financed initially by government sales of land, but in the 1830s this became the responsibility of the states through which it passed. The National Road played an important role in the expansion of the West. A chain of turnpikes connecting Baltimore, Maryla…

less than 1 minute read

National Savings

A range of financial instruments provided by the UK government for use by small savers. There is a variety of securities in the system. All have full state guarantees for both capital and interest, are available at post offices without fees in small quantities, and are repayable on sight or relatively short notice. Some are tax-free; some are available only to pensioners; and some are indexed to t…

less than 1 minute read

National Security Council - NSCs by country

A body created by Congress in 1947 to advise the US president on the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. It was designed to achieve effective co-ordination between the military services and other government agencies and departments, and is composed of the president, vice-president, secretary of state, secretary of defense, and the director of the …

less than 1 minute read

national theatre

A theatre which is endowed by the state and is usually situated in the national capital. Today found throughout the world, such endowed companies have a long history in many European countries. The oldest national theatre is the Comédie Française in Paris, founded in 1680 by Louis XIV; this was followed by five other French national theatres. Other long-established national theatres are to be fo…

less than 1 minute read

nationalism - Principles of Nationalism, Theory of nationalism, Historical evolution of nationalism, Types of nationalism

A political doctrine which views the nation as the principal unit of political organization. Underlying this is the assumption that human beings hold the characteristic of nationality, with which they identify culturally, economically, and politically. A primary aim of nationalists, therefore, is to secure the right to belong to an independent state based on a particular national grouping. Nationa…

less than 1 minute read

nationalization - Opposing views, Notable nationalizations by country, The CIA and Oil Nationalization

Taking into public ownership an entire industry, normally a public utility. Nationalization takes place with social as well as commercial objectives. The main reasons are that an industry (a) is crucial to the economy and in need of government direction, (b) is a natural monopoly, (c) has suffered a period of decline which needs to be reversed, (d) produces a good or service which would not be ava…

less than 1 minute read

Native American Church - History of the Peyote Religion, The Native American Church Movement, The Peyoteros of Southern Texas

An indigenous 19th-c religious movement among North American Indians, combining native religion with certain elements of Christianity; formally founded in 1918. Its main ritual centres on the sacramental and curative use of the non-narcotic hallucinogen mescaline, derived from the peyote plant. Native American Church, also called Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of …

less than 1 minute read

NATO - Purpose, History, Cooperation with non-member states

Acronym for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. An organization established by a treaty signed in 1949 by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the UK, and the USA; Greece and Turkey acceded in 1952, West Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982. Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary formally joined in 1999. Its headquarters is in Brussels. NA…

1 minute read

natural childbirth - Alternatives to anesthetics, Psychological benefits, Preparation

Successful labour entirely without or with minimal use of drugs or outside assistance. It is helped by exercises to strengthen the abdominal muscles and encourage relaxation of the pelvic muscles, which are undertaken throughout pregnancy. It is facilitated by a full awareness of the nature of childbirth, developing psychological attitudes which reduce anxiety and fear, and increase pain tolerance…

less than 1 minute read

natural gas - Storage and transport, Natural gas crisis, Uses, Sources, Safety

Gas which occurs in subterranean accumulations, often in association with petroleum deposits. It mainly consists of simple hydrocarbons, mostly methane, with some propane; there may also be nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen sulphide. ‘Wet gas’ has recoverable amounts of higher hydrocarbons (eg butane, pentane) which have commercial value as Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Natural gas is one of the most wi…

less than 1 minute read

natural justice - Notes and references

A legal concept, originally developed by the courts of equity, incorporating broad rules or principles aimed at ensuring that judicial and quasi-judicial proceedings are governed by fairness. It includes two main principles: everyone should have a right to be heard in his or her own case; and judges should be unbiased in hearing a case and without personal interest. These rules apply not only to t…

less than 1 minute read

natural law (philosophy) - History, Hobbes' natural law, In contemporary philosophy, In contemporary jurisprudence

In ethics and jurisprudence, a prescriptive law which defines how people ought to behave, and which is said to be rooted in human nature and rationality, not in convention or civil legislation. Notable natural law theorists include the Stoics, Aquinas (for whom natural law derived ultimately from divine law), Grotius, and Kant. Natural law (Latin jus naturale) is law that exists independent…

less than 1 minute read

natural law (science) - History, Hobbes' natural law, In contemporary philosophy, In contemporary jurisprudence

A descriptive law which purports to explain the nature or behaviour of the physical world. An example is Newton's laws of mechanics. Natural law (Latin jus naturale) is law that exists independently of the positive law of a given political order, society or nation-state. The theory of natural law was introduced by Aristotle before being further developed within a Christian context by …

less than 1 minute read

natural selection - General principles, Nomenclature and usage, An example: antibiotic resistance, Genetical theory of natural selection

The complex process by which the totality of environmental factors determines the non-random and differential reproduction of genetically different organisms. It is viewed as the force which directs the course of evolution by preserving those variants or traits best adapted to survive. Natural selection is the process in which individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to su…

less than 1 minute read

natural units - Candidate physical constants used in natural unit systems

A system of units used in particle physics in which equations are simplified by setting c = (h/2?) = 1, where c is the velocity of light and h is Planck's constant; requires that both length and time have units of one divided by mass. In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical co…

less than 1 minute read

Naturalism

A term used in art criticism for the faithful copying of nature, with no attempt to ‘improve’ or idealize the subject; used in this sense in 1672 by Giovanni Pietro Bellori (1615–96) to characterize the work of Caravaggio and his followers. It later became used to describe the incorporation of scientific method into art, especially literature. This was advocated by the French novelist Emile Zol…

less than 1 minute read

naturalistic fallacy - Moore's discussion, Other uses

A term in ethics, coined by G E Moore: the mistake of thinking that goodness is some natural or empirical property of things, such as their capacity to produce pleasure; more generally, the alleged mistake identified by Hume of inferring normative conclusions from factual premises - an ‘ought’ from an ‘is’. The naturalistic fallacy is an alleged logical fallacy, described by British phi…

less than 1 minute read

Nature Reserve

A protected area for the conservation and management of wildlife and habitat. In the UK these range from National Nature Reserves, in the care of English Nature, to reserves managed by the National Trust, local authorities, and county naturalist trusts. In 2004 there were 215 National Nature Reserves, which represent the best-known examples of coastal, freshwater, marshland, bog, moorland, heathla…

less than 1 minute read

Naum Gabo - Influence In Britain, Later years, Gabo's Theory of Art

Constructivist sculptor, born in Bryansk, W Russia. He studied at Munich University, and in 1920 helped to form the group of Russian Constructivists, who had considerable influence on 20th-c architecture and design. Forced into exile, he lived in Berlin, Paris, and England, moving to the USA in 1946. Several examples of his geometrical ‘constructions in space’, mainly made in transparent plastic…

less than 1 minute read

Nauru - History, Politics, Districts, Foreign relations, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture

Official name Republic of Nauru Nauru (pronounced /næˈuː.ɹuː/), officially the Republic of Nauru, is an island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. Nauru is the world's smallest island nation, covering just 21?km² (8.1?sq.?mi), the smallest independent republic, and the only republican state in the world without an official capital. Initially inhabited by Microne…

less than 1 minute read

nautilus - Description, Natural history

A primitive cephalopod mollusc with an external spiral shell containing gas in its chambers; numerous tentacles present around mouth; four gills; eyes like a pinhole camera in design, without lenses; only a single living genus known, but the group has an extensive fossil record. (Class: Cephalopoda. Subclass: Nautiloidea.) Nautilus (from Greek nautilos, 'sailor') is the common name of any m…

less than 1 minute read

Navan - Railways

53º39N 6º41W, pop (2002e) 3400. Market town in Co Meath, Leinster, Ireland; located NW of Dublin; 8 km/5 mi NW of the Hill of Tailte, ancient site of the All-Irish Games; before mid-6th-c the Hill of Tara was the ‘capital’ of Celtic Ireland and seat of the kings of Meath; birthplace of Sir Francis Beaufort; railway; textiles, furniture, zinc, lead, farm tools. The confluence of the R…

less than 1 minute read

Navarre - Community

pop (2000e) 523 000; area 10 421 km²/4022 sq mi. Region and former kingdom of N Spain, co-extensive with the modern province of Navarre; early centre of resistance to the Moors; united with Castile, 1515; capital, Pamplona; cereals, vegetables, vines, food canning, cement, footwear, textiles, clothes, electrical equipment, iron and steel, furniture, metal products. Navarre (Spanish N…

less than 1 minute read

nave - Some naves, Alternate meanings

The W part of a church open to the laity, as opposed to the chancel or choir. More specifically, it refers to the middle section of the W limb between the side aisles. Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. In Romanesque and Gothic Christian abbey, cathedral and church architecture, the nave is the central …

less than 1 minute read

navigation - Modern methods, Celestial navigation, History, Austronesian Navigation, "Point system" measure of direction, Sources

The means of finding the way from one place to another in safety. Celestial navigation is the oldest and most traditional type of navigation. Navigators could calculate their craft's latitude from the angle of the sun or other stars above the horizon, measured using a sextant. Longitude was calculated by knowing the local time exactly compared to that at 0° longitude, at Greenwich, London. Time i…

1 minute read

Navigation Acts - The 1651 Act of Macbkurac, The Staple Act of 1663, Later Acts

Protective legislation in Britain passed between 1650 and 1696, designed to increase England's share of overseas carrying trade. Best known was Cromwell's Navigation Act of 1651, which confined trade with England and its colonies to English ships or, in the case of Europe, English ships or those from the country of origin. Fish could only be brought in by English ships and was not to be distribute…

less than 1 minute read

navy - History, Contemporary naval forces, Operations, Traditions, Naval organisation, Marine troops

The branch of the armed forces whose main function is the projection of military power at and by sea. The role of naval forces is manifold, primarily the protection of lines of communication for the safe transport of troops and supplies (and its converse, denying the enemy the freedom of the seas). Navies have been important since early times. The Greek naval victory over the Persians in 480 BC wa…

less than 1 minute read

Nazareth - Etymology, Geography and population, Current Events, Other, Religious Shrines, A Contrary View

32°41N 35°16E, pop (2000e) 70 000. Capital town of Northern district, N Israel; above the Jezreel plain; mainly Christian population; home of Jesus for most of his life; tourism, market centre; Church of the Annunciation, Church of St Joseph. Nazareth (IPA: [ˈnæzərəθ]) (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣirah; Coordinates: 32°42′07″N, 35°18′12″E The et…

less than 1 minute read

Nazario Sauro - Life

Italian patriot, born in Koper, SW Slovenia. An officer in the Austrian army, he enlisted in the Italian navy at the outbreak of World War 1 and played an important part in several military actions. In 1916 he fell into enemy hands when his submarine ran aground near the island of Unje. He was sentenced to death for high treason. Nazario Sauro (September 20, 1880—August 10, 1916) was an A…

less than 1 minute read

Nazca

A pre-Columbian culture located along the S Peruvian coast, and flourishing between c.200 BC and AD 500. It was noted for its distinctive style of pottery and large-scale ‘lines’ (best seen from the air) on the desert surface. Nazca (sometimes spelled Nasca) is the name of a system of valleys on the southern coast of Peru, and the name of the region's largest existing town. It is also the…

less than 1 minute read

near-death experience (NDE) - The phenomenology of the NDE, Near-death research, As an afterlife experience

A striking experience sometimes reported by those who have recovered from being close to death. It generally includes an out-of-the-body experience in which one travels through a dark void or tunnel towards a bright light, and then may encounter religious figures or deceased loved ones. It is often accompanied by strong feelings of peacefulness. A near-death experience (NDE) is an experienc…

less than 1 minute read

Nearchus

Macedonian general, originally from Crete. He settled in Amphipolis during the reign of Philip II of Macedon, and became the companion of the young Alexander the Great. In 330 BC he became Governor of Lycia, and in 329 joined Alexander in Bactria with a body of Greek mercenaries, and took part in the Indian campaigns. Having built a fleet on the Hydaspes (Jhelum), Alexander gave Nearchus the comma…

less than 1 minute read

Nebraska - Economy, Law and government, Education, Sports teams, Trivia

pop (2000e) 1 711 300; area 200 342 km²/77 352 sq mi. State in C USA, divided into 93 counties; the ‘Cornhusker State’; part of the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; Bellevue first permanent settlement; became a territory stretching to the Canadian border in 1854, but its area was reduced in 1863; the 37th state admitted to the Union, 1867; the Union Pacific Railroad completed its transcontinen…

less than 1 minute read

nebula - Astrophysics of nebulae

A cloud of gas and dust in space, appearing either light or dark. Some nebulae are areas where stars form; others are produced by the death of stars. Star-forming nebulae include the large and bright Orion Nebula, the gas of which is excited to luminescence by the ultraviolet light from the stars within it. Dark nebulae have no illuminating stars; examples are the Coalsack and the Horsehead Nebula…

less than 1 minute read

neck - Anatomy of the human neck, Neck pain

That part of the body which connects the head and the thorax as well as the upper limbs to the trunk. The various structures within the neck are contained within coverings of connective tissue (fascia), organized in well-defined sheets and membranes. The most superficial cylindrical layer of fascia encloses and covers all structures within the neck (except the platysma muscle, which lies in the su…

less than 1 minute read

Ned Kelly - Early life, Rise to notoriety, The Fitzpatrick Incident, The Killings at Stringybark, Bank robberies

Outlaw, born in Beveridge, Victoria, SE Australia. After shooting a policeman who was attempting to arrest his brother, Dan, he fled to the outback, where he was joined by his brother and two others, and formed the Kelly gang. They carried out a series of daring robberies (1878–80) which, coupled with Ned's home-made armour, made them into legendary figures. After a siege at Glenrowan township, h…

less than 1 minute read

Ned Ludd

Farm labourer from Leicestershire, C England, UK. It is not known whether he really existed, but legend has it that he destroyed some stocking frames about 1782, and it is from him that the Luddite rioters (1812–18) took their name, in their quest to destroy machinery which was displacing their work as craftsmen. Ned Ludd or Ned Lud is the person from whom the Luddites took their name. …

less than 1 minute read

Ned Rorem

Composer and writer, born in Richmond, Indiana, USA. After musical studies in Chicago, the Curtis Institute of Music, and Juilliard, and privately with Virgil Thomson and Aaron Copland, he spent most of the 1950s in Paris, then returned to teach briefly at the universities of Buffalo and Utah. Best known for his many songs in a lyrical and mildly Modernist style, he also wrote effective instrument…

less than 1 minute read

Ned Sherrin

Producer, director, theatre critic, and writer for stage and screen, born in Low Ham, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, joined the BBC (1957), and became known through producing and directing the satirical revue, That Was The Week That Was (1962–3). He has produced a number of plays on stage and television, directed and appeared in Side by Side by Sondheim (1976), co-wrote the scrip…

less than 1 minute read

needlefish

Slender-bodied fish with very long jaws forming a narrow bill; widespread in tropical and warm temperate seas; dorsal and anal fins placed close to tail; includes W Atlantic, Strongylura marina, a voracious surface-living predator; length up to 1·2 m/4 ft; also called garfish. (Family: Belonidae.) Needlefishes (family Belonidae) are piscivorous fishes usually associated with shallow mari…

less than 1 minute read

Nefertiti - Family, Death, Immortality, See Also

Egyptian queen, the consort of Akhenaton, by whom she had six children, and whose new religious cult of the Sun god Aton she supported. She is immortalized in the beautiful sculptured head found at Amarna in 1912, now in the Berlin Museum. Little is known of her background, but she is believed to have been an Asian princess from Mitanni. Nefertiti (egyptian nfr.t-iitj = the beauty that has …

less than 1 minute read

negative

An image in which the tonal scale of the original scene is inverted, light areas being reproduced as dark and vice versa. In a colour negative the hues of the original are also represented in their complementary colours. Film exposed in a camera is usually processed to yield a negative, from which a positive print must be made to reproduce the original scene. Negative has meaning in several…

less than 1 minute read

negative income tax - Guaranteed minimum income

A scheme where the poorest sections of the community receive a state-funded ‘income support payment’ instead of various grants and supplementary benefits. The notion applies to low-earning workers, and is intended to raise their income to a suitable level. In economics, a negative income tax (abbreviated NIT) is a method of tax reform that is discussed among economists but has never been …

less than 1 minute read

Negeri Sembilan - Economy, Government link

pop (2000e) 900 000; area 6643 km²/2564 sq mi. State in SW Peninsular Malaysia; bounded W by the Strait of Malacca, SE by Malacca, NW by Selangor, NE by Pahang; capital, Seremban; rubber, rice, tin. Negeri Sembilan (also Negri Sembilan, Jawi: نڬري سمبيلن), meaning "nine states" in Malay, is a state of Malaysia. Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, …

less than 1 minute read

Negev

Hilly desert region of S Israel, extending in a wedge from Beersheba in the N to Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba; hilly in the S, reaching 1935 m/6348 ft at Har Ramon; N irrigated by a conduit leading from L Tiberias; increasing kibbutz settlement. The Negev (Hebrew: נֶגֶב, Tiberian vocalization: Néḡeḇ; Arabic: النقب‎, an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. …

less than 1 minute read

negligence - Breach of the duty of reasonable care, Additional elements of the claim: Proximate Cause

A tort (or delict, in Scotland) applicable to a very wide range of situations. To succeed in negligence, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant owed him or her a duty of care, that is, the legal obligation to take reasonable care to avoid causing damage. There is a duty to take care in most situations in which a person's actions may cause physical damage to others or to their property. The pl…

less than 1 minute read

River (Argentina) Negro - People, Music, Business, Technology, Politics, Fiction

Patagonian river in SC Argentina; formed by junction of Neuquén and Limay Rivers; flows S and SE to the Atlantic 32 km/20 mi SE of Viedma; navigable for 400 km/250 mi upstream; used for hydroelectric power; vineyards in irrigated valleys; length of the Neuquén–Negro, 1130 km/702 mi. …

less than 1 minute read

River (Brazil) Negro - People, Music, Business, Technology, Politics, Fiction

Important N tributary of the Amazon, N Brazil; rises in SE Colombia, flows generally SE through the Amazon tropical rainforest, joining the Amazon 18 km/11 mi below Manaus; length c.2250 km/1400 mi; a major transport channel, connected to the Orinoco R via the Casiquiare Canal; contains numerous islands; up to 32 km/20 mi wide above Manaus, narrows to 2·5 km/1½ mi at its mouth. …

less than 1 minute read

Nehemiah

Old Testament prophet. He was cupbearer to Artaxerxes Longimanus, who in 444 BC gave him full powers to act as Governor of Judaea. He had the walls of Jerusalem rebuilt, and repopulated the city by drafts from the surrounding districts. In 432 he revisited Jerusalem, and carried out reforms which came to be among the most characteristic features of post-exilic Judaism. The canonical book of Nehemi…

less than 1 minute read

Nehemiah Grew

Botanist and physician, born in Atherstone, Warwickshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and Leyden, and practised medicine at Coventry and London. He is best known as the author of the pioneering Anatomy of Plants, where he introduced the idea that the stamen and pistil of flowers correspond to male and female sex organs. Grew was the only son of Obadiah Grew (1607-1688), Nonconfor…

less than 1 minute read

Neil (Alden) Armstrong - Biography, Armstrong in popular culture

Astronaut, born in Wapakoneta, Ohio, USA. He studied aeronautical engineering at Purdue University and the University of Southern California, then became a fighter pilot in Korea and later a civilian test pilot. In 1962 he was chosen as an astronaut and commanded Gemini 8 in 1966. In 1969 with Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins he set out in Apollo 11 on a successful Moon-landing expedition. On 20 Ju…

less than 1 minute read

Neil (Percival) Young

Singer, songwriter, and guitarist, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. He was a founding member of the folk-rock band Buffalo Springfield (1966–8) in Los Angeles, CA, worked with the groups Crazy Horse and Crosby, Stills and Nash (1969–74), and then pursued a solo career. Much influenced by Bob Dylan, he has released over 30 albums, including the number one hit Harvest (1972), Reactor (1981), a…

less than 1 minute read

Neil Bissoondath - Works

Novelist, born in Trinidad, West Indies, of Indian descent, the nephew of V S Naipaul. He emigrated to Canada in 1973 to study French at York University, Toronto. His first book, a collection of short stories, Digging Up the Mountains (1985), deals with the themes of immigration and exile. His acclaimed first novel, A Casual Brutality (1988), about the violent decline of a Caribbean island state w…

less than 1 minute read

Neil Jordan - Novels

Film maker and writer, born in Co Sligo, W Ireland. He studied at University College, Dublin, and helped form the Irish Writers Co-operative (1974). His first collection of stories, Night in Tunisia (1976), was followed by the acclaimed novels The Past (1980) and The Dream of a Beast (1983). Later novels include Sunrise With Sea Monster (1994) and Shade (2004). He worked as a script consultant on …

less than 1 minute read

nekton

Swimming marine organisms, capable of locomotion for extended periods of time at speeds greater than those of ocean currents; distinct from plankton, which are drifters. Nekton range in size from tiny fish to giant sperm whales. Nekton is the grouping of living organisms that live in the water column of the ocean and freshwater lakes. Nekton organisms can propel themselves indep…

less than 1 minute read

Nel Benschop - Bibliography

Christian poet, born in The Hague, W Netherlands. She began writing poetry in 1950. In her work she expresses her faith in God and offers her readers consolation. Her volumes of poetry have been reissued many times, and she is among the most widely read poets in The Netherlands. Nelly Anna Benschop (January 16, 1918 - January 31, 2005) was a Dutch poetess. Nel Benschop was born …

less than 1 minute read

Nellie (Letitia) McClung - Recognition

Suffragist, writer, and public speaker, born in Chatsworth, Ontario, SE Canada. Educated in Manitoba, she rose to prominence through the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the suffrage movement, and was elected to the Alberta Legislative Assembly (1921–6). Nellie McClung, (October 20, 1873 - September 1, 1951) was a Canadian feminist, politician, and social activist. She wa…

less than 1 minute read

Nellie Bly - Early life, Asylum exposé, Around the world, Later years

Journalist, born in Cochran's Mills, Pennsylvania, USA. As a reporter for the New York World she won renown for such stories as her exposé of conditions in an insane asylum on New York City's Blackwell's Island, where she posed as an inmate. In 1889–90 she made a round-the-world trip in 72 days, bettering the 80-day record of Jules Verne's fictional Phineas Fogg. A pioneering woman journalist, s…

less than 1 minute read

Nelly (Leonie) Sachs

Poet and playwright, born in Berlin, Germany. Of Jewish descent, she fled from Nazi Germany in 1940, settled in Stockholm, and took Swedish nationality. Her best-known play is Eli: ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels (1951, Eli: a Mystery Play of the Sufferings of Israel). She shared with S Y Agnon the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1966. Nelly Sachs, (10 December 1891, Berlin – 12 May 1…

less than 1 minute read

Nelson (Rolihlahla) Mandela - Early life, Political activity, Arrest and imprisonment, ANC presidency and presidency of South Africa, International diplomacy

South African statesman and president (1994–99), born in Transkei, SE South Africa. He was a lawyer in Johannesburg, then joined the African National Congress in 1944. For the next 20 years he directed a campaign of defiance against the South African government and its racist policies, orchestrating in 1961 a three-day national strike. In 1964 he was sentenced to life imprisonment for political o…

1 minute read

Nelson Algren - Nelson Algren Award, Bibliography

Writer, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He trained as a journalist after a childhood in the Chicago slums. After working at a variety of jobs during the Depression, he settled in Chicago and became a leading exponent of the Chicago school of realism. His five streetwise novels include The Man With the Golden Arm (1949, National Book Award) and A Walk on the Wild Side (1956). After 1956 he wrote mo…

less than 1 minute read

Nelson Goodman - Career, Induction and "grue", Nominalism and mereology, Irrealism, Bibliography

Philosopher, born in Somerville, Massachusetts, USA. After earning a Harvard PhD (1941), he taught at Tufts University (1945–6), the University of Pennsylvania (1946–64), and Brandeis University (1964–77). In 1977 he became an emeritus professor at Harvard. A leading analytic philosopher, he made key contributions to theory of knowledge, psychology, and aesthetics in works including The Structu…

less than 1 minute read

Nelson Piquet - Complete Formula One results

Motor-racing driver, born in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. He changed his name so that his parents would not find out about his racing exploits. He was British Formula Three champion in 1978, and world champion in 1981, 1983 (both Brabham), and 1987 (Williams). He won 23 grand prix between 1978 and a serious accident in 1991. (key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) …

less than 1 minute read

Nelson Riddle - Early years, The Capitol years, Later years, Notable song arrangements, Notable film and television work

Musician, born in Oradell, New Jersey, USA. He studied piano and trombone, but from the outset of his career he worked primarily as an arranger, beginning in the late 1930s with Jerry Wald, Tommy Dorsey, and Alvino Rey. After playing with a US Army band during World War 2, he joined Bob Crosby and went with him to Los Angeles, where he became a staff arranger for National Broadcasting Company–TV …

less than 1 minute read

nematode - Morphology, Free-living species, Parasitic species, Phylogeny, Trivia

An unsegmented worm, typically circular in section; body covered with cuticle; head end with terminal mouth, surrounded by lips and three rings of sense organs; abundant in aquatic sediments, in soil, and as parasites of plants and animals; c.12 000 species described; also known as eelworms, roundworms, or pinworms. (Phylum: Nematoda.) The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum Nematoda from Gree…

less than 1 minute read

Nemesis

In Greek mythology, the goddess of retribution. She primarily represents the penalty the gods exact for human folly, excessive pride, or too much good fortune. Nemesis may mean: In mythology: In comics: In gaming: …

less than 1 minute read

Nenagh - History, Major Buildings, Transport, Sports, Famous People with Nenagh Connections

52º52N 8º12W, pop (2002e) 6200. Market town in Tipperary county, Munster, SC Irish Republic; located on the R Nenagh, 40 km/25 mi NE of Limerick and N of the Silvermine Mts; birthplace of John Desmond Bernal; nearby lie the ruins of a Franciscan friary founded by the O'Kennedys (c.1240) and destroyed by Cromwell (1650); railway; agriculture, textiles. Nenagh (Aonach Urmhumhan in Irish)…

less than 1 minute read

Nennius

Writer, from Wales, reputedly the author of the early Latin compilation known as the Historia Britonum, an account of British history from the time of Julius Caesar to towards the end of the 7th-c. The book gives a mythical version of the origins of the Britons, and recounts the Roman occupation, the settlement of the Saxons, and the historical Arthur's 12 victories over the Saxons. There are seve…

less than 1 minute read

Neo-Kantianism

A philosophical movement in Germany between c.1870 and 1920, concerned to revive a Kantian approach to epistemology, and opposed to the speculative metaphysics of Hegel on the grounds that this was inadequate to account for mathematical and scientific knowledge. Leading figures in this rather diverse trend were Helmholtz (1821–94), Lange (1828–75), Rickert (1863–1936), Windleband (1848–1915), …

less than 1 minute read

Neo-Marxism - Links

The doctrines of Marxists who draw upon Marx's early writings, which had a more romantic and utopian emphasis than his later works concerned with economics and historical materialism. Strongly influenced by Hegelian philosophy, a key feature of Neo-Marxism is its self-critical approach, which accepts the need for a review of theory, rather than a rigid acceptance of dogma, as prevalent under Sovie…

less than 1 minute read

Neoclassicism (art and architecture) - Neoclassicism in architecture and in the decorative and visual arts, Covert neoclassicism in Modern styles

A classical revival affecting all the visual arts, including architecture and the decorative arts, which flourished from c.1750 onwards, lasting well into the 19th-c. A reaction against the decorous excesses of Baroque and the ‘frivolity’ of Rococo, it began in Rome, but spread throughout W Europe and North America. Partly inspired by the excavations at Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Paestum, it rece…

less than 1 minute read

Neoclassicism (literature) - Neoclassicism in architecture and in the decorative and visual arts, Covert neoclassicism in Modern styles

The literary principle of a form of classicism that dominated French literature in the 17th-c and 18th-c which held that the task of the writer was to initiate the perfection of Greek and Roman authors, characterized by the classical genres of epic tragedy, comedy, elegy, ode, epistle, epigram, satire, and fable. The most important summation of Neoclassicism is contained in Boileau's treatise L'Ar…

less than 1 minute read

Neoclassicism (music) - Artistic description, Musical description, People and works

A 20th-c music movement which sought to restore the ideals, and to some extent the style and vocabulary, of the 18th-c classical period. Since Bach often provided the model for Neoclassical works, the movement might be as accurately described as ‘neo-Baroque’, but its main motivation was in any case anti-Romantic. It is associated particularly with Stravinsky's middle-period works (c.1920–30), …

less than 1 minute read

Neolithic - Dates, Social organization, Farming, Technology

The New Stone Age, the latest period of the Stone Age, traditionally associated with the beginnings of settled agriculture and towns. In the Near East, farming began as early as 10 000 years ago, but it took several thousand years to reach N Europe. The Neolithic (or "New" Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. …

less than 1 minute read

neologism - Changing culture, Cultural acceptance, Evolution of neologisms, Sources of neologism, Neologisms in literature, Quotation

A term referring to any newly coined word, usually identifying a new concept. In the 1980s, English neologisms included yuppie, glitz, pocket phone, and user-friendly. In the 1990s, Internet neologisms were prominent, such as spam and texting. In the 2000s, this trend has continued, for example with a cluster of neologisms to do with blogging, such as videoblog and blogosphere. The term is also us…

less than 1 minute read

neon

Ne, element 10. The second noble gas, forming c.0·002% of the atmosphere, and obtained by the fractional distillation of liquid air. It forms no known compounds, and is used mainly in gas discharge tubes and gas lasers, where it emits a characteristic red glow. Neon (IPA: /ˈniːɒn/) is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. …

less than 1 minute read

Neoplatonism - Platonism and Neoplatonism, Teachings, Early Christian and Medieval Neoplatonism, Renaissance Neoplatonism, Modern Neoplatonism, Commentary on Parmenides

A school of philosophy founded by Ammonius, which synthesized with Platonism the thought of Aristotle, the Stoics, and the Pythagoreans, and also assimilated much popular religion and myth. The first systematic philosopher of the Neoplatonic school was Plotinus. Neoplatonist philosophy remained dominant for a millennium, and was revived in the Renaissance by Ficino, Pico, and others. Neopla…

less than 1 minute read

Neoptolemus

In Greek legend, the son of Achilles and Deidameia, his original name being Pyrrhus. He went with Odysseus to persuade Philoctetes to come to Troy. At the end of the war he killed Priam and enslaved Andromache; for this, Apollo prevented him from reaching his home, and he was killed in a dispute at Delphi. The name means the ‘young warrior’. In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptóle…

less than 1 minute read

neorealism - Theory, Notable neorealists

A style of film-making which arose in Italy soon after World War 2, emphasizing themes of social reality even in fictional stories, rather than the escapism of artificial middle-class drama. It used actual settings and non-professional artists, at least in minor roles. An example of the techniques of neorealism is Roberto Rossellini's Roma, Citta Aperta (1945, Rome, Open City), in which he used no…

less than 1 minute read

Neosho

36º52N 94º22W, pop (2000e) 10 500. County seat of Newton Co, Missouri, USA; located on the W edge of the Missouri Ozarks; known as the ‘City of Springs’, its name derives from the Indian meaning ‘clear or abundant water’ and refers to the nine springs found locally; settled in early 19th-c, named county seat in 1839; most famous spring is named Big Spring, located in Big Spring Park; in th…

less than 1 minute read

neoteny - Neoteny in evolution, Neoteny in humans, Animal kingdom, Neoteny and progenesis

A relative slowing down of bodily (somatic) development, so that sexual maturity is attained in an organism while retaining some juvenile characters. In an evolutionary perspective, this gives rise to descendants that retain as adults juvenile features of their ancestors. An example is the Mexican axolotl, a newt which becomes sexually mature before metamorphosing into the adult, so that it retain…

less than 1 minute read

Nepal - History, Geography, Economy, Government and politics, Military and foreign affairs, Administrative divisions, Demographics, Culture

Official name Kingdom of Nepal, Nepali Nepal Adhirajya Nepal ([neˈpaːl] (help·info)), officially the Kingdom of Nepal, is a landlocked Himalayan country in South Asia, bordered by China (Tibet) to the north and by India to the south, east and west. Nepal is a kingdom of various geographical features,and is culturally rich. Nepal boasts eight of the world's fourteen highest mountain…

less than 1 minute read

nephrotic syndrome - Laboratory Findings, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Differential diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

A clinical syndrome which results from the chronic loss of large amounts of plasma proteins in the urine, leading to a fall in their concentration in the blood and to generalized oedema. It arises as a complication of persistent glomerulonephritis. Nephrotic syndrome is a disorder where the kidneys have been damaged, causing them to leak protein from the blood into the urine. It is a fairly…

less than 1 minute read

Neptune (astronomy) - Discovery, Naming, Exploration of Neptune, Planetary rings, Natural satellites, Appearance and visibility from Earth, Voyager flyby

The eighth major planet from the Sun, the outermost of the four ‘gas giant’ planets; discovered in 1846 as a result of a prediction by Leverrier to explain anomalies in the observed orbit of Uranus; encountered by Voyager 2 (24 Aug 1989). There are 13 known moons, including Triton, which has a thin atmosphere, and Nereid. Neptune's main characteristics are: mass 1·02x1026 kg; equatorial radius…

1 minute read

Neptune (mythology) - Discovery, Naming, Exploration of Neptune, Planetary rings, Natural satellites, Appearance and visibility from Earth, Voyager flyby

The Roman water-god (the Romans originally had no sea-gods). He was later identified with Poseidon, whose characteristics and mythology he acquired. For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). Neptune (IPA: /ˈnɛpt(j)uːn/) is the eighth and outermost planet in our solar system. Neptune's atmosphere is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, with traces of meth…

less than 1 minute read

Nereus

In Greek mythology, a sea-god, the wise old man of the sea who always tells the truth. Heracles had to wrestle with him to find the location of the Golden Apples. Nereus, in Greek Mythology, was the eldest son of Pontus and Gaia, the Sea and the Earth, a Titan who with Doris fathered the Nereids, with whom Nereus lived in the Aegean Sea. Nereus was known for his truthfulness and…

less than 1 minute read

Nergal - Nergal in demonology

The Mesopotamian god of the Underworld; at first, a solar deity capable of killing enormous numbers of people in the heat of noon-day. He forced Ereshkigal, the original goddess of the Underworld, to share her power with him. The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. Nergal is mentio…

less than 1 minute read

neritic zone

The marine life zone in the water over the continental shelves. It is strongly influenced by its proximity to land, hence neritic organisms must be able to tolerate greater change in temperature and salinity than oceanic organisms. Neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. The neritic zone has a low water pressure and fairly stable temperature…

less than 1 minute read

Nero - Nero and religion, Nero in post-ancient culture

Emperor of Rome (54–68), the son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and the younger Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus. He owed his name and position to the driving ambition of his mother, who engineered his adoption by the Emperor Claudius, her fourth husband. Initially his reign was good, thanks to his three main advisers: his mother, the philosopher Seneca, and the Praetorian Prefect Burrus. But af…

less than 1 minute read

nerve growth factor (NGF) - Mechanism of action for NGF

A biologically active peptide found widely (eg in the eye, heart, salivary glands, vas deferens) in many animals, including humans. It controls the growth and development of sympathetic nervous tissue and some sensory neurones. It is classified as a hormone by some authorities. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a protein secreted by a neuron's target. NGF is rele…

less than 1 minute read

nervous system - Coelenterata, Flatworms and roundworms, Arthropoda, Vertebrates

That part of the body concerned with controlling and integrating the activity of its various parts, providing a mechanism whereby the animal can respond to a changing external environment while still maintaining a constant internal environment. It is composed of nerves (neurones) and supporting cells. The transfer of information between nerve cells (at synapses) is usually by the release of small …

less than 1 minute read

Nescio - Biography, Works by Nescio

Writer, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Nescio (Latin ‘I don't know’) worked for the Holland–Bombay Trading Company, and became its director in 1926. His work shows the opposition of the unpractical dreaming artist on one side and the self-important, settled citizen on the other. With irony and pain he also describes the anarchist, idealist youth that may become this good citizen. His style…

less than 1 minute read

Nesebar - History, Churches, Gallery

A town, formerly Menebria, situated on the E coast of Bulgaria; a world heritage site. It has a wealth of ancient buildings and archaeological sites which testify to its 3000-year history as a Thracian settlement, a Greek colony, and a Byzantine city. Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, variously transliterated), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια) and before that as M…

less than 1 minute read

nest - Names of nests

A domicile or home constructed, typically by birds, for the purpose of containing and protecting eggs and young; young birds before they leave the nest are known as nestlings. They may continue to be fed by their parents even after leaving the nest. Young birds that remain in the nest for a prolonged period after hatching are known as nidicolous; those that leave soon after hatching are known as n…

less than 1 minute read

Nestor

A senior Greek leader in the Trojan War, the son of Neleus. In the Iliad, Homer portrays him as a long-winded sage, whose advice is often not taken. In the Odyssey, he is still living at Pylos, where a Mycenaean palace was discovered in the 1930s. The name Nestor may have one of the following meanings: People Nature Fictional Characters …

less than 1 minute read

Nestorius

Ecclesiastic, a native of Germanicia in N Syria. As a priest he became so eminent for his zeal, ascetic life, and eloquence that he was selected as patriarch of Constantinople (428). When the presbyter Anastasius denied that the Virgin Mary could be truly called the Mother of God, Nestorius warmly defended him, and so emphasized the distinction of the divine and human natures that antagonists accu…

less than 1 minute read

netball - Description and rules, History, Growth in popularity, Netball variants for children, Netball teams, Netball competitions

A women's seven-a-side court game, invented in the USA in 1891 and developed from basketball. The court is 100 ft (30·5 m) long and 50 ft (15·25 m) wide. The object is to score goals by throwing the ball through the opponent's net, which is attached to a circular hoop suspended on a post 10 ft (3·05 m) high. Players must not run with the ball. Netball is a team sport similar to and…

less than 1 minute read

Netherlands Antilles - Politics, Future status, Islands, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Local name Nederlandse Antillen The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen), previously known as the Netherlands West Indies or Dutch Antilles/West Indies, are part of the Lesser Antilles and consist of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea that form an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (none of the other Antilles use this term in their name). …

less than 1 minute read

The Netherlands - Capital, History, Naming conventions, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Arts

Official name Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch Koninkrijk der Nederlanden The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland (IPA: [ˈne:dərlɑnt]) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), which is formed by the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba. The Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy, located in northwestern Europe. …

less than 1 minute read

network topology - Daisy chains, Centralization, Hybrids

A method of arranging the linking of computers which are to form a wide area or local area network. Standard topologies include bus, mesh, ring and star. A network topology is the pattern of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. Network topology is determined only by the configuration of connections between nodes; Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, trans…

less than 1 minute read

Neuilly-sur-Seine - Name, Mayors, Transport, Miscellaneous

48º53N 2º16E, pop (2002e) 59 300. Suburb of NW Paris, Ile-de-France region, NC France; located near the Bois de Boulogne; birthplace of Jean-Paul Belmondo, Didier Decoin, Jacques Prévert; fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, engineering, foodstuffs, paper, cellulose, electrical and electronic equipment, soap and detergents; the first level bridge in France was built here over the …

less than 1 minute read

Neunkirchen - In Austria, In Germany

49º21N 7º12E, pop (2002e) 50 900. Industrial city in E Saarland province, W Germany; 19 km/12 mi NE of Saarbrücken; birthplace of Georg Bednorz, Erich Honecker, Isaac Leeser; railway; coal mining, iron. There are communes and places that have the name Neunkirchen (German for nine churches): …

less than 1 minute read

neural network - Characterization, The brain, neural networks and computers, Neural networks and Artificial intelligence

An arrangement of computers linked together in a way which attempts to mimic the activity of the brain. The individual computers undertake specific tasks and relate the outcome of those tasks to other computers in the network. A neural network is a computing paradigm that is loosely modeled after cortical structures of the brain. The output of a neural network relies on the cooperation of t…

less than 1 minute read

neuralgia - Postherpetic Neuralgia, Atypical (Trigeminal) Neuralgia, Risks

Pain arising from a sensory nerve, and felt over the surface of the body supplied by the affected nerve. In the most common type, trigeminal neuralgia, pain, usually severe and paroxysmal, is felt over the forehead, face, or jaw supplied by one or more of the branches of the trigeminal (Vth cranial) nerve. The cause is unknown but it may be triggered by speech, eating, or other facial movements. O…

less than 1 minute read

neurasthenia

A neurosis which takes the form of complaints of excessive fatigue and tiredness. No physical cause of the condition has been found. Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869. Beard's definition of "neurasthenia" described a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, headache, impotence, neuralgia and depression. Physicians of the Beard way of thinking asso…

less than 1 minute read

neurohormone

A chemical messenger secreted by nerve cells and carried by the blood to the target cells, where its effects are mediated. For example, two neurohormones secreted by the neurohypophysis (a collection of nerve terminals) of the pituitary gland are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin, which promote water re-absorption by kidneys and milk ejection from breasts, respectively. Neurohormones includ…

less than 1 minute read

neurolinguistics

The study of the neurological basis of language use: in particular, how the brain controls the processes of speech and comprehension. Important data comes from the study of clinical linguistic conditions (eg aphasia, stuttering) and everyday ‘errors’, such as hesitations and slips of the tongue, which throw light on the way in which the basic speech system can break down. Neurolinguistics…

less than 1 minute read

neurology - Field of work, Educational Requirements, Testing Examinations, Clinical tasks

The branch of medicine which deals with the study of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and its peripheral nerves, in health (neurophysiology) and disease (neuropathology). Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Physicians specializing in the field of neurology are called neurologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and …

less than 1 minute read

neuropathology - Methodology, Focus of Specialization, History of neuropathology, Progress

The study of the disease processes which affect the nervous system. These include haemorrhage in various parts of the brain; infections and tumours of the brain and its enveloping membranes; degenerative disorders such as prion disease, Parkinsonism and dementia; metabolic disorders; neuropathies; and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Neuropathology is the study of disease…

less than 1 minute read

neuropathy - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment of Neuropathic Pain, Neuropathy related organizations

A term which covers all pathological processes that affect peripheral somatic and autonomic nerves. Many disorders affect peripheral somatic nerves and induce similar clinical features. These consist of the sensation of pins and needles (paraesthesiae), loss of sensation, and muscle weakness. Very often the most distal part of the nerve in the extremities (hands and feet) is affected first or most…

less than 1 minute read

neurophysiology

The study of the functions of the nervous systems of animals. Neurophysiologists use a variety of methods to elucidate aspects of nervous function. Common techniques are ablation (the removal or destruction of nervous tissue); the electrical stimulation of, or recording from, single nerve cells (eg squid axons, retinal photoreceptors) and groups of nerve cells (eg the basal ganglia and motor corte…

less than 1 minute read

neuropsychology - Approaches

The study of psychological phenomena in the light of what is known about brain organization and function. Neuropsychologists are often concerned with patients suffering from brain damage. The aim of their work is to identify these patients' disabilities, discover methods of rehabilitation, and use this information to make inferences about the functioning of the normal mind and brain. Neurop…

less than 1 minute read

Neuroptera

An order of primitive winged insects, including the snakeflies, lacewings, and antlions; typically two pairs of similar wings with lace-like veins; mouthparts of a simple, biting type; adults and larvae typically feed on sap-sucking insects. The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives (the group that was once known a…

less than 1 minute read

neurosis - History and use of the term, Psychoanalytical account of neurosis, Effects and Symptoms, Treatment

A mental illness often associated with high levels of anxiety, and fears which the sufferer understands are irrational, and representing exaggerated and/or unconscious ways of dealing with conflicts. The symptoms are distressing to the individual and considered to be unacceptable. The condition is enduring, and throughout reality remains intact. Examples include hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsi…

less than 1 minute read

neurotransmitter - Types of neurotransmitters, Mechanism of action, Post-synaptic effect, Specific actions, Common neurotransmitters

A chemical substance (eg acetylcholine, noradrenaline) released as a messenger from nerves. It enables the transmission of a nervous impulse across the narrow gap (synapse) between a nerve ending and a muscle, gland, or another nerve. Its rapid breakdown by enzymes or its re-uptake by the nerve terminates its effect. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modula…

less than 1 minute read

neutralization

In acid–base reactions, the mixing of chemically equivalent amounts of acid and base to give a solution near pH 7. Weak, non-toxic acids and bases are often used to neutralize spills, since excess will not cause the inverse problem to that being treated. Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react a…

less than 1 minute read

neutrino - Types of neutrinos, Mass, Neutrino sources, Neutrino detection, Neutrino experiments, neutrino detectors

A fundamental particle; symbol ?; mass not known exactly, but small, possibly zero; charge 0; spin ½, with spin direction always opposing the direction of motion; senses only gravitational and weak nuclear forces; produced in weak radioactive decays; very unreactive and difficult to detect. Three species of neutrino are known, corresponding to the electron, muon, and tau. Neutrinos were predicted…

less than 1 minute read

neutrino astronomy - Observation challenges, Detector design

A term applied to attempts to detect neutrinos from the Sun, to discover the conditions existing in the solar core, and also from supernovae. Experiments conducted since the 1960s have shown a detected rate of solar neutrinos rather less than predicted by theories of nucleosynthesis. Neutrino astronomy is the science of observing astronomical phenomena by detecting neutrinos, a product of w…

less than 1 minute read

neutron - Stability, Interactions, Detection, Sources

A component particle of the atomic nucleus; symbol n; mass 1·675 × 10?27 kg (939·6 MeV), charge 0, spin ½; held in the nucleus by strong nuclear force; discovered by James Chadwick in 1932. Free neutrons decay to protons, electrons, and antineutrinos, with a half-life of 10·1 minutes. In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939.573 …

less than 1 minute read

neutron bomb - Technical overview, Neutron bomb tactics

More precisely an enhanced radiation (ER) weapon, a nuclear munition small enough to be used on the battlefield, fired as an artillery shell or short-range missile warhead, which on detonation produces radiation effects rather than blast and heat. The destructive effect is therefore aimed against living things (such as the crews of tanks inside their machines, which the gamma radiation released on…

less than 1 minute read

neutron diffraction

An interference effect using neutrons scattered for example from different layers of atoms in a solid, giving distinctive intensity patterns which can be used to determine the solid's structure. Because neutrons have no electric charge they are very penetrating, and their magnetic moment makes them useful for determining the magnetic aspects of materials, such as high-temperature superconducting c…

less than 1 minute read

neutron star - Structure, Some neutron stars that can be observed

A star that has collapsed so far under gravity that it consists almost entirely of neutrons. Once the nuclear fuel in a star is exhausted, it cools and contracts. Stars of more than 1·5 solar masses shrink until pressure between the neutrons balances the inward pull of gravity. They are only 10 km/6 mi across, and have a density of 1017 kg/m3 at this stage. Formed in supernova explosions, they…

less than 1 minute read

Nevada - History, Education, Professional sports teams, Miscellaneous topics, See also, References, External links

pop (2000e) 1 998 300; area 286 341 km²/110 561 sq mi. State in W USA, divided into 16 counties; the ‘Sage Brush State’, ‘Battle Born State’, or ‘Silver State’; part ceded by Mexico to the USA in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848; included in Mormon-ruled Utah Territory, 1850; settlement expanded after the Comstock Lode silver strike, 1859; a separate territory, 1861; joined the…

1 minute read

Nevil Maskelyne - Work, Family

Astronomer, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was ordained, and became rector of Shrawardine, Shropshire (1775–82), then of North Runcton, Norfolk. His interest in astronomy led to his election to the Royal Society (1758), and after a voyage to Jamaica he produced the British Mariner's Guide (1763). He was appointed Astronomer Royal, and published the first volume of the Nautical Alman…

less than 1 minute read

Nevil Shute - Biography, Style and themes, Belief in private enterprise, Bibliography

Writer, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, became an aeronautical engineer, and began to write novels in 1926. After World War 2, he emigrated to Australia, which became the setting for most of his later books, notably A Town Like Alice (1949) and On the Beach (1957), which were both made into successful films. He published his autobiography, Slide Rule, in 1954. Nevil Shute (London,…

less than 1 minute read

New Age - Definitions, History, Beliefs, Criticism, Underlying assumptions, Language, Medicine, Music

A period of time recognized as our Solar System passes through one sign of the Zodiac to the next. It takes c.2000 years to travel through each star sign, each of which constitutes an ‘age’. The Piscean age (represented by water) started with the beginning of the Roman Empire, and we entered the new age of Aquarius (an air sign) in 1997. It is said that the dawning of a new age will bring teache…

1 minute read

New Britain - Description, History, People and culture, Ecclesiastical history, Postage stamps, Sources and References

pop (2000e) 318 000; area 37 800 km²/14 600 sq mi. Largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; separated from New Ireland by St George's Channel; Solomon Sea (S) and Bismarck Sea (N); length, 480 km/298 mi; width, 80 km/50 mi; capital, Rabaul; oil palm, copra, cocoa, coconuts, timber, copper, gold, iron, coal. New Britain, formerly Neu Pommern (New Pomerania), …

less than 1 minute read

New Brunswick (Canada) - History, Economy, Tourism, Media outlets, Demographics

pop (2000e) 810 200; area 73 440 km²/28 355 sq mi. Province in E Canada, boundaries include the USA (W), Gulf of St Lawrence (E), and Bay of Fundy (S); forested, rocky land, generally low-lying, rising in the NW; several rivers and lakes, especially Grand Lake (area 174 km²/67 sq mi); capital, Fredericton; major towns include Saint John and Moncton; paper and wood products, potatoes, s…

less than 1 minute read

New Brunswick (USA) - History, Economy, Tourism, Media outlets, Demographics

40º30N 74º27W, pop (2000e) 48 600. Seat of Middlesex Co, C New Jersey, USA; located on the R Raritan, 14 km/9 mi W of Perth Amboy; settled in 1681; gained city status, 1784; the starting point for George Washington's march to Yorktown (1781); birthplace of Leonard Baskin, Michael Douglas, James P Johnson, William H Vanderbilt; Rutgers University (1766); railway; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, m…

less than 1 minute read

New Caledonia - Geography, Administration, Politics, Miscellaneous

pop (2000e) 200 500; area 18 575 km²/7170 sq mi. Territory in the SW Pacific Ocean, 1100 km/680 mi E of Australia, comprising New Caledonia, Loyalty Is, Isle des Pins, Isle Bélep, and the uninhabited Chesterfield and Huon Is; capital, Nouméa; timezone GMT +11; chief ethnic groups, Melanesians (43%), Europeans (37%); official language, French, with English widely spoken; chief religion, …

less than 1 minute read

New Criticism - Key concepts, Works

A critical theory and method which concentrates on the text itself, the ‘words on the page’, to the exclusion of extrinsic information. It was developed by such critics as Cleanth Brooks (1906–94) and John Crowe Ransom (1888–1974) in the USA in the 1930s and 1940s, under the influence of Symbolist and Russian Formalist ideas; and in its turn provided a theoretical basis for the technique of pr…

less than 1 minute read

New Deal - Relief, recovery, and reform, The Origins of the New Deal, The First Hundred Days

The administration and policies of US President Roosevelt, who pledged a ‘new deal’ for the country during the campaign of 1932. He embarked on active state economic involvement to combat the Great Depression, setting the tone in a hectic ‘first hundred days’. Although some early legislation was invalidated by the Supreme Court, the New Deal left a lasting impact on US government, economy, and…

less than 1 minute read

New Democratic Party (NDP) - Development of the party, Representation in the House of Assembly, Relationship with the federal party

A Canadian political party which succeeded the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation as Canada's social democratic political party in 1961. Formally supported by the Canadian Labour Congress, the NDP has formed provincial governments in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Ontario, though it has never risen above third party status nationally. The Newfoundland and Labrador New Democ…

less than 1 minute read

New England - History, Geography and climate, Population, Economy, Politics, Culture, Notable places

A region of NE USA, comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The main area of English settlement in the 17th-c, several of the colonies initially formed themselves into a New England Confederation. A century later, the region was the centre of the independence movement in the years before the American Revolution, and at other times has b…

less than 1 minute read

New England Confederation

(1643–84) An agreement of the American colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven to establish a common government for the purposes of war and Indian relations. The Confederation declined in importance after 1664. The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massach…

less than 1 minute read

New English Art Club

A British society founded in 1886 by a group of artists whose ‘progressive work’, largely inspired by recent French painting, was being rejected by the Royal Academy. Leading members have included George Clauser (1852–1944), Wilson Steer (1860–1942), John Singer Sargent (1856–1925), John Lavery (1856–1941), and Walter Richard Sickert (1860–1942). The New English Art Club (NEAC) was f…

less than 1 minute read

New English Bible - Background, Translation, Form, Considerations and Concerns, Summary

An English translation of the Bible from the original languages undertaken by an interdenominational committee of scholars under the auspices of the University Presses of Cambridge and Oxford since 1948. The first edition of the New Testament was completed in 1961, and the first complete Bible was produced in 1970. The goal was to present the text in good English literary idiom rather than in ‘Bi…

less than 1 minute read

New Forest - History, Common rights, Geography, New Forest National Park, Visitor Attractions and Places, Gallery

An area of heath, woodland, and marsh covering c.37 300 ha/92 200 acres of S Hampshire, England; a popular tourist area. William the Conqueror appropriated the area for his new ‘forest’ (royal hunting land) in 1079. Known for its ponies and wild deer, it is administered by 10 Verderers, the head Verderer being appointed by the Crown. It was designated a national park in 2005. The New …

less than 1 minute read

New Forest pony - Gallery

A breed of horse, developed naturally in the New Forest, Hampshire, England, from many breeds roaming the area; classed as two types: Type A (height, 12–13·2 hands/1·2–1·4 m/4 ft–4 ft 6 in) and the more solid Type B (height, 13·2–14·2 hands/1·4–1·5 m/4 ft 6 in–4 ft 10 in). The New Forest Pony is one of the recognised nine Mountain and Moorland or Native pony breeds of …

less than 1 minute read

New France - Foundation of Quebec, Royal takeover, Fall of New France

North American colonies claimed by France from the 16th-c, including Canada, Acadia, and Louisiana. Their economy was based largely on the fur trade, subsistence agriculture, and fisheries. The population totalled 70 000 at its peak. Canada and Acadia were lost to the British incrementally up to 1763; Louisiana was sold to the USA in 1803. New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes …

less than 1 minute read

New Frontier - Review on Kennedy's New Frontier, Legislation and Programs

The administration and policies of US President Kennedy (1961–3). It was characterized by a high international profile and a liberal domestic stance. The term New Frontier was used by John F. John F. Kennedy’s New Frontier program was intended to boost the economy, provide international aid, provide for national defense, and to boost the space program. Overall, Ke…

less than 1 minute read

New General Catalogue (NGC)

An astronomical catalogue published in 1888 by J L E Dreyer, Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, listing 7840 nebulae, galaxies, and clusters. The numbering system is still regularly used by professional astronomers. The New General Catalogue (NGC) is the best-known catalogue of deep sky objects in amateur astronomy. …

less than 1 minute read

New Guard - Historical context, New Guard and Jack Lang, Membership and activities, Attempted kidnapping and civil unrest, Decline

In Australian history, an extreme right-wing organization formed in New South Wales in 1932 by Eric Campbell, which claimed 100 000 members by 1933. Its principal achievement was the disruption of the official opening of Sydney Harbour Bridge (1932). In some respects a fascist organization, the Guard was defunct by 1935. The New Guard was founded in Sydney in February, 1931 by Col. Members…

less than 1 minute read

New Hampshire - Geography, Demographics, Economy

pop (2000e) 1 235 800, area 24 032 km²/9279 sq mi. State in NE USA, divided into 10 counties; bounded N by Canada; the ‘Granite State’; explored by Champlain and Pring, 1603–5; first settlement at Little Harbor, 1623; ninth of the original 13 states to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1788; capital, Concord; other chief cities, Manchester, Nashua, Portsmouth; Connecticut R forms the W b…

less than 1 minute read

New Ireland - Physical geography, History, Culture

pop (2000e) 107 000; area 8647 km²/3338 sq mi. Second largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, separated from New Britain (SW) by St George's Channel; length, 480 km/298 mi; average width, 24 km/15 mi; capital, Kavieng; tuna fishing, copra. New Ireland, formerly New Mecklenburg (German: Neu-Mecklenburg) is an island in the Pacific, and the most northeastern pr…

less than 1 minute read

New Jersey - Geography, Climate, History, Demographics, Economy, Transportation, Prominent cities and towns, Education, Recreation

pop (2000e) 8 414 000, area 20 168 km²/7787 sq mi. State in E USA, divided into 21 counties; the ‘Garden State’; one of the original states of the Union, third to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1787; colonized after the explorations of Verrazano (1524) and Hudson (1609); capital, Trenton; other chief cities, Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth; many of the state's communities are …

less than 1 minute read

New Left - Origins, The British New Left (or "Old New Left")

A Neo-Marxist movement which espoused a more libertarian form of socialism compared to orthodox Marxism. In part, it was inspired by the earlier writings of Marx, which were essentially humanistic, and the ideas of Italian politician Antonio Gramsci regarding the importance of ideological hegemony. It also drew on dialectical sociology, Trotskyism, anarchism, and radical forms of existentialism. I…

less than 1 minute read

New Mexico - Geography, History, Demographics, Economy, Transportation, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Military, Education, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 1 819 000; area 314 914 km²/121 593 sq mi. State in SW USA, divided into 33 counties; the ‘Land of Enchantment’; first explored by the Spanish in the early 1500s; first white settlement at Santa Fe, 1609; governed by Mexico from 1821; ceded to the USA in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848; organized as a territory (1850), including Arizona and part of Colorado; admitted t…

1 minute read

New Model Army - Foundation, Dress, equipment and tactics, Civil War Campaigns, Interregnum

An English army established by Parliament (15 Feb 1645) to strengthen the Roundheads' forces in the Civil War against the Royalists. The county and regional armies of Essex, Manchester, and Waller were merged into a successful national force of 22 000 men. The cavalry and artillery were augmented; the battle tactics and military training of Gustavus Adolphus adopted; discipline and pay improved; …

less than 1 minute read

New Nationalism

(1910–16) A reform programme, first announced by Theodore Roosevelt in 1910, which drew on the ideas put forward by Herbert Croly in his book The Promise of American Life (1909). It advocated increased power for the federal government to regulate the economy, and social justice for women and children through laws to set a minimum wage and limit their hours of work. Roosevelt also wanted broader p…

less than 1 minute read

New Netherland - Legacy, A note on the Latin name of the province

A Dutch colony in the valley of the Hudson R. The first settlement was Fort Orange (Albany), founded in 1617; Nieuw Amsterdam (New York City) followed in 1624. Conquered by the English and named New York in 1664, it was reconquered in 1674 after a second brief period of Dutch rule. Initially established on feudal social lines, the colony prospered on the basis of the fur trade. New Netherla…

less than 1 minute read

New Providence - New Providence in the American Revolution

pop (2000e) 199 000; area 207 km²/80 sq mi. Island in the NC Bahamas, on the Great Bahama Bank; length 32 km/20 mi; capital Nassau; contains more than half the total population of the group; airport; popular tourist resort. New Providence is an island, one of the most populous in the Bahamas. While the first European visitors to the Bahama Islands were Bermudian salt rak…

less than 1 minute read

New Right - New Right by country

A wide-ranging ideological movement associated with the revival of conservatism in the 1970s and 1980s, particularly in the UK and USA. Its ideas are most prominently connected with classical liberal economic theory from the 19th-c. It is strongly in favour of state withdrawal from ownership, and intervention in the economy in favour of a free-enterprise system. There is also a strong moral conser…

less than 1 minute read

New River Gorge Bridge

Longest single arch steel span bridge in the world, and second highest bridge in the USA, located on the New River N of Fayetteville, West Virginia; length 923 m/3030 ft; arch span 518 m/1700 ft; height 267 m/876 ft; completed in 1977; annual Bridge Day on the third Saturday in October. The New River Gorge Bridge is a steel-arch bridge, near Fayetteville, West Virginia; Th…

less than 1 minute read

New Ross - Famous people descended from New Ross Inhabitants, Education, Sport

52°24N 6°56W, pop (2000e) 6100. Mediaeval town and river port in Wexford county, Leinster, SE Ireland; on R Barrow, NE of Waterford; home of the Kennedy family in Dunganstown, 8 km/5 mi S; J F Kennedy Memorial Park nearby. New Ross (Ros Mhic Thriúin in Irish) is a small town in southwest County Wexford, Republic of Ireland, in the southeast of Ireland. Even with these handicaps, New R…

less than 1 minute read

New Siberian Islands

area 28 250 km²/10 900 sq mi. Uninhabited Russian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, between the Laptev Sea (W) and the E Siberian Sea (E), NE Russia; rises to 374 m/1227 ft; chief islands are Kotelnyy, Faddeyevskiy, and New Siberia; separated from the Lyakhov Is (S) by the Proliv Sannikova strait; mammoth fossils. The New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские ост…

less than 1 minute read

New South Wales - Geography, Government

pop (2000e) 6 333 000; area 801 428 km²/309 400 sq mi. State in SE Australia, bordered E by the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea; the first British colony, named by Captain Cook, who landed at Botany Bay, 1770; first settlement at Sydney, 1788; comprises 12 statistical divisions; coastal lowlands give way to tablelands, formed by the Great Dividing Range (highest point Mt Kosciuszko, 22…

less than 1 minute read

New Spain - Context, History, Politics, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Criticism of the Spanish presence

The formal title of the Spanish viceroyalty covering the area of modern Mexico. Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España) was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia, North America and its peripheries from 1535 to 1821. New Spain's territory included what is the Bay Islands (until 1643), Cayman Islands (until 1670), Cen…

less than 1 minute read

New Sweden - List of governors, Forts, Permanent settlements, Rivers and creeks

A Swedish colony, founded at Fort Christina (Wilmington) on the Delaware R in 1633, with Dutch investment and involvement. It was absorbed by New Netherland in 1655. New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. It was centered at Fort Christina, now in Wilmington, Delaware and included parts of the pres…

less than 1 minute read

New Territories - History, Districts

area 950 km²/367 sq mi. Region of Hong Kong; N of the Kowloon Peninsula, includes part of the mainland and over 200 islands; leased to Britain until 1997, when Hong Kong was restored to China under the Sino–British Agreement of 1984. New Territories refers to a region in Hong Kong, China. It comprises the area north of the Kowloon peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River (Shenzhen Ri…

less than 1 minute read

New Testament - Books of the New Testament, Language

Along with the Old Testament, the sacred literature of Christianity. It is called ‘New Testament’ because its writings are believed to represent a new covenant of God with his people, centred on the person and work of Jesus Christ, as distinct from the old covenant with Israel which is described in the ‘Old Testament’. The 27 New Testament writings were originally composed in Greek, mainly in …

less than 1 minute read

new town - Argentina, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, France, Hong Kong, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Morocco, Nigeria, Norway, Poland

A British solution to problems of city growth: a planned, self-contained settlement designed to relieve urban congestion. Some (eg Peterborough) incorporated existing settlements; others (eg Peterlee) were built on new sites. Dating from the 1946 New Towns Act, 14 were designated between 1947 and 1950, and seven more since then. They incorporate features designed to ensure independence from the pa…

less than 1 minute read

new universities - 1960s or "plate glass" universities, Post-1992 or "modern" universities

Orginally, universities built to accommodate the expanding numbers entering higher education in Britain during the post-war period: Keele (1949); Sussex (1961); Essex (1961); York (1963); Lancaster (1964); East Anglia (1964); Kent (1965); Warwick (1965); Stirling (1967); Open (1969). The term does not generally include those 19th-c colleges which were converted into universities in the 20th-c, suc…

less than 1 minute read

New World monkey

A monkey inhabiting Central and South America; nostrils wide apart and opening to the side (unlike Old World monkeys); thumb not opposable; some species with prehensile (grasping) tails. (Family: Cebidae, 32 species.) The New World monkeys are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America: the Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. …

less than 1 minute read

New Year's Day

The first day of the year (1 Jan in countries using the Gregorian calendar). Communities using other calendars celebrate New Year on other dates: the Jewish New Year, for example, is Rosh Hashanah (1 Tishri), which falls in September or October, and the Chinese New Year falls between 21 January and 19 February. …

less than 1 minute read

New York (state) - Demographics, Economy, Education, Professional sports teams, Navy vessel namesakes

pop (2000e) 18 976 500; area 127 185 km²/49 108 sq mi. State in NE USA, divided into 62 counties; the ‘Empire State’; second most populous state; one of the original states of the Union, 11th to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1788; explored by Hudson and Champlain, 1609; Dutch established posts near Albany, 1614, settled Manhattan, 1626; New Netherlands taken by the British, 1664; sce…

less than 1 minute read

New York City Ballet

Resident ballet company of the New York State Theater at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and the Saratoga Performing Arts Center, both in New York, USA. First named the Ballet Company, it was founded in 1946 by George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein as a private subscription organization. In 1948 it was renamed the New York City Ballet, and in 1964 it moved to its present home. Its aim …

less than 1 minute read

New York Public Library - History, Branches, Telephone Reference Service, Website, The Library in literature and film

One of the most famous architectural structures in New York City, of Beaux-Arts design with marble colonnade and a pair of grand marble lions flanking the Fifth Avenue entrance. When originally built (1911) the library housed the collections of the Lenox Library and the Astor Library. Today, it holds over 6 million books, 12 million periodicals, and almost 3 million pictures. Notable among the per…

less than 1 minute read

New York School - The Poets, The Beats, Jazz, New York School artists

A term sometimes applied rather loosely (for it was never a school in the formal sense) to the group of US painters who, after 1945, centred around Jackson Pollock (1912–56), Arshile Gorky (1904–48), Willem de Kooning (1904–97), and Mark Rothko (1903–70). The New York School was an informal group of American poets, painters and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York…

less than 1 minute read