Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 51

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Michael (politician) Collins

Irish politician and Sinn Féin leader, born near Clonakilty, County Cork, E Ireland. He became an MP (1918–22), and with Arthur Griffith was largely responsible for the negotiation of the treaty with Great Britain in 1921. He was killed in an ambush by his former compatriots, between Bandon and Macroom. Michael Collins is the name of: Michael Collins may also refer to: …

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Michael (Robert) Milken - Education, Work on Wall Street, Legal charges, After prison term, Assessments of Milken's accomplishments

Investment entrepreneur, born in California, USA. He studied at the University of California, Berkeley, and joined Drexel, Burnham, Lambert in 1970. He led the firm into the 1980s, using high-risk, high-yield bonds to finance corporate takeovers. Condemned by some for virtually inventing these ‘junk bonds’ - bonds secured by little more than the future promises of the very companies the bonds we…

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Michael (Robert) Winner - Early years, British films, American films, Personality and style of directing, Filmography

Film producer and director, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and worked as a journalist and film critic before entering Motion Pictures Ltd as a writer and editor (1956). He has written the screenplays for many of his films, which include The Cool Mikado (1962), The Big Sleep (1977), Death Wish (and its sequels), Bullseye! (1990), and Dirty Weekend (1993). In 1998 he produced and direc…

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Michael (Ryan) Flatley - Awards and Recognition, Personal life

Dancer and choreographer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. His parents came to the US from Ireland where his grandmother had been an Irish dancing champion in Leinster. At age 11 he began dance lessons and in 1975 became the first American to win the All World Championships in Irish dancing. He shot to fame after the success of his stage routine Riverdance at the Eurovision Song Contest in Dublin i…

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Michael (Stanley) Dukakis - Early career and family, Massachusetts Governor, Presidential candidate, Trivia, Personal info

US governor, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. An army veteran (1956–8) and lawyer, he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (Democrat, 1963–71). As governor (1975–9, 1983–91), he initially reduced the budget deficit and attracted business to Massachusetts, but the late 1980s recession left the state in a financial crisis. Resoundingly defeated by George Bush in the 1988 pr…

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Michael (Steven) Harper

Poet and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at City College (1954), California State, Los Angeles (1961 BA; 1962 MA), the University of Iowa (1963 MA), and the University of Illinois (1970–1). He taught at many institutions, notably at Brown University (1983), and lived in Providence, RI. He wrote poems linked to the sensibilities of African-Americans, as in Healing Song for…

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Michael (Terence) Aspel

Broadcaster and writer, born in Battersea, London, England, UK. Following national service, he became a radio actor (1954) and a television announcer (1957), but came to public prominence as a television newsreader (1960–8). In 1968 he became a freelance broadcaster, known for his genial interviewing style in Aspel and Company (1984–93), and as presenter of This is Your Life (1988–2003) and The…

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Michael (Vivian Fyfe) Pennington - Filmography

British actor. He studied at Cambridge, appeared at the Royal Court Theatre, London, and several other theatres, and became a leading Shakespearean actor, spending seven years with the Royal Shakespeare Company (1974–81). He joined the National Theatre in 1984, and in 1986 co-founded, with the stage director Michael Bogdanov, the English Shakespeare Company, becoming co-artistic director (1986–9…

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Michael Arlen - Further reading

Novelist, born in Ruse (formerly Ruschuk), N Bulgaria. He studied in England and was naturalized in 1922. He made his reputation with Piracy (1922), The Green Hat (1924), and his short story collections, The Romantic Lady (1921) and These Charming People (1923). Michael Arlen (November 16, 1895 - June 23, 1956), born Dikran Kouyoumdjian, was an Armenian essayist, short story writer, novelis…

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Michael Bennett - Tony Awards

Dancer, choreographer, and stage director and producer, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. By age three he had joined a dance school in Buffalo, by age 12 he had mastered all forms of dance, and at 16 he dropped out of school to join the chorus of a touring company of West Side Story, touring Europe for a year. Back in New York City, he danced in choruses until emerging as a choreographer, his first …

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Michael Bentine - Life and work, Programmes, Books

Comedy performer, born in Watford, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He made his stage debut in 1941 and, after wartime service in the RAF, worked at the Windmill Theatre (1946) and in the show Starlight Roof (1947). One of the early members of The Goons (1950–2), he left the popular radio series to pursue a solo career, and appeared on television in After Hours (1959–60) and It's a Square World (1…

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Michael Bogdanov

Stage director, born in London, UK. He studied at the universities of Dublin, Munich, and the Sorbonne, and went on to direct several major productions for the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre. In 1986 he became co-founder and artistic director of the touring English Shakespeare Company, whose productions included The Hostage (1995), Timon of Athens (1997), and Chicago (1997). Fo…

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Michael Clark

Dancer and choreographer, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. He trained at the Royal Ballet School, and went on to dance with the Royal Ballet and Ballet Rambert (now Rambert Dance Company). After studying with Merce Cunningham in New York for a short time, he began to choreograph. While developing his own style he worked as a dancer with Karole Armitage in Paris, starting his own company, Dance U…

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Michael Crawford - Awards, Biography, Discography

Actor and singer, born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, S England, UK. His performance in No Sex Please, We're British (1971) established him as a comedy actor. In the 1970s the television series Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em, in which he played the accident-prone misfit Frank Spencer, made him a household name in Britain. He went on to star in such musicals as Billy (1974), Flowers for Algernon (1979), Barnum…

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Michael Curtiz - Life, Criticism, Awards, Select Hollywood filmography

Film director, born in Budapest, Hungary. He was a stage actor from 1906, then became a film actor and director in 1912. By the time he moved to Hollywood (1926), he had directed some 60 films in Europe. Working in every film genre he made some 125 Hollywood films, winning an Oscar for Casablanca (1942). Known for his fractured English and regarded as a production-line director, he later gained fr…

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Michael Davitt - Early years, Fenians, The Land War, Achievements, Memory, Popular culture, Writings

Founder of the Irish Land League, born in Straid, Co Mayo,W Ireland. Before becoming a journalist, he worked in a cotton mill, where he lost an arm in an accident. In 1866 he joined the Fenian Movement, and was arrested in 1870 for sending guns to Ireland from the USA, and sentenced to 15 years penal servitude. Released in 1877, he began an anti-landlord crusade which culminated in the Land League…

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Michael Drayton - Biography, Critical legacy, Editions, Note

Poet, born in Hartshill, Warwickshire, C England, UK. His earliest work was The Harmony of the Church (1591), a metrical rendering of scriptural passages, which gave offence to the authorities, and was condemned to be destroyed. His best-known works are England's Heroical Epistles (1597), Poly-Olbion (1612–22), an ambitious description of the English countryside, and the celebrated sonnet ‘Since…

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Michael Ende - Selected works, External references

Writer, born in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, S Germany. He studied at drama school and then worked in radio. He became known for his highly imaginative adventure books for children, such as Jim Knopf und Lukas, der Lokomotivführer (1960) and Jim Knopf und die wilde 13 (1962). These were followed by Momo (1973), with its theme of time. The magical Die unendliche Geschichte (1979), a beautiful fantasy r…

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Michael Faraday

Chemist, physicist, and natural philosopher, usually regarded as the greatest of all experimental physicists, born in Newington Butts, Surrey, SE England, UK. Apprenticed to a bookbinder, he devoted his leisure to reading scientific books and joined a weekly club to learn elementary science. In 1813 he was engaged by Davy as his assistant at the Royal Institution, soon became his co-worker, and in…

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Michael Flanders

Variety performer, born in London, UK. He contributed lyrics for such London revues as Air on a Shoestring (1953), and translated Stravinsky's A Soldier's Tale for the Edinburgh Festival (1954). He is best rembered for At The Drop of a Hat (1956) and songs, such as the ‘Hippopotamus Song’, created and performed with Donald Swann. Michael Henry Flanders (March 1, 1922 – April 14, 1975) w…

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Michael Foale

Astronaut, born in Louth, Lincolnshire, E England, UK. He studied astrophysics at Cambridge University (1982), then joined the US space programme in Houston, TX and was selected for astronaut training by NASA in 1987. Highlights of his career include a spacewalk outside the Russian space station Mir (1995), four months working aboard Mir (1997), and an eight-day shuttle mission to repair the Hubbl…

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Michael Frayn - Awards, Bibliography

Playwright, novelist, and translator, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and first established his reputation with witty, gently satirical columns in The Manchester Guardian and The Observer, and a series of novels in the same vein, including The Russian Interpreter (1966). He wrote many plays, notably three successful comedies of the 1970s: Alphabetical Order (1975), Donkey's Years (197…

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Michael Graves

Architect, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. After training at the University of Cincinnati and at Harvard, he joined the architecture faculty at Princeton (1962) and established an independent practice (1964). His designs for museums, residences, housing, and urban planning projects have put him at the forefront of postmodernist architecture. His works frequently incorporate colour as architect…

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Michael Haydn

Composer, born in Rohrau, NE Austria, the brother of Franz Joseph Haydn. He was a cathedral chorister with Joseph in Vienna, and ultimately became musical director and concert master to the Archbishop in Salzburg, where he remained until his death. Some of his compositions are of considerable merit and charm; and several of his church pieces and instrumental works are still performed. Carl Weber w…

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Michael Heilprin

Scholar and encyclopedist, born in Piotrow, Poland. Educated solely by his father, he showed an early propensity for learning. His family removed to Hungary in 1842 to escape Russian oppression, and he soon mastered Magyar. His revolutionary poetry was widely popular before the 1848 Hungarian Revolution, and after the collapse of the Revolution he fled to avoid imprisonment. In 1856 he emigrated t…

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Michael Howard - Early life, Career in Government, First attempt to become Conservative leader, Conservative Leader, 2005 Election

British statesman, born in Gorseinon, near Swansea, SC Wales, UK. Brought up in Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, he studied at Cambridge, where he was president of the Union, and was called to the bar in 1964. He was elected an MP in 1983, and after several junior posts became minister for local government (1987–8), minister for water and planning (1988–90), secretary of state for employment (1990–2)…

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Michael Jackson - Biography, Solo discography, Filmography, Music samples

Popular singer and songwriter, born in Gary, Indiana, USA. He was a child star with his brothers in a popular Motown soul group, the Jackson Five, and had his first solo hits in the early 1970s. He began producing and songwriting when the group left Motown in 1976, becoming the Jacksons, and he collaborated with Quincy Jones on his first best-selling solo album, Off The Wall (1979). His second sol…

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Michael Johnson

Track athlete, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He attended Baylor University, TX. Johnson, who has a distinctive upright running style, won 32 consecutive 200 m finals from 1990 to 1992, and 58 in a row at 400 m from 1990 to 1997. Four-times world champion at 400 m (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999), he achieved the 200 m/400 m double at the 1995 championships, and an unprecedented male double of 200 m an…

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Michael Joseph Kelly - Places, People, "The King", Film and television, Music

Baseball player, born in Troy, New York, USA. One of baseball's first superstars, he combined power and speed during his 16 year career as an outfielder and catcher (1878–93), mostly with the Chicago White Stockings and Boston Red Stockings. The once-popular song, ‘Slide, Kelly, Slide!’ (1889) was inspired by the fans' chanting that accompanied his frequent stolen bases. Handsome and flamboyant…

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Michael Joseph Savage - Early life, Prime Minister

New Zealand statesman and prime minister (1935–40), born in Benalla, Victoria, NE Australia. He emigrated to New Zealand in 1907. An MP from 1919, he became leader of the Labour Party in 1933 and then prime minister. As leader of the first Labour government, he presided over a notable set of social reforms. He died in office. Michael Joseph Savage (March 23, 1872 – March 27, 1940) was a …

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Michael Keaton - Early life, Early career, Batman, 1990s, 2000s, Filmography

Actor, born in Caraopolis, Pennsylvania, USA. He started with Chicago's Second City improvisational group, then went to Los Angeles and appeared in a few film comedies. His breakthrough came with the film Mr Mom (1983), and five years later, after Beetlejuice (1988) and Clean and Sober (1988), he was named Best Actor by national film critics. Other films include Batman (1989), Batman Returns (1992…

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Michael Kidd - Work on Broadway

Choreographer, dancer, and producer-director, born in New York City, New York, USA. While in high school, he attended a performance by a modern dance group that inspired him to take dance lessons. Although he went on to City College of New York and studied chemical engineering, by the end of his third year he dropped out to dedicate himself entirely to dance. He attended the School of American Bal…

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Michael Landon - Biography, Quotes

Television actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. After appearing in small roles in television Westerns and drama series including Playhouse 90, he made his film debut in I Was a Teenage Werewolf (1957). He endeared himself to audiences as Little Joe in the television western series, Bonanza (1959–73), and as Charles Ingalls in the television series based on Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little Ho…

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Michael Moore - Early life, Writings and political views, Controversy and criticism

Film director, producer, writer, and political activist, born in Davison, Flint, Michigan, USA. He studied at the University of Michigan, Flint, and began working as a journalist for a local weekly newspaper, becoming editor of the Michigan Voice and Mother Jones magazine (1986). Moving into film production, he began with the groundbreaking documentary Roger and Me (1989), chronicling events as th…

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Michael Nyman

Pianist and composer, born in London, UK. He formed the Michael Nyman Band in 1977, for which he composed several works characterized by highly charged, stylized, rhythmical chord progressions, much influenced by Purcell, in which his own piano playing is a driving force. His compositions include scores for the films of Peter Greenaway, and for the films and The Piano (1993), Carrington (1995), an…

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Michael Ondaatje - Bibliography, Further reading

Poet, novelist, and editor, born in Colombo, W Sri Lanka. He moved to Canada in 1962, studied at Bishop's University in Quebec, the University of Toronto, and Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, then became a university lecturer. Among his first books of poetry is Rat Jelly (1973). The Collected Works of Billy the Kid (1970), a factual and fictional account of the notorious outlaw, won a Govern…

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Michael Parkinson - Background, Other work

Journalist and broadcaster, born in Cudworth, near Barnsley, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He became a journalist working for local and national papers. Moving into television, he has produced and presented several programmes, and is best known as the host of his own chat show Parkinson (BBC, 1971–82, 1998–2004) for which he received a BAFTA for Best Light Entertainment Performance in 1999. He…

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Michael Phelps - Major achievements, Currently held records

Swimmer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. At age 15 he competed in the Olympic Games at Sydney (2000) and came 5th in the 200 m butterfly. The next year he made his mark at the World Championships, where he won the same event in record time. He established himself further at the 2003 World Championships in Barcelona, where he won three gold medals and set new record times in the 200 m butterfly…

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Michael Polanyi - Early life, Physical chemistry, Philosophy of science, Economics, Professional honours, Family, Bibliography, Further reading

Physical chemist and social philosopher, born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied there and at Karlsruhe, lectured at Berlin, emigrated to Britain after Hitler's rise to power, and was professor of physical chemistry (1933–48) and of social studies (1948–58) at Manchester. He did notable work on reaction kinetics and crystal structure, and wrote much on the freedom of scientific thought, philosophy…

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Michael Porter

Management theorist, born in Ann Arbor, Michigan , USA. Trained as an economist at Princeton and Harvard Business School, he became a lecturer at Harvard (1973) and subsequently professor (1982). In 1983 he founded Monitor Co Inc, a strategic consulting organization. He was in great demand throughout the 1980s as a lecturer and consultant to many leading US and UK organizations. His book Competiti…

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Michael Powell

Film director, scriptwriter, and producer, born in Bekesbourne, Kent, SE England, UK. He worked as a director on minor productions in the 1930s, and co-directed on The Thief of Baghdad (1940) for Korda, who introduced him to the Hungarian scriptwriter, Emeric Pressburger (1902–88). Powell and Pressburger formed The Archers Company in 1942, and for more than 10 years made a series of unusual and o…

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Michael Praetorius - Works

Composer, born in Creuzburg, C Germany. He studied in Torgau, Frankfurt an der Oder, and Zerbst, and became court organist and (from 1604) Kapellmeister at the court of Wolfenbüttel. As well as being one of the most prolific composers of his time (especially of church music), he wrote an important treatise, Syntagma musicum (1614–20). Michael Praetorius (probably February 15, 1571 – Feb…

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Michael S(tuart) Brown - Key Papers

Biochemical geneticist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He began his close personal and professional relationship with Joseph Goldstein when the two men studied at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (1966–8). Brown investigated digestive system biochemistry at the National Institutes of Health (1968–71), then joined Goldstein at the University of Texas (1971). Together they found t…

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Michael Schumacher - Complete Formula One results, Formula One records

Motor-racing driver, born in Hürth-Hermuhlheim, Germany. He began racing karts at the age of five, became German and European Senior Kart champion in 1987, moved up to Formula Ford (1988) and Formula Three (1989), and won the German F3 Championship in 1990. He made his F1 debut with Jordan in 1990, but was immediately given a place in the Benetton team, with whom he became world champion in 1994 …

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Michael Scott

British missionary and political activist. He served in a London parish and as chaplain in India (1935–9), where he collaborated with the Communists. Invalided out of the RAF in 1941, he served in various missions in South Africa (1943–50). No longer associating with Communists, he exposed the atrocities in the Bethal farming area and in the Transvaal, defended the Basutos against wrongful arres…

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Michael Servetus - Early life and education, Career, Imprisonment and execution, Modern relevance, Further reading

Theologian and physician, born in Tudela, N Spain. He studied law, worked largely in France and Switzerland, and while studying medicine at Paris discovered the pulmonary circulation of the blood. In his theological writings he denied the Trinity and the divinity of Christ, and angered both Catholics and Protestants. He escaped the Inquisition, but was burnt by Calvin in Geneva for heresy. …

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Michael Tilson Thomas - Quotations

Conductor, born in Hollywood, California, USA. A precocious talent, he was thrust into fame at 25 when as an assistant he took over a concert of the Boston Symphony from ailing William Steinberg. He went on to guest-conduct widely, and led the Buffalo Philharmonic (1971–9) and the London Symphony Orchestra (1988–95), becoming music director of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra in 1995. …

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Michael Wigglesworth

Protestant clergyman and poet, born in Yorkshire, N England, UK. He emigrated to Massachusetts as a boy, graduated from Harvard (1751), and was a fellow and tutor at Harvard before being ordained in Malden, MA (1656). His epic poem ‘Day of Doom’ (1662) has been described as conservative Calvinist theology in readable form, and it was an early American best-seller. He continued his pastorate in M…

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Michael William Balfe - Life and career

Composer, born in Dublin, Ireland. In 1823 he moved to London, and in 1825–6 studied in Italy under Rossini, which inspired him to sing in opera with considerable success. In 1833 he returned to England, and in 1846 was appointed conductor of the London Italian Opera. Of his numerous operas, operettas, and other compositions, the most enduring success was The Bohemian Girl (1843). Michael …

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Michael William Gatting

Cricketer, born in Kingsbury, NW Greater London, UK. He made his mark as a forceful batsman with Middlesex, becoming captain in 1983. England captain in 23 Tests (1986–8), he was involved in a dispute with a Pakistan umpire during the 1987–8 tour, and lost the captaincy in 1988. He led a ‘rebel’ tour in South Africa in 1989–90, for which he received a 3-year Test ban, but returned to Test cri…

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Michael Williams

Journalist, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Emigrating to the USA as a penniless youth, he was a newspaper reporter in Boston, New York, and San Francisco, before his conversion to active Catholicism (1912), which he recounted in a colourful memoir, The Book of High Romance (1918). Seeking to create a Catholic intellectual periodical under lay auspices, he co-founded Commonweal magazine (191…

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Michaelmas

In the Christian Church, the feast of St Michael and All Angels (29 Sep); a quarter-day in England and Wales. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a holy day of obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th Century. It was also one of the English and Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. Michaelmas is also used in the exte…

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Michel (Eyquem) de Montaigne - Life, Related writers and influence

Essayist and courtier, born at Château de Montaigne, Périgord, SW France. He spoke no language but Latin until he was six, received his early education at Bordeaux, then studied law. He obtained a post in connection with the Parlement of Bordeaux, and for 13 years was a city counsellor, later becoming mayor. A translation (1569) of the Natural History of a 15th-c professor at Toulouse was his fi…

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Michel (Jacques Duchesne) Saint-Denis

Theatre director, actor, and teacher, born in Beauvais, N France. In 1931 he founded the Compagnie des Quinze, and directed numerous influential productions. When this company disbanded, he settled in England, founding with George Devine and others the London Theatre Studio (1936). His influence on British theatre continued with his work for the Old Vic (1947–52) and later with the Royal Shakespe…

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Michel (Jean) Camdessus

Civil servant, and managing director and chairman of the International Monetary Fund (1987–2000), born in Bayonne, SW France. Educated in Paris, he served in the Treasury (1960–6) before spending two years as part of the French delegation to the EEC. Returning to the Treasury in 1968, he became its director in 1982 and also chairman of the monetary committee of the EEC (1982–4). Deputy-director…

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Michel (Marie-Fran

Critic and novelist, born in Mons-en-Baroeul, W France. He studied at the Sorbonne, became lecturer at the University of Manchester ((1951–3), and taught at Thessaloniki (1954–5) and Geneva (1956–7). A leading exponent of the ‘nouveau roman’, his novels include Passage de Milan (1954), L'Emploi du temps (1956, Prix Féréon), La Modification (1957, Prix Renaudot), and Degrés (1960). Among la…

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Michel Adanson

Botanist, born in Aix-en-Provence, SE France, the first exponent of classification of plants into natural orders, before Linnaeus. His works include Les Familles naturelles des plantes (1763, Natural Families of Plants). The baobab genus of African trees, Adansonia, is named after him. Michel Adanson (April 7, 1727 - August 3, 1806) was a French naturalist of Scottish descent. A…

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Michel Blanc - Filmography

Actor and film maker, born in Courbevoie, NC France. From a theatrical background, he usually plays comic roles. He received the best actor award at Cannes for his part in Tenue de soirée (1986, director Bertrand Blier). Later films include M. Hire (1989, director P Leconte), Uranus (1991, director Claude Berri), and Merci la vie (1991, director Bertrand Blier). His own film Grosse Fatigue (1994)…

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Michel Chasles

Mathematician, born in Epernon, NC France. He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1812, and became a military engineer, but resigned to devote himself to mathematics, becoming professor of geometry at the Sorbonne in 1846. He greatly developed synthetic projective geometry by means of cross-ratio and homographies without the use of co-ordinates. Michel Chasles (15 November 1793 – 18 Decemb…

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Michel Dahmani Gatlif - Filmography, Reference

French film-maker, born in Algiers, Algeria. Of Gypsy and Algerian descent, his films are concerned with the situation of both these groups and their relations with mainstream society, such as Les Princes (1982) and Gadjo Dilo (1998), portrayed with unflinching honesty and without sentimentality. Tony Gatlif (born as Michel Dahmani on September 10, 1948 in Algiers, Algeria) is a French film…

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Michel Fokine

Dancer and choreographer, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia. He worked with Diaghilev's Ballets Russes in Paris from 1909, and in 1923 went to New York City, becoming a US citizen in 1932. He is credited with the creation of modern ballet from the elaborate and ornamental, stylized mode prevalent at the beginning of the 20th-c. He based his choreography on intensely disciplined training, but elimin…

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Michel Foucault - Biography, Foucault on age of consent, Criticisms of Foucault, Foucault's changing viewpoint, Intellectual contexts

Philosopher, born in Poitiers, W France. A student of the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, he became professor of the history of systems of thought at the Collège de France (1970). He sought consistently to test cultural assumptions in given historical contexts. His most important writings include Histoire de la folie (1961, trans Madness and Civilization), Les mots et les choses (1966, trans…

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Michel Legrand - Filmography

Musician, born in Paris, France, the son of the orchestra conductor Raymond Legrand. He wrote the scores for many of the films of the nouvelle vague, including Jacques Demy's Lola (1961) and Les parapluies de Cherbourg (1964). His work for American films includes The Thomas Crown Affair (1968) and Barbra Streisand's Yentl (1983). …

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Michel Leiris - Biography, Works include

Writer and anthropologist, born in Paris, France. Early involved with the Surrealists (1925–9), his poetry includes Simulacre (1925), Haut Mal (1943), La Rose des vents (1939–40), and Nuits sans nuits (1945). A novel, Aurora, appeared in 1946. His poems and novel all show his fascination with puns and word play and the associative power of language. Other works include the autobiographical L'Age…

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Michel Piccoli - Filmography

Actor, born in Paris, France. One of France's outstanding actors, both on film and television, he is the winner of many awards. He has appeared in films directed by Bunuel, including Le Charme discret de la bourgeoisie (1972) and Belle de jour (1967), and among other films are Les Choses de la vie (1969, director C Sautet) and La Grande Bouffe (1973, director M Ferreri). He has also appeared in ma…

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Michel Platini

Footballer, coach, and administrator, born in Joeuf, Merthe de Moselle, NE France. Generally regarded as the greatest French player, Platini made his senior debut for Nancy-Lorraine in 1973 and won his first international cap in 1976. A midfield player, he scored 41 times in 72 international appearances for France, leading them to the European Championship in 1984. He reached his peak as a player …

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Michel Polnareff - Early Successes, An Atypical Character, Depression and Distance, Polnareff in the USA, Return to France

Singer and composer, born in Nérac, SW France, the son of the Russian composer Léo Poll, who wrote for Edith Piaf and composed ‘Les Compagnons de la Chanson’. He won the piano prize at the Conservatoire at the age of 12. He discovered rock-and-roll in England, then accompanied Claude François in 1966 to the USA, where he remained and was launched in the French version of Hair. Co-star at l'Ol…

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Michel Rocard - Rocard's Ministry, 12 May 1988–15 May 1991

French statesman and prime minister (1988–91), born near Paris. He trained at the Ecole National d'Administration, and began his career in 1958 as an inspector of finances. In 1967 he became leader of the radical Unified Socialist Party, standing as its presidential candidate in 1969 and being elected to the National Assembly in the same year. He joined the Socialist Party in 1973, emerging as le…

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Michel Serrault - Filmography

Actor, born in Brunoy, NC France. A well-known actor, his many films include Nelly et M Arnaud (director C Sautet), La Cage aux folles (1980, director E Molinaro), Buffet Froid (1979, director Bertrand Blier), Garde à vue (1981), and Mortelle Randonnée (1983, director C Miller). In 1995 he was named best actor at Cannes. …

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Michel Tremblay - His work and its impact, Politicial views, Awards and honours, Works about Tremblay

Playwright, born in Montreal, Quebec, SE Canada. His first play, Le Train (1959), won a Radio-Canada award. Les Belles-Soeurs (1968, The Sisters-in-law) is written in the street language, joual. Many consider Le Vrai Monde (1987, The Real World), his 19th play written in as many years, his most important work to date. A new departure was his opera Nelligan (1990), with music by André Gagnon. …

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Michel-Jean Sedaine

Playwright, born in Paris, France. The son of a mason, and a stonemason himself, he published a collection of verse (1752) and wrote light opera librettos (1756). Ruined financially by the Revolution, he was forced to leave the Académie Française, having been elected there in 1786. His most lasting work is the play Le Philosophe sans le savoir (1765), a domestic comedy in the drame bourgeois gen…

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Michelangelo - Michelangelo the architect, Michelangelo the man, Relationships

Sculptor, painter, and poet, born in Caprese, NC Italy. As a boy he was placed in the care of a stonemason at Settignano, and in 1488 spent three years in Florence with Ghirlandaio. He received the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, and after his death (1492) spent three years in Bologna. His ‘Cupid’ was bought by Cardinal San Giorgio, who summoned him to Rome (1496), where he stayed for four year…

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Michelangelo Antonioni - Work, Trivia, Style, Filmography, Bibliographies, Books

Film director, born in Ferrara, NE Italy. After studying political economy at Bologna University, he began as a film critic before becoming an assistant director in 1942. He made several documentaries (1945–50) before turning to feature films, often scripted by himself, and notable for their preoccupation with character study rather than plot. He gained an international reputation with L'avventur…

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Michele Bianchi - Biography

Italian politician, born in Belmonte Calabro, Calabria, S Italy. A socialist trade unionist, he was one of the founders of the Fascist movement and its first secretary (1921–3). He was a member of the March on Rome quadrumvirate, and became minister of public works (1929–30). Michele Bianchi (July 22, 1883—February 3, 1930) was an eminent Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader. …

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Michele Sanmichele - Further reading

Architect and military engineer, born in San Michele, NE Italy. Initially a pupil of his father and uncle, he went to Rome, where he came to be regarded as the successor of Bramante. He was master builder of the cathedral of Orvieto (1509–28), and was employed as military architect for Venice (from 1535). Noted for his treatment of military fortifications, his most important works include the Por…

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Michelle Pfeiffer

Film actress, born in Santa Ana, California, USA. A winner of the Miss Orange County beauty pageant, she had a variety of film and television roles before impressing audiences with her performance in Scarface (1983). She won acclaim for her role in The Witches of Eastwick (1987) and Married to the Mob (1988), and gained a Best Supporting Actress Oscar nomination for Dangerous Liaisons (1988), and …

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Michigan - History, Law and government, Geography, Demographics, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams, Trivia

pop (2000e) 9 938 400; area 151 579 km²/58 527 sq mi. State in NC USA, divided into 83 counties; split into two peninsulas by L Michigan and L Huron; the ‘Great Lake State’ or the ‘Wolverine State’; 26th state admitted to the Union, 1837; settled by the French, 1668; ceded to the British, 1763; handed over to the USA in 1783 and became part of Indiana Territory; Territory of Michigan …

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Mick Doohan - Career, Notes and references, Racing Record

Motor-cyclist, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. He first raced in 1984, and won his first Grand Prix in 1990, achieving a total of 54 Grand Prix wins. He survived a serious crash in 1992, and retired from riding after another in 1999. He won five successive 500 cc world championships (1994–8), and set a new record for the number of wins in a season (12) in 1997. Michael "Mick" …

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Mick Jagger - Early life, The Rolling Stones, Private life and public image, Filmography

Singer, born in Dartford, Kent, SE England, UK. He attended the London School of Economics, but left to form his own rock group, The Rolling Stones, together with Keith Richard, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, and Brian Jones. Following their debut in London (1962), the group released its first single, ‘Come On’ (1963). Jagger's unconvential behaviour on stage, and the group's uninhibited lifestyles,…

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Mickey (Charles) Mantle - Youth, Playing career, Retirement, Mantle's last days, Honors, Quotes

Baseball player, born in Spavinaw, Oklahoma, USA. During his 18-year career as an outfielder for the New York Yankees (1951–68), the switch-hitting slugger hit 536 home runs and was voted the American League Most Valuable Player three times (1956–7, 1962). In 1956 he won the American League triple crown with 52 home runs, 130 runs batted in, and a ·353 batting average. He became a restaurateur …

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Mickey Cochrane

Baseball player, born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, USA. As a high-spirited catcher for the Philadelphia Athletics (1925–33) he helped them to three pennants and two world championships in 1929–31. With the Detroit Tigers as the manager and catcher (1934–7), ‘Black Mike’ helped them to two pennants and one world championship. Early in the 1937 season, he was injured at the plate; his skull f…

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Mickey Rooney - Biography, Selected filmography, Selected other works, Marriages, Trivia, Other Uses

Film actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. Born into a vaudeville family, he crawled on stage before he was two and made his first film at age six. He changed his name after starring in a series of short subjects based on a character named Mickey McGuire. He gained serious attention for playing Puck in the film of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream (1935). In 1937 he launched a popular…

1 minute read

Mickey Rourke - History, Previous collaborations, Current Activities

Film actor, born in Schenectady, New York, USA. He studied acting in New York City, and became known for his performances in Body Heat (1981), Diner (1982), and The Pope of Greenwich Village (1984). Later films include Bullet (1995), Any Given Sunday (1999), Once Upon a Time in Mexico (2003), Sin City (2005), and Stormbreaker (2006). Mickey Rourke was born Philip Andre Rourke Jr. on Septemb…

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Mickey Spillane - Early life, Career, Death, Criticism of his work, References to Spillane in popular culture

Detective fiction writer, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, under his pseudonym, he wrote a series of successful novels featuring detective Mike Hammer. His work contained elements of violence, sadism, and sexual immorality which some readers found disturbing, but his literary style and forceful main characters gained popular appeal, and the mixture translated…

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Mickey Wright - Major championships, Breast cancer

Golfer, born in San Diego, California, USA. She won the Ladies' Professional Golf Association (LPGA) championship and the US Open four times, twice in the same year (1958, 1961). She had 82 career tournament wins, including a record 13 victories in 1963. Wright won eight-two events on the LPGA Tour, which puts her second on the all time win list behind Kathy Whitworth, who won eight-eight t…

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microchip

A tiny wafer of semiconductor material, such as silicon, processed to form an integrated circuit. With progress in circuit fabrication technology, the integration size of an IC (integrated circuit) chip was improved through large-scale integration (LSI), which made it possible to pack thousands of transistors and related electronic components onto a single chip. Further advances led to the integra…

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microcomputer - Definition, Description, History

A computer based on a single chip microprocessor plus necessary memory and input and output devices. The term (often abbreviated to micro) was first applied to the small desktop computers which first appeared in the 1970s, based originally on 8-bit microprocessors. Since then 16-bit and 32-bit single chip microprocessors have become widely available, and the power and speed of microcomputers based…

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microeconomics - Overview, Assumptions and definitions, Modes of Operation, Market Failure, Opportunity cost, Applied microeconomics, Taxonomy of Microeconomics

The study of decision-making by individuals and firms. This includes personal decisions about training, earning and spending income, and retirement. It includes decisions about setting up or closing down firms, what funds should be lent or borrowed, what investments to make in productive equipment, how many people to employ, what to produce, at what price and by what methods it can be sold, and wh…

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microelectronics

A branch of electronics concerned with producing and using microcircuits - miniaturized electronic circuits consisting of tiny transistors, integrated circuits, and other electronic components often contained in one microchip. Microelectronic circuiting is used in computers, inertial guidance systems, and spacecraft. Digital integrated circuits consist mostly of transistors. Analog circuits…

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microfiche - Advantages, Disadvantages, History

A sheet of film with an array of microfilmed images. The film size is from 76 × 127 mm/3 × 5 in to 152 × 229 mm/6 × 9 in with 30 to 100 images. The original documents are typically copied at 24 times reduction onto unperforated 16 mm film, cut into six strips of 10 images, and loaded into a plastic film jacket of A6 size. This set of negatives is then contact-printed onto diazo-ty…

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microfilm - Definition, Uses, Microforms, Image Creation, Duplication, Format Conversion, Readers and Printers, Uses

Black-and-white photographic material of extremely fine grain and high resolution for document copying on a greatly reduced scale. Microfilms are usually read by enlarged projection. Microfilm is the technology of small images of documents. Microfilm use is in decline. It enables?: This article considers?: Microforms are the processed films that carry ima…

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micrometer

A gauge for making precise measurements of size, consisting of a spindle moved by a finely-threaded screw. An object is held between the screw's spindle and anvil. The leg of the micrometer is calibrated so that the size of the object can be read from the scale on the barrel. Digital readout versions are now available. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit o…

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Micronesia - Geography and history, In Pop Culture

A collection of island groups in the N Pacific. Included are the Marianas, Carolines, Marshalls, Kiribati (Gilbert Is), and Nauru. Most are of atoll formation, and very small. Their small size and limited resources, and the distances between them, ensured that the power of traditional chiefs was both limited and localized. The people are outwardly distinguishable from Melanesians and Polynesians, …

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microphone - Invention, Principle of operation, Microphone varieties, Other microphone types, Connectivity, Microphone Polar Patterns, Measurements and specifications

A device that converts acoustic waves in air to electrical signals for transmission, recording, and reproduction. First developed by Bell and Edison in 1876–7 for telephony, microphones are widely employed in telecommunications, sound recording, and hearing aids. In all types, impinging sound waves cause corresponding oscillations of a diaphragm. These movements in their turn vary a resistance (c…

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micropropagation - Advantages of Micropropagation, Disadvantages of Micropropagation

A method for obtaining large numbers of plant genotype by culturing single cells in the laboratory and regenerating whole organisms from them. The method is sometimes used in plant breeding to obtain identical individuals of a new or especially desirable genotype after doubling the chromosome number of cells in a plant obtained by another culture. Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly…

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microscope - Microscope Types

An optical instrument for producing enlarged images of minute objects. The compound microscope, in which a second lens further magnifies the image produced by a primary lens, was invented in the Netherlands in the late 16th-c; after 1830 it was widely used, following Joseph Lister's refinements which minimized chromatic and spherical distortions. The effectiveness of compound light microscopes is …

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Microscopium

A small, faint S constellation, introduced by Lacaille in the 18th-c. Source: Bayer/Flamsteed, The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 Starry Night Pro 5.8 stellar data …

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Microsoft - History, Product divisions, Business culture, User culture, Criticism

A computer company which came into prominence with the design and supply of the operating system (MS-DOS) for the IBM personal computer. The system is supported by spreadsheet and word-processing packages and more recently by the Windows application software. During the 1990s, Microsoft became the world's leading computer company, and found itself having to defend its practices when the US governm…

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microsurgery - History, Free tissue transfer, Replantation, Transplantation, Techniques, Links

The performance of surgical procedures on very small structures under microscopic control; examples include the joining of tiny blood vessels severed by injury, or operations on the inner ear. Miniaturized precision surgical instruments are employed. Microsurgery is a general term for surgery requiring an operating microscope. The most obvious developments have been procedures developed to …

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microteaching

A technique used in the training of teachers which involves the trainee practising a specific teaching skill (such as questioning or explaining) for a short time with a small group of children, receiving feedback such as a tutor's comments, a written appraisal, or seeing a videotape of the mini-lesson. A second attempt follows with another small class. Microteaching is a teaching method whe…

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microwave oven - History, Description, Efficiency, Safety and controversy, External Links

An oven, first constructed in 1947, which uses microwave radiation (electromagnetic waves) to heat food. The radiation used (wavelength 0·12 m) penetrates inside food, where it is absorbed primarily by water molecules, causing heat to spread through the food. This penetration effect makes heating much faster than in conventional ovens. Microwave ovens are sometimes combined with conventional ove…

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Mid Glamorgan

pop (2000e) 551 500; area 1018 km²/393 sq mi. Former county in S Wales, UK; created in 1974, and replaced in 1996 by Merthyr Tydfil, Caerphilly, Bridgend, and Rhondda Cynon Taff counties. Mid Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales. It consisted of part of the former administrative county of Glamorgan, and the county borough of Merthyr Tydfil, along with the parishes…

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Midas - Historic context, Mida, Myth

A legendary King of Phrygia, of whom many stories are told. In one story, as a reward for helping the satyr, Silenus, Dionysus gave Midas a wish, and he asked that anything he touched should turn to gold. However, this caused so many difficulties (eg in eating and drinking) that he asked to be released; he was told to bathe in the River Pactolus, which thereafter had golden sands. In Greek …

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Middle Ages - Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, Late Middle Ages, Historiography, Religion, Article by regions

The period of European history between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West and the Renaissance (c.500–c.1500); sometimes, however, the term is restricted in its use to the four or five centuries after the year 1000. By the early 16th-c, humanists regarded the civilization that followed the fall of Rome as distinctly different from the classical culture that preceded it and the classical …

1 minute read

Middle America - As a Cultural and Geographical Label, Economy, Politics

A geographical region encompassing Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies; includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Middle America is an American colloquialism used to describe either a cultural mindset or region of the United States that, geographically, comprises the bulk of rural and suburban America. Geographically, the label "Middle America" refers to the …

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Middle East - Characteristics, History, Eurocentrism, Indirect translations, Regions

A loosely defined geographical region encompassing the largely Arab States to the E of the Mediterranean, together with Cyprus, Turkey, and the countries of North Africa. The region conventionally includes the countries of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. T…

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middle school - Asia, Europe, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States and Canada, Professional organizations

A type of school in the UK for children aged 8–12 or 9–13. The former are regarded as primary, the latter as secondary schools. In the Republic of Korea, a middle school is called jung hakgyo (중학교, 中學校) which includes grades 7 through 9. In Japan, junior high schools, which cover years seven through nine, are called chū gakkō (中学校, literally, middle school)…

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Middlesbrough - History, Middlesbrough and The Green Howards, Middlesbrough today, Town Centre, Middlesbrough: the Future, Sport, Education

54°35N 1°14W, pop (2001e) 134 800. Port town and (from 1996) unitary authority, NE England, UK; on the R Tees; rapid expansion as a town around the iron industry in the 19th-c; part of the Teesside conurbation; railway; University of Teesside (1992, formerly Polytechnic); iron and steel, engineering, chemicals, fertilizer; former Town Hall (1846), Town Hall (1889), Custom House (1840), Captain…

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Middlesex

Former county of England, UK, which lost its official identity after local government reorganization in 1965. Most of its area was subsumed under Greater London, with some districts transferred to Surrey and Hertfordshire. The name continues to be used by many local organizations. Edmonton Hundred - Edmonton - Enfield - Monken Hadley - South Mimms - Tottenham Elthorne Hundred - …

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Middletown (Connecticut)

41º34N 72º39W, pop (2000e) 43 200. Town in Middlesex Co, Connecticut, USA; on the R Connecticut, 22 km/14 mi S of Hartford; university (1831); birthplace of Dean Acheson and John H Van Vleck; railway; textiles, footwear. Other countries include: These places are not to be confused with various places names Middleton. For other places with Middle in their name, …

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Middletown (Rhode Island)

41º33N 71º18W, pop (2000e) 17 300. Town in Newport Co, Rhode Island, USA; located in lower Narragansett Bay, 40 km/25 mi SE of Providence; incorporated, 1743; birthplace of Wilder Dwight Bancroft; vineyards and winery; bird sanctuary; Green End Fort (1777); Whitehall Museum House (1729). Other countries include: These places are not to be confused with various places names…

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Midgard - Old Norse, Old and Middle English, Old High German, Popular culture

Middle Earth, the land in which human beings live, according to Norse mythology. Midgard (the common English transliteration of Old Norse Miðgarðr), Midjungards (Gothic), Middangeard (Old English), Midgård (common Danish and Swedish), Midgard or Midgård (Norwegian) and Mittilagart (Old High German), from Proto-Germanic *medja-gardaz (*meddila-, *medjan-, projected PIE *medhy…

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midnight sun - White night, Effect on people, Popular culture

A phenomenon during the summer period within the Arctic and Antarctic circles, when the Sun remains continuously above the horizon. Correspondingly, there is an equal period in winter when the Sun does not rise at all. The midnight sun is a phenomenon occurring in latitudes north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle where the sun is visible at the local midnight. A quarter…

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midrash - Methodology, Forms of Midrashic literature, Halakhic midrashim, Aggadic midrashim, Non-Rabbinic Midrash

In general terms, teaching linked to a running exposition of scriptural texts, especially found in rabbinic literature. The scriptural interpretation is often a relatively free explanation of the text's meaning, based on attaching significance to single words, grammatical forms, or similarities with passages elsewhere so as to make the text relevant to a wide range of questions of rabbinic interes…

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midshipman - Royal Navy, United States Navy

Bottom-dwelling fish found on or in muddy bottoms along Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America; length up to 35 cm/14 in; head rather flattened, body tapering to tiny tail fin; dorsal and anal fins long; underside bearing numerous small light organs; may produce audible grunts or whistles. (Genus: Porichthys. Family: Batrachoididae.) A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alterna…

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midsummer - History, National traditions, Modern celebration

The summer solstice or ‘longest day’, which falls in the northern hemisphere on 21 or 22 June, depending on the locality. Ceremonies in honour of the Sun have been held on this day from the earliest times. Midsummer Day, a quarter-day in England and Wales, is 24 June, the feast day of John the Baptist. It is preceded by Midsummer Night, when supernatural beings are said to roam abroad. Mi…

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midwife toad

A European frog of the family Discoglossidae; lives away from water; may dig burrows; mates on dry land; male wraps eggs around his legs and carries them until they hatch, then puts tadpoles in water; two species: the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) and the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii). Midwife toads (Alytes) is a genus of frogs in the Discoglossidae family, and are f…

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midwifery - Defining midwifery, Historical perspective, Midwifery in the United States, Midwifery in the United Kingdom

The practice of attending women before, during, and after childbirth. The profession is known from the earliest times (eg in the Hebrew Bible), but the formal training of midwives dates only from the late 19th-c. In some places (such as the UK), midwives are licensed, though the status and practice of the profession varies greatly, and in some places (such as a number of US states) they are not fo…

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mignonette

An annual native to N Africa (Reseda odorata;) leaves lance-shaped; spikes of creamy, fragrant flowers; petals 4–7, lobed, those at the back larger with deeper, more numerous lobes. (Family: Resedaceae.) Mignonette (Reseda) is a genus of fragrant herbaceous plants native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia, from the Canary Islands and Iberia east to northwest India. …

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migraine - Signs and symptoms, Pathophysiology, Types, Epidemiology, Triggers, Treatment, History, Economic impact, Migraine and stroke risk

A recurrent, severe, usually one-sided headache, often accompanied by vomiting and visual disturbances which take the form of bright streaks of light. It tends to occur in young people, lasts a few hours, and lessens in severity and frequency with age. In the majority of cases the condition, though troublesome, is benign. It is believed to arise from the constriction of small arteries within the b…

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migration (anthropology)

A movement of population within or between countries. Migration within countries has been preponderantly towards urban centres, seen possibly by migrants as attractive alternatives to rural overpopulation and its associated deprivation. International migration (emigration) may be a response to other factors, such as political threats against minority groups or warfare. Migrants may not always be g…

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migration (biology)

The movement of organisms or their dispersal stages (seeds, spores, or larvae) from one area to another. It includes one-way movement into and out of an area, but is commonly restricted to the periodic two-way movements that take place over relatively long distances and along well-defined routes. Such seasonal migration between summer and winter feeding areas, for example, is usually triggered by …

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Miguel de Cervantes (Saavedra) - Biography, Works, Cervantes' historical importance and influence, Critical Bibliography, Trivia

Writer of Don Quixote, born in Alcalá de Henares, C Spain. He entered the army in Italy, being wounded in the Battle of Lepanto. He was captured by Barbary pirates on his way back to Spain and enslaved in Algiers until ransomed in 1580. His first major work was the Galatea, a pastoral romance (1585), and he wrote many plays, only two of which have survived. He became a tax collector in Granada (1…

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Miguel de Unamuno (y Jugo) - Introduction, Fiction, Philosophy, Poetry, Drama

Philosopher and writer, born in Bilbao, N Spain. He studied at Bilbao and Madrid, became professor of Greek at Salamanca University (1892), and a writer of mystical philosophy, historical studies, essays, travel books, and austere poetry. His main philosophical work is Del sentimiento trágico de la vida en los hombres y en los pueblos (1913, The Tragic Sense of Life in Men and Peoples). He was ex…

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Miguel Indurain - Career highlights, Quotes

Racing cyclist, born in Villava, N Spain. A talented basketball player, he chose cycling as his career and turned professional in 1982. In 1991 he won the first of five successive Tours de France races (1991–5) becoming the first to achieve this distinction, and in 1996 won an Olympic Gold in the time trial. He retired in 1997. Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, N…

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Miguel Primo de Rivera (y Orbaneja)

Spanish general, born in Jerez de la Frontera, SW Spain. He served in Cuba, the Philippines, and Morocco, and in 1923 led a military coup, inaugurating a dictatorship which lasted until 1930. During 1928–9 he lost the support of the army, the ruling class, and King Alfonso XIII, and in 1930 gave up power. His son, José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903–36), founded the Spanish Fascist Party (Falang…

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Mike Atherton

Cricketer, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and made his first-class debut for the University v. Essex in 1987, his debut for Lancashire the same year, and his debut for England in 1989 against Australia. He captained England in a record 51 Tests (1993–8), leading tours to the West Indies (1994–8), Australia (1994–5), South Africa (1995–6), and Zi…

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Mike Denness - External reference

Cricketer, born in Bellshill, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. He captained Kent and England, and in his first-class career made over 25 000 runs and hit four Test centuries. Denness captained England on 19 occasions, winning 6, losing 5 and drawing 8. In his capacity as an ICC match referee, Denness caused controversy after the Port Elizabeth Test between South Africa and th…

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Mike Fink

Frontier figure, born at Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, USA. A masterful scout, marksman, and wrestler, he became the ‘king of the keelboatmen’. He died on a trapping expedition to the Rocky Mountains. His popularity as a folk hero endured until the Civil War period. Mike Fink, {b.?-ca.1823} called "king of the keelboaters", was a semi-legendary brawler and river-boatman who ex…

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Mike Gibson

Rugby union player, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He played as centre and outside half with the North of Ireland, Cambridge University, Ireland, and the British Lions. When he retired in 1979, his 69 appearances for Ireland were a record for an International Board nation. He toured with the British Lions in 1966, 1968, and 1971, and made 12 international appearances. He was elected to …

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Mike Hailwood - Motorcycle Grand Prix results, Complete Formula One results, Sources

Motor-cyclist, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He took nine world titles: the 250 cc in 1961 and 1966–7, the 350 cc in 1966–7, and the 500 cc in 1962–5, all using Honda or MV Agusta machines. In addition, he won a 14 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy races between 1961 and 1979 (a record that stood until 1995). During the 1960s he also had a career in motor racing, but was unable to ma…

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Mike Leigh - Overview, His film and stage work, Unusual method of developing material, Filmography, List of plays

Playwright and film director, born in Salford, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He has scripted a distinctive genre based on actors' improvizations around given themes. His most successful work for the theatre has had a second life on film, as in Bleak Moments (1970), and on television, as in Abigail's Party (1977). Later films include Life is Sweet (1990), Naked (1993), Topsy Turvy (1999), and…

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Mike Mansfield - Early childhood, Military service, Education, Congressional service, U.S. Ambassador to Japan, Honors

Educator, US representative, senator, and diplomat, born in New York City, New York, USA. Raised in Montana, he dropped out of school at age 14 and served with the US military (1917–22), and later earned a BA and an MA from Montana State University, where he taught history and political science (1934–43). He served in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Montana, 1943–53) and then in the …

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Mike Nichols - Private Life, Filmography, Awards

Film and theatre director, born in Berlin, Germany. A US citizen from 1944, he studied at the University of Chicago, and took up acting with Lee Strasberg. After making a name for himself as one half of a satirical duo with Elaine May, he made a highly successful directing debut on Broadway with Barefoot in the Park (1963). He received seven Tony Awards for his theatre work, which included The Odd…

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Mike O'Callaghan

US governor, born in La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA. A Korean War army hero (he lost one leg), he became Southern Nevada Amateur Athletic Union president in 1959. After directing state and federal agencies, he opened a consulting firm in 1969. As governor of Nevada (Democrat, 1971–9), he passed a fair housing law and strong anti-pollution measures. He joined the Las Vegas Sun afterwards. Donal …

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Mike Procter

Cricketer, born in Durban, E South Africa. His Test career was restricted by the sporting ban imposed on South Africa, and he had to be content with a place in English county cricket as the only all-rounder ever to rival Gary Sobers. In first-class cricket he scored 48 centuries, a record six of them in succession, and took a hat-trick with his unorthodox fast bowler's action on four occasions. Hi…

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Mike Royko - Books by Mike Royko

Journalist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A hard-hitting reporter and columnist associated with various Chicago papers from 1956, he won many awards for coverage of his Chicago beat, including a 1972 Pulitzer Prize for commentary. His books include Boss: Richard J Daley of Chicago (1971). Mike Royko (September 19, 1932 – April 29, 1997) was a long-running newspaper columnist in Chicago,…

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Mike Schmidt - Career, Awards, Miscellaneous

Baseball player, born in Dayton, Ohio, USA. During his 18-year career as a third baseman for the Philadelphia Phillies (1972–89), he hit 548 home runs and won the league Most Valuable Player Award three times (1980–1, 1986). Michael Jack Schmidt (born September 27, 1949 in Dayton, Ohio) is a former professional baseball player, playing his entire career for the Philadelphia Phillies, and …

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Mike Todd - Life, Work

Showman, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. The son of a poor rabbi, he made his first fortune at 14 in sales promotion. In 1927 he went to Hollywood, staged a real ‘Flame Dance’ spectacle at the Chicago World Fair in 1933, and produced plays, musical comedies, and films, including a jazz version of Gilbert and Sullivan, called The Hot Mikado (1939), and an up-dated Hamlet (1945). He sponsored…

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Mike Tyson - Early years, Rape conviction, prison, and aftermath, The Holyfield Fight, Decline, After professional boxing

Boxer, born in New York City, USA. The National Golden Gloves heavyweight champion in 1984, he turned professional the following year. A lethal puncher, he beat 15 of his first 25 opponents by knockouts in the first round. He beat Trevor Berbick (1952–2006) for the World Boxing Council version of the world heavyweight title in 1986 to become the youngest heavyweight champion (20 years 145 days), …

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Mike Westbrook - Life

Jazz composer, bandleader, and pianist, born in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He turned to music after studying painting. He concentrated on writing extended pieces specifically for his own ensembles, ranging from trios to big bands, often in partnership with his wife Kate (tenor horn, piccolo, voice). His major suites include The Cortege (1982) and On Duke's Birthday (1984). Late…

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Mikhail (Ivanovich) Glinka - Early life, Middle Years, Later years

Composer, born in Novospasskoye, W Russia. He was a civil servant, but after a visit to Italy began to study music in Berlin. His opera A Life for the Tsar (1836, known earlier as Ivan Susanin) was followed by Russlan and Ludmilla (1842), which pioneered the style of the Russian national school of composers. He left Russia in 1844, and lived in Spain and France, returning home in 1854. Mikh…

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Mikhail Kalashnikov

Russian gun designer. Drafted into the Russian army in 1938, he was seriously wounded in 1941, and while recovering in hospital listened to the complaints of his many fellow patients of the inferiority of the Russian rifle. In response he designed the Avtomat Kalishnikova, the AK-47 machine gun, of which over 50 million have been produced. Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov (Russian: Миха

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Mikis Theodorakis - Biography, A lifetime's work: synopsis, Political views, Political quotations, Bibliography

Composer, born in Khios, Greece. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, and in 1959 his ballet Antigone was produced at Covent Garden. On his return to Greece he became intensely critical of the musical and artistic establishment. When the right-wing government took power in 1967, he was imprisoned and his music banned, but he was released in 1970, after worldwide appeals. His prolific musical out…

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Milan - History, Climate, Economy, Culture and art, Transportation, Sports

45°28N 9°12E, pop (2000e) 1 431 000. Commercial city and capital of Milan province, Lombardy, N Italy, on R Olna; second largest city in Italy; Gallic town, taken by the Romans in 222 BC; chief city of the Western Roman Empire (AD 292); from 12th-c, ruled by the dukes of Milan; Duchy of Milan held by Spain, 16th-c; ceded to Austria, 1714; capital of Napoleon's puppet kingdom of Italy, 1797–1…

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Milan Kundera - Life, Work, Writing style and philosophy, Awards

Novelist, born in Brno, S Czech Republic. He studied in Prague, and lectured in cinematographic studies there until he lost his post after the Russian invasion of 1968. His first novel, Zert (1967, The Joke), was a satire on Czechoslovakian-style Stalinism. In 1975 he fled to Paris, where he has lived ever since, taking French nationality in 1981. He came to prominence in the West with Kniha smich…

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Mildred Gillars

Axis propagandist, born in Portland, Maine, USA. She went to Europe in the 1920s, changed her name, and by 1934 was an English-language radio broadcaster in Berlin. During World War 2 she broadcast Nazi propaganda aimed at demoralizing US troops, who nicknamed her ‘Axis Sally’. Convicted of treason, she spent 12 years in jail. She was a teacher in later years. "Axis Sally" (November 29, 1…

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Miles (Dewey) Davis - Life, Discography

Jazz trumpeter, born in Alton, Illinois, USA. He was raised near St Louis, MO on a prosperous African-American family and played with local bands. After brief classical studies at the Juilliard School (1944), he played in Charlie Parker's trailblazing bebop quintet until 1948. During 1949–69, he was at the forefront of jazz, developing or advancing several significant and contrasting styles and t…

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Miles Poindexter - Political Life, Positons on Committees, Later life, Sources

US representative and senator, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Settling in the state of Washington in 1891, he practised law and became active as a Democrat, then shifted to the Republican Party and served as a state judge (1904–8). He was elected to the US House of Representatives (Republican, Washington, 1909–11) and to the US Senate (1911–23). Although he began as a Progressive, he opposed …

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Miletus - Legend, History, Inhabitants, Colonies of Miletus, Archaeological excavations

A prosperous, commercially-oriented, Greek city-state in Ionia on the W coast of Asia Minor. It was the birthplace of the early Greek philosophers called the Milesians. Miletus (Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now the Aydin Province of Turkey), near the mouth of the Maeander River. …

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Milford (Massachusetts) - Place names, People

42º08N 71º31W, pop (2000e) 26 800. Town in Worcester Co, Massachusetts, USA; incorporated, 1870; noted for its pink granite, discovered in the 1870s and quarried for many years; birthplace of Mabel Caroline Bragg and Joseph E Murray; railway; summer band concerts and annual Portuguese Picnic. …

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Milford (New Jersey) - Place names, People

40º34N 75º05W, pop (2001e) 1200. Borough in Hunterdon Co, New Jersey, USA; located on the Delaware R; founded, mid-18th-c; officially incorporated, 1911; Louis Adamic settled here. …

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Militant Tendency - Within the Labour Party, Liverpool Council and Neil Kinnock, Expulsion from the Labour Party

A British political group which came to prominence in the 1980s. (Militant is a newspaper published originally by Labour Party members espousing Marxist positions.) Its supporters infiltrated a number of local Labour Parties and the Young Socialists (its youth wing), and a number were elected as Labour MPs. Fearing the adverse electoral publicity resulting from Militant activities, the Labour Part…

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Military Cross (MC)

A military award in the UK, instituted in 1914, awarded to captains, lieutenants, and warrant officers in the Army for acts of gallantry or devotion to duty, these ranks not being eligible for the DSO. The ribbon has equal stripes: white, purple, white. The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army…

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military intelligence - The intelligence process, Strategic intelligence, United States, United Kingdom

The collection and evaluation of information relevant to military decision making. Intelligence can be gathered by many means, such as listening to enemy electronic emissions (electronic intelligence, or elint), monitoring signals traffic (Sigint), the use of surveillance satellites, and traditional espionage techniques. Most armed forces have specifically trained intelligence units attached to th…

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military science - Military organization, Military education and training, Military history, Military geography, Military technology and equipment

The theoretical study of warfare and of the strategic, tactical, and logistic principles behind it. Studied from ancient times to the computerized war-game ‘scenarios’ of today, military science concerns itself with such unchanging principles as the primacy of the objective, concentration of force, economy of force, surprise, and manoeuvre. Notable theoreticians and writers on military science i…

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militia - Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Private militia organizations, Left wing militia

A military force raised (usually in times of emergency) for national defence, separate from the regular army. These national forces are raised by government decree, and can thus be distinguished from guerrilla forces. In any of these cases, a militia is distinct from a national regular army. In some circumstances, the "enemies" against which a militia is mobilized are domestic political opp…

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milk - History, Other milk animals, Physical and chemical structure, Processing, Nutrition and health, Distribution, Varieties and brands

A white or whitish liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals to nourish their young. The milk of many species has been consumed by humans from earliest times, especially cow's milk, with goat's, ewe's, and buffalo milk also making a significant contribution in various parts of the world. Milk is about 88% water, 4·8% lactose, 3·2% protein, and 3·9% fat. Cream, an oil-in-water emul…

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milk of magnesia - History, Pharmaceutical uses, Biological metabolism

A suspension of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) used as an antacid to sooth an acid stomach. It can also be used as a mild laxative. The term "Milk of Magnesia" was first used to describe a white aqueous, mildly alkaline suspension of magnesium hydroxide formulated at about 8%w/v by Charles Henry Phillips in 1880 and sold under the brand name Phillips' Milk of Magnesia for medicinal usa…

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milkweed butterfly

A large, colourful butterfly; wings brownish, bearing black and white markings; caterpillars brightly banded or striped as warning coloration; feed on milkweed plants containing chemicals that make them distasteful to predators. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Nymphalidae.) Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae of brush-footed butterflies. …

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Milky Way - Age, Structure, The Sun's place in the Milky Way, The Milky Way environment

A diffuse band of light across the sky, first resolved by Galileo into a ‘congeries of stars’ resulting from the combined light of thousands of millions of faint stars in our Galaxy. Strictly it means the belt of light seen in the night sky, but the term is used freely, even by professional astronomers, as the name of the Galaxy to which our Sun belongs. The name, from ancient Greek, was adopted…

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Millard Fillmore - Early life, Vice-Presidency, Presidency 1850–1853, Legacy

US statesman and 13th president (1850–3), born in Summerhill, Cayuga Co, New York, USA. Largely self-educated, he studied law and was admitted to the bar (1832). He became comptroller of New York State (1847) and served in the US House of Representatives (1833–5, 1837–43) as a Whig. Elected vice-president in 1848, he ascended to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1850. As presiden…

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millenarianism

The belief held by some Christians that there will be a thousand-year (millennium) reign of the saints, either before or immediately after the return of Christ. The belief is usually based on an interpretation of Rev 20. 1–7. The main body of Christians has not endorsed millenarianism, but it had its advocates from the earliest years of Christianity, and in the 19th-c there was a renewal of apoca…

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Millennium Dome - Construction, Background to the Dome Project, Millennium celebrations, The aftermath, Reopening, Effects on political careers

The centrepiece of the UK's millennial celebrations, opened on 31 December 1999, designed by the Richard Rogers Partnership, and built in Greenwich, at a cost of £758 million: diameter 320 m/1050 ft, height 50 m/164 ft, circumference 1 km/0·62 mi, floor space 8 hectares/20 acres. Its contents included 14 thematic areas: Home Planet (space travel), Living Island (seaside environment), Share…

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Miller (James) Huggins

Baseball player and manager, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. As a second baseman, he played with the Cincinnati Reds and St Louis Cardinals (1904–16). He was manager of the New York Yankees (1918–29) and led Babe Ruth and the famous ‘murderer's row’ clubs to six league pennants and three world championships in 12 years. He was elected to the Hall of Fame in 1964. Miller James Huggins (Ma…

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millet - Millet Varieties, Crop history, Current uses of millet, Nutrition

A small-grained, rather inferior cereal from the tropics and warm temperate regions, grown in poor areas or as emergency crops mainly for animal feed and bird seed. It was cultivated in China from 5000 BC (the Sanskrit word for millet means ‘Chinese’), and later in India and Egypt. Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) has branching heads; foxtail or Italian millet (Setaria italica) and bulrush mill…

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Millicent Bingham - Places, People, Other

Geographer and litterateur, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. She studied at Harvard, and travelled widely, publishing Peru, Land of Contrasts in 1914. Her interest in urban geography later led to her translation of Vidal de la Blanche's Principles of Human Geography (1926). After her marriage in 1920 to the psychologist Walter Van Dyke Bingham, she spent summers on a family-owned isl…

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millipede - Characteristics, Order Spirobolida, Literature, Gallery

A long-bodied, terrestrial arthropod; typically with double body segments, each bearing two pairs of walking legs; mostly small, found in soil or litter; many are able to roll into a ball or coil for protection. (Class: Diplopoda, c.10 000 species.) Millipedes (Class Diplopoda, previously also known as Chilognatha) are very elongated arthropods with cylindrical bodies that have two pairs o…

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Milman Parry

Philologist, born in Oakland, California, USA. Educated in the USA and France, he pioneered in establishing that the Iliad and Odyssey were the works of a pre-literate oral poetic tradition involving the use of repeated epithets. With Albert Bates Lord (Singer of Tales, 1960) he worked on the living oral tradition in Yugoslavia (1933–5), collecting more than 12 000 texts. He taught at Harvard fr…

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Milo of Croton

Legendary Greek wrestler from the Greek colony of Croton in S Italy. He won the wrestling contest at five successive Olympic Games, and swept the board at all other festivals. A man of huge stature, he boasted that no one had ever brought him to his knees. It is said that he carried a live ox upon his shoulders through the stadium at Olympia, then ate it all in a single day. He played a leading pa…

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Milton (Clark) Avery

Painter, born in Altmar, New York, USA. Largely self-taught, he was a figurative rather than an abstract artist, exploring simplified areas of flat colour, applied thinly. He also painted seascapes in a rather more Expressionist style, in 1933 began to make drypoints, and in 1950 launched a series of monotypes. Milton Avery (March 7, 1885 – January 3, 1965) was an American modern painter.…

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Milton Babbitt - List of Compositions

Composer and theorist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at New York University and then Princeton, where he later taught (1938). He was a leading proponent of total serialism, and composed many works for the electronic synthesizer. In recognition, The Columbia-Princeton Music Center made him a director. In 1947, Babbitt wrote his Three Compositions for Piano, which are th…

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Milton Berle - Early life, Radio, Mr. Television, Berle's TV decline

Actor and entertainer, born in New York City, New York, USA. A child actor in silent films, he appeared in vaudeville and New York musicals including the Ziegfield Follies, returning to films in the 1940s. ‘Uncle Miltie’ hosted the television variety show, Texaco Star Theatre (1948–56), and the series' popularity earned him the title ‘Mr Television’ and helped change the television set from a…

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Milton Bradley

Manufacturer, born in Vienna, Maine, USA. After various positions as a draughtsman, he became interested in lithography and introduced the first lithograph press to Springfield, MA (1860). He printed and personally sold a new parlour game, ‘The Checkered Game of Life’, which became so profitable that he formed Milton Bradley and Company (1864) to print games and game manuals. In 1869 he publishe…

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Milton Friedman - Scholarly contributions, Political views

Economist, born in Brooklyn, New York City, USA. He studied at Rutgers University, NJ (1932), Chicago University (1933), and gained his doctorate from Columbia (1946). While at Chicago he met fellow student and future wife, Rose Director, with whom he worked closely throughout his academic career. After eight years at the National Bureau of Economic Research (1937–45), he was appointed professor …

1 minute read

Milton Glaser

Graphic designer and illustrator, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Cooper Union, New York City, and also in Italy. Based in New York, he was one of the founders and president of Push Pin Studios (1954–74). He was also a founder of Push Pin Graphic magazine (1955–74), and vice-president and design director of the Village Voice (1975–7). In 1974 he became president of his own graphics/de…

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Milton Keynes - History, Urban design, Culture, Education, Communications and media, Sport, Other amenities, Original towns and villages

52°03N 0°42W, pop (2001e) 207 100. Industrial new town (since 1967) and unitary authority (from 1997) in Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK; 80 km/50 mi NW of London; designed on a grid pattern; Open University (1969); railway; wide range of light industries; real-snow slopes recreational centre; festival (Feb). Milton Keynes [ˌmɪltənˈkiːnz] is a large town in northern Buckinghamshi…

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Milwaukee Brewers - Franchise history, Logos and uniforms, Season-by-Season Records, Television and Radio

Major League baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. After the Milwaukee Braves team disbanded, the 'Seattle Pilots' franchise was acquired in 1970 and the new team was renamed the Brewers. Former players include Hank Aaron. The Milwaukee Brewers are a Major League Baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Brewers were part of the American League from their creation as an e…

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mime - Introduction, MIME headers, Encoded-Word, Multipart Messages

In terms of ancient theatre, both a short dramatic sketch and a professional entertainer. In ancient Rome it became a spoken form of popular, farcical drama with music which was played without masks. In the 5th-c the Church excommunicated all performers of mime for burlesquing the sacraments and for indecency. The Middle Ages had mime players, while the actors of the commedia dell'arte relied heav…

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mimulus

An annual or perennial, found almost everywhere, many from North America; leaves oval, in opposite pairs; flowers usually yellow with red blotches, 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed with two projecting flaps in the throat. (Genus: Mimulus, 100 species. Family: Scrophulariaceae.) …

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Minas Gerais - Location, History, Culture, Demographics, Geography, Economy, Flag, Cities

pop (2000e) 18 159 000; area 587 172 km²/226 648 sq mi. State in Sudeste region, SE Brazil; a wedge of land between Goiás (N) and São Paulo (S), known as the Triângulo Mineiro (Mineral Triangle) because it accounts for half of Brazil's mineral production; capital Belo Horizonte; coffee, iron ore, gold, diamonds, metal-working, timber, textiles, food processing, cattle, mineral waters; …

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mind - Nature of the mind, History of the philosophy of the mind, Current research

An entity usually contrasted with the body or matter, as the mental is with the physical, but variously understood in the history of thought. In its broadest sense (included in or conflated with the meaning of soul) it is taken to be the distinction between the animate and the inanimate; in a narrower sense it is taken to be the distinguishing feature of persons, and related to self-consciousness …

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Mindanao - History, Mindanao Island, Island Group of Mindanao, Musical Heritage

pop (2000e) 16 321 000; area 99 040 km²/38 229 sq mi. Island in the S Philippines; bounded by the Celebes Sea (SW), Sulu Sea (W), and Bohol Sea (N); many bays and offshore islets; mountainous, rising to 2954 m/9691 ft at Mt Apo; major rivers include the Agusan and Mindanao; largest lake, Laguna Lanao; chief towns, Davao, Zamboanga; hemp, pineapples, maize, timber, gold; Islamic secessio…

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Mindelo - Nearest communities, Historical population, Geography, Communications, Sporting teams, Persons

16°54N 25°00W, pop (2000e) 41 900. City and chief port (Porto Grande) of Cape Verde; on NW shore of São Vicente I; important refuelling point for transatlantic ships; submarine cable station. Mindelo (Mindelu in Santiago Crioulo, and Mindel' in São Vicente Crioulo), is a port town on the Cape Verde in the northern part of the island of São Vicente. The town is surrounded …

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Minden

52º18N 8º54E, pop (2002e) 84 200. Manufacturing city in Nordrhein-Westfalen province, NW Germany; a port on the intersection of the R Weser and Mittelland Canal; bishopric founded c.800 by Charlemagne; passed to Brandenburg in the Peace of Westphalia (1648); in the Seven Years' War, the English and the Hanoverians defeated the French here (1759); city passed to Prussia, 1814; birthplace of Fri…

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Mindoro - Economy, Culture, Other information

pop (2000e) 1 003 000; area 9732 km²/3756 sq mi. Island of the Philippines, SW of Luzon I; bounded by the Sulu Sea (S) and South China Sea (W); rises to 2585 m/8481 ft at Mt Halcon; wide coastal plains to the E; chief town, Calapan; timber, coal. Mindoro is the seventh-largest island in the Philippines. The island was divided into its two present-day provinces, Occidental Mindoro a…

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mine

An explosive device hidden underground or in water in order to destroy vehicles, ships, or people as they pass over or near it. Mines are particularly effective in creating barriers against hostile naval or land forces. Land and underwater mines were deployed in Ming China (1569) and were used extensively in 20th-c conflicts on land and at sea. Over 500 types of mines have been developed, encased …

1 minute read

mineral oil - Applications, Measurement, Other names, Sources

A term used to distinguish lubricating oils of mineral origin. Early lubrication used oils of vegetable or animal origin, but the extensive development of machinery in the mid-19th-c demanded other supplies, which were found in the newly exploited subterranean sources of oil. Mineral oil can be measured by SAE standard kinematic oil viscosity, said to be the oil's "weight." …

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mineralogy

The study of the chemical composition, physical properties, and occurrence of minerals. Major aspects of the subject include identification, classification and systematics, crystallography, and mineral associations in rocks and ore deposits. Mineralogy is an earth science focused around the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Hi…

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Minerva - Titles and roles, Minerva in the modern world

The Roman goddess of handicrafts and intellectual activity, later identified with Athena as the goddess of wisdom. The name "Minerva" is likely imported from the Etruscans who called her Menrva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter and Metis. Adapting Greek myths about Athena, Romans said that Minerva was not born in the usual way, but rather Jupiter had a horrible he…

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Ming Cho Lee - External links/sources

Set designer and water colourist, born in Shanghai, E China. After early education in Shanghai and Hong Kong, he attended Occidental College in Los Angeles, CA. He served a five-year apprenticeship with Jo Mielziner, and beginning in 1958 went on to make a name for himself with his imaginative sets for scores of productions on and off Broadway, as well as in opera and dance. For many years he was …

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Ming dynasty - Origins of the Míng Dynasty, Exploration to Isolation, Míng Military Conquests, Agricultural Revolution, Commerce Revolution

(1368–1644) Major Chinese dynasty, established by Hongwu (r.1368–98) and consolidated by Yongle (r.1403–24). Its orderly government, social stability, cultural homogeneity, and grandeur surpassed even the Tang and Song periods. In 1421, its capital was shifted from Nanjing to Beijing, which was rebuilt, as was the Grand Canal, and a 600-mi extension was made to the Great Wall. The army increase…

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minilab

Automated machinery for the rapid production of colour prints. Exposed colour film is usually sent to a laboratory for processing and printing, but a minilab may be set up almost anywhere there is a power supply. No drain is needed, as waste is collected for disposal. Miniaturized equipment is used. Colour-print film is developed in an automated machine and the negatives placed in an automatic pri…

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minimalism - Musical minimalism, Minimalist design, Minimalism in visual art, Literary minimalism, Minimalism in Film

In music, a style of composition, increasingly prominent since the 1960s, which abjures the complexities of many earlier 20th-c techniques in favour of simple harmonic and melodic units repeated many times, usually with phased modifications and superimpositions, in an unchanging, ‘mechanical’ metre. Among those who have espoused the style have been Cornelius Cardew, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, an…

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minimum wage - Legislation in the Western Industrialized World, Debate over consequences of minimum wage laws

A minimum rate of pay imposed by a government in certain sectors of the economy, or in general, with the aim of raising standards of living among the poorer sections of the community. Economists argue that the interference with free market forces may lead to higher unemployment among the less skilled and to wage inflation, as workers with wages little above the minimum rate demand pay increases to…

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mining - History, Steps in the mining process, Mining techniques, Environmental effects and mitigation, Mining industry

The extraction of useful mineral substances from the Earth, either near the surface or at some depth. It was practised in prehistoric times, widely used in classical times, and became highly developed after the introduction of mechanical power. In surface, strip, and open-cast mining, the soil is stripped away, and the ore, coal, clay, or mineral is dug directly. At greater depths the deposits are…

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Minitab

A computer package designed to enable users of personal computers to carry out statistical analyses of data. Minitab is a computer program designed to perform basic and advanced statistical functions. In August 2006, the company introduced Quality Companion 2 by Minitab, process improvement software designed to help professionals plan, organize, execute, and report on Six Sigma …

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Minitel - Business model, Technical, Minitel and the Internet, Minitel in other countries

A videotex service provided in France and similar to the Prestel service in the United Kingdom. It has achieved greater penetration because the service was introduced as a substitute for the printed telephone directory. Hence the Minitel terminal was available to every telephone subscriber. The Minitel is a Videotex online service accessible through the telephone lines, and is considered on…

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mink

A mammal of genus Mustela; weasel-like, with a thick dark brown coat important to the fur trade (other colours produced by captive breeding); inhabits woods near water; swims well; two living species: most important commercially is the American mink from North America (introduced elsewhere); also, the European mink. The extinct sea mink lived along the E shore of the USA until the 1880s. (Family: …

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Minkowski space - Structure, Alternative definition, Lorentz transformations, Causal structure, Locally flat spacetime, History

The space–time of special relativity, comprising one time and three space dimensions; formulated by Russo–German mathematician Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909). His notion of flat space (ie no gravity, so zero curvature), with a geometry expressed in a special metric, is consistent with the requirements of special relativity. It is distinct from the flat space of Newtonian mechanics. In phy…

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Minna

9º39N 6º32E, pop (2001e) 262 000. Town in WC Nigeria, W Africa; 322 km/200 mi SSW of Kano; birthplace of Ibrahim Babangida, Cyprian Ekwensi, and Ben Okri; railway; cattle trade, brewing, gold mining, oil. Minna is a city (population 150,000 in 2000) in west central Nigeria It's the capital of Niger State, one of Nigeria's 36 federal states. Cotton, guinea corn, and ginger …

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Minna Canth - Further reading

Playwright and feminist, born in Tampere, SW Finland. A powerful exponent of the Realist school, her best-known plays are Työmiehen Vaimo (1885, A Working-class Wife) and Kovan Onnen Lapsia (1888, Children of Misfortune). Later she turned to Tolstoyan psychological dramas about women, as in Anna Liisa (1895). Ulrika Wilhelmina Johnsson (1844 Tampere - 1897 Kuopio), also known as Minna Cant…

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Minnesota - Origin of the name, Geography, History, Cities and towns, Demographics, Economy, Socio-economic, Transportation

pop (2000e) 4 919 500; area 218 593 km²/84 402 sq mi. State in N USA, divided into 87 counties; bounded N by Canada; the ‘North Star State’ or the ‘Gopher State’; 32nd state admitted to the Union, 1858; the land E of the Mississippi R included in the North-west Territory, 1787; the land to the W became part of the USA with the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; permanently settled after the es…

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Minnie Earl Sears

Cataloguer and bibliographer, born in Lafayette, Indiana, USA. She had a long career as a cataloguer at Bryn Mawr College (1903–7), the University of Minnesota (1909–14), and the New York Public Library (1914–20), and then joined the H W Wilson Co (1923) and published her List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries. In recognition of her contribution, the sixth edition was retitled the Sears L…

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Minnie Maddern Fiske - Fiction, Literature, Television and film, Boating, Royalty, Other

Stage actress, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The daughter of a theatrical family, she made her stage debut in her mother's arms at age three. In her many child roles, including Little Eva in Uncle Tom's Cabin, she was praised as mature beyond her years. She graduated to ingenue parts, then eventually reached stardom as Stella in an 1885 adaptation of Sardou's In Spite of All. She was descri…

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minnow

Small, freshwater fish (Phoxinus phoxinus) widely distributed and locally abundant in lakes and streams of N Europe and Asia; length up to 13 cm/5 in; body slender, cylindrical, mouth small; variable greenish-brown above, underside yellowish; breeding males have bright orange underside. (Family: Cyprinidae.) …

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Minoan civilization - Chronology and history, Geography, Society and culture, Architecture, Agriculture, Theories of Minoan demise

The brilliant Bronze Age culture which flourished in the Aegean area in the third and second millennia BC, reaching its zenith around the middle of the second millennium (1700–1450 BC). Its most impressive remains come from Crete: the large palace-like structures at Knossos, Phaestus, Mallia, and Zakron reveal a sophisticated society, a complex centrally-controlled economy, a highly developed bur…

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minor

In the UK, a person who has not yet reached the age of 18, often referred to technically as an infant (in England and Wales); in Scots law, a distinction is drawn between pupils (up to age 12 for girls, 14 for boys) and minors (from those ages to age 18); in the USA, the age of majority varies across jurisdictions and for different purposes. Minors cannot validly enter certain contracts, such as a…

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Minor White - Quotes, Further reading

Photographer, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. He studied botany and poetry, and worked as a photographer for the US government Works Progress Administration (from 1937), becoming greatly influenced by Edward Weston and Alfred Stieglitz in developing photographic sequences. In 1946 he moved to San Francisco, where he worked with Ansel Adams, following him as director of the photographic depart…

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Minorca - Language, Food and drink, Popular references

pop (2000e) 63 000; area 700 km²/270 sq mi. Second largest island in the Balearics, W Mediterranean, NE of Majorca; length, 47 km/29 mi; breadth, 10–19 km/6–12 mi; low-lying, rising to 357 m/1171 ft at Monte Toro; occupied by the British, 18th-c; airport at Mahón, the island capital; tourism, lead, iron, copper. Minorca (Menorca both in Catalan and Spanish and increasingly in…

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Minos - The historical and scholarly Minos, The mythological Minos

A legendary King of Crete (or several kings), preserving the memory in the Greek mind of what we now call Minoan civilization. In Greek mythology, he was the son of Zeus and Europa, and expected a tribute from Athens of fourteen youths and maidens every year. In the Underworld he became a judge of the dead. Minos, along with his brothers, Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon, was raised by King Asteri…

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Minotaur - The Greek story, Interpretations

The son of Pasiphae and a bull from the sea, half bull and half human; the name means Minos's bull. It was kept in a labyrinth made by Daedalus, and killed by Theseus with the help of Ariadne. In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was part man and part bull. It dwelt in the Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze constructed for…

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Minsk - History, Demographics, Government and administrative divisions, Economy, Transport and infrastructure, Education, Culture and religion, Sport, Religion

53°51N 27°30E, pop (2000e) 1 653 000. Capital city of Belarus, on the R Svisloch; one of the oldest towns in the state, c.11th-c; under Lithuanian and Polish rule; part of Russia, 1793; badly damaged in World War 2; large Jewish population killed during German occupation; airport; railway junction; university (1921); machine tools, vehicles, instruments, electronics, electrical engineering; B…

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mint

A perennial native to temperate regions, especially in the N hemisphere; creeping rhizomes; square stems; oval leaves in opposite pairs; whorls of small pale pink to purplish flowers, sometimes forming heads; sometimes called balm. Its characteristic pungent scent is due to the presence of essential oils containing menthol. Mints hybridize easily, both in cultivation and in the wild, and are grown…

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minuet

A French dance in triple metre and moderate tempo, popular among the European aristocracy in the 17th–18th-c. It became a standard movement in the symphony and related genres of the classical period, in the form minuet–trio–minuet. A minuet, sometimes spelled menuet, is a social dance of French origin for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. Stylistically refined minuets, outside of the soc…

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Minutemen - History, Motivation, Equipment, training, and tactics, Legacy

Militiamen, particularly in New England, who were prepared to take up arms at very short notice. They were important in the first months of the US War of Independence, before the creation of a regular Continental Army under Washington. Minutemen is a name given to members of the militia of the American Colonies, who vowed to be ready for battle in a minute's notice. The term min…

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Mira - Discovery

A star (omicron Ceti) in the constellation Cetus, first recorded in 1596 and recognized as a variable in 1638. It is a red giant, varying on a cycle of 331 days from 10th magnitude (minimum) to 2nd magnitude (maximum). It reached 1·2 magnitude, among the top 20 brightest stars in the sky, in 1779. It is the prototype for Mira variables - variable stars with long periods of months or more. …

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mirage - Cause, Inferior mirage, Superior mirage

An optical illusion caused by the refraction of light through thin surface layers of air with different temperature and hence density, causing objects near the horizon to become distorted. It appears as a floating and shimmering image on the horizon, particularly in deserts, on very hot days. This article is about mirage, an optical phenomenon. For other meanings, see Mirage (disambiguation…

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Miranda Richardson - Projects in production, Filmography, Theatre, Awards and nominations

Actress, born in Southport, Lancashire, NW England, UK. She made her West End debut in Moving (1980–1), and her film debut in Dance With a Stranger (1985). Later films include Empire of The Sun (1987), Damage (1992, BAFTA for Best Supporting Actress), Tom and Viv (1994), Sleepy Hollow (1999), Get Carter (2000), The Prince and Me (2004), and Wah-Wah (2005). Television roles include Queen Elizabeth…

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Mircea Eliade - Biography, The scholar, Controversy: anti-Semitism and links with the Iron Guard, Works

Historian and philosopher of comparative religion, born in Bucharest, Romania. He was a student of Indian philosophy and Sanskrit at Calcutta University (1928–31) before becoming a lecturer in the history of religion and metaphysics at Bucharest (1933–9). He served in the diplomatic service during World War 2, and later taught at the Sorbonne (1946–8) and Chicago University (1957–85). A pionee…

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Mireille

French writer, composer, and performer. After failing the concours du Conservatoire because her hands were too small, she began working in theatres, at the Odéon (in the role of Puck) where she met Firmin Gémier, then organized a revue, playing the piano with her feet. At first, in collaboration with Jean Nohain, she wrote more than 600 melodies, breaking with the ‘rengaine’ style, sung by Che…

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Mireille Mathieu - Greatest hits

Popular singer, born in Avignon, SE France. From a poor area, she retained a distinctive accent when singing (‘J'ai gardé l'accent’), and made her reputation by imitating Edith Piaf. Following Piaf's death in 1963, Georgette Lemaire became a rival impersonator. In 1966 Reichenbach dedicated a film to her. She triumphed at L'Olympia, which launched her international career. …

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Mirella Freni - Biography

Soprano, born in Modena, N Italy. She made her debut as Micaëla in Carmen at Modena in 1955, and went on to sing with the Netherlands Opera (1959–60), and at Glyndebourne (1960). She has since performed at many other venues, including Milan, Vienna, and Salzburg. Mirella Freni (born 27 February 1935) is a famous Italian opera soprano much admired for the youthful quality of her voice and …

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Miriam Makeba - Discography

Singer, born in Johannesburg, NE South Africa. Exiled from South Africa because of her political views, she settled in the USA, where she became the first African performer to gain an international following, and played a vital role in introducing the sounds and rhythms of traditional African song to the West. She is best known for her recordings of ‘click’ songs from S Africa. Her second marria…

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Miriam Stoppard - Television, Writing, Family, Miscellaneous

British physician, writer, and broadcaster. She studied at London and Durham, specializing in dermatology, then worked in industry (1968–77) before becoming a writer and broadcaster. She is well known for her television series, especially Miriam Stoppard's Health and Beauty Show (from 1988), and among her books are The Baby and Child Medical Handbook (1984), The Magic of Sex (1991), The Menopause…

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Miriam Van Waters - Early Life and Professional Career, Massachusetts Reformatory for Women: 1932-1957

Penologist and prison reformer, born in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, USA. She was known for transforming institutions for women offenders into models of prisoner rehabilitation. As superintendent of the Massachusetts State Reformatory for Women (1932–57), she made that institution one of the most progressive in the USA. She previously headed detention homes in Portland, OR (1914–17) and Los Angeles…

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mirror - Effects, Composition, Applications, Non electromagnetic wave reflectors, Mirrors in literature

A smooth surface which reflects large amounts of light, usually made of glass with a highly reflective metal deposit on the front or back, or of highly polished metal. Plane mirrors form a virtual image the same size as the object, but with left and right reversed. Convex mirrors distort the image, but concave mirrors with a parabolic surface are used in astronomical telescopes to collect and focu…

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miscarriage of justice - General issues, Cases in numerous countries

A criminal case where an injustice has or may have been committed, either in the preparation of the case or at trial, resulting in an innocent person being convicted or an ‘unsafe and unsatisfactory’ verdict of guilt being returned. There can be several reasons for such a miscarriage, including non-disclosure of evidence, inappropriate questioning, or the giving of partisan evidence by prosecuti…

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Mischa Elman

Violinist, born in Talnoy, C Ukraine. He made his public debut at age five, studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and made his professional debut in Berlin at 13. In 1908 he made his first appearance in the USA in New York City, and settled there in 1911. He pursued an international career, especially admired for his treatment of the Romantic repertoire. Mischa Elman (January 20, 1891 …

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Mishnah - Relation between the Hebrew Bible and the Mishnah, The writing of the Mishnah

An important written collection of rabbinic laws, supplementary to the legislation in Jewish Scriptures. The laws are classified under six main headings (sedarim): Seeds (agricultural tithes), Set Feasts, Women, Damages, Holiness (offerings), and Purities. Although the Mishnah's general arrangement can be traced to Rabbi Akiba (AD c.120), its final editing was due to Rabbi Judah the Prince (AD c.2…

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Miskolc - Geography, Economy, Sports, City parts of Miskolc, Tourist sights, Public transport, Famous people

48°07N 20°50E, pop (2000e) 192 000. Capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, NE Hungary, on R Sajo; second largest city in Hungary; airfield; railway; technical university of heavy industry (1870); iron and steel, chemicals, engineering, food processing, textiles, wine; National Theatre; castle of Diósgyör, 15th-c church on Avas Hill, Fazola furnace. Miskolc listen?(help·info) (IPA:…

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Missal - Missals

The liturgical book of the Roman Catholic Church, containing liturgies for the celebration of Mass throughout the year. It includes all the prayers, Biblical readings, ceremonial, and singing directions. Missal, in the Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. The Roman Missal (Missale Roman…

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Mission - Religion and politics, Other uses

26º12N 98º19W, pop (2000e) 45 400. City in Hidalgo Co, Texas, USA; located in the wide agricultural delta of the Rio Grande, 37 km/23 mi NW of the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge; inhabitants of Spanish descent settled at La Lomita chapel and began building (c.1865) on a farm that later became the mission; the town of Mission was founded in 1907; birthplace of Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr and…

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Mississippi - Name, Geography, Climate, Ecology, History, Demographics, Economics, Transportation, Law and government, Major cities and towns, Education

pop (2000e) 2 844 700; area 123 510 km²/47 689 sq mi. State in S USA, divided into 82 counties; the ‘Magnolia State’; held by France, Britain, and Spain in turn, becoming part of the USA in 1795; the 20th state to join the Union, 1817; seceded, 1861; re-admitted in 1870, but white supremacy was maintained, particularly by the constitution of 1890; highest black population of any state (…

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Mississippi River - Geography, History, Major cities along the river, Notable bridges, Trivia

River in C USA; rises in N Minnesota; source, L Itasca; flows S to form the border between the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana on the W and Wisconsin, Illinois, Tennessee, and Mississippi on the E; enters the Gulf of Mexico in SE Louisiana, near New Orleans; length estimates vary, because of the extensive delta; from L Itasca, MN to the delta, 3766 km/2340 mi; the Up…

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Missouri - History, Law and government, Cities and metropolitan areas, Professional sports teams, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 5 595 200; area 180 508 km²/69 697 sq mi. State in C USA, divided into 114 counties; the ‘Show Me State’; became part of USA with the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; a territory in 1812, but its application for admission as a state (1817) was controversial, as it had introduced slavery; eventually admitted as the 24th state in 1821 under the Missouri Compromise; capital, Jefferson…

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Missouri Botanical Garden

Botanical garden (26 ha/65 acres) located in St Louis, Missouri, USA, established in 1859 as the gift of Henry Shaw. Designated a national historic landmark, it is a centre for research, education, and horticultural display. The garden has special collections of orchids and tropical plants, and a herbarium with over one million dried specimens. Notable is the Climatron, a geodesic-dome greenhous…

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Missouri Compromise - Impact on Political Discourse, Second Missouri Compromise

(1820) An agreement to admit Missouri, with slavery, and Maine (separated from Massachusetts), without it, to statehood simultaneously, in order to preserve a sectional balance in the US Senate. The compromise also forbade slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase, N of 36°30. The Missouri Compromise, also called the Compromise of 1820, was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-s…

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Missouri River - Tributaries, Major cities along the river

Major river in the USA, and chief tributary of the Mississippi; formed in SW Montana by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers; flows through North and South Dakota, then forms the borders between Nebraska and Kansas (W) and Iowa and Missouri (E); joins the Mississippi just N of St Louis; length 3725 km/2315 mi (with longest headstream, 4125 km/2563 mi); major tributarie…

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Mistinguett - Filmography

Dancer, singer, and actress, born in Enghien-les-Bains, NC France. Making her debut in 1895, she became the most popular French music-hall artiste of the first three decades of the century, reaching the height of success with Maurice Chevalier at the Moulin Rouge, the Casino de Paris, and the Folies Bergère. Mistinguett (April 5, 1875 – January 5, 1956 from Enghien-les-Bains, Val-d'Oise,…

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mistle thrush

A thrush (Turdus viscivorus) native to Europe (N Africa during winter), and E to Siberia and N India; cream breast with bold spots; wing feathers with pale edges; inhabits open woodlands; nests high in forks of trees; also known as storm-cock. …

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mistletoe

A hemiparasitic evergreen shrub (Viscum album) native to Europe, N Africa, and Asia; stem growing to 1 m/3¼ ft, branches regularly forked; leaves leathery, yellowish, in opposite pairs; flowers small, in tight clusters of 3–5, greenish-yellow, males and females on separate plants; berries white. Mistletoe usually grows on deciduous trees (often apples, but also others), rarely on evergreens. T…

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Mitchell Feigenbaum

Mathematician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He is one of a small group of scientists who in the 1970s were growing more concerned about the inability of science to explain irregular occurrences in everyday life, such as the shape of clouds, the irregular flow from a dripping tap, and many other events that could be described as chaotic. He developed the mathematics of what is now calle…

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mite

A small, short-bodied arthropod with head and abdomen fused into a compact body; typically with four pairs of walking legs; mouthparts include a pair of fangs; c.30 000 described species, including both free-living and parasitic forms, many of which are pests of economically important crops. (Class: Arachnida. Order: Acari.) Mites, together with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also …

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Mitla - Present day Mitla, Pre-Columbian Mitla, Additional Images

16°54N 96°16W. Ancient city in C Oaxaca, S Mexico, in the Sierra Madre del Sur, 40 km/25 mi SE of Oaxaca; former centre of the Zapotec civilization; well-preserved ruins include temples, subterranean tombs, and a building known as the ‘hall of monoliths’. Mitla is a town in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, famous for its pre-Columbian Mesoamerican buildings. The official name …

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mitochondrion - Mitochondrion structure, Mitochondrial functions, Origin, Replication and gene inheritance, Use in population genetic studies

A typically oval-shaped structure, often about 2 µm long, found in large numbers in eucaryotic cells. It comprises a double membrane, the inner forming folds and ridges (cristae) which penetrate the central matrix. It functions as a major site for metabolic activities that release energy by breaking down food molecules. In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek μ…

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mitosis - Overview, How mitosis distributes genetic information, Phases of mitosis, Endomitosis, Light micrographs of mitosis

The normal process of nuclear division and separation that takes place in a dividing cell, producing two daughter cells, each containing a nucleus with the same complement of chromosomes as the mother cell. During mitosis, each chromosome divides lengthwise into two chromatids, which separate and form the chromosomes of the resulting daughter nuclei. The phases of mitosis are: prophase (the shorte…

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Mitsumasa Yonai - Political activity

Japanese naval officer, statesman, and prime minster (1940), born in Iwate Prefecture, N Japan. Educated at the Naval Academy, Etajima, he served in Russia (1915–17). He was commander of the imperial fleet (1936–7), navy minister (1937–9, 1944–5), and was briefly prime minister. Mitsumasa Yonai (米内光政, Yonai Mitsumasa) (March 2, 1880 – April 20, 1948) was a Japanese admiral and…

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mixture - Types of mixtures

In chemistry, distinguished from a compound in the following respects. A mixture of A and B is of indefinite composition, contains properties of A and B, and is easily separated into A and B. A compound AB has a definite ratio of A to B, contains properties unrelated to A and B, and needs a reaction to regain A and B. In chemistry, a mixture is the product of a mechanical blending or mixing…

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Mnemosyne

In Greek mythology, a Titan, daughter of Earth and Heaven, and mother of all the Muses. The name means ‘Memory’. Mnemosyne (Greek Mνημοσύνη, IPA [nɪˈmɒzɪni] in RP and [nɪˈmɑsəni] in General American) (sometimes confused with Mneme) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. …

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moa - History, Taxonomy, Biology, Claims by cryptozoologists, Trivia

An extinct bird native to New Zealand; a large ratite (up to 3 m/10 ft high) with long neck and legs, no wings; slow-moving; inhabited forests; ate berries, seeds, and shoots. Some may have survived into the 19th-c. (Family: Dinornithidae, c.12 species.) Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. Moa are thought to have become extinct about 1500, although some repo…

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mobile phone - History and development of the cell phone, Mobile phone culture or customs, Mobile phone features

A portable telephone handset, used with a cellular radio or other mobile communication system, small enough to fit into the pocket. It enables users to make direct-dial telephone calls wherever they are. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception are …

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Moche - Pottery, Religion, Demise, Other, Recent discoveries

An ancient Andean city near Trujillo, Peru, the capital AD c.200–550 of the Moche (or Mochica) state. Particularly celebrated are its twin pyramids of the Sun and Moon, the former 160 m/525 ft by 34 m/112 ft square and 40 m/130 ft high, with 130 million adobe bricks. Moche metalwork, textiles, and especially ceramics are notable. The Moche primarily were farmers, who diverted…

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mockingbird

A bird native to the New World; thrush-like with sharp, slightly curved bill and long tail; sings well; excellent mimic; inhabits forest and bushy areas; eats invertebrates and fruit; also known as mocking-thrush. (Family: Mimidae, 16 species.) Mockingbirds are a group of New World passerine birds best known for the habit of some species mimicking the songs of other birds, often loudly and …

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Mod

The annual autumn musical and literary festival of Gaelic-speaking Scotland organized by An Comunn Gaidhealach (the Gaelic language society) on the model of the Welsh eisteddfod; first held in Oban in 1892. Mod or mods may refer to: In culture and music: In computing: In math: Other …

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modal logic - Alethic modalities, Epistemic logic, Temporal logic, Deontic logic, Other modal logics, Interpretations of modal logic

A branch of logic dealing with inferences involving statements of necessity or possibility. Its investigation has led to important debates in metaphysics and the philosophy of language. In philosophical logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, impossibility, and necessity. Logics for handling a number of other ideas, such as eventually, for…

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mode (music)

In older musical theory, a ‘manner’ of distributing the notes of a scale so that the sequence of intervals varied according to which note was the final (ie the note on which the plainchant or, in polyphonic music, the lowest part ended). Late Renaissance theory recognized six modes (finals are shown in parentheses): Dorian (D), Phrygian (E), Lydian (F), Mixolydian (G), Aeolian (A), and Ionian (C…

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modem - Telephone network modems history, Long haul modems, Narrowband, Radio modems, Broadband, Voice modem, Popularity

Acronym for MOdulator/DEModulator, a device which converts digital information from computers into electrical signals that can be transmitted over telephone lines and vice versa. A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Mo…

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Modena (city) - Geography, History, Main sights, Sport, Twinnings

44º39N 10º55 E, pop (2001e) 176 300. Capital city of Modena province, Emilia-Romagna region, N Italy; near S edge of the N Italian plain, 39 km/24 mi NW of Bologna; birthplace of Niccolo dell' Abbate, Giovanni Amici, Enzo Ferrari, Guarino Guarini, Luciano Pavarotti; university (1175). Modena (IPA: ['mɔdena]; An ancient town, it is the seat of an archbishop, but is now mos…

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Modena (province) - Geography, History, Main sights, Sport, Twinnings

Historic province in present-day Emilia-Romagna region, N Italy; conquered by the Romans (2nd-c BC); the Este family, Lords of Ferrara, controlled the territory from the 14th-c; during the French occupation (1796) it became part of the Cispadane Republic, and later of the Cisalpine Republic; incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy (1805); modern province established in 1859. Modena (IPA: ['m…

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moderator

A person who presides over Presbyterian Church courts, such as the kirk session, presbytery, synod, or General Assembly. In Reformed Churches generally, the term is applied to the chairman of official Church gatherings. …

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modern art - History, Art movements and artist groups

A term used widely but imprecisely to refer to all the ‘progressive’ movements in 19th–20th-c art. Accounts vary: some consider Goya the first modern artist; others prefer Manet. What is agreed is that towards the end of the 19th-c a number of artists, including Cézanne, Gauguin, van Gogh, Ensor, and Munch, challenged in various ways the traditional approach to painting based on such notions a…

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modern dance - History, Legacy of Modern dance, Further information

A theatre form of dance which began c.1910 and continues to evolve. It shares the revolutionary assumptions of all modern movements in the arts, rejecting the established form of dance and ballet. Greek myths, psychological states, political comment, reflections on the mechanization of life, and alienation of modern society have been common themes, demonstrating a serious modern consciousness. Isa…

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Moderne Devotie

The name of a religious movement in the E of the Netherlands at the end of the 14th-c. The movement, led by Geert Groote, was directed at good ethics in everyday life, and their practical approach resulted in schools, better education, and book production. Groote's followers founded the religious communities known as Brethren of the Common Life (Broeders van het gemene leven) and the Congregation …

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Modernism - Historical outline, Modernism's goals, Modernism's reception and controversy

A generic term referring to experimental methods in different art forms in the earlier part of the 20th-c. These experiments were stimulated by a sharpened sense of the arbitrariness of existing artistic conventions, and doubts about the human place and purpose in the world. Dada, Surrealism, and various anti-genres are all manifestations of Modernism. Notable works include Joyce's Ulysses (1922) …

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modernismo

In Spain, a complex and imperfectly understood literary movement of the years between 1888, when Rubén Darío's Azul was first published, and 1910, when the movement's second phase was at its peak. The Revista Azul (1894–6) was the organ of the first phase, which includes Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Julián del Casal, Salvador Díaz Mirón, José Asunción Silva, Julio Herrera y Reissig, the Span…

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modulation (physics) - Analog modulation methods, Digital modulation methods, Digital baseband modulation or line coding, Pulse modulation methods

The imposition of regular changes on some background, usually a beam of particles or radiation, and often as a means of conveying information via the beam. A broadcast signal is used to modulate the electron beam inside a television set to reproduce the picture. Certain crystals and liquids when subjected to electric fields may be used to modulate beams of light. A device that performs modu…

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module

A unit measure of proportion in architecture used to regulate all the parts of a building. In classical architecture, this meant the diameter of the column at the base of the shaft. The name derives from Latin modulus, ‘measure’. Since World War 2, it is particularly used as the common unit of measure that co-ordinates the sizes of all the components in a standardized or ‘modular’ building, so…

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Moesia

Ancient region of SE Europe, in present day SE Balkans; bordered by the lower Danube R to the N, the Drinus (now Drina) R to the W, the Balkan Mts to the S, and the Black Sea to the E; conquered (30–28 BC) by Marcus Licinius Crassus; became a Roman province in AD 15; birthplace of Flavius Aëtius. Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. In ancient…

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Mogadishu - Geography, History, Mogadishu today, Culture and economy

2°02N 45°21E, pop (2000e) 633 000. Seaport capital of Somalia, on the Indian Ocean coast; founded, 10th-c; taken by the Sultan of Zanzibar, 1871; sold to Italy, becoming capital of Italian Somaliland, 1905; occupied by British forces in World War 2; airport; university (1954); commerce, oil refining, uranium, food processing; fort, mosques (13th-c), cathedral (1928). Mogadishu (Somali: …

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Mogollon - Mimbres, Cultural divisions

A prehistoric culture of the American SW AD c.300–1350, artistically notable for its vigorous ceramics. Extending from S Arizona and New Mexico to the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts of Mexico, its villages of c.15–20 pithouses were typically sited for defence on mountain-tops until c.600, when there was a movement towards river valleys to facilitate more intensive maize agriculture. The Zuni of …

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Mohammad Najibullah - Early years, Political career, President of the Republic (November 1986 - April 1992), Death

Afghan Communist leader and president (1987–92), born in Kabul, Afghanistan. He studied at Kabul University, joined the Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan in 1965, and was twice imprisoned for political activities during the 1960s and 1970s. In 1986 he replaced Babrak Karmal as Party leader, and was formally elected state president in 1987. He promulgated a non-Marxist constitutio…

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi - Early life, Early reign, Later years, Wives and children, Quotes

Shah of Persia, born in Tehran, Iran, who succeeded on the abdication of his father, Reza Shah (1878–1944), in 1941. His reign was for many years marked by social reforms and a movement away from the old-fashioned despotic concept of the monarchy, but during the later 1970s the economic situation deteriorated, social inequalities worsened, and protest at western-style ‘decadence’ grew among the…

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Mohammed or Mehmet II II - Early reign, Conquest of the Byzantine Empire, Conquests in Asia, Conquests in Europe, Administrative actions

Sultan of Turkey (1451–81), and founder of the Ottoman empire, born in Adrianople. He took Constantinople in 1453, renaming it Istanbul, thus extinguishing the Byzantine empire and giving the Turks their commanding position on the Bosphorus. Checked by Janos Hunyady at Belgrade in 1456, he nevertheless annexed most of Serbia, all of Greece, and most of the Aegean Is. He threatened Venetian territ…

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Mohammed Nadir Shah

King of Afghanistan (1929–33). As commander-in-chief to Amanullah Khan, he played a prominent role in the 1919 Afghan War against Britain which secured the country's full independence in 1922. He subsequently fell into disfavour, and was forced to live in exile in France. In 1929, with British diplomatic support, he returned to Kabul and seized the throne, immediately embarking on a programme of …

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Mohammed or Mahomet - Etymology, Overview, Sources for Muhammad's life, Western Academic view of Muhammad

Prophet of Islam, born in Mecca, the son of Abdallah, a poor merchant. Orphaned at six, he was cared for first by his grandfather, then by his uncle, and earned his living by tending sheep. At 25 he led the caravans of a rich widow, whom he later married. He continued as a merchant, but spent much of his time in solitary contemplation. When he was 40, the angel Gabriel appeared to him on Mt Hira, …

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Mohawk

An Iroquoian-speaking, semi-sedentary, North American Indian group, living around L Champlain. A member of the Iroquois League, they were defeated by US troops in 1777, and crossed into Canada, settling permanently in Ontario. They now work as farmers and migrant structural steel workers. Mohawk may refer to: In geography: Other: …

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Mohenjo-daro

A prehistoric walled city on the R Indus, in Sind, Pakistan, c.320 km/200 mi NE of Karachi; a world heritage site. Occupied c.2300–1750 BC and excavated since 1922, it covered 100 ha/250 acres and held an ancient population of c.30–40 000. Its two mounds have buildings entirely of mudbrick. To the W, there is a citadel encircled by a 13 m/42 ft-high embankment containing civic, religious, …

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Mohsen Makhmalbaf - Career, Cinema of Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Influence of Makhmalbaf on world cinema

Film director, born in Tehran, Iran. He left school aged 15 to form a group of religious activists in opposition to the government of Shah Reza Pahlavi. He was arrested and imprisoned at the age of 17 for attacking a policeman. Released in 1978, he went on to found the Centre for Propagation of Islamic Thought and Arts (1981). Here he wrote short stories and scripts before his directorial film deb…

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Moira Shearer - Filmography

Ballerina and actress, born in Dunfermline, Fife, E Scotland, UK. She studied at the Sadler's Wells Ballet School, joined the Sadler's Wells Theatre Ballet (1942), and gained ballerina status (1944). She danced leading roles in both classical and modern ballets, her notable performances including Cinderella (1948), Promenade (1943), and Clock Symphony (1948). As an actress she appeared on stage an…

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Mo

Painter, born in Coulommiers, NC France. Strongly influenced by Vouet and Caravaggio, and a friend of Poussin, he settled permanently in Rome in 1620. His works include ‘Judith’ (Musée de Toulouse), ‘Réunion dans un cabaret’ (Louvre), and ‘Martyrdom of SS Processus and Martinian’ (1629–30, Vatican). Valentin was the son of a painter and glassworker whose family had lived in Coulomm…

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molasses - Cane molasses, Sugar beet molasses, Substitutes, Other forms

A brownish syrup, obtained as a by-product of the sugar-beet or sugar-cane industry; it is what remains once the sugar has been refined. It is widely used as an animal feed supplement, especially for dairy cows, and in the production of rum and treacle. Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. (In some parts of the U.S., …

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Mold - Health effects, Growth in buildings

53°10N 3°08W, pop (2000e) 9500. Administrative centre of Flintshire, NE Wales, UK; on the R Alyn, 18 km/11 mi WSW of Chester; railway; agricultural trade, light industry; Theatre Clwyd. Molds (or moulds) are microscopic multinucleated multicellular fungi made up of hyphae (tube-like structures) which are usually separated from each other by divisions called septa. The…

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Moldova - History, Politics, Relations with the European Union, Administrative divisions, Largest cities, Economy, Human rights, Language

Official name Republic of Moldova, formerly (to 1990) Moldavian SSR, Russ Moldavskaya The Republic of Moldova (conventional long form, conventional short form: Moldova, local official long form: Republica Moldova) is a small landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east and south. The Republic of Moldova is a member state…

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mole (medicine)

Usually a small flat congenital lesion in the skin resulting from the proliferation of small blood vessels and containing scattered pigment cells (birthmarks). Occasionally these are more extensive, and form raised patches (plaques) which may necessitate surgical removal or other treatment. Mole may mean: Mole may also refer to: …

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