Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 5

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Amalaric - Games

King of the Visigoths, the son of Alaric II. He succeeded his step-brother Gesaleic in 511 and was under the guardianship of his grandfather Theodoric until 526. To strengthen his relationship with the Franks, he married Clotilda de Meroving (497–531); when Clotilda was forced to convert to Arianism, she asked her brother Childebert for help and he defeated Amalaric at Narbonne in 531. Ama…

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Amalasuntha

Queen and regent of the Ostrogoths (526–34). Daughter of Theodoric, she was regent for her son Athalaric from 526, and at his death (534) became Queen of the Ostrogoths. She followed her father's policies and reorganized the kingdom's administration, ruling that the monarch should arbitrate over the election of popes and bishops. Her reign was unstable due to pressure from barbarian tribes and th…

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amalgam - Dentistry, Chemical analysis, Mining, Other uses

An alloy of mercury with some other metal(s), known since classical times. Copper, zinc, and tin amalgams are used in dentistry. Gold amalgam was used in Renaissance gilding techniques. An amalgam is any mixture or blending of mercury with another metal or with an alloy. For some centuries dentists have been cleaning out decay and creating dental fillings, using filling material…

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Amanullah Khan

Ruler of Afghanistan (1919–29), born in Pagman, E Afghanistan. After an inconclusive religious war against the British in India (1919–22), independence for Afghanistan was recognized by Britain with the Treaty of Rawalpindi (1922). He assumed the title of king in 1926, but his zeal for Westernizing reforms provoked rebellion in 1928. He abdicated and fled the country in 1929, and went into exile…

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amaranth

An annual or perennial herb, native to tropical and temperate regions; flowers usually small and forming dense inflorescences, perianth-segments in whorls of three or five, often brightly coloured; also known as pigweed. Some Asian species yield edible grain used as a substitute for cereal. (Genus: Amaranthus, 60 species. Family: Amaranthaceae.) …

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Amartya (Kumar) Sen - Education and career, Important works, Family, Awards, Quotes, Works, List of main publications

Economist, born in Bengal, E India. He studied at Calcutta and Cambridge universities, and became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge (1957–63). He held professorial posts at New Delhi University (1963–71), the London School of Economics (1971–7), and Oxford (1977–88), then moved to Harvard. In 1988 he was appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, UK. Noted for his work on the nature …

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Amasa Walker

Businessman, economist, and US representative, born in Woodstock, Connecticut, USA. Retiring from business (1840), he devoted himself to study and public service. He was president of the Boston Temperance Society (1839), founder and first secretary of the Boston Lyceum, and a founder of Oberlin College where he lectured on economics (1842–9). He was also a specialist in the monetary system and wr…

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Amaterasu - History, Amaterasu in popular culture

The principal deity in the Shinto religion of Japan. She is both the Sun-goddess who rules all the gods and the mother-goddess who ensures fertility. Once when she shut herself in her cave, the whole world became darkened and no plants could grow. The other gods played music and offered presents to make her return. Amaterasu (天照), Amaterasu-ō-mi-kami (天照大神 or 天照大御神) o…

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amatol

A group of high explosives consisting of mixtures of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and ammonium nitrate. It was much used in World War 1 to economize on TNT, but later fell out of favour because of such faults as the absorption of undesirable water from the air (hygroscopicity). Amatol is a highly explosive material, a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate, and used as an explosive in military weapon…

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Amazons - Etymology, Amazons of Greek mythology, Scythian origins, Minoan origins, Amazon cults and tombs in Ancient Greece

In Greek mythology, a nation of women soldiers, located by Herodotos in Scythia (Russia). Strong and athletic, they were said to mutilate the right breast in order to use the bow. With no apparent basis in fact, this story fascinated the Greeks and was a frequent subject in art, perhaps because of its suggestion of an alternative society. In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Αμαζόνες) w…

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ambassador - Diplomats, Non-diplomatic ambassadorships

An accredited diplomat sent by a state on a mission to a foreign country, or who is its highest-ranking permanent diplomat residing in a foreign country, officially representing his or her state in relations with foreign governments. Ambassadors are to be distinguished from consuls, whose chief functions are to protect citizens abroad, and to protect the commercial interests of these citizens. …

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ambergris - Source, Physical properties, Replacement compounds and economics

(‘grey amber’) A grey waxy substance found in the intestines of the sperm whale, Physeter catodon; up to 450 g/1 lb per whale; formerly used in perfumes to make the fragrance last longer. Ambergris was also molded and dried and decorated and worn as jewelry, particularly during the Renaissance. Ambergris occurs as a biliary concretion in the intestines of the sperm whale, an…

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Ambrogio Lorenzetti - Selected works

Painter born in Siena, C Italy. Probably taught by his brother Pietro, he worked in Cortona and Florence, and is best known for his allegorical frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena, symbolizing the effects of good and bad government. His ‘Annunciation’ is also at Siena. The first evidence of the existence of the hourglass can be found in one of his paintings (see external link above)…

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Ambrose (Everett) Burnside - Early life and career, Civil War, Post-bellum career, In popular media, Assessment

US soldier, born in Liberty, Indiana, USA. Recognized more for his famous side whiskers than his generalship, he trained at West Point (1847), served on the frontier, then resigned from the army to manufacture a breech-loading rifle of his own design. He returned to service in 1861, became the second commander of the Army of the Potomac (Nov 1862), and precipitated the Union disaster at Fredericks…

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Ambrose (Gwinett) Bierce - Early life and military career, Journalism, Literary works, Disappearance, Bibliography

Writer, journalist, and editor, born in Meigs Co, Ohio, USA. His service in the Civil War provided him with both material for some of his finest stories and the disillusioned attitude that coloured much of his writing. After the war he went to San Francisco, where he worked as an editor while writing for various magazines (1866–72). He then spent three years in London as an editor (1872–5) and p…

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Ambrose Swasey - Awards and honors

Mechanical engineer, born in Exeter, New Hampshire, USA. In 1880 he joined a Cleveland company to make machine tools and optical instruments. He specialized in large telescopes, including the 36-in Lick telescope (1888), the 40-in Yerkes, and many others. His company also provided high-quality instruments to the military during World War 1. The close friends Warner and Swasey built their ho…

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ambrosia beetle

A small dark beetle that burrows into wood. The adults have cylindrical bodies with short, clubbed antennae. The fleshy, legless larvae feed on fungi that line the walls of tunnels made in the wood. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Scolytidae.) Ambrosia beetles are woodboring beetles, primarily in the subfamily Scolytinae of the weevil family, Curculionidae, but sometimes the subfamily Platypodi…

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Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius - Life and Works, Gallery

Roman writer and Neoplatonist philosopher, probably born in Africa. He wrote a commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis, and Saturnaliorum conviviorum libri septem, a series of historical, mythological, and critical dialogues. Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius was a Roman grammarian and Neoplatonist philosopher who flourished during the reigns of Honorius and Arcadius (395–423). …

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Amedeo Avogadro - Biography, Works, Reactions of the Scientific Community, Named after him

Scientist, born in Turin, Piedmont, NW Italy. In 1811 he formulated the hypothesis, known as Avogadro's law, that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules, when at the same temperature and pressure. The principle did not come to be accepted until the work of Cannizzaro in the 1850s. Avogadro became professor of physics at Turin (1834–59). Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogad…

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Amedeo Modigliani - Early life, Art student years, Paris, Experiments with sculpture, The war years, Jeanne Hébuterne, Nice, Death

Painter and sculptor of the modern school of Paris, born in Livorno, W Italy. His early work was influenced by the painters of the Italian Renaissance, and in Paris by Toulouse-Lautrec and the Fauves. In 1909, encouraged by the Rumanian sculptor Brancusi, he produced a number of elongated stone heads in African style. He continued to use this style when he resumed painting, with a series of richly…

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Amelia (Mary) Earhart - Early life, Aviation career and marriage, World flight, 1937, Investigating Earhart's disappearance

Aviator, born in Atchison, Kansas, USA. During World War 1 she worked as a nurses' aide in Toronto, Canada. She then attended several schools, including two spells at Columbia University, held odd jobs in California, and became a settlement house worker in Boston (1926). She had first flown in Los Angeles (1920) and within a year made a solo flight. In 1928 she participated in a transatlantic flig…

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Amelia Bloomer

Reformer, born in Homer, New York, USA. She wrote on current affairs for her husband's newspaper before founding and editing Lily (1849–55), a temperance journal that, under the influence of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, also championed women's rights. In Lily her public defence of women's adopting a daring outfit of full trousers under a short skirt became a national cause célèbre, and the costume w…

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Amelita Galli-Curci

Soprano, born in Milan, N Italy. She studied piano at the Milan Conservatory, but as a singer was self-taught. She first appeared in opera in 1909, toured Europe, and in 1916 joined the Chicago Opera Company. From 1919 onwards, she worked principally at the Metropolitan Opera, New York City, becoming a US citizen in 1921. She was forced to retire early, following a throat injury. Amelita Ga…

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Amenhotep II

King of Egypt in the 18th Dynasty (1450–1425 BC), the son of Thuthmose III. He fought successful campaigns in Palestine and on the Euphrates. His mummy was found in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings, Thebes. Aakheperure Amenhotep II (d. …

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Amenhotep III

King of Egypt (1417–1379 BC), the son of Thuthmose IV. He consolidated Egyptian supremacy in Babylonia and Assyria. In a reign of spectacular wealth and magnificence, he built his great capital city, Thebes, and its finest monuments, including the Luxor temple, the great pylon at Karnak, and the colossi of Memnon. …

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America's Cup - America's Cup Challengers and Defenders, Deed of Gift, In popular media

Sailing's most famous race, held approximately every four years. The trophy was originally called the One Hundred Guinea Cup, and was donated by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight, S England, UK in 1851. It was renamed the America's Cup after the schooner America won the race six years later. The New York Yacht Club offered the cup as a challenge trophy. Between 1870 and …

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American Ballet Theatre

Renowned ballet company based at the Metropolitan Opera House in the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York, USA. Originally named Ballet Theatre, it was launched in 1939 by Richard Pleasant under the direction (1945–80) of Lucia Chase and Oliver Smith. Its aim is to present the great full-length ballets of the 19th-c, the finest works from the early 20th-c, and contemporary masterpiece…

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American Civil Liberties Union - Organizational history, Leadership, funding and organizational structure, Positions, Notable historical cases, Controversial stances

A leading US group which promotes civil rights. It has tended to use the courts to gain changes based on the rights afforded under the Constitution, and is particularly concerned with freedom of speech and maintaining an open society. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization with headquarters in New York City, whose stated mission is "to defend a…

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American Civil War - Causes of the War, A house divided against itself, Overview, Slavery during the war

(1861–5) Sometimes called ‘the War Between the States’ or ‘the Second American Revolution’, a conflict in the USA which resolved two great issues: the nature of the Federal Union and the relative power of the states and the central government; and the existence of black slavery. The war began after Lincoln's accession to the presidency demonstrated that the South could no longer expect to co…

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American Colonization Society - History, Preparation of colony, First colony, Expansion and growth of the colony, Criticism of the ACS

A US pre-abolitionist anti-slavery group, aimed at resettling freed slaves in Africa. It was supported by some slaveholders, anxious to keep freed blacks separate from slaves. The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa in 1817 and transported free blacks there, i…

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American Legion - Timeline

In the USA, an association for former members of the armed forces (veterans), the largest in the world. Incorporated in 1919, its aims are to rehabilitate veterans, promote child welfare, ensure a strong national defence, and encourage patriotism. In addition to organizing commemorative events and volunteer activities, the American Legion is active in U.S. politics. The state Am…

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American literature - Overview, Colonial literature, Early U.S. literature, Unique American style, American lyric

The first literary works of the English-speaking peoples of North America were sermons, journals, and histories - concerns reflected in the work of the early poets Ann Bradstreet and Edward Taylor. In the Revolutionary period the most important work was practical or political, eg Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac (1732–58). Franklin's Autobiography (1781) is a memorable testament to a Pu…

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American Medical Association (AMA) - History, Charitable activities, Political positions, Criticisms

An association founded in Philadelphia in 1847 ‘to promote the science and art of medicine and the betterment of public health’. Its membership includes over 300 000 US doctors from all specialties, expressing a corporate view on most aspects of health care. The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. The AMA's purpose is to …

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American Museum of Natural History - History, Features, Access, Images

An institution founded in New York City in 1869. It includes the Hayden Planetarium, as well as the zoo in Bronx Park, run by the American Zoological Society. The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattan's Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West. The Museum was founded in 1869. The Museum's first home was the old Ar…

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American Revolution - Origins, Fighting begins at Lexington: 1775, Patriots, Creating new state constitutions

(1765–88) The movement that destroyed the first British Empire, establishing the United States and, indirectly, Canada. A much larger event than the War of Independence (1775–83), the revolution developed from the issue of whether Parliament had the power to tax the North American colonies directly. But more was involved than constitutional dispute, and the Revolution left America a transformed …

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American Samoa - Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, The Origin of Samoa

Local name Sao Paulo de Loanda (Portuguese), formerly also Loanda American Samoa (Samoan: Amerika Samoa or Samoa Amelika) is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean southeast of the sovereign state of Samoa. American Samoa is part of the Samoan Islands chain, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles (…

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American Sign Language (ASL) - History of ASL, Linguistics, Writing systems, "Baby Sign", Primate ASL Usage

A sign language widely used by the deaf in the USA; also known as Ameslan. The system contains over 4000 signs, and is used by over half a million deaf people - by many, as a first language. American Sign Language (ASL; less commonly Ameslan) is the dominant sign language of the Deaf community in the United States, in the English-speaking parts of Canada, and in parts of Mexico. Altho…

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Amerigo Vespucci - Life, Letters, Voyages

Explorer, born in Florence, NC Italy. He worked for the Medici family who sent him to Seville in 1491. He promoted a voyage to the New World in the track of Columbus, sailed with the explorer Alonso de Hojeda (1499), and explored the coast of Venezuela. In 1505 he was naturalized in Spain, and from 1508 was pilot-major of the kingdom. His name was given to America through an inaccurate account of …

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Amersfoort - Population centres, The city of Amersfoort, Local government

52º09N 5º23E, pop (2002e) 128 100. Commercial city and municipality in NE Utrecht province, W Netherlands; located 19 km/12 mi NE of Utrecht, at the confluence of several small rivers, which, further downstream, form the R Eem; surrounded by a vast area of forest and heathland; received charter, 1259; early industries were cloth-manufacture and brewing; birthplace of Pieter Both, Paulus Buys…

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Amesbury

42º50N 70º56W, pop (2000e) 16 500. Town in Essex Co, Massachusetts, USA; first settled, 1642; incorporated, 1668; became famous in the 19th-c for the manufacture of Amesbury carriages; birthplace of Josiah Bartlett; Mary Baker Eddy lived here (1868–70); high-tech industries, furniture, metals, plastic fabricators; Amesbury carriage museum, Bartlett Museum (1870), Mary Baker Eddy House. …

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amethyst - Chemistry, Composition, History, Alternate terminology, Geographic distribution, Value, Amethyst in folklore and astrology

A violet-to-purple form of quartz. It is prized as a precious stone. Amethyst (SiO2) is a violet or purple variety of quartz often used as an ornament. the ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. In the 20th century, the color of amethyst was attributed to the presence of manganese. …

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Amherst

42º23N 72º31W, pop (2000e) 34 900. Town in Hampshire Co, Massachusetts, USA; 128 km/79 mi W of Boston; settled, 1727; incorporated, 1759; birthplace of Emily Dickinson, P D Eastman, Helen Hunt Jackson. Amherst is the name of several places, named for Jeffrey Amherst: Amherst can also mean Amherst College, an educational institution in Amherst, Massachusetts, as well as the…

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Amidah - When Recited, Prayers in the weekday Amidah, Changes to the Amidah, Linguistic sources

(Heb ‘standing’) The principal component of the daily prayers of Talmudic Judaism, recited while standing, and said silently except when in a congregational service. It consists of 19 (originally 18) benedictions, firstly in praise of God, secondly asking for his help (petitions), and closing with thanksgiving. An altered form of the prayer is also recited on sabbaths and festivals. The A…

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Amiens

49°54N 2°16E, pop (2000e) 138 000. Agricultural market town and capital of Somme department, N France; 130 km/81 mi N of Paris, on left bank of R Somme; railway; university (1964); bishopric; textiles, food processing, chemicals, market gardening; birthplace of Pierre Choderlos de Laclos; war-time cemeteries at Arras to the E; house and grave of Jules Verne; Gothic cathedral (13th-c), larges…

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Amiens Cathedral

A 13th-c Gothic cathedral located in the historic town of Amiens, N France. The largest cathedral in France, it was commissioned by Bishop Evrard de Fouilloy and construction began under architect Robert de Luzarches in 1220. It measures 145 m/476 ft in length, and the elaborately decorated exterior has a double-towered west facade and an immense rose window. Later additions include the installa…

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Amintore Fanfani

Italian statesman and prime minister (1954, 1958–9, 1960–3, 1982–3), born in Pieve Santo Stefano, NWC Italy. A former professor of political economics, he was prime minister on five occasions. Nominated a life senator in 1972, he became president of the Italian Senate in 1968–73 and 1976–82. He was a member (and former secretary and chairman) of the Christian Democratic Party. …

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Amitai (Werner) Etzioni - Career, Bibliography (partial)

Sociologist, born in Cologne, W Germany. Raised in Palestine, he emigrated to the USA in 1957. He taught at Columbia (1958–80), then at George Washington University, and wrote prolifically for both scholarly and popular audiences, often on organizational analysis. His books include A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations (1961) and The Moral Dimension (1988). Having fled to Palesti…

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Amman - History, Geography, Transportation, Tourism, Gallery, External Links

31°57N 35°52E, pop (2000e) 1 996 000. Industrial and commercial capital city of Jordan; in Amman governorate, East Bank, on the R Zarqa; capital of the Ammonite kingdom in Biblical times; capital of Transjordan, 1923; many refugees after the Arab–Israeli Wars; airport; railway; university (1962); noted for its locally-quarried coloured marble; food processing, textiles, paper, plastics; Roma…

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Ammianus Marcellinus - Biography, Work

Roman historian, born of Greek parents in Antioch, S Turkey (formerly Syria). He wrote in Latin a history of the Roman Empire from AD 98 in 31 books, of which only the last 18 are extant. His work was therefore a continuation of that of Tacitus. Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. He was born about 325‑330, probably a…

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ammonia - History, Synthesis and production, Biosynthesis, Properties, Uses

NH3, boiling point ?33°C. A colourless gas with a pungent odour; its molecule is pyramidal with bond angles c.107°C. It is a weak base; aqueous solutions partially neutralized with strong acid have a pH c.9·5. It reacts with acids to form ammonium ions. An important industrial chemical, it is mainly prepared by the Haber process. An ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramid shape, as predi…

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ammonite - Classification, Life, Shell anatomy and diversity, Size, Distribution, Trivia, Terminological Note

An extinct, nautilus-like mollusc; found extensively as fossil shells from the Devonian to the Upper Cretaceous periods; shell external in life, typically a flattened spiral, divided internally by transverse walls. (Class: Cephalopoda. Subclass: Ammonoidea.) Ammonites are an extinct group of marine animals of the subclass Ammonoidea in the class Cephalopoda, phylum Mollusca. Ori…

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ammonium - Substituted ammonium ions

NH4+. A cation formed by the reaction of ammonia with acid. It is found in many salts, particularly the chloride (sal ammoniac) and the carbonate (sal volatile). Aqueous solutions of ammonia are often called ammonium hydroxide. The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion of the chemical formula NH4R4, where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic radical groups (wh…

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Ammonius

Greek philosopher, who received his surname because in his youth he was a sack-carrier in Alexandria. He was the founder of the Neoplatonic school, but left no writings, and was teacher of Plotinus, Origen, and Longinus. Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. Of humble origin, he appears to have…

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amnesia - Types of amnesia, Amnesia in fiction

Memory disability, often associated with brain damage or a traumatic event. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to remember material learned before the precipitating event. Anterograde amnesia is difficulty in learning new material. The most common form of amnesia is one in which short-term memory is adequate, long-term episodic memory (the ability to remember specific past events) is poor, and lo…

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Amnesty International - Rationale, Early history: 1961-1979 and origins, Recent history: 1980-2005, Work

A human rights organization founded in London in 1961 largely by the efforts of Peter Benenson (1921–2005), a Catholic lawyer. It is based in the UK, but there are several groups in other, mainly industrialized, countries. The fundamental concern of Amnesty is to seek the immediate and unconditional release of prisoners of conscience, as long as they have not advocated violence. It also campaigns…

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amniocentesis - Risks, Procedure

A diagnostic procedure performed at 14–18 weeks gestation which involves withdrawal of a small sample of amniotic fluid from within the uterus using a needle inserted through the abdominal wall under ultrasound guidance. Amniotic fluid is in close contact with the fetus, and contains cells that can be analysed to reveal many congenital fetal abnormalities. These include Down's syndrome and spina …

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amoebiasis - Transmission, Prevention, Nature of the disease, Diagnosis of human illness, Relative frequency of the disease, Treatment

A disease caused by infection with the protozoan parasite entamoeba histolytica, acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated with faeces containing infected cysts. Once inside the gut, the cysts hatch to release the adult organisms, which irritate the gut lining resulting in severe bloody diarrhoea. They also invade the lining to enter the blood stream, and circulate throughout the body fo…

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amorphous solid - Glasses, Other synthesis routes, Toward a strict definition

A solid in which the atoms are in some disordered arrangement, lacking the perfect ordered structure of crystals, as in glass, rubber, and polymers. Many substances may form either amorphous or crystalline states having radically different properties. An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. Most classes of solid materials can be fou…

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Amory (Bloch) Lovins - Life and work, Quotes, Books

Physicist and writer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He studied at Harvard and Oxford, and resigned a physics research fellowship at Merton College, Oxford, to work for Friends of the Earth. A consultant on energy issues, he published widely on energy and other environmental matters, including Non-Nuclear Futures (1975), which he co-wrote. In 1982 he became director of research for…

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Amos

Old Testament prophet, the earliest prophet in the Bible to have a book named after him. A herdsman from the village of Tekoa, near Bethlehem of Judaea, he denounced the iniquities of the N kingdom of Israel. Amos may be: People Software Other …

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Amos (Wilson) Rusie

Baseball pitcher, born in Mooresville, Indiana, USA. During his 10-year career (1889–1901), mostly with the New York Giants, he won 243 games. Three times, the right-hander won 30 or more games in a season, and he was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1977. Amos Wilson Rusie (May 30, 1871 - December 6, 1942), nicknamed "The Hoosier Thunderbolt", was a hard-throwing right-handed Major L…

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Amos Alonzo Stagg - Innovations in Football

Coach of American football, born in West Orange, New Jersey, USA. An end for Yale, he was named to the first All-America team (1889) and began his 72-year coaching career the next year. In 1892 he became coach at the University of Chicago, remaining until 1932, when he reached the school's mandatory retirement age of 70. During his tenure there, he produced four undefeated teams and won seven West…

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Amos Eaton - Eaton's students

Botanist, born in Chatham, New York, USA. He studied at Williams College (1799) and was admitted to the bar (1802), but gave up law to study botany at Yale. From 1810 he gave public lectures in New England and New York and wrote a botany textbook. His major work, Manual of Botany for the Northern States (1817), had its last edition in 1840. He became professor of natural history at the Medical Sch…

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Amos Kendall - Books

Journalist and public official, born in Dunstable, Massachusetts, USA. A Dartmouth graduate, he became editor of The Argus of Western America (1816–28) in Frankfort, KY, championing Andrew Jackson, whom he followed to Washington. As treasury auditor (1828–34) and postmaster-general (1834–40), he rooted out corruption, and as an intimate friend and adviser he wrote many of Jackson's speeches. He…

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Amos Oz - Life, Works, Politics, Acknowledgement

Novelist, born in Jerusalem, Israel. He studied at the Hebrew University there and at Oxford, served in the Israeli army, and worked part-time as a schoolteacher as well as a writer. His novels describe the tensions of life in modern Israel, and include (trans titles) Elsewhere, Perhaps (1966), My Michael (1968), In the Land of Israel (1982), and Don't Call it Night (1995). Later books include Pan…

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Amos Tutuola - Early history, Writing, Selected bibliography, For further information

Novelist, born in Abeokuta, SW Nigeria. He was celebrated in the West as the author of The Palm-Wine Drinkard (1952), a transcription in pidgin English prose of an oral tale of his own invention. Later novels in the same manner included My Life in the Bush of Ghosts (1954), The Brave African Huntress (1958), Ajaiyi and His Inherited Poverty (1967), and The Wild Hunter in the Bush of Ghosts (1989).…

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ampere - Definition, Explanation, Proposed future definition

The base SI unit of current; symbol A, often called amp, named after André Ampère; defined as the constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible cross-section, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce a force equal to 2 × 10?7 N/m. The ampere (symbol: A) is the SI base unit of electric current. The amper…

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amphetamine - History, Toxicity, Chemistry, Pharmacology, Application range, Medicinal use, Effects of use, Addiction, Legal issues

A powerful stimulant of the central nervous system, which causes wakefulness and alertness, elevates mood, increases self-confidence, loquaciousness, and the performance of simple mental tasks, and improves physical performance. Initially, it decreases appetite. It is widely abused to increase energy and alertness, but tolerance often develops after repeated use. Its effects are followed by mental…

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Amphiaraus

In Greek mythology, the son of Oecles and Hypermestra, and father of Alcmaeon and Amphilocus. A seer and warrior, he drove Adrastus, his cousin, out of Argos. Later, Adrastus resentfully gave his sister, Eriphyle, in marriage to Amphiaraus, stipulating that if the two cousins quarelled again, she would give judgement. Adrastus called on a reluctant Amphiaraus to march against Thebes in order to re…

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amphibian - History of amphibians, Classification, Reproduction

A vertebrate animal of class Amphibia (c.4000 species), exhibiting a wide range of characters and lifestyles; usually four legs and glandular skin, lacking scales or other outgrowths; larvae usually live in water and breathe through feathery external gills; undergo a metamorphosis during development, when the gills shrink and disappear; adults breathe using lungs (and partly through the skin); thr…

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amphisbaena - Appearance, Abilities, Uses, References in heraldry

A reptile native to South and Central America, Africa, SW Asia, and SW Europe; body worm-like with encircling rings; no legs or only front legs present; small eyes covered by skin; the only truly burrowing reptile; eats small animals; also known as worm lizard or ringed lizard. (Order: Squamata. Suborder: Amphisbaenia, 140 species.) Amphisbaena (pronounced: /ˌæmfɪsˈbiːnə/, plural: amp…

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Amphitrite

In Greek mythology, a goddess of the sea, married to Poseidon. She is the mother of Triton and other minor deities. Amphitrite, in ancient Greek mythology, was an ancient sea-goddess, who became the consort of Poseidon; Amphitrite, "the third one who encircles (the sea)", was so entirely confined in her authority to the sea and the creatures in it, that she was all but never ass…

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Amphitryon - Dramatic treatments

In Greek mythology, the husband of Alcmene. In his absence, Zeus took his shape and so became the father of Heracles. Amphitryon, or Amphitrion, in Greek mythology, was a son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis. Amphitryon ("harassing either side") was a Theban general, who was originally from Tiryns in the eastern part of the Peloponnese. Having accidentally kille…

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amplitude

In a wave or oscillation, the maximum displacement from equilibrium or rest position; symbol A. It is always a positive number. Amplitude is a nonnegative scalar measure of a wave's magnitude of oscillation, that is, magnitude of the maximum disturbance in the medium during one wave cycle. In the following diagram, the displacement y is the amplitude of the wave. …

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amplitude modulation (AM) - Forms of amplitude modulation, Example, Modulation index, Amplitude modulator designs

In wave motion, the altering of wave amplitude in a systematic way, leaving frequency unchanged. In AM radio, an electrical signal is used to modulate the amplitude of the broadcast carrier radio wave. A radio receiver reproduces the signal from the modulated wave by demodulation. Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting infor…

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amputation - Types, Self-amputation, After-effects

The surgical removal of a part of the body because of disease or injury. The operation is carried out when the affected part has been irreparably damaged and is no longer functional, or when there is a risk of the disease (particularly infection) spreading to the rest of the body. Diabetic complications are a common reason for amputations of fingers and toes and even whole limbs. It is sometimes p…

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Amritsar - Background, Language, Religious Shrines, Other, Education

31°35N 74°57E, pop (2000e) 833 000. City in Punjab, NW India; centre of the Sikh religion; founded in 1577 by Ram Das around a sacred tank, known as the pool of immortality; the Golden Temple, found at the centre of the tank, is particularly sacred to Sikhs; under the gold and copper dome is kept the sacred book of the Sikhs, Adi Granth; centre of the Sikh empire in the 19th-c, and of modern S…

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Amsterdam - History, Coat of arms, City government, Tourist attractions, Nightlife, Weather, Economy, Academia, Public transport, Private transport

52°23N 4°54E, pop (2000e) 746 000. Major European port and capital city of The Netherlands, in North Holland province, W Netherlands; at the junction of the R Amstel and an arm of the Ijsselmeer; chartered, 1300; member of the Hanseatic League, 1369; capital, 1808; airport (Schiphol), railway; two universities (1632, 1880); harbour industry developed after World War 2; major transshipping poin…

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Amun - Origin of name, God of Air, Creator, King, Fertility God, Sun God, Decline, Derived Terms

From the time of the Middle Kingdom, the supreme deity in Egyptian religion. Later he was given the qualities of the sun-god Re, hence the usual title Amun-Re. The name means ‘the hidden one’. Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most impor…

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Amy (Lawrence) Lowell - Personal life and career

Imagist poet, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA, the sister of Percival and A Lawrence Lowell. Privately educated, an unconventional member of the great Lowell dynasty, she began to write poetry in her late 20s, producing volumes of free verse which she named ‘unrhymed cadence’ and ‘polyphonic prose’, as in Sword Blades and Poppy Seed (1914). She also wrote several critical volumes, and a …

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Amy (Marcy) Beach - Selected discography

Composer and pianist, born in Henniker, New Hampshire, USA. She made her professional debut as a pianist in Boston in 1884, the next year appearing with the Boston Symphony. Also in 1884 she married Dr Henry H A Beach (d.1910), who encouraged her shift to composing, even though she had little formal instruction in it. Her Gaelic Symphony, premiered by the Boston Symphony in 1896, was the first suc…

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Amy Clampitt - Life, Works

Poet, born near New Providence, Iowa, USA. Raised on a farm in Iowa, she attended Columbia University but dropped out before graduating. She worked for Oxford University Press and the National Audubon Society in New York before winning a trip to England for an essay competition. It was there that she started writing poetry. Her first major collection, The Kingfisher (1983), was immediately success…

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Amy Johnson - Early life, Notable Flights, Death, Trivia

Pioneer aviator, born in Hull, NE England, UK. She flew solo from England to Australia (1930), to Japan via Siberia (1931), and to Cape Town (1932), making new records in each case. A pilot in Air Transport Auxiliary in World War 2, she was drowned after bailing out over the Thames estuary. Amy Johnson (July 1, 1903 – January 5, 1941) was a notable English aviatrix who was born in Kingsto…

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Amy Vanderbilt

Authority on etiquette, born in Staten Island, New York, USA, the cousin of ‘Commodore’ Cornelius Vanderbilt. She studied journalism at New York University and worked in advertising, publicity, and journalism before Doubleday invited her to write an etiquette manual. Amy Vanderbilt's Complete Book of Etiquette (1952, frequently revised) established her as the leading American authority on good m…

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amyl - Biochemistry, Chemistry, Slang

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2–, IUPAC pentyl. A group derived from pentane by removing one hydrogen atom. Amyl alcohol is a fraction of fusel oil, boiling point c.130°C, a mixture of several isomers of C5H11OH. Amylose is a low molecular weight fraction of starch. Amyloid is a combination of protein and polysaccharides deposited as a fibrous substance in some animal organs affected by certain diseases (eg kur…

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amyl nitrite - Chemistry, Physiological effects

(C5H11NO2) A drug in the form of a volatile liquid, administered by inhalation, which acts very rapidly and very briefly. It has some use in the treatment of angina but is also sold as a sex aid (‘poppers’). It is also used in the emergency treatment of cyanide poisoning. The chemical compound amyl nitrite (here referring to isoamyl nitrite) is an alkyl nitrite. Isoamyl nitrit…

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An Lushan

Chinese general under the Tang dynasty in China (618–907), of Turkish origin. He overthrew the crown, and established the short-lived Yan dynasty (755–7). He was patronized by Yang Guifei, mistress to Emperor Xuanzong (ruled 712–55), who adopted him as her son. Controlling 160 000 troops as commandant of three NE regions, he revolted in 755, capturing Luoyang and Changan (Xian). The emperor fl…

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An Wang

Physicist and business executive, born in Shanghai, E China. He studied at Jiao Tong University in Shanghai, then emigrated to the USA (1945), where he studied applied physics at Harvard. A computer specialist, he invented the magnetic core memory, and founded Wang Laboratories in Boston, MA (1951), now one of the world's largest automation systems firms. He introduced a desktop computer named LOC…

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anabatic wind

A local upslope wind which develops best in a valley. During the day the air in contact with the valley sides is heated to a greater degree than air at the same elevation but above the valley floor. This leads to convectional rising of the heated air, and a circulation pattern of upslope airflow from valley floor to ridge, to replace rising air. Windspeeds of 10–15 m/32–50 ft per second can oc…

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anaconda

A boa from South America (Eunectes murinus), the largest snake in the world; may be more than 11 m/36 ft long, weighing over 500 kg/1100 lb; dull colour with large irregular dark spots; inhabits slow-moving water; may climb low trees; eats birds, mammals, caimans, turtles; also known as the green anaconda. …

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Anacreon - Life, Poetry, A translated poem, Anacreon and the Star Spangled Banner, Poets named after Anacreon

Greek lyric poet, from Teos, modern Turkey. He was invited to Samos by Polycrates to tutor his son, and after the tyrant's downfall, was taken to Athens by Hipparchus, son of the tyrant Pisistratus. He was famous for his satires and his elegant poems on love and wine, of which only fragments of his five books remain. Anacreon (Greek Ἀνακρέων) (born ca. Anacreon was born…

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Anagni - Geography, History, Christian Anagni, Anagni and the Roman Catholic Church, Main sights, Language and dialect

41º75N 13º14E, pop (2002e) 20 300. Historic city in Lazio region, WC Italy; birthplace of popes Innocent III, Gregory IX, and Boniface VIII, and known as the ‘city of the popes’; cathedral (1074) rises on the site of the ancient acropolis; Town Hall (1200), palace of Boniface VIII (14th-c), Barnekow House 14th-c); tourism. Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, i…

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anagram - History, Astronomy, Methods, Crosswords, Games and puzzles

The re-arrangement of the letters of a word or sentence to produce a new form or a puzzle. Often an ingenious analogue to the original word can be found, eg total abstainers?sit not at ale bars. An anagram (Greek ana- = "back" or "again", and graphein = "to write") is a type of word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce other words, using all the o…

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analog computer - Background, Mechanisms, Components, Limitations, Current research, Practical examples, Real computers, Reference

Computers which accept, as inputs, continuous electrical or mechanical variables (such as voltage or current or the rotation rate or position of a shaft) and respond immediately to calculate relevant output signals. The processing is generally done by special electrical circuits, usually operational amplifiers, or by complex mechanical arrangements of gears, cogs, etc. Examples range from the auto…

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analogy - Usage of the terms source and target, Models and theories of analogy

A type of inference whose form is ‘because x is like y in some respects it will be in other respects’. Analogy can be suggestive, and sometimes works, but it is not a deductive proof. The argument from analogy for the existence of God, popular in the 18th-c and 19th-c, maintained that the universe is like a mechanism; therefore just as a mechanism requires a maker, so does the universe. A…

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analytic language - Features of analytic languages

A type of language in which words do not vary their form to show their grammatical function in a sentence; also known as an isolating language. In such languages (eg Chinese), the relationships between the words are shown solely by their order. Analytic languages are opposed to synthetic languages, in which words typically combine a grammatical meaning with their dictionary meaning; for example, t…

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analytic philosophy - The term analytic philosophy, Relation to continental philosophy, Formalism and natural languages, Formalism, Natural language

The dominant tradition in 20th-c Anglo-American academic philosophy, often contrasted with French or German philosophical traditions such as phenomenology or existentialism. Much influenced by Frege, Russell, Moore, and Wittgenstein early in the 20th-c, it emphasized the importance of logical and linguistic analysis to solve or dissolve philosophical problems. Analytic philosophy is…

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analytical chemistry - Types, Techniques, Methods, Trends

A branch of chemistry dealing with the composition of material. It includes qualitative and quantitative determinations of elements present, as well as structural analysis. The methods used are based either on chemical reactions or on physical properties, generally electrochemical or spectroscopic. Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their ch…

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anamorphosis

An image drawn or painted in trick perspective so that it appears distorted from a normal viewpoint, but when seen from an extraordinary angle, or through a lens, appears normal. A famous example is the skull in Holbein's Ambassadors in the National Gallery, London. An anamorphosis is a distorted projection or perspective; Leonardo's Eye (Leonardo da Vinci, ca 1485) is the earli…

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Ananda

The cousin and favourite pupil of the Buddha. Noted for his devotion to the Buddha, and a skilled interpreter of his teachings, he was instrumental in establishing an order for women disciples. Ananda (Chinese: 阿難, A Nan) was one of many principal disciples and a devout attendant of the Buddha. Ananda was the first cousin of the Buddha, and was devoted to him. Be…

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anaphylaxis - Emergency treatment, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

A severe allergic reaction which occurs when an individual has been previously sensitized by contact with an allergen. It occurs within a few minutes of exposure, and the clinical response depends upon the tissue affected. Examples of local anaphylaxis include asthma, hay fever, red and itching skin weals (urticaria), and swelling of the tissues of the throat. A severe degree of generalized anaphy…

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anarchism - Origins, Schools of Anarchist Thought, Anarchism as a Social Movement, Issues in anarchism

A generic term for political ideas and movements that reject the state and other forms of authority and coercion in favour of a society based exclusively upon voluntary co-operation between individuals. To anarchists the state, whether democratic or not, is always seen as a means of supporting a ruling class or elite, and as an encumbrance to social relations. However, they differ in their view of…

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Anastasia

Youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, born near St Petersburg, NW Russia, believed to have perished when the Romanov family were executed by the Bolsheviks (19 Jul 1918). Various people later claimed to be Anastasia, especially Mrs ‘Anna Anderson’ Manahan, from the Black Forest, who died in Virginia, USA, in 1984 at the age of 82. For more than 30 years she fought unsuccessfully to es…

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Anastasio Bustamante

Mexican president (1830–2, 1837–41) and general, born in Jiquilpan, Michoacan, Mexico. While serving as vice-president under Guerrero (1829), he plotted a successful revolution with the aid of Santa Anna, and had Guerrero captured and shot. Bustamante installed himself as president (1830) and military dictator, but Santa Anna gained popularity and seized control (1832), forcing Bustamante into e…

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Anatole France - Works, partial list, Famous sayings

Writer, born in Paris, France. He worked as a publisher's reader, and in 1879 published his first volume of stories. He wrote several graceful, lively novels, which contrast with his later, satirical, sceptical works. The Dreyfus case (1896) stirred him into politics as a champion of internationalism. Among his later novels are L'Ile des pingouins (1908, Penguin Island) and Les Dieux ont soif (191…

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Anatolia - Geography, History

Asiatic region of Turkey, usually synonymous with Asia Minor; a mountainous peninsula between the Black Sea (N), Aegean Sea (W), and the Mediterranean Sea (S). Anatolia is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). The name comes from the Greek Aνατολή (Αna…

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anatomy - Animal anatomy, Human anatomy

The science concerned with the form, structure, and spatial relationships of a living organism, and the relation of structure to function. It originally referred to the cutting up of the body to determine the nature and organization of its parts, but nowadays it includes many other aspects of study. Topographic or gross anatomy deals with the relative positions of various body parts. Systemic anat…

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Anaxagoras - Biography, Cosmological theory, Theism and atheism, References and further reading

Greek philosopher, born in Clazomenae. For 30 years he taught in Athens, where he had many illustrious pupils, among them Pericles and Euripides. His scientific speculations led to his prosecution for impiety, and he was banished from Athens. His most celebrated cosmological doctrine was that matter is infinitely divisible into particles, which contain a mixture of all qualities, and that mind (no…

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Anaximander - Cosmology and the apeiron, Interpretations, Known Works

Greek philosopher, born in Miletus, the successor and perhaps pupil of Thales. He posited that the first principle was not a particular substance like water or air but the apeiron, the infinite or indefinite. He is credited with producing the first map, and with many imaginative scientific speculations, for example that the Earth is unsupported and at the centre of the universe. Anaximander…

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anchor - Development, Designs of temporary anchors, Designs of permanent anchors, Anchoring techniques

A device which prevents a vessel from drifting. The flukes or arms of an anchor dig into the seabed, thus resisting a horizontal pull; it is made fast to the ship by a heavy cable, usually of studded chain. There are two basic types: the old-fashioned anchor with a stock, usually depicted on badges and flags; and the modern, more common, stockless anchor. The stockless anchor consists of a shank a…

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anchovy - Biology, Habitat, As a food source, Spain beaching incident

Any of the small herring-like fishes of the family Engraulidae, widespread in surface coastal waters of tropical and temperate seas; support extensive commercial fisheries, much of the catch being processed before sale. (5 genera, including Anchoa, Engraulis.) The anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small but common schooling saltwater plankton-feeding fish. The anchovy is a…

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ancient lights

In English law, an easement acquired through 20 years' uninterrupted use, and not by consent or permission, whereby one property owner can claim the right against another property owner to enjoy at least a reasonable amount of light. Where it exists, this right may restrict building on neighbouring property. A restrictive covenant against building may be more effective, but such a covenant cannot …

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Ancona - History

43º37N 13º31E, pop (2002e) 98 100. Seaport and capital town of Ancona province, Marche region, EC Italy; a naval and commercial port on the Adriatic coast; bishopric; birthplace of Pietro Belluschi; airfield; rail junction; ferries to Greece and Montenegro; shipbuilding; grain, pharmaceuticals; Arch of Trajan (AD 115); cathedral of San Ciriaco (12th-c); International Angling and Water Sports F…

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Ancus Marcius

Traditionally, the fourth king of Rome. He is said to have conquered the neighbouring Latin tribes, and settled them on the Aventine. Ancus Marcius is merely a duplicate of Numa, as is shown by his second name, Numa Marcius, the confidant and pontifex of Numa, being no other than Numa Pompilius himself, represented as priest. The identification with Ancus is shown by the legend which …

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Andalusia

pop (2000e) 6 950 000; area 87 268 km²/33 685 sq mi. Large and fertile autonomous region of S Spain; dominated by the great basin of the R Guadalquivir and (S) by the Baetic Cordillera, rising to 3478 m/11 411 ft at Cerro de Mulhacén, Spain's highest peak; S coastal strip known for its tourist resorts on the Costa del Sol and the Costa de la Luz; sugar cane, fruit, bananas, wine, cott…

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Andalusian horse - History of the breed, Breed Characteristics

A breed of horse; height, 16 hands/1·6 m/5½ ft; grey (occasionally black); developed in Spain over many centuries by crossing African, Spanish, and German horses; a less refined version is called the Andalusian-Carthusian or Carthusian. The Andalusian horse is one of the purest breeds of horses in the world today. It is also known as PRE (Pura Raza Española) in most countries because o…

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andalusite - Details, Related minerals

One of the three varieties of mineral aluminium silicate (Al2SiO5), found in metamorphic rocks, the others being kyanite and sillimanite. Its importance lies as an indicator of the pressure and temperature of metamorphism in rocks. …

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands - History, Geography, Flora, Fauna, Economy, Macro-economic trend

pop (2001e) 356 300; area 8300 km²/3200 sq mi. Union territory of India, comprising two island groups in the Bay of Bengal; separated from Myanmar, Thailand, and Sumatra by the Andaman Sea; over 300 islands, stretching 725 km/450 mi N to S; occupied by Japan in World War 2; part of India, 1950; British penal colony on Andaman Is, 1858–1945; Cellular Jail at Port Blair now a national shrin…

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Andaman Sea - Ocean floor tectonics, Volcanic activity

area 564 900 km²/218 000 sq mi. NE arm of the Indian Ocean; bounded E by Myanmar and Thailand, N by the Gulf of Martaban, S by Sumatra, and W by the Andaman and Nicobar Is. At its southeastern reaches, the Andaman Sea narrows to form the Straits of Malacca, which separate the Malay Peninsula from the island of Sumatra. Running in a rough north-south line on the seabed of t…

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Andean Community of Nations (CAN) - Relationship with other organizations, Organization, Secretaries-General, Free flow of people

An organization modelled on the European Union, with four member countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (Venezuela withdrew in 2006), all members of the Latin-American Free Trade Association. It was previously known as the Andean Pact (1969–96). Chile, a founding member, withdrew in 1976. Its aims are to facilitate development of the member states through economic and social co-operation…

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Anders Celsius - Publications

Astronomer, born in Uppsala, E Sweden. He became professor at Uppsala (1730), and devised the centigrade scale (Celsius scale) of temperature in 1742. He advocated the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, and made observations of the aurora borealis. In 1740 he became director of the observatory at Uppsala that had been built in his honour. Anders Celsius (November 27, 1701 – April 25,…

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Andes - Physical features, Peaks

Major mountain range in South America, running parallel to the Pacific coast from Tierra del Fuego (S) to the Caribbean (N), passing through Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela; extends over 6400 km/4000 mi; rises to 6960 m/22 834 ft in the Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina), the highest point in South America; in N Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia, there are seve…

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andesite - Genesis of Andesite

Fine-grained volcanic rock of intermediate composition containing plagioclase feldspar with biotite, hornblende, or pyroxene; chemically equivalent to diorite. Andesites are formed at the continental edge of subduction zones, forming new continental crust, as in the Andes Mts, South America. Andesite (IPA: /ˈandəsʌɪt/) is an igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with apha…

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Andhra Pradesh - Prehistory, History, Post-independence history, Dynasties, Regions, Districts, Important Cities, Languages in Andhra Pradesh, Politics

pop (2001e) 75 727 500; area 276 814 km²/106 850 sq mi. State in S India, bounded E by the Bay of Bengal; capital, Hyderabad; made a separate state based on Telugu-speaking area of Chennai (Madras), 1953; unicameral Legislative Assembly with 295 seats; sugar cane, groundnuts, cotton, rice, tobacco; textiles, sugar milling, chemicals, cement, fertilizer, paper, carpets, natural gas, oil re…

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Andorra - Economy

Official name Principality of Andorra, Principat d'Andorra The Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra, French: Principauté d'Andorre, Spanish: Principado de Andorra) is a small landlocked principality in southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by France and Spain. Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do econom…

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Andorra la Vella - Geography and climate, History, Sights and culture, Economy

42°30N 1°30E, pop (2000e) 28 300. One of the seven parishes of the Principality of Andorra, with a capital city of the same name; on the E side of the Pic d'Enclar (2317 m/7602 ft), 613 km/381 mi NE of Madrid; on R Valira; altitude 1029 m/3376 ft; airports; forms an urban nucleus with Les Escaldes; commercial centre, tourism. Andorra la Vella (2004 est. 22,035) is the capital of t…

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Andre (Kirk) Agassi - Grand Slam singles finals, ATP Masters Series finals, Titles (61)

Tennis player, born in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. He turned professional in 1986, won the Association of Tennis Professionals Tour World Championships in 1990, and went on to win Wimbledon (1992), the US Open (1994, 1999), the Australian Open (1995, 2000, 2001, 2003), the French Open (1999), and other titles, leading the world rankings for much of 1995. At the beginning of 2006 he had a world ranking…

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Andrea Bocelli - Early life, Criticism, Discography

Tenor, born in Lajatico, Tuscany, NW Italy. Interested in music from an early age, he learned to play the piano, flute, and saxophone, and was often asked to sing at family gatherings. Visually impaired from birth, he became blind at the age of 12 following a football injury. He later studied law at the University of Pisa, spent a year working as a lawyer, then decided to try a singing career, fin…

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Andrea Cesalpino - Biography, Philosophical works, Medical and physiological works, Botanical works, Source

Botanist, anatomist, physician, and physiologist, born in Arezzo, NC Italy. He was professor of medicine and director of the botanic garden in Pisa (1553–92), then became physician to Pope Clement VIII. He propounded a theory of the circulation of the blood that pre-dated the work of Harvey, and initiated scientific plant classification based on methods suggested by Theophrastus. He was the autho…

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Andrea Costa

Italian politician, born in Imola, Emilia-Romagna, NC Italy. He was the leader of the Italian federation of the First International. An anarchist, he staged a number of riots and escaped first to Switzerland and then France. Back in Italy, he founded the Partito socialista rivoluzionario do Romagna (Revolutionary Socialist Party of Romagna) in 1881 and its mouthpiece, the weekly Avanti! (Forward).…

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Andrea da Firenze - Life, Music

Florentine painter. His most famous work is the monumental fresco cycle in the Spanish Chapel of the Dominican Church of S Maria Novella in Florence, painted c.1366–8. His only other documented work is the ‘Life of S Ranieri’, frescoes in the Campo Santo in Pisa, completed in 1377. Andrea da Firenze (Andreas da Florentia) (died 1415) was an Italian composer and organist of the late medie…

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Andrea del Castagno

Painter, born in Castagno, NW Italy. After early privations he attracted the attention of Bernardetto de' Medici, who sent him to study in Florence. In c.1440 he painted some effigies of men hanged by their heels, which established his reputation as a painter of violent scenes. His celebrated ‘Last Supper’, painted for S Apollonia, is now in the Castagno Museum, as are his series of ‘Famous Men…

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Andrea del Sarto - Early life and training, Frescoes at SS Annunziata in Florence, Visit to France

Painter, born in Florence, NC Italy, the son of a tailor (It sarto ‘tailor’). He was engaged by the Servites to paint a series of frescoes for their Church of the Annunciation (1509–14), and a second series was next painted for the Recollets. Many of his most celebrated pictures are in Florence. Andrea del Sarto, true name Andrea d'Agnolo di Francesco di Luca di Paolo del Migliore, (1486…

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Andrea del Verrocchio - Early life and training, Independent work, Maturity as a sculptor, Major works

Sculptor, painter, and goldsmith, born in Florence, NC Italy. Of the paintings ascribed to him, only the ‘Baptism’ (1474/5) in the Uffizi is certain, and this was completed by Leonardo da Vinci, whom he taught. He is best known for his equestrian statue of Colleoni at Venice. Andrea del Verrocchio, born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, (c. 1435 -1488) was an influential Florentin…

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Andrea Doria - Early life, Wars between France and the Holy Roman Empire, Reestablishment of the Genoese Republic

Genoese commander and statesman, born in Oneglia, NW Italy. In 1513 he received command of the Genoese fleet, and defeated the Turkish corsairs off Pianosa (1519). The imperial faction were restored to power in Genoa (1522), and Doria transferred his allegiance to Francis I of France. In command of the French fleet, he defeated the Emperor Charles V, blockaded Genoa, and proclaimed the independenc…

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Andrea Gabrieli - Life, Works, Sources

Composer, born in Venice, NE Italy. After studying under Lassus he became organist of St Mark's Church. He wrote Masses and other choral works. Several of his organ pieces foreshadow the fugue. Details on Gabrieli's early life are sketchy. Working in the unique acoustical space of St. Mark's, he was able to develop his unique, grand ceremonial style, which was enormously influential i…

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Andrea Mantegna - Biography, Work in Mantua, Engravings, Assessment and legacy, Major works, Reading

Painter, born in Vicenza, NE Italy. He was apprenticed to the tailor-painter Francesco Squarcione in Padua, and seems to have been adopted by him. In 1459 he was persuaded by Ludovico Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, to work for him. His most important works were nine tempera pictures of ‘The Triumph of Caesar’ (1482–92), which were acquired by Charles I and are now at Hampton Court, and his decoration…

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Andrea Palladio - History

Architect, born in Vicenza, NE Italy. He founded modern Italian architecture, as distinguished from the earlier Italian Renaissance. The Palladian style, modelled on the ancient Roman, can be seen in many places and villas in the Vicenza region, notably the Villa Rotonda (1550–1). I quattro libri dell' architettura (1570, The Four Books of Architecture) greatly influenced his successors. A…

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Andrea Pisano

Sculptor, born in Pontedera, W Italy. He became famous as a worker in bronze and a sculptor in marble, settling in Florence. In 1337 he succeeded Giotto as chief artist in the cathedral at Florence, and later became chief artist in the cathedral at Orvieto (1347), working on reliefs and statues. Andrea Pisano (c. Pisano then became a pupil of Mino di Giovanni, about 1300, and worked with hi…

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Andrea Sacchi - Early training, Mature style, Controversy with Pietro da Cortona, Main works

Painter, born in Netturo, near Rome, WC Italy. A pupil of Francesco Albani, he upheld the Classical tradition in Roman painting. His works include ‘The Vision of St Romuald’ (1640, Vatican) and ‘Miracle of Saint Gregory’ (1625–7, Vatican), painted for Pope Urban VIII, and religious works in many Roman churches. Andrea Sacchi (1598 or 1600 - 1661) was an Italian painter of High Baroque …

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Andrea Zanzotto - Biography, Works in English translation

Poet, born in Pieve di Soligo, Veneto, NE Italy. He began with collections which give an elegiac view of his native land, Dietro il paesaggio (1951) and Vocativo (1957), then went on to explore in experimental language today's neuroses in La beltà (1968), Pasque (1973), and Fosfeni (1983). His work in dialect appeared in the collection Filò (1976). Andrea Zanzotto was born in Pieve di Sol…

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Andreas (Georgios) Papandreou - Early life and career, Political career, Legacy

Greek politician and prime minister (1981–9), born in Chios, Greece, the son of Georgios Papandreou. He studied at Athens University and Harvard, became a US citizen in 1944, made a brilliant academic career, then returned to Greece as director of the Centre for Economic Research in Athens (1961–4) and economic adviser to the Bank of Greece, resuming his Greek citizenship. Imprisoned and exiled …

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Andreas Achenbach

Landscape and marine painter, born in Kassel, C Germany. He studied at St Petersburg, then travelled extensively in Holland, Scandinavia, and Italy, where he produced many water-colours. His paintings of the North Sea coasts of Europe had considerable influence in Germany, and he came to be regarded as the father of 19th-c German landscape painting. Andreas Achenbach (September 29, 1815 - A…

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Andreas Baader

Anarchist and terrorist, born in Munich, SE Germany. He became associated with the student protest movement of the later 1960s and was imprisoned in 1968. Critical of Germany's post-war materialism and military dominance by the USA, he formed with Ulrike Meinhof the Rote Armee Fraktion (Red Army Faction), a band of underground urban guerrillas. The Faction helped Baader escape from prison in 1970 …

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Andreas Gryphius

Poet and playwright, born in Groß-Glogau, Silesia. A leading exponent of the High Baroque, a predominant theme was the ephemeral nature of being (stylistically he favoured Alexandrines and the sonnet). Widely travelled, he worked as astronomer in Leyden, where he studied languages in the late 1630s before going on to teach at the university and returning home. His cosmopolitan impressions enabled…

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Andreas Hofer

Tyrolese patriot leader and innkeeper, born in St Leonhard, W Austria. In 1808 he called the Tyrolese to arms to expel the French and Bavarians, and twice succeeded in freeing the Tyrol of invaders, but was eventually captured and, on Napoleon's orders, executed. Andreas Hofer (November 22, 1767 - February 20, 1810) was a Tyrolean innkeeper and patriot. Andreas Hofer was born 17…

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Andrei Codrescu

Poet and writer, born in Sibiu, Romania. He studied at the University of Bucharest (1965 BA) and emigrated to the USA in 1966. He taught at many institutions, such as Johns Hopkins (1979–80), the University of Baltimore (1982–4), and Louisiana State University (1984). His first poetry collection, License to Carry a Gun (1970), brought him critical acclaim, and his later works of poetry and prose…

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Andrew (Hull) Foote

US naval officer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He entered the navy in 1822, and was promoted captain in 1849. In 1856 he stormed four Chinese forts at Canton, which had fired on him. In the Civil War he organized the western flotilla, and in February 1862 stormed Fort Henry. Shortly afterwards he was wounded, and was forced to resign as rear admiral. Andrew Hull Foote (September 12,…

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Andrew (John) Wiles - Solution of Fermat's Last Theorem, Cultural references, Misc, Awards

Mathematician, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Clare College, Cambridge, and joined Princeton University in 1980. In 1993 he announced that he had solved one of mathematics' oldest mysteries, Fermat's last theorem - a problem which had intrigued him since childhood. His proof makes use of the Taniyama-Weil conjecture, a problem in number theory dealing with the nat…

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Andrew (Newell) Wyeth - Childhood/ Early career, Father's death / 1940s, Mature career, Critical reaction

Painter, born in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of N C Wyeth, the well-known illustrator, he grew up in the atmosphere of an artist's studio and the natural world. A sinus condition kept him from attending school, and he was tutored privately. He began drawing as a youth, but not until about age 15 did he begin to get instruction from his father. By 1937 he had a one-man show of his water…

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Andrew (Sharp) Peacock

Australian statesman, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He studied at Melbourne, and practised law before becoming a Liberal MP in 1966. He was foreign minister (1975–80) and minister for industrial relations (1980–1), but resigned from the government in 1981 over differences with prime minister Malcolm Fraser, and unsuccessfully challenged him for the Liberal leadership a year later. H…

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Andrew (Smith) Hallidie - Early life, Wire rope and bridges, Cable cars, Other activities

Engineer and inventor, born in London, UK. An inventor's son, he emigrated to California with his father in 1852 and became a mining engineer. He later designed and built many bridges in California. In 1871 he perfected the invention for which he is remembered, the cable railroad, and introduced San Francisco's famous cable cars in 1873. Andrew Smith Hallidie (16 March 1836 – 24 April 190…

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Andrew (Welsh) Imbrie

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After studies with Nadia Boulanger in France and Roger Sessions in the USA, he taught at the University of California, Berkeley. His music is noted for a firmly controlled use of Modernist materials. Andrew Walsh Imbrie (Born April 6, 1921) is an American composer of classical music. In 1937, he went to Paris to study briefly with …

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Andrew Alford - US Patents

Electrical engineer and inventor, born in Samara, EC Russia. He studied at the University of California (1924) and held engineering posts at Harvard and in private industry. His main work involved the development of antennas for radio navigation and instrument landing systems. His best-known invention is the Alford Loop antenna. Andrew Alford (August 5 1904, Samara, Russia - January 25 1992…

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Andrew Carnegie - Early life, Early career, Industrialist, 1901–1915: philanthropist, Later personal life, Controversies, Philosophy, Writings, Trivia

Industrialist and philanthropist, born in Dunfermline, Fife, E Scotland, UK. Although he had only a primary-school education, he grew up in a family that valued ideas and books as well as progressive social and economic reforms. His father was a handloom weaver, and he brought his family to the USA in 1848, where they joined relatives in Allegheny (now Pittsburgh), PA. He began as a bobbin boy in …

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Andrew Dickson White - Contribution to the conflict thesis, Bibliography

University president, diplomat, and historian, born in Homer, New York, USA. A historian of Europe, he planned and was the first president of Cornell University (1867–85), where his innovations included integrating natural sciences and technical arts and recruiting eminent ‘nonresident professors’. He was later a US diplomat posted to Germany and Russia, and was president of the International P…

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Andrew Duncan

Physician, born near St Andrews, Fife, E Scotland, UK. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and in 1773 started the publication ‘Medical and Philosophical Commentaries’, which was the only journal of its kind in Britain at that time. In 1792 he prompted the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh to establish a lunatic asylum, which came to fruition in 1807. …

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Andrew Fisher

Australian politician and prime minister (1908–9, 1910–13, 1914–15), born in Crosshouse, East Ayrshire, SW Scotland, UK. A coal-miner from the age of 12, he emigrated to Queensland in 1885. From mining, he gradually moved into trade union activity and politics, entering the Queensland state assembly in 1893 and the first federal parliament in 1901. He was Australian Labor Party leader in 1907, …

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Andrew Flintoff - Career story

Cricketer, born in Preston, Lancashire, NW England, UK A right-handed batsman and fast bowler, he joined Lancashire County Cricket Club at age 17, debuted for England against South Africa at Trent Bridge in 1998, and made his one-day international debut against Pakistan in Sharjah the following year. His first Ashes series, in England in 2005, proved an outstanding success. He contributed to his c…

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Andrew Hamilton

Lawyer and legislator, probably born in Scotland, UK. He emigrated to Virginia c.1700, and after serving as the steward of an estate he married the widow of its owner. She seems to have backed him in buying a large property in Maryland, where he took up the practice of law and served in the assembly. After visiting England (1712–13), he returned to settle in Philadelphia, where he became attorney…

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Andrew Henry - Details, Further information, The medal

Trapper and lead miner, born in York Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He moved to present-day Missouri (1800) where he engaged in lead mining. Joining the St Louis Missouri Fur Co (1809), he led the first party of American fur trappers W of the Rocky Mountains (1810–11). He became a hero among trappers for this event and for his exploits with William Ashley's trapping expedition in the West (1822–4). …

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Andrew Jackson - Early life and career, Military career, Election of 1824, Election of 1828, Presidency 1829-1837

US statesman and seventh president (1829–37), born in Waxhaw, South Carolina, USA. His parents left Carrickfergus in Nothern Ireland in 1765 and settled in the Carolinas. Reared in a frontier settlement and largely self-educated, he was admitted to the bar and in 1788 was named public prosecutor in Nashville, in North Carolina territory. When the territory became the new state of Tennessee, he be…

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Andrew Jackson Downing - Selected works

Landscape gardener and horticulturist, born in Newburgh, New York, USA. He learned horticulture in his family's nursery. He became widely influential with his views on designing landscape and buildings expressed in his A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841) and Cottage Residences (1842), and later wrote the standard text The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America (1845). He…

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Andrew Johnson - Early life, Early political career, Presidency 1865-1869, Post-Presidency, Trivia, Bibliography

US statesman and 17th president (1865–9), born in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Poor, self-educated but ambitious, he moved to Tennessee (1826) to pursue the tailor's trade. He saved enough money and soon entered politics, becoming an advocate of labour and popular democracy against the claims of birth and wealth. Beginning as an alderman, he worked his way up to represent Tennessee in the US Hou…

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Andrew Marr - Early Life, Media Career, Family, Statement on BBC bias

Journalist, broadcaster, and writer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied English at Cambridge and joined The Scotsman newspaper as a trainee business reporter in 1981, becoming parliamentary correspondent (1984), political correspondent (1986), and political editor (1986). He left to become political editor at The Economist (1988–92) then joined The Independent as chief political commenta…

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Andrew Marvell

Poet, politician and satirist, born in Winestead, Hull, NE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, travelled widely in Europe (1642–6), worked as a tutor, and became Milton's assistant (1657). He is remembered for his pastoral and love poems, notably ‘To His Coy Mistress’ and ‘Upon Appleton House’ (c.1652–3). Ranked among the metaphysical poets, his works were largely ignored until they were r…

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Andrew Meikle

Millwright and inventor, born in Houston Mill, East Lothian, E Scotland, UK. He inherited his father's mill, and invented the fantail (1750), a machine for dressing grain (1768), and the spring sail (1772). His most significant invention was a drum threshing machine which could be worked by wind, water, horse, or (some years later) steam power. He obtained a patent in 1788 and built a factory, but…

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Andrew Melville - Early life and early education, Travels and study in Europe, Return to Scotland

Presbyterian religious reformer, born in Baldovie, Angus, E Scotland, UK. He studied at St Andrews and Paris, and in 1568 became professor at Geneva. He was principal of Glasgow University (1574–80), then of St Mary's College, St Andrews. He had an important share in drawing up the controversial Second Book of Discipline. He succeeded John Knox in trying to preserve the independence of the Church…

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Andrew Motion - Biography, Publications

Poet, biographer, and novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became an English lecturer at Hull University (1976–80), and later professor of creative writing at the University of East Anglia (1995– ). His works include The Lamberts (1986, Somerset Maugham Award), a biography of Philip Larkin A Writer's Life (1993, Whitbread), a biography of Keats (1997), and Wainewright the Pois…

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Andrew Norton - Publications

Biblical scholar and Unitarian theologian, born in Hingham, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1804), held a pastorate in Maine for a time, and returned to Harvard as a tutor (1813). He was professor of divinity at Harvard (1819–30) after which he was an independent scholar. His Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gospels (3 vols, 1837–44) was one of the earliest critical studies of the …

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Andries (Wilhelmus Jacobus) Pretorius

Afrikaner leader, born in Graaff-Reinet, S South Africa (then Cape Colony). A prosperous farmer, he joined the Great Trek of 1836 into Natal, where he was chosen commandant-general. He later accepted British rule, but after differences with the governor he trekked again, this time across the Vaal. Eventually the British recognized the Transvaal Republic, later the South African Republic, whose new…

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Andries Both - Sources, List of known paintings

Painter, born in Utrecht, The Netherlands, the brother of Jan Both. Traditionally he was thought to have collaborated with his brother by painting the figures in Jan's landscapes, but is now recognized as the author of paintings and drawings of genre scenes more akin to the work of Brouwer. Andries Both (1612/13, Utrecht - March 23, 1642, Venice) Dutch genre painter, one of the bamboccianti…

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Andromache

In Greek legend, the wife of Hector, the hero of Troy. After the fall of the city she became the slave of the Greek Neoptolemus. In Greek mythology, Andromache (Ανδρομαχη) was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, and sister to Podes. The name means "battle of a man", from ανδρος (andros) "of a man" and μαχη (machē) "battle". During the Trojan War,…

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Andromeda (astronomy)

A constellation in the N sky, one of 48 listed by Ptolemy (AD 140), named after the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia. Its brightest stars are Alpheratz and Mirach. It contains the Andromeda galaxy, the largest of the nearby galaxies, c.725 kiloparsec away. It was mentioned by the Islamic astronomer as-Sufi in his book Book of Fixed Stars (AD 964), and rediscovered by the German astronomer Simon …

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Andromeda (mythology) - Myth, Origin of the Myth, The myth portrayed

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Cepheus, King of the Ethiopians, and Cassiopeia. To appease Poseidon, she was fastened to a rock by the sea-shore as an offering to a sea-monster. She was rescued by Perseus, who used the Gorgon's head to change the monster to stone. The persons named in the story were all turned into constellations. This story is also known as the Boast of Cassiopeia. …

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Andronicus

Greek architect, born in Cyrrhus. He constructed the Tower of the Winds at Athens, known in the Middle Ages as the Lantern of Demosthenes. …

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Andros (Bahamas) - Municipalities, Communities and settlements

pop (2000e) 9500; area 5955 km²/2300 sq mi. Island in the W Bahamas, W of New Providence I, on the Great Bahama Bank; largest island in the Bahamas; chief towns on the E coast; W shore is a long, low, barren bank. Coordinates: 37°50′N 24°56′E Andros, or Andro (Greek: Άνδρος), an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 1…

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Andros (Greece) - Municipalities, Communities and settlements

area 380 km²/147 sq mi. Northernmost island of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, between Euboea and Tinos; length 40 km/25 mi; chief town, Andros; bathing beaches at Batsi and Gavrion; rises to 994 m/3261 ft. Coordinates: 37°50′N 24°56′E Andros, or Andro (Greek: Άνδρος), an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximat…

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Andrzej Wajda - Life and work, Filmography

Film director, born in Suwa?ki, NE Poland. He studied art at the Krakow Academy of Fine Arts, then enrolled in the ?ód? film school (1950). His first feature film, Pokolenie (1954, A Generation), dealt with the effects of the war on disillusioned Polish youth. He is best known outside Poland for Czlowiek z marmary (1977, Man of Marble), dealing with the Stalinist era, and Czlowiek z zelaza (1981…

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Andy Goldsworthy - Artists with Similar Style

Artist and sculptor, born in Cheshire, NWC England, UK. He was brought up in Leeds and studied at Bradford College of Art and Preston Polytechnic. He works closely with nature, producing ephemeral works assembled from natural materials, such as stone, wood, foliage and water, which are then photographed. More permanent works include the series of chalk arches made for ‘Sculpture at Goodwood’ (19…

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Andy Roddick - Grand Slam singles finals, Titles (24), Singles runner-ups (11), Singles performance timeline

Tennis player, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. A junior number 1 world champion in 2000 (the youngest American to achieve this position since rankings began), he then turned professional, winning the US Open (2000) and the French Open (2002–3), and reaching the semi-finals at Wimbledon (2003). At the beginning of 2006 he had a world ranking of 3. He claimed the Cincinnati Masters title in August th…

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Andy Warhol - Biography, Works, Films portraying Warhol

Painter and film-maker, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. A founder of the Pop Art movement of the 1960s, he studied at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh (1945–9) and by 1950 had settled in New York City working as a commercial artist. By 1957 he began his series of silkscreen paintings based on comic strips, advertisements, and newspaper photos of public personalities. His pa…

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anechoic chamber - The Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber

A room or chamber in which all walls and surfaces are lined with a sound-absorbing material to minimize reflected sound; also called a dead room. A sound produced in such a chamber will have no echo. It is important in acoustic experiments in which reflected sound would confuse results. Acoustic anechoic chambers are used for measuring the acoustic properties of musical instruments, determi…

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anemometer - Velocity anemometers, Pressure anemometers, Notes on wind measurements

A device for measuring the speed of a current of air, usually used to determine the speed of wind, or of a vehicle passing through air. There are three main techniques: (1) the speed of rotation of various types of windmill (eg shaped vanes or cups on horizontal arms); (2) the rate of cooling of an electrically heated wire; and (3) pressure differences developed in an open-ended tube facing the di…

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anemone

A perennial found throughout N temperate and arctic regions, often forming large colonies; flowers with 5–9 perianth-segments ranging from white to yellow, pink, or blue, but hybrids exhibit an even greater colour range; the flower stalks have a whorl of small, divided leaves two-thirds of the way up; the main, basal leaves appear later. (Genus: Anemone, 150 species. Family: Ranunculaceae.) …

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Aneurin Bevan - Youth, Government, Backbenches

British statesman, born in Tredegar, Blaenau Gwent, SE Wales, UK. One of 13 children of a miner, he began work in the pits at 13. Active in trade unionism in the South Wales coalfield, he led the Welsh miners in the 1926 General Strike. He joined the Labour Party (1931), establishing a reputation as an irreverent and often tempestuous orator. He was Labour MP for Ebbw Vale (1929–60). In 1934 he m…

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aneurysm - Types, Locations, Risks, Treatment of aneurysms

The abnormal enlargement of a segment of a blood vessel (usually an artery) due to the weakening or rupture of some of the layers of the wall of the vessel. If the inner layer (intima) ruptures, blood passes between the layers of the vessel wall and may escape into surrounding tissues. Rupture of an aneurysm of the aorta or pulmonary trunk often proves fatal. An aneurysm (or aneurism) is a …

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Ang Lee - Career overview, Lingusitic diversity in Chinese films, Films, Awards

Film director, producer, and screenwriter, born in Taipei, Taiwan. He attended the National Taiwan College of Arts (1975), then went to the USA, where he studied at the University of Illinois and New York University. He made his directorial debut in 1992 with Pushing Hands, and earned Academy Award nominations for his next two films, The Wedding Banquet (1993) and Eat Drink Man Woman (1994). Later…

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angel - Angelology, Angels in the Tanakh, Jewish views, Christian views, Islamic views, Latter-Day Saint views

A celestial spirit, said to serve God in various capacities, such as acting as a messenger, or as a guardian of individuals. In traditional Christianity, angels were understood to have been created before the world. They feature prominently in Christian art, often depicted with a human body and wings. They are sometimes held to be objects of devotion. An angel is a supernatural being found …

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Angel Falls

5°57N 62°33W. Waterfall in SE Venezuela, on a tributary of the R Caroní; highest waterfall in the world, with a total drop of 980 m/3215 ft; named after the US aviator, Jimmy Angel, who crashed nearby in 1937. Angel Falls or Salto Ángel is the world's highest free-falling waterfall at 979?m (3,212 ft) with an uninterrupted drop of 807?m (2,648 ft). The falls is also referred to …

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Angela (Brigid) Lansbury - Early life, Career, Filmography, Broadway Stage Performances, Awards

Actress, born in London, UK. Evacuated to the USA in 1940, she became a US citizen in 1951. Her role in Gaslight (1944, Oscar nomination) led to a contract with MGM, and she appeared in such films as National Velvet (1944) and Samson and Delilah (1949). Later, she made many more films, including The Manchurian Candidate (1963, Oscar nomination), Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971), and Death on the Ni…

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Angela (Dorothea) Merkel - Background, Leader of the Opposition, Candidacy for Chancellor, Chancellor, Relationship with US President Bush

German stateswoman and chancellor (2005– ), born in Hamburg, N Germany. The daughter of a Lutheran pastor and teacher, she grew up in a rural area north of Berlin in the then German Democratic Republic. She studied physics at the University of Leipzig, earning a doctorate in 1978, and later worked as a chemist at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences (1978–1990). In 1…

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Angela Brazil - Biography, Bibliography of school stories

Writer of girls' school stories, born in Preston, Lancashire, NW England, UK. She was a governess for some years before beginning to write tales notable for their bracing realism. Her first success was The Fortunes of Philippa (1906), and this was followed by over 50 school novels. Her last book was The School of the Loch (1946). Angela Brazil, (pronounced "brazzle"), (November 30, 1868 - M…

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Angela Carter - Works as author, Works as editor

Writer, born in Eastbourne, East Sussex, SE England, UK. She studied at Bristol University, and her first novel, Shadow Dance, was published in 1966. She then wrote novels and short stories characterized by feminist themes and fantasy narratives, including The Magic Toyshop (1967, screenplay 1986), The Infernal Desire Machines of Dr Hoffman (1972), Nights at the Circus (1984), and Wise Children (1…

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Angela Davis - Childhood, Education and early career, Notoriety, Later career, Quotes, List of books

Writer and activist, born in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Influenced by the civil rights movement and her graduate training with Herbert Marcuse, she became a controversial activist and Communist Party member. In a trial that received worldwide attention, she was acquitted of all charges in connection with the Soledad Brothers murders (1971–2). A prominent lecturer and teacher, she wrote Women, Race…

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angelica

A robust herb growing to 2 m/6 ft or more (Angelica archangelica), native from N and E Europe to C Asia; stem hollow; leaves divided into oval leaflets up to 15 cm/6 in, the stalks with an inflated base; flowers small, greenish-white, clustered in large rounded umbels. Candied leaf stalks are used for flavouring. Aromatic oil produced from the roots is used in perfumes and herbal liqueurs (eg …

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Angelica Rozeanu

Table tennis player, born in Romania. She won 12 world titles between 1950 and 1956, including the singles title a record six times in succession (1950–5), and was a member of the Romanian Corbillon Cup winning team (1950–1, 1953, 1955–6). During her career she gained a total of 17 world titles, on three occasions winning the world women's doubles title (1953–5) and the world mixed doubles tit…

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Angelina Jolie - Early life and family, Film Career, Humanitarian work, Relationships, Children, Jolie in the media, Filmography

Actress, born in Los Angeles, California, USA, the daughter of actor Jon Voight. At age 11 she attended the Lee Strasberg Theater Institute and later studied at New York University. She gained her first film lead role in Hackers (1995), and later films include Gia (1998, Best Actress Golden Globe), The Bone Collector (1999), Girl, Interrrupted (1999, Golden Globe; Best Supporting Actress Oscar), L…

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Angelo Heilprin

Geologist, palaeontologist, and traveller, born in Satoralja-Ujhely, Hungary, the son of Michael Heilprin. He was brought to the USA in 1856 but returned to Europe for his college and university education. During 1880–1900 he held a series of professorships, curatorships, and club presidencies in Philadelphia scientific institutions, and became a professor of geography at Yale (1903–7). Best kno…

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Angelus Silesius - Quotation, Bibliographical references

Mystic poet, born in Breslau, Germany (now Wroc?aw, SW Poland). The son of a Lutheran doctor, from 1649 he served as personal physician to the ducal court in Oels. Drawn to Silesian mysticism, he entered the Roman Catholic Church in 1653 and became a priest in 1661. In his Geistreiche Sinn-und Schlußreime (1657, after 1674 Cherubinischer Wandersmann) he found heightened forms of expression to voi…

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Angers - Sights, History, Economy, Transportation, Culture, Sports, Colleges and universities, Miscellaneous

47º30N 0º35W, pop (2002e) 152 800. Capital of Maine-et-Loire department, Loire region, S France; located on the R Mayenne above its junction with the R Loire; birthplace of André and Hervé Bazin, Jean Bodin; bishopric; railway; formerly capital of Anjou province; centre of Anjou wine trade and for the production of Cointreau liqueur; electrical machinery; St Maurice Cathedral; 13th-c chateau…

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angina - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, Treatment

A sudden severe pain or sensation of constriction over the front of the chest which occurs when the oxygen demand of the heart muscle exceeds supply (angina pectoris). The pain is increased with exercise, and subsides with rest. It may spread to the jaw and arms (usually the left). It usually results from the narrowing or blockage of one or more of the arteries which supply the heart muscle with b…

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Angkor Thom - History, Style, The site, Angkor Thom in popular culture:

13°26N 103°50E. The ancient capital of the Khmer Empire, 240 km/150 mi NW of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The moated and walled city was built on a square plan, extending over 100 km²/40 sq mi, and completed in the 12th-c. Abandoned in the 15th-c, it was rediscovered in 1861. Angkor Wat, declared a World Heritage site in 1992, is the largest of the temples surrounding the site - linked, richly-sc…

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angle - Units of measure for angles, Conventions on measurement, Types of angles, Some facts, A formal definition

A geometrical figure formed by two straight lines meeting at a point. Angles are measured in revolutions (especially per minute [rpm] or per second [rps] when measuring angular velocity), in right angles, degrees (°), radians (rad), or grad. 1 revolution = 4 right angles = 360° = 2? rad = 400 grad. An angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the v…

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anglerfish - Predation, Reproduction

Any of about 13 families of bizarre shallow to deep-sea fishes which have a dorsal fin spine modified as a lure to attract prey; family Lophiidae includes large bottom-dwelling European species (length up to 1·5 m/5 ft) with broad flattened head, capacious mouth, and narrow tail; also called goosefish. Anglerfishes are bony fishes in the order Lophiiformes. An anglerfish has …

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Angles - Evolution of the name, Early history, Angle influence in Great Britain, St. Gregory

A Germanic people thought to have originated from the S Danish peninsula and neighbouring Schleswig-Holstein. With the Saxons, they formed the bulk of the invaders who, in the two centuries following the Roman withdrawal from Britain (409), conquered and colonized most of what became England. Anglian rulers were apparently dominant by the 8th-c, and the Angles ultimately gave their name to England…

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Anglesey - History, Geography, Ecology and Conservation, Geology, Other places of interest, Sons and daughters of Anglesey, Government

pop (2001e) 66 800; area 715 km²/276 sq mi. Island unitary authority (from 1996) in NW Wales, UK; separated from Gwynedd by Menai Strait, spanned by two bridges; chief towns, Holyhead, Beaumaris, Amlwch, Llangefni, Menai Bridge; linked to Holy I by an embankment (the Cob); ferry link from Holyhead to Dun Laoghaire and Dublin, Ireland; agriculture, aluminium, sheep rearing, marine engineering…

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Anglican Communion - Provinces of the Anglican Communion, History, Controversies, Ecumenical relations

A fellowship of some 26 independent provincial or national Churches, several extra-provincial dioceses, and Churches resulting from unions of Anglicans with other Churches, spread throughout the world, but sharing a close ecclesiastical and doctrinal relationship with the Church of England. Most of these Churches are found in the British Commonwealth, and owe their origins to missionary activities…

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angling

The sport of catching fish, one of the world's most popular pastimes, performed in virtually every country, practised with a rod, line, and hook. Many forms of angling exist: freshwater fishing, fly fishing, game fishing, and deep sea fishing. The oldest fishing club still in existence is the Ellem Club in Scotland (founded 1829). Rules governing the time of year when different types of fishing ta…

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Anglo-Catholicism - Background, Practices and beliefs

A movement within the Church of England, the term first appearing in 1838. It stresses the sacramental and credal aspects of Christian faith, and continuity and community with the wider Catholic Church, especially with Roman Catholicism. The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Cath…

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Anglo-Irish Agreement - The Anglo-Irish Intergovernmental Conference, Reaction to the Agreement, Long-term effects

A joint agreement allowing the Irish Republic to contribute to policy in Northern Ireland for the first time since 1922, signed (15 Nov 1985) by the British and Irish prime ministers, Margaret Thatcher and Garrett Fitzgerald. It established an intergovernmental conference to discuss political, security, and legal matters affecting Northern Ireland; early meetings focused on border co-operation. Bo…

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Anglo-Saxons - Etymology, Contemporary meanings, Anglo-Saxon history, Anglo-Saxon culture, Further reading

A term probably first used to distinguish the Saxons of England from those of the continent; occasionally adopted by the 10th-c English kings for all their subjects, though ‘English’ was preferred; now commonly employed for the entire Old English people from the incoming of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in the 5th-c to the Norman Conquest. Among the main themes in Anglo-Saxon history are the emergen…

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Angola - Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy

Official name Republic of Angola, Port República de Angola Angola is a country in south-central Africa bordering Namibia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zambia, and with a west coast along the Atlantic Ocean. In 1648 Portugal retook Luanda and initiated a process of reconquest of lost territories, which restored the preoccupation possessions of Portugal by 1650. …

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Angora goat

A breed of domestic goat, originating in Turkey (Angora is an old name for Ankara); bred mainly in North America, S Africa, and Australasia for wool; silky hair (length up to 20 cm/8 in), called mohair. The Angora goat is a goat from the Angora region in Asia Minor, near present-day Ankara. The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, …

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Angry Young Men - John Osborne, Definition by stance, Definitions by groupings, Cross-currents in the late 1950s

A term used to describe the authors of some novels and plays of the late 1950s and early 1960s in Britain, who felt a confident contempt for and expressed an energetic rejection of the (apparently) established order. They include Kingsley Amis, John Braine, John Osborne, Alan Sillitoe, and John Wain. The term was also applied to certain characters in their works, notably Jimmy Porter in Osborne's …

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Anguilla - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Culture, Other topics, Reference

(UK British Overseas Territory) Anguilla (English pronunciation: ang-GWILL-a) is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean, the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles. It consists of the main island of Anguilla itself, approximately 16 miles long by 3 miles wide at its widest point, together with a number of much smaller islands and cays with no permanent pop…

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angular momentum - Angular momentum in classical mechanics, Angular momentum in relativistic mechanics, Angular momentum in quantum mechanics

A vector quantity in rotational motion, equal to the product of moment of inertia with angular velocity; also called the moment of momentum; symbol L, units kg.m2/s. The rate of change of angular momentum is called torque. In particular, if the body rotates about an axis, then the angular momentum with respect to a point on the axis is related to the mass of the object, the velocity and the…

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Angus (Rowland) McBean

Stage photographer, born in Newbridge, Monmouth, Monmouthshire, SE Wales, UK. He studied at Newport, and started as a full-time theatrical photographer in 1934, becoming noted for his individual approach to portraiture. He used elaborate settings, photographic montage, collage, and double-exposure to achieve a Surrealistic interpretation of character. In later years he applied his creativity to th…

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angwantibo

A West African primitive primate (prosimian); golden brown with pointed face; no tail; first finger reduced to a stump, and second short; grips branches strongly between thumb and remaining fingers; also known as golden potto. (Arctocebus calabarensis. Family: Lorisidae.) The angwantibos are the two species of strepsirrhine primates that are classified in the Arctocebus genus of the Lorisid…

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anhydride

(Gk ‘without water’) In chemistry, often referring to an acid. An inorganic anhydride is usually a non-metal oxide. Organic anhydrides are usually condensation products of two molecules; for example, acetic acid (CH3COOH) gives acetic anhydride (CH3–CO–O–CO–CH3). For example: Thus sodium oxide is an anhydride of sodium hydroxide, and sulfur trioxide is an anhydride of sulf…

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Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius - Early life, Late life, Works

Roman philosopher and statesman, born of a patrician Roman family. He studied at Athens, and there gained the knowledge which later enabled him to produce the translations of Aristotle and Porphyry that became the standard textbooks on logic in mediaeval Europe. He became consul in 510 during the Gothic occupation of Rome, and later chief minister to the ruler Theodoric; but in 523 he was accused …

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Anil Kumble

Cricketer, born in Bangalore, SC India. He is only the second man to take all 10 wickets in a Test innings, with 10 for 74 against Pakistan in Delhi in February 1999. A leg-spinner, he bowls faster than most spinners. He made his first-class debut for Karnataka in 1989–90, first played for India in 1990, and has been a regular ever since. He played one season for Northamptonshire in 1995, taking …

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aniline - Synthesis, Properties, Uses, History, Toxicology

C6H5NH2, phenylamine, or (IUPAC) aminobenzene, boiling point 184°C. A liquid with an unpleasant smell, a weaker base than ammonia. It is the starting material for many dyestuffs, known as aniline dyes. See also Industrial production of aniline Aniline can be produced from benzene in two steps. Second, the nitrobenzene is reduced to give aniline. Many derivatives of …

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animal - Characteristics, Structure, Reproduction and development, Nutrition, Origin and fossil record, Groups of animals, History of classification

A living organism; one of the main kingdoms of biological classification, Animalia, containing all vertebrates and invertebrates. The term animal is sometimes used only for four-legged creatures (mammals, reptiles, and amphibians), but correctly fish and birds are also animals, as are insects, spiders, crabs, snails, worms, starfish, sponges, corals, jellyfish, and many other groups. All animals o…

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animal husbandry - Ethical Implications of Animal Husbandry

The keeping of domesticated animals for food, fibre, skins, or to pull loads. Domestication started in the Middle East c.9000 BC with sheep; pigs were domesticated c.6000 BC and cattle c.5500 BC. With the exception of organic farming, modern animal husbandry practices are highly intensive. Pigs and poultry are often raised on factory farms where food intake, temperature, light, and other condition…

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animism - Origin, Overview, Origins, Plant souls, Object souls, Animism and death, Evil spirits

A belief in spiritual beings thought capable of influencing human events, based on the idea that animals, plants, and even inanimate objects have souls like humans. The 19th-c anthropologist Edward Tylor regarded it as the earliest form of religion, a view not accepted by modern anthropologists. In religion, the term Animism is used in a number of ways. It is often extended to include the b…

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Anish Kapoor

Artist and sculptor, born in Mumbai (Bombay), W India. He moved to London in 1973, where he studied at the Hornsey College of Art and the Chelsea School of Art, and became a teacher at Wolverhampton Polytechnic (1979) and artist in residence at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (1982). He has exhibited at major venues around the world, and his awards include the Premio Duemila Venice Biennale (199…

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Anita (Faye) Hill

Lawyer and professor, born in Lone Tree, Oklahoma, USA. After Yale Law School, she worked in Washington (1981–3) then taught law at Oral Roberts (1983–8) and the University of Oklahoma (1988). Her testimony at the confirmation of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas (1991) put sexual harassment on the national agenda. When Thomas was nominated to the Supreme Court in 1991, Hill's accusat…

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Anita Brookner

Writer and art historian, born in London, UK. An authority on 18th-c painting, she was the first woman Slade professor at Cambridge University (1967–8), and has been a reader at the Courtauld Institute of Art since 1977. As a novelist she was a late starter, but in eight years (1981–8) she published as many novels, winning the Booker Prize with Hôtel du Lac (1984). Other titles include Family a…

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Anita Desai - Awards, Select works

Novelist, born in Mussoorie, N India. She studied at Delhi University, and her works include novels for adults and children and short stories. Clear Light of Day (1980) and In Custody (1980) were both short-listed for the Booker Prize, and The Village by the Sea won the Guardian Award for children's fiction in 1982. Later novels include Baumgartner's Bombay (1988), Journey to Ithaca (1995), Fastin…

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Anita Loos - Biography, Major works include

Writer and playwright, born in Sisson (now Mt Shasta), California, USA. Her father was involved in theatrical companies, and, as the family moved around, she was a child actress in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego. She wrote scenarios and dialogue cards for silent films, married John Emerson (1919), and moved to New York City. She continued to write many films and plays, often with the as…

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Anita O'Day - Biography

Jazz vocalist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She sang with the Max Miller combo (1939) and the Gene Krupa band (1941–3), with whom she had several hit records including ‘Just A Little Bit South Of North Carolina’ and ‘Georgia On My Mind’. She also worked with Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman, and appeared in the films The Gene Krupa Story (1959) and Jazz on a Summer's Day (1960). She had an…

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Anjelica Huston - Biography, Filmography

Film actress and director, born in California, USA. She won a Best Supporting Actress Oscar for Prizzi's Honor (1985), directed by her father John Huston, and Oscar nominations for Enemies: A Love Story (1989) and The Grifters (1990). Later films include her role as Morticia in The Addams Family (1991) and Addams Family Values (1993), Bitter Moon (1992), Phoenix (1997), The Royal Tenenbaums (2001)…

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Anjou

Former province in the Paris Basin of NW France, now occupying the department of Maine-et-Loire and small parts of Indre-et-Loire, Mayenne, and Sarthe; former capital, Angers; lost provincial status in 1790; Henry II of England, first of the Plantagenets (or Angevins) was son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou; Anjou also gave a line of kings to Sicily and Naples. From the outset of th…

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Ankara - History, Attractions, Universities, Transportation, Sports, Other, Views of Ankara, Sister Cities, Famous people from Ankara

39°55N 32°50E, pop (2000e) 3 082 000. Capital city of Ankara province and of Turkey, on a tributary of the R Ova; second largest city in Turkey; formerly an important location on the caravan route from Istanbul to the E; conquered by Alexander the Great, 4th-c BC; part of Roman and Byzantine Empires; under Turkish rule, 11th-c; government transferred here from Istanbul, 1923; airport; railway…

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ankh - Origins, In Egyptian art, In alchemy, The ankh and the cross, In popular culture

A cross with a loop for its upper vertical arm. In ancient Egypt it was an emblem of life. The ankh (pronounced 'ahnk', symbol ☥) was the Egyptian hieroglyphic character that stood for the word ʿnḫ, meaning life. Its precise significance in Egyptian culture remains a mystery to Egyptologists, and no single hypothesis has yet been widely accepted. Schwabe speculated that the…

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ankle - Movement, Articulation, Ligaments, Images from Gray's Anatomy, Name derivation, Related Terms, Fractures

The region of the lower limb between the calf and the foot; specifically, the joint between the tibia and fibula and the talus (one of the tarsal bones). Movement at the joint is important during the stance phase of walking, particularly in ensuring a smooth and controlled contact of the foot with the ground. In human anatomy, the ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet. The a…

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ankylosing spondylitis - Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, History, Prognosis, Therapy, Famous patients

A progressive inflammatory disease, mainly affecting young men, that attacks the joints of the spine leading to stiffness and pain in the back. Ocasionally other joints such as the hip and shoulder are affected. Some cases are associated with inflammation of the eyes, lungs, and heart valves. Its cause is unknown, but a very high proportion of cases have human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. A…

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Ann (Noreen) Widdecombe - Political career, Trivia, Bibliography

British stateswoman, born in Bath, SW England, UK. She studied at Birmingham University and Oxford, and stood unsuccessfully in the 1979 and 1983 general elections before being elected as Conservative MP for Maidstone in 1987. She held junior appointments at the ministries for social security (1990–3) and employment (1993–4), before becoming minister for state at the ministry of employment (1994…

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Ann Hanson - Practices, Cremation coffins, Casket industry, Unusual coffins, Use by the living

Art historian, born in Kinston, North Carolina, USA. She studied at the University of Southern California (1943 BFA), the University of North Carolina (1951 MA), and Bryn Mawr College (1962 PhD). A consultant and director for several museums, she also taught at various institutions, notably at Yale (1970). She specialized in 19th-c French paintings and 15th-c Italian sculpture. A coffin (in…

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Ann Landers - Controversies

Journalist, born in Sioux City, Iowa, USA. In 1955 she inherited her job as a Chicago-based advice columnist from a previous ‘Ann Landers’, creating an international institution while competing with her twin sister, ‘Abigail Van Buren’. She earned a devoted following for her guidance and advice to the perplexed, weathering her own 1975 divorce along the way, and also won many public service aw…

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Ann Lee

Religious leader and visionary, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. A blacksmith's daughter, she was working in the textile mills when she joined a new group of Protestants known as ‘Shakers’ because of their agitation during worship services. She married (1762), but the death of her four children in infancy led to self-mortification, ending in a revelation that cohabitation …

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Ann Patchett

Writer and novelist, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. She grew up in Nashville, TN and studied at the Sarah Lawrence College in New York (1984) and the University of Iowa (1987). She held a number of university posts, and in 1997 was appointed Tennessee Williams fellow in creative writing at the University of the South, Nashville. Her novels include The Patron Saint of Liars (1992), Taft (199…

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Ann Radcliffe - Radcliffe's influence on later writers, Publications include

Novelist, born in London, England, UK. She lived a retired life, and became well known for her Gothic novels, notably The Romance of the Forest (1791), The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), and The Italian (1797). Her contemporary reputation was considerable, and she influenced Byron, Shelley, and others, many of whom imitated her ‘gothick romances’. Ann Radcliffe (July 9, 1764 - February 7, 1…

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Ann Richards - Early life, Political career, Post governorship, Teaching, Arts and Film, Final year, Awards, Memorial services

US governor, born in Lakeview, Texas, USA. She taught in a junior high school (1955–7) and managed the campaign of Sarah Weddington (the lawyer who won the Roe v. Wade case) in 1972. As an active Democrat, she became a county commissioner (1977–82), the state treasurer (1983–91), and finally governor of Texas (1991), Texas's first female governor since ‘Ma’ Ferguson (1933–5). Although her ea…

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Ann Sexton - People, Works of art, Other

Poet, born in Newton, Massachusetts, USA. A confessional poet in the mould of her friend, Sylvia Plath, her main subjects are her depression and mental illness, and her various roles as a woman. She taught at Boston (1969–71) and Colgate (1971–2) universities. To Bedlam and Part Way Back (1960) was her first collection of poetry. Others include Love Poems (1969) and The Death Notebooks (1974). T…

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Anna (Wessels) Williams - History

Physician and bacteriologist, born in Hackensack, New Jersey, USA. Best known for research on infectious diseases and the discovery of an effective diphtheria immunization, she fought to advance the cause of women doctors. Besides teaching at the New York Infirmary (1891–5, 1902–5), she was assistant director of the New York City Research Laboratories (1905–34) and a prolific writer. Ann…

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Anna Akhmatova - Early life, Silver Age, The accursed years, The thaw

Poet, born in Odessa, S Ukraine. She studied in Kiev before moving to St Petersburg. In 1910 she married Nicholas Gumilev, and with him started the Neoclassicist Acmeist movement. After her early collections of lyrical poems, including Evening (1912) and Beads (1914), she developed an Impressionist technique. Her work was condemned by the authorities for its ‘eroticism, mysticism, and political i…

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Anna Cora Mowatt

Actress and playwright, born in Bordeaux, France. The daughter of a well-to-do American merchant, she went to the USA at age seven. She started out as a playwright, and her social satire, Fashion, was a success in 1845. Despite earlier ill health, she then became an actress, debuting as Pauline in The Lady of Lyons, and later formed her own company, which travelled to London. Anna Cora Ogde…

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Anna Ford - Career, Away from the newsdesk, Personal life

Broadcaster, born in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. She studied at Manchester University, then worked in further education as a lecturer and tutor. She joined Granada TV as a presenter and reporter (1974–6), then moved to the BBC, where her programmes included Man Alive (1976–7) and Tomorrow's World (1977–8). Joining ITN as a newscaster (1978–80), she helped to present TV am (19…

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Anna Freud - The Vienna years, 1938 and later: Anna in London, Major contributions to psychoanalysis

Psychoanalyst, born in Vienna, Austria, the daughter of Sigmund Freud. She chaired the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, and emigrated with her father to London in 1938, where she organized (1940–5) a residential war nursery for homeless children. She was a founder of child psychoanalysis. Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud…

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Anna Harrison - Reference

US first lady (1841), born in Walpack Township, New Jersey, USA. She married William Henry Harrison in 1795 but never saw the White House. She was ill in early 1841 and missed her husband's inauguration and his one month as president. Anna Tuthill Symmes Harrison [1775] - [1864], wife of President [William Henry Harrison]and the grandmother of President [Benjamin Harrison], was nominally [F…

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Anna Howard Shaw

Reformer, minister, and physician, born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. She came with her family to the USA in 1851. Her father, an impractical reformer, built a crude log cabin in the Michigan frontier (near Big Rapids) and put his family there in 1859, and the young Anna had to learn many traditionally male skills to help the family survive. She obtained an education in a …

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Anna Louisa Geertruida Bosboom-Toussaint - Works

Writer, born in Alkmaar, W Netherlands. A Protestant governess, she wrote historical novels inspired by the works of Sir Walter Scott, and was a member of the group around the magazine De Gids. The descriptions of the characters in her books reveal a psychological awareness. First engaged to Bakhuizen van den Brink, she later married the painter Johannes Bosboom in 1851. Her first romance, …

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Anna Louise Strong - Early life, Education and Social Work, Travels in Communist Countries, Marriage and Legacy, Published works

Journalist, born in Friend, Nebraska, USA. A radical, she lived mostly in China and the Soviet Union, where she started English-language newsletters and wrote books and articles promoting the Communist cause. Anna Louise Strong (1885 November 24–1970 March 29) was a twentieth-century "small C" communist American journalist. She is controversially known for her coverage of, and alleged sup…

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Anna Magnani - Relationships, Awards

Actress, born in Alexandria, N Egypt. Raised in poverty, she first made her living as a nightclub singer, but married the director Goffredo Alessandrini (annulled 1950) and worked in films from 1934, achieving recognition in Rossellini's Roma città aperta (1945, Rome, Open City). She received an Oscar for her first Hollywood film The Rose Tattoo (1955), but much of her later work was for the Ital…

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Anna Pell Wheeler

Mathematician, born in Hawarden, Iowa, USA. The first female mathematician to address the American Mathematical Society, she fostered women's participation in mathematics. Teaching longest at Bryn Mawr (1918–48), where she also chaired the mathematics department, she specialized in integral equations. She was also an avid bird watcher and wildflower enthusiast. …

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Anna Russell - Life and career, Recordings, Filmography, Quotes and Trivia

Singer and musical satirist, born in Ontario, Canada. The daughter of a British Army officer, she moved with her family to London, UK, when an infant. She studied singing at the Royal College of Music there, and later worked as a folk-singer for the BBC (1935–40) and in various roles with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1942–6). In 1948 she made her debut as a concert comedienne in New Yo…

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Anna Seghers - Life

Writer, born in Mainz, WC Germany. She studied history, art history, and Sinology in Heidelberg, married the Hungarian writer and sociologist Lázló Radványi (1925), and became a member of the German Communist Party (1928). In 1933 she left for France, Switzerland, and then Mexico, returning to East Berlin in 1947 where she was president of the East German Schriftstellerverband (1952–78). She e…

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Anna Seward

Poet, born in Eyam, Derbyshire, C England, UK. She lived from the age of 10 at Lichfield, where her father, himself a poet, became a canon. He died in 1790, but she continued to live on in the bishop's palace, and wrote poetry. Her best known work is the poetical novel Louisa (1784), which was popular for its sentiment. Her poems were edited by Sir Walter Scott in 1810, with a memoir. Anna …

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Anna Sewell - Biography

Novelist, born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, E England, UK. An invalid for most of her life, she wrote Black Beauty (1877), the story of a horse, written as a plea for the more humane treatment of animals. It is perhaps the most famous fictional work about horses (filmed, 1946, 1971, 1994). Anna Sewell (March 30, 1820 – April 25, 1878) was a British writer, the author of the classic novel B…

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Anna Sokolow - Works for Broadway

Modern dancer, choreographer, and teacher, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. A student and member of Martha Graham's company (1930–9), she formed her own dance group in 1934. Invited to perform in Mexico (1939), she stayed on to develop that country's first modern dance company, returning yearly to train dancers during the 1940s. She also helped form an Israeli modern dance company in the 1950s…

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Anna Vaughn Huntington - History, Brands

Sculptor, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. She studied in Boston (1890s), at the Art Students League, NY with Gutzon Borglum (c.1903), and collaborated with sculptor Abastenia St Leger Eberle (1904). After visits to France and Italy, she and her philanthropist husband, Archer M. Huntington, founded Brookgreen Gardens near Charleston, SC (1931), a nature retreat and sculpture garden, now a st…

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Annaba - History, Education, Transportation

36º55N 7º47E, pop (2001e) 233 600. Seaport in Annaba department, N Algeria, N Africa; on the Mediterranean coast, W of Tunis; nearby are the remains of Hippo Regius, an ancient Phoenician and Roman port; airport; iron ore, steel, fertilizers. Coordinates: 36°54′N 7°46′E Annaba (ِArabic عنّابة, formerly Bône) is a city in the north-eastern corner of Algeria near the river W…

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Annapolis Convention - Background, Sessions of the Convention

(1786) In the American Revolution, a gathering at Annapolis, MD, of delegates from five states to discuss commercial problems. The main result was a call for a meeting the following year to consider changes in the Articles of Confederation. That meeting wrote the present Federal Constitution. The Annapolis Convention was an Assembly of the Counties of Maryland that functioned as the colony'…

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Annas

Israel's high priest, appointed in AD 6 and deposed by the Romans in 15, but still described later by this title in the New Testament. He apparently questioned Jesus after his arrest (John 18) and Peter after his detention (Acts 4). His other activities are described in the works of Flavius Josephus. Annas (also Ananus), son of Seth, was a Jewish High Priest from AD 6 to 15 and remained an …

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Anne Askew

Protestant martyr, born near Grimsby, North East Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. Early embracing the Reformed doctrines, in 1545 she was arrested on a charge of heresy. After examination and torture on the rack, she was burned at Smithfield. Eventually Anne left her husband and went to London where she gave sermons and distributed Protestant books. Anne soon escaped and it was not long before…

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Anne Bancroft - Early life, Death, Awards and other nominations, Theater roles, Filmography, Television roles

Actress, born in the Bronx, New York, USA. The daughter of Italian immigrants, she had various jobs as a teenager while also attending the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. She appeared on local radio and made her television debut in an adaptation of Turgenev's Torrents of Spring. For her performance in the stage production of The Miracle Worker in 1959, she won a Tony Best Actress award, and an …

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Anne Boleyn - The birth controversy, Childhood and family, Appearance and Personality, A royal love affair

English queen consort, the second wife of Henry VIII from 1533–6. Daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn by Elizabeth Howard, she secretly married Henry (Jan 1533), and was soon declared his legal wife (May); but within three months his passion for her had cooled. It was not revived by the birth (Sep 1533) of a princess (later Elizabeth I), still less by that of a stillborn son (Jan 1536). She was arreste…

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Anne Boyd - Education, Career, Music

Composer and flautist, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. She studied composition there and at York University, UK. After some years teaching in England and Australia, she became founding head of the department of music at Hong Kong University (1981). Her interest in ethno-musicology, in Australian aboriginal music, and the ethnic music of Japan and Java, is reflected in such compositi…

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Anne Bracegirdle

English actress. She was renowned for her beauty, and for her performances (1688–1707) in the plays of Congreve at Drury Lane under Betterton (c.1635–1710). She is believed to have been married to William Congreve, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Little is known of Bracegirdle's early life. She was probably raised by actors Thomas and Mary Betterton from an early age, and it is specu…

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Anne Bradstreet - Descendants, Works

Poet, born in Northampton, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. The daughter of Thomas Dudley, she was educated privately. She married Simon Bradstreet and they were among the first to settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630), of which he twice served as governor. She lived in Ipswich (1635–45) then settled in North Andover (1645–72), raising eight children under difficult conditions. She is kn…

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Anne Charlotte Botta

Writer and salon hostess, born in Bennington, Vermont, USA. A writing teacher in the 1840s, she established a New York City salon in her home where writers (including Edgar Allan Poe), editors, actors, politicians, and other prominent people would gather. She continued this salon after her 1855 marriage to the Italian scholar, Vincenzo Botta, and then after his death (when even Andrew Carnegie wou…

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Anne Frank - Early life, The period chronicled in the diary, The Diary of A Young Girl, Legacy

Jewish diarist and concentration camp victim, born in Frankfurt, WC Germany. Her family fled from the Nazis to The Netherlands in 1933, and after the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands she hid with her family and four others in a sealed-off office flat in Amsterdam from 1942 until they were betrayed in 1944. She died in Belsen concentration camp. The lively, moving diary she kept during her concea…

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Anne Hutchinson - Early Years, Migration to the New World, Religious Activities, Hutchinson's Religious Beliefs

Religious leader and American pioneer, born in Alford, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. In 1634 she emigrated with her husband to Boston, MA, where she was intensely committed to the Puritan movement and began to organize religious discussion meetings which rapidly took on a political tone. These meetings were suppressed in 1637, and she was expelled from the province after being tried for heresy and…

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Anne of Austria - Queen consort of France, Regent of France

Queen of France, born in Valladolid, NWC Spain, the eldest daughter of Philip III of Spain and wife of Louis XIII of France, whom she married in 1615. The marriage was unhappy, and much of it was spent in virtual separation, due to the influence of the king's chief minister Cardinal Richelieu. In 1638, however, they had their first son, Louis, who succeeded his father in 1643 as Louis XIV. Anne wa…

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Anne of Brittany - Position, Marriages, Personal characteristics

Duchess of Brittany and twice queen of France. She struggled to maintain Breton independence, but in 1491 was forced to marry Charles VIII of France (reigned 1483–98), whereby Brittany was united with the French crown. In 1499, a year after his death, she married his successor, Louis XII. Anne of Brittany (January 25, 1477 – January 9, 1514), also known as Anna of Brittany and Anne de Br…

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Anne of Cleves - In film, Historiography

German princess and queen consort of England, the fourth wife of Henry VIII, the daughter of John, Duke of Cleves, a noted champion of Protestantism in Germany. She was selected for purely political reasons after the death of Jane Seymour, and was married to Henry in 1540, who found her appearance disappointing. The marriage was annulled by parliament six months later. Queen Anne of England…

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Anne of Denmark - Other Notable Facts

Danish princess, and queen consort of Scotland and England. The daughter of King Frederik II of Denmark (reigned 1559–88), in 1589 she married James VI of Scotland, the future James I of England. She was a lavish patron of the arts and architecture, and appeared in dramatic roles in court masques by Ben Jonson. Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King …

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Anne Redpath - Painting, Reading, Images

Painter, born in Galashiels, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. She studied at Edinburgh Art College, then lived in France (1919–34). One of the most important modern Scottish artists, her paintings in oil and watercolour show great richness of colour and vigorous technique. Anne Redpath (1895–1965) was a Scottish artist whose vivid domestic still-lifes are among her best-known works. …

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Anne Rice - Biography, Adaptations, Bibliography

Writer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Named after her father, she legally changed her name (c.1947). She studied at Texas Women's University (1959–60), San Francisco State College (1964 BA; 1971 MA), and at the University of California, Berkeley (1969–70). After a variety of jobs, such as waitress, cook, and insurance claims examiner, she began her career as a writer of erotica and vampir…

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Anne Robinson

Journalist and television presenter, born in Liverpool, NW England, UK. She was educated at Farnborough Hill Convent, Hampshire, and in Paris. She joined the Daily Mail (1966–7) and Sunday Times (1968–77), becoming a columnist for the Daily Mirror (1980–93), Today (1993–5), The Times (1994–5), and The Sun (1995). For BBC television she presented Points of View (1988) and the consumer programm…

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Anne Royall - Years of Writing, Reference

Writer and journalist, born near Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Her father lost all he had because he was a Loyalist when he died (c.1775), and by 1785 her mother had gone to work as a servant in the home of a wealthy and well-educated gentleman, William Royall. He helped educate young Anne by encouraging her to read, and in 1797, although 20 years older, he married her. After he died (1813), his relat…

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Anne Sullivan

The teacher of Helen Keller, born in Feeding Hills, Massachusetts, USA. Nearly blind from a childhood fever, she was educated at the Perkins Institution in Waltham, MA. She returned there in 1887 to teach the newly admitted seven-year-old Helen Keller, and broke through Helen's isolation by spelling out words on her hand (a story made famous in the film The Miracle Worker, 1957). For the rest of h…

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Anne Tyler - List of Works

Writer, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. She studied at Duke (1961 BA) and Columbia (1961–2) universities, then worked as a Russian bibliographer at Duke (1962–3), and as a library assistant at McGill University, Montreal (1964–5). She then settled in Baltimore and began to write short stories and novels concerned with the themes of loneliness, isolation, and human interactions. Among her …

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annealing

The relief of internal stresses in metals after heat treatment or working (hammering, forging, or drawing), or in glass after moulding or blowing. It is effected by maintaining the object at a moderate temperature to allow for molecular or crystalline re-arrangement before allowing it slowly to cool. This improves its properties, or restores its original properties. Annealing may refer to: …

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Annecy - Geography, Culture, Education, Twin towns

45°55N 6°08E, pop (2000e) 53 500. Industrial town and capital of Haute-Savoie department, E France; in the foothills of the French Alps, on N shore of Lac d'Annecy; railway; bishopric; textiles, watches, paper, bearings; popular tourist centre; on route to Little St Bernard and Mt Cenis passes. Annecy is a city in the Rhône-Alpes region of east central France, on the shores of Lake Ann…

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annelid - Anatomy, Reproduction, Fossil record, Relationships

A ringed worm; a bilaterally symmetrical worm of phylum Annelida; body divided into cylindrical rings (segments) containing serially arranged organs; body cavity (coelom) present; head typically well defined; includes earthworms, bristleworms, and leeches. The annelids, collectively called Annelida (from Latin anellus "little ring"), are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented w…

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Anni Albers - Life, Artwork, Bibliography

Weaver, born in Berlin, Germany. She studied her craft at the Bauhaus (1922–9), where she married painter Josef Albers, and where she later taught (1930–3). The couple moved to the USA (1933), where she became a professor at Black Mountain College (1933–49) and later pursued a career as an independent artisan in New Haven, CT. One of the most influential weavers of her time, she advanced a theo…

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