Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 49

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Mario Lanza - Film career, Trivia, Filmography, Recommended Recordings, Recommended DVDs

Tenor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Discovered while working in the family's grocery business, he auditioned for Serge Koussevitzky in 1942, and appeared that summer at Tanglewood. His career was interrupted by service in World War 2, and afterwards he went on to Hollywood to appear in several musicals, including his most famous role in The Great Caruso (1951). Mario Lanza (31 J…

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Mario Lemieux - Career statistics

Ice hockey player, born in Montreal, Quebec, SE Canada. A member of the Pittsburgh Penguins from 1984, in 834 National Hockey League matches he scored 683 goals and 966 assists. He was All-Star MVP in 1985, 1988, and 1990, and Hart MVP in 1988, 1993, and 1996. He retired in 1997, but returned in 1999 after buying the Pittsburgh team. Lemieux played for Canada in the 1983 World Junior Champi…

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Mario Praz - Bibliography

Literary critic and writer, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. He lectured in Italian at Liverpool and Manchester universities (1923–34) and then in English Literature at Rome University (1934–66). He wrote essays on English literature (Secentismo e marinismo in Inghilterra, 1925; La crisi dell'eroe nel romanzo vittoriano, 1952) and comparative literature (La carne, la morte e il diavolo nella lettera…

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Mario Puzo - Life, Complete List of Books

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He served in the army during World War 2, and studied writing at the New School for Social Research and at Columbia University during the late 1940s and early 1950s. He worked at a variety of jobs, and wrote serious but unsuccessful fiction until he became famous as the author of The Godfather (1969). He also wrote the subsequent screen adaptation of h…

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Mario Scelba

Italian politician and prime minister (1954–5), born in Caltagirone, Sicily, S Italy. He was a member of the DC (Christian Democrat Party) and interior minister (1947–53), dealing firmly with the social and political unrest that characterized those post-war years. After his period as prime minister, he was once again interior minister (1960–2). Mario Scelba (September 5, 1901 – October…

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Marion

40º32N 85º40W, pop (2000e) 31 300. County seat of Grant Co, C Indiana, USA; located on the R Mississinewa, 45 km/28 mi NW of Muncie; birthplace of Wendell C Bennett, James Dean, Willis Van Devanter; railway. Marion may refer to: …

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Marion Delorme - Early life, life as a courtesan, early death, Legend

Courtesan, born in Paris, France, where at an early period of her life her beauty and wit gathered a group of high-born lovers round her - among them the 1st Duke of Buckingham, Saint-Evremond, the Duc de Brissac and the Duc de Gramont. Even Richelieu was not insensible to her charms, and caused her to be separated from the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, whose mistress she was until he was executed in 1642…

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Marion Edelman - Places, Others

Social activist, born in Bennettsville, South Carolina, USA. After serving as a legal defence fund attorney for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1963–8), she founded the Washington Public Policy Research Center (1968–73). In 1973 she began the Children's Defense Fund, lobbying for children's rights to decent education and health care. She wrote The Measure of Our S…

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Marion Jones - Personal bests, Individual achievements, Personal life

Track and field athlete, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. A sprinter and jumper, after playing basketball at North Carolina State University (NCAA champions 1994), she returned to athletics and won the 100 m World Championship in 10·83 sec in 1997. The International Athletics Federation Woman Athlete of the Year in 1998, she headed the rankings for 100 m, 200 m and long jump (the first w…

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Marion Motley

Player of American football, born in Leesburg, Georgia, USA. A four-time all-league fullback for the Cleveland Browns (1946–53), he played on five league championship teams and led the National Football League in rushing in 1950. Marion Motley (born June 5, 1920, in Leesburg, Georgia, died June 27, 1999) was a former American Football fullback who played for the Cleveland Browns and the Pi…

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Marisol

Sculptor, painter, and graphic artist, born in Paris, France. Of Venezuelan parents, she studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Julien in Paris (1949), then moved to New York (1950) where she continued her studies at the Art Students League (1950), the New School (1951–4), and the Hans Hofmann School (1951–4). She specializes in wooden sculptures of human figures and has exhibited wi…

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Mariupol - City Image, Geography and Climate, Demographics, Economy, Social Services, Famous Mariupolers

47°05N 37°34E, pop (2000e) 512 000. Seaport in Donetskaya oblast, Ukraine; at the mouth of the R Kalmius, on the Sea of Azov; founded, 1779; airfield; railway; noted mud-bath resort; coal trade, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizers, metallurgical equipment, fishing. Coordinates: 47°7′0″N, 37°35′0″E Mariupol’ or Mariupol /mari'upʌlʲ/ (Ukrainian: Маріупо…

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Marius Goring - Selected films

Actor, born in Newport, Isle of Wight, S England, UK. He trained for the stage at the Old Vic dramatic school, and made his professional debut in 1927. Most of his career had been spent on the stage, often on tour throughout Europe, performing also in French and German. He was probably best known as the forensic scientist in the television series The Expert (1968–70). Marius Goring CBE (Ma…

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Marius Petipa - St. Petersburg, Russia, The End of the 19th Century

Ballet-master, dancer, and choreographer, credited with the development of Russian classical ballet, born in Marseille, S France. After touring France, Spain, and the USA, he went to St Petersburg in 1847 as the principal dancer at the Imperial Theatre. There he staged his first ballet, Pharaoh's Daughter (1858), setting the style of ballet à grand spectacle which was to dominate Russian ballet f…

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Marjorie (Florence) Lawrence

Operatic soprano, born in Deans Marsh, Victoria, SE Australia. She studied overseas, and made her operatic debut in 1932 with the Monte Carlo Opera, appearing in Paris the following year. She became a leading Wagnerian soprano at the Metropolitan Opera, New York City (1935–9). In 1941 she contracted poliomyelitis, and subsequently made guest appearances at the Metropolitan Opera in a wheelchair. …

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Marjorie Hope Nicolson

Literary critic, born in Yonkers, New York, USA. She revealed the effect of philosophy and scientific discoveries on 17th-c poetry in such scholarly works as Newton Demands the Muse (1947). She taught at Smith College (1926–41) and Columbia University (1941–62). Marjorie Hope Nicolson (1894–1981), was born February 18, 1894 in Yonkers, New York, USA, the daughter of Charles Butler Nicol…

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Marjory Stoneman Douglas - Reference

Writer and conservationist, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. She studied at Wellesley College (1912) and worked as a journalist and teacher in Miami. Her book, The Everglades: River of Grass (1947), sounded an early warning of the environmental perils facing the Florida Everglades. In 1969 she co-founded Friends of the Everglades (1969) and is widely credited with helping to slow the destructi…

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Mark (Albert) Van Doren - Publications

Poet, teacher, and writer, born in Hope, Illinois, USA, the brother of Carl Van Doren. He studied at the University of Illinois (1914 BA; 1915 MA), and Columbia University (1920 PhD), where he taught English (1920–59). He also taught at St John's College (Maryland) (1937–57) and Harvard (1963). A prolific scholar and writer, he wrote children's books, critical studies, and plays, notably The Las…

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Mark (Andrew) Spitz - Personal bests

Swimmer, born in Modesto, California, USA. He trained at the Santa Clara Swim Club, and studied at Indiana University (1972). He won two gold medals at the Mexico City Olympic Games (1968) in team events. His outstanding achievement came at the Munich Olympic Games (1972), when he became the first athlete to win seven gold medals at one Games, four of which were for individual events. He turned pr…

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Mark (David) Chapman - Early life, Murder of John Lennon, Testimony and sentencing, Film proposal, In popular culture

US convicted murderer. A security guard from Hawaii, he shot and killed former Beatles member John Lennon outside Lennon's apartment in Manhattan (8 Dec 1980). Much attention was paid at Chapman's trial to his psychiatric state, as his lawyer initially entered a plea of insanity which Chapman later overturned with a plea of guilty. He was found guilty of murder, sentenced to life imprisonment, and…

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Mark (Hume) McCormack - Publications

Sports agent, promoter, and lawyer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Princeton and Yale, and was called to the bar in 1957. A keen golfer, he offered to arrange exhibitions for Arnold Palmer, and founded the International Management Group (IMG) in 1962. His agency quickly grew into the largest company of its kind, handling the sponsorship deals and promotion of numerous sports stars a…

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Mark (Wayne) Clark - Early life and career, World War II, During and after the Korean War

US soldier, born in Madison Barracks, New York, USA. The son of a career army officer, he trained at West Point (1917), and fought in France the next year. He served in successive staff and operational posts through the 1930s. On 8 November 1942, he convinced Vichy Admiral Darlan to order French forces in North Africa to cease resistance to the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria. Clark command…

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Mark Akenside

Poet and physician, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. In 1744 he published his best-known work, the didactic poem Pleasures of the Imagination. His haughty and pedantic manner was caricatured in Tobias Smollett's Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1757). In 1761 he was appointed one of the physicians to the queen. Mark Akenside (November 9, 1721 – June 23, 1770), wa…

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Mark Catesby - Life and works

Naturalist, born in Sudbury, Suffolk, E England, UK. He studied natural history in London and first came to America in 1712. He lived in Virginia for seven years and diligently sent collections of plants and seeds to England, where he returned in 1719. From 1722 he was back in America, travelling in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida to observe the region's natural life. In England from 1726, he …

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Mark Firth

Industrialist and philanthropist, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. In 1849 with his father and brother he established there the great Norfolk steelworks. He was a munificent benefactor to Sheffield, his gifts including almshouses, a park, and the Firth College (1879), now part of the university. Mark Firth (25th April 1819 - 28th November 1880) was a British industrialist …

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Mark Hanna

Businessman and US senator, born in New Lisbon, Ohio, USA. He prospered in the grocery business, coal mining, the iron industry, and shipping, and also acquired the Cleveland Herald before embarking on a career in politics. After getting his friend William McKinley elected governor of Ohio (1892–6) he engineered McKinley's nomination as the Republican candidate for president in 1896 and then mana…

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Mark Hopkins

Businessman and railroad developer, born in Henderson, New York, USA. The son of a merchant, he read law but became involved in business. When he heard of the gold discovery in California in 1848, he moved there intending to run a mining company, but he soon discovered that money was more easily made by supplying the needs of the miners. He expanded his business operations and joined with Collis P…

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Mark Hopkins

Educator and theologian, born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, USA. The brother of astronomer Albert Hopkins, he joined Williams College where he was a revered teacher of moral philosophy (1830–87) and president (1836–72). A trained physician and ordained minister, he published many philosophical essays and sermons and was president of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1857…

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Mark Lemon

Writer and journalist, born in London, UK. In 1841 he helped to establish Punch, or the London Charivari, becoming first joint editor (with Henry Mayhew and Joseph Stirling Coyne), then sole editor from 1843. He also wrote a farce, followed by several melodramas, farces, operettas, children's stories, essays, a Jest Book (1864), and novels - the most notable of which is Falkner Lyle (1866). …

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Mark McGwire - Early career, Oakland A's career, St. Louis Cardinals and HR record chase, Controversy

Baseball player, born in Pomona, California, USA. A power-hitting first baseman, whose home-run race with Sammy Sosa during the 1998 baseball season transfixed the USA, his final total of 70 homers passed the previous seasonal record of 61 set by Roger Maris in 1961, and was overtaken in 2001 by Barry Bonds with 73 home-runs. McGwire was the most consistent hitter of homers since Babe Ruth. He was…

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Mark Morris

Dancer and choreographer, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. His training included ballet, flamenco, and Balkan folk dance. He danced for several important modern choreographers before making an informal New York City debut with his company in 1980. He has devised dances for his own and other companies, as well as for opera, and in 1988 the Mark Morris Dance Group began a permanent residency at The…

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Mark Rothko - Childhood, Emigration to the US, Artistic Apprenticeship, Artistic Maturity, Multiforms, Signature Period, United States, The Chapel

Painter, born in Dvinsk, Russia (now Daugavpils, Latvia). His immigrant parents settled in Portland, OR in 1913. After two years at Yale he settled in New York City, and except for a brief time studying with Max Weber (1925), he became a self-taught painter. During the 1930s he moved through various styles, starting with traditional representational subjects, then mythological themes, and in 1935

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Mark Rylance - Theatre credits, Books

Actor and director, born in Kent, SE England, UK. Brought up in Milwaukee, WI, he trained as an actor at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and with the Chrysalis Theatre School, London. He was given his first job in 1980 at the Glasgow Citizens Theatre. Since then he has worked for many of Britain's leading theatre companies, including Shared Experience (touring), the Bush in London, the Contact T…

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Mark Tobey

Painter, born in Centerville, Wisconsin, USA. A self-taught artist, he moved to New York (1911) and became a commercial artist and portraitist. He converted to Baha'i (1918), a Near Eastern-based religion, which influenced his ‘white writing’ - a calligraphic technique used in his abstract tempera and gouache paintings, such as ‘Broadway’ (1936). He travelled widely and lived in Seattle, Washi…

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Mark Twain - Biography

Writer, journalist, and lecturer, born in Florida, Missouri, USA. A printer (1847–57) and later a Mississippi river-boat pilot (1857–61), he adopted his name from a well-known call used when sounding the river shallows (‘Mark twain!’ meaning ‘by the mark two fathoms’). He edited for two years the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, and in 1864 moved to San Francisco as a reporter. In 1867 …

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Mark Williams

Snooker player, born in Cwm, S Wales, UK. He won his first junior competition at age 11 and turned professional in 1992. His first major tournament win was the Regal Welsh Open in 1996, and further titles include the Benson and Hedges Masters (1998, 2003), UK Championship (1999, 2002), World Professional Championship (2000, 2003), the LG Cup (2003), and the China Open (2006). He was ranked world n…

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market economy - Free market economy, Market externalities, Government intervention, Market freedom, Markets and communist states

An economic system where prices, wages, and what is made and sold are determined by market forces of supply and demand, with no state interference. The contrast is with a command economy, where the state takes all economic decisions. Most Western economies these days are mixed, with varying degrees of state control. A market economy (also called a free market economy, free enterprise econom…

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market gardening - Market garden operations, Market gardening business, Market gardening as alternative lifestyle

The intensive production of horticultural crops on smallholdings, especially fruit and vegetables for local markets; also known as truck gardening in the USA. It may incorporate pick-your-own enterprises, where labour is scarce. Market gardening as a business is based on providing a wide range and steady supply of fresh produce through the local growing season. Market gardening also employs…

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market research - Market research for business planning, Perform market research

The study of consumers' needs and preferences, and of the acceptability of goods and services offered for sale; in economics, the study of the requirements of markets. Survey techniques are often used, seeking the opinions of individuals who might be buyers, as well as the expectation of sales staff or competing products, and providing information about the potential size and characteristics of a …

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market socialism - Theoretical basis, Other uses of the term

A variant of socialism which seeks to marry the benefits of the market system with those of socialism and thus avoid the negative aspects of both; associated with the Polish economist Oskar Lange (1904–65). It combines the efficiency of the market-place, as a way of providing the goods and services demanded by the consumers, with the social justice associated with the allocation of profits on the…

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marketing - Definitions, History, Introduction, Skill Sets, Marketing is a Technology, The 3 Levels of Marketing Strategy

The management of a business with the customer in mind. It aims to identify a market where a potential exists for profitable business, and to take the necessary steps to satisfy that market by careful planning of the ‘marketing mix’ or the ‘Four Ps’: product, price, place, and promotion (including advertising). Marketing is a social and managerial function that attempts to create, expan…

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marketing board - Notable marketing boards

A statutory body which has the power to control some aspect(s) of production, processing, or marketing for a specific commodity. It is usually created through a majority vote of producers, and financed through compulsory levy. Most frequently used to manage the marketing and promotion of agricultural commodities, it may also fund research and the collection and dissemination of information. Market…

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markhor

A wild goat (Capra falconeri) native to the mountains of S Asia; the largest goat; male with long beard covering throat; long horns extremely thick, close (or joined) at base, with sharp spiral ridge around outside; inhabits woodlands. …

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Markov chain - Properties of Markov chains, Markov chains with a finite state space, Scientific applications, Markov parody generators

In mathematics, a chain of events in which the probability of moving from one state to another depends on the existing state. These are often displayed in matrices, and a two-state Markov chain, one in which there are two possible states at each stage, is illustrated by the matrix . For example, a man travels home from work either by car or by train. If he travels by car any one day, the probabili…

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Markus Wolf - Biography, Cultural impact, Bibliography

German chief of secret police, born in Hechingen, SW Germany. He served as deputy minister and head of the Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung in the ministry for state security of the German Democratic Republic (1958–87). Following German reunification in 1990, he faced trial for his espionage activities during the Cold War, and in 1997 was given a two-year suspended prison sentence. Markus Johan…

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Marlene Dietrich - Early life, Hollywood, The singer, World War II, Personal life, Stage and cabaret, Final years

Film actress and singer, born in Berlin, Germany. Abandoning an early ambition to be a violinist, she became a chorus girl, then studied acting, and by 1923 had launched her career in German films. She gained international attention in The Blue Angel (1930) and moved to Hollywood with its director, Josef von Sternberg, who starred her in six films that enforced her persona of enigmatic sexuality. …

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marlin

Any of several large, fast-swimming, highly agile billfishes widespread in warm seas; length up to 4·5 m/14¾ ft; very important commercially, and highly prized as sport fish, especially the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and the striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax). (Genera: Makaira, Tetrapturus. Family: Istiophoridae.) …

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Marlon Brando - Early life, Career, Personal life, Controversy, Humorous Name, Main Filmography, Complete Filmography

Film and stage actor, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. A product of the New York Actors' Studio, he made his debut in 1943, and appeared in several plays before achieving fame in A Streetcar Named Desire (1947). His many films include The Wild One (1953), Julius Caesar (1953), One-Eyed Jacks (which he also directed, 1961), Mutiny on the Bounty (1962), and Last Tango in Paris (1972). An Oscar winner f…

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marmoset - Species list

A monkey-like primate, native to South America; thick fur, long tail; head may have ornamental tufts; thumb not opposable; nails long, curved, pointed; inhabits tropical forest. (Family: Callitrichidae, 17 species.) The marmosets are the genus Callithrix of New World monkeys. …

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marmot

A large, ground-dwelling squirrel native to Europe, Asia, and North America; length, c.75 cm/30 in; inhabits open country; lives in burrows; hibernates for up to 9 months; eats vegetation and insects. (Genus: Marmota, 11 species.) …

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Maronite Church - Organization, Famous Maronites, Dioceses and archdioceses, Population

A Christian community originating in Syria in the 7th-c, claiming origin from St Maro (d.407). Condemned for its Monothelite beliefs in 680, the Church survived in Syria and elsewhere, and since 1182 has been in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. Maron, a contemporary and friend of St. John Chrysostom, was a monk in the fourth century who left Antioch for the Orontes River to lead an…

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Marostica - History, Main sights, Culture

45º45N 11º39E, pop (1996e) 12 600. Town in Veneto region, NE Italy; 27 km/17 mi NE of Vicenza; famous for its large painted chessboard in the main town square (Piazza Castello); every two years the townspeople dress in costume and play the roles of the chess pieces to reenact a traditional local story; birthplace of Prospero Alpini; ceramics, glass, clothing, wickerwork, pottery; Festival of…

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Marquesas Islands - Islands of the Marquesas, Government, Demographics, Communications, Geography, Geology, The Islands in Western culture

pop (2000e) 9300; area 1189 km²/459 sq mi. Mountainous, wooded volcanic island group of French Polynesia, 1184 km/736 mi NE of Tahiti; comprises Nuku Hiva (where Herman Melville lived), Ua Pu, Ua Huka, Hiva Oa (where Gauguin painted), Tahuata, Fatu Hiva, and five smaller uninhabited islands; acquired by France, 1842; chief settlement, Taiohae (Hiva Oa); copra, cotton, vanilla. The Ma…

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marquetry - History, Links

Veneers (thin sheets of highly polished woods of different colours) applied to furniture in ornamental patterns, frequently of fruit, flowers, and foliage. A popular technique throughout W Europe in the later 17th–18th-c, it became particularly widely used in England after the accession of William and Mary in 1688. The finest examples were by French cabinetmakers of the reigns of Louis XIV, XV, a…

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Baron de Lussigny marquis d' Ancre

Adventurer, born in Florence, NC Italy. He entered the French court in 1600, in the train of Marie de' Medici, the wife of Henry IV, and became chief favourite of the queen-regent during the minority of Louis XIII. His prodigality was immense, and he squandered vast sums on the decoration of his palaces. Hated alike by nobility and populace, he was assassinated in the Louvre during a rebellion. …

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Marquis de Sade - Life, Literary works, Appraisal and criticism, Works about Sade or his books

Writer, born in Paris, France. He studied at Paris, served in the army, and was in 1772 condemned to death at Aix for his cruelty and sexual perversions. He escaped, but was later imprisoned at Vincennes (1777) and in the Bastille (1784), where he wrote Les 120 Journées de Sodome (c.1784, The 120 Days of Sodom). After his release (1790), he wrote the licentious novels Justine (1791), La Philosoph…

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Jeanne Antoinette Poisson marquise de (Marchioness of) Pompadour - Early life, The King's mistress, In popular culture

Mistress of Louis XV, born in Paris, France. A woman of remarkable grace, beauty, and wit, she became a queen of fashion, and attracted the eye of the king at a ball. Installed at Versailles (1745), and ennobled as marquise de Pompadour, she assumed the entire control of public affairs, and for 20 years swayed state policy, appointing her own favourites. She founded the royal porcelain factory at …

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marram grass

A tough perennial (Ammophila arenaria) with creeping rhizomes, native to coasts of W Europe; leaf-blades inrolled, panicles spike-like. It is a pioneer colonizer, adapted to dry conditions, and able to withstand burial by drifting sand. It is often planted on dunes as a sand-binder. (Family: Gramineae.) Marram grass is widely known for being an example of a xerophyte- i.e. …

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marriage - Definitions, Recognition, Types of marriages, Marriage restrictions, Weddings, Termination, Rights and obligations relating to marriage

In anthropology, the legitimate long-term mating arrangement institutionalized in a community. If a union is called marriage, this implies that husband and wife have recognized claims over their partners, often including material claims; and it renders the children born of such a union legitimate heirs to both parents. Marriage also creates relationships of affinity between a person and his or her…

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Marriner (Stoddard) Eccles

Businessman and government official, born in Logan, Utah, USA. A Morman, he invested family money into a Rocky Mountain real-estate and banking empire, Eccles Investment Co (1916–34). As governor, then chairman, of the Federal Reserve Board (1934–51), he used the Banking Act of 1935 to centralize federal control over banking and currency, returning to business later. Marriner Stoddard Ecc…

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Mars (astronomy) - Orbit and rotation, Moons, Exploration, Astronomical observations from Mars, Viewing Mars, Mars in human culture

The fourth major planet from the Sun; the outermost of the terrestrial-type planets, with an eccentric orbit at a mean distance of 1·52 AU, and a diameter about half that of Earth. Its basic planetary characteristics are: mass 6·42 × 1023 kg; equatorial radius 3397 km/2111 mi; mean density 3·93 g/cm3; equatorial gravity 372 cm/s2; day (sidereal) 24 h 37 min 22 s; year 687 days; obli…

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Mars (mythology) - Origins, Worship, Names and epithets

The Roman god of war, second only to Jupiter. The month of March is named after him. His mythology is borrowed from Ares, though various annual ceremonies at Rome indicate that he was originally an agricultural deity who guarded the fields. Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. Initially the Roman god of fertility and vegetation and a protect…

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Marsden Hartley

Painter and writer, one of the pioneers of American modern art, born in Lewiston, Maine, USA. In 1892 he won a scholarship to the Cleveland School of Art, and in 1898 moved to New York City. He visited France and Germany (1912–15), experimenting with the latest styles. Inspired by Kandinsky and Franz Marc, his work became abstract, and he exhibited with the Blaue Reiter group. Marsden Hart…

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Marseille - Geography, History, Economy, Administration, Demographics, Climate, Culture, Sights, Transport, Births and deaths in Marseille, Gallery

43°18N 5°23E, pop (2000e) 837 000. Principal commercial port and capital of Bouches-du-Rhône department, S France; on NE shore of the Gulf of Lyon, 130 km/81 mi WSW of Nice; second largest city in France and leading port of the Mediterranean; founded c.600 BC by Greeks; Old Port (Vieux Port) on a rocky peninsula; airport; railway; metro; archbishopric; university; shipbuilding, chemicals, t…

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marsh harrier

A hawk found throughout the Old World (Circus aeruginosus); brown body, paler head, and grey tail; inhabits marshland (sometimes grassland in Australasia); eats frogs and other small animals; nests among reeds; also known as swamp hawk. (Family: Accipitridae.) The birds are known for their spectacular aerial courtship display. On the verge of extinction in the early 1970s, there remained only one …

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Marsh test - Precursor methods, Circumstances and methodology behind the Marsh test, Specific reactions involved with the Marsh test

A test for arsenic and antimony involving the reduction of their compounds to volatile AsH3 and SbH3, which deposit the metals as a mirror on a glass surface. It is named after British chemist James Marsh (1794–1846), assistant to Michael Faraday at the Royal Military Academy, London. The Marsh test is a highly sensitive method in the detection of arsenic, especially useful in the field of…

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Marsha Norman - Early life, 'night Mother and recognition, Works

Playwright and director, born in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. A writer and director for Actors' Theatre in Louisville, her play 'night Mother (1983), about a daughter's suicide, won a Pulitzer Prize. Norman was born into a Christian fundamentalist household in Louisville, Kentucky. Norman was, however, allowed to read, play the piano and visit the theatre where she viewed productions by the …

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Marshall (Maynard) Fredericks - Architectural sculpture, Images

Sculptor, born in Rock Island, Illinois, USA. He studied at the Cleveland School of Art and with the Swedish sculptor Carl Milles, then settled in Michigan, teaching at Cranbrook Academy, Bloomfield Hills (1933–42). Working in the symbolic-realistic tradition then current, he is best known for his public commissions such as those for the city of Detroit and for US Post Offices in River Rouge, MI …

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Marshall Field

Merchant, born in Conway, Massachusetts, USA. A shop clerk in Pittsfield, MA, he moved to Chicago (1856), where he continued in retail. By 1867 he headed Field, Leiter & Co, which became Marshall Field and Co (1881), soon recognized as one of the world's largest, most progressive emporia. As a philanthropist he gave to many causes, including land on which to establish the University of Chicago, an…

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Marshall Islands - Administrative divisions, Geography, Mexican Fishermen

Timezone GMT +12 The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), is a Micronesian island nation in the western Pacific Ocean, located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the U.S. territory of Wake Island. In World War II, the United States liberated the islands (1944), and they were added to the …

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Marshall Plan - Before the Marshall Plan, Early ideas, The speech, Rejection by the Soviets, Negotiations, Implementation, Expenditures, Effects

The popular name for the European Recovery Program, a scheme for large-scale, medium-term US aid to war-ravaged Europe, announced in 1947 by US secretary of state, George Marshall. ‘Marshall Aid’ was rejected by the USSR and the Eastern bloc, but during 1948–50 it materially assisted W Europe's economic revival, particularly in West Germany. Reasons for US aid included the importance of the Eur…

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Marshall W(arren) Nirenberg - Research, Biography

Biochemist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He taught while a student at the University of Florida (1945–52), then joined the National Institutes of Health (1957). Beginning in 1960, knowing that the genetic code consists of 64 nucleotide base ‘triplets’ that code for 20 amino acids, he synthesized successions of nucleic acids with a known base sequence, then determined which amino acid e…

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Marsilio Ficino - Biography, Note

Philosopher, born in Figline, NC Italy. A Latin and Greek scholar, Cosimo de' Medici appointed him head of the Platonic Academy in Florence in 1462. He devoted most of his life to translating the works of Plato and his successors into Latin from the original Greek, and trying to reconcile Platonism with Christianity. Marsilio Ficino (also known by his Latin name, Marsilius Ficinus; Figline …

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Marsilius of Padua

Political theorist and philosopher, born in Padua, NE Italy. He was rector of the University of Paris from 1313, where he lectured on natural philosophy, engaged in medical research, and involved himself in Italian politics. In 1324 he completed Defensor pacis, a political treatise which argued against the temporal power of clergy and pope. When the authorship of the work became known, he was forc…

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Marston Morse - Quotes

Mathematician, born in Waterville, Maine, USA. A member of the newly founded Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1935–62), he specialized in mathematical analysis. Honoured after World War 1 for his military service, and after World War 2 for his contributions to ordnance, he was a representative at the United Nations Atoms for Peace Conference (1952). He was known for his love of playing …

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marsupial - Taxonomy

A mammal, native to Australasia and the New World; young often develop in a pouch which opens forwards (climbing species) or backwards (burrowing species); vagina is branched; penis usually forked; second and third toes of foot often small and joined, forming a comb for grooming. (Order: Marsupialia, 266 species.) Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the …

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marsupial mole

An Australian marsupial (Notoryctes typhlops); mole-like with pale yellow coat; eyes and ears hidden by fur; nose pad enlarged to cover front of head; large claws for digging; tail very short; female with pouch opening backwards; inhabits dry sandy areas; burrows collapse behind them as they dig. (Family: Notoryctidae.) …

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marten

A mammal of genus Martes (7 species), native to Europe, Asia, and North America; solid body with sharp nose and long bushy tail; usually inhabits upland forests; eats small mammals, birds, and carrion. (Family: Mustelidae.) The Martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in family Mustelidae. …

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Marten Toonder

Cartoonist and writer, born in Rotterdam, W Netherlands. He became famous with a comic series, appearing daily in several newspapers. The Tom Poes stories are based on the adventures of Tom Poes, a clever and good-hearted cat, a character that Toonder thought up for a children's comic book in 1938, and Heer Ollie B Bommel, a bear of standing. Since 1967 the comic has also appeared in book form. In…

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martensite - Martensitic Transformation: Mysterious Properties Explained

The principal component of hard steel, formed by quenching from high temperatures. It consists of intergrown plate-like crystals with a distorted cubic structure arising from the presence of carbon atoms in the iron structure. Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850-1914), is any crystal structure that was formed by displacive transformation, as opposed to much s…

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Martha (Ellis) Gellhorn - Early life, War in Europe, Later career, Marriages and love affairs, Bibliography

Journalist and writer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. She studied at Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. In 1936 she met Ernest Hemingway (whom she married in 1940 and divorced in 1946) and the following year became war correspondent for the Collier's Weekly, covering the Spanish Civil War and wars in Finland, China, and Java. Later she reported from wars in Vietnam (1966), the Middle East (1967), …

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Martha (Wyles) Jefferson

The wife of Thomas Jefferson, born near Richmond, Virginia, USA. The daughter of a well-known lawyer, she was a young widow when she married Thomas Jefferson in 1772 and settled at Monticello. Her premature death left Jefferson devastated; it was said he promised her he would never marry again, and he did not. Two of their children, Martha and Mary, survived to maturity and assisted their father a…

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Martha Clarke

Dancer and choreographer, born in Maryland, USA. She trained at the American Dance Festival in Connecticut and at the Juilliard School, New York City. She spent a few seasons in Anna Sokolow's company before moving to Europe. On her return to the USA she became (1972) one of the first female members of Pilobolus, a collectively-run dance-theatre ensemble, and later helped to form the trio Crowsnes…

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Martha Corey

Victim of witchcraft hysteria, date and place of birth unknown. The wife of Giles Corey of Salem Village (now Danvers) in colonial Massachusetts, she was accused by two emotionally aroused young girls of witchcraft. Refusing to confess, she was hanged, and her husband was crushed to death under a rock. Her chief accuser and the trial judge later publicly admitted their error. Martha Corey w…

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Martha Graham - Quotes, Dances

Dancer and choreographer, born in Allegheny (now Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, USA. Prevented by her strict father from attending dance school when a girl, after he died she enrolled in the Denishawn School of Dancing in Los Angeles (1916). She then toured with their company, making her professional debut in 1920, appeared with the Greenwich Village Follies (1923–5), a dance group in New York City, …

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Martha's Vineyard - History, Political geography, Access, Residents, Scenic landmarks, stores and locations, Annual events

Island in the Atlantic off the SE coast of Massachusetts, USA; part of Duke's County; area 280 km²/108 sq mi; chief town, Edgartown; former whaling and fishing centre; summer resort; so called because the first English settlers found an abundance of wild grapes growing here. Martha's Vineyard (including nearby Chappaquiddick Island), is an 89.48 square mile (231.75 km²) island off the …

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Martial - Martial's Epigrams, Early life, Life in Rome, Martial and his patrons

Epigrammatist, born at Bilbilis, Hispania Tarraconensis, near the modern Catalayud. He went to Rome in 64, and became a client of the influential Spanish house of the Senecas, through which he found a patron in Calpurnius Piso. He then returned to Spain. Of his c.1500 epigrams, possibly the most celebrated is ‘Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare: hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te’. Th…

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martial arts - Overview, History, Testing and competition, Martial arts as sport, Martial arts and dance

Styles of armed or unarmed combat developed in the East. In modern times most of these arts have developed into popular sports in the West. Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat. Today, martial arts are studied for various reasons including combat skills, fitness, self-defense, sport, self-cultivation (meditation), mental discipline, char…

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martial law - Examples in and of various countries

The imposition of military rule on the civilian population, either by the leader of an occupying army, or by a territory's own government. In the latter case, it most commonly occurs after there has been a military coup or during a period of colonial rule. Many countries' constitutions have provision for the introduction of martial law in times of foreign threats and emergencies, although in many …

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Martial Solal

Jazz pianist and composer, born in Algiers, Algeria. He played in Paris from the 1940s, often with visiting American musicians, and recorded with Lee Konitz, Hampton Hawes, Stephane Grappelli, and others. Highly regarded by critics, his compositions include ‘Suite in D Flat’ for jazz quartet in 1959, and ‘Concerto’ (1981) for jazz trio and orchestra. He presided over the first Martial Solal In…

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martin - Places, People, first name, People, family name, Fictional Martins

A bird of the swallow family. Those with short tails are usually called ‘martins’, those with long tails ‘swallows’. The names are not applied consistently. (Family: Hirundinidae, 23 species.) The following are named Martin: "Also: Martin Dales, Martin Drove, Martin Mill. …

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Martin (

Writer and poet, born in Lucerne, C Switzerland, the younger son of Arthur Merric Boyd. Brought up in Melbourne, he lived for much of his life in Britain. His first novels, such as The Montforts (1928), appeared under pseudonyms. His best work is now referred to as the Langton tetralogy: The Cardboard Crown (1952), A Difficult Young Man (1955), Outbreak of Love (1957), and When Blackbirds Sing (19…

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Martin (David) Kamen - Book by Martin Kamen

Biochemist, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied at Chicago, and afterwards held posts in a number of US universities. He showed that the oxygen formed in plants by photosynthesis is derived from water (and not from CO2); discovered the carbon isotope 14C, afterwards much used as a biochemical tracer; studied photosynthetic bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria; and contributed to the d…

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Martin (Elmer) Johnson - Biography

Photographic explorer and lecturer, born in Rockford, Illinois. Drawn to travel as a youth, he took up photography and was engaged by Jack London to sail on the Snark cruise that ended abruptly with London's illness (1907–9). On his return to the USA, he opened a theatre in Independence, IL, where he showed pictures of his trip as he lectured. Osa Leighty (1894–1953), born in Chanute, Kansas, US…

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Martin (Johnson) Heade - Stylistic classification, Childhood and early career, Transition to landscape painting, Tropical subjects, Salt marsh scenes

Painter, born in Lumberville, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of wealthy farmers, he studied with Edward Hicks (c.1838), moved to New York City (1866–81), travelled widely, and finally settled in St Augustine, FL (1885–1904). His dramatic seascape, ‘Approaching Storm: Beach near Newport’(c.1860) is considered his masterpiece, but his later botanical paintings are also highly acclaimed. Art h…

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Martin (Lewis) Perl

Physicist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. After working as an engineer with the General Electric Co (1948–50) he took his PhD at Columbia University (1955), and taught at the University of Michigan (1955–63) before joining the faculty at Stanford University (1963). His life's work was the study of elementary particles, and it was his work in the 1970s, using the Stanford Linear Accelerator, th…

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Martin (Louis) Amis - Early life, Early writing, Later career, Bibliography

Novelist and journalist, the son of Kingsley Amis, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Exeter College, Oxford, and wrote his first novel, The Rachel Papers (1973), when he was 21. Later works include Dead Babies (1975), Other People (1981), Time's Arrow (1991), Night Train (1997), Yellow Dog (2003), and House of Meetings (2006). His collected short stories include Einstein's…

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Martin Behaim

Navigator and geographer, born in Nuremberg, SC Germany. He settled in Portugal about 1484 and was associated with the later Portuguese discoveries along the coast of Africa. He revisited Nuremberg in 1490, and there constructed the oldest extant terrestrial globe. A crater on the near side of the Moon is named after him. Martin Behaim (October 6, 1459 – July 29, 1507), or Behem, was a na…

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Martin Bell - BBC correspondent, Independent politician, Post "retirement"

Television journalist and politician, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and joined the BBC in 1962, becoming overseas reporter (1964–76), diplomatic correspondent (1976–7), chief North American correspondent (1977–89), Berlin correspondent (1989–93), Vienna correspondent (1993–4), and foreign affairs correspondent (1994–6). Awards include the Royal Te…

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Martin Block

Radio disc jockey, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. A travelling salesman while still a teenager, he first worked in radio in Tijuana, Mexico (1931). Hired by WNEW in New York City (1934–54), he was standing by to announce the latest news about the Hauptmann trial, when he played music to divert listeners, explaining it came from ‘the Make Believe Ballroom’. An immediate success, he helped…

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Martin Bormann - Early life and family, Rise through the Nazi party, Death, rumours and remains

Nazi politician, born in Halberstadt, C Germany. He participated in the abortive Munich putsch of 1923 and became one of Hitler's closest advisers. He was made Reichsminister (party chancellor) in 1941, and was with Hitler to the last. His own fate is uncertain, but he was possibly killed by Russian snipers in the mass breakout by Hitler's staff from the Chancellery (1945). A skeleton accidentally…

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Martin Buber - Life and work, Philosophy, Hasidism and mysticism, Buber and Zionism

Jewish theologian and philosopher, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied philosophy at Vienna, Berlin, and Zürich, then became attracted to Hasidism, founding and editing a monthly journal Der Jude (1916–24). He taught comparative religion at Frankfurt (1923–33), and directed a Jewish adult education programme until 1938, when he fled to Palestine to escape the Nazis. He became professor of socia…

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Martin Cash

Bushranger, born in Enniscorthy, Co Wexford, SE Ireland. He was transported to Australia for theft and attempted murder (1827), escaped from a prison at Port Arthur (1837), and took up a career of bushranging throughout Tasmania. After shooting a constable he was sentenced to death (1843), later commuted to life imprisonment on the penal settlement of Norfolk I, where he became a model prisoner. H…

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Martin Chemnitz - Early life and education, His vocation as reformer, churchman, and theologian

Lutheran theologian, born in Treuenbrietzen, EC Germany. He studied at Wittenberg under Melanchthon, became librarian at Königsberg in 1549, and continued his theological studies. He entered the Lutheran ministry in 1553 as pastor, and in 1567 became superintendant of Braunschweig. He worked to unite the Lutheran Church (split after Luther's death), and was primarily responsible for the Formula o…

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Martin Gardner - Youth and education, Recreational mathematics, Pseudoscience, Religious and philosophical interests, Literary criticism and fiction, Controversy

Writer and mathematical games editor, born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago (1936 BA), became a reporter for the Tulsa Tribune, then worked in public relations for the University of Chicago. Becoming a contributing editor of Humpty Dumpty magazine (1952–62), he took on the work for which he was undoubtedly best known, a regular column with Scientific American (1957…

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Martin Heidegger - Personal and family life, Philosophy, Heidegger and Nazism, Cinema

Philosopher, born in Messkirch, SW Germany. He became professor of philosophy at Marburg (1923–8) and Freiburg (1929–45), when he was retired for his connections with the Nazi regime. In his incomplete main work, Sein und Zeit (1927, Being and Time), he presents an exhaustive ontological classification of ‘being’, through the synthesis of the modes of human existence. He disclaimed the title o…

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Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Chemist, born in Wernigerode, C Germany. He learnt chemistry as an apprentice to an apothecary, and did much to develop analytical chemistry. He was able to deduce, but not isolate, the elements uranium (1786), zirconium (1789), strontium, and titanium. He was appointed the first professor of chemistry in the new University of Berlin (1810). Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – Ja…

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Martin Luther - Early life, Monastic and academic life, Justification by faith, The 95 Theses, Widening breach

Religious reformer, born in Eisleben, EC Germany. He spent three years in an Augustinian monastery, obtained his degree at Erfurt, and was ordained in 1507. His career as a reformer began after a visit to Rome in 1510–11, where he was angered by the sale of indulgences. In 1517 he drew up 95 theses on indulgences, which he nailed on the church door at Wittenberg. Violent controversy followed, and…

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Martin Luther King Day - Current dates

In the USA, the third Monday in January; a federal public holiday in honour of the civil rights leader, commemorated in about half of the US states. There are several variations on the name of the day, and the date of the celebration also varies, from state to state. The Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. , often called Martin Luther King Day, is a United States holiday honoring the Revere…

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Martin McDonagh - The Leenane Trilogy, The Aran Islands Trilogy, Other Plays, Other works

Playwright, born in London, England, UK. Brought up in London by Irish parents, much of his work is set in Ireland. In 1997 his first four plays were running simultaneously in London's West End: The Leenane Trilogy (comprising The Beauty Queen of Leenane, A Skull in Connemara, and The Lonesome West), and The Cripple of Inishmaan. Later plays include The Lieutenant of Inishmore (2001) and The Pillo…

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Martin McGuinness - PIRA Activity, Chief negotiator and Minister for Education, British Agent Speculation

Sinn Féin politician, born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland. A militant supporter of the IRA, who served two jail sentences in the Irish Republic, he developed a major role as a political strategist during the Northern Ireland peace process in the 1990s. He became an MP, though not attending at Westminster, and Sinn Féin's senior minister in the Stormont Assembly. He became minister of education…

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Martin Opitz (von Boberfeld)

Poet, born in Boles?aweic, SW Poland (formerly Bunzlau, Germany). He studied at Frankfurt, Heidelberg, and Leyden, served several German princes, and became historiographer to W?adys?aw IV of Poland. He wrote in a scholarly and stilted style which influenced German poetry for 200 years, and introduced Renaissance poetic thinking into Germany. Martin Opitz von Boberfeld (December 23, 1597

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Martin Puryear

Sculptor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Catholic University of America (1963 BA) and Yale (1971 MFA), and taught at the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle (1970, 1978–88). He is known for his work in exotic woods and architectural wall pieces. Although he spoke out on behalf of his fellow African-Americans, his early work at least aimed for an abstract purity rather than soc…

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Martin Rodbell - Research

Biochemist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. After earning his bachelor's degree in biology at Johns Hopkins University (1949) he took his PhD at the University of Washington (1954). He was a research biochemist at the University of Illinois (1954–6) before going on to the National Institutes of Health, first with the National Heart Institute (1956–61), then with the National Institute of Arthr…

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Martin Scorsese - Childhood, Early career, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000 to present, Themes, Oscar-less director

Film director, writer, and producer, born in Flushing, Long Island, New York, USA. He studied film at New York University, then made commercials and worked as a film editor before returning to direction with Boxcar Bertha (1972). Considered one of the foremost directors of his generation, his work has sought to illuminate masculine aggression and sexual inequality, and he has frequently questioned…

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Martin Sheen - Biography, Political activism, Personal life, Filmography

Film actor, born in Dayton, Ohio, USA. He worked in the theatre before beginning a film career in Catch 22 (1970). Later films include Apocalypse Now (1979), Wall Street (1983), The American President (1995), and Lost and Found (1999). Known for his support of liberal causes, he narrated Broken Arrow (1985), an Oscar-winning documentary about the Navajo nation, and helped narrate the letter-from-V…

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Martin Van Buren - Biography, Early political career, The Jackson Cabinet, Election of 1836, Presidency 1837-1841, Later life

US statesman and eighth president (1837–41), born in Kinderhook, New York, USA. After studying law in a law office, he began a local practice and soon became active in the Democratic-Republican party. He entered the New York state senate (1812–20), concurrently serving as state attorney general (1816–19). In 1821 he entered the US Senate and was elected governor of New York (1828), by which tim…

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Martin Walser - Life, Works

Writer, born in Wasserburg, by L Constance, S Germany. He studied literature, philosophy, and history at Tübingen, after which he worked as a radio and television director for Süddt. Rundfunk (1949–57). One of Germany's most significant contemporary literary figures, he uses Stuttgart and the area around L Constance as the background for many of his novels, which focus on contemporary issues an…

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Martina Hingis - Grand Slam singles finals, Performance timeline

Tennis player, born in Kosice, SE Slovak Republic. She was brought up in Switzerland and, playing for that country, in 1997 became the youngest singles Grand Slam tournament winner of the 20th-c after her victory in the Australian Open, and the youngest-ever world number 1 when she replaced the injured Steffi Graf. Winner of the 1996 and 1998 Wimbledon doubles title, she won the singles title in 1…

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Martina Navratilova - Grand Slam singles finals, Grand Slam doubles titles, Singles Titles (167)

Tennis player, born in Prague, Czech Republic. For three years she played for Czechoslovakia in the Federation Cup, but in 1975 defected to the USA and turned professional, becoming a US citizen in 1981. Her rivalry with Chris Evert was one of the great features of the game from 1975. The winner of a record nine singles titles at Wimbledon (1978–9, 1982–7, 1990), she won 167 singles titles (incl…

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Martinique

pop (2000e) 416 000; area 1079 km²/416 sq mi. Island in the Windward group of the Lesser Antilles, E Caribbean, between Dominica and St Lucia; capital, Fort-de-France; timezone GMT ?4; population mainly of African or mixed descent; chief religion, Roman Catholicism; official language, French, with creole widely spoken; unit of currency, the euro; length, 61 km/38 mi; width, 24 km/15 mi; …

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Martinus Nijhoff

Poet, born in The Hague, W Netherlands. He studied law and later literature. He published his poems in several magazines, but avoided joining any movement or group. His poems express an intense loneliness, a fear of life, and a longing for the innocence of a child. In later works his fear of life changes into a longing to be in contact with reality, and shows the influence of existentialism. He wr…

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Marvin (Julian) Miller

Economist and labour leader, born in New York City, New York, USA. His father helped to organize fellow employees in retail stores where he worked, and young Marvin grew up as a Dodger fan before taking his BS degree in economics from Miami University (Ohio) (1938). During World War 2 he was an economist and disputes hearing officer for the Wage Stabilization Board. After working for the Internati…

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Marvin Bower - External references

Management consultant, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He earned both law and MBA degrees from Harvard by the age of 27. During a long career with McKinsey and Co (partner 1935–50, managing partner 1950–6, managing director 1956–67), he came to be regarded as the founder of modern management consulting. He made the company international and instituted its trademark entreprenurial culture. He wro…

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Marvin Harris - Theoretical Contributions, Personal information, Works

Cultural anthropologist and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Columbia University (1949 BA; 1953 PhD) and joined the faculty there in 1952. He was chairman of the anthropology department at Columbia (1963–6) before becoming professor of anthropology at the University of Florida. Occasionally controversial for his claims, such as that the Aztecs gained much of their neces…

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Marvin Mandel

US governor, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A Democratic lawyer, he served in the Maryland House of Representatives (1952–69), becoming Speaker in 1963. Replacing Spiro Agnew as governor (1969–77), he was an efficient administrator, but in 1975 he was indicted on federal corruption charges and served 19 months in prison (beginning 1980). He worked in real-estate development afterwards. …

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Marvin Minsky - Biography, Affiliations, Trivia, Selected works

Electrical engineer, mathematician, and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. A pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence, as early as 1951 he built a ‘learning machine’ to try to demonstrate that what we call mind is composed of mindless parts. He became an assistant professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1958) and professor in the department of e…

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Marx Brothers - The Marx brothers, Stage beginnings, Origin of the stage names, Filmography, Trivia

Comedy team, all born in New York City, New York, USA. The three most prominent were Chico (b. Leonard) (1886–1961); Harpo (b. Adolph, but known as Arthur) (1888–1964); and Groucho (b. Julius Henry) (1890–1977). Early in its career, the team included Gummo (b. Milton) (1893–1977) and Zeppo (b. Herbert) (1901–79). Sons of German immigrants, they were pushed on the stage by their mother, Minnie…

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Marxism - Classical Marxism, Western Marxism, Post Marxism, Marxist Feminism, Marxism as a political practice, Criticisms

The body of social and political thought informed by the writings of Karl Marx. According to Marx, the whole history of humankind is to be equated with the history of the class struggle. In Marx's view, the driving force of social change would be the contradiction between the structure of ‘productive forces’ and social order. These contradictions gradually increase, and eventually can only be ab…

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Mary (Douglas) Leakey

Archaeologist, born in London, UK. She met and married L S B Leakey while preparing drawings for his book Adam's Ancestors (1934), and moved to Kenya where she undertook pioneering archaeological research (1937–42). She discovered Proconsul africanus (1948) at L Victoria, and with her husband found Zinjanthropus (1959) in Tanzania. Homo habilis was discovered in 1960, and she found fossilized hom…

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Mary (Eleanor) Freeman - Wilkin, Places named Wilkin

Writer and poet, born in Randolph, Massachusetts, USA. She lacked formal schooling and moved to Metuchen, NJ when she married (1902). She drew inspiration from her New England background, and wrote poetry, novels, a play, and stories, as in her collection, A New England Nun (1891). People named Wilkin or Wilkins: …

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Mary (Gladys) Webb - Life, Works

Novelist, born in Keighton, Shropshire, WC England, UK. Educated at Southport, she married in 1912, became a market gardener with her husband, and moved to London in 1921. Her early novels met with little success, but Precious Bane (1924) became an instant best seller after it had been praised by the prime minister, Stanley Baldwin. Other works include The Golden Arrow (1916), The House in Dormer …

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Mary (Louise) MacMonnies Low - History, Second World War

Painter, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. She studied at the Académie Julien in Paris and married Frederick MacMonnies in 1888. After her divorce she married Will Low (1909), and returned to America to live in New York City. During her stay in France she painted sunny impressionistic scenes, such as Five O'Clock Tea (1891). Fairchild was an aerospace manufacturing company based at vari…

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Mary (Melinda) Simkhovitch - Nearest places, Nearest tube station, Local Parks, Schools, History

Social reformer, born in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA. Inspired by work among the poor while a student at Boston University, Radcliffe College, and Columbia University, she worked at New York City settlement houses and founded her own, Greenwich House (1902), where she encouraged grass roots activism by residents. She was a leader in urban revitalization efforts, and as president of the Publi…

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Mary (mother of Jesus) - Religious attitudes towards Mary, Current Attitudes Towards Mary, Portrayals, Further reading

Mother of Jesus Christ. In the New Testament she is most prominent in the stories of Jesus's birth (in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke), where the conception of Jesus is said to be ‘of the Holy Spirit’ (Matt 1.18), and she is described as betrothed to Joseph. She only occasionally appears in Jesus's ministry, but (John 19.25) she was present at Jesus's crucifixion, and was committed by him to th…

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Mary (Raphael) Woolman - Names

Home economist, born in Camden, New Jersey, USA. She was educated at Columbia University and taught domestic economy at Teachers College, Columbia University (1893–1912). A well-known lecturer and writer, she specialized in vocational education and textiles, publishing among other works Textiles: A Handbook for Students and Consumers (1913) and Clothing: Choice, Care, Cost (1920). Schenck …

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Mary (Stevenson) Cassatt - Early life, Impressionism, Later life

Painter, born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, USA. Born into a prosperous family, she studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (1861–5) but found it out-dated. During 1866–74 she studied and painted in Paris, Italy, Spain, and Holland, finally settling in Paris, her home for the rest of her life. Befriended by Degas, she was soon characterized as an Impressionist painter in both style a…

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Mary (Virginia) Martin - Stage Appearances, Television Work, Filmography

Stage and film actress, born in Weatherford, Texas, USA. Beginning with her 1938 debut in Leave It to Me, where she sang the showstopping ‘My Heart Belongs to Daddy’, she was known for her down-to-earth portrayals. She starred in several huge hits, most notably as Nellie Forbush in South Pacific (1949), (‘I'm Gonna Wash That Man Right Outa My Hair’ and other songs), Peter Pan (1954), and The S…

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Mary (Wollstonecraft) Shelley - Biography, Film

Writer, born in London, UK, the daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. She eloped with Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1814, and married him two years later. She wrote several novels, notably Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus (1818), Valperga (1823), The Last Man (1826), and the autobiographical Lodore (1835), as well as travel books, and journals, and edited Shelley's poems and other wo…

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Mary Ann Bickerdyke

Nurse and humanitarian, born in Knox Co, Ohio, USA. A farmer's daughter with little formal education, at age 42 she was left a widow with three children. She supported herself by practising ‘Botanic’ medicine, and when the Civil War broke out she volunteered to work in the hospitals at the Union army base at Cairo, IL. From then until the surrender at Appomattox, she worked as a nurse and caregi…

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Mary Ann Glendon

Legal scholar, born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, USA. She taught at Boston College (1968–86) and Harvard (1986). An expert in comparative law, she served as chief editor of Vol 4 of the International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Mary Ann Glendon (born October 7, 1938 Pittsfield, Massachusetts) J.D., LL.M., is the Learned Hand Professor of Law, at Harvard University Law School. …

less than 1 minute read

Mary Ashton Livermore - Cultivation, Preparation as food, World production and trade, Rice Pests, Cultivars

Temperance worker, women's rights activist, lecturer, and writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Brought up by a strict Calvinist father, she attended various schools in Boston and began teaching even before graduating from a female seminary (1831). She then spent three years as a tutor for a family in North Carolina, where she saw firsthand the horrors of slavery. In 1842 she took up teachin…

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Mary Astor - Early life, Silent movie career, New beginnings, Scandals, Career continues, Middle years, Later life

Film actress, born in Quincy, Illinois, USA. She made her film debut in The Beggar Maid (1921) and was soon established as a beautiful innocent in such historical dramas as Beau Brummell (1924) and Don Juan (1926). She won an Oscar for The Great Lie (1941, with Bette Davis). Other films included The Maltese Falcon (1941), Meet Me in St Louis (1944) and Return to Peyton Place (1961), and she was al…

less than 1 minute read

Mary Augusta Ward - Biography, Foundations, Organisations and Settlements, Associated Activists in Social Change, Bibliography, Reference

Novelist, born in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, a niece of Matthew Arnold. The family returned to Britain in 1856 and, after attending private boarding schools, she joined them in Oxford. She moved to London in 1881, where she wrote for various periodicals. Her greatest success was the best-selling spiritual romance, Robert Elsmere, which inspired the foundation of a settlement for the London poor …

less than 1 minute read

Mary Baker Eddy - Life, Foundation and building of her church, Biographies, Works

Founder of the Church of Christ and Scientist, born in Bow, New Hampshire, USA. Rather sickly and emotionally unstable as a child, she showed an early interest in poetry and religion. In 1843 she married George Washington Glover but he died within seven months and their son was raised by foster parents. During the next decade she taught school occasionally but she was mostly preoccupied with the b…

less than 1 minute read

Mary Beale

Painter, born in Barrow, Suffolk, E England, UK. She became a portrait painter and a devoted follower of the most celebrated portraitist of her day, Sir Peter Lely. Very little is known of her work before c.1670, but several of her husband's diaries record her painting commissions, which include several portraits of clerics. Mary Beale (née Cradock) (March 26, 1633 - 1699) was an English p…

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Mary Boykin Chesnut

Diarist, born near Camden, South Carolina, USA. She married James Chesnut, a wealthy planter, defender of slavery, and staunch secessionist. He joined the US Senate as a Democrat in 1859, but resigned in 1860 to help form the Confederacy. He then served with the Confederate army, leaving his wife to write her journal of life on the Southern home-front, especially in Richmond and South Carolina. Fi…

less than 1 minute read

Mary Breckinridge - Family and early Life, Nursing, References and external Links

Nurse, midwife, and organization founder, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Founder and director of the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky and pioneer in American midwifery, she fought successfully to lower infant mortality rates in the South. An effective fundraiser and crusader for women and children, she combined administrative and practical skills with deep spirituality. Mary Breckinri…

less than 1 minute read

Mary Carpenter

Educationist and reformer, born in Exeter, Devon, SW England, UK, the sister of William Carpenter. Trained as a teacher, she opened a girls' school in Bristol in 1829, and took an active part in the movement for the reformation of neglected children. In 1846 she founded a ragged school in Bristol, and several reformatories for girls. Her father, Dr Lant Carpenter, was Unitarian minister at …

less than 1 minute read

Mary Church Terrell - Works, Books About Mary Church Terrell

Civil-rights activist, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. The daughter of former slaves, her life spanned the period from the Emancipation Proclamation to the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education that school segregation was illegal. After graduating from Oberlin College (1884), she taught for several years, then moved to Europe seeking greater freedom both as an African-American a…

less than 1 minute read

Mary Corinna Putnam Jacobi

Physician, born in London, UK. Her father was the famous New York book publisher, George Putnam. After serving as a medical aide during the Civil War and graduating from the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania (1864), she became only the second woman to take a degree from the Ecole de Médicine, in Paris (1867–71). While there she contributed articles to various American magazines and newspape…

1 minute read

Mary Cover Jones

Psychologist, born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA. She studied at Vassar and Columbia University, where she met fellow psychologist Harold Ellis Jones, and they married in 1920. She did important research in developmental psychology and worked with behaviourist John B Watson. In 1924 she published a landmark study on deconditioning fear. With her husband, she conducted research at the University …

less than 1 minute read

Mary Douglas - Contributions to Anthropology, Works

Social anthropologist, born in Italy. She studied at Oxford, carried out fieldwork among the Lele of the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), and became professor of social anthropology at University College London (1970–8). She then moved to the USA, becoming Avalon Foundation professor in the humanities at Northwestern University (1981–5), and then emeritus professor. She is espec…

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Mary Dyer - People, A, B, C, D, J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, T, Fictional characters

Quaker martyr, born in England, UK. She and her husband, William Dyer, emigrated to Massachusetts in 1635. She sympathized with Anne Hutchinson's religious views and moved to Rhode Island (1638). During a period in England (1650–7) she became a Quaker, and on her return to the colonies she was arrested three times by Massachusetts colonists and warned to keep out of that colony because of her fai…

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Mary E(dwards) Walker - Biography

Physician and feminist, born in Oswego Town, New York, USA. She graduated from Syracuse Medical College (1855) and married a medical student who also became a physician. As an activist on behalf of women's dress reform, she wore ‘bloomers’ at the ceremony, omitted the word ‘obey’ from her vows, and also kept her own name. (They separated in 1859.) During the Civil War she was an assistant surg…

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Mary Elizabeth Lease

Lecturer and political activist, born in Ridgway, Pennsylvania, USA. Eventually settling with her family in Wichita, KS, she passed the bar, lectured on women's suffrage and farmers' welfare, and campaigned widely for the People's Party in the 1890s, urging American farmers to ‘raise less corn and more hell’. Her most famous work, The Problem of Civilization Solved (1895), contained elements of …

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Mary Fitton

English courtier, maid of honour to Elizabeth I. She was the mistress of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and Sir Richard Leveson, and married Captain W Polwhele in 1607. She has been tenuously identified by some commentators as the ‘dark lady’ of Shakespeare's sonnets 127–157. About 1595 Mary Fitton became maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth. Sir William was fifty and already married, b…

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Mary Frances Berry

Historian, educator, and government official, born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. She studied at Howard University and the University of Michigan (PhD), and taught history at several colleges. She was active in the civil rights movement while working for a law degree from the University of Michigan Law School. In 1970 she moved to Maryland as the acting director of Afro-American Studies at the Univ…

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Mary Garden - Early Life and Rise to Stardom, Personal life, Recordings and films, Sources

Soprano, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. Taken to America as a child, she studied singing in Chicago, then in Paris. Her career began sensationally when she took over in mid-performance the title role in Charpentier's new opera Louise at the Opéra-Comique in 1900, when the singer was taken ill. Debussy chose her for Mélisande in Pelléas et Mélisande (1902), and Massenet and Erlanger also wr…

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Mary Gaudron - Youth, Education, Career, Criticism, Approbation

Judge, born in Moree, New South Wales, SE Australia. She studied at St Ursula's College, Armidale, and Sydney University, and became a lawyer. In 1974 she was the youngest ever federal judge when appointed deputy-president of the Arbitration Commission, and in 1981 was the youngest ever NSW solicitor general. Seen as a progressive, in 1987 she became the first woman to be appointed to the High Cou…

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Mary Haas

Linguist, born in Richmond, Indiana, USA. She earned a PhD at Yale (1935) and taught for many years at the University of California, Berkeley. She specialized in linguistic prehistory and in Thai and American Indian languages, and her books include Spoken Thai (1946) and Prehistory of Languages (1969). Mary Rosamund Haas (born January 12, 1910; died May 17, 1996) was an American linguist wh…

less than 1 minute read

Mary Harris Jones - Biography, Formative years, Later Years, Books

US labour agitator, born in Co Cork, S Ireland. She migrated to the USA via Canada, lost her family to an epidemic in 1867, and her home to the Chicago fire of 1871, and thereafter devoted herself to the cause of labour. Homeless after 1880, she travelled to areas of labour strife, especially in the coal industry, and was imprisoned in West Virginia on a charge of conspiracy to murder in 1912, at …

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Mary Hays McCauley

Revolutionary heroine, born near Trenton, New Jersey, USA. In 1778 she joined her first husband, John Hays, at his army encampment in New Jersey. During the battle of Monmouth, she carried water to the American troops, earning the sobriquet Molly Pitcher, and when her husband was wounded at his cannon, she is said to have taken over and continued firing. After the American Revolution, she returned…

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Mary Lasker - Places, Things

Philanthropist, born in Watertown, Wisconsin, USA. She worked as an art dealer, then started a dress pattern line called Hollywood Patterns (1932). In 1942 she and her husband Albert (1880–1958) founded the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, using some of the money from the sale of Albert's successful advertising agency, Lord and Thomas Co. The foundation has influenced and supported medical rese…

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Mary Lavin - Early life and career, Widowhood and later career

Short-story writer and novelist, born in East Walpole, Massachusetts, USA. Her parents returned to Ireland when she was nine, and she lived there ever since. ‘Miss Holland’, her first short story, was published in the Dublin Magazine, and her first collection, Tales from Bective Bridge (1942), was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Apart from two early novels - The House in Clewe Stree…

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Mary Lincoln - Places, People, Other

US first lady (1861–5), born in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. She married Abraham Lincoln in 1842. She was emotionally immature and became mentally unbalanced as the years passed. As first lady, it seemed that she could do nothing right; she overspent, was exceedingly jealous of Lincoln's affections, and was accused of Confederate sympathies. Following the loss of her son, Willie (1862), and Lincoln'…

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Mary Lou Retton

Gymnast, born in Fairmont, West Virginia, USA. In the 1984 Olympics at Los Angeles, she won a gold medal in the women's all-round by earning a perfect score of 10 in the vault, the final event of the competition. She also won two silver and two bronze medals in individual and team competitions. Her wholesome exuberence won her many commercial endorsements, including an appearance on the front of a…

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Mary Lou Williams

Jazz pianist, arranger, and composer, born in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. She left high school to become a touring show pianist. Her first important period as a performer and arranger was during the 1930s with the Kansas City-based Andy Kirk and his Clouds of Joy. Her outstanding qualities as an arranger brought her work from Duke Ellington (for whom she arranged the well-known ‘Trumpets No End’), Ea…

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Mary Louisa Molesworth - Biography

British novelist and writer of children's stories, born in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Of Scottish parentage, she spent her childhood in Manchester, Scotland, and Switzerland. She wrote novels under her pseudonym, but she is best known as a writer of stories for children, such as The Cuckoo Clock (1877), The Carved Lions (1895), and Peterkin (1902). Mary Louisa Molesworth (May 29, 1839 - Ja…

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Mary Lyon - Background, Women's education, Death, Honors

Educator, born in Buckland, Massachusetts, USA. After teaching in Massachusetts and New Hampshire seminaries, she was the planner and founding principal (1837–49) of the first permanent women's college in the USA, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (later College). She modelled the curriculum on that of Amherst College, but hired only female permanent faculty. Mary Mason Lyon (28 February 1797 …

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Mary Mallon - Birth and emigration, Cook, Quarantine, Death, Legacy, Popular Culture, Further reading

Typhoid carrier, born in the USA or Ireland. Working as a private cook while carrying the bacteria that cause typhoid fever, she infected wealthy New York families with the disease (1904–7). Never ill herself, she was finally tracked down and hospitalized in New York City (1907–10) to protect others. Discovered cooking again for a New Jersey sanatorium in 1914, she was hospitalized for life. Alt…

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Mary McAleese - Background, Presidency

President of Ireland (1997– ), born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. She studied at Queen's University, Belfast, moving in 1975 to Trinity College Dublin as professor of criminal law. She also worked as a television journalist (1979–81), and in the 1980s became known as an outspoken campaigner for a wide range of social causes. In 1987 she moved into university administration at Queen's, bec…

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Mary McLeod Bethune

Educator and civil and women's rights activist, born in Mayesville, South Carolina, USA. A child of former slaves, she began her life picking cotton, but a scholarship to Scotia Seminary in North Carolina in 1888 launched her long and distinguished career as educator and activist. Believing that education provided the key to racial advancement, she founded the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institu…

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Mary of Burgundy - Heiress of Burgundy, The Great Privilege, Marriage, Death and Legacy, Children

Duchess of Burgundy from 1477, the daughter of Charles the Bold. She married Maximilian I Habsburg of Austria in 1477. Her father's defeat by France in 1477 had lost much territory and encouraged the Flemish towns to revolt, after which the States-General meeting in Ghent forced her to grant the ‘Great Privilege’. She died from a fall from her horse while hunting. Mary (February 13, 1457 …

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Mary of Guise

Daughter of Claude of Lorraine, 1st Duke of Guise. In 1534 she married Louis of Orléans, Duke of Longueville (d.1537), and in 1538 James V of Scotland, at whose death (1542) she was left with one child, Mary, Queen of Scots. During the troubled years that followed, the queen mother acted with wisdom and moderation, but after her accession to the regency in 1554 she allowed the Catholic Guise fami…

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Mary of Modena

Queen consort of Britain and Ireland (1685–88), the second wife of James II. The only daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena, she married James in 1673 when he was Duke of York. They lost five daughters and a son in infancy, but in 1688 she gave birth to James Francis Edward Stuart (the future ‘Old Pretender’). When William of Orange (the future William III) landed in England later that year, s…

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Mary of Teck - Engagement and marriage, Duchess of York, Queen Mary, Legacy, Titles from birth to death

Queen consort of Great Britain, the wife of George V, born in Kensington Palace, London, UK, the only daughter of Francis, Duke of Teck, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of George III. In 1891 she accepted a marriage proposal from the Duke of Clarence, who within six weeks died from pneumonia. She then married his brother, the Duke of York, in 1893. After his accession (as …

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Mary Parker Follett

Social worker and management theorist, born in Quincy, Massachusetts, USA. She graduated summa cum laude from Radcliffe College in 1898. In the next decade she founded several Boston boys' and young men's clubs, including the Roxbury League, which pioneered the use of schools as community centres. A believer in using community organizations to foster understanding among different social and occupa…

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Mary Pickford - Early life, Beginning of career to stardom, Relationships, The film industry, Later years, Partial chronology, Filmography

Actress, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. She first appeared on the stage at the age of five, and made her film debut in 1909. Her beauty and ingenuous charm won her the title of ‘The World's Sweetheart’, her many successful films including Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1917), Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), and The Taming of the Shrew (1929). She made her first talkie, Coquette, in 1929, and re…

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Mary Pierce - Grand Slam singles finals, Grand Slam doubles finals, Major tournament singles performance timeline

French tennis player, born in Montreal, Canada. Her tournament victories include the Australian Open in 1995, the first Frenchwoman to win this title since 1967, and the French Open in 2000. She reached the Masters semi-final in 1993 and the Roland-Garros final in 1994. At the start of 2006 she had a world ranking of number 5. A = did not participate in the tournament SR = the r…

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Mary Quant - Early career, The miniskirt, The Swinging Sixties, Later career

Fashion designer, inventor of the mini-skirt and hot pants, born in London, UK. She studied at Goldsmith's College of Art and designed hats for the fashionable Danish milliner, Erik. She began fashion design when she opened a small boutique in Chelsea in 1955, and married one of her partners, Alexander Plunket Greene. Her designs were an immediate success, and within seven years she had expanded t…

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Mary Rand

Athlete, born in Wells, Somerset, SW England, UK. She set the first of her six British records at the pentathlon at the age of 18 in the European Championships in 1958, the same year she won the Commonwealth Games long jump. She set British records at the long jump, the 100 yards, and the 80 m hurdles. She went on to win the long jump again at the 1966 Commonwealth Games. She was Women's Amateur…

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Mary Renault - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Forest Gate, London, UK. She was educated in Bristol and at St Hugh's College, Oxford. Her first novel, Purposes of Love (1939), was a frank account of heterosexuality and lesbianism. In 1948 she emigrated to South Africa where she wrote The Charioteer (1953), a serious study of homosexual love. The theme was continued in the Last of the Wine (1956), the first of eight accounts o…

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Mary Rinehart

Writer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Born into a strict religious family with limited financial means (her father would commit suicide), by age 15 she was selling stories to a Pittsburgh newspaper. She graduated from the Pittsburgh Training School for Nurses (1896), then married a doctor and had three children by age 25. In 1903 she took up writing short stories to help support her famil…

1 minute read

Mary Ritter Beard - Further reading

Historian and social reformer, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The wife of Charles Beard, she met him while both were students at DePauw University (Asbury, IN) and they married in 1900. She followed him to Oxford University, England, where she became involved in both women's suffrage and working-class education activities. On their return to the USA (1902), she began postgraduate study at Col…

1 minute read

Mary Robinson - Background, Career in the senate, Presidential candidacy, Lenihan campaign implodes, Presidency, High Commissioner for Human Rights

Constitutional lawyer, academic, civil rights campaigner, politician, and president of the Irish Republic (1990–7), born in Ballina, Mayo, W Ireland. Born into a Roman Catholic family, she graduated in law from Trinity College, Dublin, and furthered her legal studies at Harvard University. Appointed Trinity College Professor of Constitutional and Criminal Law in 1969 at 25 years of age, she was e…

1 minute read

Mary Rowlandson

Frontier captive, born in England, UK. Her family emigrated to Massachusetts (1653), and she married Joseph Rowlandson (1656) and had four children. In 1675, during King Philip's War, Indians attacked Lancaster, MA and carried off Mary and three of her children. She survived three months in captivity and met King Philip, the Indian leader. She and two surviving children were ransomed (1676) and th…

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Mary Russell Mitford

Essayist and playwright, born in Alresford, Hampshire, S England, UK. At the age of 10 she won £20 000 in a lottery, with which her father built a house and sent her to school in Chelsea. They had to move to a labourer's cottage when her father's extravagance ruined them, and thereafter she earned a living as a writer to support him and pay his gambling debts. Her gift was for charming sketches …

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Mary Slaney - Places, Fictional people

Track athlete, born in Bunnvale, New Jersey, USA. She held several different US records in distance running, from the 800 m to the 10 000 m race. Her attempt at an Olympic medal was thwarted in 1984 when she was accidentally tripped by Zola Budd in the 3000 m race at Los Angeles. …

less than 1 minute read

Mary Slessor - Early life, Travels to Nigeria, Mary Slessor in popular culture

Presbyterian missionary, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. She worked as a mill girl in Dundee from childhood but, conceiving a burning ambition to become a missionary, was accepted by the United Presbyterian Church for teaching in Calabar, Nigeria (1876). There she spent many years of devoted work among the natives, who called her ‘Great Mother’. Mary Slessor (2 December 1848 - 13 Janua…

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Mary Somerville

Scientific writer, born in Jedburgh, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. She lived in London from 1816, where she moved in intellectual and scientific circles, and corresponded with foreign scientists. In 1831 she published The Mechanism of the Heavens, an account for the general reader of Pierre Simon Laplace's Mécanique céleste. This had great success, and she wrote several further expository w…

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Mary Teresa Norton - Biography

US representative, born in Jersey City, New Jersey, USA. A secretary (1896–1909) before marriage, she set up day-care nurseries for working mothers after her child died. Entering politics in 1920, she was one of the first women in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, New Jersey, 1924–51). She chaired the House Labor Committee (1937–46), shepherding through the Wages and Hours Bill, resign…

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Mary Tyler Moore - Biography, Film

Actress, born in New York City, USA. Trained as a dancer, she became the Happy Hotpoint Pixie in a series of television commercials in 1955. Small acting roles followed, and she made her film debut in 1961. The Dick Van Dyke Show (1961–6) highlighted her talent for domestic comedy, and won her Emmys in 1964 and 1965. Her small-screen popularity was used to launch a multi-media career on Broadway …

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Mary Wesley - Reference

Novelist, born in Englefield Green, West Berkshire, S England, UK. She studied at the London School of Economics, and had a number of jobs before beginning to write children's novels in the 1960s. Her first two adult novels, Jumping the Queue (1983) and The Camomile Lawn (1984), did not appear until she was in her 70s, and she then became a prolific writer of spirited comedies, later books includi…

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Mary White Ovington

Civil-rights reformer, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. Her Unitarian upbringing and attendance at the Harvard Annexe (later Radcliffe College) (1888–91) inspired her to devote herself to social reforms. She became a settlement house worker in Brooklyn (1895–1903) and also assistant secretary to the Social Reform Club of New York. It was a 1903 speech by Booker T Washington at the latter that aw…

1 minute read

Mary Whiton Calkins

Psychologist, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. She studied at Harvard and taught at Wellesley College (1887–1929). During the 1890s, she conducted research on memorization-by-association at Harvard, and was influenced by William James. Often called ‘the first lady of psychology’, she was a personality theorist who described the self as an integral unit that could be studied in its many varia…

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Mary Wigman - Career, Choreographies

Dancer, choreographer, and teacher, born in Hanover, NC Germany. Her career as Germany's most influential and creative modern dancer began after World War 1, when she toured extensively and opened a school in Dresden in 1920. The school became the focal point of the Neue Künstlerische Tanz (‘new artistic dance’), also known as Ausdruckstanz (‘expressive dance’), a theatrical dance form not ba…

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Mary Wollstonecraft - Works, Further reading

Feminist and educationist, born in London, UK. After working as a teacher and governess, she became a translator and literary adviser. In 1787 she published Thoughts on the Education of Daughters, and in 1792 she wrote Vindication of the Rights of Woman, advocating equality of the sexes. She was in Paris during the French Revolution where she married Gilbert Imlay (1754–1828), and had a daughter,…

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Marya Zaturenska

Poet, born in Kiev, Ukraine. She emigrated to the USA (1909), and studied at Valparaiso University (1922–3) and the University of Wisconsin (1923–5). She married the poet, Horace Gregory (1925), and herself became a highly respected anthologist and lyric poet, as seen in her Pulitzer Prize-winning (1938) Cold Morning Sky (1937). Other works include a biography, Christina Rossetti (1949). In her …

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Maryland - Geography, National Park Service, History, Demographics, Economy, Transportation, Law and government, Important places, Education, Professional sports

pop (2000e) 5 296 500; area 27 090 km²/10 460 sq mi. State in E USA, divided into 23 counties and one city; the ‘Old Line’ or ‘Free State’; the first settlement (1634) located at St Mary's (state capital until 1694); seventh of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution, 1788; gave up territory for the establishment of the District of Columbia; abolished slavery, 1864; capital,…

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Marzabotto

A locality in the Bologna province, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, the site of the Marzabotto massacre during World War 2. In October 1944 the German troops of Major Walter Reder killed 1836 of the local population in retaliation. The area also contains the remains of an Etruscan city. Marzabotto is a small town in Italian region Emilia-Romagna, part of the province of Bologna. …

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Masaccio - Biography, Legacy

Painter and pioneer of the Renaissance, born in Castel San Giovanni di Altura, Duchy of Milan. In his short life he brought about a revolution in the dramatic and realistic representation of biblical events. This was recognized by his contemporaries, and had a great influence on Michelangelo and through him on the entire 16th-c. His greatest work is the fresco cycle in the Brancacci Chapel of the …

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Masada - Geography, History, The site today

A Roman hilltop fortress established 37–31 BC by the Palestinian ruler Herod in barren mountains W of the Dead Sea; within Israel since 1947. Seized by zealots during the First Jewish Revolt in AD 66–70, it was taken by the Roman army in 73 after a lengthy siege which culminated in the mass suicide of all 400 defenders. As a political symbol of Jewish solidarity and resistance down the ages, it …

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Masaniello - The revolt, Masaniello in art

Populist politician, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. Of humble birth, in 1647 he led the insurrection of the Neapolitan populace (lazzari) against heavy taxation. He headed the government after the Spanish viceroy fled the city, and presented a list of demands from the people to the Spanish rulers. But his populism and alleged insanity frightened the moderate element that had actual control of…

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Masatoshi Koshiba

Physicist, born in Toyohashi, C Honshu, Japan. He studied at the University of Rochester (1955 PhD), later joining the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics in Tokyo. He shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Physics for his pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos. Masatoshi Koshiba (小柴 昌俊 Koshiba Masatoshi, born on Septe…

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Mascara - History, Using mascara

35º20N 0º09E, pop (2001e) 87 700. Capital town of Mascara province, NW Algeria; located across two hills separated by the Oued (stream) Toudman; founded as a Turkish military garrison (1701–91); birthplace and headquarters (1832) of Algerian patriot Abd-el-Kader; town destroyed by French (1835); administrative and commercial centre; leather goods, grains, olive oil, tobacco, noted for its whi…

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Mascarene Islands - Nature

Island group in the Indian Ocean, 700–800 km/450–500 mi E of Madagascar; includes Réunion, Mauritius, and Rodrigues; named after the 16th-c Portuguese navigator, Mascarenhas. The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar comprising Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, Cargados Carajos shoals, plus the former islands of …

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maser - History, Technology, Uses, Astrophysical masers, Terminology, Masers in science fiction

A device which produces microwaves from excited atoms or molecules, devised in 1954 by Charles Townes and others; the name is an acronym of microwave amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation. The first device relied on thermally excited ammonia molecules; other gases such as hydrogen are now also used. Masers employ the same physical principles as lasers, but produce lower frequency r…

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Maseru

29°19S 27°29E, pop (2000e) 148 000. Capital of Lesotho; on the R Caledon, 130 km/81 mi E of Bloemfontein (South Africa); altitude 1506 m/4941 ft; founded, 1869; airport; railway terminus; university (1964); experimental crop station; administration, commerce, diamond processing, tourism. Maseru (pronounced "mŭ'sâru") is the capital of Lesotho. Up until 2004 Maseru had a growing te…

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Mashhad - History, Geography and climate, Demographics, Culture, Famous people from Mashad

36°16N 59°34E, pop (2000e) 2 021 000. Capital city of Mashhad district, Khorasan, NE Iran; near the Turkmenia border, just S of the R Kashaf; second largest city in Iran; industrial and trade centre; airport; railway; university (1956); carpets, gemstones; 9th-c shrine of Imam Ali Reza. Coordinates: 36°18′″N, 59°37′″E Mashhad (مشهد in Persian, is also spelled …

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Masolino (da Panicale)

Painter, born in Panicale, Romagna. He matriculated in the Florentine Guild in 1423. His early style, close to the Gothic manner of Lorenzo Monaco, yielded briefly to the influence of the more realistic art of Masaccio, with whom he worked on the frescoes of the Life of St Peter in the Brancacci Chapel of the Church of S Maria del Carmine in Florence. His greatest work is the fresco cycle in the B…

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Mason (Mathews) Patrick - World War I, Air Service

US soldier and aviator, born in Lewisburg, West Virginia, USA. The son of a Confederate army surgeon, he trained at West Point (1886) as a classmate of John Pershing. He pursued a quiet career as an army engineer until 1917, when Pershing put him in charge of the American Expeditionary Force's air service. From 1921, as chief of the post-war air service, he fostered experimentation in aircraft des…

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mason bee - Life Cycle

A solitary bee that collects soft malleable materials such as mud, resin, or chewed leaves, and shapes them into a nest either inside an existing hole in timber or under stones, or on branches or exposed rock surfaces. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Megachilidae.) Mason bee is a general term for certain species of bees in the family Megachilidae, primarily the genus Osmia, such as the orchard…

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Mason Locke Weems - Primary sources

Clergyman, bookseller, and writer, born in Ann Arundel Co, Maryland, USA. Criticized for his sprightly informality as an Episcopal clergyman, he was well-known for his uplifting sermons, moral tracts, and fictionalized biographies, especially for his best-selling life of George Washington. The fifth edition (1806) saw the first appearance in print of the story of young Washington and the cherry tr…

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masque

A courtly celebration composed of poetry, song, dance, and (usually) elaborate mechanical scenery, unified by a theme or emblematic story. It was often performed at banquets when the masked performers would engage spectators in the fictional game, and encourage participation in the dancing. Shakespeare introduced a short masque in The Tempest (1611), and music for Milton's masque Comus (1634) was …

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Mass - Introduction, Units of mass, Inertial mass, Gravitational mass, Equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses

The sacrament of the Eucharist (Holy Communion) in the Roman Catholic Church and some other churches. Bread and wine are consecrated by a priest, and the elements (usually bread alone) distributed among the faithful. According to the doctrine of the Council of Trent (counteracting the teaching of the 16th-c Reformers) the bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ (transubstantiation), and…

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mass - Introduction, Units of mass, Inertial mass, Gravitational mass, Equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses

An intrinsic property of all matter and energy, the source of gravitational field; symbol m, units kg (kilogram). It is perceived as an object's weight (the downward-acting force due to gravity) or its inertia (its reluctance to change its motion). The mass of an object increases with its velocity, according to special relativity, tending towards infinity as the object's velocity approaches the sp…

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Massachusetts - Economy, Transportation, Law and government, Professional sports, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 6 349 000; area 21 455 km²/8284 sq mi. New England state in NE USA, divided into 14 counties; the ‘Bay State’ or ‘Old Colony’; third most densely populated state; one of the original states of the Union, sixth to ratify the Constitution, 1788; capital, Boston; other chief cities, Cambridge, Springfield, Worcester; rises from an indented coastline to a stony, upland interior…

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Massasoit - History, Legacy

Wampanoag chief, born at Pawkunnakut in present-day Rhode Island, USA. Although he befriended the Pilgrims (1621), to whom he taught planting methods, and actually joined them for the first Thanksgiving dinner, he came to resent their geographical expansion. His son was Metacomet. Massasoit was actually a title, Great Sachem, used by Ousamequin, sachem of the Pokanoket, and Great Sachem, or…

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Massawa - History, Other features

15°37N 39°28E, pop (2000e) 58 900. Seaport in Eritrea, on the Red Sea coast, 65 km/40 mi NE of Asmara; occupied by Italy, 1885; capital of Italian Eritrea until 1897; largely rebuilt after earthquake in 1921; railway; commercial centre; fish and meat processing, cement, salt, tourism; naval base. Massawa, formerly known as Mitsiwa (Ge'ez ምጽዋ miṣṣiwa, Arabic مصوع maṣṣ…

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Massif Central - Administration, Mountains include, Plateaus include

Area of ancient rocks in SEC France, occupying about a sixth of the country; generally over 300 m/1000 ft; highest peak, Puy de Sancy in the Monts Dore (1885 m/6184 ft); massive limestone beds with gorges, crags, and caves, as well as volcanic rocks such as the Monts Dômes; source of Loire, Allier, Cher, and Creuse Rivers; farming, several industrial centres, tourism; winter sports at Le Mont…

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Massimo Vignelli - Work

Designer, born in Milan, Italy. In collaboration with wife Lella Vignelli, he started a New York firm (1965) creating modernistic graphics, tableware, furniture, public interiors, and product designs. Massimo Vignelli (born 1931) is a designer who has done work in a number of areas ranging from package design to furniture design to public signage to showroom design through Vignelli As…

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mastaba

An ancient Egyptian funerary tomb built of brick or stone; rectangular, flat-topped with sloping sides. An outer chamber for offerings links to an inner chamber, and from there a shaft leads downwards to the actual grave below ground level. A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypt's ancient…

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mastectomy - Types

A surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the breast, sometimes including the excision of the associated lymph nodes under the arm. The operation is performed in the treatment of malignant breast tumours. In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. Mastectomy is usually done to combat breast cancer;…

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master - Terms denoting skill, dominance or mastery, Sport, Ranks and titles, Also

An artistic status achieved within the mediaeval guild system. Artists and craftsmen followed several years' apprenticeship before becoming ‘masters’, through production of a ‘masterpiece’. Only then could they open workshops of their own and take apprentices. The term Old Master is used loosely to refer to any major painter from Giotto to Cézanne, regarded as a model of traditional excellenc…

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mastic

An evergreen shrub, sometimes a small tree (Pistacia lentiscus) growing to 8 m/26 ft, native to the Mediterranean region; leaves pinnate with 6–12 leaflets on a winged stalk; flowers tiny, in dense axillary heads; fruits round, red becoming black, very aromatic. The mastic resin is used both in medicine and as a varnish sealant. (Family: Anacardiaceae.) Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an …

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mastoiditis - Features, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention, Epidemiology

Acute bacterial inflammation in the honeycomb of air-containing spaces within the mastoid bone of the skull. Symptoms include earache, fever, and pain behind the ear. Formerly a common complication of infection in the nose or throat, the use of antibiotics has greatly reduced its frequency. Complications of mastoiditis include meningitis, brain abscess, and deafness. Mastoiditis is an infec…

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masturbation - Etymology, Masturbation techniques, Masturbation frequency, age and sex, Masturbation in history and society, Euphemisms

A normal process in which there is manual or mechanical stimulation of the sex organs for the purpose of sexual gratification. It is usually accompanied by sexual fantasies. Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, usually to the point of orgasm. It can refer to excitation either by oneself or by another (see mutual masturbation). There are also masturbation machine…

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Masuccio Salernitano

Short-story writer, born in Salerno, Campania, SW Italy. As secretary to the prince of Salerno, he came into contact with the erudite environment of the Aragón court. His fame rests on the Novellino (1476), a collection of 50 novels characterized by a strong moralistic tone which verges on the anticlerical. Born in Salerno or Sorrento, he is best known today for Il Novellino, a collection …

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Mata Hari - Life, Legend and popular culture

Dancer and spy, born in Leeuwarden, N Netherlands. In 1895 she married Campbell MacLeod, a British-born captain in the Dutch army, but the marriage broke up. Billing herself as a Javanese dancer, she began to perform erotic dances for private gatherings (1905), adopting the stage name of Mata Hari. In 1907 she joined the German secret service, and became the courtesan of men in high military and g…

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matamata - Clubs and Associations, New Zealand Representatives, Media, Schools, Other villages in Matamata area

A side-necked turtle from South America (Chelus fimbriatus); large head shaped like an arrowhead; shell with a jagged irregular surface, often with a growth of water weed; lies camouflaged on river beds and ambushes passing fish. (Family: Chelidae.) Matamata is also the home of various media outlets, including studios for *Geyser TV *FTN Waikato, and *UGM 88.2fm Matamata // unusual for a to…

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materialism - Overview, Varieties of materialism, History of materialism

The philosophical view that everything is composed exclusively of physical constituents located in space and time. Materialists thus deny the independent existence of minds, mental states, spirit, or abstract entities such as universals and numbers. Forms of materialism go back as far as Democritus and Epicurus; the main 20th-c variants were physicalism and dialectical materialism. In philo…

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materials science - Fundamentals of Materials Science, Materials in Industry, Classes of materials (by bond types)

The study of the engineering properties of materials, as dictated by their microscopic structure. It draws on standard mechanical testing techniques from engineering, and methods of structural study derived from physics and chemistry (eg electron microscopy), to understand how bonds are formed between different components of material. It has been responsible for the development of several new mate…

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mathematical logic - History, Fields of mathematical logic, Connections with computer science

The application of mathematical rigour and symbolic techniques to the study of logic, such as the development of formal languages and axiom systems for constructing logical proofs; also known as symbolic logic. Modern work in the field was inspired by Boole, and carried forward by Frege, Whitehead and Russell, Gödel, and Tarski. Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics that is conce…

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mathematics - Etymology, History, Inspiration, pure and applied mathematics, and aesthetics

A systematic body of knowledge built on certain axioms and assumptions, principally relating to numbers and spatial relationships. Thus, arithmetic was developed from the natural (or counting) numbers (1, 2, 3, 4...) to negative integers (?3,?2,?1...), rationals (?¾, ?½, ½...), irrationals (?2...), and transcendentals (?, e...). Geometry was developed from Euclid's axioms, and later from varian…

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Mather Brown

Painter, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. An itinerant portrait painter and miniaturist, he studied with Gilbert Stuart (1773), then left for England and studied under Benjamin West (1781). He stayed in England, painting austere portraits, including those of King George III, the Duke of York, and Charles Bulfinch (1786). Mather Brown (christened October 11, 1761–May 25, 1831) was a por…

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Mathew Brady

Photographer, born near Lake George, New York, USA. Studying daguerreotype photography as a teenager, he soon opened his own New York City studio (1844) taking portraits of famous Americans, and opening a second studio in Washington, DC (1847). He published The Gallery of Illustrious Americans in 1850. Esteemed by Lincoln, he was permitted to take photographs of the First Battle of Bull Run (1861)…

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Mathew Carey - Early days, Business in America, His politics

Publisher and bookseller, born in Dublin, Ireland. Fleeing to the USA in 1784 to escape prosecution for anti-British publications, he settled in Philadelphia, where he became an important publisher and wrote widely on economics and other subjects. In 1785 he founded the Pennsylvania Herald, noted for its detailed coverage of the legislature. He also founded the Hibernian Society and the nation's f…

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Mathias Rust - Evading air defences, Flight profile, Aftermath, Later life, Influence to public culture

German aviator. He achieved worldwide fame in May 1987 when he landed his light aircraft in Red Square in the heart of Moscow, having been undetected on a flight from Finland. His exploit led to the immediate dismissal of the Soviet defence minister, Marshal Sergei Sokolov. Rust was sentenced to four years' imprisonment, but was released in August 1988 and flown home as a goodwill humanitarian ges…

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Mathieu (Joseph Bonaventure) Orfila - History, Role in Forensic Toxicology, Publications

Chemist, founder of toxicology, born in Mahón, Menorca. He studied at Valencia, Barcelona, and Paris, where he subsequently worked. In 1811 he lectured on chemistry, botany, and anatomy. In 1813 appeared his celebrated Traité de toxicologie générale (Treatise on General Toxicology). He later became professor of medical jurisprudence (1819), and of chemistry (1823). Mathieu Joseph Bonave…

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Mathieu Kassovitz - Director filmography

Film-maker, born in Paris, France. His parents worked in film and television production, and after a promising acting debut, for which he received a César in 1993, he gained international recognition and the production award in 1995 for his film La Haine, set in the banlieue of Paris. Other films include Métisse (1995) and Assassins (1996). Mathieu Kassovitz (born 3 August 1967 in Paris) …

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Matilda

English princess, born in London, UK, the only daughter of Henry I. In 1114 she married Emperor Henry V, but returned to England after his death in 1125, and was acknowledged as the heir to the English throne. She married Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou (1128), by whom she had a son, the future Henry II of England. When Henry I died (1135), his nephew Stephen of Blois seized the throne, and in 1139 …

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Matilda of Flanders

Queen consort of William I of England, born in Flanders, France. She married William in 1050 in Normandy, and during his absences in England the duchy of Normandy was under her regency, with the aid of their son, Robert Curthose. The embroidery of the Bayeux Tapestry was once wrongly attributed to her. A spoiled young lady accustomed to speaking her mind and getting her way, the 4'2"-tall (…

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Matilde Serao

Novelist, and newspaper editor, born in Patras, Greece. She graduated as a teacher in Naples, worked in a telegraph office, and started writing articles for newspapers (1876–8). She wrote about 40 novels of Neapolitan life, including Il paese di cuccagna (1890, The Land of Cockayne), and Il romanzo della fanciulla (1886, trans A Girl's Romance). In 1904 she founded the influential daily newspaper…

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Matlock - History, Transportation, Hall Leys Park, Sport, The Arts, Matlock on film and television, Youth Hostels

53°08N 1°32W; pop (2000e) 14 500. County town in Derbyshire, C England, UK; 14 km/9 mi SW of Chesterfield; railway; transport equipment, engineering; formerly a spa town. A former spa town, Matlock lies on the River Derwent, and has prospered from both the hydrotherapy industry and the mills constructed on the river. It was an unimportant collection of small villages — Matlock…

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Mato Grosso - Geography, History

pop (2000e) 2 330 000; area 881 000 km²/340 000 sq mi. State in Centro-Oeste region, CW Brazil, bordered SW by Bolivia; capital, Cuiabá; food processing; cattle, coffee, cotton, timber, rubber, metallurgy; drained by tributaries of the Amazon (N), Paraguai (S), and Araguaia (E); half the area under forest; 611 km²/236 sq mi Cará-Cará biological reserve in the SW (1971); Pantanal co…

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matrix - The sciences, Technology, Music, The arts

In mathematics, an ordered array of numbers subject to certain laws of composition. These laws can be demonstrated by the matrices. . We define addition by and multiplication by . Matrices can have any number of rows and columns, a matrix with m rows and n columns being called an m by n (written m × n) matrix. Matrix algebra was developed by Camille Jordan, German Leopold Kronecker (1823–91),…

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Matt Damon - Selected filmography

Film actor, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He studied English at Harvard but left early to pursue a career in acting. He went on to gain starring roles in the films The Rainmaker (1997), and Good Will Hunting (1997), for which he shared an Oscar for Best Original Screenplay with co-star Ben Affleck. Later films include Saving Private Ryan (1998), The Talented Mr Ripley (1999), The Bourne I…

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Matt Dillon

Film actor, born in Larchmont, New York, USA. At the age of 15 he was cast in Over The Edge (1979), but his first major film role was in Francis Ford Coppola's The Outsiders (1983). Later films include Kansas (1988), Beautiful Girls (1996), There's Something About Mary (1998), Crash (2005, Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination), and You, Me and Dupree (2006). In 2002 he directed and starred in Ci…

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Matt Groening - Early life, Career, Awards, Personal life, Television writing credits

Cartoonist, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. He studied at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington and then moved to Los Angeles (1977) intent on becoming a writer. He joined the staff of the Los Angeles Reader and began contributing a comic strip entitled Life In Hell (1980) which was later syndicated. Approached by the Fox Broadcasting Company, he created The Simpsons, a cartoon family …

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Matt LeBlanc - Biography, Personal life, Career

Actor, born in Newton, Massachusetts, USA. After leaving school, he took several television commercial parts in New York City, then (1988) trained as an actor. He went to Hollywood, where he played a range of television roles before achieving success as Joey Tribbiani in the acclaimed series Friends (1994–2004), and continued this role in a spin-off series Joey (2004– ). His feature films includ…

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Matteo Bandello - Biography

Clergyman and writer of novelle or tales, born in Castelnuovo Scrivia, N Italy. A Dominican friar, he served the Sforza, Gonzaga, and Farnese families before moving to France, where he became Bishop of Agen in 1550. He wrote 214 short stories, Novelle (1554–73), characterized by an innovative open structure and variety of topics inspired by history, contemporary events, and tradition. This combin…

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Matteo Ricci - Biography, Further reading

Founder of the Jesuit missions in China, born in Macerata, W Italy. He studied at Rome, then travelled to India, where he was ordained (1580). He went on to China in 1583, and from 1602 was employed as court mathematician in Beijing. He mastered Chinese, wrote works to a standard which received much commendation from the Chinese literati, and met with great success as a missionary. His journal (ov…

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matter - Definition, Fermion definition, Properties of matter, Antimatter, Dark matter

The substances of which everything in the universe is composed. At one level, this is taken to mean atoms bound together into bulk matter. At the ultimate level, matter means the spin ½ particles such as electrons and quarks, bound together by spin 1 force particles such as photons and gluons. In physics, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, n…

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Matterhorn - Climbing, Prominence, Cultural references, Gallery

45°59N 7°39E. Mountain peak in Switzerland, SW of Zermatt; in the Pennine Alps, on the Swiss–Italian border; height, 4478 m/14 691 ft; first climbed by British mountaineer Edward Whymper in 1865. The Matterhorn (Italian: Monte Cervino, French: Mont Cervin or Le Cervin) is perhaps the most familiar mountain in the European Alps. The Matterhorn has four faces, facing the fou…

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Matthew (Alexander) Henson

Explorer, born in Charles Co, Maryland, USA. An African-American who went to sea at age 12 or 13, he met Lt Robert E Peary in 1887 and became his valet and assistant for 22 years. He, Peary, and four Eskimos reached the North Pole on 6 April 1909. Henson worked in the New York Customhouse (1913–33) and never profited from his achievement. Not until the final years of his life did he receive recog…

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Matthew (Bunker) Ridgway - World War II, Korean War, Chief of Staff, Retirement

US soldier, born in Fort Monroe,Virginia, USA. He trained at West Point (1917), then served in various overseas posts, and at the outbreak of World War 2 was with the War Plans Division of the War Department. He commanded the 82nd Airborne Division in Sicily and Italy (1943) and in the Normandy invasion (1944), and led an airborne corps in NW Europe (1944–5). He replaced MacArthur as commander of…

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Matthew (Fontaine) Maury - Early life and career, Before, During, and After the Civil War

Oceanographer, born in Spotsylvania Co, Virginia, USA. He entered the US Navy (1825) and spent the next nine years on worldwide sea voyages. In 1839 a stagecoach accident left him permanently lamed and, considered unfit for active duty, he was appointed superintendent of the Naval Observatory's Depot of Charts and Instruments (1842). There he compiled information from numerous ships' logs, and gai…

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Matthew (Harris) Jouett

Painter, born in Mercer Co, Kentucky, USA. He studied with Gilbert Stuart in Boston (1816), and became a noted portraitist of the era. He spent most of his life in Lexington, KY, and his subjects included the Marquis de Lafayette and Henry Clay. Matthew Harris Jouett (Mercer County, Kentucky, 22 April 1788 - Lexington, Kentucky, 10 August 1827) was an American portrait painter. …

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Matthew (Stanley) Meselson - DNA breakthroughs

Molecular biologist, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. He studied chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, and was professor of biology at Harvard from 1964. In 1957, with Franklin Stahl (1929– ), he carried out some ingenious experiments which both verified Watson and Crick's ideas on the way the double helix of the DNA molecule carries genetic information, and provided new information …

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Matthew Arnold - Life and career, Writings: Poetry and Prose

Poet and critic, born in Laleham, Surrey, SE England, UK, the eldest son of Dr Thomas Arnold of Rugby. He studied at Oxford, and became one of the lay inspectors of schools in 1851, an office from which he retired in 1886. He made his mark with Poems: A New Edition (1853–4), which contained ‘The Scholar Gipsy’ and ‘Sohrab and Rustum’, and confirmed his standing as a poet with New Poems (1867)…

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Matthew Boulton - Key innovations

Engineer, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He entered into partnership with James Watt, and in 1774 they established a firm manufacturing steam engines, which proved remunerative only after 18 years. They also improved coining machinery. Matthew Boulton (September 3, 1728 – 18 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and engineer. Boulton was born in Birmingha…

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Matthew Bourne - Bourne as a dancer, Bourne as a choreographer

Choreographer and dancer, born in London, UK. He studied at London's Laban Centre, and in 1987 he co-founded and became artistic director (resigned 2003) of the dance company Adventures in Motion Pictures. He gained a reputation for his unconventional interpretations of classical ballets, and aroused controversy with his 1995 production of Swan Lake in which the ‘swans’ were replaced by dozens o…

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Matthew Brady

Bushranger, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. In 1820, for stealing a basket of groceries, he was transported for seven years to New South Wales, Australia. From there he was sent in 1823 to the penal colony of Macquarie Harbour in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), a penal station for desperate criminals. He escaped with a small group in the following year, and with his gang …

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Matthew Broderick - Biography, References in Popular Culture, Filmography, Television work, Stage appearances

Actor and director, born in New York City, USA. He starred as the computer hacker who nearly starts World War 3 in War Games (1983), and gained commercial success in Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986). He earned a Tony award for the Broadway production of the Neil Simon comedy hit Brighton Beach Memoirs (1982–3), and another for the musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1995). La…

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Matthew Flinders - Nicolas Baudin and the meeting at Encounter Bay, Naming Australia, Legacy

Explorer, born in Donington, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He joined the navy in 1789, and became a navigator. In 1795 he sailed to Australia, where he explored the SE coast, and later (1801–3) circumnavigated the country. On his way home he was wrecked off the Great Barrier Reef, then kept prisoner by the French Governor of Mauritius until 1810. The Flinders R in Queensland, and the Flinders Ran…

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Matthew Murray - Early years, Fenton, Murray and Wood, Steam locomotives, Death

Inventor and mechanical engineer, born near Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. Apprenticed to a blacksmith, he moved to Leeds as a qualified mechanic in 1788. He devised and patented several improvements in flax spinning machinery before establishing his own engineering works in 1795, where he manufactured textile machinery and also steam engines of his own design. When Watt's mas…

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Matthew Paris - Modern study of Matthew Paris

Chronicler and Benedictine monk. He entered the monastery at St Albans, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK in 1217, and became abbey chronicler there in 1236. His main work is the Chronica majora, the fullest available account of events in England between 1236 and 1259, and which also included interesting details of many other European countries. He is especially famous for his maps and drawings. …

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Matthew Parker

The second Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. He was chaplain to Anne Boleyn (1535), and held several church posts, becoming Dean of Lincoln. Deprived of his preferments by Queen Mary, he was made Archbishop of Canterbury by Elizabeth I (1559). He strove to bring about more general conformity, adopting a middle road between Catholic and Puritan extremes, …

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Matthew Prior - Reference

Diplomat and poet, born in Wimborne, Dorset, S England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, became an MP (1700), and carried out diplomatic work in Holland, being instrumental in concluding the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). He wrote several political and philosophical poems, but is best known for his light occasional verse collected as Poems on Several Occasions (1709). Matthew Prior (July 21, 1664

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Matthew Vassar

Brewer, businessman, and philanthropist, born in East Tuddenham, Norfolk, E England, UK. In 1796 his family brought him to Dutchess County, NY, where an uncle began a brewery. Matthew began his own in 1811, and over the next years expanded his business interests to include investing in land and a whaling fleet. Seeking a ‘charitable purpose’ for his fortune, he was persuaded to start a college f…

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Matthew Webb - Pop culture, Further reading

Swimmer, the first man to swim the English Channel, born in Dawley, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He trained as a seaman and became a master mariner, before becoming a professional swimmer in 1875. On 24–25 August, 1875, he swam from Dover to Calais in 21 h 45 min. He was drowned attempting to swim the Niagara rapids. Captain Matthew Webb (19 January 1848 – 24 July 1883) was the first pe…

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Matthias Claudius

Poet and writer, born in Reinfeld-Holstein, N Germany. The son of a parish priest, he studied law and theology, then became a journalist, edited (1770–5) the Wandsbecker Bote (which aimed both to instruct and amuse), and cultivated contacts with leading writers and thinkers of the day. He is best-remembered for his poems and songs, such as Der Mond ist aufgegangen, Rheinweinlied, Der Tod und das …

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Matthias Erzberger - Early career, During the Great War, Signing the Armistice, After the War, Legacy

German statesman, born in Buttenhausen, SW Germany. He became controversial when, as German propaganda minister, he began to advocate peace without annexations as early as 1917 and again in 1918–19. As a member of the armistice delegation, he advocated acceptance, despite fierce German opposition, of the terms of the Versailles Treaty, and was a strong supporter of the idea of the League of Natio…

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MATV (Master Antenna Television) - MATV Channel 6

The use of a single antenna to serve a number of TV receivers. The system can be introduced directly, as in an apartment block, or from a central station by way of a cable distribution service. MATV is a specialist Asian content TV channel based in Leicester, England featuring Indian programming in Hindi, English, Gujarati and Punjabi. MATV Channel 6 broadcasts in Leicester, Uni…

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Mau - Geography and climate, Language, Etymology of the Name, History, Economy, Recent history, Notable Personalities

A nationalist movement (1926–35) challenging New Zealand colonial rule in W Samoa. On ‘Black Sunday’ (28 Dec 1929) police fired on a peaceful crowd and killed eight Mau supporters. W Samoa was ruled by New Zealand from 1914 to 1961. Mau (Hindi: मऊ maū), formerly Mau Nath Bhanjan, hardly 90 km from Varanasi is the powerhouse of textile weavers in Eastern UP, India. The credit of conv…

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Maud MacBride - In fiction

Irish nationalist and actress, born in Aldershot, Hampshire, SE England, UK. She became an agitator for the cause of Irish independence, one of the founders of Sinn Féin, and edited a nationalist newspaper in Paris. Her acting involved her with W B Yeats, who wished to marry her, and who made her the heroine of his first play, but she married Major John MacBride, who fought against the British in…

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Maud May Park - Uses, Formation, Different woods, Water content

Suffrage leader, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at Radcliffe College, joined the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association, and became co-founder of the Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government. With Inez Gillmore she founded the College Equal Suffrage League (from 1901), aiming to involve young women in the fight for equality. An efficient, strong-minded campaigner, s…

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Maude Adams - Personal life, Professional career, Appearances on Broadway

Stage actress, born in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. She was the daughter of the leading lady of Salt Lake City's stock company. One of the most popular actresses of her day, she became best known for her 1905 role as Peter Pan in the play by J M Barrie, who then cast her in several more of his plays. Graceful and elfin-like on stage, she was also known among her colleagues as a generous and principl…

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Maui - Name, History, Modern development, Economy, Geology and topography, Climate, Natural history, Tourism

pop (2000e) 128 100; area 1885 km²/728 sq mi. Second largest island of the US state of Hawaii; forms Maui County with the islands of Lanai and Molokai; chief town, Wailuku; resort at Kanapali; former capital of Hawaii at Lahaina; rises to 3055 m/10 023 ft at Haleakala; has the only railway in the Pacific; sugar, tourism. The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawai…

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Mauna Kea

19°50N 155°28W. Dormant volcano in NC Hawaii, USA; rises to 4201 m/13 783 ft; highest island mountain in the world; numerous cinder cones; snow-capped in winter; several large telescopes at the summit. Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. Its highest point, Puu Wekiu (one of numerous cinder cones on …

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Mauna Kea Observatory

The best accessible site for ground-based astronomy between 320 nm and 1 mm wavelengths, located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Founded in 1964, the observatory comprises many major telescopes on the summit (4200 m/13 800 ft) and shield of the dormant volcano, among the most powerful of their kind. These include the twin 10 m (400 in) Keck telescopes (optical, University of California/California Ins…

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Mauna Loa - Structure, Eruption history, Relationship with Kilauea, Hazards, Monitoring, Observatories

19°28N 155°35W. Active volcano in C Hawaii, USA; in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; rises to 4169 m/13 678 ft; numerous craters, notably Kilauea, the second largest active crater in the world (containing Halemaumau fiery pit); on its summit is Mokuaweoweo Crater, also large and active; eruptions in 1855–6, 1926, 1950, 1984. Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands…

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Maundy Thursday - Services, Other names, Customs from around the world

The Thursday before Easter, so called from Lat mandatum, ‘commandment’, the first word of the anthem traditionally sung on that day. In memory of Christ's washing his disciples' feet (John 13.4–10) it was once the custom for monarchs to wash the feet of poor people on Maundy Thursday; in Britain, special money (Maundy money) is given by the sovereign to the same number of elderly poor people as…

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Maureen (Catherine) Connolly - Grand Slam singles finals

Tennis player, born in San Diego, California, USA. She won the US championship in 1951 at the age of 16, and thereafter lost only four matches in her career. She won the Wimbledon singles title (1952–4), the US title (1951–3), the French Open (1953–4), and the Australian title (1953), thus becoming the first woman to win all four major titles in the same year (1953). She married Norman Brinker …

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Maureen (Diane) Lipman - Work, Awards and nominations, Quotes, Political criticism

Actress and writer, born in Hull, NE England, UK. She studied at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art and made her debut in The Knack (1969). She has played in a number of West End productions, including See How They Run (1984) and Re: Joyce! (1988–9, 1991), about Joyce Grenfell. Television appearances include Smiley's People, Absent Friends, Agony, Eskimo Day (1996), and the sequel Cold …

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Maureen Forrester

Contralto, born in Montreal, Quebec, SE Canada. She studied in Berlin, and made her debut in Montreal in 1953. She undertook a recital tour of Europe in 1955, and at the invitation of Bruno Walter sang in Mahler's 2nd Symphony in New York in 1956. She has since become a noted interpreter of Mahler's work. Maureen Forrester CC (born July 25, 1930) is a Canadian operatic contralto. …

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