Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 48

Cambridge Encyclopedia

magnetic flux - Description

The flow of magnetic influence from the N to S poles of a magnet, or around a current-carrying wire; symbol ?, units Wb (weber). It is the product of magnetic flux density B (sometimes called ‘magnetic field’) and area. B is related to magnetic field intensity H via permeability µ: B = µH. Magnetic flux, represented by the greek letter phi, is a measure of quantity of magnetism, takin…

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magnetic moment - Explanation, Magnetic moment in a magnetic field, Magnetic moment of electrons

A property of magnets, currents circulating in loops, and spinning charged particles that dictates the strength of the turning force exerted on the system by a magnetic field, B; symbol µ, units A.m2 (amp.metre-squared) or J/T (joules per tesla); a vector quantity; also called the magnetic dipole moment. Turning force (torque), ?, is ? = µBsin?, where ? is the angle between µ and B directions…

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magnetic monopole - Background, Maxwell's Equations, Dirac's quantization, Mathematical approach to Dirac monopole

A lone magnetic pole - non-existent, according to classical electromagnetism. Paul Dirac proposed that monopoles could be present in quantum theories (1931), and they have been predicted in modern gauge theory (1974). Unified theories of fundamental forces predict monopoles of mass 1016 greater than proton mass. No monopoles have ever been detected. In physics, a magnetic monopole is a hypo…

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magnetic susceptibility

The ratio of magnetization M to magnetic field strength H; symbol ?, expressed as a pure number. It expresses the dependence of a magnetic field in a material on an external field which results only from current in the magnetizing coils. It is related to permeability, and constant except for ferromagnetic materials. In electrical engineering, the magnetic susceptibility is the degree of mag…

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magnetic tape (computing) - Audio recording, Video recording, Data storage

A storage medium used on larger computers, the most common being 2400 ft (c.750 m) reels of 0·5 in (12·7 mm)-wide tape. In recent years, smaller format magnetic cartridge tape systems have been used as archiving (‘back-up’) systems for microcomputers, especially those employing Winchester disks. Another variation has been the use of standard audio tapes for digital data storage in low-cost…

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magnetic tape (recording) - Audio recording, Video recording, Data storage

A clear plastic film coated with crystalline magnetic particles embedded in varnish, first demonstrated as an effective sound recording and reproducing medium in the 1930s. It came increasingly into use after World War 2, and has more recently been extended to video recording, and data storage for computers. Professional recording practice of the 1980s employed multiple-track open-reel tape, stori…

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magnetism - Charged particle in a magnetic field, Magnetic dipoles, Magnetic monopoles, Atomic magnetic dipoles, Units of electromagnetism

Phenomena associated with magnetic fields and magnetic materials, and the study of such phenomena. All magnetic effects ultimately stem from moving electric charges, and all materials have magnetic properties. Electric coils, currents in wires, and permanent magnets are all sources of magnetic field. In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or rep…

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magnetite - Distribution of deposits

An iron oxide mineral (Fe3O4) with a very strong natural magnetism. It is a valuable ore of iron. Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with IUPAC name iron(II,III) oxide and with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such ilmenite, hematite, and ulvospinel have been mu…

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magnetization - Magnetization in Maxwell's equations

Magnetic moment per unit volume, resulting from the individual magnetic moments contributed by atoms or molecules of the material; symbol M, units A/m (amps per metre); expresses how much a material is magnetized. For diamagnetic materials, magnetization opposes the external field; for paramagnetic materials, it reinforces it. In these cases, the magnetization is proportional to the external field…

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magnetohydrodynamics - Ideal and Resistive MHD, Structures in MHD systems, Extensions to magnetohydrodynamics, Applications, Trivia

The mechanics of electrically conducting fluids, such as liquid metals and plasmas, when subject to electric and magnetic fields; also called magneto-fluid-mechanics. The study is relevant to plasma nuclear fusion, liquid metal cooling systems, and electrical power generation from hot plasmas. Magnetohydrodynamic propulsion systems for ships and submarines pass an electric current through sea wate…

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magnetometer - Uses, Types, Proton precession magnetometer, Overhauser magnetometer, Cesium vapor magnetometer, SQUID magnetometer, Early magnetometers

A device for measuring the strength and direction of magnetic fields. Karl Friederich Gauss built an early magnetometer in 1832, comprising a freely rotating magnet suspended from a torsion wire in which the period of oscillation of the magnet measured the field strength. Modern magnetometers include the fluxgate magnetometer, in which paired electromagnets driven by an external alternating voltag…

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magnetoresistance - Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR)

A property of some materials in which their resistance is changed by the application of a magnetic field. Some metals show ‘ordinary’ magnetoresistance. In some exotic compounds containing lanthanum, strontium, manganese, and oxygen (perovskite manganites) the dependence is very strong and is termed ‘colossal’ magnetoresistance. Other systems display ‘giant’ magnetoresistance. Magnetoresisti…

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magnetosphere - Earth's magnetosphere, General properties, Radiation belts, Magnetic Tails, Electric currents in space

The region surrounding Solar System bodies having magnetic fields, in which the field is confined under the influence of the streaming solar wind. It is a teardrop-shaped region whose size and shape are constantly readjusting to the variations of the solar wind. Charged particles from both solar wind and Earth's atmosphere are stored in the terrestrial magnetosphere, which has been extensively exp…

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magnetostriction - Explanation, Magnetostrictive materials

The change in length of ferromagnetic materials when subject to a magnetic field. For example, nickel will contract along the field direction, and expand in the transverse direction. The effect results from the alignment of magnetic domains under the influence of the external field. It is exploited in ultrasonic transducers. Magnetostriction (or the Joule effect) is a property of ferromagne…

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magnification - Magnification as a number (optical magnification), Other uses

A measure of an optical system's power to reduce or enlarge an image. For a simple lens, magnification equals the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye with the lens to the angle subtended at the eye without the lens. It is approximately equal to the ratio of size of image to size of object. Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size. In a…

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Magnitogorsk - Bibliography

53°28N 59°06E, pop (2000e) 442 000. Industrial town in Chelyabinskaya oblast, SW Siberian Russia, on the R Ural; built, 1929–31; airfield; railway; iron and magnetite deposits; one of the largest centres of the Russian metallurgical industry; clothing, footwear; Palace of Metallurgists (1936). Magnitogorsk (Russian: Магнитогóрск) is a mining and industrial city by the Ural …

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magnitude

A measure of the brightness of a celestial object, first used (120 BC) by Hipparchus, who referred to the brightest stars visible to the eye as ‘first magnitude’ and the dimmest as ‘sixth magnitude’. The system was given a scientific basis in 1856: equal magnitude steps are in logarithmic progression, such that a magnitude difference of one unit corresponds to a brightness ratio of 2·512, and…

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magnolia - Origin of the name Magnolia, Early references and descriptions, Nomenclature and classification, Selected species of Magnolia

A deciduous or evergreen shrub or tree native to E North America and E Asia; leaves often glossy; flowers generally large, cup-shaped, with several whorls of white or pink perianth segments; fruit an almost cone-like strobilus of many carpels. Many species are popular ornamentals. Various characteristics, including the construction of its flower and fruit, make them often regarded as the most prim…

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magnon - Brief history

In magnetic materials, oscillations in the relative orientations of atomic spins, which correspond to magnetization waves. Magnons are quantum spin waves, appearing as particles capable of scattering with neutrons. Experimentally observable, they are important in understanding the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of magnetic materials. There is a place named Magnon (pronunciation: ma-n…

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Magnus Johnson

Agrarian reformer, US senator and representative, born near Kalstad, Sweden. Emigrating to Wisconsin (1891), he settled in Minnesota (1894) and took up farming. Active in the farmers' co-operative movement, as a Farmer Labor Party candidate he served in the Minnesota legislature, in the US Senate (1923–5), and in the House of Representatives (1933–5). Magnus Johnson (September 19, 1871 - …

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Magnus Magnusson

Writer and broadcaster, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK of Icelandic parents. He studied at Oxford, and became a journalist, then a broadcaster. He is chiefly known for presenting a wide range of radio and television programmes, such as Chronicle, Tonight and, most famously, the annual series of Mastermind (1972–97). His books include Introducing Archaeology (1972), Vikings! (1980), and Treasu…

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Magnus Pyke - Bibliography

Food scientist and broadcaster, born in London, UK. He studied at Montreal and London, researched nutrition under wartime conditions for the Ministry of Food (1941–5), and worked in the distilling industry (1949–73). His lively and slightly eccentric manner, along with a gift for communicating scientific knowledge, led to his selection as a host for the television science series Don't Ask Me (19…

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magpie

A bird of the crow family (13 species); especially the black-billed magpie (Pica pica). The name is also used for black-and-white birds in the families Cracticidae (the bell/black-backed/white-backed magpie), Anatidae (the magpie goose), Estrildidae (the magpie mannikin), Grallinidae (the magpie lark), Sturnidae (the magpie starling), Thraupidae (the magpie tanager), and Turdidae (the magpie robin…

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Mahabharata - Influence, Historicity, Synopsis, Modern Interpretations, Critical Edition, English Translations

A major epic of Hindu culture and history, and a holy book. Dating from the first millennium BC, its 110 000 couplets make it the longest epic in the world. It was orally transmitted and later became literature printed in Sanskrit and other languages. Various editions were brought together and published in the 19th-c as the Mahabharata. The central plot concerns the conflict between two related f…

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Mahalia Jackson - Life, Well-known songs, In popular culture, Further reading

Gospel singer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Raised in the Baptist Church, she secretly listened to the blues recordings of Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey. Moving to Chicago (1927), she joined a Baptist choir, and then became a member of the Johnson Gospel Singers (1928), singing and acting in ‘religious plays’ while touring with the group for some years. By the mid-1930s she had joined Thoma…

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Maharashtra - History, Geography, Protected areas of Maharashtra, Economy, Government, Demographics, Divisions, Transport, Festivals

pop (2001e) 96 752 000; area 307 762 km²/118 796 sq mi. Large state in W India, bounded W by the Arabian Sea; crossed by several mountain ranges and rivers; ruled by the Mughals, 14th–17th-c; heart of the Maratha Empire under Shivaji (17th-c); British control, early 19th-c; became a state in 1960; capital, Mumbai (Bombay); governed by a 78-member Legislative Council and an elected 287-me…

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Mahathir bin Mohamad - Early life and career, Economic policies, Political machine, Educational system, Foreign relations, Retirement

Malaysian statesman and prime minister, (1979– ), born in Alur Setar, Malaysia. He practised as a doctor (1957–64) before being elected to the House of Representatives as a United Malays' National Organisation (UMNO) candidate. He won support through his affirmative action in favour of bumiputras (ethnic Malays) and a more Islamic social policy. After holding several ministerial posts, he was ap…

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Mahayana - Mahayana Scriptures, Origins, Bibliography

The form of Buddhism commonly practised in China, Tibet, Mongolia, Nepal, Korea, and Japan. It dates from about the 1st-c, when it arose as a development within Buddhism in N India. It emphasizes various forms of popular devotion based on its theory of the bodhisattvas. Mahayana, in contrast to the Theravada school of Buddhism, can be characterized by: “Philosophical”, Mahay…

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Mahdi (divine leader) - Introduction, Characteristics of the Mahdi, Signs indicating the emergence of the Mahdi, Emergence of the Mahdi

The name given by Sunni Muslims to those who periodically revitalize the Muslim community. Sunnis look forward to a time before the Last Day when a Mahdi will appear and establish a reign of justice on Earth. Shiites identify the Mahdi with the expected reappearance of the hidden Imam. Many Muslim leaders have claimed the title, such as Mohammed Ahmed, who established a theocratic state in the Sud…

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mahogany

An evergreen tree (Swietenia mahogani) native to Central America and the Caribbean Is; leaves pinnate; flowers 5-petalled, yellowish, in loose clusters. It is one of several timbers commercially called mahogany, a reddish wood of high quality, heavy, hard, and easily worked. (Family: Meliaceae.) The name mahogany was first used for wood of Swietenia mahagoni, sometimes referred to as Spanis…

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Mah - Spelling controversy

39º53N 4º16E, pop (2001e) 23 700. Port and capital of the island of Menorca in the Balearic Is, Spain; on the E coast of the island on the S side of a long inlet; birthplace of Pedro Ballester Pons and Mathieu Orfila; airport; dairy cattle farming for the production of cheese using traditional methods; Church of Santa Maria (rebuilt 1748–72); tourism. The name is attributed to the epon…

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maidenhair fern

A graceful and delicate perennial fern, found almost everywhere, but especially in the tropics; fronds with slender, black, wiry stalks; leaflets stalked, irregularly fan-shaped, the margins turned under and bearing sori. (Genus: Adiantum, 200 species. Family: Polypodiaceae.) Maidenhair ferns are ferns of the genus Adiantum, which contains about 200 species. Adiantum alarconianum Adiantum a…

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Maidstone - History, Industries, Communications, Education, Maidstone Prison, Barracks, Sport, Theatres, Maidstone today, Population

51°17N 0°32E, pop (2001e) 139 000. County town in Kent, SE England, UK; on the R Medway, S of Chatham; birthplace of William Hazlitt and Richard Beeching; railway; paper, fruit canning, brewing, cement, confectionery; 14th-c All Saints Church, 14th-c Archbishop's palace, Chillington Manor, Tyrwhitt Drake museum of carriages. Maidstone (pronounced either mād'stun or mād'stone) is the c…

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main sequence

In astronomy, a broad band in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, in which most stars lie. A star spends most of its life on this main sequence, while it burns hydrogen to helium. Once the hydrogen in the core is consumed, the star evolves away from the main sequence, becoming first a red giant. The Sun is a main sequence star. "Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me" is a phrase used to aid memory of th…

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Mainbocher

Fashion designer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied and worked in Chicago, and after service in World War 1 stayed on in Paris, eventually becoming a fashion artist with Harper's Bazaar and editor of French Vogue. He started his couture house in Paris in 1930. One of his creations was the wedding dress designed for Mrs Wallis Simpson, the Duchess of Windsor (1937). He opened a salon for r…

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Maine - Geography, Economy, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 1 274 900; area 86 153 km²/33 265 sq mi. New England state in the NE corner of the USA, divided into 16 counties; bounded N by Canada, W by New Hampshire, E by the Atlantic; the ‘Pine Tree State’ or ‘Lumber State’; explored by the Cabots in the 1490s; settled first by the French in 1604, and by the English in 1607; separated from Massachusetts in 1820, when admitted to the…

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mainframe computer - Description, Characteristics, Market, History, Mainframes vs. supercomputers, Statistics, Speed and performance

A somewhat dated term still used to refer to very large capacity computers, and to distinguish them from the smaller computers now widely available. However, the distinction between mainframe and other computers is not always clear. The term minicomputer, for example, is sometimes used to refer to computers which do not fall into the category of either microcomputer or mainframe computer. Minicomp…

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maintenance

A term used in England and Wales for money payments paid by one marriage partner to help support the other and/or their children, whether or not they are legitimate, during or following legal separation or divorce. This is more correctly known now as financial provision or financial relief. The payments are often referred to as alimony, but terminology varies (eg it is called aliment or periodica…

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Mainz - Introduction, History, Sights, Miscellaneous, Twinning, Alternative names

50°00N 8°16E, pop (2000e) 186 000. Old Roman city and capital of Rheinland-Pfalz province, WC Germany; on left bank of R Rhine opposite mouth of R Main; important traffic junction and commercial centre; railway; university (1477); headquarters of radio and television corporations; centre of the Rhine wine trade; glass materials, electronics, publishing; Gutenberg set up his printing press here…

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maize

The only cereal (Zea mays) native to the New World, originally tropical and developed as a major food crop from wild types by the Indians of Central America; also called sweet corn and Indian corn, and always called corn in the USA. Modern strains are suitable for temperate regions. It is a robust annual; male flowers in a terminal tassel; females forming a woody cob, bearing rows of plump, white,…

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Majorca - History, Language, Politics, Administration, Attractions, Cuisine

pop (2000e) 600 000; area 3640 km²/1400 sq mi. Largest island in the Balearics, W Mediterranean, 240 km/150 mi N of Algiers; chief town, Palma; tree-covered Sierra del Alfabia rises to 1445 m/4741 ft at Torrellas; taken in 1229 by James I of Aragón; in the Middle Ages, famous for its porcelain (maiolica); popular tourist resort; pottery, brandy, jewellery, mining, sheep, timber, fishing…

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Makarios III - Early life, studies, and Church career (1913-1950)

Archbishop and primate of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus, and president of Cyprus (1960–74, 1974–7), born in Ano Panayia, SW Cyprus. He was ordained priest in 1946, elected Bishop of Kition in 1948, and became archbishop in 1950. He reorganized the enosis (union) movement, was arrested and detained in 1956, but returned to a tumultuous welcome in 1959 to become chief Greek-Cypriot Minister in the…

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Makonde - Makonde art, Trivia

A Bantu-speaking agricultural group of N Mozambique and SE Tanzania. Many work as migrant labourers on the E African coast, and are famous as woodcarvers, often drawing on Makonde folklore for themes. They speak Makonde and other languages like Swahili and English in Tanzania, and Portuguese in Mozambique. Their traditional religion is animistic form of ancestor worship and still continues …

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Maksutov telescope - Invention and Design, Applications, Derivative Designs

An optical telescope in which the principal image-forming lens and mirror surfaces are spherical, and therefore easy to make. The design was published by the Russian optician D D Maksutov (1896–1964) in 1944. The Maksutov is a catadioptric (mirror-lens) telescope that is designed to minimize off-axis aberrations such as coma. Invented by the Russian optician Dmitri Maksutov in …

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Malabo - Layout, Changes since the discovery of oil

3°45N 8°50E, pop (2000e) 14 000. Seaport capital of Equatorial Guinea, W Africa; on island of Bioko, Gulf of Guinea; founded by British in 1827; airfield; coffee, cocoa, timber trade. Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Póo). While many of them later relocated to Sierra Leone, some of their descendants,…

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malabsorption - Causes

The failure of intestinal absorption of nutrients taken as food. In general, this results in diarrhoea, abdominal pain and distension, loss of weight, anaemia, and features of specific vitamin deficiencies. Underlying causes include the tropical disease sprue, which may have an infective cause; abnormal bacterial proliferation in the small intestine, due to congenital or acquired blind loops of in…

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malachite

A hydrated copper carbonate mineral (Cu2CO3(OH)2) found in weathered copper ore deposits. It is bright green in colour. Malachite is a carbonate mineral, copper(II) carbonate hydroxide Cu2CO3(OH)2. …

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malachite green - Structures of Malachite green and related compounds, Chromatic form of Malachite green, Toxicity of Malachite green

A green dye, named for its similarity in colour to the mineral malachite; there is no structural relationship. It is an example of a large class of dyes called triphenylmethanes on account of their structure. Malachite green (also aniline green, basic green 4, diamond green B, or victoria green B, IUPAC name:4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethyl-aniline) is a toxic ch…

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malaria - History, Distribution and impact, Symptoms, Causes, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and disease control

A disease, endemic in tropical countries, caused by infection with one of four species of Plasmodium, a parasite transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites multiply in the liver and in red blood cells, which are destroyed with each life cycle, producing characteristic symptoms of high fever, shaking, and aches. Plasmodium vivax and ovale produce symptoms on alternate days; Plasmodium malar…

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Malay (language)

The language of the Malay Peninsula, which has provided the modern standard language, Bahasa Indonesia, known as Bahasa Malaysia in Malaysia. A pidginized form, Bazaar Malay, has been a lingua franca in the region for many centuries, before the advent of Western trade and colonialism. A further variety, Baba Malay, is used by Chinese communities in Malaysia. Inscriptions in Malay date from the 7th…

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Malay (people)

A cluster of Malay-speaking (Austronesian) peoples of the Malay Peninsula (where they are 54% of the population), and neighbouring islands and territory, including parts of Borneo and Sumatra. Most became Hindu before being converted to Islam in the 15th-c, and Hindu Indian influence on their culture is still strong. Most Malay villages are along the rivers and coasts in tropical forest. They grow…

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Malaysia - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Natural resources, Transport and communications, Healthcare, Education, Demographics, Religion, Culture, Citizenship, Holidays

Local name Malaysia Malaysia is a country of thirteen states in southeast Asia. The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the Federation of Malaya (Malay: Persekutuan Tanah Melayu) Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak formed a 14-state federation. Singapore withdrew from Malaysia in 1965 to become an independent country. The country consists of two geographical regions divided …

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Malcolm (Benjamin Graham Christopher) Williamson - Biography, Williamson's music

Composer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He moved to England in 1953, and began his career as a solo pianist and organist. His compositions include the opera Our Man in Havana (1963), the chamber opera The Red Sea (1972), and the operatic sequence The Brilliant and the Dark (1969). He also wrote seven symphonies, concertos for piano, organ, violin, and harp, several works for telev…

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Malcolm (Bligh) Turnbull - Early life, Career, Politics, Family, Writing

Merchant banker, lawyer, and republican, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at the universities of Sydney and Oxford, where he was Rhodes Scholar for New South Wales in 1978. He worked as a political correspondent for various newspapers and radio stations before being admitted to the bar in 1980. He set up his own law firm in 1986, and became known for successfully defending…

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Malcolm (Stevenson) Forbes - Career, Death and aftermath

Publisher, born in New York City, USA. In 1957 he became editor and publisher of Forbes, a struggling business magazine, and greatly boosted its circulation and profits, making him a millionaire. He had a passionate interest in ballooning as well as Fabergé eggs, of which he had one of the world's foremost collections. Malcolm Stevenson Forbes (August 19, 1919 – February 24, 1990) was pu…

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Malcolm Cowley

Literary critic and editor, born in Belasco, Pennsylvania, USA. He interrupted his studies at Harvard to serve with the American Ambulance Corps in World War 1. Returning to France for graduate studies (1921–3), he met some of the American writers he would later feature in his first widely-known book, Exile's Return (1934). Working as a free-lance writer, he produced book reviews and critical ess…

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Malcolm X - Early years, Middle years, Death and afterwards, Biographies and speeches

African-American activist, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. He claimed that his father, a minister and follower of Marcus Garvey, was murdered by racists in Lansing, MI (1931) (but at least one researcher claims his father died accidentally). Moving to Boston, he turned to pimping and drugs as a teenager, and was sentenced to 10 years in prison for burglary (1946), where he discovered the anti-white …

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Maldives - History, Economy, Politics, Judiciary, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Demographics, Culture

Official name Republic of Maldives Maldives, officially the Republic of Maldives, is an island nation consisting of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean. The Maldives are located south of India's Lakshadweep islands, and about seven hundred kilometers (435?mi) south-west of Sri Lanka. Some scholars believe that the name "Maldives" derives from the Sanskrit maladvipa, meaning "garland…

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Mal - Secondary sex characteristics, Sex determination, Anatomy, Symbols

4°00N 73°28E, pop (2000e) 76 000; area 2 km²/0·77 sq mi. Chief atoll and capital of the Maldives; over 700 km/435 mi WSW of Sri Lanka; airport; commercial centre; trade in breadfruit, copra, palm mats. In heterogamous species, male is the sex of an organism, or of a part of an organism, which typically produces smaller, mobile gametes (spermatozoa) that are able to fertilise fema…

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maleic acid - Synthesis, Reactions

C4H4O4, IUPAC cis-butenedioic acid, melting point 139°C. A geometrical isomer of fumaric acid, but as the carboxyl groups are on the same side of the double bond, it forms an internal hydrogen bond, indicated in the formula, and thus has a much lower melting point than fumaric acid. It easily forms an anhydride by the loss of a water molecule with the formation of a ring. Maleic acid (ioni…

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Mali - Geography, Economy, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Republic of Mali, Fr République de Mali Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali, Amazigh: ), is a landlocked nation in Western Africa. The regions and district are: See also: At 478,734 mi² (1,240,000 km²), Mali is the world's 24th-largest country (after Angola). See List of cities in Mali …

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malic acid

HOOC–CH2–CH(OH)–COOH, IUPAC 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid, melting point 100°C. An acid found in unripe fruit, especially apples. Loss of water produces maleic and fumaric acids. Malic acid is a tart-tasting organic dicarboxylic acid that plays a role in many sour or tart foods. Self-condensation of malic acid with fuming sulfuric acid gives the pyrone coumalic acid : …

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Malin Craig

US soldier, born in St Joseph, Missouri, USA. The son of a career cavalry officer, he trained at West Point Military Academy (1898), and rose to become army chief-of-staff in the late 1930s. At his direction, extensive modernization of the army was carried out, including upgraded mobilization plans, updated armoured equipment and doctrine, and improved communications. Malin Craig (August 5,…

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mallard - As a game bird, Photo gallery

A dabbling duck (Anas platyrhynchos) found near water throughout the N hemisphere; blue patch on wing; male with green head and thin white neck ring; the ancestor of nearly all domestic ducks. Originally the name was used only for the male. (Family: Anatidae.) The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; (In one documented case, a male Mallard copulated with another male he was chasing after it had bee…

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mallow

N temperate annual and perennial herb; palmately lobed or divided leaves; flowers with an epicalyx, calyx and five heart-shaped to deeply notched petals, rose, purple, or white, often with dark veins; stamens numerous, united into a central column; fruit a flat whorl of 1-seeded segments, resembling small cheeses. It is related to both cotton and hibiscus, with very similar flowers. (Genus: Malva,…

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malnutrition - Causes of Malnutrition, Statistics

A deficiency of one or more of the essential ingredients of a diet. Undernutrition occurs when insufficient food energy is taken, and when prolonged may lead to profound weight loss. The insufficiency may be more specific and involve one or several vitamin deficiencies. Examples include water-soluble vitamins (B-vitamins, C, folates) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E). Electrolyte deficiencies and…

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Malta

Official name Republic of Malta, Maltese Repubblika ta' Malta, ancient Melita …

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Maltese (language)

A language spoken by 300 000 people on the island of Malta, related to the W dialects of Arabic. It has changed substantially from the linguistic structure of its source, through the influence of the Romance languages. It is the only variety of Arabic written in the Roman alphabet. …

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Malvern - Places:

52°07N 2°19W, pop (2000e) 31 700. Town in Worcestershire, WC England, UK; popular health resort in the Malvern Hills, 12 km/7 mi SW of Worcester; railway; engineering, plastics, tourism; Malvern College (public school); Elgar lived and is buried here; Malvern Festival (May). Malvern may mean: In England: In the United States of America: In Australia…

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mamba

A venomous African snake of the family Elapidae; may climb trees; eats lizards and birds; strong venom; not usually aggressive (although the fastest snake ever recorded was a black mamba which reached 11 kph/7 mph while chasing a man who had been teasing it); two species: the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), correctly the black-mouthed mamba, with body dark brown or grey, never black; and th…

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Mamie Eisenhower - Early life, Marriage and family, First Lady of the United States

US first lady (1953–61), born in Boone, Iowa, USA. The daughter of a wealthy Denver meatpacker, she met Dwight Eisenhower when he was a young officer at Fort Sam Houston, and they married in 1916. Uninterested in politics, she became known as the national model for femininity. She used pink colours in redecorating the White House, and sometimes conducted ‘white-glove’ inspections. Mamie …

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mammal - Mammal anatomy, Origins, Classification

An animal characterized by having mammary glands in the female, along with several other features: a covering of hair (very sparse in some mammals); each side of the lower jaw formed from one bone (the dentary); three small bones in the middle ear (the hammer, anvil, and stirrup); seven vertebrae in the neck (only six in the manatee); and no nucleus in the red blood cells. Whales, dugongs, and man…

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mammary gland - Humans, Other mammals

In female mammals, a gland responsible for the production and release of milk to feed their young. The number varies between 2 and 20. They are located on the surface of the chest or abdomen, and may be concentrated into an udder. They are probably derived from highly modified sweat glands. Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the youn…

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mammoth - Evolutionary history, Extinction, Mammoths and cryptozoology, Size, Adaptations, Preserved remains, genetic evidence

A specialized elephant originating in Africa, which spread in the early Pleistocene epoch through Eurasia and North America. The woolly mammoth was abundant in tundra regions, had long hair and a thick fat layer for insulation, fed on grasses and legumes in summer, and on shrubs and bark in winter. It died out c.12 000 years ago. (Order: Proboscidea.) A mammoth is any of a number of an ext…

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Man Ray - Biography, Quotations, Man Ray references in popular culture

Painter, photographer, and film-maker, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied art in New York City, became a major figure in the development of Modernism, and co-founder of the New York Dadaist movement. He experimented with new techniques in painting and photography, became interested in filming, and in France made Surrealist films such as Anemic Cinema (1924) with Marcel Duchamp. Du…

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Mana Pools

area 2196 km²/848 sq mi. National park in N Zimbabwe; a world heritage site; established in 1963; partly bordered NW by the R Zambezi, the frontier with Zambia; extensive wildlife; in the dry season animals migrate towards the river in huge numbers. Mana Pools is a wildlife conservation area in Western Zimbabwe constituting a National Park. It is a region of the lower Zambezi River in Z…

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Managua - History, Geography, Education, Economy, Arts, Entertainment, Transportation, Links

12°06N 86°18W, pop (2000e) 1 414 000. Commercial centre and capital city of Nicaragua, on the S shore of Lago de Managua, 45 km/28 mi inland from the Pacific Ocean; badly damaged by earthquake in 1931 and 1972; airport; railway; university (1961); textiles, matches, cigarettes, cement; archaeological site of Huellas de Acahualinca nearby; Fiesta of Santo Domingo (Aug). Managua, with …

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manakin - Species list

A small bird native to C and tropical South America; short bill, wings, and (usually) tail; toes partially joined; inhabits forests; eats insects and small fruits picked in flight; noted for its complex display. (It should not be confused with the mannikin.) (Family: Pipridae, c.53 species.) The manakins are a family of some sixty small passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical mai…

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Manama - Places in Manama, Manama Souq

26°12N 50°38E, pop (2000e) 176 000. Seaport capital of Bahrain, on N coast of Bahrain I in the Persian Gulf; connected by a causeway with Muharraq I to the NE; a free trade port with facilities at Mina Sulman near Sitra Wharf; oil refining, commerce, banking. Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the country's largest city with a population of…

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Manasseh

Biblical king of Judah, the eldest son of Joseph who was adopted and blessed by Jacob. He was the eponymous ancestor of one of the 12 tribes of Israel, who later became the Jewish people. In Judges 18:30 the correct reading could possibly read "Moses," and not "Manasseh." Some scholars believe that the name "Manasseh" was introduced by a transcriber to avoid the scandal of naming the …

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Manasseh

Biblical king of Judah (696–642 BC), the son of Hezekiah, whom he succeeded. He earned an evil name for idolatry and wickedness until he was taken captive by the Assyrians in Babylon, when he repented. The Prayer of Manasseh is apocryphal. In Judges 18:30 the correct reading could possibly read "Moses," and not "Manasseh." Some scholars believe that the name "Manasseh" was introduced by a …

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Manchester (New Hampshire) - Etymology, History, Physical geography, Politics and administration, Economics, Demographics, Education, Religion, Places of interest

43°00N 71°28 W, pop (2000e) 107 000. City in Hillsborough Co, New Hampshire, USA; on the R Merrimack, 24 km/15 mi S of Concord; largest city in New Hampshire; railway; airfield; New Hampshire College (1932); textiles, leather products, vehicle parts, paper; museum, library, art gallery. Manchester is a major city in North West England, historically notable for being the world's first …

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Manchester (UK) - Etymology, History, Physical geography, Politics and administration, Economics, Demographics, Education, Religion, Places of interest

53°30N 2°15W, pop (2001e) 392 800. Metropolitan district in Greater Manchester urban area, NW England, UK, on the R Irwell, 256 km/159 mi NW of London; Roman town, located at a major crossroads; became centre of local textile industry in 17th-c, and focal point of English cotton industry during the Industrial Revolution; became a city in 1853; University of Manchester (1880), University of M…

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Manchester Ship Canal - Early history, Construction, Route, MSC Railway, Today, Maximum size

An artificial waterway in the UK linking Manchester with the Mersey estuary. The canal, which is 57 km/35 mi long, was opened in 1894 and allowed the city to develop as a sea port. The Manchester Ship Canal (MSC) is a wide, 36-mile-long river navigation in North West England, opened on 21 May 1894. The "Big Ditch" (as it is said to be known to locals) consists of the River Irw…

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Manchuria - Extent of Manchuria, Origin of the name Manchuria, Geography and climate, History

A region of NE China, including the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning; mountainous area, sparsely populated by nomadic tribes; Chinese protectorate, 7th-c; Manchus replaced Ming dynasty to become the last Chinese emperors (Qing dynasty, 1644–1912); vast natural resources of timber and minerals (coal, iron, magnesite, oil, uranium, gold); Russian military control, 1900; captured by Ja…

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mandala - Mandala in Hinduism, Mandala in Vajrayana Buddhism, Other meanings of mandala, Select bibliography

Circular, complex geometric designs in Hindu and Buddhist religious art, representing the universe or other aspects of their beliefs. They are used as a focus and aid to concentration in worship and meditation. A mandala, especially its center, can be used during meditation as an object for focusing attention. Psychiatrist Carl Jung saw the mandala as "a representation of the unconscious se…

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Mandalay - History, Transportation and economy, Culture, Mandalay In popular culture

21°57N 96°04E, pop (2000e) 731 200. River-port capital of Mandalay division, C Myanmar; on R Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy), N of Rangoon; airfield; railway; university (1964); commercial centre, tourism; Kuthodaw Pagoda contains 729 marble slabs on which are inscribed the entire Buddhist Canon; Shwenandaw Kyaung monastery; old city of Pagan to the W, founded AD 109, contains largest concentration of …

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mandarin

A citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) with yellow to deep orange-red fruits, very like small oranges but with thin, loose rind. Its species include satsumas and tangerines. (Family: Rutaceae.) Mandarin may mean: …

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Mandawuy Yunupingu

Singer, born in Yirrkala, a former Methodist mission in NE Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. He studied education at Deakin University, and became principal of the local school, one of the first Aboriginal headmasters in the country. A member of one of the leading families in the Gumatj clans, in 1986 he established the group Yothu Yindi (‘mother–child’ in Yolngu-matha). Since then th…

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mandolin - Mandolin forms, Mandolin family, Mandolin history, Mandolin music, Mandolin players

A plucked string instrument, about 60 cm/2 ft long, developed in the 18th-c from the earlier mandora and mandola. It has a pear-shaped body somewhat like a lute's, a fretted fingerboard, and a pegbox set back at an angle. There are four pairs of steel strings, tuned like a violin's and played with a plectrum. In Indian classical music and Indian light music, the mandolin is likely to be t…

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mandrake

A thick-rooted perennial (Mandragora officinalis) native to Europe; leaves in a rosette; flowers blue; berries yellow to orange. Once widely regarded for its medicinal and narcotic properties, it has been the subject of many superstitions, such as the claim that it screams when uprooted. (Family: Solanaceae.) Mandrake may refer to: …

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mandrill - Reproduction, Gallery

A baboon (Mandrillus sphinx) native to W African forests; stocky with short limbs and thick coat; tail minute; buttocks red-blue; naked face with scarlet muzzle and bright blue, ridged cheeks (especially in male); lives on ground in small family groups. The Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Cercopithecidae (Old-world monkeys) family, closely related to the baboons and even mo…

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Mandy Rice-Davies

Model and showgirl, born in Wales, UK. After leaving school, she worked in a department store, did some modelling, then moved to London, becoming a showgirl at Murray's Cabaret Club. Here she met and became close to Christine Keeler and, through the osteopath Stephen Ward, was introduced to influential London society. As a witness at Ward's trial for living off the immoral earnings of Keeler and R…

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Manetho - Name, Life and work, Aegyptiaca

Egyptian historian. He was high-priest of Heliopolis, and wrote in Greek a history of the 30 dynasties from mythical times to 323 BC. Portions have been preserved in the works of Julius Africanus (AD 300), Eusebius of Caesarea, and George Syncellus (AD 800). Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who…

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Manfred Eigen - Bibliography

Physical chemist, born in Bochum, W Germany. He studied in Göttingen, and directed the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry there from 1964. He developed methods for the study of very fast chemical reactions, and for this work shared the 1967 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Manfred Eigen (born May 9, 1927, Bochum) is a German biophysicist and a former director of the Max Planck Institute…

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Manfred Gerlach - Citation, Bibliography

German politician, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. He joined the Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands (LDPD), becoming secretary general (1954–67) and chairman (1967–90) of the party. He was also deputy chairman of the Staatsrat (1960–90) and served as acting head of state of the German Democratic Republic (1989–90). Manfred Gerlach (born May 8, 1928) is a former East German politicia…

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manganese

Mn, element 25, melting point 1244°C. A transition metal, density about 7·4 g/cm3, always found combined in nature, but mainly as the dioxide, MnO2. The metal is produced by heating this to give Mn3O4, and then reducing with aluminium. The metal, which has three irregular structures not found for any other metal, is mainly used in alloy steels. It forms a wide range of compounds, commonly showi…

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Mangas Coloradas

Mimbreño Apache war chief, born in the SW of present-day New Mexico, USA. Repeated offences by whites against his family and his people caused a turnabout of this one-time friend to the whites. He and his son-in-law, Cochise, were largely successful in keeping whites out of their territory, but in 1863, while carrying a flag of truce, he was arrested, tortured, and killed. Mangas Coloradas…

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Mangbetu

A cluster of C Sudanic-speaking peoples in NE Democratic Republic of Congo. In the 19th-c they were a powerful kingdom ruled by an aristocracy to which alone the name Mangbetu was given. They are renowned for their craftwork, especially in wood and iron. Population c.1 million. The Mangbetu or Monbuttu are a people of Central Africa living to the south of the Azande in the Welle district of…

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mango - Description, Cultivation and uses, Production and consumption

An evergreen tree (Mangifera indica) growing to 18 m/60 ft, native to SE Asia; leaves roughly oblong; flowers tiny, white, with 4–5 petals; fleshy fruit 7–10 cm/2¾–4 in, oval to kidney-shaped, yellow flushed with red. It is grown for the sweet-tasting, edible fruit. (Family: Anacardiaceae.) The mango (plural mangos or mangoes) is a tropical fruit of the Mango tree. Mangoes belong to…

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mangosteen

A small evergreen tree native to Malaysia (Garcinia mangostana); leaves up to 20 cm/8 in, oval to elliptical; flowers red, 4-petalled; fruit round, with thick purplish rind and sweet, white, edible flesh. (Family: Guttifereae.) The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. In Asia, the mangosteen fruit…

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mangrove - General description, Biology of mangroves, Species of mangroves, Mangroves in geographical regions, Mangroves in other media

Any of several unrelated tropical or subtropical trees, all sharing similar structure and biology, growing on coastal and estuarine mud-flats. All possess either aerial roots or pneumatophores, special breathing roots which help aerate the root system in swampy ground. The seeds germinate while still on the parent tree, allowing them to become quickly established when shed in the shifting tidal en…

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Manhattan - Geography, Government, Demographics, Culture, Transportation, Education

pop (2000e) 1 537 200; area 72 km²/28 sq mi. An island forming one of the five boroughs of the City of New York, New York State, E USA; at the N end of New York Bay, bounded W by the Hudson R; co-extensive with New York Co; settled by the Dutch as part of New Netherlands in 1626, bought from local Indians for trinkets and cloth worth c.$24; taken by the British in 1664; major financial and …

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Manhattan project - The discovery of nuclear fission, Early U.S. and UK research, The program accelerates

The codename for the most secret scientific operation of World War 2, the development of the atomic bomb, undertaken successfully in the USA from 1942 onwards. The project culminated in the detonation of the first atomic weapon at Alamogordo, New Mexico (16 Jul 1945). The Manhattan Project refers to the first project to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II by the United Sta…

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Manichaeism - Origins, Theology, The Manichaean Myth, Sources for Manichaeism, Manichaean Psalm Book, Expansion, Manichaeism and orthodox Christianity

A religious sect founded by the prophet Manes (or Mani) (c.216–76), who began teaching in Persia in 240. His teaching was based on a primaeval conflict between the realms of light and darkness, in which the material world represents an invasion of the realm of light by the powers of darkness. The purpose of religion is to release the particles of light imprisoned in matter, and Buddha, the Prophe…

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Manila - The city, History, Sister cities

14°36N 120°59E, pop (2000e) 1 961 000. Capital of the Philippines, on R Pasig, Manila Bay, SW Luzon I; founded, 1571; important trade centre under the Spanish; occupied by the British 1762–3; taken by the USA during the Spanish-American War, 1898; badly damaged in World War 2; airport; railway; several universities (earliest, 1611); shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, timber, food processing.…

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Manipur - History, People of Manipur, Problems Facing Manipur, Politics, Economy, Other facts

pop (2001e) 2 388 600; area 22 356 km²/8629 sq mi. State in NE India; British rule in 1891; administered from the state of Assam until 1947, when it became a union territory; became a state in 1972; capital, Imphal; governed by a 60-member Legislative Assembly; weaving, sugar, cement; wheat, maize, pulses, fruit, bamboo, teak; problems of soil erosion being reduced by terracing of valley s…

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Manitoba - Geography, History, Government of Manitoba, Official language, Demographics, Economy, Map

pop (2000e) 1 223 000; area 649 950 km²/250 945 sq mi. Province in W Canada; boundaries include Hudson Bay (NE) and USA (S); known as the ‘land of 100 000 lakes’, the result of glaciation, notably Lakes Winnipeg, Winnipegosis, Manitoba; drained by several rivers flowing into L Winnipeg or Hudson Bay; land gradually rises in W and S to 832 m/2730 ft at Mt Baldy; capital, Winnipeg; maj…

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manitou

A term used by the Algonkin Indians of the E Woodlands of North America to designate the supernatural world and to identify any manifestation of it, such as spirits encountered in visions, or certain powers of nature. Human beings and animals may also exhibit the ‘spirit’ of manitou. Manitou may refer to: …

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Manizales - Museums, Periodic Events, Education, Economy, Sports and Entertainment

5°03N 75°32W, pop (2000e) 325 200. Capital of Caldas department, C Colombia; in Cordillera Central at 2153 m/7064 ft; founded, 1848; airfield; university (1950); centre of coffee area; textiles, leather, chemicals; experimental coffee plantation and freeze-dried coffee plant at Chinchiná; Teatro de los Fundadores; cathedral (unfinished); skiing and mountain climbing at Nevado del Ruiz; coff…

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manna - Identifying manna, Modern term, Christian vegetarian view, Manna as a mushroom

The name of several edible plant products, some of which have been proposed as the biblical food dropped from heaven during the Israelites' flight from Egypt. Lichen (Lecanora esculenta) from Asia Minor, the source of lichen bread and manna jelly, curls into balls when dry and blows in the wind. Stems of tamarisk (Tamarisk mannifera) produce a honey-like substance in response to scale insect attac…

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Mannerism - Nomenclature, History, Some mannerist examples, Mannerist architecture, Mannerist literature

A form of art and architecture prevalent in France, Spain, and especially Italy during the 16th-c, characterized by overcrowded detail, and an irrational manipulation of classical elements, for playful or startling effect. Vasari (1550) used the word maniera for a type of refined and artificial beauty, as seen in such works as Raphael's ‘St Cecilia’ and Michelangelo's ‘Victory’. In art, leadin…

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Mannheim - History, Main sights, Industry, United States military installations

49°30N 8°28E, pop (2000e) 320 000. Commercial and manufacturing river port in Karlsruhe district, SWC Germany; on right bank of R Rhine, at the outflow of the canalized R Neckar, 70 km/43 mi SW of Frankfurt; one of the largest inland harbours in Europe; seat of the Electors Palatine (18th-c), when it became a cultural centre; badly bombed in World War 2; railway; university (1907); machinery…

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manslaughter

An English legal term for a form of unlawful homicide which does not amount to murder, covering a wide spectrum of culpability, including behaving recklessly or negligently but without an intention to kill; known as culpable homicide in Scottish law. Mitigating factors, such as provocation, diminished responsibility, or a suicide pact may reduce an offence from murder to manslaughter (often called…

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manta ray

Largest of the devil rays, exceeding 6 m/20 ft in width and 1300 kg/2800 lb in weight; mouth broad, situated across front of head; feeds on plankton and small fish filtered from water passing over gill arches. (Genus: Manta. Family: Mobulidae.) The manta ray, or giant manta (Manta birostris), is the largest of the rays, with the largest known specimen having been nearly 7.6 meters (25 f…

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mantis

A medium to large insect that has a well-camouflaged body and a mobile head with large eyes; waits motionless for insect prey to approach before striking out with its grasping, spiny forelegs; c.1800 species, in some of which the female eats the male head-first during copulation. (Order: Mantodea.) Mantis is also the name of several insects in the Mantidae family, commonly known as praying …

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mantis shrimp - Ecology, Classification and the claw, The eyes, Behaviour, Cookery

A shrimp-like crustacean, found in abundance in shallow tropical seas; c.350 species, all fierce, grasping predators, typically inhabiting burrows or crevices from where they emerge to spear or smash prey with their powerful claws. (Class: Malacostraca. Order: Stomatopoda.) Mantis shrimp are marine crustaceans belonging to the order Stomatopoda, one part of the class Malacostraca, the large…

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Mantoux test - BCG vaccine and the Mantoux test, Anergy testing, Two-step testing, Recent developments, Heaf Test

Intradermal injection of an extract prepared from tuberculosis bacilli. The skin reaction measures the immune response to tuberculosis. When positive, the patient is known to suffer from or to have suffered from tuberculosis, or to have been vaccinated. It is named after French physician Charles Mantoux (1877–1947). If a person has had a history of a positive tuberculin skin test, another …

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mantra - Introduction, Mantra in Hinduism, Remarks, Mantra in Zoroastrianism, Mantra in Buddhism, Mantra in Sikhism

The prescribed words or word of power used in Hindu ritual, which depend on correct recitation for its efficacy; also, the belief that the repetition of a special phrase or word in meditation and devotion helps to concentrate the mind and aids in the development of spiritual power. A disciple of a spiritual leader may be given an individual mantra as an initiation. Mantras have some feature…

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Mantua - Trivia, Twin cities, Transportation

45°10N 10°47E, pop (2000e) 61 000. Capital town of Mantua province, Lombardy, N Italy, on R Mincio; founded in Etruscan times; railway; sugar refining, brewing, tanning, printing, tourism; birthplace of Virgil nearby; ringed by ancient walls and bastions; Church of Sant'Andrea (1472–94), cathedral (10th–18th-c), Palazzo Ducale (16th-c), Castello San Giorgio (1395–1406); Fiera Di Sant' Ansel…

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Manu

In Hindu mythology, the forefather of the human race, to whom the Manu Smirti (‘Lawbook of Manu’) is attributed. Manu may refer to: In geography: In acting: In sports: In Hinduism: In other fields: …

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Man

area 15 328 km²/5917 sq mi. Largest national park in SE Peru; a world heritage site; established in 1973. Manu may refer to: In geography: In acting: In sports: In Hinduism: In other fields: …

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Manuel (Antonio) Noriega - Early life, Ruler of Panama

Soldier and politician, born in Panama City, Panama. He studied at the university there and at a military school in Peru. The ruling force behind the Panamanian presidents (1983–9), he had been recruited by the CIA in the late 1960s, and supported by the US government until 1987. Alleging his involvement in drug trafficking, the US authorities ordered his arrest in 1989: 13 000 US troops invaded…

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Manuel (Carneiro de Sousa) Bandeira (Filho) - Bibliography, Poetry

Poet, born in Recife, NE Brazil. His first books of poetry, A Cinza das Horas (1917, Destruction of the Hours) and Carnaval (1919, Carnival), identified him with the contemporary Modernist movement. Later works include Ritmo dissoluto (1924, Rhythm in Dissolution) and Estrelha da tarde (1963, Evening Star). Highly influential among aspiring Brazilian writers, he became a much respected national fi…

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Manuel Amoros

Footballer, born in Nîmes, France. His career includes a record-breaking 82 selections for the national team and 461 matches played in Division One. He was five times French Champion with Monaco and Marseille. In the 1984 European Championships held in France, Amoros showed an egregious side of him. As the referee went searching for the yellow card to book the offender, Amoros quickly jump…

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Manuel de Falla - Partial list of works

Composer, born in Cadiz, SW Spain. He won prizes in 1905 as a pianist and for his first opera, then moved to Paris (1907–14), where he published his first piano compositions. On returning to Madrid, his works became known for their colourful national Spanish idiom. He is best known for his ballet, The Three-Cornered Hat (1919). With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he settled in Argentina. …

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Manuel de Godoy - Birth and early life, Prime Minister of Spain, Exile

Spanish court favourite, and chief minister (1792–1808) under Charles IV, born in Castuera, WC Spain. An obscure guards officer, he achieved dictatorial power at the age of 25 through the favour of the Queen, Maria Luisa, whose lover he was. His rule represented a corrupt form of ‘enlightened despotism’. In 1795 he assumed the title ‘Prince of the Peace’, following Spain's defeat by Revolutio…

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Manuel Lisa

Fur trader, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Active in the St Louis fur trade, he built Fort Manuel in present-day Montana and Fort Lisa near present-day Omaha, NE (1812). He was a leader of the Missouri Fur Co from 1808 and was sub-agent for the Indian tribes along the Missouri R (1814–20). Manuel Lisa (September 8, 1772 - August 12, 1820) was a well known fur trader and explorer who …

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Manuel Machado y Ruiz

Poet and playwright, born in Sevilla, SW Spain. His father was the folklorist Antonio Machado y Alvarez, and Manuel collaborated on plays with his brother, also called Antonio. The family left for Madrid when Manuel was nine, where he was educated at the celebrated Institución Libre de Enseñanza. In 1899, along with Antonio, he worked for a short time with the publishing house of Garnier in Pari…

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Manuel Pinto da Costa

First president of the equatorial islands of São Tomé and Príncipe (1975–91), born in Aguada Grande, NW Venezuela. In 1972 he founded the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe (MLSTP) in Gabon, and in 1974, taking advantage of a military coup in Portugal, returned and persuaded the new government in Lisbon to recognize the MLSTP as the sole representative of the people and to…

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Manuel Santana - Grand Slam record, Grand Slam singles finals, Personal life

Tennis player, born in Chamartin, WC Spain. He won the Spanish Junior Tennis Championship in 1955 and 1956. After that, and until 1968 - when he won both the singles and doubles gold medals in the Mexican Olympics - he won numerous titles to become Spain's most successful tennis star ever. He was the Spanish singles champion seven times and the doubles champion three times. He obtained other impor…

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manure - Etymology, Types, Uses of manure, Precautions

Organic material which is used to fertilize land. It usually consists of livestock excrement, generally mixed with straw or other litter used in the animals' housing. The generic term for dung mixed with straw is farmyard manure (FYM); animals housed in systems requiring little or no straw (commonly intensive systems) produce slurry, which is excrement plus water. Both types can be spread onto the…

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Mao Dun - Early life, Journalistic career, Political life, As a literary man, List of works

Writer, born in Ch'ing-chen, SC China. He studied at Beijing University, was a founder-member of the Literary Research Society, and editor of the (trans titles) Short Story Monthly (1921–3) and the Hankow National Daily. In 1930 he helped to organize the influential League of Left-Wing Writers, and his major works include a best-selling novel, Ziye (1932, Midnight). After the Communists came to p…

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Mao Zedong - Early life, Political ideas, War and Revolution, Death, Cult of Mao, Legacy, Genealogy, Writings

Leader and leading theorist of the Chinese communist revolution, born in the village of Shaoshan, Hunan Province, SEC China, the son of a farmer. He graduated from Changsha teachers' training college, then worked at Beijing University, where he was influenced by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. He took a leading part in the May Fourth Movement (1919), becoming a Marxist and a founding member of the Chine…

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Maoism - Maoist theory, Maoism in China, Maoism internationally, Maoism today, Military strategy

Specifically, the thought of Mao Zedong (Tse-tung), and more broadly a revolutionary ideology based on Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese conditions. Maoism shifted the focus of revolutionary struggle from the urban workers or proletariat to the countryside and the peasantry. There were three main elements: strict Leninist principles of organization, Chinese tradition, and armed struggle as a fo…

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map

The graphic representation of spatial information about a place on a plane surface through the use of symbols and signs. Maps are generally produced for specific purposes (eg cadastral maps show land ownership; topographical maps show relief and terrain features; and thematic maps illustrate particular features, such as maps of population density). The earliest surviving maps are of estates of wea…

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map projection - Metric properties of maps, Construction of a map projection, Choosing a projection surface

The method of portraying the spherical surface of the Earth on a flat surface. Because a sphere is three-dimensional in form, and a map two-dimensional, there is inevitably some distortion: the representation of distance (true scale), direction (true bearing), area, and shape cannot be shown correctly together on the same map. Consequently different map projections have been developed, according t…

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maple

A member of a large genus of deciduous trees, native to N temperate regions; leaves variable in shape but typically palmately lobed with 3–13 toothed lobes, sometimes pinnate; flowers in clusters, small, greenish, purple, or red; characteristic fruit of two winged seeds fused at base, eventually splitting apart, the wings acting as propellers. Many species produce striking autumn colours, especia…

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Mappa Mundi - Types of mappae mundi, End of the tradition

A celebrated 13th-c map of the world, owned by Hereford Cathedral, Hereford, UK. The map is on vellum, measuring 163 × 137 cm/64 × 54 in, and shows the world as a round plate, with Jerusalem centrally located and Britain on its fringes. It comprises c.500 illustrations, and gives information on routes of pilgrimage, trade and travel, architecture, place names, history, mythology, flora, an…

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Maputo

25°58S 32°32E, pop (2000e) 1 329 000. Seaport capital of Mozambique, on Maputo Bay, 485 km/300 mi E of Johannesburg; visited by the Portuguese, 1502; explored by the trader Lourenço Marques; capital of Portuguese East Africa, 1907; airport; railway; university (1962); steel, textiles, ship repair, footwear, cement, furniture; an outlet for several SE African countries. Maputo is the…

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maquette

A small model made by a sculptor as a preliminary study or sketch for a full-size work. A maquette is usually in clay, wax, or plaster. A maquette (sometimes referred to by the Italian name bozzetto) is a small scale model for a finished sculpture or architectural work. It is used to visualise and test shapes and ideas without incurring the cost and effort of producing a full scale pr…

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Maquis

The local name given to the dense scrub in Corsica; name adopted in German-occupied France by groups of young men who from 1942 hid in the hills and forests to escape forced labour in Germany. Supported by the French Communist Party, they were organized into resistance groups, but were not centrally controlled. They were active in the national rising against the Germans on and after D-Day. …

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Mar del Plata - Economy, History timeline, Culture, Architecture, Climate, Government, Trivia

38°00S 57°30W, pop (2000e) 466 500. Port on the Atlantic coast in SE Buenos Aires province, E Argentina; founded in 1874; one of the prime holiday resorts of South America, with 8 km/5 mi of beaches; two universities (1958, 1962); railway; airfield; meat packing, fish canning, tourism; museums, casino. Mar del Plata is an Argentine city located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in th…

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Maracaibo - History, Perspective, Modern times, Colleges and universities, Sports teams, Notable natives, Line note references

10°44N 71°37W, pop (2000e) 1 460 400. Capital of Zulia state, NW Venezuela, on NW shore of L Maracaibo; second largest city in Venezuela; airport; two universities (1891, 1973); oil production and processing, petrochemicals. Maracaibo is the second largest city in Venezuela after the national capital Caracas and is the capital of the Zulia state. Maracaibo is nicknamed as L…

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marasmus

The childhood equivalent of adult starvation, usually occurring after six months of life, and caused by insufficient intake of protein and of energy. Affected children are extremely thin and wizened. Marasmus is a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition characterised by calorie deficiency and energy deficiency. The signs are common characteristics of protein-energy malnutriti…

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Marat Safin - Grand Slam singles finals, Titles

Tennis player, born in Moscow, Russia. He turned professional in 1997 and won his first ATP title in 1999. Further achievements include the US Open and two Masters Series titles in 2000, and the Paris Masters in 2002. Twice runner-up in the Australian Open (2002, 2004), he won the title in a closely fought match against Australia's Lleyton Hewitt in 2005. At the beginning of 2006 he had a world ra…

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Maratha Empire - History, Sambhaji (c 1681-1689), Shahu (c 1707-1749)

A W Indian regional power, founded by Maratha warrior-leader Shivaji (1627–80), that waged campaigns against the Mughals and began their decline. It later became a confederacy of leading families (Bhonsle, Gaekwad, Holkar, Sindhia) under hereditary chief ministers (Peshwas). The empire was defeated by Afghans at Panipat (1761). It sought British protection but was destroyed by British interventio…

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marathon - Distance, Olympic traditions, Running a marathon, Helpful devices, Marathon races, Notable marathon runners

A long-distance running race, normally on open roads, over the distance 42 km 195 m/26 mi 385 yd. The race was introduced at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 to commemorate the run of the Greek courier (according to legend, Pheidippides) who ran the c.39 km/24 mi from Marathon to Athens in 490 BC with the news of a Greek victory over the Persian army. After proclaiming the victory, he …

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Marbella - History of Marbella, Sights in and around Marbella, Marbella in the media

36°30N 4°57W, pop (2000e) 78 000. Port and resort on the Costa del Sol, Málaga province, Andalusia, S Spain; watersports; large bathing beaches; tourism, iron and steel, furniture; Fiesta del Sol (Jan), Fiestas of San Bernabe (Jun), Semana del Sol (Aug), Costa del Sol Rally (Dec). Marbella is a city in Andalusia, Spain, by the Mediterranean, situated in the region of Málaga, beneath t…

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marble - Origins, Kinds of marble, Construction marble, Industrial use of marble, Etymology, Cultural associations

A metamorphic rock formed by the recrystallization of limestone and dolomite. It is white when pure, but its impurities give it a distinctive coloration. It is easily sculpted and polished, and is also used as a building stone. Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from the metamorphism of limestone, composed mostly of calcite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3). F…

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Marburg - Universitätsstadt Marburg, Politics, Marburg virus

50°49N 8°36E, pop (2000e) 75 400. City in Giessen district, WC Germany; on the R Lahn, 74 km/46 mi N of Frankfurt; railway; university (1527); pharmaceuticals, optical equipment; St Elizabeth's Church (1235–83), Gothic castle (15th–16th-c). Coordinates: 50°49′N 8°46′E Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. Its population 78,701, and its geographica…

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Marc (Andrew) Mitscher - Early life and career, Interwar assignments, World War II, Mitcher's legacy, Reference

US naval aviator, born in Hillsboro, Wisconsin, USA. The son of an Indian agent, he graduated from the Naval Academy (1910), became an early convert to aviation, and commanded naval air stations during World War 1. Taking charge of the new aircraft carrier, USS Hornet (Oct 1941), he became one of the great carrier group commanders of World War 2. From January 1944 his Central Pacific carrier force…

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Marc Blitzst - Complete Works for Broadway

Composer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A pianist and composer as a youth, he enrolled in 1924 in the newly established Curtis Institute to study composition. He went on to study with Boulanger in Paris and Schoenberg in Berlin, where he encountered the socially conscious works of Brecht and Weill. In the 1930s he began to write pieces with explicit social themes for the musical theatre…

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Marc Bloch - Biography, Legacy, Bibliography

Historian, born in Lyon, SC France. He studied in Paris, Leipzig, and Berlin, became professor of mediaeval history at Strasbourg (from 1919), and professor of economic history at the Sorbonne (1936). He rejoined the army in 1939, joined the Resistance in 1943, and was captured and shot by the Germans. His work has been extensively translated since his death. Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (J…

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Marc Chagall - Biography, Art of Chagall, Often used symbols in Chagall's works of art

Artist, born in Vitebsk, NE Belarus. He studied at St Petersburg and Paris, left Russia in 1922, and settled near Paris. During World War 2 he moved to the USA, where he began to design ballet sets and costumes. He illustrated several books, but is best known for his paintings of animals, objects, and people from his life, dreams, and Russian folklore. The word Surrealist is said to have been coin…

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Marc Girardelli

Luxembourg skier, of Austrian origin, multi-talented in his field. He was World Cup winner in the classement général (1985, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993), the only skier to have done this five times, and World champion in the combined event (1987, 1989, 1996) and the slalom (1991). He gained two silver medals in the 1992 Olympic games (giant slalom and the Super G). Marc Girardelli (born 18 Jul…

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Marc S

Mechanical and civil engineer, born in Annonay, SC France. He was taught science informally by his uncle Joseph Montgolfier, and maintained an interest throughout his life in such problems as the mechanical equivalent of heat. His principal achievements were in engineering, notably his association with the development of wire-rope suspension bridges from 1825 onwards, and his invention of the mult…

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Marc-Antoine Charpentier - Life, Music, style and influence, Modern significance, Charpentier's works

Counter-tenor and composer, born in Paris, France. Although verbose, he was considered superior to Sully, who tried to keep him from any official post, but he did gain some positions with the Grand Dauphin and the future regent. He was influenced by the music of Carrisimi, which he adapted to the declamatory French style of Boesset and Lully, whom he succeeded as theatre composer for Molière's Le…

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Marcantonio

Engraver, born in Bologna, N Italy. At first a goldsmith, he moved to Rome in 1510 and became an engraver of other artists' works, especially those of Raphael and Michelangelo. Marcantonio Raimondi, also simply Marcantonio, (c.1480 - c.1534) was an Italian engraver, known for being the first important printmaker whose body of work consists mainly of prints copying paintings. …

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marcasite

An iron sulphide mineral (FeS2) with the same chemical composition as pyrite, but formed at lower temperatures. It is found in sedimentary rocks, and is also associated with major ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley. The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2). Marcasite is often mistakenly confused with pyrite, but marcasite is lighter and more brit…

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Marcel (Augustin Ferr

Playwright and scriptwriter, born in Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon, W France. Voulez-vous jouer avec moi? (1923), Jean de la lune (1929), and Patâte (1957), are among many light, witty comedies written in a poetic style. He also wrote a musical comedy La Polka des lampions (1961), and collaborated on many films. In 1959 he became a member of the Académie Française. Marcel Achard (July 5, 1899—Se…

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Marcel (Lajos) Breuer - Works (partial list)

Architect and designer, born in Pécs, S Hungary. A student at the Bauhaus in Germany from 1920, he took charge of the furniture workshop by 1924, and designed probably the first modern tubular steel chair. In 1937 he joined Walter Gropius in the USA as associate professor of architecture at Harvard (1937–46) and in architectural practice. Working independently after 1947, he designed the majorit…

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Marcel Arland

Critic and novelist, born in Varenne-sur-Armance, NE France. A teacher of French, he received the Prix Goncourt in 1929 for L'Ordre. Associated with literary circles after World War 2, he became co-director of the Nouvelle Revue Française (1953–77) with Jean Paulhan. The moral style evident in his work reveals his attachment to places in Terre Natale (1938), his anguish when faced with solitude …

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Marcel Cerdan - External Links

French boxer, born in Sidi-bel-Abbes, N Algeria. He ranks alongside Carpentier in the history of French boxing. He became European welterweight champion (1939), European middleweight champion (1947), and world middleweight champion (1948) knocking out T Zale in the 12th round. In 1949 he lost his title to Jake La Motta in Detroit, USA. He died in a plane crash on his way to the re-match in the USA…

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Marcel Dassault

Aviation pioneer, industrialist, and politician, born in Paris, France. He studied aeronautical design and electrical engineering at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de L'Aéronautique (1913), and joined Henri Potez in building aircraft during World War 1. During World War 2 he was imprisoned in Buchenwald, and later converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism. Following the war he adopted the name…

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Marcel Duchamp

Artist, born in Blainville, France. The brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half brother of Jacques Villon, he became famous with ‘Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2’ (1912) exhibited at the New York Armory Show (1913), and was a founder of the Société Anonyme, New York (1920), an organization promoting nonobjective art. An intermittent visitor to New York, he led the American Dada movement …

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Marcel Jouhandeau - Bibliography, Source

Essayist and critic, born in Guéret, near Limoges, C France. He became known with Les Pincengrain (1924). A homosexual, in 1929 he married a dancer, Elisabeth Toulemon (known as Caryathis), and their antagonistic relationship was to fuel his works and literary columns, such as Chronique d'une Passion (1949). Later works include La Mort d'Elise and Nunc Dimittis (1978). His criticisms appear in Ch…

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Marcel L'Herbier - Early life, Career, Later career, Reference

Film-maker, born in Paris, France. He made many films and in 1943 founded L'IDHEC (L'Institut des hautes études cinématographiques). From 1952 until 1973 he spent his working life in television. L'Herbier was born in Paris, he attended the Collège Stanislas de Paris and later the University of Paris where he studied Law. L'Herbier started out as a writer, he wrote plays, poetry and …

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Marcel Lefebvre - Early life and ministry, Bishop in Africa, Superior General of the Holy Ghost Fathers

Leader of a ‘traditionalist’ schismatic group within the Roman Catholic Church, born in Tourcoing, N France. He studied at the French Seminary in Rome and was ordained in 1929. In the 1930s he was a missionary in Gabon, and became Archbishop of Dakar, Senegal (1948–62). In 1970, objecting to the modernized form of the Catholic liturgy, he formed the ‘Priestly Cofraternity of Pius X’, and was …

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Marcel Marceau - Early life and training, Career and signature characters, World recognition, Acclaim and honors, Influence

Mime artist, born in Strasbourg, NE France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and with Etienne Decroux. In 1948 he founded the Compagnie de Mime Marcel Marceau, developing the art of mime, becoming himself the leading exponent. His white-faced character, Bip, based on the 19th-c French Pierrot, a melancholy vagabond, is famous from his appearances on stage and television throughout …

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Marcel Mauss - Background, Theoretical Views, Critiques, Legacy

Sociologist and anthropologist, born in Epinal, E France. He studied philosophy at Bordeaux, and the history of religion at Paris. In 1902 he became professor of primitive religion at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, and in 1925 was co-founder of the Institute of Ethnology at Paris University. From 1931 to 1939 he was at the Collège de France. After World War 1, he devoted himself to …

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Marcel Pagnol - Biography

Writer and film-maker, born in Aubagne, S France. He trained as a teacher of English, then left in 1926, having already published some poems and a drama, Catulle (1922), and created a review which would become Les Cahiers du Sud. His comedy Topaze (1928) began his success, confirmed by the comedies Marius (1929), Fanny (1930), and César (1936), known as the Marseille trilogy. In 1933 he opened hi…

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Marcel Proust - Biography, Early writing

Novelist, born in Auteuil, NC France, of Jewish descent. A semi-invalid from asthma, he was looked after by his mother, and her death in 1905 caused him to withdraw from society, living in a sound-proofed flat, and giving himself over almost entirely to introspection. He then devoted himself to writing, and in 1912 produced the first part of what was to be the greatest novel of the 20th-c, his 13-…

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Marcela de San F

Poet, born in Madrid, Spain. She was an illegitimate daughter of the actress Micaela de Luján and Lope de Vega, who dedicated his play El remedio de la desdicha (1620) to her. She took the veil in 1622 and became a Trinitarian. Encouraged by her father, she had begun to write poetry at the age of 10. The Poesías and Coloquios were edited by M Serrano y Sanz in his Apuntes para una biblioteca de …

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Marceline Desbordes-Valmore

Poet, born in Douai, N France. Her family was ruined in the Revolution and moved to the French colony of Gaudeloupe. She returned to Paris on her mother's death, earned a living by acting at the Opéra-Comique and the Odéon, and made an unhappy marriage with a mediocre actor, Prosper Lanchantiér (called Valmore). When illness threatened her stage voice, she turned to writing, producing poignant …

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Marcello Malpighi - Academic Career, Research, Years in Rome, Some of Malpighi's important works, Reference

Anatomist, born near Bologna, N Italy. He studied medicine at Bologna, became professor at Pisa, Messina, and Bologna, and from 1691 was chief physician to Pope Innocent XII. The founder of microscopic anatomy, he described the major types of plant and animal structures, and did investigative work, notably on silkworms and the embryology of chicks. Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - Novemb…

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Marcello Mastroianni - Academy Award Nominations

Actor, born in Fontana Liri, C Italy. A survivor of a wartime Nazi labour camp, he studied at the University of Rome, was involved in amateur dramatics and, sponsored by the university, joined a leading theatrical troupe. He made his film debut in 1947, and by 1960 was established as an international star with his role in Fellini's La dolce vita. Co-starring in many films with Sophia Loren, he rec…

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march (music) - American march music, European march music

Music designed to accompany soldiers marching in step, and therefore virtually always in duple or quadruple metre and (except for funeral marches) in a moderate or quick tempo. Concert pieces in march style include the ‘Marche au supplice’ in Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique (1830) and Elgar's five Pomp and Circumstance marches (1901–7). A march, as a musical genre, is a piece of music wi…

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march (territory) - Events in March

In Europe, during the Carolingian period, a territory which, due to its border position, was under a particular jurisdiction. It was ruled by a marquis who had both civil and military powers. At first a temporary position, it became hereditary. In the Italian peninsula during the Carolingian era, notable examples were the Friuli march and the Tuscany and Spoleto marches. Later examples include the…

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March on Rome - Context, March

The largely symbolic culmination of the pseudo-revolutionary process surrounding Italian fascism's entry into government and Mussolini's appointment (1922) as premier. Planned as part of an insurrection which only half occurred, the actual march was a celebration of a victory achieved by nominally constitutional means. For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The Mar…

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the Marches

pop (2000e) 1 446 000; area 9693 km²/3741 sq mi. The area of EC Italy between the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea, centred on Ancona. Except for the narrow coastal plain, it is mostly mountainous, but with very fertile uplands; production of majolica; tourism. The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of central Italy, bordering Emilia-Ro…

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Marco Minghetti

Italian politician and prime minister (1863–4, 1873–6), born in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He tried to implement a number of reforms in the Papal States after the election of Pope Pius IX, then moved to Lombardy, took part in the 1st Italian Independence War, and organized the annexation of the Papal States during the 2nd Independence War. A deputy (1860) and interior minister (1860–1), …

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Marco Polo - The voyage of Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, The voyages of Marco, Il Milione, Later life

Merchant and traveller, born in Venice, NE Italy. After a previous visit to Kublai Khan in China (1260–9), his father and uncle made a second journey (1271–5), taking Marco with them. He became an envoy in Kublai Khan's service, and served as Governor of Yangzhou. He left China in 1292, returned to Venice (1295), and fought against the Genoese, but was captured. During his imprisonment, he compi…

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Marcus (Andrew Hislop) Clarke - Commemorations

Novelist, born in London, UK. The son of a London barrister, he emigrated to Australia at the age of 18, where he became a journalist. His best-known work is a story of the convict settlements, For the Term of his Natural Life (1874). He also wrote plays and pantomimes. Marcus Andrew Hislop Clarke (1846 – 1881) was an Australian novelist and poet, best known for his novel For the Term of …

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Marcus (Mordechai) Jastrow - Detailed Biography

Rabbi and scholar, born in Posen, Poland. Educated in Germany, he was active in the Polish revolutionary cause, for which he was imprisoned and then exiled by the Russians. He went to the USA (1866) as rabbi of the Rodeph Shalom congregation in Philadelphia. In support of Conservative Judaism, he helped found (1867) and then taught at Maimonides College. A productive scholar, his greatest accompli…

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Marcus (Moziah) Garvey - Founding of the UNIA-ACL, Charged with mail fraud, Other controversies, Later years, Influence

Social activist, born in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Largely self-educated, he worked as a printer in Jamaica, edited several short-lived newspapers in Costa Rica and Panama, then founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica (1914). In 1916 he moved to New York City where he established UNIA headquarters and began the Negro World, a popular weekly newspaper that conveyed his me…

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Marcus Aemilius Lepidus

Roman statesman. He declared for Julius Caesar against Pompey (49 BC), and Caesar made him dictator of Rome and his colleague in the consulate (46 BC). He supported Marcus Antonius, and became one of the triumvirate with Octavian Augustus and Antonius, with Africa for his province (40–39 BC). He thought he could raise Sicily against Octavian, but his soldiers deserted his cause, and he retired fr…

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Marcus Antonius - Early life, Supporter of Caesar, The second triumvirate, Antony and Cleopatra, The Last Republican Civil War

Roman triumvir, related on his mother's side to Julius Caesar. After assisting Caesar in Gaul (53–50 BC), he went to Rome to become tribune of the plebians (49 BC). Caesar left him in charge in Italy, and at Pharsalia (48 BC) Antony led the left wing of Caesar's army against Pompey. In 44 BC he was made consul together with Caesar, and on Caesar's assassination, the flight of the conspirators lef…

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Marcus Atilius Regulus

Roman general and statesman of the First Punic War, whose heroic death at the hands of the Carthaginians earned him legendary status. After capture by the Carthaginians, he was sent to Rome on parole to sue for peace. Having dissuaded the Senate from agreeing to their terms, he voluntarily returned to Carthage, where he was tortured to death. Marcus Atilius Regulus is the name of several st…

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Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Roman general of the time of the Second Punic War. Nicknamed the ‘Sword of Rome’, his main exploits were the defeat of the Insubrian Gauls (222 BC) and the capture of Syracuse (212 BC) Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 268-208 BC) was a Roman general, one of the commanders of the Roman Army during the Second Punic War and the conqueror of Syracuse. In his first consulship (222 BC)…

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Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Nephew of the Emperor Augustus by his sister Octavia, and his first intended successor. His early death was widely regarded as a national calamity Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 268-208 BC) was a Roman general, one of the commanders of the Roman Army during the Second Punic War and the conqueror of Syracuse. In his first consulship (222 BC) he was engaged, with Gnaeus Cornelius S…

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Marcus Daly - Early life, Career, Thoroughbred horse racing, Legacy

Miner and businessman, born in Ireland. He went to the USA in 1856, and became a mining prospector, working the silver and copper mines in Anaconda, MT. He became a multimillionaire and was active in Montana Democratic politics. Marcus Daly (December 5, 1841–November 12, 1900), was an Irish-born American businessman known as one of the three "Copper Kings" of Butte, Montana, USA. …

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Marcus Furius Camillus

Roman patrician who first appears as censor in 403 BC. He was five times made dictator, and carried out several military victories. In 390 BC, according to legend, he is said to have driven the Gauls from Rome. He routed the Aequi, Volsci, and Etrusci, and in 367 BC defeated the Gauls near Alba. Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descen…

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Marcus Junius Brutus - Background, Chronology, Later evaluations of Brutus

Roman politician. He sided with Pompey when the civil war broke out, but submitted to Caesar, and was appointed Governor of Cisalpine Gaul. He divorced his wife to marry Portia, the daughter of his master, Cato. Cassius persuaded him to join the conspiracy against Caesar (44 BC); but, defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian at Philippi, he killed himself. Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC)…

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Marcus Licinius Crassus - Chronology

Roman politician. As praetor he defeated Spartacus at the Battle of Lucania (71 BC), and in 70 BC was made consul with Pompey. The richest of Roman citizens, he became a friend of Caesar, and formed the first triumvirate with him and Pompey (60 BC). In 53 BC, as Governor of Syria, he attacked the Parthians, but was routed and killed at the Battle of Carrhae. Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (L…

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Marcus Porcius Cato - Biography, Cato's writings

Roman statesman, orator, and man of letters, born in Tusculum, Latium. Deeply conservative, and strongly opposed to the contemporary fashion of all things Greek, when made censor (184 BC) he conducted such a vigorous campaign that he was thereafter known by this name. Sent on a mission to Carthage (175 BC), he was so impressed by the power of the Carthaginians that afterwards he ended every speech…

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Marcus Porcius Cato - Life, After Cato, Cato's descendants and marriages

Roman statesman, the great-grandson of Cato the Censor. A man of uncompromising principles and deep conservatism, his career was marked by an unswerving opposition to Caesar. A supporter of Pompey in the Civil War, after Pharsalus (48 BC) he escaped to Africa. On hearing of Caesar's overwhelming victory at Thapsus (46 BC), he killed himself. Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), kn…

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Marcus Terentius Varro - Biography, Works

Roman scholar and writer, born in Reate. He studied at Athens, fought under Pompey, and in the Civil War was legate in Spain. Pardoned by Caesar, he was appointed public librarian (47 BC), but under the second triumvirate Antony placed his name on the list of the proscribed. His property was restored by Augustus. He wrote over 600 works, covering a wide range of subject matter, but only one on agr…

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Marcus Tullius Cicero

Roman orator, statesman, and philosopher, born in Arpinum, Latium. At Rome he studied law, oratory, philosophy, and literature, and embarked upon a political career, attaining the consulship in 63 BC. He foiled Catiline's revolutionary plot, survived an attempt on his life, and persuaded the Senate to execute Catiline. He spoke against Clodius in 61 BC, and was exiled when Clodius became tribune i…

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Marcus Tullius Tiro

Freedman of Rome who invented the Tironian system of shorthand. A friend and amanuensis of Cicero, he devised his system in order to take down dictation and record speeches. He was the author of a lost Life of Cicero and editor of some of Cicero's letters. His shorthand system was taught in Roman schools, and was in widespread use for several centuries. Tiro died in Puteoli in 4 BC. …

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Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa - Early life, Legacy

Roman commander, statesman, and right-hand man of Octavian (later, the Emperor Augustus). He defeated Sextus, the son of Pompey, at Mylae and Naulochus in 36 BC, and Mark Antony at Actium in 31 BC. He used his great wealth to popularize the new regime by vastly improving the public amenities of Rome. His third wife was Julia, daughter of Augustus. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BC–12 BC) wa…

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Marcus Whitman - Biography

Physician and missionary, born in Rushville, New York, USA. He established a mission near present-day Walla Walla, WA (1836), and after returning E he brought over 900 settlers to Washington (1843). Following a measles epidemic in which many Indians died but most whites survived, he and his wife were killed by Cayuse Indians. Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802–November 29, 1847) was an Ame…

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Mardi Gras - Mardi Gras and The Rio de Janeiro Carnival, Locations, Mardi Gras in popular culture

The French name (literally ‘fat Tuesday’) for Shrove Tuesday, the day before the beginning of Lent; Mardi Gras carnivals, beginning some time before Shrove Tuesday, are held in various places; among the most famous are those of Rio de Janeiro and (before Hurricane Katrina) New Orleans. Mardi Gras (French for "Fat Tuesday") is the day before Ash Wednesday, and is also called "Shrove Tuesda…

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Marduk

Originally the patron deity of the city of Babylon. He later became the supreme god of Babylonia, taking over the functions of Enlil. …

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Margaret (Eleanor) Atwood - Life, Work, Literary works, Trivia

Novelist, short-story writer, poet, and critic, born in Ottawa, Ontario, SE Canada. She studied at the University of Toronto and Radcliffe College, becoming a lecturer in English literature. Her first published work, a collection of poems entitled The Circle Game (1966), won the Governor-General's Award. Since then she has published many volumes of poetry and short stories, but is best known as a …

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Margaret (Jean) Court

Tennis player, born in Albury, New South Wales, SE Australia. She was the winner of more Grand Slam events (66) than any other player: 10 Wimbledon (including the singles in 1963, 1965, 1970), 22 US, 13 French, and 21 Australian titles. In 1970 she became the second woman (after Maureen Connolly) to win all four major titles in one year. She retired in 1977 and was later ordained a minister, found…

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Margaret (Louise) Sanger - Life, Philosophy, Legacy, Further reading

Birth control advocate, born in Corning, New York, USA. The sixth of eleven children, she married architect William Sanger (1902) and had three children before leaving him in 1913. She moved to New York City (1912) where she became active in the women's labour movement and the Socialist Party. She concluded that control over childbearing was the key to female emancipation, and was appalled by wome…

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Margaret (Mackall) Taylor - Reference

US first lady (1849–50), born in Calvert Co, Maryland, USA. She married Zachary Taylor in 1810. She went to Washington reluctantly and was little-known as first lady. Following Taylor's death in office she lived with her son in Mississippi. Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor (September 21, 1788 – August 14, 1852), wife of Zachary Taylor, was First Lady of the United States from 1849 to 1850. …

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Margaret (Mary) Beckett - Background, Political career

British stateswoman, born in Ashton-under-Lyne, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. She studied at Manchester College of Science and Technology, became a metallurgist, then became a research assistant for the Labour party (1970–4). Elected an MP in 1974, she went on to hold a number of political posts, eventually becoming deputy leader of the Labour Party (1992–4, including a short term as leade…

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Margaret (Ursula) Mee - Books by Margaret Mee

British botanical artist and traveller. She trained at the Camberwell School of Art, and first visited the Amazon forests when she was 47. Ten years later, having settled in Brazil, she began her outstanding career as a botanical artist, travelling extensively in the Brazilian Amazonia, and collecting new species and painting many others, some of which have since become extinct. The Margaret Mee A…

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Margaret Bourke-White - Early life, Photojournalism, World War II and after, Recording the India-Pakistan partition violence

Photo-journalist, born in New York City, USA. She studied at Columbia University, and started as an industrial and architectural photographer. She became a staff photographer and associate editor on Life magazine when it started publication in 1936. She covered World War 2 for Life, and was the first woman photographer to be attached to the US armed forces, producing reports of the siege of Moscow…

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Margaret Brent

Colonial landowner, born in Gloucester, SWC England, UK. The daughter of an aristocrat, she went to Maryland in 1638 and through connections and business acumen enlarged her original land grant as Maryland's first female landowner. She actively supported military defence of the colony, and upon the death of her brother-in-law, Leonard Calvert, became executor of his estate. After the Maryland asse…

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Margaret Catchpole

Australian pioneer, born near Ipswich, Suffolk, E England, UK. She was servant to the Cobbold family of brewers in Ipswich. Twice sentenced to death, for stealing a horse and for escaping from Ipswich jail, she was transported to New South Wales, Australia, in 1801. She later managed a farm, ran a store, acted as midwife, and settled in Sydney (1828–41). Her letters home, and to the Cobbold famil…

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Margaret Corbin

American Revolution heroine, born in Franklin Co, Pennsylvania, USA. When she was five, her father was killed in an Indian raid in which her mother was taken captive, and she was raised by an uncle. Her husband, John Corbin, enlisted in the American Revolution, and she accompanied him as cook, laundress, and nurse for the troops. During the battle of Harlem Heights (Sep 1776), John was mortally wo…

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Margaret Drabble - Life, Works, Bibliography

Novelist and critic, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. She studied at Cambridge. She has written biographies of Arnold Bennett (1974) and Angus Wilson (1994). Her novels include A Summer Bird-Cage (1962), The Ice Age (1977), The Radiant Way (1987), The Witch of Exmoor (1996), The Peppered Moth (2001), and The Sea Lady (2006). She was the editor of the 5th edition of the Oxford Com…

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Margaret Dumont

Film actress, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. She began her career as a singer and became a regular player with the Marx Brothers in stage comedies of the 1920s. As the classic ‘straight’ foil to their antics, she appeared in seven Marx Brothers films, including The Cocoanuts (1929), Animal Crackers (1930), and Duck Soup (1933). She also appeared in several film comedies of W C Fields, Laurel a…

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Margaret Floy Washburn - Biography, Professional career

Psychologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She entered Vassar College at age 16, graduated in 1891, and received her PhD from Cornell in 1894. After teaching at Wells College for Women and other institutions, she returned to teach at Vassar (1903–37). She was a pioneer in introducing experimental research and faculty-student collaboration into the psychology department at an undergraduat…

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Margaret Forster

Writer, born in Carlisle, Cumbria, NW England, UK. She studied at Oxford, and taught in a London school (1961–3) before becoming a writer. She has written several biographical works, such as Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1988), and many novels, including Georgy Girl (1965, filmed 1966), Fenella Phizackerley (1970), Mothers' Boys (1994), Shadow Baby (1996), and The Memory Box (1999). Later novels in…

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Margaret Leighton - Filmography, TV filmography

Actress, born at Barnt Green, West Midlands, C England, UK. She made her stage debut at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre (1938), later joining the Old Vic. Throughout her career she worked regularly in London and on Broadway, making numerous stage, screen, and television appearances. She won Tony Awards for Separate Tables (1956) and The Night of the Iguana (1962). For The Go-Between (1970) she re…

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Margaret Lockwood

English actress, born in Karachi, SE Pakistan (formerly India). She studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, made her film debut in Lorna Doone (1935), and starred in the Alfred Hitchcock film The Lady Vanishes (1938). In the late 1940s she was Britain's most popular leading lady, appearing regularly in theatre productions. Later films include Cast a Dark Shadow (1955) and The Slipper and the…

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Margaret Mahy - Awards, Bibliography

Children's author, born in Whangarei, New Zealand. A librarian with a taste for writing, she published her first story in 1961, and by 1993 had published 110 books. Since 1986, with The Trickster, the settings of her stories have increasingly had a more distinctively New Zealand flavour. She has twice won the Carnegie Award for children's literature. Margaret Mahy ONZ (born in Whakatane, Ne…

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Margaret Mead - Biography, Coming of Age in Samoa, Research in other societies, Bibliography

Cultural anthropologist and writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The daughter of a University of Pennsylvania economist and a feminist political activist, she graduated from Barnard College (1923) and went on to take a PhD in Franz Boas' programme at Columbia University (1929). Appointed assistant curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History (1926), she retained the m…

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Margaret Mitchell - Early Life, Margaret Mitchell, Reporter, Gone with the Wind, Lost Laysen, Death

Novelist, born in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. She studied for a medical career, but turned to journalism, writing for The Atlanta Journal (1922–6). After her marriage to John R Marsh in 1925, and an injury to her ankle which forced her retirement, she began the 10-year task of writing her only novel, Gone with the Wind (1936), which won the Pulitzer Prize, sold over 25 million copies, was translated i…

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Margaret of Anjou - Further reading

Queen consort of England, probably born in Pont-à-Mousson, NE France. The daughter of René of Anjou, she was married to Henry VI of England in 1445. Owing to his mental weakness she was in effect sovereign, and the war of 1449, in which Normandy was lost, was laid by the English to her charge. In the Wars of the Roses, after a brave struggle of nearly 20 years, she was finally defeated at Tewkes…

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Margaret of Parma

Governess of The Netherlands, born in Oudenaarde, W Belgium, the natural daughter of Charles V and Johanna van der Gheinst. As widow of Alessandro dei Medici she married Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma. She was made governess 1559 when Philip II left for Spain. At first she was influenced by Granvelle, but at the request of the League of Nobles had him recalled and then agreed the Compromise, which…

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Margaret Oliphant - In geography, Other

Novelist, born in Wallyford, East Lothian, E Scotland, UK. She wrote from an early age, and married her cousin, Francis Oliphant. Widowed in 1859, she wrote from then on to support her own and her brother's children. Her first novel, Mrs Margaret Maitland (1849), began a prolific career in literature extending to more than 100 books and some 200 contributions to Blackwood's Magazine. From The Chro…

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Margaret Tudor - Rose and Thistle, Queen Regent, Marriage and Politics, Margaret's Coup

Queen of Scotland, born in London, UK, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. She became the wife of James IV of Scotland (1503), and the mother of James V, for whom she acted as regent. After James IV's death in 1513 she married twice again, to the Earl of Angus (1514), and Lord Methven (1527). She was much involved in the political intrigues between the pro-French and pro-English factions in Scotland…

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margarine - History, Margarine today, Nutrition

A butter-substitute that does not contain dairy fat, usually made from vegetable oils and skimmed milk, and supplemented with vitamins A and D. In the 1860s a French chemist, Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès (1817–80), extracted a fraction of beef fat at 30–40°C which he termed oleo-margarine. This was used as the basis of a butter substitute until 1903, when a process of hardening vegetable oils by hy…

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margay

A rare member of the cat family (Felis wiedii), found from N Mexico to N Argentina; pale with ring-like dark spots; inhabits forest; hunts in trees; rear feet adapted for climbing (capable of rotating through 180°); sometimes reared as pets. …

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Marge Piercy - Novels

Poet and writer, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. She studied at the University of Michigan (1957 BA) and Northwestern (1958 MA), and held a number of jobs before she could earn her living as a writer. After living in many cities from San Francisco to Paris, she settled in Wellfleet, MA. Active as a progressive and feminist, she is known for poetry that focuses on social problems, as in To Be of Us…

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Margery (Louise) Allingham - Bibliography

Detective-story writer, the creator of the fictional detective Albert Campion, born in London, UK. She wrote a string of elegant and witty novels, including The Crime at Black Dudley (1928), The Tiger in the Smoke (1952), and The China Governess (1963). Margery Louise Allingham (1904 - June 30, 1966) was a writer born in Ealing in London, England who produced many novels, short stories, and…

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Margery (Winifred) Williams - Early life and writing philosophy

Writer, born in London, UK. She went to the USA in 1890, attended schools in Pennsylvania, married, spent many years travelling between England, Paris, and Italy, and then settled in New York City (1921). She wrote many books for adults (using her married name) and children, notably The Velveteen Rabbit; or How Toys Become Real (1922) and Poor Cecco (1925). Margery Williams Bianco (July 22,…

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Margery Kempe - Early life, Her vision and its impact, Kempe's significance

Writer of one of the earliest autobiographies in English, the daughter of a Mayor of Lynn. She was the wife of a burgess in Lynn and the mother of 14 children. After a period of insanity she experienced a conversion, and undertook numerous pilgrimages. Between 1432 and 1436 she dictated her spiritual autobiography, The Book of Margery Kempe, which recounts her persecution by devils and men, repeat…

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Marghanita Laski - Works

Novelist and critic, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK, the niece of Harold Laski. She studied at Oxford, and her first novel, Love on the Supertax, appeared in 1944. She wrote extensively for newspapers and reviews, and published a number of critical works. Her later novels include Little Boy Lost (1949) and The Victorian Chaise-longue (1953). …

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marginal cost - Cost functions and relationship to average cost, Short and long run costs and economies of scale

In economics, the cost of producing one extra unit, or the total cost saved if one less unit is produced. In accountancy, it is the variable cost of producing a unit. Marginal costing is a system where only variable costs (ie costs which vary directly with the volume made or sold, such as materials) are related to the unit. Fixed costs (ie those remaining unchanged whatever the volume, such as ren…

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Margot Fonteyn - Early life, Dancing with Rudolf Nureyev and others, Relationships, Legacy, Quotes

Ballerina, born in Reigate, Surrey, SE England, UK. She joined the Sadler's Wells Ballet (later the Royal Ballet) in 1934, where she made her first solo appearance in The Haunted Ballroom, and became one of the greatest ballerinas of the 20th-c, both in classic roles and in creating new roles for Ashton. A new partnership with Nureyev in the 1960s extended her performing career. She married Robert…

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Marguerite Duras - Bibliography, Filmography as director, Further reading

Novelist, playwright, and film director, born in Gia Dinh, Vietnam. She was educated in Indo-China, went to France in 1932, studied law and politics at the Sorbonne, and entered the ministry for the colonies (1935–41). She gained success with her third novel, Un Barrage contre le Pacifique (1950, trans The Sea Wall), followed by Le Marin de Gibraltar (1952, The Sailor from Gibraltar), and Moderat…

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Marguerite Guggenheim

Art collector and patron, born in New York City, USA, the niece of Solomon R Guggenheim. She studied at the Jacobi School, New York City (1915), became a radical bohemian, and settled in Paris soon after the end of World War 1. She married young, was divorced (1930), then married Max Ernst (1941). She opened a modern art gallery in England, the Guggenheim Jeune (1938), where she exhibited and coll…

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Marguerite Higgins

Journalist, born in Hong Kong, China. An intrepid and resourceful war correspondent, she covered the Seventh Army in Europe during 1944 and won a Pulitzer Prize for her Korean War coverage. Later a correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune, she contracted a fatal tropical disease while visiting Southeast Asia in 1965. Her Our Vietnam Nightmare (1965) criticized the US role in the fall of the D…

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Marguerite Yourcenar - Works

Novelist and poet, born in Brussels, Belgium. Educated at home in a wealthy and cultured household, she travelled widely, and wrote a series of distinguished novels, plays, poems, and essays. Her novels, many of them historical reconstructions, include Les Mémoires d'Hadrien (1951, Memoirs of Hadrian) and L'oeuvre au noir (1968, trans The Abyss). She emigrated to the USA in 1939, was granted dual…

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Mari Sandoz - Early life and education, Early writings, Later life and works, Awards

Writer and historian, born in Sheridan Co, Nebraska, USA. The daughter of Swiss emigrants, she grew up on the family ranch, and lost the use of an eye due to snow-blindness when 15. After completing the eighth grade, she skipped high school and became a teacher. She briefly attended a business school and studied intermittently at the University of Nebraska (1922–31). She researched the history of…

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Maria (Ester Audion) Bueno - Grand Slam singles tournament timeline

Tennis player, born in São Paulo, SE Brazil. She won Wimbledon in 1959, 1960, and 1964, and was US champion on four occasions. With the American Darlene Hard (1936– ), she won the Wimbledon doubles title five times and the US doubles four times. Ill health brought her retirement from top-class tennis at the relatively early age of 29. A = did not participate in the tournament. …

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Maria (Louise) Ewing

Mezzo-soprano, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. She studied at the Cleveland Institute of Music, giving her first public performance in Meadowbrook in Rigoletto (1968). In 1976 she made debuts at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, and La Scala, Milan. Her major roles include Carmen, Lady Macbeth, Salomé, and La Périchole. Maria Ewing (born March 27, 1950) in Detroit, Michigan is an Am…

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Maria (Meneghini) Callas - Biography, Artistry, The Callas—Tebaldi Controversy, Vocal Decline, Later career, Final Years, As They Saw Her

Soprano, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied voice in Athens and made her operatic debut there in 1938. Her European career blossomed in the late 1940s, and from then until her retirement from the stage (1965) she was celebrated less for a glorious voice than for her electrifying dramatic gifts, as seen in roles such as Medea and Norma. She was equally known for her dramatic temperam…

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Maria Anna Elisa Bacciochi - Crowns held by the family, The family tree, Current descendants

Eldest of the sisters of Napoleon, born in Ajaccio, Corsica. She married Felice Bacciochi, and was created a princess by her brother in 1805, and made Grand Duchess of Tuscany in 1809. Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonapart…

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Maria Edgeworth - Partial list of published works

Writer, born in Blackbourton, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. Her work influenced Walter Scott, whom she visited on several occasions. She is best known for her children's stories, and her novels of Irish life, such as Castle Rackrent (1800) and The Absentee (1812). Maria Edgeworth (January 1, 1767-May 22, 1849) was an Anglo-Irish novelist. Maria Edgeworth was born at Black Bourton…

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Maria Gaetana Agnesi

Mathematician and scholar, born in Milan, N Italy. The daughter of a professor of mathematics at Bologna, she was a child prodigy, speaking six languages by the age of 11. She took her father's place as professor of mathematics at Bologna in 1750, and her mathematical textbook Istituzioni analitiche (1784) became famous throughout Italy. A curve, the witch of Agnesi, is named after her. Mar…

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Maria Irene Fornes

Playwright and director, born in Havana, Cuba. After attending the public schools in Havana, she emigrated to the USA (1945). In 1954 she went off to Europe to be a painter, then returned to New York City (1957) to work as a textile designer. By the early 1960s she had turned to writing experimental plays and musicals and began to get them produced off Broadway, often under her own direction. Her …

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Maria Martinez - Discovery, Challenges and Experiments, Encouragement, Description of Black Ware Pottery, The Process, Decorations, Signatures, Accomplishments

Potter born in San Idelfonso Pueblo, New Mexico, USA. Together with husband Julian Martinez, she rediscovered the technique of ancient Pueblo black pottery. After Julian's death (1943), she continued to produce these traditional wares alone and with her family. Invited to the White House by four presidents, and the recipient of two honorary doctorates, she was asked to lay the cornerstone for Rock…

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Maria Mitchell - Early years, Comet discovery, Career, Efforts, Legacy

Astronomer, born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, USA. The daughter of an amateur astronomer, she grew up with a love of mathematics and practical experience in astronomical observations. In 1836 she became librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum, and her 20 years there would provide the intellectual stimulus in lieu of a college education. She continued to help her father make observations of stars, work…

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Maria Monk - The Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk, excerpt, An atmosphere of anti-Catholic sensationalism

Impostor, born in Quebec, SE Canada. She pretended in 1835 to have escaped from cruel treatment in a nunnery at Montreal, and published Awful Disclosures by Maria Monk (1836) and Further Disclosures (1837), before being exposed as a fake. Maria Monk (27 June 1816 – summer of 1839) was a Canadian woman who claimed to have been a nun who had been sexually exploited in her convent. …

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Maria Montessori - Pedagogy, Trivia

Physician and educationist, born in Rome, Italy. She studied at Rome, where she was the first woman in Italy to graduate in medicine. Later, she joined the psychiatric clinic, and became interested in the problems of mentally handicapped children. She opened her first ‘children's house’ in 1907, developing a system of education for children of three to six, based on freedom of movement, the prov…

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Maria Sharapova - Grand Slam singles finals, WTA Tour Championships singles finals, WTA Tour titles (18)

Tennis player, born in Nyagan, Siberia, Russia. She began playing tennis as a young child, and at age nine was taken by her father to Florida, USA, where she enrolled at a tennis academy. She turned professional at 14, claimed her first WTA victory at the 2003 AIG Japan Open, and also that year reached the fourth round at Wimbledon on her first attempt. Success came in 2004 when she won the single…

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Maria Tallchief - Pictures

Ballet dancer, teacher, and artistic director, born the daughter of a chief of the Osage tribe in Fairfax, Oklahoma, USA. Raised in Los Angeles, she studied with Ernest Belcher and Bronislava Nijinska. Touring with the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo (1942–7), she met the choreographer George Balanchine; they married in 1946 but separated in 1951, and in 1948 she joined his newly founded New York Cit…

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Marian Anderson

Contralto concert and opera singer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. She grew up singing in a church choir, and at age 19 began formal study. In 1925 she won a major vocal competition in New York City that gained her a career as a recitalist, but was always constricted by the limitations placed on African-American artists. After a Carnegie Hall recital (1929), she spent some years travelli…

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Marian McPartland

Jazz musician, born in Windsor, S England, UK. A versatile pianist, she moved to the USA (1945) and led a trio from 1951. In 1973 she began a parallel career as the host of jazz radio programmes. Marian McPartland, born Margaret Marian Turner on March 21, 1918 in England near Slough, Buckinghamshire, is a British jazz pianist. She was a musical prodigy from the time she could si…

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Mariana Islands - Description, History, Ecclesiastical history, Sources and references

(USA Formal Dependencies) Located in N Pacific Ocean, area 471 km²/182 sq mi; limestone southern islands, volcanic northern islands; capital Saipan; population total (2000e) 72 000; tropical marine climate; part of UN Trust Territory of the Pacific, 1947–78; became a self-governing US Commonwealth Territory, 1978–90; trusteeship ended, 1990. The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up…

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Mariana Van Rensselaer

Art critic, born in New York City, New York, USA. She was educated privately and travelled extensively in Germany. She married (1873), lived in New Brunswick, NJ, and returned to New York City after her husband's death (1884). She published many books on art and architecture, including the first work on a contemporary American architect, Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works (1888). Her best-known…

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Marianne (Craig) Moore - Life, Poetic career, Edsel consulting, Later years

Poet, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. She studied at Bryn Mawr College, PA, and taught at Carlisle Commercial College before becoming a branch librarian in New York City (1921–5). She contributed to The Egoist from 1915, and edited The Dial from 1926 until its demise in 1929. She was acquainted with such seminal Modernists as Pound and T S Eliot, and associated with the Greenwich Village group, …

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Marianne North - Reference

British flower painter. At the age of 40, after the death of her father, she set off to paint colourful and exotic flowers in many countries. Encouraged by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, she gave her valuable collection to Kew Gardens, where they can be seen in a gallery, opened in 1882, which bears her name. Marianne North (October 24, 1830 - August 30, 1890), English naturalist and flower-pain…

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Mariano Rumor

Italian politician and prime minister (1968–70), born in Vicenza, Veneto, NE Italy. He was a Christian Democrat deputy from 1948 and twice leader of the party (1958–9, 1964–9). A prominent member of the ‘dorotea’ faction, he held various ministerial posts between 1968 and 1974. Mariano Rumor (June 16, 1915 – 22 January 1990) was an Italian politician, a member of the Democrazia Crist…

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Marianus Scotus

Chronicler, born in Ireland. Banished from Ireland for breaking monastic rules, he entered a Benedictine monastery at Cologne (1052–8), was ordained priest in 1059, and became a recluse at Fulda and at Mainz. He wrote Chronicon Universale, the story of the world from the Creation to 1082. Marianus Scotus (1028-1082 or 1083), chronicler (who must be distinguished from his namesake Marianus …

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mariculture

The cultivation of marine fish, shellfish, and algae; distinguished from aquaculture, which includes both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Mariculture operations range from small subsistence ‘farms’ to large commercial enterprises. Practices vary from raising fish, shellfish, and algae in protected enclosures to releasing salmon from hatcheries in the hope of catching them years later when th…

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Marie (Charlotte Carmichael) Stopes - Early work, Work in family planning, Other interests, Personal life, The modern Marie Stopes International organisation

Pioneer advocate of birth control, suffragette, and palaeontologist, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. She studied at London and Munich, and became the first female science lecturer at Manchester (1904). Alarmed at the unscientific way in which men and women embarked upon married life, she wrote a number of books on the subject, of which Married Love (1918), in which birth control is mentioned, …

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Marie Antoinette (Jos - Childhood, Life as dauphine, Coronation and reign, Motherhood, The affair of the necklace

Queen of France, born in Vienna, Austria, the daughter of Maria Theresa and Francis I. She was married to the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XVI (1770), to strengthen the Franco-Austrian alliance, and exerted a growing influence over him. Capricious and frivolous, she aroused criticism by her extravagance, disregard for conventions, devotion to the interests of Austria, and opposition to reform. From t…

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Marie Corelli - References, Bibliography, Quotations about Marie Corelli

Novelist, born in London, UK. She trained for a musical career, but then became a writer of romantic melodramas which proved to be extremely popular, such as A Romance of Two Worlds (1886), Barabbas (1893), and The Sorrows of Satan (1895). Marie Corelli (May 1, 1855 - April 21, 1924), was a British novelist. Born Mary Mackay in London, she was the illegitimate daughter of a well…

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Marie Curie

Physicist, born in Warsaw, Poland, who worked in Paris with her French husband Pierre Curie (1859–1906) on magnetism and radioactivity. She emigrated to France in 1891, and studied at the Sorbonne where she met and married Pierre Curie (1895), who became professor of physics there in 1901. Together they discovered and isolated polonium and radium in 1898. Pierre and his brother, Jacques Curie, di…

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Marie de France

Poet, born in Normandy, NW France. She spent much of her life in England, where she wrote several verse narratives based on Celtic stories. Her Lais, dedicated to ‘a noble king’ (probably Henry II), were a landmark in French literature. Marie de France ("Mary of France") was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. Although scholars do not know t…

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Marie Dressler - Partial filmography

Stage and film actress, born in Cobourg, Ontario, SE Canada. This versatile comic actress began her career at 14 with a touring theatrical company, and for many years performed in vaudeville, plays, and musical productions, enjoying her greatest success with the song, ‘Heaven will protect the working girl’. In 1910, she began a film career that went from Mack Sennett comedies - including Tillie'…

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Marie Laurencin

Painter, born in Paris, France. She studied art with Georges Braque in Paris, became a close companion of Apollinaire, and also associated with the Cubists. She exhibited in the Salon des Indépendents in 1907. Her most famous works are delicate watercolours of female subjects. She also illustrated many books with water colours and lithographs, and designed the stage decor for the Ballets Russes (…

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Marie Lloyd - Selected Songs

Music-hall singer and entertainer, born in London, UK. She made her first appearance at the Royal Eagle Music Hall (later The Grecian) in 1885. Her first great success was with a song called ‘The Boy I Love Sits Up in the Gallery’, and she became one of the most popular music-hall performers of all time, appearing in music halls in America, South Africa, and Australia. Among her most famous song…

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Marie Tussaud

Modeller in wax, born in Strasbourg, NE France. She was apprenticed to her uncle, Dr Curtius, in Paris, and inherited his wax museums after his death. After the Revolution, she attended the guillotine to take death masks from the severed heads. She toured Britain with her life-size portrait waxworks, and in 1835 set up a permanent exhibition in Baker St, London. It was burnt down in 1925, and re-o…

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Mariehamn - Sister cities

60º06N 19º57E, pop (2001e) 10 000. Chief port and capital of the autonomous province of Åland, Åland Is, SW Finland; in the Baltic Sea, W of Helsinki; founded, 1861; the islands retain their own culture and traditions; inhabitants are mostly Swedish speaking and make their living by shipping, farming, fishing, tourism; ferries to Turku and Stockholm; a developing resort. Mariehamn (Ma…

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Marilyn (Bernice) Horne - Recordings

Mezzo-soprano opera singer, born in Bradford, Pennsylvania, USA. She studied at the University of Southern California, and made her opera debut in The Bartered Bride in Los Angeles in 1954. She is noted for her efforts to revive interest in the lesser-known operas of Rossini and Handel. The American opera singer Marilyn Horne (born January 16, 1934) is a mezzo soprano who is particularly as…

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Marilyn French - Selected bibliography

Novelist and writer, born in New York City, USA. She studied at Hofstra College, then lectured there and at Harvard. She is best known for her first novel The Woman's Room (1977), hailed as a pioneering feminist text for its angry study of the continuing subjection of women. The book has sold over 20 million copies worldwide. Later novels include Her Mother's Daughter (1992), Our Father (1994), an…

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Marilyn Monroe - Career, Marriages, Death and aftermath, Trivia, Filmography, Awards and nominations, Music by Monroe, Music on Monroe

Film actress, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. For most of her childhood and teenage years she was in foster homes or an orphanage because her father abandoned her, while her mother, Gladys Monroe Baker, had to work and then was in a mental hospital. (Norma Jean grew up using her mother's last name, Baker, and at age 16 discovered that her father was probably not Mortenson.) In 1942 she marri…

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marimba - The modern instrument, The folk instrument, Mallets, Mallet technique

In modern orchestras and pop groups, a percussion instrument resembling a xylophone, with slender wooden bars and metal resonators, but with a lower compass and played with soft beaters. The concert marimba is pitched an octave lower than its cousin, the xylophone. Both xylophone and marimba bars are usually made of rosewood, but presently, synthetic substitutions are becoming more an…

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Marin Marais - References in Film

French composer, the great figure of the basse de viole. In the king's service from his early years, he studied with Sainte-Colombe, to whom he dedicated a ‘tombeau’. He became a member of the Royal Orchestra in 1676, the year of his marriage (he had 19 children), then ordinaire de la Chambre du Roi for the viole in 1679. Among his works are four operas, including Alcide (in collaboration with L…

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Marin Mersenne - Life, Work, Bibliography

Mathematician, philosopher, and scientist, born in Oize, N France. He became a Minim Friar in 1611, and lived in Paris. Devoting himself to science, he corresponded with all the leading scientists of his day, including Descartes, Fermat, Pascal, and Hobbes, acting as a clearing house for scientific information. He taught philosophy at Nevers (1614–18), and after settling in Paris (1619) he carrie…

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Marina (Sarah) Warner

Novelist and cultural historian, born in London, UK. She studied at Oxford University, and became best-known for her work on female cultural history, such as Alone of All Her Sex (1976) and Monuments and Maidens (1986). No Go the Bogeymen: Scaring, Lulling, and Making Mock (1999) considers the enduring presence and popularity of figures of male terror. Her novels include In a Dark Wood (1977), The…

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Marino Faliero

Venetian politician, born in Venice, Veneto, NE Italy. A scion of a family that had already produced two doges; he became doge himself in 1354, succeeding Andrea Dandolo, and was defeated by Genoa at Portolungo in 1354. Accused by the aristocracy of plotting to install himself as absolute ruler, he was condemned to be beheaded. His story inspired a number of writers, among them Byron and Swinburne…

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Mario (Andrew) Pei

Linguist, born in Rome, Italy. He moved to the USA as a child, and later studied languages at Columbia University. A gifted linguist, he joined the university in 1937, and became professor of Romance philology (1952–70). His books include Languages for War and Peace (1943) and a Dictionary of Linguistics (1954). Several of his introductory books, such as The Story of English (1952), were successf…

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Mario (Gabriele) Andretti - Complete F1 Results, Indy 500 results

Motor-racing driver, born in Montona, NE Italy (now part of Slovenia). After spending over three years in a displaced persons camp after World War 2, he went to the USA with his family at age 15, and became a US citizen in 1959. He started out in midget car racing, then progressed to the US Automobile Club circuit, winning the national driving championship in 1965–6, and emerging as one of motor …

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Mario (Matthew) Cuomo - Early life, Political career, Views, Personal life

US governor, born in Queens Co, New York, USA. The son of Italian immigrants, he was an excellent athlete and student, and played minor-league baseball before going to law school (1956). He first gained public recognition when he represented community groups in New York City during the 1960s. Entering politics, he became the secretary of state (1975–9), lieutenant governor (1979–83), and finally…

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Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco

Composer, born in Florence, NC Italy. He studied under Pizzetti, began composing as a boy, and in 1926 brought out his opera La Mandragola, based on Machiavelli's book. In addition to two other operas, he produced orchestral and instrumental works, but is probably best known for his songs, especially his complete series of the lyrics from Shakespeare's plays. Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (Apri…

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