Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 47

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Louis Malle - Filmography

Film director, born in Thumeries, N France. He studied political science at the Jesuit College, Fontainebleau, and the Sorbonne, after which he entered the Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinématographiques (1950). His first feature film was Ascenseur pour l'échafaud (1957, trans Frantic) for which he won the Prix Delluc. The success of his second film Les Amants (1958, The Lovers) brought recognitio…

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Louis Marie Julien Viaud - Biography, Works, Bibliography, Reference

Writer and French naval officer, born in Rochefort, W France. He entered the navy in 1869, and served in the East, retiring as captain in 1910. His first novel, Aziyadé (1879), quickly gained the respect of critics and public alike. He continued to write throughout his naval career, using experiences and observations on his voyages as source material for his books. His best-known novel is Pêcheu…

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Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Biography, Works

Composer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. A keyboard prodigy, he was sent at 13 to study in Paris, where his playing and his compositions were widely admired. He was among the first Americans to feature nationalistic elements in his music, such as the piano piece Bamboula (1845), based on a New Orleans slave dance. Highly successful in Europe, he returned to the USA in 1853, and made several …

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Louis Nicolas Davout - Biography

French soldier, born in Annoux, EC France. He was educated with Napoleon at the military school of Brienne. As general, he accompanied Napoleon to the East, and mainly secured the victory at Aboukir (1799). A marshal of the empire (1804), he fought at Austerlitz (1805), Auerstädt (1806), Eckmühl (1809), Wagram (1809), and in the Russian campaign (1812–13), and was created Duke of Auerstädt (18…

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Louis of Nassau - Battle of Heiligerlee, Battle of Jemmingen, Mons, Battle of Mookerheyde

Dutch soldier, born in Dillenburg, WC Germany, the third son of William the Rich and Juliana of Stolberg, and brother of William I of Orange. In 1557–9 he fought the French under Egmont and his brother William. As a Lutheran he represented the non-Calvinist interest in the Compromise. On Alva's arrival in The Netherlands he fled to Germany with Orange. He was very active in the Eighty Years' War,…

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Louis Pasteur - Biography, Work on chirality and the polarization of light, Germ theory, Immunology and Vaccination

Chemist and microbiologist, born in Dôle, E France. He studied at Besançon and Paris universities, and held academic posts at Strasbourg, Lille, and Paris, where in 1867 he became professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne. He established that putrefaction and fermentation were caused by micro-organisms, thus providing an impetus to microbiology and leading to his ‘pasteurization’ process for milk…

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Louis Paul Boon

Flemish novelist and journalist, born in Aalst, NC Belgium. He published his first novel De voorstad groeit (The Suburb Grows) in 1942, and after World War 2 worked as an editor for various communist and socialist papers. His masterpiece, a series of two Modernist novels, De kapellekensbaan (1953, Chapel Road) and Zomer te Ter-Muren (1956, Summer in Ter-Muren), is exemplary for his social commitme…

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Louis Pergaud - Works, Death, Adaptations of his works

Novelist, born in Belmont, S France. At first a teacher, he left to become an editor in the administration of the Beaux Arts in the city of Paris. He published some poetry, including De Goupil à Margot, Histoire de Bêtes (1910), the second volume of which won him the Prix Goncourt, but he is best known for the novel La Guerre des Boutons (1912), later filmed. He was killed in action in World War…

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Louis Raemaekers

Political cartoonist and artist, born in Roermond, SE Netherlands. He started painting landscapes and portraits, then in 1907 his first political cartoons appeared. He joined the Telegraaf in 1909, and attained worldwide fame by 1915 with his striking anti-German war cartoons. Louis Raemaekers (April 6, 1869 in Roermond - July 26, 1956 in Scheveningen) was a Dutch painter and cartoonist for…

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Louis Riel - Early life, Red River Rebellion, The intervening years, The North-West Rebellion, Legacy

Canadian political leader, born in Red River Settlement, Rupert's Land, Canada. He succeeded his father as a leader of the Métis, and headed the Red River Rebellion in 1869–70. As president of the provisional government, he was able to secure better terms for the new province of Manitoba in the Confederation. Following a period of exile in the USA, he returned to lead a second uprising of Métis…

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Louis Spohr - Life, Works

Composer, violinist, and conductor, born in Brunswick, NC Germany. Largely self-taught, he became court conductor at Kassel (1822–57), and is remembered chiefly as a composer for the violin, for which he wrote 17 concertos. He also composed nine symphonies, 11 operas, and other choral and chamber works. Louis Spohr (Braunschweig, April 5, 1784–Kassel, October 22, 1859) was a German compo…

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Louis Stokes

US representative, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. An army veteran and lawyer from Cleveland, he served in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, 1963), becoming chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence in 1989. Born in Cleveland, Stokes and his brother Carl B. Stokes, lived in one of the first federally funded housing projects the Outhwaite Homes. Stokes served in the U.S. Army f…

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Louis Vierne - Life, Compositions, Discography

Organist and composer, born in Poitiers, W France. He studied at L'Institut des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris (1880–90) and was influenced by Franck and Widor, whom he succeeded at Saint-Sulpice and at the Conservatoire, where he obtained the Prix d'Orgue in 1884. Organist par concours at Notre Dame de Paris, he took up this instrument again after the War on his return to Switzerland, but his style me…

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Louis William (Valentine) Dubourg

Missionary bishop, born in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. After studying and teaching in France, where he was ordained a Sulpician (1788), he went to the USA (1794) where he became president of Georgetown College (1796–9) and superior of the Sisters of Charity. As Bishop of Louisiana (from 1815) he played a key role in the infancy of American Catholicism. He returned to France in 1826. …

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Louis Zukofsky - Politics, Zukofsky the Objectivist, "A", Shorter poems and other writings, Late revival

Poet, born in New York City, USA. A leading experimentalist after Pound, his poems first appeared in An Objectivist Anthology (1932). Later works, which experimented with sound and typography, included All: the Collected Short Poems (1965, 1967). He published an autobiography in 1970. Louis Zukofsky (January 23, 1904 - May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American m…

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Louisa (Catherine) Adams - Further reading

US first lady (1825–9), born in London, UK. The daughter of a Maryland merchant and an English mother, she met the young John Quincy Adams in London in 1795 when her father was the first US consul; they were married in 1797. Renowned for her beauty, she stayed by her husband as he pursued his career in Europe and Washington, but often suffered from illness. In 1840 she began a memoir, The Adventu…

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Louisa Lawson

Suffragist and social reformer, born in Mudgee, New South Wales, SE Australia, and educated to primary level there. She married Norwegian immigrant Niels Larsen (who later anglicized his name) and lived on many New South Wales goldfields throughout their marriage. They separated after 17 years together, and she moved to Sydney, surrounding herself with radical thinkers and social reformers. In 188…

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Louisa May Alcott - Childhood and Early Works, Literary Success and Later Life, Selected works, Reference

Writer, born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, USA. She was taught by her father, Amos Bronson Alcott, until 1848, and studied informally with family friends such as Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Theodore Parker. Residing in Boston and Concord, MD, she worked as a domestic servant, a teacher, and at other jobs to help support her family (1850–62), and during the Civil War she went to W…

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Louise Bogan - Life, Education, Mental Illness, Bogan's Poetry and Awards, Her Poetic Form

Poet and writer, born in Livermore Falls, Maine, USA. She studied at Boston University (1915–16), moved to New York City, and served as poetry editor of The New Yorker (1931–69). She was an influential critic, as in Achievement in American Poetry 1900–1950 (1951), and a noted lyrical poet, as in The Blue Estuaries (1968). Louise Bogan (August 11, 1897 - 1970) was an American poet who fel…

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Louise Bourgeois - See also, Reference, Books

Painter and sculptor, born in Paris, France, into a family of tapestry restorers. She studied mathematics at the Sorbonne, then art at the École du Louvre, the Académie des Beaux-Arts, and the studio of Léger. She married Robert Goldwater and moved to the USA in 1938, and from 1940 onwards produced works made of materials including fabric, plaster, latex, bone, rubber, and metal. Through these …

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Louise Brooks - Early life, Move to Hollywood, Beggars of Life, European interlude, Life after film, Rediscovery

Film actress, born in Cherryvale, Kansas, USA. She began as a professional dancer with the Ruth St Denis company in 1921. After working on Broadway, she went to Hollywood, where her striking good looks cast her image as a lightweight, but she emerged as a talented actress in such films as A Girl in Every Port (1928). Still dissatisfied with the roles she was offered, she went to Germany, where she…

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Louise Colet - Writings of Louise Colet

Poet, born in Aix-en-Provence, SE France. The daughter of a businessman, she married a musician, Hippolyte Colet, in 1834. A friend of Madame Récamier, she continued holding her salon after the latter's death, where she met Gustave Flaubert, with whom she began an eight-year liaison. After their estrangement she published a bitter novel, Lui (1859), which caused a sensation. Her poetry included L…

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Louise Homer

Contralto, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Trained in America and France, she sang opera at the Metropolitan and internationally to great acclaim, pursuing a concert career after 1927. The surname Beatty can refer to: …

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Louise Pound - Early life, Professional Life, Personal, Books Authored by Louise Pound

Linguist, folklorist, and athlete, born in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The sister of Roscoe Pound, she was educated by her mother at home, then entered the University of Nebraska, where she received a BL in music (1892) and an AM in English (1895). During this time she also became the women's state and regional tennis champion and she won a men's varsity letter in tennis at the university. She obtaine…

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Louise Talma

Composer, born in Arachon, France. She studied in New York and with Nadia Boulanger in France and taught at Hunter College (1946–76). Her music is typically Neoclassical, later mixed with serialism, but always personal. She has been called ‘the dean of women composers’, and her works include the opera Alcestiad (1955–6), based on a Thornton Wilder text. She began composing in a spare ne…

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Louise-Victorine Ackermann

Poet, born in Paris, France. She was educated by her father and went on to study German in Berlin (1843), where she met and married Paul Ackermann, a philologist. On his death in 1845 she went to live with her sister in Nice where she wrote Contes en Vers (1855) and Contes et poésies, poésies philosophiques (1874), which powerfully express a deep sense of pessimism and outrage at human suffering…

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Louisiade Archipelago - Louisiade Archipelago rain forests

pop (2000e) 25 000; area 1550 km²/600 sq mi. Mountainous island group in Papua New Guinea, SE of New Guinea; comprises the islands of Tacuta, Rossel, and Misima, with numerous other small islands and coral reefs; named in 1768 after Louis XIV of France; gold has been worked on Tacuta. The Louisiade Archipelago is a string of ten volcanic islands and coral reefs located just southeast …

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Louisiana

pop (2000e) 4 469 000; area 123 673 km²/47 752 sq mi. State in S USA, divided into 64 parishes (the only state to use this term for its counties); the ‘Pelican State’; name (after Louis XIV of France) originally applied to the entire Mississippi R basin, claimed for France by La Salle, 1682; most of the E region ceded to Spain in 1763, then to the USA in 1783; W region acquired by the U…

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Louisiana Purchase - Background, Negotiation, Domestic opposition, Treaty signing, Conflict with Spain, Boundaries

(1803) The sale by France to the USA of an area between the Mississippi R and the Rocky Mts for $15 000 000. The purchase gave the USA full control of the Mississippi Valley. The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of more than 530,000,000 acres (828,000 mi² or 2,100,000 km²) of territory from France in 1803, at the cost of about 3 cents per acre (7¢ per h…

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Louisine Waldron Havemeyer - People, Places, Nature, Fiction

Art collector and suffragist, born in New York City, New York, USA. The daughter of a wealthy sugar refiner, she studied in Paris (1873), met Mary Cassatt there, and began to purchase works by the Impressionists. In 1883 she married Henry Havemeyer, who also made a fortune in sugar, and they lived a luxurious life in New York City. She and her husband became discerning collectors of art, travellin…

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Lourdes - The sanctuary of Lourdes, Hospitalité Notre-Dame de Lourdes

43°06N 0°00W, pop (2000e) 17 400. Town and important site of Roman Catholic pilgrimage in Hautes-Pyrénées department, S France; Bernadette Soubirous was led by a vision of the Virgin Mary to the springs at the Grotte de Massabielle in 1858; scene of many reputed miraculous cures; Basilica of the Rosary (1885–9), Church of St-Pie-X (completed, 1958). The famous town of Lourdes is situ…

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louse

A secondarily wingless insect, parasitic on warm-blooded vertebrates. Sucking lice (Order: Anoplura) suck blood of mammals; length up to 6 mm/¼ in; bodies flattened, legs with claws for attaching to host; eyes reduced or absent; c.300 species. They include two varieties of human louse: head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), both transmitted by direct co…

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Louvre - Construction and architecture, Access, Management, Collections, References in popular culture

The national museum of art in Paris, France, and one of the finest art collections in the world. Built for Francis I in 1546, the Louvre was added to by successive French monarchs. The Grande Galerie of the Louvre was officially opened to the public in 1793. The Louvre Museum (French: Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest, oldest, most important and famous art galleries …

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lovage

A strong-smelling perennial (Levisticum officinale) growing to 2·5 m/8 ft, native to Iran; leaves divided into large oval coarsely toothed leaflets; flowers small, greenish-yellow, in umbels up to 10 cm/4 in across; fruit ellipsoid with narrowly winged ribs. It is often cultivated and used for flavouring. (Family: Umbelliferae.) …

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lovebird - Agapornis as pets

A small parrot native to Africa and Madagascar; inhabits woodland, brush, and open country; eats seeds and berries; forms large flocks; female sometimes larger than male; a popular cagebird. They preen one another, hence the name, which is also used for the budgerigar. (Genus: Agapornis, nine species. Family: Psittacidae.) A lovebird (genus Agapornis, Greek for "lovebird") is a very social …

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L

45º49N 10º04E. Town in Lombardy, N Italy, on the shore of L Iseo; rocks known as ‘St John's Horns’ on Monte Cala hill are popular with rock climbers; birthplace of Giacomo Agostini; tourism. …

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Lovis Corinth - Biography

Painter, born in Tapiau, Germany. He studied at Königsberg, Munich, and in Paris. From conventional nude, landscape painting, and especially portraiture, his style became markedly Impressionistic, while later work verged on Expressionism. From 1900 he lived in Berlin, and with Max Liebermann and Slevogt led the secession movement against the Berlin academic school, becoming its president in 1915.…

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Low Countries

A term used to refer to The Netherlands and Belgium. It derives its name from the low-lying coastal plain of both countries. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. In 1713, under the Treaty of Utrecht following the War of the Spanish Succession, what was left…

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low Earth orbit (LEO)

A spacecraft orbit about the Earth typically used for manned missions and for Earth remote-sensing missions; the minimum altitude above the surface is c.200 km/125 mi to minimize drag effects of the Earth's atmosphere. The inclination of orbit is chosen to allow the ground track of the spacecraft to pass over regions of interest; polar inclination orbits are needed for complete global coverage. …

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Lowell (Jackson) Thomas - Lawrence of Arabia, Later career, Lowell Thomas Award, Books

News commentator and writer, born in Woodington, Ohio, USA. After earning two MAs (University of Denver, and Princeton), and working as a reporter and teacher, he took a trip to Alaska (1915). His resultant travelogue led President Woodrow Wilson to commission him to film and record ongoing World War 1 events, which led to his contacts with Colonel T E Lawrence in the Middle East and eventually to…

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Lowell Mason - Life, Assessment, Other, Books

Composer and educator, born in Medfield, Massachusetts, USA. He had been a church organist and choir director when he published a successful hymn collection (1822), some of its melodies adopted from classical composers. In 1832 he co-founded the Boston Academy of Music, which gave instruction to adults and children. A pedagogue of great influence and importance for American music, he remained a pr…

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Lowestoft - Geography, History, Lowestoft porcelain, Lowestoft Air Festival, Wind turbine, Literary and artistic connections, Places of interest

52°29N 1°45E, pop (2000e) 65 800. Port town and resort in Suffolk, E England, UK; on North Sea, 62 km/38 mi NE of Ipswich; Lowestoft Ness the most E point in England; railway; transport equipment, fishing and fish processing, radar and electrical equipment, yachting, tourism; Royal Naval Patrol Service Memorial.emorial. Lowestoft is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England, lying betwe…

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Loyalty Islands

pop (2000e) 22 000; area 1981 km²/765 sq mi. Group of coral islands in the SW Pacific Ocean, 128 km/79 mi E of New Caledonia, comprising Ouvéa, Lifu, Mare, Tiga, and many small islets; dependency of the Territory of New Caledonia; capital, We (Lifu I); coconuts, sandalwood, copra. The archipelago consists of six inhabited islands: Lifou Island, Maré Island, Tiga Island, Ouvéa Isl…

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Lu Xun - Life, Thought, Works

Writer and revolutionary, born in Shaoxing, E China. He studied as a doctor, but by 1913 was professor of Chinese literature at the National Peking University and National Normal University for Women. In 1926 he became professor at Amoy University, and later dean of the College of Arts and Letters at Yixian University, Canton. His career as an author began with his famous short story, ‘Diary of a…

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Luanda - History, Transportation, Sister Cities

8°50S 13°15E, pop (2000e) 2 460 000. Seaport capital of Angola, on Bay of Bengo, SW Africa; on the R Cuanza estuary 530 km/329 mi SSW of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; founded in 1575; the centre of Portuguese administration from 1627; a major slave trading centre with Brazil in 17th–18th-c; university (1962); airport; railway; oil refining, export of minerals and agricultural pro…

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Lubango - Economy, History, Transport, Interesting facts

14º55S 13º30E, pop (2001e) 73 600. Capital of Huíla province, SW Angola, SW Africa; 260 km/160 mi S of Benguela; at an elevation of 1760 m/5774 ft in a valley of the Huíla plateau surrounded by a scenic park; established (1885) as a settlement for colonists from the Madeira Is; Portuguese style architecture; railway; airfield; cathedral. Coordinates: 14°55′S 13°30′E …

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Lublin - History, Economy, Education, Sports, Famous people, Politics

51°18N 22°31E, pop (2000e) 356 000. Capital of Lublin voivodship, E Poland, on a plateau crossed by the R Bystrzyca; a castle town, gaining urban status in 1317; Poland's first Council of Workers' Delegates formed here, 1918; railway; university (1918); food processing, lorries, agricultural machinery; castle, Kraków Gate, cathedral (16th-c), Brigittine convent, Bernardine monastery. C…

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lubricant - General composition, Types of lubricants, Additives, Application by fluid types, Disposal and environmental issues

A substance used to reduce friction between two surfaces moving in contact with each other. It is most often a liquid, such as a mineral or vegetable oil, but it can be a solid, such as a wax and, importantly, graphite. Some conditions call for special lubricants; for example, molybdenum sulphite is useful at high temperatures. Gases (eg air, helium) can be used, the gas being pumped into the bear…

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Lubumbashi - Geography, Culture and economy

11°40S 27°28E, pop (2000e) 862 500. Capital of Katanga region, SE Democratic Republic of Congo; on R Lualaba, close to the Zambian frontier; founded, 1910; airport; railway; university (1955); copper mining and smelting, food processing; cathedral. Lubumbashi (formerly Elisabethville) is ranked as the second largest city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (capital Kinshasa, formerl…

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Luc Alphand - Palmares

French skier, born in Briançon, SE France. The best French downhill skier in history, he has been eight times French champion since 1983, winner of the World Cup (1995–7), and holds the record for points for downhill skiing in a season (779 points in 1997). In 1997 he won the Globe de Cristal - the best alpine skier of the year. Alphand made his World Cup skiing debut in 1984. In 1997, he…

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Luc Besson - Biography, Controversy, Filmography as director, Videoclips

Film director, born in Paris, France. He worked his way up in film, television, and promotional video before making his first feature film, Le Dernier combat (1983), filmed in monochrome, and virtually dispensing with dialogue. He followed this with Subway (1985), starring Isabelle Adjani and Christophe Lambert, a thriller set largely in the labyrinthine tunnels of the Paris Métro. His film Le Gr…

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Luc Montagnier

French virologist. Working at the Institut Pasteur in Paris in 1983, he discovered a retrovirus he called LAV, suspected of causing AIDS. Robert Gallo, working in the USA, claimed in 1984 that he had discovered the virus earlier, and had named it HTLV-3. The virus is now known as HIV (Human Immune-deficiency Virus), and Montagnier and Gallo are listed as co-discoverers. By 1983, this group …

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Luca Giordano - Early life and training, Court painter in Spain (1692-1702), Late masterpieces in Naples

Painter, born in Naples, SW Italy. He was able to work with extreme rapidity, hence his nickname, and to imitate the great masters. In 1692 he went to Madrid, at the request of Charles II of Spain, to embellish the Escorial. Luca Giordano (October 18, 1634 - January 12, 1705) was an eclectic, peripatetic, and influential Italian late Baroque painter. Born in Naples, he was the s…

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Luca Marenzio - Life, Music, Influence

Composer, born near Brescia, Republic of Venice (modern Italy). He was probably a choirboy at Brescia before becoming a prolific writer of madrigals. He was in service with Cardinal Luigi d'Este of Rome (1578–86), then worked in Florence and Poland, before becoming a musician at the papal court in Rome. Luca Marenzio (also Marentio) (October 18? He was one of the most renowned composers of…

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Luca Signorelli - Biography, Work in Orvieto, Work in Siena, Cortona, Rome, and Arezzo, Major works

Painter, born in Cortona, C Italy. He painted many frescoes at Loreto, Rome, Florence, Siena, Cortona, and Orvieto, where the cathedral contains his greatest work, the frescoes of ‘The Preaching of Anti-Christ’ and ‘The Last Judgment’ (1500–4). He was one of the painters summoned by the Pope in 1508 to adorn the Vatican, and dismissed to make way for Raphael. Luca Signorelli (c.1445 - …

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Lucan

Roman poet, born in Córdoba, S Spain. The nephew of the philosopher Seneca the Younger, he studied in Rome and in Athens, and was recalled to Rome by Emperor Nero, who made him quaestor and augur. In 62 he published the first three books of his epic Pharsalia on the civil war between Pompey and Caesar. After the emperor forbade him to write poetry, he joined the conspiracy of Piso against Nero, b…

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Lucas Cranach - Early life, Career, Cranach's Art, Gallery of Lucas Cranach the Elder's Works

Painter, born in Kronach, EC Germany, from where he took his name. In 1504 he became court painter at Wittenberg to the Elector Frederick. His paintings include sacred and a few classical subjects, hunting scenes, and portraits. He was closely associated with the German Reformers, many of whom (including Luther and Melanchthon) were portrayed by himself and his pupils. A ‘Crucifixion’ in the Sta…

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Lucas van Leyden

Painter and engraver, born in Leyden, W Netherlands. He practised almost every branch of painting, his most notable works including the triptych of ‘The Last Judgement’ (1526) and ‘Blind Man of Jericho Healed by Christ’ (1531). As an engraver he is believed to have been the first to etch on copper rather than iron, and ranks almost with Albrecht Dürer, by whom he was much influenced. L…

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Lucca - Fractions, Main sights

43º50N 10º30E, pop (2001e) 85 000. Capital town of Lucca province, Tuscany, NW Italy; in the Serchio R valley; Roman colony here (c.180 BC); town centre lies within a system of red brick walls; birthplace of Giacomo Puccini; archbishopric; railway; sports stadium; silk, cotton, jute, tobacco, olive oil, pasta, wine; cathedral of St Martin (6th-c) houses a cedar crucifix (the Volto Santo) reput…

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Lucebert - Exhibitions, Awards

Poet and visual artist, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He is generally regarded as the most original and experimental poet of Dutch post-war poetry. At the first exhibition of his visual work in Amsterdam (1948), he was introduced by Kouwenaar to the Movement of Fifty (Vijftigers), and shortly after Lucebert made his debut as a poet in the Reflex literary magazine. A member of the Movement of…

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Lucerne - History, Sights, Events

47°03N 8°18E, pop (2000e) 62 000. Resort capital of Lucerne canton, C Switzerland, on W shore of L Lucerne, 40 km/25 mi SW of Zürich; developed as a trade centre on the St Gotthard route; railway junction; lake steamers; engineering, tourism; Lion Monument, painted footbridge (16th-c), cathedral (17th-c), town hall (17th-c); International Music Festival (Aug–Sep), folk festivals, winter ca…

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lucerne - History, Sights, Events

A bushy perennial (Medicago sativa, subspecies sativa) growing to 90 cm/3 ft; leaves with three leaflets, broadest and toothed towards the tip; pea-flowers purple or blue, in dense spike-like inflorescences; fruit a spiral pod with 1½–3 coils; also called alfalfa. Its origin is unknown, but it is now an important forage crop, widely introduced in temperate regions. (Family: Leguminosae.) …

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Luchino Visconti - Early life, Film career, Personal life, Death, Bibliographies, Further reading

Stage and film director, born in Milan, N Italy. An early interest in music and the theatre led him to stage designing and the production of opera and ballet. A short spell as assistant to Jean Renoir turned his attention to the cinema. His first film, Ossessione (1942, Obsession), took Italy by storm, with its strict realism and concern with social problems. Later films included La terra trema (1…

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Lucia Popp - Recordings

Austrian lyric soprano, born in the Czech Republic. She studied at the music academy in Bratislava, and made her debut there as Queen of the Night in Mozart's Magic Flute (1963). She became the principal soprano with the Vienna State Opera, and made appearances at Salzburg, Covent Garden, London, and the New York Metropolitan Opera. Lucia Popp (Lucia Poppova) (November 12, 1939–November 1…

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Lucian

Rhetorician, born in Samosata, Syria. He practised as an advocate in Antioch, travelling widely in Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, and Gaul. He then settled in Athens, where he devoted himself to philosophy, and produced a new form of literature - humorous dialogue. His satires include Dialogues of the Gods and Dialogues of the Dead. His ironic True History describes a journey to the Moon, and inspired…

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Lucian Freud

Painter, born in Berlin, Germany, the grandson of Sigmund Freud. He moved to Britain in 1933, and studied at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London (1938–9) and the East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing, Dedham. In his early years he was one of the neo-Romantic group of English painters along with Minton, Craxton, Sutherland, and Piper, but since the 1950s he has developed a realis…

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Luciano Berio - Biography, Berio's music, Sequenza, Transcriptions and arrangements, Listening

Composer and teacher of music, born in Oneglia, NW Italy. He studied at the Music Academy in Milan, and founded an electronic studio. He moved to the USA in 1962, taught composition at the Juilliard School, New York City, and returned to Italy in 1972. In 1950 he married the US soprano Cathy Berberian (1925–83), for whom he wrote several works; the marriage was dissolved in 1966. His particular i…

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Luciano Laurana

Architect, born in Dalmatia. Little is known of his early work or training, but he was in Urbino c.1465, and by 1468 had been appointed architect in chief at the Palazzo Ducal of Federico da Montefeltro. The design of the palace courtyard evidenced his familiarity with recent Renaissance masterpieces in the field, particularly Brunelleschi's Foundling Hospital, Florence. He is recognized as one of…

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Luciano Pavarotti - Career, Health crises, Family

Tenor, born in Modena, N Italy. He abandoned a career in school-teaching to become a singer, and won the international competition at the Teatro Reggio Emilia in 1961, making his operatic debut there in La Bohème the same year. He took part in the La Scala tour of Europe in 1963–4, toured Australia with Joan Sutherland in Lucia di Lammermoor in 1965, and made his US debut in 1968. His voice and …

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Lucien Bonaparte

Prince of Canino, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the second surviving brother of Napoleon I. In 1798 he was made a member of the Council of Five Hundred, and just before the 18th Brumaire was elected its president. He was successful as minister of the interior, and as ambassador to Madrid (1800) undermined British influence. He had never wholly shaken off his early strong republicanism, and having deno…

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Lucien Bouchard - Biography, Legacy

Canadian and Québecois statesman, and prime minister of Québec (1996–2001), born in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Lac-Saint-Jean, Québec, SE Canada. Educated in Jonquière and Laval, he practised law before being appointed Canadian ambassador to France (1970–80), entering parliament as a Conservative (1988). He became minister of the environment (1989–90) before resigning from both post and party to…

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Lucile Grahn

Ballerina, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. Making her official debut in 1829, she studied and worked in the Royal Danish Ballet with Auguste Bournonville until 1839. She then gave guest performances throughout Europe. Retiring from dancing in 1856, she was ballet mistress at the Leipzig State Theatre (1858–61) and the Munich Court Opera (1869–75), where she assisted Richard Wagner in the production…

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Lucille (D - Biography, Filmography, Television Work, Radio Work, Miscellaneous, Further reading

Television comedienne and film actress, born in Celaron, New York, USA. Leaving school at age 15 to become a stage actress, her early efforts were unsuccessful and she turned to modeling (as Diane Belmont) which led to her first film role, in Roman Scandals (1934). She appeared in many later films and radio shows, but only gained real success in 1951 when she teamed up with her Cuban-born, bandlea…

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Lucinda Green - Major Accomplishments

Three-day eventer, born in London, UK. She is the only person to win the Badminton Horse Trials six times (1973, 1976–7, 1979, 1983–4), and the Badminton and Burghley Horse Trials in the same year, on George in 1977. She was individual European champion in 1975 and 1977, and the 1982 world champion on Regal Realm, when she also won a team gold medal. She married Australian eventer David Green in…

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Lucio Fontana - Source

Artist, born in Rosario, E Argentina. He was brought up in Milan, studied at the Accademia di Brera (1928–30), and in 1935 signed the First Manifesto of Italian Abstract Artists. He made his name as the inventor of Spazialismo (Spatialism) and as a pioneer of ‘environmental art’. He is best known for his bare or monochrome canvases, holed or slashed to create what he called attese. These in tur…

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Lucius (Morris) Beebe - Relationships, Quotes

Journalist and writer, born in Wakefield, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard University (1927), and then worked as a journalist, notably for the New York Herald Tribune (1929–50), chronicling Manhattan's high society in rococo prose in the syndicated column ‘This New York’. Also an authority on railroads and the West, his books include High Iron (1938), Legends of the Comstock Lode (1950…

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Lucius Annaeus Seneca - Biography, Works, Seneca as a humanist saint

Roman philosopher, statesman, and writer, born in Córdoba, S Spain, the son of Seneca (the Elder). Banished to Corsica (41–9) by Claudius, on a charge of adultery, he was recalled by Agrippina, who entrusted him with the education of her son, Nero. Made consul by Nero in 57, his high moral aims gradually incurred the emperor's displeasure, and he withdrew from public life. Drawn into conspiracy,…

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Lucius Cornelius Cinna

Prominent Roman politician of the turbulent 80s BC. Driven from Rome and illegally deposed while consul in 87 BC, he recaptured the city with the help of Marius amid much bloodshed, and was all-powerful there until his murder in 84 BC. Breaking the oath he had sworn to Sulla that he would not attempt any revolution in the state, Cinna allied himself with Marius, raised an army of Italians, …

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Lucius Cornelius Sulla - Life, Sulla's legacy, Marriages and issue, Chronology

Roman politician of the late Republic, whose bitter feud with Marius, begun in Africa in 107 BC during the Jugurthine War, twice plunged Rome into civil war in the 80s BC. In 88 BC he chose to lead his army against the state rather than surrender to Marius his command of the war against Mithridates, and on returning to Rome (83 BC) used his forces to defeat the Marians and secure his own (illegal)…

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Lucius Junius Brutus - The Oath of Brutus

Legendary Roman hero who established Republican government at Rome. He was the son of a rich Roman, on whose death Lucius Tarquinius Superbus seized the property and killed an elder brother. He escaped by feigning idiocy, from which he got his name (brutus means ‘stupid’). When popular indignation was roused at the rape of Lucretia by Sextus, he drove the royal family from Rome. He was elected o…

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Lucius Licinius Lucullus

Roman politician and general, famous for his victories over Mithridates VI, and also for his enormous wealth, luxurious lifestyle, and patronage of the arts. He is believed to have introduced the cherry to Italy from Asia Minor, the scene of his greatest military triumphs and administrative reforms. The term Lucullan has since been used as an epithet for luxurious living. Two notables of an…

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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus - Reign, Deposition

Tyrannical king of Rome, possibly of Etruscan extraction, whose overthrow (510 BC) marked the end of monarchy at Rome, and the beginning of the Republic. Most of the details about his life are probably fictional. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and son-in-law o…

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Lucknow - Origin of name, History, Geography, Economy, Government and politics, Transport, Demographics, In and around the city

26°50N 81°00E, pop (2000e) 1 869 000. Capital of Uttar Pradesh, NC India; 410 km/255 mi SE of New Delhi, on R Gomati; capital of the Kingdom of Oudh, 1775–1856; capital of the United Provinces, 1877; British garrison besieged for five months during the Indian Mutiny (1857); focal point of the movement for an independent Pakistan; airfield; railway; university (1921); paper, chemicals, rail…

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Lucky Luciano - Early life, Castellammarese War and rise through the ranks, Formation of the Commission

Gangster, born in Lercara Friddi, Sicily, S Italy. He moved with his family to New York City in 1906, and was soon an active criminal. He became the chief of New York organized crime, founding his empire on narcotics-peddling, extortion, and prostitution. For years he managed to evade arrest, but he was tried and imprisoned in 1936. However, he retained control, initiated a reorganization of crime…

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Lucretia - Lucretia in the arts

Roman heroine, the wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus who, according to legend, was raped by Sextus, the son of Tarquinius Superbus. She incited her father and husband to take an oath of vengeance against the Tarquins, then committed suicide by plunging a knife into her heart. The incident led to the expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome, and the tale has formed the basis of several works, notably…

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Lucretia Garfield - Reference

US first lady (1881), born in Hiram, Ohio, USA. A former student of James Garfield at Hiram College, they were married in 1858. She was a great believer in education and was more interested in the Library of Congress than in Washington society. Lucretia Rudolph Garfield (April 19, 1832 - March 14, 1918), wife of James A. Garfield, was First Lady of the United States in 1881. Bor…

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Lucretia Mott - Biography, Biographical Excerpts, Quotes

Women's rights activist, abolitionist, and religious reformer, born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, USA. A child of Quaker parents, she was early impressed by her mother's and other Nantucket women's active roles while menfolk were away on voyages. The family moved to Boston (1804), and she attended and then taught at a Quaker boarding school in Poughkeepsie, NY (1808–9). After she moved again with …

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Lucretius

Roman poet and philosopher. His major work is the six-volume hexameter poem De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things), in which he tried to popularize the philosophical theories of Democritus and Epicurus on the origin of the universe, denouncing religious belief as the one great source of human wickedness and misery. Little is known about his life, but one story recounts that a love potion given …

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Lucrezia Borgia - Marriages, Issue, Legends and Rumors, Plays, Operas, Films, and Novels

Noblewoman, born in Rome, Italy, the illegitimate daughter of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), and the sister of Cesare Borgia. She was three times married to further her father's political ambitions. The third of these was in 1501, to Alfonso (1486–1534), son of the Duke of Este, who inherited the Duchy of Ferrara, where she established a brilliant court of artists and men of l…

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Lucy (Ware) Hayes - Places, People, Things

US first lady (1877–81), born in Chillicothe, Ohio, USA. She married Rutherford B Hayes in 1852. She was well-educated and committed to emancipation for black slaves and to temperance, and sometimes accompanied her husband when he was an officer during the Civil War. As first lady, she was known for her simplicity and frugality, and banned alcohol from the White House. Following the presidency, s…

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Lucy Mitchell

Educator, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Child of a wealthy businessman, she had a difficult youth but she gradually obtained an education and came to know and be influenced by John Dewey, Jane Addams, and Alice Freeman Palmer, herself a prominent educator. It was the latter who encouraged Lucy to attend Radcliffe College (1896). After graduation, she went to California, where she became dean of …

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Lucy Stone

Abolitionist and women's rights activist, born in West Brookfield, Massachusetts, USA. The eighth of nine children of a farmer and tanner who believed that women had few rights, she early determined to get an education. At age 25 she finally was able to enter Oberlin College (Ohio), and when she graduated (1847) she was the first Massachusetts woman to have earned a college degree. Within months s…

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Lucy Walter - Origins, Life as a courtesan, Direct Descendant

Mistress of Charles II, born near Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, UK. They met in 1644 in the Channel Is when he was fleeing England during the Civil War, and she bore him a son, James, Duke of Monmouth. The Walters were a Welsh family of good standing, who declared for the king during the Civil War. She entered the fringes of London society through family connections, a…

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Lucy Whitehead Peabody - Places, People

Mission leader, born in Belmont, Kansas, USA. As an officer of the Woman's American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society (1890–1906), and chair of the Central Committee on the United Study of Missions (1902–29), she fostered the rise of women's and ecumenical missionary societies and Christian education. Her fundraising in the 1920s helped found seven women's colleges in Asia. McGill may re…

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Luderitz

26°38S 15°10E, pop (2000e) 11 000. Seaport in SW Namibia, on Luderitz Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean; Diaz landed here in 1486; first German settlement in SW Africa, 1883; taken by South African forces during World War 1; railway; fishing. Angra Pequena, a bay in Namibia, in 26° 38' S., 15° E., discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487. On the April 24, 1884 Herr Lüderitz transferr…

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Ludlow - History, The Pubs Of Ludlow, Transport and communications, Population, Culture

52°22N 2°43W, pop (2000e) 8500. Historic market town in Shropshire, WC England, UK; on R Teme, 38 km/24 mi S of Shrewsbury; developed in the 12th-c around a Norman fortress; clothing, agricultural machinery, precision engineering; 11th-c Ludlow Castle, 12th–14th-c Church of St Lawrence, Reader's House. Ludlow is a town in Shropshire, situated almost on the border between England and W…

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Ludovico Antonio Muratori

Scholar and historian, born in Vignola, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. A clergyman, he worked at the Ambrosiana Library and then from 1700 as an archivist for the house of Este in Modena. He studied numerous papers on the history of Italy which resulted in the Rerum italicarum scriptores (1723–51), a collection of written sources of the 6th–16th-c, and the Annali d'Italia (1744–9). An Arcadia member,…

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Ludovico Ariosto

Poet, born in Reggio nell'Emilia, N Italy. He intended to take up law, but abandoned it for poetry. In 1503 he was introduced to the court of the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este at Ferrara, where he produced his great poem, Orlando furioso (1516), the Roland epic that forms a continuation of Boiardo's Orlando innamorato. The rich structure of Orlando features a main plot and several minor ones, and a sty…

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Ludovico Sforza

Ruler of Milan, born in Vigevano, N Italy. From 1476 he acted as regent for his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza (1469–94), but expelled him in 1481 and usurped the dukedom for himself. He made an alliance with Lorenzo de' Medici of Florence and, under his rule, Milan became the most glittering court in Europe. He was a patron of Leonardo da Vinci. He helped to defeat the attempts of Charles VIII of F…

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Ludwig (Andreas) Feuerbach - Biography

Philosopher, born in Landshut, SE Germany. He studied theology at Heidelberg and Berlin, then philosophy at Erlangen. He was a pupil of Hegel, but reacted against his idealism. Feuerbach's most famous work, Das Wesen des Christentums (1841, The Essence of Christianity), claims that religion rises from one's alienation from oneself, and the projection of ideal human qualities onto a fictitious supr…

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Ludwig (Eduard) Boltzmann - Childhood and Education, Academic Career, Overview, The Boltzmann equation, Energetics of evolution, Significant contributions, Evaluations

Physicist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Vienna, where he became professor in 1895. He did important work on the kinetic theory of gases and established the principle of the equipartition of energy (Boltzmann's law). He laid the foundations of statistical mechanics by applying the laws of mechanics and the theory of probability to the motion of atoms, and his name was given to the Boltzma…

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Ludwig (Josef Johann) Wittgenstein - Life, Work, Influence, Works about Wittgenstein

Philosopher, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied engineering at Berlin and Manchester, then became interested in mathematical logic, which he studied under Russell (1912–13). While serving in the Austrian army in World War 1, he wrote the Tractatus logico-philosophicus (1921), in which he argued that an adequate account of language must recognize that any sentence is a picture of the fact it repr…

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Ludwig Anzengruber - Origins, Early life and career, Creative period, Selected works

Playwright and novelist, born in Vienna, Austria. He was a bookshop assistant, a touring actor, and a police clerk before the success of his play, Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld (1870, The Pastor of Kirchfeld), enabled him to devote the rest of his life to writing. He was the author of several novels, of which the best is Der Sternsteinhof (1885, The Sternstein Farm), and about 20 plays, mostly about A…

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Ludwig Bechstein - Important works

Writer, born in Weimar, C Germany. A collector of his country's legends and tales, he also published old German manuscripts and wrote historical novels and novellas. He was born in Weimar, the illegitimate child of Johanna Carolina Dorothea Bechstein and Hubert Dupontreau, a French emigrant who disappeared even before the birth of the child, and Ludwig thus grew up his first nine year…

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Ludwig Beck

Military figure and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, born in Biebrich, WC Germany. A colonel-general, in 1933 he was appointed head of the Truppenamt (General Army Offices), and in 1935 became chief of general staff. He opposed Adolf Hitler's plans for war, and resigned in 1938 during the crisis over the Sudetenland. In World War 2 he played an increasingly prominent part in the liberal-conservative …

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Ludwig Bemelmans - Life, Madeline books, Adaptations

Writer and illustrator, born in Merano, N Italy (formerly Meran, Austria). He studied in Bavaria, emigrated to New York City (1914), worked at various occupations, then began writing for periodicals. He became famous for his children's books, such as Madeline (1939), which he also illustrated. Ludwig Bemelmans (April 27, 1898-October 1, 1962) was an American author and children's book write…

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Ludwig Erhard - Erhard's First Ministry (16 October 1963 - 26 October 1965)

German statesman, economist, and Christian Democratic chancellor (1963–6), born in Fürth, SEC Germany. Professor of economics at Munich, in 1949 he was elected to the Federal Parliament at Bonn, and made Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Adenauer administration. He was the pioneer of the West German ‘economic miracle’ of recovery from wartime devastation. He succeeded Adenauer as chancellor, …

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Ludwig Kaas - Early career, Entry into politics, Advisor to the Nuncio Pacelli, Kaas as party chairman

German politician, born in Trier, W Germany. A Catholic theologian, he became professor at Trier (1918). He was a member of the Weimar National Assembly (1919), member of the Reichsrat (1920–3), president of the Zentrum (1928–33), supported the Brüning government, and opposed to von Papen. He negotiated the Reichskonkordat with the Vatican and, exiled in Rome, became an adviser to Pope Pius XII…

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - Early career, Transition, Emigration to Chicago, Career in Chicago, Facts and Figures

Architect, born in Aachen, Germany. As a young architect and designer in Berlin, he foreshadowed modern architecture with innovative designs for tubular-steel furniture, such as the cantilevered ‘Barcelona chair’ (1929), and steel and glass skyscrapers. He directed the Bauhaus, Dessau (1930–3), which he closed after Nazi threats. Though he had built only 19 buildings, he was internationally fam…

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Ludwig Mond

Chemist and industrialist, born in Kassel, C Germany. Settling in England in 1864, he perfected at Widnes a sulphur recovery process. He founded in 1873, with John Tomlinson Brunner, a great alkali-works at Winnington, Cheshire, and made discoveries in nickel manufacture. In 1896 he gave to the Royal Institution for the nation a physico-chemical laboratory costing £100 000. Mond attended …

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Ludwig Prandtl - Early years, Later years, Death and afterwards

Physicist, and pioneer of the science of aerodynamics, born in Freising, SE Germany. He studied mechanical engineering in Munich, and although destined for a career in elasticity, his interest was redirected to aerodynamics. In this field he made outstanding contributions to boundary layer theory, airship profiles, supersonic flow, wing theory, and turbulence. He was director of technical physics …

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Ludwig Thoma - Works

Writer, born in Oberammergau, S Germany. The son of a forester, he first took up forestry, then studied law and practised until 1899, when he began to write for the periodical Simplicissimus. A well-loved author, he became best known for novels set in his native Bavaria, such as Lausbubengeschichten (1905), Moral (1909), Briefwechsel (1909), Erster Klasse (1910), and Josef Filsers Briefwechsel (19…

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Ludwig van Beethoven - Life, Loss of hearing, His music, Work, Media

Composer, born in Bonn, W Germany. Miserably brought up by a father who wanted him to become a profitable infant prodigy, he joined the Elector of Cologne's orchestra at Bonn. In 1787 he had lessons from Mozart in Vienna, and in 1792 returned to that city for good, apart from a few excursions. He first joined Prince Lichnowsky's household and studied under Haydn, Albrechtsberger, and possibly Sal…

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Ludwig Von Mises - Childhood and family background, Professional life, Contributions to the field of economics, Books

Economist, born in Austro-Hungary. He taught at the University of Vienna (1913–34) while also serving as a principal economic adviser to the Austrian government. He left Austria in 1934 due to the turmoil provoked by the Nazis, going first to Geneva and then to the USA (1940), where he taught at New York University (1945–69). A leader in the Austrian school of economics, he wrote and lectured ex…

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Ludwig Windthorst

German politician and lawyer, born in Gut Caldenhof, Landkreis Osnabrück, C Germany. Justice minister of Hanover (1851–3, 1862–5), after the annexation of Hanover by Prussia (1866) he led the compensation negotiations on behalf of the deposed King George V of Hanover. He was a member of the Prussian house of parliament and a member of the Reichsrat in the Norddeutscher Bund (German Reich since …

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Ludwigshafen (am Rhein) - History, World War II, Postwar, Sister cities, Radio Stations

49°29N 8°27E, pop (2000e) 167 000. Commercial and manufacturing river port in E Rheinland-Pfalz province, SWC Germany; on W bank of the R Rhine, opposite Mannheim; railway; chemicals, resins, plastics, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, consumer goods. Coordinates: 49°28′N 8°26′E Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, with about 162,000 inha…

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Luftwaffe - History, Future, Tactical Training Centers

The correct name for the German Air Force, re-established in 1935 under Göring, in contravention of the Treaty of Versailles. Dominant in the years of German victory in World War 2, the Luftwaffe had all but ceased to exist by 1945, having lost some 100 000 aircraft. The Federal Republic of Germany's air force, also known as the Luftwaffe, was re-established in 1956, and became a critical elemen…

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Lug - Mythology, Other meanings

In Irish mythology, the god of the Sun, the divine leader of the Tuatha De Danann, who led his people to victory over the Formorians. Lug or LUG can refer to: …

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Lugano - Sights, Museums, Education and research

46°01N 8°57E, pop (2000e) 27 000. Resort town in Ticino canton, S Switzerland, on N shore of L Lugano (area 49 km²/19 sq mi); on N–S road and rail route over the St Gotthard Pass; third largest financial centre in Switzerland; clothing, engineering, tourism; town hall (1844), Cathedral of St Lawrence (13th-c). Coordinates: 46°00′N 8°57′E Lugano is a city in southe…

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Lugo - History, Ecclesiastical history, Situation and features, Sources and references

43°02N 7°35W, pop (2000e) 84 000. Capital of Lugo province, Galicia, NW Spain; on R Miño, 511 km/317 mi NW of Madrid; bishopric; railway; electrical equipment, leather, trade in cattle, cheese; hot springs nearby; town walls (world heritage site), cathedral (12th-c); Fiestas of St Froilan (Oct). The city was founded by Paulus Fabius Maximus and called Lucus Augusti (noted as Λοῦ

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lugworm - Life in a burrow, Eating Sand

A large annelid worm that burrows in soft inshore or estuarine sediments; feeds on deposited organic matter; breathes using external gills along body; widely used as fishing bait. (Class: Polychaeta. Order: Capitellida.) The Lugworm is a large marine worm of the phylum Annelida. A lugworm lives in a U-shaped burrow in sand. The lugworm lies in this burrow with its head a…

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Luhya - Origins, European contact, Reaction to colonialism, Culture, Economic activities, Notable Luhya personalities

A cluster of small groups of Bantu-speaking agricultural and trading people of SW Kenya. Each group is traditionally autonomous, forming a national group only during the 1940s in order to be more effective politically. Many now work in the cities. The Luhya (also Luyia, Luhia) are a Bantu people residing in Western Province, Kenya between Lake Victoria, Uganda and Mount Elgon. Luhya refers …

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Luigi (Rodolfo) Boccherini - Media

Composer, born in Lucca, N Italy. He was a cellist and prolific composer at the courts of the Infante Don Luis in Madrid and Frederick II of Prussia. He is best known for his chamber music, and for his cello concertos and sonatas. He wrote a large amount of chamber music, including over one hundred string quintets for two violins, viola and two cellos (a type which he pioneered, in contrast…

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Luigi Alamanni

Poet, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. A republican, he organized a plot against Giulio de' Medici and then left for France (1530), where he enjoyed the patronage of Francis I and Henry II. He believed that vernacular literature could renew itself by imitating the classics. His works include lyric and epic poems, satires, epigrams, a tragedy Antigone (1533), a comedy Flora (1555), and the dida…

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Luigi Cadorna - Biography, Trivia

Military leader, born in Pallanza, Piedmont, NW Italy. The son of Raffaele Cadorna, he was chief of staff from 1914 and in charge of the Italian army during World War 1. He halted the 1916 Austrian offensive and took Gorizia in 1917, but losses were extremely heavy, and he followed a policy of ruthless suppression of any dissent. The disastrous Caporetto defeat in October 1917 forced him to resign…

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Luigi Cadorna - Biography, Trivia

Military leader, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. He participated in the Crimean War, and in 1870 was in charge of the Italian expeditionary force that was sent to free Rome. He was a deputy from 1849 and a senator from 1871. Luigi Cadorna(September 4, 1850 - December 21, 1928) was an Italian Field Marshal, most famous for being the Commander-in-Chief of the Italian army during the first p…

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Luigi Capuana - Biography, Example of his poetry in Sicilian

Writer and critic, born in Mineo, Sicily, S Italy. He was contributor and then editor of the literary supplement Il Fanfulla della Domenica. The leading theorist of the verismo movement, he saw the novel as a ‘human document’ combining a naturalist view of reality with the psychological analysis of the characters, without the interference of the writer's thoughts. He wrote short stories (Le paes…

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Luigi Carlo Farini - Biography

Italian politician, prime minister (1862–3), and historian, born in Russi, E Italy. He took part in the 1831 Romagna risings and then served in the Papal States' first constitutional government. After the Roman Republic's fall, he escaped to Piedmont, where he became education minister (1851–2). He organized the plebiscite that ratified Emilia's annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia, and became …

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Luigi da Porto

Scholar, born in Vicenza, Veneto, NE Italy. He wrote the short story Historia novellamente ritrovata di due nobili amanti (c.1530) which was re-adapted by Matteo Bandello as Romeo e Giulietta from which Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet originated. He also produced the love poems Rime (1489) and Lettere storiche on the events from 1509 to 1513 (published in 1857). Luigi Da Porto (Vicenza, 1485…

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Luigi Dallapiccola - Biography, Music, Selected works

Composer, born in Pazin, W Croatia (formerly Pisino, Italy). He studied at Florence, becoming a pianist and music teacher. After World War 2 he taught composition in the USA for several years. His compositions make wide use of 12-note technique, and include songs, a piano concerto, three operas, a ballet, and choral works such as Canti di prigionia (1938–41, Songs of Prison). Luigi Dallapi…

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Luigi Einaudi

Italian politician, president (1948–55), and economist, born in Carrù, Piedmont, N Italy. He was a lecturer and journalist, and an anti-Fascist senator from 1919. Governor of the Bank of Italy (1945), he became budget minister (1947), steering the Italian economy away from inflation by way of a strict monetary policy and an economic policy of free-trade. He became president of Italy in 1948 but …

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Luigi Facta

Italian politician, born in Pinerolo, Piedmont, N Italy. A follower of Giolitti, he held a number of ministerial posts, becoming prime minister in February 1922 after the fall of the Bonomi cabinet. He hesitated to curb the Fascist threat, and his decision to declare the state of siege in October 1922 was too late to stop the March on Rome. He was made life senator by Mussolini in 1924. Lui…

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Luigi Galvani

Physiologist, born in Bologna, N Italy. He studied at Bologna, where he became professor of anatomy (1762). Investigating the effects of electrostatic stimuli applied to the muscle fibre of frogs, he discovered (1786) he could also make the muscle twitch by touching the nerve with various metals without a source of electrostatic charge, and greater reaction was obtained when two disimilar metals w…

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Luigi Longo - Early life, Spanish Civil War and Resistance, Post-war politics

Italian politician, born in Fubine Monferrato, Piedmont, N Italy. A founding member of the Italian Communist Party, he was interned at Ventotene by the Fascists. Freed in 1943, he became commander-general of the Garibaldi brigades during the resistance. He was a deputy from 1946 onwards. He was also deputy leader of the PCI (Partitocomunista Italiano), leader from 1964 to 1972, and then its presid…

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Luigi Luzzatti

Italian politician and economist, born in Venice, Veneto, NE Italy. A deputy of the right from 1871, he held a number of posts even after the left came to power in 1876. As Chancellor of the Exchequer (1891–1906) he strengthened the lira, and as minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce he implemented a number of reforms. Luigi Luzzatti (March 11, 1841 – March 29, 1927) was an Ital…

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Luigi Malerba

Writer, born in Berceto, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. Although at first he joined Group 63, he is a totally original writer. The stories of La scoperta dell'alfabeto (1963) set the scene for the total disassociation of language from reality, as seen in Il serpente (1966) and Il salto mortale (1968). The theme of power is central to Il protagonista (1973) which deals with sexual impotence. Other works …

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Luigi Nono - Biography

Composer, born in Venice, NE Italy. He studied at the Venice Conservatoire under Malipiero and Maderna, with whom he and Luciano Berio helped to establish Italy in the forefront of contemporary music. He worked for a time at the electronic studio in Darmstadt, and became a leading composer of electronic, aleatory, and serial music. A strongly politically committed artist, Il canto sospeso (1956, T…

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Luigi Palma di (Count) Cesnola

Archaeologist, born in Rivarolo, Italy. He trained at the Royal Military Academy in Turin (1843–8) and fought in the Austrian, Crimean and, after emigrating to the USA (1860), the American Civil Wars. After he took American citizenship (1865) he became US consul in Cyprus. There he conducted many archaeological excavations and built up an outstanding collection of antiquities. These were given to…

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Luigi Pirandello - Biography, The novels, Works, Poetry

Playwright, novelist, and short-story writer, born in Girgenti (now Agrigento), Sicily, S Italy. He studied philology at Rome and Bonn, becoming a lecturer in literature at Rome (1897–1922). After writing powerful and realistic novels and short stories, such as Il fu Mattia Pascal (1903, The Late Mattia Pascal), he turned to the theatre and became a leading exponent of contemporary drama. The mai…

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Luigi Pulci

Poet, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. The scion of an aristocratic but poor family, he held various posts at Lorenzo de' Medici's court and was under the patronage of Lorenzo's mother, Lucrezia, but fell out with Lorenzo and had to leave Florence. His masterpiece remains the poem of chivalry Il Morgante (1460–70, published in 1483), a parody of the chansons de geste. Although intended as a …

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Luigi Settembrini - Biography

Italian patriot and writer, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. A member of Mazzini's Young Italy, he was forced to leave the country after publishing Protesta del popolo delle Due Sicilie in 1847. Back in Italy, he took part in the 1848 risings, and was sentenced to the death penalty, which was commuted to life imprisonment. After 1860 he held the Italian literature chair at Bologna and then Napl…

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Luigi Sturzo

Italian politician and priest, born in Caltagirone, Sicily, S Italy. He was deputy mayor of Caltagirone (1905–20) and strove for the creation of a Catholic party, which he eventually founded in 1919 and called Partito Popolare (Popular Party). Under his leadership, in 1923 against the will of the pope the party withdrew its support for the Mussolini government, and he was forced to resign soon af…

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Luis Federico Leloir

Biochemist, born in Paris, France. He studied in Buenos Aires and at Cambridge, then worked mainly in Argentina, where he set up his own Research Institute in 1947, and discovered how glycogen, the energy storage material, is synthesized in the body (1957). For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1970, the first Argentinian to be so honoured. As a medical intern at Ram…

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Luis Rafael S

Writer, born in Humacao, Puerto Rico, USA. Prolific essayist, playwright, and novelist, he was the Puerto Rican writer with the greatest international reputation in the second half of the 20th-c. In 1963 he won the Paris-based review Cuadernos Award for the best Puerto Rican short story published that year, and in 1979 was awarded a Guggenheim. His 1976 novel, La guaracha del Macho Camacho (trans …

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Luisa Tetrazzini - Biography, Trivia, Sources, CDs

Coloratura soprano, born in Florence, NC Italy. She studied with her sister and at the Liceo Musicale, and made her debut in 1895 in Meyerbeer's L'Africaine. Appearing mostly in Italian opera of the older school, one of her most notable successes was in Lucia di Lammermoor. She sang in London and in America, and in 1913–14 was a member of the Chicago Opera Company. Luisa Tetrazzini (June 2…

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Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer - Bibliography

Mathematician, born in Overschie, The Netherlands. He studied at Amsterdam University at the age of 16, where he was professor (1912–51). He founded the intuitionist or constructivist school of mathematical logic, which does not accept the law of the excluded middle, and in which the existence of a mathematical object can only be proved by giving an explicit method for its construction. He also m…

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Lujo Brentano

Political economist, born in Aschaffenburg, SC Germany, the brother of Franz Brentano. In 1868 he went to England to study the condition of the working-classes, and especially trades associations and unions. He became professor of political theory at several universities in Europe (1871–1931). A prominent pacifist, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1927. Lujo Brentano (18 December 18…

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Lukas Foss - Personal

Composer, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied in Berlin and Paris, and moved to the USA in 1937. He first attracted attention with his cantata, The Prairie (1941), and has since written two symphonies, concertos, chamber music, and operas. He was appointed professor of music at the University of California (1953–62), and became director of the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra (1981–6), now conductor…

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Luke Hansard - Biography

British printer, who went from Norwich to London, and entered the office of Hughes, printer to the House of Commons, he became acting manager in 1774, and in 1798 succeeding as sole proprietor of the business. In 1943 Hansard became the official name for the parliamentary reports (now printed by Her Majesty's Stationery Office). Luke Hansard (July 5, 1752 - October 29, 1828) was an English …

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lumbago - Fiction

An imprecise term used to indicate pain or discomfort in the back over the lumbar region, without identifying or defining a specific cause. Lumbago is a term used to refer to low back pain. Lumbago may also be accompanied by other symptoms and signs such as loss of sensation (usually the sole of the foot and posterior aspect of the calf region) and motor function (usually loss o…

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lumbar puncture - Indications, Procedure, Risks, Diagnostics

The introduction of a needle between the vertebrae in the lower back (the lumbar region) into the narrow space lying between the inner two layers of membranes surrounding the spinal cord and its nerve roots. Its purpose is to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for examination in the diagnosis of infections (eg meningitis) or bleeding (eg subarachnoid haemorrhage). In medicine, a lumbar …

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Lumbini

Town and centre of pilgrimage in the W Terai of Nepal, 431 km/268 mi SW of Kathmandu; the birthplace of Buddha; world heritage site; preserved here are the broken Ashokan Pillar, the remains of a monastery, and images of Maya Devi (Buddha's mother); the town is being developed with the help of international aid. Lumbini (Sanskrit for "the lovely") is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in …

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luminance - Definition

The component of a video signal which determines the brightness of an image point. It contrasts with chrominance, which specifies its colour. The SI unit for luminance is candela per square metre (cd/m. Luminance is often used to characterize emission or reflection from flat, diffuse surfaces. The luminance indicates how much luminous power will be perceived by an eye looking at…

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luminescence

The emission of light from a substance for reasons other than heating, classified according to energy source. Photoluminescence corresponds to a bombardment with light, exploited in zinc sulphide-based paints, which continue to glow after the external light source is removed. Bioluminescence is observed for example in fireflies, and results from chemical reactions. Energy is absorbed by atoms of t…

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luminosity - In astronomy, In scattering theory and accelerator physics

The intrinsic or absolute amount of energy radiated per second from a celestial object. Luminosity is related to the surface area and surface temperature of a star; two stars with the same surface temperatures but different luminosities must differ in size. Stars vary greatly in their observed luminosities, between about 1 million times more and 1 million times less than the Sun. In astronomy, lum…

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luminous flux - Contexts

The total flow of visible light available for illumination from some source, taking into account the source's ability to generate visible light; symbol ?, unit lm (lumen). Luminous flux from a 60 watt incandescent bulb is about 600 lm, and considerably more from a 60 watt fluorescent tube. In photometry, luminous flux or luminous power is the measure of the perceived power of light. It d…

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luminous intensity - Units, Usage

The flow of visible light capable of causing illumination, emitted from a source per unit solid angle; symbol I, unit cd (candela). It takes account of the fact that although two sources may produce the same total light output, one may produce a single strong beam. It is independent of distance from source. A related quantity is luminance, formerly called brightness, symbol L, units cd/m2, the lum…

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lumpsucker - Behaviour and reproduction, Species

Heavy-bodied fish (Cyclopterus lumpus) widespread in the N Atlantic and Arctic Oceans; length up to 60 cm/2 ft; body rounded, bearing rows of spiny plates and with a large underside sucker; feeds on a variety of invertebrates and small fish; marketed commercially, salted or smoked, in some areas. (Family: Cyclopteridae.) Lumpsuckers or Lumpfish are mostly small scorpaeniform marine fish o…

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Luna programme

A highly successful evolutionary series of Soviet lunar missions carried out between 1959 and 1976. Luna 2 (1959) was the first spacecraft to impact the Moon; Luna 3 (1959) acquired the first pictures of the lunar farside; Luna 9 (1966) achieved the first soft landing, and returned the first TV pictures from the surface; Luna 10 (1966) achieved the first lunar orbit; Luna 16 (1970) achieved the fi…

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Lund - History, Geography, Industry, The Lund Principle, Twin Cities, Education, Notable natives, Other uses

55°42N 13°10E, pop (2000e) 93 000. Ancient city in Malmöhus county, SW Sweden, NE of Malmö; intermittently under Danish rule prior to 1658; bishopric; university (1666); technical institute (1961); railway; paper, textiles, furniture, printing, publishing, sugar; cathedral (1080). Lund?(help·info) IPA: [lɵnd] is a city in Skåne in southern Sweden. It is the home of Lund…

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lungfish

Any of a small group of freshwater fishes, the only living representatives of an order that flourished from the Devonian to Triassic periods; has a pair of lungs on the underside of the gut and connected to the oesophagus, as in higher vertebrates; gills much reduced; includes the African lungfish (Family: Protopteridae), Australian lungfish (Family: Ceratodontidae), and South American lungfish (F…

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lungwort

A perennial growing to 30 cm/12 in (Pulmonaria officinalis), with creeping rhizome, native to Europe; leaves broadly oval, often spotted with white; flowers 1 cm/0·4 in diameter, tubular or funnel-shaped, pink or reddish, changing to blue with age. (Family: Boraginaceae.) The lungworts are the genus Pulmonaria of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae, native to Europe and western…

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Lupercalia - Origins, The celebration during the Late Republic and Empire, References in art

An ancient festival of purification and fertility. It was held every year in ancient Rome (on 15 Feb) at a cave on the Palatine Hill called the Lupercal. The Lupercalia were a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, held on February 15 to honor Faunus, pagan god of fertility and forests. Justin Martyr identified Faunus as Lupercus, 'the one who wards off the wolf', b…

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lupin

A member of a large group of annual and perennial herbs or (less commonly) shrubs, native to America and the Mediterranean region; leaves palmately divided with up to 15 narrow leaflets; pea-flowers in long, terminal, often showy spikes, blue, pink, yellow, or white; pods splitting open explosively to release the seeds. Several species are grown for fodder and green manure. Highly prized as orname…

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lurcher

A cross-bred dog formerly kept by poachers for catching rabbits and hares; usually a cross between a greyhound and a collie. The Lurcher is not a dog breed, but rather a type of dog. It is a hardy crossbred sighthound that is generally a cross between a sighthound and a working breed, usually a pastoral dog or Terrier. The Lurcher was bred in Ireland and Great Britain by t…

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Lurgan - History, Sport, People, Education

54º28N 6º20W, pop (2001e) 22 800. Town in Craigavon district, Co Armagh, C Northern Ireland; situated near Lough Neagh, 30 km/19 mi WSW of Belfast; birthplace of Sir John Dill, James Logan, George Russell; railway; engineering, tobacco manufacturing, textiles (linen). Lurgan (An Lorgain, meaning "the long low ridge of land" in Irish), is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland with …

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Lusaka - Geography, History, Culture, Modern times, Airport, 2011 All African Games

15°26S 28°20E, pop (2000e) 1 150 300. Capital of Zambia; replaced Livingstone as capital of former N Rhodesia, 1935; capital of Zambia, 1964; airport; railway; university (1965); banking, administration, agricultural trade, cement, chemicals, insecticides, clothing, metal and plastic products; cathedral (1957), geological survey museum, national archives, Munda Wanga Gardens, zoo. Lusa…

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lute - Description of the instrument, History and evolution of the lute, The lute in the modern world

A European musical instrument, descended from the Arabian ud, in use from the Middle Ages to the 18th-c, and revived in modern times for performing early music. It has a large pear-shaped body, a flat soundboard, a wide neck and fingerboard with gut frets, and a pegbox set at a 90° angle to the neck. By the 16th-c there were normally six courses of ‘stopped’ strings (ie fingered by the left han…

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luteinizing hormone (LH) - Structure, Activity, Normal levels, Ovulation predictor kit (LH kit), Disease States, Availability

One of the gonadotrophic hormones (a glycoprotein) secreted by the front lobe of the pituitary gland in vertebrates. In female mammals it is involved in the final maturation of ovarian follicles, the process of ovulation, and the initial formation of the corpus luteum. In males, it stimulates the interstitial (Leydig) cells of the testes to secrete testosterone: accordingly, it is also known in ma…

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Luther Burbank - Life and work, Legacy

Plant breeder and horticulturist, born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, USA. The 13th child of a farmer, he grew up interested in nature, and although he had little formal science education, he was influenced by the ideas of Charles Darwin. Turning to farming to support his widowed mother, by 1870 he was experimenting with improving the varieties of vegetables. His first success was a potato that grew…

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Luther Martin

Lawyer, born in New Brunswick, New York, USA. After graduating from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) (1766), he worked as a teacher while reading law, eventually being admitted to the Virginia bar (1771). He served as attorney general of Maryland (1778–1805, 1818–22) and as a delegate from Maryland to the Continental Congress (1785). He went to the Constitutional Convention in 1789, b…

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Lutheranism - History, Doctrine, Religious practices, International bodies, Print sources

Churches derived from the Reformation of Martin Luther, and the doctrine which they share. Lutheran Churches originally flourished in Germany and Scandinavia, then in other parts of Europe; later, through emigration from Europe, in the USA, and through missionary activity in Africa and Asia. The doctrine is based on the Augsburg Confession (1530), the Apology (1531), Luther's two Catechisms, and t…

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Luton - Places within Luton, Transport, Politics and Demographics, Trivia, Twin towns, Economy, Local Attractions, Images, Local Newspapers

51°53N 0°25W, pop (2001e) 184 400. Industrial town and unitary authority (from 1997) in Bedfordshire, SC England, UK; 45 km/28 mi NW of London; railway; airport; university (1992); engineering, clothing, hats, motor vehicles; 13th–15th-c Church of St Mary; Luton Hoo (3 km/1¾ mi S), within a park laid out by Capability Brown; football league team, Luton Town (Hatters). Luton is a l…

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lux - Definition, Explanation, SI photometry units, Non-SI units of illuminance

SI unit of illuminance; symbol lx; defined as 1 lumen of luminous flux incident on 1 square metre. 1 lx = 1 lm/m·m–4 Lux is a derived unit based on lumen, and lumen is a derived unit based on candela. Trivia: Unicode has a symbol for "lx": (㏓), but this is just a legacy code to accommodate old code pages in certain Asian languages, and it is not recommended for …

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Luxembourg (city) - Geography and climate, Places of interest, Twin towns, Photos of Luxembourg City

49°37N 6°08E, pop (2000e) 82 000. Capital of Luxembourg, on the Alzette and Pétrusse Rivers; residence of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and seat of government; also site of the Court of Justice of the European Communities, the General Secretariat of the European Parliament, the Consultative Committee, the European Investment Bank, the European Monetary Fund, and the Coal and Steel Union; airpo…

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Luxor - History, Economy, Infrastructure, Sights of modern-day Luxor

25°41N 32°24E, pop (2000e) 191 800. Winter resort town in Qena governorate, EC Egypt; on E bank of R Nile, 676 km/420 mi S of Cairo; known as Thebes to the Greeks; numerous tombs of pharaohs in Valley of the Kings; Theban ruins, Temple of Luxor (built by Amenhotep III); one of the obelisks was removed to the Place de la Concorde in Paris. For the ancient settlement of Luxor, see Thebe…

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Luzon - Geography, Island Group of Luzon, Regions of Luzon, History

pop (2000e) 35 813 000; area 108 130 km²/41 738 sq mi. Largest island of the Philippines; bounded W by the South China Sea, E by the Philippine Sea, N by the Luzon Strait; many bays and offshore islets; Cordillera Central rises to 2929 m/9609 ft in the NW at Mt Puog; Sierra Madre in the NE; largest lake, Laguna de Bay; occupied by Japanese in World War 2; chief city, Manila; grain; suga…

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lycanthropy - Causes, Regional varieties

In popular belief, the assumption by humans of the shapes of other animals, typically the most dangerous beast of the area. In Europe and N Asia it is usually a wolf or bear, in India and other parts of Asia a tiger, and in Africa a leopard. The belief is probably linked to initiation ceremonies in which youths donned animal skins and lived ‘wild’ for a time. In folklore, lycanthropy is t…

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Lyceum - Ancient Greek Lyceum (word origins), Lyceums of the Russian Empire

The school of philosophy founded by Aristotle in 335 BC, in a gymnasium just to the E of the city walls of Athens. Under Aristotle and later heads, such as Theophrastus (322–287 BC) and Strato (287–269 BC), it rivalled the Academy of Plato as a research centre in the ancient world. A Lyceum can be The Lyceum (Λύκειον, Lykeion) was a gymnasium in ancient Athens, most fam…

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Lycia - Inhabitants, Geography, History, Lycian league

Ancient maritime district of SW Anatolia, on the Mediterranean Sea between Caria and Pamphylia, and extending inland to the Taurus Mountains. The Lycians took part in the Sea Peoples' attempt to invade Egypt (c.1231 BC), but nothing more is known of them until the 8th-c BC, when they reappear as a prosperous maritime people belonging to the Lycian League. Lycia was eventually taken by Cyrus's Gene…

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Lycurgus

The name of various Greeks, including, in mythology, 1 The King of Thrace who opposed Dionysus and was blinded, 2 The founder of the Spartan constitution, with its military caste-system. (The date when this originated has been much disputed, and is now thought to be c.600 BC, much too late for the legendary Lycurgus to have participated.) In Ancient Greece and/or Greek mythology, the name L…

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Lycurgus

Traditional, possibly legendary, law-giver of Sparta, first mentioned by Herodotos in the 5th-c BC, who is said to have instigated the Spartan ideals of harsh military discipline. There is much dispute over his existence, but some scholars claim his measures were instrumental in preventing a second helot revolt, and that he delineated the powers of the two traditional organs of the Spartan governm…

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Lydia - Early history, Lydia in Greek legend, Geography, Language, Autochthonous Dynasties, First Coin, Persian and hellenistic empires

In antiquity, the area of W Asia Minor lying inland of Ionia. Its capital was Sardis. At the height of its power in the 7th-c and 6th-c BC, it was the centre of an empire which stretched from the Aegean to C Turkey. Conquered by the Persians in 546 BC, it lost its political independence for ever, and was ruled in succession by Persians, Seleucids, Attalids, and Romans. Lydia (Greek Λυδί…

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Lydia (Estes) Pinkham - Drinking songs, The original product and its modern descendants

Manufacturer, born in Lynn, Massachusetts, USA. A young schoolteacher in Lynn, she became a member of the Female Anti-Slavery Society and a lifelong friend of Frederick Douglass. She took up various causes, including temperence and phrenology, until she married Isaac Pinkham in 1843. In 1875 Isaac went bankrupt speculating on real estate, and Lydia began selling a herbal remedy she had concocted c…

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Lydia Darragh - Places, People

Nurse and midwife, born in Ireland. She married William Darragh (1753) and they emigrated to Philadelphia where she became known as a skillful nurse and midwife. During the American Revolution, she became a ‘Fighting Quaker’ who rejected her sect's extreme pacifism. In 1777 she left Philadelphia and warned the American army leaders of a coming surprise attack by the British. She was suspended fr…

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Lydia Sigourney - Early life, Themes, Education and the school for young ladies, Marriage and married life, Legacies

Poet, born in Norwich, Connecticut, USA. She was educated and taught school locally (1811–19) until she married (1819), and thereafter lived in Hartford, CT. Immensely prolific and popular during her time, she wrote pious sentimental poems and edited religious and juvenile publications. Lydia Howard Sigourney née Huntley (September 1, 1791 - June 10, 1865) was an extremely popular America…

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Lyman (James) Briggs - Personal and academic history, US Department of Agriculture, World War I

Physicist, born in Assyria, Michigan, USA. He worked for the US Department of Agriculture (1896–1920), became chief of the Mechanics and Sound Division of the Bureau of Standards, then served as director of the Bureau (1932–45). Effectively the founder of soil physics, in 1939 he headed the committee that investigated the military potential of atomic energy. Lyman James Briggs (May 7, 187…

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Lyman Abbott

Congregational clergyman and editor, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. He studied at New York University and joined a law firm before turning to the ministry, becoming ordained in 1860. At the end of the Civil War, he went to New York City where, in addition to a parish, he worked with the American Union Commission for more sympathetic reconstruction policies in the South. …

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Lyman Beecher - Reference

Presbyterian minister and revivalist, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale, and was ordained in 1799. He preached at East Hampton, Long Island, NY (1799–1810), then at Litchfield, CT (1810–26), his brand of Calvinism calling for constant church services and strong opposition to drinking. He then worked in Boston, and in 1832 went to Cincinnati as head of the newly founded Lane…

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Lyman Trumbull

US senator and jurist, born in Colchester, Connecticut, USA. He first went to Georgia as a schoolteacher (1833–7), but after studying law he moved to Illinois to practise there, and was named to that state's supreme court. Originally a Democrat, he opposed his party on the slavery issue and was appointed to the US Senate as a free-soil Democrat (Illinois, 1855–61). He was re-elected senator as a…

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Lyme disease - Symptoms, Transmission, Microbiology, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Treatment, The Lyme controversy, Prevention, Ecology, Epidemiology, History

An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to humans in the bite of ticks that normally infest deer and other wild animals. It was first described in the town of Old Lyme, CT, in 1975 and has since been reported across the USA. A red skin lesion (erythema migrans) appears at the site of the tick bite and expands over a few days accompanied by fever, mus…

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lymphocyte - Types of Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte development, Lymphocytes and disease, Additional images

A type of white blood cell (leucocyte), present in blood and lymph vessels and in organized lymphoid tissues (ie spleen and lymph nodes). Lymphocytes are classified as bone-marrow-derived B lymphocytes (B cells) and thymus-derived T lymphocytes (T cells). B lymphocytes mature in bone marrow, and include the substances which form plasma cells, the producers of antibodies. T lymphocytes mature in th…

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lymphogranuloma venereum - Signs and symptoms, Long term complications, Diagnosis, Further recommendations, Treatment, References and external links

A sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Genital ulceration is followed by enlargement of lymph nodes draining the initial site of the infection. It responds to antibiotics. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma ingu…

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lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's) - For Diagnosis, Etiology, Staging, Prognosis, and Treatment

The malignant proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually of lymphocytes; the condition merges with lymphocytic leukaemias. Like Hodgkin's disease, the condition presents with painless enlarged lymph nodes; however, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas tend to be more widespread when first diagnosed, and the prognosis is worse. Traditionally, Lymphoma is classified as Hodgkin's lymphoma, discovered by Thom…

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Lynn (Alexander) Margulis - Research, Publications and bibliography

Cell biologist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She taught and performed research at Boston University (1966–88), and became a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) (1988). She made major contributions to the origin, morphogenesis, cytoplasmic genetics, and evolution of slime moulds and other protists. She is a proponent of the controversial Gaia hypothes…

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Lynn Fontanne - Acting career, Personal life

Stage actress, born in Woodford, Essex, SE England, UK. A woman of great glamour and sophistication, she was best known for her many collaborations in modern comedies with her husband Alfred Lunt. After studying in England with Ellen Terry, she settled permanently in the USA in 1916, the same year that she met Lunt, when they both performed in A Young Man's Fancy. The couple first appeared as husb…

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Lynn Thorndike

Historian, born in Lynn, Massachusetts, USA, the brother of Edward Lee Thorndike. After taking his PhD at Columbia University (1905), he taught at Northwestern (1907–9) and Western Reserve (1909–24) before returning to Columbia as a professor (1924–50). His early reputation as a mediaevalist came from his teaching and his textbook, History of Medieval Europe (1917), but he came to international…

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Lynne (Reid) Banks - Selected bibliography

Writer and actress, born in London, UK. She studied in Canada, and in London at the Italia Conti Stage School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. After a brief career as an actress (1949–54), she joined ITN as a reporter (1955–62), taught English in Israel (1963–71), and became a full-time lecturer from 1971. Her best-known novel is The L-Shaped Room (1960, filmed 1962), and she has also wri…

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Lynne Truss - Bibliography

Writer, journalist, and broadcaster, born in Richmond, SW Greater London, England, UK. She studied at University College, London, began work as a literary journalist for The Listener, and was critic, columnist, and sportswriter for The Times. She also wrote for other publications and was named columnist of the year for her work on Woman's Journal in 1996. On radio she hosted a series on punctuatio…

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lynx - Species, Appearance, Gallery, Trivia

A nocturnal member of the cat family, native to the northern N Hemisphere; plain brown or with dark spots; very short tail; tips of ears tufted; cheeks with long ‘whiskers’; inhabits scrubland and coniferous forest; eats birds, rodents, hares, rabbits, young deer; two species: lynx (Felis lynx), and the rare Spanish lynx (Felis pardina.) A lynx is any of several medium-sized wild cats. …

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Lynx - Species, Appearance, Gallery, Trivia

A very faint N constellation near to Ursa Major. A lynx is any of several medium-sized wild cats. The four species placed in this genus are: Lynxes have short tails, and usually a tuft of hair on the tip of the ears. Three Norwegian municipalities have a lynx in their coat-of-arms: Bygland, Hamarøy and Hemsedal. …

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Lyon

45°46N 4°50E, pop (2000e) 434 000. Manufacturing and commercial capital of Rhône-Alpes region, SC France; at confluence of Rhône and Saône Rivers; third largest city in France; city centre on peninsula between rivers, linked by many bridges; Roman capital of Gaul, centre of military highway network; airport; road and rail junction; metro; archbishopric; two universities (1875, 1896); busine…

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Lyonel (Charles Adrian) Feininger - Selected works

Painter, born in New York City, USA. He worked as a political cartoonist, then devoted himself to painting (1907). After World War 1 he taught at the Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau, and adopted a style reminiscent of Cubism. After the Nazi rise, he returned to the USA, where he helped to found the New Bauhaus in Chicago. Feininger was born to parents of German descent and grew up in New York …

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Lyra - Stars with planets

A small but obvious N constellation. It includes the fifth-brightest star, Vega, as well as the prototype variable RR Lyrae, and the Ring nebula, a planetary nebula 600 parsec away. Vega, 7·8 parsec distant, was the Pole Star c.14 000 years ago. Lyra (IPA: /ˈlʌɪrə/, Latin: lyre) is one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, and is one of the 88 modern constellations recognized by…

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lyre - Construction, Number of strings, Modern Greece

A musical instrument of great antiquity, with a resonator, two arms, and a crossbar. Gut strings, from 3 to 12 in number, were stretched from the front of the resonator to the crossbar, and plucked with a plectrum. The tortoise-shell resonator of the classical lyre distinguishes it from the larger kithara, with its wooden rectangular soundbox. The lyre is a stringed musical instrument well …

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lyrebird - Mimicry, Lifestyle and classification, Lyrebirds as emblems, Painting by John Gould

Either of two species of a shy, ground-feeding, Australian bird of the genus Menura: the superb lyrebird (Menura novaehollandiae); and Albert's lyrebird (Menura alberti); long legs; flies poorly but runs well; tail of male shaped like lyre; spectacular display and song; mimics complex sounds; inhabits mountain forest with rock outcrops; eats small invertebrates. (Family: Menuridae.) A Lyreb…

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Lysander - Lysander establishes himself, Triumph, Decline and death

Greek political leader and naval commander. He commanded the Spartan fleet which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami (405 BC), and in 404 BC took Athens, thus ending the Peloponnesian War. Lysander was one of the Heraclidae, but not a member of the Spartan royal families. Lysander was put in charge of the Spartan fleet in the Aegean, based at Ephesus (407 BC) when Alcibiades rejoine…

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Lysias - Life, Style, Works

Greek orator, the son of a rich Syracusan. Educated at Thurii in Italy, he settled in Athens c.440 BC. The Thirty Tyrants in 404 BC stripped him and his brother Polemarchus of their wealth, and killed Polemarchus. The first use to which Lysias put his eloquence was in ‘Against Eratosthenes’ to prosecute the tyrant chiefly to blame for his brother's murder. He then practised with success as a wri…

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Lysimachus

Macedonian general of Alexander the Great. He acted as his bodyguard during the conquest of Asia, and became King of Thrace, to which he later added NW Asia Minor and Macedonia. He was defeated and killed at Koroupedion by Seleucus. Son of Agathocles, he was from Pella in Macedonia. After Alexander’s death (323 BC) he was appointed to the government of Thrace and the Chersonese. …

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lysosome - Acidic Environment, Enzymes, Functions, Clinical relevance

A membrane-bound sac which contains numerous enzymes capable of digesting a wide variety of substrates. Lysosomes are found within cells, and are probably formed by the Golgi body. They are involved in the digestion of food and in the destruction of bacteria in white blood cells. Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). The membrane surrounding a lysosome p…

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lysozyme - Physiology, Role in disease, Diagnostic use, History

An enzyme present in tears, saliva, sweat, milk, and nasal and gastric secretions; also known as muramidase. It destroys bacterial cell walls by digesting their polysaccharide component. Lysozyme (BE: lysosyme) is an enzyme (EC 3.2.1.17), commonly referred to as the "body's own antibiotic" since it kills bacteria. Most of the bacteria affected by lysozyme are not pathogenic. Lys…

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M(atthew) G(regory) Lewis - Biography

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford and Weimar universities, and in 1794 was an attaché to The Hague where he wrote The Monk (1796), a Gothic novel which caught the public's attention and inspired his nickname. After the success of his musical drama, The Castle Spectre (1798), his concern about the treatment of the slaves on the vast estates he inherited in the West Indies took him…

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Maarten 't Hart

Novelist and biologist, born in Maassluis, W Netherlands. In his anecdotal prose, the successful writer uses many autobiographical elements derived from his strict Calvinist upbringing. Other themes are isolation, impossible love, and the inability to enter into relationships with women. In his essay De vrouw bestaat niet (1982, Women Do Not Exist) he agitates against feminism, which caused a heft…

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Maarten (Harpertszoon) Tromp

Dutch admiral, born in Brielle, W Netherlands. In 1637 he became lieutenant-admiral of Holland and West Friesland. In 1639 he defeated a superior Spanish fleet off Gravelines, and won the Battle of the Downs later that year by means of a brilliant strategy. Knighted by Louis XIII of France (1640) and by Charles I of England (1642), he then fought the French pirates based at Dunkirk, while his enco…

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Maarten Schmidt

Astronomer, born in Groningen, The Netherlands. He studied at Groningen and Leyden, moved to the California Institute of Technology in 1959, and became director of the Hale Observatories in 1978. He studied the spectrum of an optically identified quasar, and discovered that the peculiarities of its spectrum were caused by a massive redshift, which appeared to be receding at nearly 16% of the speed…

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Maarten van Rossum

Dutch military officer in the service of Charles of Egmont, Duke of Gelre. He became Stadtholder of Sneek in 1518, and in 1528 was Governor of Utrecht and led a raid on The Hague. Ten years later, after Charles' death, he transferred to the French service, captured Amersfoort, and raided Brabant. In 1543 he transferred again to Charles V when he took over Gelre. Probably unfairly, he has been labe…

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Maastricht - History, Politics

50°51N 5°42E, pop (2000e) 124 000. Capital city of Limburg province, S Netherlands, on the R Maas; commercial hub of an area extending well into Belgium; railway junction; noted for its vegetable and butter markets; paper, packaging, leatherwork, brewing, printing, ceramics, glass, tourism; St Pietersburg underground gallery; Church of St Servatius (6th-c), Romanesque basilica (10th–11th-c). …

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Maastricht Treaty

An agreement reached in December 1991 at Maastricht, The Netherlands, during a meeting of the heads of state and government of the European Community. It was the conclusion of a series of inter-governmental conferences on European political union and economic/monetary union which had been taking place since December 1990. The summit agreed a treaty framework for European union, incorporating polit…

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Mabel Dodge Luhan - Early life, Florence, New York, Taos

Hostess, writer, and promoter of art and social causes, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. Born into a moderately wealthy family, she studied briefly in New York City and near Washington, DC, before entering Buffalo society (1897). As expected of such a young woman, she married a young man of her class (1900), but shortly after the birth of their son her husband died in an accident. Suffering from a …

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Mabel Normand - Early career with Mack Sennett, Career Destroyed, Humorous Quote, Further reading

Film actress, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The daughter of a vaudeville pianist, she was a model at age 13 and made her screen debut at age 16. By 1912 she was starring in Mack Sennett comedies and her performance opposite Charlie Chaplin in Tillie's Punctured Romance (1914) made her one of the stars of silent films for a decade. Scandals involving drugs and two murder cases put a strain on…

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MAC (Multiplex Analogue Components)

A system of colour television transmission in which coded signals representing luminance, chrominance, and sound, along with synchronizing data, are sent in succession as separate components during each TV line. The system requires greater bandwidth than normal, but offers enhanced definition and picture quality. Mac or MAC may refer to …

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macaque

An Old World monkey, native to S and SE Asia (18 species) and NW Africa (Barbary ape); legs and arms of equal length; tail often short; lives in trees or on ground (depending on species); buttocks with naked patches. (Genus: Macaca, 19 species.) …

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macaw - Species in taxonomic order, Status, Hybrids, Gallery

A large parrot native to the Caribbean, and to Central and tropical South America; inhabits woodland or savannah; eats fruit, seeds, and nuts; nests in holes. (Genera: Ara, Anodorhynchus, Cyanopsitta, c.16 species.) Macaws are large colorful New World parrots, classified into six of the many Psittacidae genera: Ara, Anodorhynchus, Cyanopsitta, Propyrrhura, Orthopsittaca, and Diopsitta…

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Macbeth - Date and revision, The "Scottish Play", Text of the play

King of Scots (1040–57). The mormaer (provincial ruler) of Moray (c.1031), he became king (1040) after slaying Duncan I in battle near Elgin, and in 1050 went on a pilgrimage to Rome. He was defeated and killed by Duncan's son, Malcolm Canmore, at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire. Macbeth represented the northern Scots who were opposed to the ties with the Saxons, advocated by Duncan. Shakespeare's versi…

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MacBride principles - Campaign, Endorsement

A code of conduct for Northern Ireland advocated by Irish statesman Sean MacBride (1904–88), and adopted in 1976, recommending that local firms should aim for balanced community representation in their staff recruitment. The code was created as part of a policy of creating jobs for the Catholic minority in Northern Ireland, and was initially focused on US companies which had branches in the regio…

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Maccabees - Start of the revolt, Mention in Deuterocanon, Origin of name

An important Jewish family, and those of its party (also known as the Hasmoneans) who initially resisted the influences of Greek culture on Israel and its religion during Syrian rule over Palestine. Judas Maccabeus (or ben Mattathias) led a revolt in 168 BC by attacking a Jewish apostate, and it was continued by his sons through a kind of guerrilla warfare. It resulted eventually in semi-independe…

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MacDonnell Ranges - Tourist attractions

Mountain ranges in Northern Territory, C Australia; extend 320 km/200 mi W from Alice Springs; rising to 1525 m/5000 ft at Mt Liebig, the highest point in the state. The MacDonnell Ranges of the Northern Territory, are a 644 km (400 mile) long mountain range located in the centre of Australia (23°42′S 132°30′E), and consist of parallel ridges running to the east and west of …

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mace - History of the mace, Heraldic use, Sources and External links

A spice obtained by grinding up the red, net-like aril which surrounds the seed of the nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans). Like nutmeg, mace is poisonous if consumed in large quantities because of the presence of a narcotic. The mace was first developed around 12,000 BC and quickly became an important weapon. These first wooden maces, studded with flint or obsidian, became less popular due to…

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Macedon - History, Institutions

In antiquity, the territory to the N of Greece abutting on to the NW corner of the Aegean. Regarded by the Greeks as backward, Macedon did not attract much notice until the military and diplomatic genius of Philip II (359–336 BC) transformed her into the most powerful state in the whole of Greece. Under his son, Alexander the Great, the Persian Empire was overthrown; but with Alexander's death (3…

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Macgregor Laird

Explorer and merchant, born in Greenock, Inverclyde, WC Scotland, UK. He first travelled to the lower Niger with Richard Lander's last expedition (1832–4), and was the first European to journey up the Benue R. In 1837 he started a transatlantic steamship company, his ship Sirius becoming the first to cross the Atlantic entirely under steam in 1838. Macgregor Laird (1808 - January 9, 1861) …

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Mach number - Overview, High-speed flow around objects, High-speed flow in a channel, Instrumentation

Unit of velocity; symbol Ma; defined as the ratio of velocity of an object to that of sound in some medium, usually air; named after Ernst Mach; an aircraft travelling at Ma 1 has velocity 331·5 m/s, the velocity of sound in air. Mach number (Ma) (pronounced: [mæk], [mɑːk]) is a measure of relative speed. It is defined as the speed of an object relative to a fluid medium, divided by th…

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Mach's principle - Mach's principle, Mach's principle in modern General Relativity

In physics, an argument that the acceleration of an object cannot be measured relative to absolute space, but must instead be measured against all matter in the universe. The inertia of an object is determined by all matter around it, and has no meaning in empty space. The argument, propounded by Ernst Mach in 1863, influenced Einstein's development of general relativity. In theoretical phy…

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machine - Simple machines or mechanical components, Clock, Compressors and Pumps, External combustion engine, Linkages, Turbine, Airfoil, Rocket

An assembly of connected parts arranged to transmit or modify force to perform useful work. All machines are based on six types: (1) lever; (2) wheel and axle; (3) pulley; (4) inclined plane; (5) wedge; and (6) screw. The wheelbarrow, human arm, and crowbar are all levers. Wheel and axles are used to raise loads by pulling a rope attached to the axle. Pulleys work in the same way, but the force an…

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machine code - Machine code instructions, Programs, Assembly languages, Example, Are machine languages special?, Relationship to microcode

The fundamental instructions which can be directly understood and acted on by a computer, written in a hexadecimal system. Programmers seldom write directly in machine code; instead they use either the assembly language for the specific computer or one of the many available high-level languages. Machine code or machine language is a system of instructions and data directly understandable by…

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Machu Picchu - History, Location, The Machu Picchu sanctuary, Three sectors, Architecture, Inca road system, The Rediscovery

13°07S 72°34W. Ruined Inca city in SC Peru; a world heritage site; on the saddle of a high mountain with terraced slopes falling away to the R Urubamba; comparatively well-preserved because it was never found by the Spaniards; discovered in 1911 by US explorer Hiram Bingham; ruins consist of staircases, temples, terraces, palaces, towers, fountains, and a famous sundial; Museo de Sitio museum; n…

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Macintosh - Current product line, History, Hardware, Software, Advertising, Effects on the technology industry, Market share and demographics

A model of personal computer known particularly for its use of windows and icons to communicate with the user. It is very popular among users involved in aspects of graphic design work. Macintosh is a trade mark of Apple Computer Inc of California. The Macintosh, or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. Named after the McInto…

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Mack Sennett - Early life, Keystone Studios, Move to Pathé, Experiments, awards and bankruptcy, Death, Legacy

Film director, producer, and actor, born in Richmond, Quebec, SE Canada. He worked as a comic in burlesque companies, and from 1908 in silent films. He later formed his own company, and made hundreds of shorts, establishing a whole generation of players and a tradition of knockabout slapstick under the name of Keystone Komics (1912) and later the Sennett Bathing Beauties (1920). He was given a spe…

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Mackenzie River - Lakes and tributaries

River in Northwest Territories, NW Canada; issues from W end of Great Slave Lake; flows NW to enter the Beaufort Sea through a wide delta near the boundary with Yukon Territory; length 4241 km/2635 mi; navigable in summer (Jun–Oct); hydroelectricity; oil and mineral transportation. The Mackenzie River (French: Fleuve Mackenzie) originates in Great Slave Lake, in the Northwest Territories…

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mackerel - Species whose common name includes "mackerel", Use as an adjective, Other mackerel, Trivia

Surface-living fish (Scomber scombrus) widespread and locally abundant in the N Atlantic; undertakes long seasonal migrations; length up to 60 cm/2 ft; body slender, rounded in section, tail deeply forked, small finlets between dorsal and anal fins; bright blue or green with dark blue or black bars, underside silvery white; extensively fished commercially using nets or lines; changes in distribu…

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M

46°19N 4°50E, pop (2000e) 40 300. Manufacturing city and capital of Saône-et-Loire department, C France, on the W bank of the R Saône; episcopal see from the 6th-c until the Revolution; road and rail junction; commercial centre of major wine area; textiles, agricultural machinery, casks; remains of 12th-c cathedral; birthplace of Lamartine; prehistoric site at Solutre, 8 km/5 mi W. …

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Macon

32º51N 83º38W, pop (2002e) 97 200. County seat of Bibb Co, C Georgia, USA; located on the R Ocmulgee, 123 km/76 mi SSE of Atlanta; birthplace of William Shepherd Benson, Sidney Lanier, Little Richard; university (1833); railway; processing and shipping centre for large farming area; textiles, clay products, tiles, bricks, explosives. Macon may refer to: …

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Macquarie Island - Geography, History, Demographics, Fauna

54°30S 158°56W, area 123 km²/47 sq mi. Island lying 1345 km/835 mi SW of Tasmania, Australia; average height 240 m/800 ft, rises to 425 m/1400 ft; meteorological and geological research stations; nature reserve (1933); breeding ground of royal penguin; colony of fur seals re-established there, 1956; made world heritage site, 1997. Macquarie Island, located at 54°37′S 158°51

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macroeconomics - Origins, Analytical approaches

The study of economic aggregrates and averages. These include levels of national income, employment and unemployment, price levels and inflation, short-term fluctuations, and long-term growth rates in the economy. This involves analysing the behaviour of various sectors of the economy: the determinants of consumption, investment, and foreign trade and payments, and the policies followed by the gov…

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Madagascar - History, Politics, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Ecology, Economy, Foreign relations, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Republic of Madagascar, Malagasy Repoblikan'i Madagasikara Madagascar (Republic of Madagascar), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean, off the eastern coast of Africa, close to Mozambique. The main island, also called Madagascar, is the fourth largest island in the world. It is home to five percent of the world's plant and animal species, more than 80 percent of them e…

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Madalyn Murray O'Hair - Biography, The founding of American Atheists and later, Disappearance and death, Criticism, Urban legend, Bibliography

Social activist, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. She enjoyed a normal, happy childhood but was overwhelmed when she read the Bible cover-to-cover at age 13. During World War 2 she served as a cryptographer and second lieutenant. She gradually became an atheist and when her son Bill objected to school prayers she took the case to the Supreme Court where she challenged devotional Bible readin…

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Madame Vestris

Actress, born in London, UK. At 16 she married the dancer Armand Vestris (1787–1825), the son of Auguste Vestris, but they separated two years later, and she went on the stage in Paris. She appeared at Drury Lane in 1820, becoming famous in a wide range of roles. She was lessee of the Olympic Theatre for nine years, and later managed Covent Garden and the Lyceum. Lucia Elizabeth Vestris (J…

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Madara Rider - Monument, Inscriptions

An 8th-c bas-relief, carved out of the sheer cliff face in the village of Madara, E Bulgaria; a world heritage monument. The near life-size sculpture depicts a man on horseback trampling a lion beneath his horse's hooves. The Madara Rider or Madara Horseman (Bulgarian: Мадарски конник, Madarski konnik) is an early medieval large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of…

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madder

An evergreen perennial (Rubia tinctoria), native to the Mediterranean; stems 4-angled, trailing or scrambling by means of small downwardly directed hooks; leaves narrow, stiff, in whorls of 4–6; flowers small, yellow, 5-petalled; berries reddish-brown. The roots produce the dye alizarin. (Family: Rubiaceae.) Madder is the common name of the plant genus Rubia, the type genus of the madder f…

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Madeira (Islands) - Geography and Climate, Municipalities, Culture and people, Biodiversity, Levadas, Postage stamps, Transportation, Famous people

(Portugal) Madeira (pron. It is one of the Autonomous regions of Portugal, with Madeira and Porto Santo being the only inhabited islands. Madeira, known originally to the Romans as the Purple Islands, was rediscovered, possibly accidentally, by Portuguese sailors and settled by Portugal in 1418. The Autonomous Region of Madeira is composed by Madeira Island, Porto Sa…

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Madeleine Kunin - Trivia, Other names

US governor, born in Zürich, Switzerland. Emigrating to New York at age six, she worked as a journalist in Burlington, VT, writing free-lance articles while raising her children (1961–71). Elected to the Vermont house of representatives (Democrat, 1973–8), she chaired the Appropriations Committee, becoming lieutenant governor (1979–82). As Vermont's governor (1985–91) she reduced state debt, …

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Madeleine L'Engle - Biography, Bibliographic overview, Partial list of works, Important L'Engle characters

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Smith College (1941), worked in the theatre in New York (1941–7), taught school for many years, and remained in New York City. By 1960 she began her career as a novelist for young readers, and became famous for her moral fantasies, such as A Wrinkle in Time (1962). Madeleine L'Engle (born November 29, 1918) is an American writer …

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Madhya Pradesh - Economy, Government and politics, Divisions, Transport, Demographics, Culture, Flora and fauna

pop (2001e) 60 385 100; area 442 841 km²/170 937 sq mi. State in C India, between the Deccan and the Ganges plains; largest state in India; crossed by numerous rivers; ruled by the Gonds, 16th–17th-c, and Marathas, 18th-c; occupied by the British, 1820; called Central Provinces and Berar, 1903–50; formed under the States Reorganization Act, 1956; capital, Bhopal; governed by a 90-member…

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Madison - History, Geography, Demographics, Politics, Religion, Economy, Education, Transportation, Media, Culture, Sports, Famous Madisonians, Points of interest

43°04N 89°24W, pop (2000e) 208 100. Capital of state in Dane County, S Wisconsin, USA; on L Mendota and L Monona; state capital, 1836; city status, 1856; birthplace of Karole Armitage; airfield; railway; university (1836); trading and manufacturing centre in agricultural region; farm machinery, meat-packing, medical equipment; World Dairy Exposition (Oct). Madison is the capital of Wisc…

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Madoc - Madoc's story and background, The Welsh Indians, The legend's sources

Legendary Welsh prince, long believed by his countrymen to have discovered America in 1170. The story is in Hakluyt's Voyages (1582) and Lloyd and Powell's Cambria (1584). The essay by Thomas Stephens written in 1858 for the Eisteddfod, and published in 1893, proved it to be baseless. Madoc (Madog or Madawg) ap Owain Gwynedd was a Welsh prince who, according to legend, discovered America in…

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Madonna

Pop singer, born in Rochester, Michigan, USA. She trained as a dancer at Michigan University before moving to New York City, where she began her professional career as a backing singer to a number of New York groups. She hired Michael Jackson's manager prior to releasing Madonna (1983), an album which included five US hit singles. Subsequent albums have included Like a Virgin (1984), True Blue (19…

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Madras - Name, History, Geography, Administration, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Transport, Media, Education, Sports

13°08N 80°19E, pop (2000e) 6 296 000. Capital of Tamil Nadu, SE India; on R Coom, 1360 km/845 mi SW of Kolkata (Calcutta); fourth largest city in India, and chief port of Tamil Nadu; founded by the British, 17th-c; airport; railway; university (1857); textiles, chemicals, tanning, glass, engineering, jewellery, clothing, cars, bicycles; trade in leather, wool, cotton, tobacco, mica, magnesi…

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Madrid - Names of the city and origin of the current name, History, Economy and demographics, Administrative divisions

40°25N 3°45W, pop (2000e) 2 948 000. Industrial capital and largest city of Spain; capital of Madrid province; in C Spain, on R Manzanares; altitude, 655 m/2149 ft, the highest capital city in Europe; archbishopric; airport; railway; metro; two universities (1508, 1968); textiles, engineering, chemicals, leather goods, agricultural trade; site of a Moorish fortress until 11th-c; under siege…

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madrigal

A polyphonic song, usually secular and without instrumental accompaniment. It was cultivated especially in Italy during the 16th-c by Palestrina, Lassus, Gabrieli, Marenzio (1553–99), and others, and is characterized by a judicious mixture of contrapuntal and chordal style and by serious, Petrarchan, and usually amorous verses. In the early 17th-c, Italian madrigals, notably those of Monteverdi, …

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Madurai - History, Administration, Geography, Demographics, People and culture, City architecture and planning, Education, Economy, Industrial development

9°55N 78°10E, pop (2000e) 1 117 000. City in Tamil Nadu, S India; on the R Voigai, 425 km/264 mi SW of Chennai (Madras); capital of the Pandyan kingdom and the Nayak dynasty; occupied by the British, 1801; airfield; railway; university (1966); silk and muslin weaving, woodcarving, brassware, trade in coffee, tea, cardamom; large Dravidian temple complex (14th–17th-c). Madurai pronun…

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Madurese

An Austronesian-speaking people of the island of Madura, Kangean Is, and nearby coastal areas of NE Java, Indonesia. They cultivate rice and raise export cattle on Madura, and are well-known in Java as migrant labourers, traders, fishermen, and sailors. Population c.5 million. The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, whe…

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Mae West

Actress, born in New York City, USA. A child performer, she spent some years in vaudeville and on Broadway before her first film, Night After Night (1932). Throughout the 1930s a series of racy comedies, often with her own dialogue-script, all celebrating the sexually emancipated woman, although under much pressure from censorship. She subsequently returned to the stage and nightclubs, but made tw…

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Maeve Binchy - Bibliography

Writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. She studied history at University College Dublin, then became a teacher, travel writer, and columnist, joining the Irish Times in 1969. She has written plays for television and the stage, but is most widely known as a romantic novelist. Her books include Light a Penny Candle (1982), Circle of Friends (1990), The Glass Lake (1994), Tara Road (1998), Scarlet Feather …

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Mafia - Origin of the term 'mafia', Rituals of Sicilian Cosa Nostra, History of Sicilian Cosa Nostra

A powerful and well-defended criminal organization, originating as a secret society in 13th-c Italy. It developed (along with its modern name) in the 19th-c, and from Italy moved to the USA, where it became known as Cosa Nostra (‘Our Affair’). There have been many attempts to suppress the Mafia, but its system of family loyalty and code of silence makes progress difficult. A widespread protest a…

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Magdalena Abakanowicz

Artist, born in Falenty, near Warsaw, Poland. She studied at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts (1950–5), and sought to escape from conventional art forms through weaving. In the 1960s she achieved international recognition with her monumental abstract woven fibre installations called ‘Abakans’. After 1965 she taught at the State College of Arts, Poznan, becoming professor in 1979. Magdalen…

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River Magdalena - People, Music, Business, Technology, Politics, Fiction

Major river of Colombia, rising in the Cordillera Central; flows N 1600 km/1000 mi to enter the Caribbean 14 km/9 mi NW of Barranquilla in a wide delta; navigable for most of its course; fertile valley in upper and mid course, producing coffee, sugar cane, tobacco, cacao, cotton. …

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Magdalenian

The last Upper Palaeolithic archaeological culture of W Europe, named after the cave of La Madeleine, Dordogne, SW France, excavated in 1863. Many sites dated c.17 000–12 000 BC are known from Spain, France, Belgium, Britain, Germany, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic. Most notable are the painted caves of Lascaux and Altamira. There is extensive debate about the precise nature of the …

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Magdeburg - History, Cathedral of Magdeburg, Trivia, Sister Cities

52°08N 11°36E, pop (2000e) 289 000. River-port capital of Magdeburg county, C Germany; on R Elbe SW of Berlin; former capital of Saxony, and important mediaeval trading town at centre of N German plain; access to the Ruhr and Rhine Rivers via the Mittelland Canal; badly bombed in World War 2; railway; college of medicine; college of technology (1953); iron and steel, engineering, chemicals, su…

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Magellanic Clouds - History, Characteristics

Two dwarf galaxies, satellites of the Milky Way, visible as cloudy patches in the S night sky, first recorded by Magellan in 1519, 52 and 58 kiloparsec away, and each containing a few thousand million stars. They are of immense astrophysical importance, because the individual stars within them can be studied and are essentially all at the same distance from us. This removes a great source of uncer…

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Maggie Kuhn - YWCA, The Presbyterian Church of the USA, Gray Panthers, Sources

Social activist, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. She taught junior high school briefly and then worked for the Young Men's Christian Association (1926–37) and the United Presbyterian Church in New York City (1945–70). In 1971 she founded the Consultation of Older and Younger Adults for Social Change, which was soon renamed the Gray Panthers. She worked for nursing home reform, fought ageism, and…

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Maggie Smith - Awards and Nominations, Selected filmography

Actress, born in Ilford, E Greater London, UK. A student at the Oxford Playhouse School, she made her stage debut with the Oxford University Dramatic Society in 1952, and appeared in New York City as one of the New Faces of '56. Gaining increasing critical esteem for her performances, she joined the National Theatre, where she played in Othello (1963), Hay Fever (1966), and The Three Sisters (1970…

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maggot - Description, Life Cycle, Uses, Problems

The grub-like larval stage of many true flies. (Order: Diptera.) Maggots are generally 4 to 12 mm in length depending on their stage of growth. The fly life cycle is composed of four stages: egg, larva (commonly known as a maggot), pupa, adult. After 8-20 hours, the egg hatches and the fly enters the maggot stage. The maggot gorges itself with food until it is ready to ent…

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Maghreb - Etymology, Culture and roots, History, Maghribi traders in Jewish history, Modern territories of the Maghreb

area c.9 million km²/3·5 million sq mi. Area of NW Africa including the countries of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; largely occupied by the Kabyle, Shluh, and Tuareg. In Arabic, it refers to Morocco only. The word maghreb is an Arabic term literally meaning "place of setting (of the sun)", and hence "West." In Arabic but not in English, Al Maghreb commonly refers to Morocco…

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Magi (antiquity) - Etymology, History in the Persian Empire, The Magi in India

A Greek term used in antiquity with a variety of connotations: magi were members of the priestly clan of the Persians, but classical Greek and Roman writers used the term in a derogatory sense and with no necessary connection with Persia to refer to sorcerers and even ‘quacks’. The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin, via Greek μάγος?; from Old Persian maguš) was a tribe from ancient M…

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Magi (scripture) - Etymology, History in the Persian Empire, The Magi in India

A group of unspecified number guided by a mysterious star (Matt 2.1–12), who came from ‘the East’ and presented gifts to the infant Jesus in Bethlehem, after inquiring of his whereabouts from Herod. Origen (3rd-c AD) suggested they were three because of the three gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Tertullian (AD c.160–220) deduced that they were kings. Later Christian tradition named them…

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magic

Beliefs and practices which promise a power to intervene in natural processes, but which have no scientific basis. Two common principles of magical belief are said to be ‘like affects like’ (eg that a cloud of smoke rising to the sky will bring rain) and ‘part affects whole’ (eg burning a person's hair-cuttings will cause that person to be damaged). In modern industrial societies, belief in ma…

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Magic Circle - Setup, Purpose, Maintaining the circle, Closing the circle

An organization of amateur and professional magicians, formed in London in 1905, and now with c.1500 members throughout the world. There are categories of associate membership, for those with an interest in magic, and various degrees of full membership (achieved through examination), restricted to those who have a knowledge of, and practical ability in magic, as well as a commitment to secrecy (th…

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Magic Johnson - 1979-80: First NBA season, 1980s: Controversy, championships, and the rivalry

Basketball player, born in Lansing, Michigan, USA. After leading Michigan State University to a National Collegiate Athletic Association championship (1979), he played 12 years as a guard for the Los Angeles Lakers (1980–91). He was named to the All-NBA (National Basketball Association) team nine times (1983–91), and was voted the league's Most Valuable Player three times (1987, 1990, 1991). He …

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Maginot Line - German invasion, End of the war, The Line after WWII, The Legacy of the Line

French defensive fortifications stretching from Longwy in Belgium to the Swiss border, named after André Maginot, the French minister of defence (1924–31) who directed its construction. The line was constructed (1929–34) to act as protection against German invasion, but Belgium refused to extend it along her frontier with Germany. The chief effect it had was to create a false sense of security;…

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magma - Melting of solid rock, Partial melting, Composition and melt structure and properties

Molten rock, formed by the partial melting of the Earth's mantle. Under certain geological conditions it may migrate upwards and solidify within the crust to form an igneous intrusion, or may reach the surface, where it loses its volatile constituents and is erupted as lava. Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often coll…

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Magna Carta - Popular perceptions, Usage and spelling, Copies, Participant list

The ‘Great Charter’, imposed by rebellious barons on King John of England in June 1215 at Runnymede, designed to prohibit arbitrary royal acts by declaring a body of defined law and custom which the king must respect in dealing with all his free subjects. Of its 63 clauses, many of which concerned John's misuse of his financial and judicial powers, the most famous are clause 39 - ‘No freeman sh…

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Magna Graecia - History

Literally (Lat), ‘Great Greece’; the collective name in antiquity for the Greek cities of S Italy. Most (eg Cumae, Sybaris) were founded by settlers from mainland Greece and the Aegean area, but some were offshoots of the Greek colonies in Italy themselves (eg Naples was founded by Cumae, and Paestum by Sybaris). Magna Graecia (Latin for "Greater Greece," Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελ

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magnesia - Municipalities and communities, Archaeological sites, Transportation

Magnesium oxide (MgO), also called periclase; a white solid, melting point 2850°C, obtained from heating magnesium carbonate, used as a heat-resisting material. Milk of magnesia is a suspension of hydrated magnesia used as a laxative. Magnesia (Greek: Μαγνησία Magnisia; See also: List of settlements in the Magnesia prefecture …

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magnesite

A magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) mineral formed by the alteration of magnesium-rich rock by fluids. It forms pale, massive ore deposits which are an important source of magnesium. Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. …

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magnesium - Food sources

Mg, element 12, melting point 649°C. A silvery metal, always found combined in nature, but mainly as the carbonate in magnesite (MgCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). In practice, magnesium is obtained by electrolysis of MgCl2 from brines. It is used in alloys for its lightness (density 1·7 g/cm3), and for flares and flash bulbs because of the bright white light produced by its very exothermic reac…

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magnet - Physical origin of magnetism, Characteristics of magnets, Common uses for magnets and electromagnets, Magnetization of materials

A source of magnetic field; always with two poles, named N (north) and S (south), since no isolated single pole exists; like poles repel; opposite poles attract. A permanent magnet is usually made from a ferromagnetic material which at some time has been exposed to a magnetic field. An electromagnet is some suitable core material around which is wrapped a current-carrying coil. A magnet is …

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magnetic declination - Using the declination, Navigation

The direction of the Earth's magnetic field in terms of the angle, measured in the horizontal plane, which the field makes with the meridian, ie the deviation of the field from true N; also termed the magnetic variation. The magnetic declination at any point on the Earth is the angle between the local magnetic field -- the direction the north end of a compass points -- and true north. The d…

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magnetic field

A region of magnetic influence around a magnet, moving charge, or current-carrying wire; denoted by B, the magnetic flux density, units T (tesla), and by H, the magnetic field strength, units A/m (amps per metre). There are many technological applications, including generators and motors. In physics, a magnetic field is that part of the electromagnetic field that exerts a force on a moving …

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