Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 46

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Liechtenstein - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Transport, Culture, Sport, References and notes

Official name Principality of Liechtenstein, Ger Fürstentum Liechtenstein The Principality of Liechtenstein (German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a small, doubly landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to its west and by Austria to its east. At one time, the territory of Liechtenstein formed a part (albeit a diminutive one) of the ancient Roman prov…

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Li

50°38N 5°35E, pop (2000e) 199 000. River port and capital city of Liège province, E Belgium, at confluence of Ourthe and Meuse rivers; bishopric; university (1817); fifth largest city in Belgium; railway; centre of former coal-mining area; blast furnaces, metalworking, civil engineering, textiles, foodstuffs, electronics, chemicals, glassware, arms; Church of St Jacques (11th-c, rebuilt 1513

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life - Definition by Opinion, Origin of life, The possibility of extraterrestrial life

The state or property of organisms which, by their metabolic processes, use substances from their environment for the purposes of growth, the maintenance of their functional systems, the repair of their own structure, and for reproducing themselves. All life forms on Earth are based on nucleic acids, either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA), which carry their hereditary genetic…

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life imprisonment - Interpretation in North America, Interpretation in Asia/Pacific

A sentence involving imprisonment in theory for the remainder of the convicted person's life. In the UK, it is the mandatory sentence for murder, and the maximum sentence for certain other crimes such as manslaughter and rape. In practice, the sentence usually means 15 years, followed by parole for life. A prisoner in England and Wales may be released on licence by the home secretary on the advice…

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life insurance - How life insurance works, Types of life insurance, Permanent, Related life insurance products

Insurance designed to provide protection against financial hardship for dependents following the death of the insured person; also (especially in the UK) called life assurance. Whole life policies run for the whole of a person's life, accumulating a cash value which is paid when the policy matures (or is surrendered), but which is less than the policy's face value. Endowment policies run for a spe…

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lifeboat - Ship-launched lifeboats, Origins of the lifeboats onboard ships, Modern life boats, Other usages

A vessel designed specifically for saving life at sea; also, a craft carried by seagoing vessels to save the lives of personnel in the event of abandoning ship. Lionel Lukin is believed to have been the first to build a lifeboat, in 1786, basing it at Bamburgh Head, Northumberland, UK. In 1890 the first mechanically powered lifeboat was launched, equipped with a steam engine; in 1904 the petrol en…

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lifting body

A spacecraft designed for controlled atmospheric flight following entry from space. The aerodynamic configuration is designed to withstand entry loads and also to generate significant lift. The NASA space shuttle orbiter is an example. …

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ligament - Fibrous ligaments, Peritoneal ligaments, Remnants of fetal structures, List of major fibrous ligaments

A tough band of tissue connecting bones (eg across joints) or supporting internal organs (eg peritoneal ligaments). Ligaments are generally composed of inextensible collagen arranged in parallel bundles, but some contain a significant amount of elastic tissue, which allows limited movement to occur. When associated with joints they can vary from the thickenings of the joint capsule to substantial …

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ligand

A molecule or ion bonded to another. It is most often used to describe species bonded to the central metal ion in a co-ordination compound. In the following table the ligands are sorted by field strength (weak field ligands first): Note: The entries in the table are sorted by field strength, binding through the stated atom (i.e. …

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liger - History, Large size, Longevity, Fertility, Vocalisation and behavior, Colors, Zoo policies, In popular culture

A member of the cat family, resulting from the mating of a male lion with a female tiger. The offspring produced when a male tiger mates with a female lion is called a tigon. The liger is a cross (a hybrid) between a male lion and a female tiger. A liger looks like a giant lion with diffused stripes. Like tigers, but unlike lions, ligers enjoy swimming. A cross between a male ti…

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light - Speed of light, Refraction, Optics, Measurement of light, Light sources, Theories about light, Effects of light

The visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, corresponding to electromagnetic waves ranging in wavelength from approximately 3·9 × 10?7 m (violet) to 7·8 × 10?7 m (red) (corresponding frequencies 7·7 × 1014 Hz and 3·8 × 1014 Hz, respectively). Different wavelengths of light are perceived by humans as different colours. White light is composed of light of different wavel…

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light-emitting diode (LED) - LED technology, Considerations in use, LED applications

A tiny semiconductor diode which emits light when an electric current is passed through it. It is used in electronic calculator displays and digital watch read-outs, where the digits are made up from the diodes. The colour of the light emitted depends on the material of the crystal. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when elect…

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lighthouse - History, Design, Maintenance, Automation, Notable Lighthouses, Symbology, Range Lights, Gallery

A tower or other structure erected to give guidance and warning to ships and aircraft by either visible or radioelectrical means. The first man-made lighthouse was the Pharos of Alexandria (3rd-c BC). Early lighthouses were erected on land and burnt mainly wood, coal, or oil. Henry Winstanley's Eddystone lighthouse was the first structure (1699) fully exposed to the open sea, while Smeaton's mason…

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lightning - How it is formed, Types of lightning, Cloud-to-cloud lightning, Lightning safety

A visible electric discharge in the form of a flash of light which results from charge separation in a thundercloud. There are two parts to the flash: the first is from the cloud to the ground or tall structure; the second is the return stroke from ground to cloud. The reflection of lightning on surrounding clouds, in which the illumination is diffused, is known as sheet lightning. Lightnin…

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lignum vitae

An evergreen tree (Guaiacum officinale) growing to c.10 m/30 ft, native to the West Indies; bark pale, smooth; leaves pinnate with oval leaflets; flowers blue, 5-petalled. It is a source of durable timber. (Family: Zygophyllaceae.) Lignum vitae is the heartwood of species of the genus Guaiacum, the trees of which are usually called guayacan. The name is Latin for "wood of life", and deriv…

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Liguria - Origins, Climate, Principal cities and towns, Image gallery

pop (2002e) 1 603 000; area 5411 km²/2090 sq mi. Region in NW Italy, extending in an arc around the Ligurian Sea (Golfo di Genova); the Appno Ligure mountains descend steeply to the coast; comprises the provinces of Genova, Imperia, La Spezia, Savona; tourism along the coastal Riviera is of prime importance; industry is concentrated around the ports of Genova (Genoa), La Spezia, and Savona;…

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Ligurian Sea - Conservation

Arm of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded N and E by NW Italy and S by Corsica and Elba; chief ports include Genoa, Livorno, Bastia. The Ligurian Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera (Liguria and Tuscany) and the islands of Corsica and Elba. The sea borders the countries Italy, France, and Monaco, and the Tyrrhenian and Mediterranean Seas. The sea rece…

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lilac

A deciduous shrub or small tree (Syringa vulgaris), native to the Balkans; growing to 3–7 m/10–23 ft, domed and suckering freely; leaves oval to heart-shaped, in opposite pairs; flowers in dense, conical inflorescences, tubular with four spreading lobes, lilac or white, fragrant; fruit a pointed capsule. A widely cultivated garden ornamental, its botanical name should not be confused with the …

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Lilian Hale - Places Named Westcott, People Named Westcott, Things Named Westcott

Painter, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. She studied with William Merritt Chase and at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts with Edmund Tarbell and Philip L Hale, whom she married. Based in Dedham, MA she worked in charcoal, pastels, and oils, and is known for her impressionistic landscapes and portraits, such as ‘Zeffy in Bed’ (c.1912). Westcott is the name of more than one place. …

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Lilith - Etymology, Akkadian mythology, Lilith in the Bible, Jewish tradition, Lilith as Adam's first wife

In Jewish legend, the first wife of Adam; or, more generally, a demon woman. Lilith is a female Mesopotamian night demon believed to harm male children. In Isaiah, Lilith (לִילִית, Standard Hebrew Lilith) is a kind of night-demon or animal, translated as onokentauros in the Septuagint, as lamia "witch" by Hieronymus of Cardia, and as screech owl in the King James Version of the…

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Lilla Cabot Perry - Selected Works by Lilla Cabot Perry

Painter and poet, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A member of prominent Boston families, the Lowells and Cabots, she studied in Boston (c.1885–8) and Paris (1888), summered in France, next door to Monet in Giverny (1889–99), and lived in Japan (1893–1901). Based in Boston, she helped introduce Impressionism to America, as seen in The Trio, Tokyo (1898–1901), and also published four volumes…

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Lille - History, Economy, Transport, Education, Miscellaneous, Twin cities

50°38N 3°03E, pop (2000e) 177 900. Industrial and commercial city and capital of Nord department, N France; near the Belgian frontier, 208 km/129 mi NE of Paris; badly damaged in both World Wars; road and rail junction; university (1560); part of the main industrial centre of N France; textiles, tents, sugar-processing, hygiene goods, foodstuffs, chemicals, engineering, metalworking, printin…

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Lilli Lehmann

Soprano, born in Würzburg, SC Germany. She was taught singing by her mother, and made her debut at Prague in 1865. She sang in Danzig, Lepzig, London, New York City, and elsewhere, and took part in the first performance of Wagner's Ring (1876) at Bayreuth. Lilli Lehmann (November 24, 1848 Würzburg - May 17, 1929 Berlin) was a German operatic soprano. After singing small parts on the stage…

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Lillian (Florence) Hellman - Writing, Blacklist and Aftermath, List of works, Sources

Playwright, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. After studying at New York and Columbia Universities, she worked in publishing and as a book reviewer and play-reader before attaining her first success with the play, The Children's Hour (1934). Concerned with social, political, and moral issues along with more personal ones, she wrote a number of successful plays including The Little Foxes (1939) …

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Lillian Gish - Early life, Private life, Filmography, Books, Documentaries about Lillian Gish, Quotes

Actress, born in Springfield, Ohio, USA. She started in silent films as an extra under D W Griffith in 1912, and became the girl heroine in all his classics from The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916) to Orphans of the Storm (1922). After the coming of sound films, she lost interest in the cinema, but continued on the stage, occasionally returning to film and television in character r…

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Lillian Nordica - Media

Soprano, born in Farmington, Maine, USA. She studied in Boston and began singing publicly in 1876. Following further studies in Milan, she made her operatic debut there in 1879 (and allowed her name to be changed to Nordica) and went on to successful appearances around Europe and England. Her Metropolitan Opera debut came in 1890, and there and elsewhere she was acclaimed above all for her Wagneri…

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Lillian Russell - Life and career

Singer, actress, and entertainer, born in Clinton, Iowa, USA. She made her stage debut in HMS Pinafore (1879) and appeared regularly in Broadway variety theatre, gaining her first starring role in Grand Mogul (1881). As famous for her flamboyant personal life as for her beauty and voice, she toured England and the USA (1899–1904) with a burlesque company, and became known as ‘the American Beauty…

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Lillie Langtry - Marriage, Relationships, affairs and scandals, American citizenship and after, Cultural influence

Actress, born in Jersey, Channel Is. One of the most noted beauties of her time, she married Edward Langtry in 1874, and was the first society woman to appear on stage. Her beauty brought her to the attention of the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, and she became his mistress. She managed the Imperial Theatre, which was never successful. Widowed in 1897, she married in 1899 Hugo Gerald de Bathe,…

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Lilongwe - History, General, Areas, Transport, Shopping

13°58N 33°49E, pop (2000e) 319 000. Capital of Malawi, SE Africa, in Central region, on R Lilongwe; altitude 1100 m/3600 ft; capital since 1975; airport; railway; seeds, tobacco, light engineering, clothes, tourism, commerce. Lilongwe, estimated population 597,619 (2003 census), is the capital of Malawi. It lies in the country's central region, on the Lilongwe river, near the border o…

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Lily (Alice Jos

Soprano, born in Draguignan, SE France. A dramatic coloratura, she excelled in opera, achieving immense success in Paris, London, South America and, especially, at the New York Metropolitan (1931–61). She also sang in films, and during World War 2 toured North Africa and the Far East. Lily Pons (April 12, 1898 – February 13, 1976) was a French-born U.S. coloratura soprano. Bo…

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Lily Ross Taylor - Bibliography, Further reading

Classicist and ancient historian, born in Auburn, Alabama, USA. A student of Tenney Frank, she spent most of her teaching career at Bryn Mawr (1927–52). Both her teaching and her scholarship received many honours. Life magazine cited her as one of the country's great teachers, and her Voting Districts of the Roman Republic (1962) won the Goodwin Award of the American Philological Association. Her…

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Lily Tomlin - Biography, Selected filmography

Comedienne, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Performing in cabarets while doing temporary work, she became successful on television's Laugh-In (1969–73) with her repertoire of off-beat characters. She also appeared in films and network specials. In 1985 her one-woman stage show (co-written with Jane Wagner), In Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe, won a Tony award. Lily Tom…

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Lima - Demographics, Geography, Districts and neighborhoods, Education, Commerce and industry, Transport, Tourist attractions, Sites of interest

12°06S 77°03W, pop (2000e) 7 721 000. Federal capital of Peru; on both sides of the R Rímac, at the foot of the Cerro San Cristóbal; founded by Pizarro, 1535; chief city of Spanish South America until independence; devastated by earthquake, 1746; airport; railway; 10 universities, including San Marcos (1551); vehicles, textiles, foodstuffs, paper; cathedral (1625), Palacio del Gobierno, arc…

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Lima bean

A twining annual or perennial (Phaseolus lunatus), native to tropical South America; leaves with three leaflets; pea-flowers white or yellowish, in long clusters from the axils of the leaves; pods up to 12·5 cm/5 in long, oblong, containing 2–4 flattened, whitish seeds; also called butter bean. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics for the edible seeds (beans). Cultivars with red, b…

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Limassol - History, Administration, Economy, Demographics, Sites of interest, Festivals, Sports, Twinned Cities, Famous people, Reference, Other uses

34°41N 33°02E, pop (2000e) 148 000. Port and capital town of Limassol district, S Cyprus; on Akrotiri Bay, NE of Akrotiri; influx of Greek Cypriot refugees since 1974 Turkish invasion has dramatically increased population; airfield; wine-making, export of fruit and vegetables, distilling; castle (14th-c); spring carnival; arts festival (Jul); wine festival (Sep). Coordinates: 34°40′N…

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limbo - The Limbo of the Fathers (limbus patrum) (also known as Abraham's Bosom)

In mediaeval Christian theology, the abode of souls excluded from the full blessedness of the divine vision, but not condemned to any other punishment. They included unbaptised infants and Old Testament prophets. In religious terminology, limbo is the temporary status of the souls of good persons who died but did not go to Heaven. In Roman Catholic theology, while awaiting the Resurrection …

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Limburg

In the Middle Ages, a county and later a duchy covering part of the present-day Belgian province of Liège and the S of the Dutch province of Limburg. It was originally controlled by the dukes of Nether Lotharingia, but was claimed by the dukes of Brabant. Eventually most of it was added to Brabant after the Battle of Woeringen (1283), with parts to Gelre and the bishopric of Liège. South Limburg…

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lime (chemistry)

Mainly calcium oxide or hydroxide, produced by heating limestone above 800°C, expelling carbon dioxide. Some of the calcium may be replaced by magnesium. The dry product is called quicklime; the addition of water converts the oxide to hydroxide or ‘slaked’ lime. Lime may refer to: Lime may also be: in anime: in music: Other: …

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lime (fruit) - See also

A citrus fruit resembling lemon, but smaller and more globose. Citrus aurantifolia has sour red fruits. Citrus limetta, the sweet lime, with sweeter, greenish fruits, is possibly a mutant of lemon. (Family: Rutaceae.) Lime is a term referring to a number of different citruses, both species and hybrids, which are typically round, green to yellow in color, 3-6 cm in diameter, generally contai…

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lime (tree)

A deciduous N temperate tree; leaves heart-shaped, often sticky with honey-dew caused by aphids; flowers fragrant, white, 5-petalled, in pendulous clusters; fruits rounded, the whole cluster with a wing-like bract which aids in dispersal; also called linden. Common lime (Tilia×europaea) is a hybrid often planted as a street tree. (Genus: Tilia, 50 species. Family: Tiliaceae.) Lime may refe…

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limerick - History, Governance, Architecture, Education, Media and the Arts, Tourism, Hospitals, Climate, Crime, Twinned Cities

‘The limerick, it would appear, / Is a verse form we owe Edward Lear: / Two long and two short / Lines rhymed, as was taught, / And a fifth just to bring up the rear.’ Lear, in fact, popularized the form, which is known from the 11th-c, and usually consists of five predominantly anapaestic lines rhyming aabba. It is especially used with the opening ‘There was a ... ’ (young man from Du…

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Limerick (city) - History, Governance, Architecture, Education, Media and the Arts, Tourism, Hospitals, Climate, Crime, Twinned Cities

52°40N 8°38W, pop (2000e) 75 000. County borough and river-port capital of Limerick county, Munster, SW Ireland; industrial city at head of Shannon Estuary; founded, 1197; scene of major sieges by Cromwell and William III; railway; teacher training college; trade in farm produce, flour milling, brewing, fishing, lace; Belltable arts centre, St Mary's Cathedral (12th-c), St John's Cathedral (19…

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Limerick (county) - History, Governance, Architecture, Education, Media and the Arts, Tourism, Hospitals, Climate, Crime, Twinned Cities

pop (2000e) 164 000; area 2686 km²/1037 sq mi. County in Munster province, SW Ireland; bounded N by R Shannon; capital, Limerick; dairy farming, hydroelectric power (Ardnacrusha), lace. The population of Limerick including the immediate suburbs and environs is 93,321 (based on the 2002 census carried out by the CSO), which would rank it as the third biggest city in the Republic …

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limestone - Limestone landscape, Uses of limestone, References and footnotes

A sedimentary rock consisting mainly of carbonates, primarily calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) or dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), with some sand or clay as impurities. Most limestones are organically formed from the secretions, shells, or skeletons of plants and animals such as corals and molluscs. Inorganic limestones are formed by precipitation from water containing dissolved carbonates. Limestone is o…

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limit

In mathematics, a value approached by a variable. The variable may be the sum of a number of terms of a sequence, eg if as n becomes large (ie n ? ?), S approaches the value 2. Or the variable y may be dependent on another variable x, and may approach a limit as x approaches a given value, eg if y = 2 + 1/x, y approaches the value 2 as x becomes large. The idea of a limit is fundamental to …

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limnology - Organizations, Journals, Resources

The scientific study of freshwater lakes and ponds, including their equatic ecology, biology, chemistry, and physical characteristics. Palaeolimnology is the study of lake sediments to infer past lake conditions. For concepts http://www.earthscape.org/t1/vip01/vip01.html http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/apr99/924546425.Es.r.html …

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Limoges - History, Miscellaneous, Sources and External links

45°50N 1°15E, pop (2000e) 140 000. Ancient town and capital of Haute-Vienne department, C France; in R Vienne valley, 176 km/109 mi NE of Bordeaux; Gallic tribal capital, destroyed 5th-c; sacked by the English, 1370; road and rail junction; university (1808); meteorological observatory; rapid post-war expansion; famed for manufacture of enamels and porcelain since 18th-c; electrical fittings…

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limonite - Uses of limonite

A general name for a rock rich in hydrous iron oxides, formed by the tropical weathering of iron ore. It is formed in bogs (bog ore or brown ore). Limonite is a hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxide of varying composition. Together with hematite, it has been mined as ore for the production of iron. It is not a true mineral, but a mineraloid, and it is composed by a mixt…

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limpet

A primitive snail with a simple, flattened, conical shell; lives attached to rocks by its muscular foot; found in the intertidal zone or shallow seas; typically feeds at night, grazing algae off rocks using a band of teeth (radula). (Class: Gastropoda. Order: Archaeogastropoda.) …

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limpieza de sangre

A concept which lay at the heart of investigations by the Spanish Inquisition in Spain and elsewhere. Spaniards sought to prove their descent from families without Muslims or Jews in their genealogy. Cristianos viejos were those with a lineage uncontaminated by another faith, while cristianos nuevos were those whose forebears were moriscos or conversos, and whose loyalty to Roman Catholicism, and …

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Lincoln (Edward) Kirstein - Broadway Credits, Selected bibliography

Writer and impresario, born in Rochester, New York, USA. Heir to a fortune his father made while working for Filene's Department Store, he fell in love with the theatre as a child and was profoundly inspired by Anna Pavlova in 1920. After graduating from Harvard, he reviewed dance and theatre for Horn and Hound, which he co-founded. In 1933 he recognized George Balanchine's talents, sponsored his …

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Lincoln (UK) - Place names (municipalities), Mountains, Educational institutions, Buildings and roads, Culture, Automotive, Ships, Aircraft, Miscellaneous

53°14N 0°33W, pop (2001e) 85 600. County town of Lincolnshire, EC England, UK; on the R Witham, 230 km/143 mi N of London and 64 km/40 mi from the North Sea; an important centre of the wool trade in the Middle Ages; railway; pharmaceuticals, vehicles, radios, engineering; parts of 3rd-c Roman wall remain; Lincoln Castle; cathedral (1073), including Wren Library (contains an original Magna …

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Lincoln (USA) - Place names (municipalities), Mountains, Educational institutions, Buildings and roads, Culture, Automotive, Ships, Aircraft, Miscellaneous

40°49N 96°41W, pop (2000e) 225 600. Capital of state in Lancaster Co, SE Nebraska, USA; state capital in 1867, when it was renamed after President Lincoln; railway; two universities (1867, 1887); trade in grain and livestock; planetarium, art gallery, sculpture garden. There are five mountains called Mount Lincoln, all in the United States: …

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Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts - Other associated and local theatres and facilities, Resident Organizations, Architects, Historical events

A group of theatres, recital halls, etc erected to the W of Broadway, New York City, USA. The complex, constructed chiefly in the 1960s, principally comprises the New York State Theater, Avery Fisher Hall, the Metropolitan Opera House, Vivian Beaumont Theater, Alice Tully Hall, the Juilliard School for the Performing Arts, and the Library and Museum of the Performing Arts. Lincoln Center fo…

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Lincoln Ellsworth

Explorer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He helped survey the route for the Canadian transcontinental railway (1902), and led a surveying expedition across the Andes (1924). He made the first trans-Arctic crossing in the airship Norge with Umberto Nobile, and in 1935 the first flight across Antarctica. He claimed for the USA some of the territory he flew over, Ellsworth Mountains and American Hig…

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Lincoln Memorial - Design and construction, Interior, Events, Images of the memorial

A monument in Washington, District of Columbia, USA, dedicated in 1922 to President Abraham Lincoln. The building, designed on the plan of a Greek temple by Henry Bacon (1866–1924), houses the statue of Lincoln (6 m/19 ft high) by Daniel Chester French (1850–1931). The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memori…

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Lincolnshire - Public services, People, Culture, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 646 600; area 5915 km²/2284 sq mi. Flat agricultural county in EC England, UK; county town, Lincoln; chief towns include Grantham, Gainsborough, Spalding; North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire unitary authorities from 1996; bounded E by the North Sea; drained by the Welland, Witham, and Trent Rivers; Fens drained in 17th-c; intensive farming, horticulture, tourism. …

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Linda Nochlin

Art historian, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Vassar (1951 BA), Columbia University (MA 1952), and New York University (NYU) (1963 PhD). She taught art at Vassar (1952–80), the City University of New York (1980–90), Yale (1990), and at NYU's Institute of Fine Arts (1992). A specialist in 19th-c and 20th-c painting and sculpture, she was one of the first scholars to define f…

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Linden

32º30N 87º79W, pop (2000e) 2400. Seat of Marengo Co, Alabama, USA; birthplace of Ralph D Abernathy. Linden is also widely used as a place name, very often being a place where linden trees grow: In Australia: In Belgium: In Canada: In England: In Germany: In Guyana: In The Netherlands: In Switz…

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Lindisfarne - Nature reserve, History, Present day, Safety, Lindisfarne in culture

area 10 km²/3¾ sq mi. An island off the NE coast of England, UK, 15 km/9 mi SE of Berwick-upon-Tweed, renowned for its monastery founded from Iona by St Aidan in AD 634, burnt by Danish Vikings in 793, and ultimately abandoned c.875; also known as Holy Island. It was a notable centre of early English Christianity and learning, its most famous bishop being the ascetic St Cuthbert. The Lindis…

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Lindley Armstrong Jones

Bandleader, born in Long Beach, California, USA. His zany band, the City Slickers (1942–61), committed musical mayhem with popular tunes, augmenting normal instruments with assorted noisemakers, including washboards and cowbells. The band toured regularly and appeared in films and on television, where he often had his own show (1951–61). A serious musician, in his last years he took up Dixieland…

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Lindley Murray

Grammarian, born in Swatara Creek, Pennsylvania, USA. He practised law, made his fortune in New York City during the War of Independence and then, for health reasons, retired to England in 1784, buying an estate near York. His English Grammar (1795) was for long the standard text, and was followed by English Exercises, the English Reader, and various religious works. Murray was forced into …

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Lindsay (Gordon) Anderson - Career, Filmography, Documentary and TV

British stage and film director, born in Bangalore, SC India. He studied at Oxford, made short documentary films during the 1950s, and won an Oscar for Thursday's Children (1955). He was a leading proponent of the Free Cinema critical movement, with its focus on working-class themes. He joined the English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre, London, in 1957. His first feature film was This Sp…

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Lindsay Davenport - Grand Slam singles finals, Titles (87)

Tennis player, born in Palos Verde, California, USA. In 1996 she won the Olympic gold medal and finished the season ranked ninth, her second top-ten finish in three years. In 1997, she won four titles, in 1998 three. In the same year, she reached the quarter finals of the Wimbledon championship, the competition she won in 1999, beating Steffi Graf, which advanced her world ranking to number 1. She…

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Lindsay Kemp - Filmography, External links and References

Mime artist, dancer, and director, born on the I of Lewis, Western Isles, W Scotland, UK. He trained with the Ballet Rambert, where his teachers included mime artist Marcel Marceau, and launched his colourful career at the 1964 Edinburgh Festival. He has had his own company in various forms since the early 1960s, and has created his own work in camp, extravagant style since then, including The Par…

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Lindy Chamberlain - Early life, Azaria Chamberlain's disappearance, Conviction, imprisonment and release, Subsequent life

Mother of the ‘dingo baby’, born in Whakatane, New Zealand. The disappearance of her nine-week-old daughter, Azaria, at Uluru (Ayers Rock), in 1980, made her the subject of national obsession in Australia. Married to pastor Michael Chamberlain (who was tried with her, and whom she has since divorced), she claimed the baby was taken by a dingo. She was found guilty of murder, and gaoled, but rele…

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line dance - Modern social line dancing

A type of country and western dancing in which dancers line up in a row without partners and follow a choreographed pattern of steps to music. A line dance is a formation dance in which a group of people dance in a line formation or in lines, and they all execute the same [[dance e line dances that may be considered a variation of circle dances, where people are joined by hands in cha…

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Line Islands

pop (2000e) 5900. Coral island group of Kiribati, C and S Pacific Ocean; largest N Line Is are Kiritimati (Christmas I) (390 km²/150 sq mi), Fanning I (34 km²/13 sq mi), and Washington I (9·6 km²/3·7 sq mi), inhabited by coconut plantation workers; S Line Is, worked for guano in the past, now uninhabited; three of the N group are US territories. * The lagoon areas marked with…

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line printer - Paper (forms) handling

A type of printer, usually associated with larger computer systems, which prints a complete line of information at a time. It is very fast, especially when compared with printers that print one character at a time. Their principal advantage is speed, and they tend to be economic only in commercial situations where there is a heavy printing load. The line printer is a form of high speed impa…

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Linear A

A system of writing found throughout Minoan Crete. It was used mainly by administrators in the compilation of inventories. …

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Linear B

A system of writing found on clay tablets at Mycenaean palace sites. Deciphered in the 1950s by Michael Ventris, it is (unlike Linear A) an early form of Greek. …

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linen - Flax fiber, Linguistic note

Yarn and fabrics made from flax fibres, probably the earliest textile made from plants. Linen was made in ancient Egypt, and the Romans brought flax-growing to Britain. Linen fabrics and yarns are fine, strong, and lustrous, and still fashionable, despite their poor easy-care properties. Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. The term "linen" refers to fabri…

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Linford Christie - Biography

Sprinter, born in Jamaica, now living in Britain. The most successful of all British athletes, and the oldest Olympic 100 m champion, in 1993 he held the World, Olympic, Commonwealth, and European Cup titles for the 100 m, achieving 9·87 seconds at the world championships in Stuttgart, Germany (a European record). He retired in 1997. Linford Christie, OBE (born April 2, 1960) is an Engli…

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ling (zoology)

Slender-bodied fish (Molva molva) of the cod family, abundant in offshore waters of the NE Atlantic from Norway to the Bay of Biscay at depths of 300–400 m/1000–1300 ft; length up to 2 m/6½ ft; mottled brownish-green on back; fished commercially, mainly on lines. (Family: Gadidae.) …

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lingam - Etymology, Interpretations, Ancient Lingams, A naturally occurring lingam

The principal symbolic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, a phallic-shaped emblem. The female equivalent is the yoni, the shaped image of the female genitalia. The Lingam (also, Linga; Sanskrit लिङ्गं liṅgaṃ, meaning "mark," or "sign," ) is used as a symbol for the worship of the Hindu god Shiva. The term, "linga" has many meanings, generally as a mark.It's…

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lingua franca - Outside Europe, Pidgin

An auxiliary language used for routine and often restricted purposes by people who speak different native languages. English and French are frequently used for this purpose in many parts of the world. German is an important lingua franca in E Europe, and Swahili in E Africa. English is an occupational lingua franca in several domains, such as in international air traffic control. A lingua f…

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linguistics - Divisions, specialties, and subfields, Variation, Properties of language, Details on selected divisions and subfields

The scientific study of language. The discipline is concerned with such matters as providing systematic descriptions of languages, investigating the properties of language structures as communicative systems, exploring the possibility that there are universals of language structure, and accounting for the historical development of linguistic systems. Applied linguistics is the application of lingu…

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Linlithgow - Geography

55º59N 3º37W, pop (2000e) 14 000. Historic town in West Lothian, EC Scotland, UK; Royal and Ancient burgh located 35 km/22 mi W of Edinburgh and 61 km/38 mi E of Glasgow; birthplace of Mary, Queen of Scots, Henry Bell, Sir C Wyville Thomson; railway; Union Canal passes through the town; Linlithgow Loch is a bird sanctuary; St Michael's Church was rebuilt (1424) after a fire; Linlithgow Pal…

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Linlithgow Palace

Palace situated on the banks of Linlithgow Loch, Linlithgow, West Lothian, EC Scotland, UK. Garrisoned by the English early in the 14th-c, the palace was used as their main supply base during the seige of Stirling Bridge (1297), returning to Scottish hands after the Battle of Bannockburn (1314). The palace was gutted by fire in 1424 and James I (of Scotland) began re-building work that was finally…

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linnet

Any of three species of finch of the genus Carduelis, especially the Eurasian linnet (Carduelis cannabina); native to Europe, N Africa, and W Asia; inhabits open country; eats seeds and insects. (Family: Fringillidae.) The Linnet, Carduelis cannabina, is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. …

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linsang

A carnivorous mammal of family Viverridae; inhabits forest and builds nest from leaves; three species: the SE Asian Oriental linsang, which includes the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor); and the African linsang or oyan (Poiana richardsoni). …

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Linus (Carl) Pauling

Chemist, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. After taking his PhD at the California Institute of Technology (1925) and then two years of study abroad, he returned to that institution for most of his professional career (1927–63). In his later years he was associated with the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (1963–9), the University of California, San Diego (1967–9), and Stanford Unive…

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Linz - History, Economy, Sights, Colleges and universities, Born in Linz, Miscellaneous

48°18N 14°18E, pop (2000e) 211 000. Industrial town and capital of Oberösterreich, N Austria; situated on both banks of the R Danube, centre of a rich agricultural region; extensive port installations; University of Social and Economic Sciences (1966); third largest city in Austria; iron and steel, fertilizers, tobacco, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; many historical buildings, including early 16…

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Lion Feuchtwanger - Family background, Early career and persecution, Imprisonment and escape, Works

Writer, born in Munich, SE Germany. He studied in Berlin and Munich, and won a European reputation with the 18th-c historical novel Jud Süss (1925), as well as the 14th-c tale Die hässliche Herzogin (1923), which as The Ugly Duchess (1927) was a great success in Britain. His thinly disguised satire on Hitler's Munich putsch, Erfolg (1930, Success), earned him the hatred of the Nazis. In 1933 he …

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Lion Gardiner

Military engineer and colonist, born in England, UK. He emigrated to Connecticut in 1636. He ably defended the Saybrook settlement during the Pequot War (1637) and purchased the Isle of Wight (now called Gardiner's Island) in Long Island Bay from the Indians. He received a grant for this land from the Earl of Stirling, and in 1686 the island became a manor with full manorial rights. The property h…

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Lionel (Edmund) Rose - Early life, Boxing career, Retirement, Trivia

Bantamweight boxer, born in Warragul, Victoria, SE Australia. Inspired by the success of Jimmy Carruthers, and determined to emulate him, he won the world championship in 1968, becoming the first Aborigine to hold a world title. He defeated Britain's Alan Rudkin on points over 15 rounds at Melbourne, in which the Commonwealth title was also at stake, but in 1969 lost his title to Ruben Olivares. …

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Lionel (Keith) Murphy

Lawyer and politician, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied chemistry at the University of Sydney, but turned to law. Unusually, he was admitted to the New South Wales bar in 1947 before graduating as a lawyer from the University of Sydney in 1949. He was elected as Labor senator for New South Wales in the 1962 Federal Parliament, became opposition leader in 1967, and was appo…

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Lionel (Leo) Hampton - Samples

Jazz musician and bandleader, born in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Originally a drummer, he was given xylophone tuition while a young man in Chicago. He later introduced the vibraphone into jazz, recording with Louis Armstrong in 1930. A member of Benny Goodman's small groups in the late 1930s, he first formed a permanent big band in 1940, continuing as a leader until the 1980s, taking his entertain…

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Lionel Barrymore - Biography, Selected filmography, Related article

Actor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the elder brother of Ethel and John Barrymore. He made a name for himself in Peter Ibbetson (1917) and The Copperhead (1918), thereafter taking many roles in films and radio plays, notably Free Soul (1931, Oscar), Grand Hotel, Captains Courageous (1937), and Duel in the Sun (1947). In the USA he played Scrooge annually for many years on radio. After …

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Lionel Bart - Work on Broadway

Composer and lyricist, born in London, UK. In 1959, Lock Up Your Daughters ended the US domination of the musical theatre in London. He followed it with Fings Ain't Wot They Used T'be (1959), Oliver! (1960, adapted from Dickens's Oliver Twist), and Blitz! (1962), a cavalcade of East End life during World War 2. Maggie May, a between-the-wars story of a Liverpool prostitute, followed in 1964, but h…

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Lionel Blue - Life as a Rabbi, Out and Proud, Broadcasting Career, Books, Health, Rabbi Lionel Blue Quote

Rabbi and broadcaster, born in London, England, UK. He studied at Oxford and London universities, was ordained a rabbi in 1960, and joined Leo Baeck College in London in 1967. He was convener of the ecclesiastical court of the Reform Synagogues of Great Britain (1971–88). He is well known for his humorous and off-beat comments on life, both on radio (notably his weekly contribution to the Today p…

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Lionel Jospin - Prime Minister, Jospin's Ministry, 4 June 1997 - 7 May 2002

Prime minister of France (1997–2002), born in Meudon, France. He studied in Paris at the Institute of Political Studies and the National School of Administration, became first secretary for foreign affairs and also taught economics at the University of Paris. Elected to the National Assembly in 1981, he became first secretary of the Socialist Party (1981–8), then held posts in education (1988–9…

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Lionel Monckton - Life and career

Composer, born in London, UK. Prominent as an amateur actor while at Oxford, he turned to composition, and contributed songs to many of the shows of George Edwardes (1852–1915), at the Gaiety Theatre and elsewhere in London. He was composer of several musical comedies, of which The Quaker Girl and The Country Girl were popular. Lionel Monckton was the son of London town clerk, Sir John Mon…

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Lionel Richie - Biography, Family, Discography, Filmography, Trivia, Breast cancer activist

Singer and songwriter, born in Tuskegee, Alabama, USA. A founder member of the Commodores, his debut solo album Lionel Richie (1982) was a US number 3 hit, and ‘Truly’, a ballad from that album, reached US number 1, winning him a Grammy award. He performed one of his most popular hits, ‘All Night Long’ (1983), at the closing ceremony of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games. He co-wrote the famin…

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Lionel Trilling

Literary critic, born in New York City, New York , USA. Long associated with Columbia University as a student (BA, MA, PhD) and teacher (1931–75), he was a literary critic of international stature and held guest professorships at various universities in the USA and abroad. A liberal humanist, he equated literary criticism with moral evaluation and cultural criticism. He wrote prolifically on 19th…

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lip reading

The act of observing the movements of a speaker's mouth in order to understand what is being said. It is a skill practised mostly by the deaf and hard-of-hearing, but is also used to some degree by those working in factories and other environments where noise is a problem. Lip reading, also known as lipreading, speech reading, or speechreading, is a technique of understanding speech by visu…

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lipase

An enzyme that stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides (esters of fatty acids) into fatty acids and glycerol; for example, pancreatic lipase secreted into the duodenum promotes the breakdown of dietary fats. A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in water–insoluble, lipid substrates. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbon…

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lipogram

A text composed with the intentional omission of a particular letter of the alphabet throughout. The 5th-c BC Greek poet Tryphiodorus wrote an epic of 24 books, each omitting a different letter of the Greek alphabet. A lipogram (from Greek lipagrammatos, "missing letter") is a kind of constrained writing or word game consisting of writing paragraphs or longer works in which a particular let…

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liqueur

A spirit, usually distilled from grain, mixed with syrup, and with the addition of fruits, herbs, or spices to infuse a strong aroma and taste. Liqueurs have a high alcohol content, and are usually drunk in small quantities after a meal. Examples include Cointreau, Bénédictine, and Chartreuse (France), Cherry Heering (Denmark), Tia Maria (Jamaica), and Drambuie (Scotland). In some parts o…

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liquid - Liquid measures

A dense form of matter which is able to flow but unable to transmit twisting forces; density typically a few per cent less than the corresponding solid. It is virtually incompressible. The atoms are constantly changing position in a random way; there is no ordering of atoms, unlike many solids, except for a slight degree of short-range order. Highly viscous liquids are similar in structure to amor…

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liquidity preference

A concept introduced by J M Keynes to explain the demand for money, referring to the percentage of assets held in the form of cash or ‘near money’ by an individual, bank, or company. The intention is to avoid tying up money in fixed assets, or long-term investments which may not be easily realizable, or which may lose value (such as shares in a company). John Maynard Keynes developed the …

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Lisa (Marie Diane) Kudrow - Biography

Actress, born in Encino, California, USA. She studied biology at Vassar College, then took up acting, becoming a member of the Groundlings, a Los Angeles improvisational comedy group. After a range of small parts in television, she became known for her role as Ursula in Mad About You (1992), then achieved a major success as Phoebe Buffay (Ursula's ‘twin sister’) in the acclaimed television serie…

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Lisa Clayton

Yachtswoman, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. In 1995 she became the first British woman to circumnavigate the globe, in a single, unaided, continuous journey. Her voyage, in a 39 ft sloop, Spirit of Birmingham, took 285 days. Lisa Lyttelton, Dowager Viscountess Cobham (born c. 1958 as Lisa Clayton) is the first British woman to sail single-handed and non-stop around the w…

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Lisa della Casa

Soprano, born in Burgdorf, WC Switzerland. She studied in Zürich, and first appeared at Solothurn-Biel in 1943, subsequently joining the company at the Stadttheater, Zürich. Her appearance at the Salzburg Festival of 1947 led to her engagement with the Vienna State Opera Company. A specialist in the operas of Richard Strauss, she sang all three soprano roles in Der Rosenkavalier. Lisa Del…

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Lisbon - Geography and location, History, Climate, Sport, Demographics, Culture and sights, Gallery, Economy, Transport, Education in Lisbon

38°42N 9°10W, pop (2000e) 672 000. Seaport and capital of Portugal, on N bank of R Tagus; largest city in Portugal; settlement in Roman Empire; occupied by Moors, 8th-c; Portuguese capital, 1256; devastated by earthquake, 1755; Chiado shopping district of old town destroyed by fire, 1988; archbishopric; airport; railway; university (1911); steel, textiles, chemicals, shipbuilding, fishing, ban…

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Lisburn - Administration, History, People, 2001 Census, Education

54º31N 6º03W, pop (2001e) 44 400. City in Co Antrim, NE Northern Ireland; on the R Lagan, 10 km/6 mi SW of Belfast; in 1627 Charles I granted the town to the Conway family; known as the birthplace of the Irish linen industry, the town grew after 1694 when a colony of Huguenots introduced new improved methods of manufacture; birthplace of David Crystal, Robert Garrett, Alexander T Stewart; ci…

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Lisdoonvarna

53°02N 9°17W, pop (2000e) 850. Spa town 37 km/23 mi NW of Ennis, Clare county, Munster, W Ireland; leading sulphur-spring health centre; Lisdoonvarna fair (Oct), with its famous mating game when shy bachelors go in search of a wife; 3-day folk festival (Jul). Lisdoonvarna (Irish: Lios Dúin Bhearna) is a spa town of 800 people in County Clare in the Republic of Ireland. A n…

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Lise Meitner - Biography, Religion and ethnicity

Physicist, born in Vienna, Austria. She studied at Vienna, and became a professor in Berlin (1926–38), where she was also a member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry (1907–38). In 1917 she shared with Otto Hahn the discovery of the radioactive element protactinium, and became known for her work on nuclear physics. In 1938 she fled from Nazi Germany to the Nobel Physical Institute, Swe…

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LISP

Acronym for LISt Processing, a high-level computer programming language designed for use with non-numeric data. It differs radically from traditional programming languages, and is widely used in artificial intelligence applications. A lisp is a speech impediment, historically also known as sigmatism. Stereotypically, people with a lisp are unable to pronounce sibilants (like the sound [s]),…

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litany - History

A form of prayer used in public or private worship. Supplications or invocations are made by the priest or minister, to which the congregation replies with a fixed formula. A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of prayer used in church services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions. The frequent repetition of the Kyrie was probably the original form of the…

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Litchfield (Connecticut) - Surname Lichfield or Litchfield

41º44N 73º11W, pop (2000e) 8300. Seat of Litchfield Co, Connecticut, USA; centrally located in the scenic NW hills of Connecticut; founded, 1721; designated the county seat, 1751; birthplace of Ethan Allen, Henry Ward Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Oliver Wolcott; White Memorial Conservation Centre maintains 4000 acres as a game and forest reserve open to the public; agriculture, dairy farming…

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literacy - World literacy rates, Literacy and the Industrial Revolution, Teaching literacy

The ability to read and write in a language. Discussion of the problem of illiteracy, both within a country and on a world scale, is complicated by the difficulty of measuring the extent of the problem in individuals. The notion of functional literacy was introduced in the 1940s, in an attempt to identify minimal levels of reading/writing efficiency in a society, such as being able to read road si…

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literary agent - Literary agents of the past, Further reading

A person who sells the various rights in a book to publishers and other potential purchasers (eg film companies) on behalf of the author, and represents the author in negotiations. The agent retains a percentage of the author's earnings as commission. Agents may specialize in certain types of book or publisher. A literary agent represents writers and their written works to publishers and fi…

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literary criticism - History of literary criticism, Bibliography

The explication and evaluation of works of literature, a task as old as literature itself. Criticism has traditionally proposed three main questions concerning (1) the truth, (2) the function, and (3) the formal qualities of literature. Addressed by Plato and Aristotle, these set the parameters until Neoclassical times. With the Romantic movement came a new interest in the genesis of a work of lit…

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literature - Introduction, Forms of literature, Related Narrative Forms, Genres of literature, Literary techniques, Literary figures

The collective writings proper to any language or nation. World literature includes all these in translation. The term literature is a site of ideological conflict; it may be taken to refer exclusively to those canonical works in the established genres which ‘have pleased many and pleased long’ (Dr Johnson), or inclusively to the sum total of writings which are read, even the most ephemeral, suc…

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lithium - Isotopes, Regulation

Li, element 3, melting point 181°C. The lightest of the alkali metals; not common, but found widely in several minerals. These are converted to the chloride (LiCl), from which the element is obtained by electrolysis. Its compounds are used in organic synthesis: lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) is a powerful reducing agent. Its salts, such as Li2CO3, have found application as anti-depressants in…

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lithography - Printing, Microlithography and nanolithography, Lithography as an artistic medium

A method of printing, invented by Aloys Senefelder in 1796, based on the principle that grease (ie ink) and water do not mix. A flat surface is treated so that the image area alone will attract ink. Ink and water are then applied to the surface; ink adheres to the image area and water to the non-image area. Paper is then brought into contact with the printing surface. In offset lithography, the mo…

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lithosphere

Part of the Earth, consisting of the crust and the solid outermost layer of the upper mantle, extending to a depth of around 100 km/60 mi. There are two types of lithosphere: Oceanic lithosphere is about 70 km thick (but can be as thin as 1.6 km at the mid-ocean ridges), while continental lithosphere is about 150 km thick (and can be considerably thicker at continental c…

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Lithuania - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Notes and references

Official name Republic of Lithuania, Lithuanian Lietuvos Respublika Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuva; Lithuania has been a member state of the European Union since May 1, 2004. Lithuania entered into the annals of European history when it has been first mentioned in a medieval German manuscript, the Quedlinburg Chronicle, on February 14, 1009.…

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litre - Name origin, Other common metric equivalencies, Conversions

Unit of volume; symbol l; formerly defined as the volume occupied by a mass of 1 kilogram of water at its maximum density and at standard pressure; according to this definition, 1 litre is approximately equal to 1·000028 cubic decimetres. This definition was abrogated in 1964, and the litre is no longer considered to be a precisely defined unit of volume. Officially the term may be used as a name…

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Little Crow

Mdewakanton (Santee) Sioux, born near present-day St Paul, Minnesota, USA. Friendly with whites to the point of helping them track down ‘hostile’ Indians, he was said by some to have been boastful and often drunk. But in 1862, rebelling against his people's deteriorating condition, he was one of the leaders in an uprising of the Sioux centred around New Ulm, MN. Some 200 to 300 white settlers we…

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little owl

A typical owl of genus Athene (2 species), especially the little owl (Athene noctua), native to C and W Asia, Europe, and Africa, and introduced in New Zealand and the UK; inhabits open country, forest, and towns; eats insects, small mammals, occasionally birds or carrion. The Rodriguez little owl (Athene murivora) is extinct. (Family: Strigidae.) The Little Owl (Athene noctua) is a bird wh…

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Little Richard - Discography

Musician, born in Macon, Georgia, USA. One of the early and most flamboyant stars of rock 'n' roll, he sang and played piano in church choirs and with gospel groups throughout his childhood, performing in medicine shows on the Southern vaudeville circuit. He made his recording debut with RCA in 1952 in Atlanta, and continued to record in a blues style for independent labels in Houston and New Orle…

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Little Walter - Career and life

Musician, born in Marksville, Louisiana, USA. He is widely regarded as the most influential harmonica player in blues history, and as a major innovator of 1950s Chicago blues. As a teenage runaway, he began playing on the streets of New Orleans and made his first appearance on the King Biscuit Time radio program in Helena, AR (1944). He settled in Chicago (1946), where he played with leading music…

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liturgical movement - Origins, Development, The Second Vatican Council, Protestant Churches

A movement to reform the worship of the Christian Church by promoting more active participation by laity in the liturgy. Beginning in 19th-c France in the Roman Catholic Church, it became influential and effective in the mid-20th-c in other Churches, often through the World Council of Churches and the ecumenical movement. The Liturgical Movement is a movement of scholarship and the reform o…

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liturgy - Etymology

The formal corporate worship of God by a Church. It includes words, music, actions, and symbolic aids, and in Christian form is derived from Jewish ritual. Liturgies exist in a wide variety of prescribed forms, reflecting the needs and attitudes of different religious communities. The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, "leos and ergon". A liturgy comprises a pr…

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Liu Shaoqi

Chinese political leader, born in Ningxiang, Hunan, SEC China. He studied at Changsa and Shanghai, went to Moscow to study, joined the Chinese Communist Party, and became a party labour organizer in Shanghai. He was elected to the Politburo in 1934, joined Mao Zedong as the chief Party theorist on questions of organization (1939), became secretary-general of the Party (1943), vice-chairman (1949),…

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Liv (Johanne) Ullmann - Selected filmography, Quote, Trivia

Actress, born in Tokyo, Japan. She studied acting at the Webber-Douglas School in London before beginning her career with a repertory company in Stavanger. Her screen image was largely defined through a long association with the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman, in which she laid bare the inner turmoil of women experiencing various emotional crises. Their films together include Persona (1966), Visk…

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Liv Tyler - Filmography

Actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. She grew up in Portland, ME and at age 14 moved to New York City to begin a modelling career but later turned to acting. Her film debut was in Silent Fall (1994), and later work includes Stealing Beauty (1996), Armageddon (1998), Cookie's Fortune (1999), and The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–3) in which she played the role of beautiful elf Arwen. L…

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liver - Anatomy, Physiology, Diseases of the liver, Liver transplantation, Development, Liver as food, Cultural allusions, References

In vertebrates, a large, unpaired gland with digestive functions, situated in the upper part of the right-hand side of the abdominal cavity under cover of the ribs, separated from the thoracic contents by the diaphragm. It is attached by the peritoneum to the abdominal wall and the stomach, and divided into four lobes. The liver performs many important functions. It secretes bile, which is emptied…

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Liverpool - History, Culture, Sport, Landmarks, Education, Famous Liverpudlians, Media, Economy, Twin towns, Trivia, Districts of Liverpool

53°25N 2°55W, pop (2001e) 439 500. Seaport in Merseyside, NW England, UK; on the right bank of the R Mersey estuary, 5 km/3 mi from the Irish Sea and 312 km/194 mi NW of London; founded in the 10th-c, became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880; port trade developed in the 16th–17th-c; importance enhanced in the 18th-c by the slave trade and the Lancashire cotton industry; major world tra…

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Liverpool poets - Poets, The Mersey Sound, Bands, Criticism, Legacy, Ginsberg

A group of poets writing out of Liverpool after the success of the Beatles in the 1960s, when the city was referred to by Allen Ginsberg as ‘the cultural centre of the Universe’. The best known are Adrian Henri (1932–2000), Roger McGough, and Brian Patten (1946– ); selections are given in The Mersey Sound (1967). A 25th anniversary reading by these three was broadcast by the BBC in 1992. …

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living fossil

A species that has persisted to modern times with little or no detectable change over a long period of time, and typically sharing most of its characters only with otherwise extinct organisms (fossils). The coelacanth discovered off the coast of South Africa in 1939 is a typical example of a living descendant of a group previously thought to be extinct. Living fossil is a term for any livin…

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Livorno - Twin cities, Notable people, Images

43°33N 10°18E, pop (2000e) 183 000. Port and capital of Livorno province, W Tuscany, Italy; on the low-lying coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, 20 km/12 mi SW of Pisa; railway; ferries to Bastia in Corsica; linked with the R Arno by canal; birthplace of Modigliani; shipbuilding, engineering, cement, soap, petrochemicals, straw hats, trade in wine, olive oil, marble; 17th-c cathedral. Livorn…

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Livy - Life and works, Politics

Roman historian, born in Patavium, Italy. He settled in Rome sometime before 29 BC, when he began his history of Rome from its foundation to the death of Nero Claudius Drusus (9 BC). This momentous work of 142 books (of which only 35 survive in full) became the foundation of historical writing through to the 18th-c, and placed him at the forefront of Latin writers. Titus Livius (around 59 B…

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Liz Claiborne

Fashion designer and business executive, born in Brussels, Belgium. She was raised in New Orleans, returning to Europe to study art instead of finishing high school. After 25 years as a New York designer she founded her own firm (1976), which she built into a billion-dollar-a-year business, first designing stylish, moderately priced sportswear that freed working women from plain, dark suits, then …

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Liz McColgan

Athlete, born in Dundee, E Scotland, UK. She studied in Dundee and at the University of Alabama. Her athletic achievements in the 10 000 m include gold medals at the Commonwealth Games (1986, 1990), gold at the World Championships (1991) - a few months after giving birth - and silver at the Olympics (1988). She also won the silver for the 3000 m at the Indoor World Championships (1989), and was…

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Liza (May) Minnelli - Biography, Signature song, Filmography, Music, Television work, Stage productions

Singer and actress, born in Los Angeles, California, USA, the daughter of Vincente Minnelli and Judy Garland. She first appeared on screen in her mother's film In the Good Old Summertime (1949), and became the youngest-ever actress to win a Tony award, for Flora, the Red Menace (1965). On television and in cabaret, her vocal talents and emotional rendition of plaintive songs earned comparisons wit…

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lizard

A reptile, found worldwide except in the coldest regions. Some have no obvious limbs and resemble snakes; but most differ from snakes in having eyelids and an obvious ear opening. Many species can voluntarily break off their tail to distract predators (a new tail grows). Only 2% of species are primarily vegetarian. (Suborder: Sauria or Lacertilia. Order: Squamata, c.3750 species.) …

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Lizzie (Andrew) Borden - Biography, Alleged lesbian affair with actress Nance O'Neil, Legacy, Genealogy, Artistic depictions

Alleged murderess, born in Fall River, Massachusetts, USA. In one of the most sensational murder trials in US history, she was accused of murdering her wealthy father and hated step-mother with an axe in 1892. She claimed to have been outside in the barn at the time of the murder, and despite a wealth of circumstantial evidence she was acquitted. She lived out her life in Fall River, and was burie…

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Lizzie Black Kander

Settlement founder and cookbook writer, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. She was president of the Milwaukee Jewish Mission and its successor, the Settlement (1896–1918). Her Settlement Cook Book (1901), compiled in conjunction with a Settlement cooking class, sold over a million copies and funded the Milwaukee Jewish Center. Once of Kander's aims was to teach young girls to cook and keep…

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Ljubljana

46°00N 14°30E, pop (2000e) 292 000. Capital of Slovenia; on Sava and Ljubljanica Rivers, 120 km/75 mi WNW of Zagreb; founded, 34 BC; capital of the former Kingdom of Illyria, 1816–49; badly damaged by earthquake, 1895; ceded to Yugoslavia, 1918; airport; railway; university (1595); textiles, paper, chemicals, food processing, electronics; education and convention centre; Tivoli sports park,…

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llama - Classification, Characteristics, Reproduction, Behavior, Llamas in popular culture

A member of the camel family (Lama glama), found in the C Andes; domesticated c.4500 years ago; used mainly as a beast of burden; long flat-backed body with long erect neck and long ears; dense coat; two breeds: chaku and ccara. The llama (') is a quadruped. The term llama is sometimes used more broadly, to indicate any of the four closely related animals that make up the South American bra…

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Llandudno - Attractions, Churches, Links with Wormhout and Mametz, Cultural connections

53º19N 3º49W, pop (2001e) 20 000. Seaside resort town in NW Wales, part of the Conwy unitary authority; on a small peninsula terminating in the Great Orme's Head; Great Orme country park with tramway, dry ski slope and toboggan run; birthplace of Hywel Lewis; railway; promenade; Oriel Mostyn, North Wales Theatre and Conference Centre, Alice in Wonderland Centre; Victorian Extravaganza weekend …

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Llangefni

53°16N 4°18W, pop (2000e) 4800. Town in Anglesey, NW Wales, UK, on the R Cefni; administrative centre for the island; market, agricultural implements, livestock; Oriel Môn. Llangefni, population 17,000, is the county town of Anglesey in Wales and contains the principal offices of Anglesey County Council. It is the principal commercial and farming town on the island proper - …

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Llangollen - History, Culture, Sport, Transport, Industry, Songs about Llangollen, Trivia

52°58N 3°10W, pop (2000e) 3200. Town in Denbighshire, NE Wales, UK; on the R Dee, 15 km/9 mi SW of Wrexham; hide and skin dressing, printing, crafts, agricultural trade, tourism; 14th-c St Collen's Church, 14th-c bridge; Valle Crucis abbey nearby (c.1200), and Eliseg's Pillar (8th–9th-c cross); Plâs Newydd, headquarters of the Welsh National Theatre since 1943; site of annual international …

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Llano Estacado - Other meanings

Vast semi-arid S portion of the Great Plains, in E New Mexico and W Texas, USA; flat, windswept grasslands broken by streams; formerly devoted to cattle raising; natural gas, oil fields, irrigated farming. Llano Estacado (or Staked Plains) is a region in the southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. The Llano Estacado covers some 3…

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llanos - Cities situated in Los Llanos

The savannah grasslands of the plains and plateaux of the Orinoco region (Colombia, Venezuela), N South America. Traditionally it was an important livestock farming area, and there have been recent schemes to re-establish cattle ranching following a decline in the early 20th-c. Los Llanos (meaning the flat plains) is a vast tropical grassland plain situated at the east of the Andes in north…

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Lleida - Languages, History, Communications, Culture, Interesting sights, Sports

41°37N 0°37E, pop (2000e) 119 000. City in Spain, in Catalunya, capital of the province and administrative area of the same name; old city built on a hill on the right bank of the Segre; commercial and agricultural centre, and hub of communications; agriculture, commerce, transport; industry developed in recent years, especially in construction, metallurgy, food, textiles, chemicals; important…

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Llewelyn Powys - Works

Essayist and novelist, born in Dorchester, Dorset, S England, UK, the brother of John and Theodore Francis Powys. He studied at Cambridge, and worked as a journalist in New York City (1920–5), but suffered from recurrent tuberculosis which caused him to spend some years in Switzerland and Kenya. His works include Ebony and Ivory (1922), Apples be Ripe (1930), Confessions of Two Brothers (1916, wi…

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Lleyton Hewitt - Awards, Grand Slam singles finals, Masters Series singles finals, Titles (27)

Tennis player, born in Adelaide, South Australia. He turned professional in 1998, and made his Davis Cup debut in 1999. He won the Queen's Club Championship three years in succession (2000–2), the US Open singles title (2001), and the ATP Tour World Championships (2001, 2002), becoming the youngest man to conclude a year (2001) as the world number 1 ranked player. In 2002 he won the Wimbledon sin…

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Lloyd Richards - Awards, Quotes

Stage director and actor, born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He began his career as a radio then television actor, later turning to theatre directing. He directed productions at the Great Lakes Drama Festival, the Northland Playhouse (Detroit), A Raisin in the Sun (1959) in New York, and a number of television plays. He served as artistic director of the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center, and until 199…

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loa - Syncretism, Rituals, Families of Loa, List of Loa

A 15th-c theatrical prologue used in a sacred context in the earliest autos sacramentales, such as Loa al sacramento (preceding an auto called El sacrificio de Abraham) before 1540. The loa quickly passed into secular drama, superseding the introyto (‘prologue’) of the earliest playwrights. The loa praised the writer, his play, patron, audience, town, or indeed anything else that struck the auth…

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loam - Loam in house construction

An easily worked soil, composed of varying mixtures of sand, clay, and humus. Sandy loams are often favoured by horticulturalists because of their good draining qualities and the possibility of producing crops early in the season. Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration. In addition to the term loam, different names are given to soils with slightly dif…

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Loammi Baldwin

Engineer, soldier, and judge, born in Woburn, Massachusetts, USA. A self-educated cabinetmaker, land surveyor, and civil engineer, he used to walk from Woburn to Cambridge to hear lectures on mathematics at Harvard. An opponent of British rule, he fought briefly in the American Revolution, achieving the rank of colonel. He represented Woburn in the Massachusetts legislature (1778–9, 1800–4) and …

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lobbying - U.S. Lobbying, EU Lobbying, Lobbyists for Social Change, Alleged corruption in lobbying

A term originating in the attempts by organized groups to influence elected politicians, administrators, or public opinion through personal contacts in the ‘lobbies’ of legislative buildings or through the media. Originating in 19th-c USA, contemporary usage has broadened the term to incorporate making demands upon civil servants, state institutions, and influencing public opinion by reasoned ar…

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lobelia

A member of a large and very diverse genus, ranging from small annuals to shaggy, columnar perennials reaching several metres high; found almost everywhere, but mostly tropical and subtropical, especially in the New World; leaves alternate, simple; flowers twisted through 180°, usually red, blue, or violet, zygomorphic with five fused petals forming a curved, 2-lipped tube. Many are cultivated fo…

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lobster - Symbion, List of clawed lobster species, Gastronomy

A large marine crustacean with a well-developed abdomen and the front pair of legs modified as pincers (chelipeds); chelipeds asymmetrical, one for crushing and one for cutting; feeds at night on molluscs and carrion; length up to 60 cm/2 ft; eggs carried in masses stuck to abdominal legs of female; found in holes and crevices in shallow coastal seas; edible, caught commercially using pots or wi…

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local area network (LAN) - Technical aspects, History

A system which allows communication between computers situated within a well-defined geographical area, and which does not use the public telephone system. By contrast, a wide area network or long distance network allows computer communication over a large geographical area, generally using the telephone system. A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a local area, like a …

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local education authority (LEA)

A regional government organization responsible for education in its area. In the UK, this is usually a city or county council. The elected members of the LEA are local politicians; they decide policy, stand for election, and receive no payment other than attendance allowances. It also comprises professional officers, responsible for the day-to-day running of the education system in their area. …

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local government - Australia, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Philippines, United Kingdom

A set of political institutions constitutionally subordinate to the national, provincial, or federal government, with delegated authority to perform certain functions within territorially defined parts of the state. Sovereign authority remains with the higher levels of government, which may create, dissolve, or change local structures and add to or take away their powers and functions. Some of the…

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Local Group

The family of galaxies to which the Milky Way, Magellanic Clouds, and the Andromeda galaxy belong. Its diameter is about 1 megaparsec, and contains 3 large spiral galaxies, plus about 30 much smaller galaxies of irregular, elliptical, and spheroidal shape - about 5 × 1012 solar masses in all. …

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lock (canal)

A means of altering the height of a canal waterway while allowing the passage of boats. A pound lock has a chamber which can be filled and emptied of water by opening and closing paddles, to bring the level to the upper or the lower height. The lower gates are usually double, pointing upstream so as to be pressed together by the water. The upper gate may be single in small locks, or double in larg…

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lock (security)

A device for securing objects, usually doors on houses or safes. It is normally a mechanical device operated by levers and keys, but many are nowadays magnetically or electronically operated, and can be computer controlled. Time locks can be opened only at certain predetermined times of the day. …

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Lockerbie - Lockerbie disaster, Lockerbie Academy, Lockerbie Drama Club

55°07N 3°22W, pop (2000e) 3040. A town in Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK, the scene of Britain's worst air disaster, when a Pan Am Boeing 747 flying from Frankfurt to New York via London crashed on 21 December 1988. There were no survivors. The total death toll was 270, including townspeople killed by plane debris which demolished houses. The explosive device which led to the disaster w…

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locomotive - Origins, Locomotives vs. Multiple Units, Classification by motive power, Classification by use

The vehicle that provides the tractive force to haul trucks and carriages on a railway. The locomotive can be powered by a steam engine, an internal combustion engine, an electric motor, or some combination of these power sources. If it is propelled by steam, the steam is generated in a boiler mounted on the locomotive and normally burning coal. If it is propelled by an electric motor, the electri…

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locust - Locusts in history and literature, Locusts as food, Locusts as experimental model, Swarming behaviour and extinctions

Any of several species of grasshoppers, with a 2-phase life-cycle. At low population density they are solitary in behaviour and show camouflaged coloration, but at high density they become brightly coloured and gregarious. They swarm and migrate, often causing massive destruction of crops and natural vegetation. The main species are the migratory locust, the desert locust, and the red locust. (Ord…

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Lodi

45º32N 9º50E, pop (2001e) 41 300. Town in Lombardy, N Italy; on the R Adda, just SE of Milan; located near the site of ancient Laus Pompeia which was destroyed by Milan (AD 1111); scene of Napoleon's victory over the Austrians (1796); birthplace of Agostino Maria Bassi; 12th-c Romanesque cathedral; Renaissance-style Church of the Incoronata; important dairy and light industrial centre. …

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Loevestein

A 14th-c castle at the confluence of the R Maas and R Waal, used as a prison. It was here that in 1619 Hugo Grotius was sentenced to life, but escaped in 1621 with the help of his wife and her maid. In 1650 six leaders of the opposition to William II of Orange were imprisoned here; the six, led by Jacob de Witt, father of Johan and Cornelis, became known as the Loevestein faction. Castle Lo…

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loganberry

An accidental hybrid between raspberry and blackberry which arose in the garden of Judge Logan of California, after whom it was named. It is less thorny than the blackberry, and the fruits, which resemble raspberries, are much larger and more tart than either parent. It is widely grown in the USA and UK. (Family: Rosaceae.) …

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logarithm - Bases, Uses of logarithms, Series for calculating the natural logarithm, Generalizations, History

The power n to which a number a must be raised to equal another number b, ie ‘the logarithm to the base a of b’: an = b ? logab = n; for example, since 102 = 100, log10100 = 2. From the definition, the logarithmic function is the inverse of the exponential function. Properties of the logarithmic function can be deduced from the laws of indices, and include: log(ab) = log a + log …

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loggia

A gallery in a building, behind an open arcade or colonnade, and facing onto a garden, street, or square. It is sometimes a separate structure. Loggia is the name given to an architectural feature, originally of Italian design, which is often a gallery or corridor generally on the ground level, or sometimes higher, on the facade of a building and open to the air on one side, where it …

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logic - Nature of logic, History of logic, Topics in logic, Controversies in logic

The formal, systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Deductive logic is the study of inferences that are valid (or invalid) in virtue of their structure, not their content. ‘If A then B; A; therefore B’ is valid whatever the values of A and B; and any inference with that structure is valid. There are two main parts of elemental deductive logic. Propositional l…

1 minute read

logic programming - Basis in mathematical logic, Prolog, Limitations of using mathematical logic for programming, Concurrent logic programming

A form of computer programming concerned with the evaluation of rules rather than the issue of instructions to a computer. Languages for logic programming include LISP and PROLOG. Logic programming (sometimes called logical programming) is programming that makes use of pattern-directed invocation of procedures from assertions and goals. John McCarthy [1958] was the first to publish a …

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logical positivism - The Origins of Logical Positivism, The Basic Tenets of Logical Positivism, Unified Science

A philosophical movement beginning with the Vienna Circle in the 1920s and 1930s under the leadership of Moritz Schlick and Rudolf Carnap, and associated in Britain with A J Ayer. The positivists were strongly influenced by the empirical tradition of Hume and others, and contrasted traditional philosophy unfavourably with science and mathematics. Most of metaphysics, and by extension most of ethic…

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logo - Overview, Logos today, Logo design, Examples

A visual symbol comprising an image and/or a name designed to identify an organized group (such as an army regiment); an abbreviation of logotype. It differs from a pictogram, which is a graphic sign showing an entity or an idea (eg a pedestrian crossing at a traffic light) in a direct, representational way. An ideogram may be either an abstract or a conventional graphic sign representing a thing …

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Lohengrin

In Germanic legend, the son of Parsifal. He leaves the temple of the Grail and is carried to Antwerp in a boat drawn by swans. There he saves Princess Elsa of Brabant, and is about to marry her; but she asks forbidden questions about his origin, and he is forced to leave her, the swan-boat taking him back to the Grail temple. In some German Arthurian literature, Lohengrin, the son of Parziv…

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River Loire - History, Large size, Longevity, Fertility, Vocalisation and behavior, Colors, Zoo policies, In popular culture

River in E France, rising in the Massif Central; flows N and NW to Orléans, then turns W to empty into the Bay of Biscay by a wide estuary below St-Nazaire; longest river in France; length 1020 km/634 mi; canal link to R Seine; valley known for its vineyards; several important chateaux. The liger is a cross (a hybrid) between a male lion and a female tiger. A liger looks like a giant lio…

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Loki - Children, Scheming with fellow gods, Friend to man, Slayer of Baldr

A mischievous Norse god; originally a Giant, he was later accepted into the company of the gods. Although he plays tricks on them, he is also able to save them from danger by his cleverness. However, after contriving the death of Balder, he was tied to a rock where he will stay until Ragnarök. Loki Laufeyjarson is the mythical being of mischief in Norse mythology, a son of the giants Fárb…

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Lola Flores

Actress, born in Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, SW Spain. She made her début as a ‘cantaora y bailaora’ at the age of 15 in the Teatro Villamarta, and also performed minor roles in films. In 1944 she formed her own company in association with Manolo Caracol, which was a huge success. Both were the principal characters in the film Embrujo (1946), directed by Carlos Serrano de Osma. Later she exte…

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Lola Montez - Early life, Life as a courtesan, Later life, Lola Montez in fiction, Further reading

Dancer, born in Limerick, SW Ireland. An outstanding beauty, she trained to be a Spanish dancer, and appeared at Her Majesty's Theatre in London. While touring Europe, she went to Munich (1846), where she gained influence over the eccentric artist-king, Ludwig I of Bavaria (reigned 1825–48), who created her Countess of Landsfeld. The 1848 revolution forced her to flee, and she then travelled in A…

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Lolo

46º45N 114º04W, pop (2000e) 3400. Town in Missoula Co, Montana, USA; 18 km/11 mi S of Missoula; gateway to the Bitterroot Valley; the historic Lolo Trail was used by the Nez Perce Indians as a buffalo trail and by the Lewis and Clark Expedition en route to the Pacific; birthplace of William Allen. Lolo can refer to: These places: These people: In gam…

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Lombard League

A coalition of N Italian cities, established in 1167 to assert their independence as communes (city-republics) against the German emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa. The League, of which new versions were later formed, set a model for inter-city alliances, and underlined the rising political importance of urban communities in the mediaeval West. The Lombard League was an alliance formed around…

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Lombards - Lombard traditions, Lombards in archaeology and history

A Germanic people settled in Hungary - their name deriving from the long beards (langobardi) they traditionally wore - who invaded N Italy in AD 568 under their king, Alboin. They founded a new capital at Milan, and in time controlled most of the peninsula except for the S and the area around Ravenna. Their kingdom was annexed by Charlemagne in 774, but the Lombard duchies (Benevento, Spoleto) sur…

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Lombardy - History, Provinces, Main cities, Transportation, Tourism information, Image gallery

pop (2000e) 8 931 000; area 23 835 km²/9200 sq mi. Region of N Italy; capital, Milan; chief towns, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, Pavia, Varese; S Lombardy, highly developed industrial and agricultural region (plain of R Po); tourism important around the Alpine lakes and in the mountains. Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia; One-sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy. …

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London - Defining London, Geography and climate, History, Government, Economy, Demographics, Transport, Education, Society and culture, Twinnings

51°30N 0°10W, pop (2001e) 7 172 000 (Greater London), 3300 (City of London). Capital city of England and the UK; on the R Thames in SE England. London (pronounced [ˈlʌndən]) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. An important settlement for around two millennia, London is today one of the world's most important business and financial centres, and its influence …

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London Bridge - History

A bridge over the R Thames linking Southwark with the City of London, UK. Early wooden structures were replaced in the 12th-c by a 19-arch stone bridge bearing shops and houses. This was superseded in 1831 by a 5-arch bridge which was dismantled and sold to Lake Havasu City, AZ, in 1968. It was replaced by a concrete structure. London Bridge is a bridge in London, England over the River Tha…

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London Contemporary Dance Theatre

A dance company founded in London in 1967 by the philanthropist, Robin Howard, under the artistic direction of Robert Cohan. Cohan created many works for the company, which toured widely and had major London seasons. In the 1980s it expanded its repertoire to include popular works based on jazz steps and street dance. It was disbanded in 1994. The London Contemporary Dance Theatre was a con…

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London Eye - History, Financial controversy, The London Eye in film and television, Nearest rail and tube stations

An observation wheel, the largest in the world, located on the South Bank of the R Thames, London, UK, opened in 2000 as part of the millennium celebrations; originally called the Millennium Wheel. Sponsored by British Airways, it was designed by London architects David Marks and Julia Barfield, and is operated by the Tussauds Group; height 135 m/443 ft; weight 1500 tons. Its 32 capsules carry …

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London Missionary Society (LMS) - Source

Formed in London in 1795 by evangelical Protestants to undertake missionary work in the Pacific islands. It was particularly successful in Tahiti (1797), the Cook Is (1821), Samoa (1830), and Papua New Guinea (1871). The LMS also came to operate in other parts of the world, including Africa. The London Missionary Society was an Anglican and Nonconformist missionary society formed in England…

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London pride

A mat-forming perennial (Saxifraga × umbrosa) with rosettes of paddle-shaped, blunt-toothed leaves; flowers in sprays on erect stems growing to 30 cm/12 in, white to pinkish with red spots. It is a hybrid of unknown origin, widely grown in gardens. (Family: Saxifragaceae.) There are several things called London Pride: …

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Long Beach - Places, Things

33°47N 118°11W, pop (2000e) 461 500. City in Los Angeles Co, SW California, USA, on San Pedro Bay; developed rapidly after the discovery of oil, 1921; railway; university (1949); oil refining; diverse manufacturing; tourist centre; a long bathing beach; location for the British cruise liner Queen Mary, now a museum-hotel-convention centre; Long Beach Marine Stadium (scene of the 1932 Olympic b…

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Long Branch - United States, Canada

40º18N 74º00W, pop (2000e) 31 300. Resort town in Monmouth Co, E New Jersey, USA; on the Atlantic coast, 65 km/40 mi ENE of Trenton; birthplace of Meyer Abrams and Norman Mailer; St James Episcopal Church (1879) now a museum. Long Branch can refer to the following places: Long Branch, New Jersey, a city of over 30,000 on the northern New Jersey Shore. There are…

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Long Island - Climate, Geology, Demography, History, Law enforcement and crime, Transportation, Colleges and universities, Leisure, Music

area 3600 km²/1400 sq mi, length 190 km/118 mi. Island in SE New York State, USA; bounded N by Long Island Sound; separated from the Bronx and Manhattan by the East River, and from Staten I by the Narrows; comprises the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, and the New York State counties of Kings (includes Brooklyn), Nassau, Queens, Suffolk; many residential towns and resort beaches; contains Jo…

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long jump - History, The last two strides, Takeoff, Action in the air and landing, Training, Top 10 performers

An athletics field event in which the competitors leap for distance into a sandpit after running up to a take-off board. The contestant having the longest fair jump, measured from the farthest edge of the take-off board to the pit, is the winner. A jump from beyond the take-off board is a foul. It is sometimes called the running broad jump. The current world record for men is 8·95 m/29 ft 4¼ …

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Long March - Beginnings of the retreat, The rise of Mao, Conclusion

The epic of Chinese communist revolutionary history. In 1934 the Red Army was blockaded in SE China by Jiang Jieshi's forces. In October, Mao Zedong, Zhu De, and Lin Biao broke out with 100 000 troops to lead a 13 000 km/8000 mi evacuation westwards then north. The march ended with the arrival of under 20 000 in Shaanxi, N China, the following October. Though a military disaster, the Long Mar…

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Long Parliament - 1640–1648, 1649–1653 Rump Parliament, 1659 recall and 1660 restoration, Succession, Notable members of the Long Parliament

An English parliament called (Nov 1640) by Charles I after his defeat by the Scots in the second Bishops' War. It was legally in being 1640–60, but did not meet continuously. It attacked prerogative rights and alleged abuses of power by the king and his ministers, and abolished the Court of Star Chamber, the Councils of the North and for Wales, and the Ecclesiastical Court of High Commission (164…

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long-tailed tit

A small bird of the long-tailed titmouse family (Aegithalos caudatus); native to Europe and Asia; black, white, and pink; body shorter than long straight tail; inhabits scrub and woodland; eats seeds, buds, and insects. Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. …

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longbow - History, Design and construction

An English bow with a shaft of yew-wood 1·5 m/5 ft long, which could shoot an arrow capable of penetrating plate armour at 400 yd (365 m). It dominated the battlefield for 200 years from 1300, proving decisive at the Battles of Crécy, Poitiers, and Agincourt. Traditional longbows are made entirely from wood and have been used for hundreds or thousands of years, for hunting and warfare…

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Longford (city) - Transport, Sports, Education

53°44N 7°47W, pop (2000e) 6900. Capital of Longford county, NW Leinster, C Ireland; on R Camlin and a branch of the Royal Canal; former literary centre; railway; St Mel's Cathedral; Tullynally Castle at Castlepollard. Longford (An Longfort in Irish) is the county town of County Longford in the Midlands of Ireland. The Celtic inhabitants of Ireland did not build towns but the town came un…

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Longford (county) - Transport, Sports, Education

pop (2000e) 31 000; area 1044 km²/403 sq mi. County in NW Leinster province, C Ireland; drained by R Shannon and its tributaries; crossed by the Royal Canal; hilly in NW; capital, Longford; sheep, cattle, oats, potatoes. Longford (An Longfort in Irish) is the county town of County Longford in the Midlands of Ireland. The Celtic inhabitants of Ireland did not build towns but the town c…

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Longinus

Name assigned to the Greek author of the surviving portion of a treatise on excellence in literature, On the Sublime, which influenced many Neoclassical writers, such as Dryden and Pope; about a third of the manuscript (in its earliest form, dating from the 10th-c) is lost. Several attempts have been made to identify the author, without success. Longinus may refer to: …

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longship - Development history, Types of longship, Construction, Navigation and propulsion, Life on board, Legacy, Famous longships

A vessel used by the Vikings in their voyages of exploration, plunder, and conquest. The largest were 45 m/150 ft in length, made of overlapping wooden planks (‘clinker built’), very strong, and propelled by both oars and sail. They usually carried 30 or 40 men, but there was room for more (such as captured Saxon maidens), and the larger vessels may well have carried twice this number. …

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Longus - Adaptation (2006), Editions

Greek writer, the author of the Greek prose romance Daphnis and Chloë. The first pastoral romance known, it is the most popular of the Greek erotic romances, dealing with the relationship of two foundlings from Lesbos who eventually marry. Longus (Greek: Λόγγος) was a Greek novelist and romancer, and author of Daphnis and Chloe. Very little is known of his life, and it is…

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Lonnie Donegan - Skiffle, Discography, Trivia

Singer and guitarist, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. While playing in traditional jazz bands he introduced ‘skiffle’ sessions between jazz sets, playing American folk music with a strong rhythm section. During the 1950s he had success both in Britain and the USA with such songs as ‘Rock Island Line’ (which launched a skiffle craze), ‘Gamblin' Man’, and ‘Cumberland Gap’, as well as such c…

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Lonnie Johnson

Jazz musician, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. A versatile blues guitarist, he recorded with Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong in the 1920s and accompanied dozens of blues singers during 1925–45. Alfonzo "Lonnie" Johnson (February 8, 1894 – June 6, 1970) was a pioneering blues and jazz singer/guitarist born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. In the early 1920s, Johnson wor…

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looper

The caterpillar larva of a geometrid moth, characterized by its looping locomotion pattern; possesses only one pair of pro-legs and one pair of claspers; body held rigid at rest, resembling a twig; also known as inch worm. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Geometridae.) The band formed in 1998 for a show at the Glasgow School of Art, and released their first single "Impossible Things" on the Sub…

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Lope (F - Life, Work, Plays, In Fiction

Playwright and poet, born in Madrid, Spain. He studied at Alcalá, served in the Armada (1588), and became secretary to the Duke of Alba (1590) and Duke of Sessa (1605). He joined a religious order in 1610, took orders in 1614, and became an officer of the Inquisition. He died poor, for his large income from his dramas and other sources was almost entirely devoted to charity and church. He excelle…

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Lope de Rueda

Actor and comedy writer, born in Seville, SW Spain. In 1551 the Valladolid town council constructed an open-air theatre for his comedies. He performed in the presence of Felipe II (1554) and in the Corpus Christi plays in Sevilla (1559). Cervantes, A de Rojas, and J Rufo speak highly of his skill as an actor and director of plays. Rueda successfully assimilated the original techniques of the comme…

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loquat - Etymology

A small evergreen tree (Eriobotrya japonica) with very hairy twigs, native to China, but widely grown in S Europe; leaves coarse, reddish, hairy beneath; flowers white, fragrant, in terminal clusters; fruits 3–6 cm/1¼–2½ in, round, yellowish-orange, flesh sweet and edible; one or more seeds. (Family: Rosaceae.) The Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica, syn. Loquats are unusual amon…

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Lorado (Zadoc) Taft - Fountain of Time, Pioneer , Sources

Sculptor and educator, born in Elmwood, Illinois, USA. A graduate of the University of Illinois (1879 BA; 1880 MA), he studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris (1880–3), then taught sculpture at the Chicago Art Institute (1886–1906), where he introduced marble carving. His commissions came slowly, and in 1903 he published History of American Sculpture, which led to lucrative lecture tours. I…

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Lord (Edward Christian) David (Gascoyne) Cecil - Works

Literary critic, born in London, UK. He was professor of English literature at Oxford (1948–70), and is known chiefly as a literary biographer, in such works as Sir Walter Scott (1933), Jane Austen (1935), and Thomas Hardy (1943). Lord Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil CH (April 9, 1902 – January 1, 1986), was an English aristocrat, literary scholar, biographer and academic. …

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Lord (William) George (Frederick Cavendish) Bentinck - Reference

British politician, born at Welbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He entered parliament in 1828, supported Catholic Emancipation and the Reform Bill, but left the Whigs in 1834 to form a separate Conservative parliamentary group with Lord Stanley. On Peel's third betrayal of his party in introducing free trade measures, Bentinck led the Tory Opposition to Peel. A great lover of racing and…

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Lord Alfred (Bruce) Douglas - Early life, Relationship with Oscar Wilde, Marriage, Libel actions, Later life, Death, Writings, Secondary sources

Poet, born in Ham Hill, Worcester, Worcestershire, WC England, UK, the son of the 8th Marquess of Queensberry. He wrote a number of sonnets, collected in In Excelsis (1924) and Sonnets and Lyrics (1935). He is remembered for his association with Oscar Wilde, to which his father objected, thereby provoking Wilde to bring the ill-advised libel action which led to his own arrest and imprisonment. …

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Lord Chancellor - History, The Office, Legislative functions, Executive functions, Judicial functions, Ecclesiastical functions, Other functions, Precedence and privileges

Until 2003, the head of the judiciary of England and Wales, a member of the cabinet, and the Speaker of the House of Lords. The post dates from the 7th-c, when its first holder was Angmendus; famous Lord Chancellors include St Thomas Becket (1155–62) and Cardinal Wolsey (1515–29). The appointment was by the Crown on the advice of the prime minister. The Lord Chancellor appointed, and could dismi…

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Lord Edward Fitzgerald - Early years, In the "New World", Enters politics, Marries in France, Return to Ireland

Irish rebel, born at Carton House, Co Kildare, E Ireland. He served in the British army in the American War of Independence (1775–83), and was elected MP for Athy in the Irish parliament (1783). He joined the United Irishmen in 1796, and tried to arrange for a French invasion of Ireland. The plot was betrayed; Fitzgerald was seized in Dublin, and later died of wounds received in the ensuing scuff…

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Lord George Gordon - 1751-, 1779-, 1787 - Lord George Gordon, the Jew

Anti-Catholic agitator, born in London, UK. Educated at Eton, he entered the navy but resigned when refused a command in 1772. Elected MP in 1774, he formed an association aiming for the repeal of the Catholic Relief Act (1778), and led a protest mob to Parliament, causing a major riot with 500 casualties (1780). He was tried for high treason; but was acquitted. He subsequently became a Jew, calli…

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Lord Guildford Dudley

The fourth son of the Lord Protector John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, and briefly husband of Lady Jane Grey. His father married him to the unwilling Jane Grey in 1553 as Edward VI lay dying, and then proclaimed her queen. After the accession of Mary I (Edward's sister), Dudley and his wife were imprisoned and beheaded on Tower Hill. Lord Guildford Dudley (1536 - 12 February 1554) was a son of …

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Lord Howe Island - Geology, Flora and Fauna, History

31°33S 159°04E, pop (2000e) 600. Volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean, 702 km/436 mi NE of Sydney; part of New South Wales; area 16·6 km²/6·4 sq mi; rises to 866 m/2841 ft at Mt Gower; discovered, 1788; a popular resort island; a world heritage site. Lord Howe Island is a small island in the Pacific Ocean 600 km (375 miles) east of Australia. - maps The Lord Howe Is…

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Lord Randolph (Henry Spencer) Churchill - Early life, The "Fourth Party", Tory democracy, Office, Eclipse

British statesman, born in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK, the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, and the father of Winston Churchill. He studied at Oxford, entered parliament in 1874, and became conspicuous in 1880 as the leader of a guerrilla band of Conservatives known as the ‘Fourth Party’. He was secretary for India (1885–6), and for a short while Chancellor of the Exc…

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Lord William (Henry Cavendish) Bentinck - Early career, Governor-General of India

British statesman and Governor-General of India (1828–35), born in Bulstrode, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He became Governor of Madras (1803–7), but was recalled when his prohibition of sepoy beards and turbans caused the massacre at Vellore (1806). He served in the Peninsular War (1808–14), in 1827 became Governor-General of Bengal, and in 1828 first Governor-General of India. His adminis…

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Lord's Cricket Ground - Early history, Ground, Usage, The MCC Museum, Test matches at Lord's

A cricket ground founded by Thomas Lord (1755–1832) in 1814 in NW London, UK. It is the home of the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and the Middlesex County Cricket Club, and the recognized administrative and spiritual home of national and international cricket. Its cricketing treasures include the Ashes. Lord's Cricket Ground is a cricket ground in St John's Wood in London, at grid referenc…

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Lord's Prayer - Versions, Analysis, Use as a language comparison tool, Latin version, Origin

A popular prayer of Christian worship, derived from Matt 6.9–13 and (in different form) Luke 11.2–4; also known as the Pater Noster (‘Our Father’). It is a model for how Jesus's followers are to pray, consisting (in Matthew) of three petitions praising God and seeking his kingdom, followed by four petitions concerning the physical and spiritual needs of followers. The closing doxology (‘For t…

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Lorelei - Translation of Heine's "Die Lorelei", Trivia, Literature

The name of a precipitous rock on the Rhine, dangerous to boatmen and celebrated for its echo. The story of the siren of the rock whose songs lure sailors to their death originates in Heine's poem Die Lorelei (1827). The Lorelei (originally written as Loreley) is a rock on the eastern bank of the Rhine near St. Goarshausen, which soars some 120 meters above the water line. The n…

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Loren (Corey) Eiseley - Early life, Academic career, Writings, Death and Burial, Bibliography

Cultural anthropologist and writer, born in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The son of a hardware salesman, he studied at the University of Nebraska (1933) and at the University of Pennsylvania (1937 PhD). He taught anthropology at the University of Kansas (1937–44) and Oberlin (1944–7) before returning to the University of Pennsylvania (1947–61). He also became the curator of early man at the universi…

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Lorenzino de' Medici

Writer, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. A member of a minor branch of the Medici family, he was an intellectual but also a violent eccentric who murdered his cousin Alessandro (1537) with whom he had stayed in Florence. He escaped to Bologna, then France and finally Venice, where he was murdered by hitmen sent by Cosimo de' Medici. His work includes poems, epistles, and a play, Aridosia, but …

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Lorenzo

Painter, born in Siena, C Italy. By 1391 he was a monk in the Camaldolite monastery of S Maria degli Angeli, Florence, and his great altarpiece, ‘The Coronation of the Virgin’ (1414, now in the Uffizi) was painted for the high altar there. His graceful, linear, Gothic style epitomizes the last phase of mediaeval art before the onset of the Renaissance. Lorenzo may refer to: In…

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Lorenzo Da Ponte

Poet, born in Ceneda, NE Italy. He was professor of rhetoric at Treviso until political and domestic troubles drove him to Vienna, where as a poet to the Court Opera he wrote the libretti for Mozart's operas The Marriage of Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787), and Così fan tutte (1790). In 1805 he moved to New York City, where he became professor of Italian literature at Columbia College in 1825. …

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Lorenzo de' Medici - Lorenzo and politics, Lorenzo and the Renaissance, Marriage and children, Further reading

Florentine ruler, born in Florence, NC Italy, the son of Pietro I Medici and grandson of Cosimo de' Medici. He succeeded as head of the family upon the death of his father in 1469, and was an able if autocratic ruler, who made Florence the leading state in Italy. In 1478 he thwarted an attempt by malcontents, with the encouragement of Pope Sixtus IV, to overthrow the Medici, although the rising le…

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Lorenzo Dow - Sources

Protestant evangelist, born in Coventry, Connecticut, USA. He began preaching in 1794 as an independent, and later established a connection with the Methodists, for whom he evangelized in the S USA. In company with his wife, he made a notorious round trip from Boston to Natchez on the Mississippi R in 1807. He retired afterward to a farm in Connecticut, where he wrote contentious pamphlets and wor…

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Lorenzo Ghiberti - Major works, I Commentari (The Commentaries)

Goldsmith, bronze-caster, and sculptor, born in Florence, NC Italy. In 1401 he won the competition to make a pair of bronze gates for the Baptistry of Florence Cathedral. When these were completed (1424), he worked on a further pair of gates, which were finished in 1452. Lorenzo Ghiberti (born Lorenzo di Bartolo) (Florence, 1378 – December 1, 1455 in Florence) was an Italian artist of the…

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Lorenzo Homar

Artist, born in Puerta de Tierra, Puerto Rico, USA. He grew up in New York City, where he attended the Brooklyn Museum Art School and studied metalwork at Cartier's. In 1950 he returned to Puerto Rico, where he was active in the graphic arts and a founder of the Puerto Rican Arts Center. He received a Guggenheim in 1957. His lithographs, posters, and paintings hang in New York's Museum of Modern A…

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Lorenzo Lotto - Biography, Apprenticeship, Treviso (1503-1506), Recanati (1506-1508)

Religious painter, born in Venice, NE Italy. He worked in Treviso, Bergamo, Venice, and Rome, and became known for his altarpieces and portraits. In 1554 he became a lay brother in the Loreto monastery. Lorenzo Lotto (c.1480 - 1556) was a Northern Italian painter draughtsman and illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school. He painted mainly altarpieces, religious subjects …

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Lorenzo Thomas - Civil War, Postbellum

US soldier, born in New Castle, Delaware, USA. He trained at West Point (1823), and fought in the Seminole War and Mexican War. He was adjutant general of the Federal Army (1861–3) before being assigned to recruit and organize freed slaves for Union service (1863–5). Reappointed adjutant-general (1868), he became involved in an unseemly power struggle with secretary of war Edwin Stanton that led…

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Lorenzo Valla - Education, Latin stylistics, Exposing historical hoaxes, Subsequent career, Biographies and critical esteem, Works

Humanist and critic, born in Rome, Italy. A rhetoric lecturer in various Italian cities, in 1435 he was in Naples at the court of Alfonso of Aragón. In his De vero falsoque bono (1434–41) he debated that ancient Epicureanism is not in opposition with Christian morality. In Dialecticae disputationes (1440) he argued the impossibility of giving a rational explanation to dogmas. In De falso credita…

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Loreto

43º26N 13º36E, pop (2000e) 10 000. Town in Marche region, E Italy; located on a hill overlooking the Adriatic Sea; famous place of pilgrimage to the sanctuary and Holy House (Santa Casa) of the Virgin Mary; according to legend, the house was brought from Nazareth through the air by angels in 1294 and set on a hill surrounded by laurels; Our Lady of Loreto is designated the patron saint of airm…

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Loretta Lynn - Career, Honors and Awards, Controversies, Further reading

Country music singer, born in Butcher Hollow, Kentucky, USA. Married at age 13, she had her first child at 14, and was a grandmother by 28. She did not begin singing in public until her mid-twenties, but in 1960 she appeared on the ‘Grand Ole Opry’ and recorded her first hit, ‘I'm a Honky Tonk Girl’. She went on to release over 60 singles and 50 albums with many of her own songs, including ‘C…

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Lorin (Varencove) Maazel

Conductor, born in Neuilly, NC France. Brought as a child to the USA and raised in Los Angeles and Pittsburgh, he was a child prodigy as a violinist, pianist, and conductor. He made his conducting debut at age eight and at age 12 conducted the New York Philharmonic. He stepped out of the limelight to study at the University of Pittsburgh and then embarked on further musical training and guest cond…

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loris

A primitive primate, native to forests in S and SE Asia; no tail; pale face with dark rings around large eyes; slow climbers; three species: slender loris (Loris tardigradus) with long thin legs; slow loris or cu lan (Nycticebus coucang), and lesser slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus). (Family: Lorisidae.) Loris is the common name for the strepsirrhine primates of the subfamily Lorinae in fami…

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Lorraine - Variations

pop (2000e) 2 417 000; area 23 547 km²/9089 sq mi. Region and former province of NE France, comprising departments of Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse, Moselle, and Vosges; bordered by the Plaine de Champagne (W), Vosges (E), Ardennes (N), and Monts Faucilles (S); frequent source of Franco-German conflict; duchy since the 10th-c; part of France, 1766; ceded to Germany as part of Alsace-Lorraine, …

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Lorraine Hansberry - Biography, Legacy, Her works, Trivia

Playwright, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She is best known as the author of A Raisin in the Sun (1959). A Broadway success and later a film, the novel explored the struggles of a black family to escape from the ghetto. She died prematurely, before she was able to fulfill her promise as an eloquent spokeswoman for African-Americans' trials and aspirations. Lorraine annie Hansberry (May 19…

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Los Alamos

35°52N 106°19W, pop (2000e) 11 900. Community in Los Alamos Co, N New Mexico, USA; 56 km/35 mi NW of Santa Fe in the Jemez Mts; a nuclear research centre since 1943; the first nuclear weapons were developed here during World War 2; government control ended in 1962. Los Alamos usually refers to the United States national laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico which was founded during the…

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Los Angeles Lakers - Current roster, Franchise leaders, Players of note

American basketball club, founded in 1947 as the Minneapolis Lakers. After the Boston Celtics, it is the most successful professional basketball club in America, winners of the NBA championship in 1950–4. The team moved to Los Angeles in 1960, and won the championship in 1971, 1979, 1982, 1987, and 1988. Former players include Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (1975–89). In 1997, the NBA announced a li…

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Lossiemouth - History, Geography and geology, Climate, Demographics, Economy, Transport, Politics, Religion, Culture and leisure, Sport, Language

57°43N 3°18W, pop (2000e) 7800. Port town in Moray, NE Scotland, UK; fishing, tourism; air force base nearby (often involved in air-sea rescue); birthplace of Ramsay MacDonald. Lossiemouth, is a burgh in Moray, Scotland. Originally the port belonging to Elgin, it became an important and innovative fishing town. Although there has been over a 1,000 years of settlement in the area, t…

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lost generation - Traits, Celebrities

A term applied by Gertrude Stein to a group of US expatriates (including herself) living in Paris in the 1920s, among them Ezra Pound, Ernest Hemingway, and Scott Fitzgerald. Their work reflects the breakdown of order and values after World War 1. This generation is currently the oldest extant generation in the world. The "Lost Generation" were said to be disillusioned by the la…

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Lot

Biblical character, portrayed in Genesis as the nephew of Abraham who separated from him and settled in Canaan, near Sodom. Stories describe his rescue from the wickedness of that place by Abraham and two angels. Symbolic of backsliding, Lot's wife is described as looking back during this escape and being turned into ‘a pillar of salt’. Lot was named also as the ancestor of the Moabites and Ammo…

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Lotharingia

Originally, the kingdom of Lothar II (855–69), great-grandson of Charlemagne; subsequently, though disputed with France, two duchies of the kingdom of Germany. Only one, Upper Lotharingia (modern Lorraine), survived the 12th-c, and it was eventually incorporated into France (1766). Lotharingia or Lorraine was a short-lived kingdom in western Europe, the aggregate of territories belonging t…

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Lothian - Lothian Regional Council (1975-1994), Language

pop (2000e) 755 500; area 1755 km²/678 sq mi. Former region in E Scotland, UK (1975–96); replaced in 1996 by North Lanarkshire, Falkirk, West Lothian, Midlothian, East Lothian, and City of Edinburgh councils. Historically, the term Lothian is used for a province encompassing the present area plus the Scottish Borders region. Subsequent Scottish history saw Lothian subdivi…

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Lotta Continua

In Italy, a far-left, extra-parliamentary movement founded in 1969. From 1972 it also published the newspaper of the same name, which ceased publication in 1981. The movement itself was dissolved in 1976. Lotta Continua was a far left political party in Italy, involved in the autonomism movement. The first issue of Lotta Continua 's eponym newspaper was published in November 1969, a f…

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Lotte Lehmann

Soprano, born in Perleberg, NEC Germany (no relation to Lilli Lehmann). She studied in Berlin, made her debut in Hamburg in 1910, and sang at the Vienna Staatsoper (1914–38). She also appeared frequently at Covent Garden and at the New York Metropolitan, and was noted particularly for her performances in operas by Richard Strauss, including two premieres. She took US nationality, and in 1951 reti…

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Lotte Lenya - Life and career, Filmography (not complete), TV films

Actress and cabaret singer, born in Vienna, Austria. She studied drama and ballet at Zürich, lived in Berlin from 1920, and came to represent the spirit of that decadent era. In 1926 she married Kurt Weill, starring in many of his works, including The Little Mahagonny (1927) and The Threepenny Opera (1928, filmed 1931). They fled to Paris in 1933, then to New York City, where she made many stage …

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lottery - Country Lottery details, Probability of winning, Notable prizes, Payment of prizes, Scams and frauds

A way of raising money through the sale of chances (tickets) and the use of a random procedure to decide the prize-winners. Very large numbers of people take part, producing a correspondingly large sum of money which (after deduction of taxes and organizational expenses) is available for prizes. Many countries now organize state lotteries, which provide an attractive extra source of government inc…

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lotus - Plants, Companies, Other

A name given to three different plants. The sacred lotus of Egypt (Nymphaea lotus) is a species of waterlily. The sacred lotus of India and China (Nelumbium nuciferum), traditionally associated with the Buddha, is also an aquatic plant, but with circular leaves which have the stalks attached in the centre of the blade, and pink and white flowers. The lotus of classical times (Zizyphus lotus) is a …

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Lotus Notes - Features, Data Replication, Database, Use as an email client, How Notes differs from other email clients

A software package which allows workers to communicate and to share data over a local area network. Lotus Domino allows this communication and sharing to be extended over a wider network, such as the Internet. Lotus Notes is a client-server collaborative software and e-mail system owned by Lotus Software, of the IBM Software Group. The Notes client is mainly used as an email cli…

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Lou (Silver) Harrison - Biography, Harrison's music

Composer, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. A Schoenberg student, he became a prolific composer concerned with new instruments and techniques, later composing Asian-influenced music, often for homemade instruments such as Javanese-style gamelans. He composed in many styles for unique ensembles, including a 12-tone opera Rapunzel (1954) and a puppet opera Young Caeser (his spelling, 1971). Lou …

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Lou Brock - Early life, Brock for Broglio, Just The Facts And Stats

Baseball player, born in Hamilton, Illinois, USA. During his Hall of Fame career as an outfielder (1961–79), mostly for the St Louis Cardinals, he stole a total of 938 bases, a record that stood until Rickey Henderson surpassed the mark in 1991. He had 3023 hits. Louis Clark "Lou" Brock (born June 18, 1939, El Dorado, Arkansas) is an American former player in Major League Baseball. …

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Lou Hoover - Places, People and Fictional Characters

US first lady (1929–33), born in Waterloo, Iowa, USA. She was the first woman to major in geology at Stanford, where she met Herbert Hoover; they were married in 1899. Well-educated, and extremely well-travelled, she was popular in 1929–30, but, like her husband, she lost much public favour during the Great Depression. …

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Lou Reed - Early life, Career

Rock singer, guitarist, and songwriter, born in Long Island, New York, USA. He was a member of The Velvet Underground, a band which was closely associated with Andy Warhol. After the group split up in 1970, he moved to England to record Lou Reed (1972). His 1973 album, Transformer, included ‘Walk On The Wild Side’, a paean to transsexuality which somehow bypassed radio censorship to become the f…

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Louis (Antoine L - Biography

French revolutionary, born in Decize, C France. He studied at Soissons and Reims, then studied law, and while in Paris began to write poetry and essays, notably L'Esprit de la révolution (1791, Spirit of the Revolution). He was elected to the National Convention (1792), attracted notice by his fierce tirades against the king, and as a devoted follower of Robespierre was sent on diplomatic and mil…

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Louis (Arthur) Johnson

Administrator, born in Roanoke, Virginia, USA. A West Virginia lawyer and army colonel in World War 1, he commanded the American Legion (1932–3). He became assistant secretary of war (1937–40) and modernized the army. As finance chairman for President Truman's 1948 campaign, he became secretary of defence (1949–50), but his plans for restructuring the military forces angered navy admirals and t…

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Louis (Brucker) Bromfield - Bibliography

Writer, born in Mansfield, Ohio, USA. The son of a farmer, he left the family farm in 1914 to begin studying agriculture at Cornell University, but his interest in writing led him to transfer to Columbia University's school of journalism (1915). In 1916 he went to France where he served with distinction with the American Ambulance Corps. After the war, he was awarded an honorary BA by Columbia and…

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Louis (Comfort) Tiffany - Personal life, Societies, Gallery

Glass maker and interior designer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After early study with painter George Innes, he founded an interior design collaborative in 1879, which decorated important residences, including the Mark Twain house, in richly orientalist fashion. But it was his exquisite Art Nouveau glass, notably his iridescent favrile glass (patented 1894), that brought international fam…

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Louis (Daniel) Armstrong - Early life, The All Stars, Music, Death and legacy, Samples

Jazz trumpeter and singer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Raised by his mother in extreme poverty, at age 12 he served a term for delinquency at the Colored Waifs Home, where he learned to play the cornet. By 1919 he was playing with Kid Ory's band in New Orleans, and also with Fate Marable on Mississippi riverboats. In 1922 he joined his mentor, King Oliver's trailblazing Creole Jazz Band, …

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Louis (Dearborn) L'Amour - Biography, Non-series novels, Sackett novels, Talon and Chantry novels, Kilkenny novels

Writer, born in Jamestown, North Dakota, USA. Leaving school when young, he travelled throughout W America and the world and held a number of jobs, ranging from lumberjack to elephant handler. He published a book of poetry (1939), but it was his first Western novel, Hondo (1953), that gained him instant success. Although he later wrote a non-fiction book about the frontier, and numerous film and t…

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Louis (Jozef Maria) Beel - Early life, Life during World War II

Dutch Catholic politician, prime minister (1946–8, 1958–9), and lawyer, born in Roermond, SE Netherlands. Deputy town clerk of Eindhoven (1934–42), he resigned in protest against the appointment of an NSB (National Socialist Movement) burgomaster. He was a member of the Rooms-Katholieke Staatspartij, which became the Katholieke Volkspartij (KVP), of which he was leader. In 1945 he became minist…

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Louis (Michel) Eilshemius

Painter, born near Newark, New Jersey, USA. Based in New York City, he travelled widely. His work is surrealistic and haunting, and shows the influence of Albert Pinkham Ryder, as in ‘New York at Night’ (c.1917). Louis Eilshemius (February 4, 1864 – December 29, 1941) was an American painter, primarily of landscapes and nudes. Born near Newark, New Jersey into a wealthy fami…

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Louis (Stanton) Auchincloss - Selected works

Novelist, short-story writer, and critic, born in Lawrence, New York, USA. He trained as a lawyer and was admitted to the New York bar in 1941. His first novel, The Indifferent Children (1947), appeared under his pseudonym, but later books carried his own name, such as Pursuit of the Prodigal (1960) and The Embezzler (1966). Later works include The Country Cousin (1978), Diary of a Yuppie (1986), …

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Louis (Trolle) Hjelmslev - The Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen, His theoretical work, Assessment

Linguist, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He founded the Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen in 1931, and was a co-founder of the journal Acta Linguistica in 1939. With associates in Copenhagen, he devised a system of linguistic analysis known as glossematics, based on the study of the distribution of, and the relationships between, the smallest meaningful units of a language (glossemes). This is outline…

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Louis Agassiz Fuertes

Bird artist, born in Ithaca, New York, USA. He showed an affinity for painting birds in childhood, and after graduating from Cornell University (1897) he studied with the nature painter Abbott H Thayer. A tireless fieldworker, he travelled all over the world collecting and sketching birds. His paintings appeared in such field guides as Coues' Key to North American Birds (1903) and Birds of New Yor…

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Louis Alexandre Berthier

French general, the first marshal of the French empire, born in Versailles, NC France. In the French Revolution he rose to be chief-of-staff in the Army of Italy (1795), and in 1798 proclaimed the republic in Rome. He became chief-of-staff to Napoleon, who made him Prince of Neuchâftel and Wagram. After Napoleon's fall he had to surrender the principality of Neuchâftel, but was allowed to keep h…

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Louis Althusser - Biographical information, Thought, Influence, Endnotes

Political philosopher, born in Algiers, Algeria. He studied in Algiers and in France, was imprisoned in concentration camps during World War 2, and from 1948 taught in Paris. He joined the Communist Party in 1948, and wrote influential works on Marxist theory, including Pour Marx (1965, For Marx) and Lénin et la philosophie (1969, Lenin and Philosophy). In 1980 he murdered his wife, and was confi…

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Louis Aragon - Bibliography, Source

Political activist and writer, born in Paris, France. One of the most brilliant of the Surrealist group, he co-founded the journal Littérature with André Breton in 1919. He published two volumes of poetry, Feu de joie (1920) and Le Mouvement perpétuel (1925), and a Surrealist novel, Le Paysan de Paris (1926). After a visit to the Soviet Union in 1930 he became a convert to Communism, wrote a se…

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Louis Bonaparte

King of Holland (1806–10), born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the third surviving brother of Napoleon I. He was a soldier, who married Napoleon's step-daughter, Hortense Beauharnais, in 1802. He ruled Holland as King Lodewijk I, but abdicated because Napoleon complained that he was too attached to the interests of the Dutch. He became Count of Saint-Leu, and settled in Austria and Switzerland, later livin…

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Louis Botha

South African soldier, statesman, and prime minister (1910–19), born in Greytown, Natal, E South Africa. He succeeded Joubert (1900) as commander-in-chief of the Boer forces during the war, and in 1907 became prime minister of the Transvaal colony under the new constitution. In 1907 and 1911 he attended imperial conferences in London, and in 1910 became the first premier of the Union of South Afr…

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Louis Bourdaloue

Preacher, born in Bourges, C France. A Jesuit, he first gained fame as a preacher in 1666 and supplanted Bossuet, according to Mme De Sévigné, through his long and learned sermons. His sermon Sur la Pensée de la mort is the most famous, along with Sur l'Hypocrisie, in which he attacked Molière's Tartuffe. Louis Bourdaloue (August 20, 1632 - May 13, 1704), French Jesuit and preacher, was…

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Louis Braille - Biography, Legacy

Educationist, born in Coupvray, NC France. Blind from the age of three following an accident with an awl, at 10 he entered the Institution des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris. He studied organ playing, and became professor of the Institute in 1826. In 1829 he simplified a system of raised-point writing first devised by Charles Barbier for use on the battlefield called ‘Night Writing’. Using an awl, he …

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Louis Chevrolet

Racing driver and automobile designer, born in La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland. He emigrated to the USA (1900) in order to race cars, and in his first race defeated Barney Oldfield. In 1905 he drove a record mile in 52·8 seconds. With the backing of William Crapo Durant, he founded the Chevrolet Motor Co (1911) and designed its first car. He sold out his interest in 1915 and concentrated on buildi…

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Louis Couturat

Philosopher and mathematician, born in Ris-Orangis, NC France. He studied at the École Normale Supérieure and became professor at the University of Toulouse and the Collège de France. Acclaimed as an interpreter of Leibniz, La Logique de Leibniz (1901), he was also deeply involved in the development of Ido, a language based on Esperanto. Other chief works include De l'Infini mathématique (1896…

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Louis Durey

Composer, born in Paris, France. In 1916, under the influence of Erik Satie, he became one of the group of young French composers known as Les Six, but broke with them in 1921. He wrote large orchestral and choral works, but is chiefly known for his songs and chamber music. Louis Durey ( May 27, 1888 - July 3, 1979) was a French composer. Louis Durey was born in Paris the son of…

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Louis Farrakhan - Early life, Family, Current health, Nation of Islam, Controversy, Farrakhan and classical music, Farrakhan parodies

Black Muslim leader, born in the Bronx, New York, USA. He grew up in Roxbury, MA and was converted to the Nation of Islam by Malcolm X. Following Malcolm X's defection (1963–4), Farrakhan became the national representative for Elijah Muhammad. When Elijah Muhammad's son allowed whites to join the movement (after 1975), Farrakhan split away and formed a revitalized movement, Final Call to the Nati…

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Louis Ginzberg - Biographical background, Judaism studied in a historical context, Legacy at JTS

Rabbi and scholar, born in Kovno, Lithuania. He studied in Lithuania and Germany, and went to the USA in 1899. He was named rabbinical literature editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia (1900), and from 1903 until his death he was professor of Talmud at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. A leader in the Conservative movement, he was a much-published scholar, with special interest in the Palesti…

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Louis Golding - Works

Writer, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, beginning his writing career while still a student. He wrote many books about Jewish life, of which the best-known is Magnolia Street (1932), the story of a typical street in a provincial city whose inhabitants were Jews on one side, Gentiles on the other. Louis Golding (November 19, 1895 – August 9, 195…

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Louis I

King of Aquitaine (781–814) and emperor of the Western or Carolingian empire (814–40), the son of Charlemagne. His reign was marked by reforms of the Church in collaboration with the monk St Benedict of Aniane, and for the raids of the Norsemen in the NW of the empire, especially the Seine and Scheldt basins. After his death the empire disintegrated while his sons fought for supremacy. Lo…

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Louis Jordan - Overview, Early life and musical career, Early solo career, The Forties, "King of the Jukeboxes"

Musician, born in Brinley, Arkansas, USA. A saxophonist, singer, and show-business natural, he was the most popular ‘race’ recording artist throughout the 1940s. He began his career in the mid-1920s with local Arkansas bands, and toured with the Rabbit Foot Minstrels before emerging in New York as a sideman with Chick Webb's Orchestra (1936–8). He formed his own innovative combo, the Tympany Fi…

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