Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 43

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Juno (mythology) - Music, Other uses

In Roman mythology, the supreme goddess, and the wife of Jupiter. Originally an ancient Italian deity associated with the Moon and the life of women, she was later identified with Hera. Juno may refer to: …

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Jupiter (astronomy) - Overview, Historical observations, Physical characteristics, Exploration of Jupiter, Natural satellites, Life on Jupiter, Trojan asteroids

The fifth major planet from the Sun, and the innermost of the giant outer planets. It contains two-thirds of the matter in the Solar System, apart from the Sun. It has been observed in close-up by five space probes: Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyagers 1 and 2, and Galileo. Its basic characteristics are: mass 1·90 × 1027 kg; equatorial radius 71 492 km/44 423 mi; polar radius 66 854 km/41 541 …

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Jupiter (mythology) - Epithets of Jupiter, Capitoline Jupiter, In language

The chief Roman god, equivalent to Greek Zeus, originally a sky-god with the attributes of thunder and the thunderbolt. He is sometimes given additional names (eg Jupiter Optimus Maximus). Roman generals visited his temple to do him honour. In Roman mythology, Jupiter (Iuppiter in Latin) held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. Jupiter is, properly speaking, a derivatio…

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Jupiter Hammon

Writer and poet, born in Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Little is known of his life, but it is recorded that he was born a slave, worked as a clerk for the Lloyd family, and was reportedly educated by missionaries from England. His first published poem, ‘An Evening Thought’ (1761), preceded the work of Phillis Wheatley by six years, thus earning him the distinction of being the first Af…

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Jura Mountains

Limestone mountain range in E France and W Switzerland, on Franco-Swiss border, forming a plateau 250 km/155 mi long by 50 km/31 mi wide; highest point in France, Crêt de la Neige (1718 m/5636 ft), in Switzerland, Mt Tendre (1682 m/5518 ft); forested slopes, with poor pasture; caving, winter sports. The Jura folds are located north of the main Alpine orogenic front and are being co…

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jurisdiction - Jurisdiction in the international dimension, The jurisdiction of courts between and within states, Franchise jurisdiction

The term also refers to the legal competence of a particular court to hear a certain type or class of case. 1 The legal competence of a particular court to hear a certain type or class of case. 2The geographical area covered by a particular court or legal system, or the types of cases which it has power to hear; this is not necessarily the same area as that of the national political unit. For exam…

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jurisprudence - Etymology, History of jurisprudence, Modern jurisprudence

The science or philosophy of law. As with philosophy generally, jurisprudence has concerned itself not only with what is, but what ought to be, with inevitably an ideological dimension. It has some claim to be regarded as a science of law, in that it seeks to ascertain regularities in human behaviour: judicial behaviourists claim good success rates in predicting the outcome of legal decision-makin…

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jury - Overview, Verdicts, Secrecy and independence, Imposition of penalties for guilty verdicts, Jury Nullification, Trial procedures

A group of lay persons of varying numbers who decide, on the basis of evidence, matters of fact in criminal and civil cases. They are usually 12 in number, although in Scotland 15 jurors sit in criminal trials. In the USA certain juries also have a role in deciding whether a person should be prosecuted for a particular crime; these juries, known as Grand Juries, have up to 23 people sitting on the…

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Juscelino Kubitschek (de Oliveira)

Brazilian statesman and president (1956–61), born in Diamantina, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil. He studied medicine at Belo Horizonte, Paris, and Berlin. His government sponsored rapid economic growth, and the dramatic building of a new capital, Brasília. Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (JK) (September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976) was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Braz…

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Jussieu

The name of a family of French botanists, notably Bernard de Jussieu (c.1699–1777), who created the botanical garden at Trianon for Louis XV, and adopted a system which has become the basis of modern natural botanical classification. His brother Antoine de Jussieu (1686–1758) was a physician and professor at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. His nephew, Antoine Laurent (1748–1836), was also profes…

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Just Fontaine

Footballer and manager, born in Marakesh, Morocco. He began his career with Nice and won League and Cup winner's medals before making his international debut against Hungary in 1956. He established an enduring record when, playing for France in the final stages of the 1958 World Cup in Sweden, he scored 13 goals, including four against West Germany in the play-off match to determine third place. H…

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justice of the peace (JP) - History, Modern use in the Commonwealth tradition, United States, Sources and External link

A judicial appointment, also known as a magistrate. In England and Wales, JPs are appointed and may be removed by the Lord Chancellor, or in Scotland by the secretary of state for Scotland. Their principal function is to preside in the magistrates' courts (England and Wales) or the district courts (Scotland), administering immediate (or summary) justice in a large number of the less serious crimin…

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justiciar - England, Scotland, Other jurisdictions

In mediaeval times, the chief administrative and judicial officer of the English crown, who also acted as vice-regent during the king's absences overseas. The history of the office can be followed from Bishop Roger of Salisbury (d.1139) to 1234 and then, after a long break (1234–58), to 1265, when it finally lapsed. In the kingdom of England, the term Justiciar originally referred to any o…

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Justin Smith Morrill - Biography, Legislation

US representative, born in Strafford, Vermont, USA. The son of a blacksmith, he ran a general store in Strafford (1831–48), turned to farming, then went to the US House of Representatives (Whig, Republican, Vermont, 1855–67). A member of the Ways and Means Committee, he sponsored the Land-Grant College Act of 1862, providing public lands for agricultural colleges. In the Senate (Republican, 1867…

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Justin Winsor - Writer and Editor, Librarian, Historian

Historian and librarian, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Stemming from his early interest in history, his first book, A History of the Town of Duxbury, was published in 1849 during his freshman year at Harvard. He left in 1852 without taking a degree, travelled in Europe, then returned to Boston (1854) and began writing criticism, poetry, and fiction for various periodicals. He became a truste…

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Justine Henin-Hardenne - Grand Slam singles finals, Titles (31)

Tennis player, born in Liège, Belgium. She won her first WTA Tour event as a professional at Antwerp in 1999. In 2001 she reached the semi-final of the French Open and the final at Wimbledon, and by the end of the year was ranked number seven in the world. In 2003 she won her first two Grand Slam events: the French Open and the US Open. At the beginning of 2004 she was ranked world number 1, and …

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Justus Lipsius - Philosophy

Humanist and Classical scholar, born in Issche, C Belgium. Professor of Classics at Jena, Leyden, and Louvain, he was successively Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and once more Catholic. Noted for his essays in moral and political theory, his writings also include important editions of the Latin prose texts of Tacitus (1574) and Seneca (1605). Justus Lipsius, Joost Lips or Josse Lips (Octobe…

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Justus of Ghent - Works

Painter, who became a member of the painters' guild in Antwerp in 1460, and in 1464 was a master in Ghent. During the mid-1470s he is recorded as being at the court of Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, where he painted his only surviving documented work, The Institution of the Eucharist (1472–4). He is also thought to have painted a series of 28 Famous Men for the Ducal Palace (c.1476). Hi…

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jute - Cultivation, History, Uses

An annual (Corchorus capsularis) growing to 3·5 m/11½ ft, a relative of the lime tree, and native to S Asia; leaves ovoid; flowers in axils of leaves, yellow. The stems, soaked and beaten to separate the fibres, are used in hessian and sacking. (Family: Tiliaceae.) Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is one of the ch…

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Jutes - Jutes and Geats

A Germanic people whose original homeland was the N part of the Danish peninsula (Jutland). The tradition preserved by Bede, that Jutes participated in the 5th-c Germanic invasions of Britain and settled in Kent, SE England and the Isle of Wight, S England, UK, is confirmed by archaeological evidence. Their name is preserved in Jutland and Juteborg. The Jutes were a Germanic people who are …

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Juvenal - The Satires

Satirist, born in Aquinum, Italy. He served as tribune in the army, in Britain and in Egypt. He is best known for his 16 brilliant satires in verse (c.100–c.127), dealing with life in Roman times under Domitian and his successors. Written from the viewpoint of an angry Stoic moralist, they range from the exposures of unnatural vices, the misery of poverty, and the extravagance of the ruling class…

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juvenile court - Purpose of Juvenile Court

A court specifically concerned with the interests of children and young persons, where the emphasis is on rehabilitation and treatment rather than punishment. South Australia is believed to be the first state to have introduced a juvenile court system, in the late 19th-c, after which the idea spread rapidly throughout the USA, Canada, and parts of Europe (but not Scandinavia, which developed its o…

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juvenile delinquency - Nature and causes, Theoretical Perspectives on Juvenile Delinquency and Crime

The anti-social behaviour of young people which may or may not be criminal. Theories explaining juvenile delinquency abound in criminology and sociology. Many account for such youthful misconduct in terms of playfulness, rebelliousness, frustration, or as a form of working-class rebellion against the inequities and frustrations of capitalism. Criminal statistics indicate that some groups tend towa…

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K(azi) N(azrul) Islam - Early life, Rebel poet, Revolutionary, "Mass music", Exploring religion, Later career, Illness and later life

Poet, born into extreme poverty in the West Bengali village of Churulia. He rose to fame in the 1920s as a poet and leader of the anti-British movement in India with his poem The Rebel. He also published a bimonthly radical magazine, Dhumketu (The Comet), which was virulently revolutionary and anti-British in tone, and spent 40 days on hunger-strike in jail. In the 1930s he concentrated more on co…

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Kabbalah - Use of term, Origins, Origin of Jewish mysticism, Textual antiquity of esoteric mysticism

Jewish religious teachings originally transmitted orally, predominantly mystic in nature, and ostensibly consisting of secret doctrines. It developed along two lines - the ‘practical’, centring on prayer, meditation, and acts of piety; and the ‘speculative’ or ‘theoretical’, centring on the discovery of mysteries hidden in the Jewish Scriptures by special methods of interpretation. Ka…

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Kabuki - History, Elements of kabuki, Famous Plays

A state-controlled city entertainment in Japan, popular from 1650 to 1850. A 4-part play in numerous acts, lasting all day, was presented in a manner which allowed great actors to ad-lib, and the audience to talk and picnic in carnival spirit. The spectacular resources of Kabuki are nowadays employed only to present selected highlights from the traditional repertoire. Kabuki (歌舞伎, kab…

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Kabul - History, Infrastructure, Tourism and sightseeing, Education, Notes and references

34°30N 69°10E, pop (2000e) 2 375 000. Capital city of Afghanistan, and capital of Kabul province, E Afghanistan; on R Kabul in a high mountain valley, commanding the approaches to the Khyber Pass; capital of Mughal Empire (1504–1738); modern state capital, 1773; captured in 1839 and 1879 by the British during the Afghan Wars; target of US-led military bombardment in October 2001 in response …

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Kaddish

An ancient Jewish congregation prayer, mostly in Aramaic, which marks the closing parts of daily public worship, praising the name of God and seeking the coming of the kingdom of God. There are variations in its use, but it is mostly recited while standing and facing Jerusalem. It has affinities with the Christian formulation of the Lord's Prayer. Kaddish (קדיש Aramaic: "holy") refers t…

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Kaffe Fassett - Related links

Fashion designer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied painting at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston before migrating to England in 1964. Discovering the potential of hand knitting and needlepoint, he formed a design company producing knitting kits for Rowan, needlepoint for Ehrman, and fabrics for the Designers Guild. His television broadcasts and books, such as Glorious Interiors (…

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kagu - Description, Classification, Gallery

A ground-dwelling bird (Rhynochetos jubatus) native to New Caledonia; slate grey with short tail, pointed bill, and long erectile crest on head; virtually flightless; inhabits forests; eats worms, insects, and snails; once abundant, but now endangered. (Family: Rhynochetidae.) The Kagu or Cagou (Rhynochetos jubatus) is a long-legged greyish bird, the only member of the family Rhynochetidae.…

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Kaieteur Falls - Discovery, Tourism, Ben Fogle's "Extreme Dreams" trek to the falls

Waterfall in C Guyana, on the R Potaro; nearly five times the height of Niagara, with a sheer drop of 226 m/742 ft from a sandstone tableland c.100 m/350 ft wide into a wide basin where the water drops a further 22 m/72 ft; discovered in 1870; set in the 116 km²/45 sq mi Kaieteur National Park, established in 1929. Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyan…

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Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji - Selected List of Works, Selected list of performed and recorded works

Composer, pianist, and polemical essayist, born in Chingford, Essex, SE England, UK, of Parsi and Spanish–Sicilian descent. Largely self-taught, his works are often epic, such as Opus clavicembalisticum (1930), a work of four hours duration in three parts. In addition to piano music, he wrote concertos, organ works, choral music and songs. His witty and outspoken critical writings were collected …

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Kaikoura Ranges

Mountain ranges in NE South Island, New Zealand; two parallel ranges, the Inland Kaikoura and the Seaward Kaikoura; length 40 km/25 mi, separated by the Clarence R; highest peak, Mt Tapuaenuku (2885 m/9465 ft) in the Inland Kaikoura. The Kaikoura Ranges are two parallel ranges of mountains in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Named the Looker-on mountains by …

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Kairouan - History, Religion, Sights, Miscellaneous

35°42N 10°01E, pop (2000e) 94 000. Capital of Kairouan governorate, NE Tunisia, 130 km/81 mi S of Tunis; founded in 671; capital of the Aglabite dynasty, 9th-c; carpets, crafts; an important Muslim holy city; Great Mosque, the oldest in the Maghreb; carpet museum; archaeological site of Reqqada nearby. Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (variations include Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayraw…

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Kaiser - Word history and translations, German history and antecedents of the title

The title assumed (Dec 1870) by the Prussian king, William (Wilhelm) I, following the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Second Empire. He was succeeded on his death in 1888 by his son Frederick (Friedrich) III, who survived him by only three months, and then by his grandson William (Wilhelm) II, who ruled until his enforced abdication in 1918. Kaiser is the German title …

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Kaj (Harald Leininger) Munk

Playwright, priest, and patriot, born in Maribo, S Denmark. He studied theology at Copenhagen University, and as priest of a small parish in Jutland wrote heroic and religious plays that led the Danish dramatic revival in the 1930s. His first play was En Idealist (1928), followed by Cant (1931), Henrik VIII (1931), Ordet (1932, The Word), and Han sidder ved smeltedigien (1938, He Sits by the Melti…

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kakapo - Physical description, Reproduction, Ecology and behaviour, Conservation

A flightless, ground-dwelling parrot (Strigops habroptilus), native to New Zealand, also known as an owl parrot; face with owl-like array of radiating feathers; nocturnal; inhabits mountain forest; eats fruit, shoots, moss, and fungi; seriously endangered, they numbered just 86 in March 2005. (Family: Psittacidae.) The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (…

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Kakuei Tanaka - Early life, Rise into politics, Etsuzankai, Consolidation of power, Scandals, Fall from power

Japanese statesman and prime minister (1972–4), born in Kariwa Niigata Prefecture, WC Japan. A civil engineer, he established a highly successful building contracting business, and was elected to Japan's House of Representatives in 1947. He rose swiftly within the dominant Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), becoming minister of finance (1962–4), secretary-general (1965 and 1968), and minister of in…

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kalanchoe

A succulent herb or shrub, native mainly to tropical Africa and Madagascar; rather variable in appearance, but often with leaves blotched or marked with brown. In many species, the leaf-margins bear plantlets which drop off and grow into new plants. (Genus: Kalanchoe, 125 species. Family: Crassulaceae.) …

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kale

A very hardy mutant of cabbage (Brassica olerace, variety acephala) with dense heads of plain or curled, green or purple leaves. It is widely grown as a vegetable and fodder crop. The leaves are sometimes called borecole. (Family: Crucifereae.) …

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Kalevala - The Storyline, Influence of the Kalevala

The name given to a compilation of Finnish legends, published by Elias Lönnrot in 1835, and now regarded as the Finnish national epic. The poem is in a trochaic metre, imitated by Longfellow in Hiawatha. Of the tens of poem singers who contributed to the Kalevala, significant ones include: Lönnrot arranged the collected poems into a coherent whole. The first versio…

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Kali - Meaning, Origin, Iconography, Development, Further reading

The Hindu goddess of destruction, who is also represented as the Great Mother, the giver of life. She is the consort of Shiva. Kali (Sanskrit: काली) (Pronounced /kɑːliː/) is a goddess with a long and complex history in Hinduism (although sometimes presented in the West as dark and violent). Finally, the comparatively recent devotional movement largely conceives of Kali as a…

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Kalimantan - Administration, Demographics

pop (2000e) 9 529 000. Group of four provinces in the Indonesian part of Borneo: Kalimantan Barat, West Kalimantan, or West Borneo, pop (2000e) 3 806 000, area 146 760 km²/56 649 sq mi, capital, Pontianak; Kalimantan Selatan, South Kalimantan, or South Borneo, pop (2000e) 3 053 000, area 37 660 km²/14 537 sq mi, capital, Banjarmasin; Kalimantan Tengah, Central Kalimantan, or C…

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Kaliningrad - Geography, History, Historical names, Sightseeing, Coats of arms, Famous residents

54°40N 20°30E, pop (2001e) 424 800. Capital of Kaliningrad region, W Russia; on the R Pregel at the point where it flows into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea; founded (1255) as a fortress of the Teutonic Knights; renamed (1946) after E Prussia was ceded to Russia; a major ice-free Baltic seaport and naval base; important industrial, fishing, and commercial centre; birthplace of …

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Kalmar Union - Union, Final dissolution

The dynastic union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden achieved at Kalmar, Sweden, where in 1397 Eric of Pomerania was crowned king of all three kingdoms. In 1523 Sweden broke away from the Union, which was dominated by Denmark, but Norway was united with Denmark until 1814. The Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: Kalmarunionen) was a series of personal unions (1397–1521) that united the t…

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Kamakura shogunate - Establishment of the Shogunate, Usurpation of the Shogunate, Effects

(1185–1333) The first Japanese shogunate, when the head of the Minamoto family, Minamoto Yoritoko (1147–99) took the title shogun (‘generalissimo’) and established a governmental system which was to prevail for nearly 700 years. He established his headquarters at Kamakura, a fishing village S of modern Tokyo, and laid the foundations of the Japanese military feudal system, with land fiefs and …

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Kamehameha I - Kamehameha's ambition, The first King of Hawaiʻi, Kamehameha in popular culture

Hawaiian unifier and king, born on Kohala, District of Hawaii, USA (formerly the Sandwich Is). Following the death of the chief of Hawaii, his uncle Kalaniopu'u (1782), Kamehameha conquered the island. After other victories on Maui, Oahu, Kauai, and the other islands, he formed the Kingdom of Hawaii by 1810. He stimulated Hawaiian trade, but kept intact the customs and the religion of his people. …

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kamikaze - Origins of the word kamikaze, History

A term identifying the volunteer suicide pilots of the Japanese Imperial Navy, who guided their explosive-packed aircraft onto enemy ships in World War 2. They emerged in the last year of the Pacific War, when 1465 pilots died in the battle for Okinawa, destroying 26 US warships and damaging 164. Other kamikaze tactics (eg using boats and submarines) were also employed. Death for the Emperor was a…

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Kampala - History, Features

0°19N 32°35E, pop (2000e) 739 000. Capital of Uganda, close to the N shore of L Victoria; founded, late 19th-c; capital, 1963; airport at Entebbe; railway; Makerere University (1922); banking, administration, fruit and vegetable trade, tea blending and packing, brewing, textiles, coffee, petrol depot; two cathedrals. Kampala is the capital city of Uganda. Before the arrival …

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Kananga - History, Trivia

5°53S 22°26E, pop (2000e) 462 300. Capital of Kasai Occidental region, WC Democratic Republic of Congo, on R Lulua; scene of a mutiny by Congo Free State troops, 1895; airfield; railway; commerce, agricultural trade, diamonds. Kananga, formerly (and on some company names) known as Luluabourg, is the capital of the Kasai-Occidental province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. …

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Kandahar - Infrastructure, Trivia

31°36N 65°47E, pop (2000e) 409 200. Capital of Kandahar province, S Afghanistan; on the ancient trade routes of C Asia, and fought over by India and Persia; capital of Afghanistan 1748–73; occupied by the British (1839–42, 1879–81) during the Afghan Wars; Taliban stronghold, attacked by US-led military forces in October 2001 in response to the Taliban government's refusal to give up Osama b…

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Kandy - Urban morphology, Demographics, World Heritage Site, Festivals, Shopping, Culinary, Nightlife, Botanical garden

7°17N 80°40E, pop (2000e) 116 000. Capital of Kandy district, Sri Lanka, looped by the R Mahaweli, 116 km/72 mi NE of Colombo; royal city until 1815; commercial centre for tea-growing area; focal point of the Buddhist Sinhalese culture; Dalada Maligawa (Temple of the Tooth), where the eye tooth of Buddha is enshrined; Peradeniya Botanical Gardens; Esala Perahera religious festival (Jul–Aug)…

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Kang Youwei - See Also

Philosopher and historian, the leader of the Hundred Days of Reform in China (1898). Impressed by British administration, he saw equality as a product of Confucianism. In 1898 he organized thousands of young scholars to demand drastic national reforms. The young Emperor Zaitian summoned him to implement reforms as the first step to creating a constitutional monarchy, but the movement was ended whe…

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kangaroo - Terminology, Physical description, Kangaroos and humans, Kangaroo traffic sign, Kangaroos and sport, Famous Kangaroos

A marsupial, usually with long hind legs used for hopping, short front legs, and a long stiff tail (held against the ground as a prop when stationary; held horizontally to counterbalance the weight of the front of the body when hopping); young (a joey) develops in a pouch on the mother's abdomen; large species tend to be called kangaroos, smaller species wallabies; inhabits grassland or woodland; …

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kangaroo paw

An evergreen perennial native to SW Australia; c.1 m/3¼ ft high; leaves sword-shaped, sheathing at the base; flowers in branched inflorescence, zygomorphic, often brightly coloured; the woolly, curved tube ending in 6 claw-like lobes resembling a paw. (Genus: Anigozanthus, 10 species. Family: Haemadoraceae.) Kangaroo paw is a common name for a number of species in the family Haemodoracea…

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kangaroo rat

A squirrel-like rodent, native to North America; hind legs longer than front legs; long tail with long hairs at tip; moves by hopping. (Genus: Dipodomys, 22 species. Family: Heteromyidae.) Kangaroo rats, genus Dipodomys, are small rodents native to North America. …

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KaNgwane

Former national state or non-independent black homeland in Natal province, South Africa; self-governing status, 1971; incorporated into KwaZulu Natal following the South African constitution of 1994. KaNgwane was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Swazi people. Formerly called the "Swazi Territory", the homeland …

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kanji - History, Local developments, Readings, Total number of kanji characters, Orthographic reform and lists of kanji

A character in Chinese writing, as used in Japan. Schoolchildren learn the Ministry of Education's basic 1850 Chinese characters; 46 hiragana (originally simplified phonetic characters, since the 9th-c used as convenient signs for Japanese syllables); 46 katakana (further syllable symbols, often used for foreign words); and romaji (the Roman alphabet). Many kanji are simpler than the Chinese origi…

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Kano - History, Transport

12°00N 8°31E, pop (2000e) 853 000. Capital of Kano state, N Nigeria, 1130 km/700 mi NE of Lagos; ancient Hausa settlement; modern city founded in the 19th-c, becoming a major terminus of trans-Saharan trade; city walls nearly 18 km/11 mi long, 12 m/40 ft thick at the base, and up to 12 m/40 ft high; airport; railway; university (1975); food processing, brewing, textiles, leather, groun…

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Kanpur - History, Geography, Demography, Climate, Schools, Colleges and universities, Passenger Transport, IT Companies in Kanpur

26°35N 80°20E, pop (2000e) 2 300 000. City in Uttar Pradesh, N India; on R Ganges, 185 km/115 mi NW of Allahabad; ceded to the British, 1801; entire British garrison massacred during the Indian Mutiny, 1857; airfield; railway; university (1966); major trade and industrial centre; chemicals, jute, textiles, food products, chemicals. Kanpur, pronunciation?(help·info) (Hindi: कान…

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Kansas - Economy, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams

pop (2000e) 2 688 400; area 213 089 km²/82 277 sq mi. State in C USA, divided into 105 counties; the ‘Sunflower State’; part of the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; virtual civil war in 1854–6 over whether it should be a free or slave state; 34th state admitted to the Union (as a free state), 1861; capital, Topeka; other chief cities, Wichita and Kansas City; the Missouri R forms part of the …

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Kansas City (Kansas) - Other uses

39°07N 94°38W, pop (2000e) 146 900. Seat of Wyandotte Co, E Kansas, USA; port at the junction of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, adjacent to Kansas City, MO, with which it shares many functions; settled by Wyandotte Indians, 1843; sold to the US government, 1855; railway; together with its sister city, a major commercial and industrial centre; market for surrounding agricultural region; stocky…

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Kansas City (Missouri) - Other uses

39°06N 94°35W, pop (2000e) 441 500. River port city in Jackson Co, W Missouri, USA; on the S bank of the Missouri R, adjacent to its sister city, Kansas City, KS, with which it shares many functions; town of Kansas established, 1838; city status, 1853; present name, 1889; airport; railway; university (1929); automobiles and parts, metal products, electronics, processed foods, machinery, oil re…

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Kanuri

A Nilo-Saharan-speaking people of Bornu, NE Nigeria, and SE Niger. Well-known as traders, they formed the empire of Bornu, at its zenith during the 16th-c. Muslim since the 11th-c, they have a highly stratified social organization. The Kanuri are an African ethnic group living in Bornu state in northeastern Nigeria, southeast Niger, western Chad and northern Cameroon. Known as "…

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Karachi - History, Geography and climate, Government, Demographics, Economy, Development, Culture, Education, Sports, Sites of interest, Shopping

24°51N 67°02E, pop (2000e) 8 345 000. Provincial capital of Sind province, SE Pakistan; on the Arabian Sea coast, NW of the mouths of the Indus; Pakistan's principal seaport; founded, 18th-c; under British rule from 1843; former capital, 1947–59; airport; railway; university (1951); trade in cotton, grain, skins, wool; chemicals, textiles, plastics, shipbuilding; tomb of Quaid-i-Azam, Mohamm…

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karate - The Practice of Karate, Etymology of "Karate", History of Karate

A martial art of unarmed combat, with strong philosophical undertones, dating from the 17th-c, and developed in Japan in the 20th-c; its name was adopted in the 1930s. The aim is to be in total control of the muscular power of the body, so that it can be used with great force and accuracy at any instant. Experts may show their mental and physical training by performing such acts of strength as bre…

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Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - Early years, Professional athletics, Film career, Player profile, Sky hook, Professional basketball career and statistics

Basketball player, born in New York City, USA. A talented player from youth, his exceptional height (7 ft 2 in/2 m 5 cm) made him a formidable opponent. He studied at the University of California (1965), then joined the National Basketball Association (NBA) Milwaukee Bucks (1969), leading them to victory in the NBA championships (1971). Already converted to Islam, he took an Arabic name (1971)…

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Karel Reisz

Film and theatre actor, director, and producer, born in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic). As a child he was sent to England in 1938 just before the Nazi invasion, and later studied at Cambridge. His film credits include Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1959), Night Must Fall (1963), Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment (1966), The Gambler (1974), and The French Lieutenant's Woman (1…

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Karel van het Reve

Writer and Slavicist, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The less well-known brother of Gerard Reve, he completed his Slavic studies to become a professor. Karel is mainly known for his polemic essays and columns about the former USSR and Marxism. Although he grew up in a communist family, he developed a strong anti-communist attitude which is expressed in Het geloof der kameraden (1969, The Conv…

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Karelia - History, Politics, Geography, Demographics, Culture

pop (2000e) 796 000; area 172 400 km²/66 560 sq mi. Constituent republic of Russia; bounded W by Finland and E by the White Sea; in mediaeval times, an independent state with strong Finnish associations; under Swedish domination, 17th-c; annexed by Russia, 1721; constituted as a Soviet Socialist Republic, 1923; many lakes and rivers; heavily forested; mining, timber, cereals, fishing. …

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Karen

Sino-Tibetan-speaking, ethnically-diverse groups of S Myanmar (Burma). With Burmese independence (1948), fighting broke out between government and groups identifying themselves as Karen, wanting autonomy. Sometimes divided into White Karen and Red Karen, they have united in common opposition to Burmese control. In the late 1980s many fled to refugee camps in Thailand. Karen may refer to: …

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Karen Horney - Early life, Education and youth, Career and works, Posthumous influences, Works by Karen Horney

Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, born near Hamburg, Germany. Raised by a strict Norwegian father and a more liberal Dutch mother, she lived out tensions in her youth that would provide many of the themes of her later work. While a medical student in Germany, she married a fellow student (1909) and they had three children. Her personal and emotional life was already under great strain by 1915, and s…

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Karen Kain

Dancer, born in Hamilton, Ontario, SE Canada. After training with the Canadian National Ballet School in Toronto she joined the company in 1969, becoming principal dancer in 1970. Canada's most popular ballerina, she has danced the major classical leads as well as interpreting roles in works by contemporary choreographers. Karen Kain, CC (born on March 28, 1951) is a Canadian ballet dancer.…

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Kariba Dam

A major concrete arch dam on the Zambezi R at the Zambia–Zimbabwe border, impounding L Kariba; completed in 1959; height 128 m/420 ft; length 579 m/1900 ft. It has the capacity to generate 705 megawatts of hydroelectricity. The Kariba Dam is a hydroelectric dam in the Kariba Gorge of the Zambezi river basin between Zambia and Zimbabwe. 16.51222°?S 28.74778°?E The double curvature con…

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Karin (Maria) Boye - Career, Later life, Works

Poet and novelist, born in Göteborg, SW Sweden. She studied at Uppsala and Stockholm, and became a leader of the Socialist Clarté movement. She was the founder editor of the poetry magazine Spektrum (1931), to which she contributed much of her own poetry and translations. Her poetry collections include Moln (1922, Cloud), and De sju dödsynderna (1941, The Seven Deadly Sins), and she wrote sever…

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Karl (Augustus) Menninger - Menninger's "mea culpa" letter To Thomas Szasz

Psychiatrist, born in Topeka, Kansas, USA. After receiving his medical degree from Harvard Medical School (1917), he worked for two years at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital. In 1919 he returned to Topeka and co-founded the Menninger Diagnostic Clinic (1920) with his father, Charles Frederick Menninger, who had become convinced of the advantages of group medical practice after visiting the Mayo Cl…

1 minute read

Karl (Friedrich) Benz - Early life, Benz's Factory and his first inventions (1871 to 1882)

Engineer and car manufacturer, born in Karlsruhe, SW Germany. He developed a two-stroke engine (1877–9) and founded a factory for its manufacture, leaving in 1883 when his backers refused to finance a mobile engine. He then founded a second company, Benz & Co, Rheinisch Gasmotorenfabrik, at Mannheim. His first car - one of the earliest petrol-driven vehicles - was completed in 1885 and sold to a …

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Karl (Guthe) Jansky - Early life, Education and engineering, Radio astronomy, Follow-up, Legacy

Radio engineer, born in Norman, Oklahoma, USA. He studied at the University of Wisconsin and joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1928. His fundamental discovery (1932) was of radio waves from outer space, while working on interference suffered by radio reception. This discovery allowed the development of radio astronomy during the 1950s. The unit of radio emission strength, the jansky, is named …

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Karl (Heinrich) Marx

Social philosopher and founder of international communism, born in Trier, W Germany. The son of a Jewish lawyer, he studied law at Bonn and Berlin, but took up philosophy, particularly Hegelian philosophy, and Feuerbach's materialism. In 1841 he received a doctorate from the University of Jena. He edited a radical newspaper, and after it was suppressed in Germany he moved to Paris (1843) and Bruss…

1 minute read

Karl (Jay) Shapiro

Writer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He studied at the University of Virginia, Johns Hopkins, and Pratt Library School, Baltimore, then taught at many institutions, notably at the University of California, Davis (from 1968). He was noted for his mastery of poetic forms, as seen in Collected Poems, 1940–77 (1978) and New & Selected Poems, 1940–86 (1987), and in 1945 he was awarded the Pulitz…

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Karl (Theodor Wilhelm) Weierstrass - Biography, Soundness of calculus, Selected papers, Students of Karl Weierstrass

Mathematician, ‘the father of modern analysis’, born in Ostenfelde, W Germany. A failed law student from Bonn, he took a teacher's certificate at Münster and taught mathematics in secondary schools (1842–56) while working privately on analysis. The publication of his memoir on Abelian functions (1854) brought him an honorary doctorate and a post at the Royal Polytechnic School, Berlin. He publ…

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Karl (Theodor) Jaspers - Biography, Contributions to Psychiatry, Contributions to Philosophy and Theology, Jaspers in relation to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche

Philosopher, born in Oldenburg, NW Germany. He studied medicine at Berlin, Göttingen, and Heidelberg, where he undertook research in a psychiatric clinic (1909–15), published a textbook on psychopathology (Allgemeine Psychopathologie, 1913) and was professor of psychology (1916–20). From 1921 he was professor of philosophy at Heidelberg, until dismissed by the Nazis in 1937. His work was banned…

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Karl (Theodore Francis) Bitter - Monuments Other Works, Selected Funerary or Cemetery Works

Sculptor, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to New York City (1889), worked with the architect, Richard Morris, and became known for the bronze doors of Trinity Church, New York City (1891–4). He established a studio in Weehawken, NJ (1896), and was sculpture director for several American expositions. Karl Bitter (December 6, 1867 – April 9, 1915) was an Austrian born United States s…

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Karl Arnold - Youth and early political activities, Nazi era, German reconstruction after World War II

German politician, born in Herlishöfen/Württemberg, Germany. Active until 1933 in the Zentrumspartei (Central Party) and the Christian trade union movement, he became co-founder of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in 1945. From 1947 to 1956 he was premier of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia. Karl Arnold (March 21, 1901 – June 29, 1958) was a German politician. Arnold w…

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Karl Baedeker

Publisher, born in Essen, W Germany. He started his own publishing business at Koblenz in 1827, and is best known for the authoritative guidebooks which still bear his name, published since 1872 at Leipzig. Karl Baedeker (not Baedecker) (3 November 1801 – 4 October 1859) was a German publisher whose company Baedeker set the standard for authoritative guidebooks for tourists. T…

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Karl Barth - Early life and education, Epistle to the Romans, Barmen Declaration, Church Dogmatics, Later life, Theology

Theologian, born in Basel, N Switzerland. He studied at Bern, Berlin, Tübingen, and Marburg. While pastor at Safenwil, Aargau, he wrote a commentary on St Paul's Epistle to the Romans (1919) which established his theological reputation. He became professor at Göttingen (1921), Münster (1925), and Bonn (1930), refused to take an unconditional oath to Hitler, was dismissed, and so became professo…

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Karl Brugmann

Philologist, born in Wiesbaden, WC Germany. Professor of Sanskrit at Freiburg (1884) and Leipzig (1887), he wrote a Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic Languages (1886–93, trans title). He was a leading exponent of the Neogrammarian school, stressing the fixity of sound laws. During most of his professional life (1887-1919), Brugmann was professor of Sanskrit and comparative linguisti…

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Karl Ernst von Baer - Life, Contributions

Naturalist, and pioneer in embryology, born in Piep, NE Estonia. After studying at Dorpat and Würzburg universities, he became professor at Königsberg (1817–34) and then at St Petersburg. He discovered the mammalian egg (ovum) in the ovary, and the notochord (embryo backbone), and formulated the ‘biogenetic law’ that in embryonic development general characters appear before special ones. …

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Karl Friedrich Abel

Musician, born in Köthen, EC Germany. He was a noted composer of symphonies, and a virtuoso on the viola da gamba. In 1758 he went to England, where he was appointed chamber musician to Queen Charlotte. With Johann Christian Bach he promoted a celebrated series of concerts in London. Abel was born in Köthen, the son of the principal viola da gamba player in the court orchestra of Johann S…

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Karl Friedrich Schinkel

Architect, born in Neuruppin, NE Germany. He studied at Berlin and in Italy, became state architect of Prussia (1815), and director of public works (1830). He designed a wide range of buildings, in Classical style, and introduced new streets and squares in Berlin. He also became known as a painter, illustrator, and furniture and stage designer. Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - Octo…

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Karl Kraus - Early life, Selected works, Works in English translation

Austrian writer, born in Jicin, Bohemia, NC Czech Republic. He was the member of a prosperous Austrian Jewish family, and converted to Catholicism in 1911. A journalist, he founded his own literary periodical Die Fackel (1899), contributors to which included August Strindberg and Thomas Mann. From 1912 he published only his own critical and often satirical essays and poetry in Die Fackel, which re…

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Karl Lagerfeld - Biography, Weight loss, Trivia, Quotes

Fashion designer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He was design director at Chanel, and updated the Chanel look. Known for his high quality ready-to-wear clothing, he showed the first collection under his own label in 1984. He received the Council of Fashion Designers of America Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002. Karl (Otto) Lagerfeld (born 10 September 1933 in Hamburg, Germany) is widely reco…

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Karl Landsteiner

Immunologist, born in Vienna, Austria. Working as a microbiologist and immunologist in Europe (1891–1922), he discovered the four basic human blood groups of A, B, O, and AB (1900). He also designed (with Julius Donath) the Donath–Landsteiner test for the red cell disease paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (1904), developed darkfield microscopy for the diagnosis of syphilis (1905–6), proposed…

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Karl Leberecht Immermann

Writer, born in Magdeburg, EC Germany. He studied law, then took part in the 1813–15 Befreiungskriege (Wars of Liberation), going on to become a Prussian civil servant. In Düsseldorf, where he had been appointed to the judicial post of Landgerichtsrat, he founded in 1832 a theatrical association and became manager of the municipal Stadttheater (1834–7). He is remembered today chiefly for his sa…

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Karl Liebknecht - Biography

German barrister and politician. A member of the Reichstag (1912–1916), he was imprisoned during World War 1 as an independent, anti-militarist Social Democrat. He was a founder member with Rosa Luxemburg of the German Communist Party (KPD) in 1918, and led an unsuccessful revolt in Berlin, the ‘Spartacus League Revolution’, in January 1919, during which he was killed by army officers. K…

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Karl Mannheim - Works

Sociologist, born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied at Budapest and Strasbourg, became a lecturer at Heidelberg (1925), and was appointed professor of sociology and political economy at Frankfurt (1930). He fled to England (1933), where he joined the London School of Economics, and in 1945 became professor of sociology and philosophy of education at the London University Institute of Education. He …

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Karl May - Life and career, Filmed works, Karl May festivals, External links and references

Writer, born in Ernsthal, W Germany. Having spent a total of seven years in prison for minor offences, he worked as an editor before becoming a full-time writer producing a large number of very popular, widely-read books. Many were made into films, including his early novel Das Waldröschen (1882) written under a pseudonym, and his famous adventure and Wild West stories, including Winnetou (4 vols…

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Karl Pearson - Family and biography, Education and early work, Einstein and influence, Awards from professional bodies

Mathematician and scientist, born in London, UK. He turned from the law to mathematics, becoming professor of applied mathematics at University College London, and professor of eugenics. He published The Grammar of Science (1892), and works on eugenics, mathematics, and biometrics. Motivated by the study of evolution and heredity, he was a founder of modern statistical theory, and his work establi…

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Karl Rahner

Roman Catholic theologian, born in Freiburg, SW Germany. He studied at Freiburg and Innsbruck, and taught at Innsbruck, Munich, and Münster. In his voluminous writings (such as his multivolume Theological Investigations), he uses insights of the philosophy of existentialism while remaining true to the tradition of Aquinas. He played a major role as a consultant at the Second Vatican Council (1962…

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Karl Renner

Austrian statesman, chancellor (1918–20, 1945), and president (1945–50), born in Unter-Tannowitz, Austria. He trained as a lawyer, joined the Austrian Social Democratic Party, and became the first chancellor of the Austrian Republic. Imprisoned as a Socialist leader, following the brief civil war (Feb 1934), he was chancellor again after World War 2, and first president of the new republic. …

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Karl Schwarzschild

Theoretical astrophysicist, born in Frankfurt, WC Germany. He computed exact solutions of Einstein's field equations in general relativity - work which led directly to modern research on black holes. The Schwarzschild radius is the critical radius at which an object becomes a black hole if collapsed or compressed indefinitely. At this radius the escape velocity is the speed of light. Its value is …

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Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold - Academic history, Scientific work, Principal publications, Animals named after Siebold, Other sources

Zoologist, born in Würzburg, SC Germany, the brother of Philipp Franz von Siebold. He studied at Berlin and Göttingen universities, and was professor at Erlangen, Freiburg, Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia), and Munich. He carried out research on invertebrates, and made significant contributions to parasitology. He founded the Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie (Journal of Sci…

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Karl von Frisch - External links and references

Ethologist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Munich and Trieste, then taught zoology at several universities, much of his career being spent at Munich, where he founded the Zoological Institute (1932). He was a key figure in developing ethology using field observation of animals combined with ingenious experiments. His 40-year study of the honey bee showed that forager bees communicate infor…

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Karl-Heinz Rummenigge

Footballer, born in Lippstadt, W Germany. He played locally for Borussia Lippstadt before giving up his job as a bank clerk to join Bayern Munich (1974–84) aged 18. His honours with the club include European Cup (1976) and World Club championship medals. In 1984 he became West Germany's most expensive player when he joined Inter-Milan for £2 500 000. His international record includes three FIF…

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Karlheinz Stockhausen - Biography, Works, Reception, Notable students, September 11, 2001 terrorist attack statement controversy, Stockhausen in literature

Composer, born in Mödrath, W Germany. He studied at Cologne and Bonn, joined the musique concrète group in Paris, and experimented with compositions based on electronic sounds. In 1953 he helped to found the electronic music studio at Cologne, and became director there (1963–77), later becoming professor of composition at the Hochschule für Musik in Cologne (1971–77). He has written orchestra…

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Karlovy Vary - Notable people associated with Karlovy Vary

50°14N 12°53E, pop (2000e) 60 200. Town in Západo?eský region, Czech Republic; on R Ohre, W of Prague; airport; railway; kaolin, glass, footwear, mineral water; famous health resort with hot alkaline springs. Karlovy Vary listen?(help·info) (German: Karlsbad), also known in English as Carlsbad, is a spa city situated in the western part of the Czech Republic on the confluence o…

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Karlsruhe - Geography, Economy, Transport, History, Historical population, Military, Famous people, Institutions, Twinning, Local attractions, Events, Internet

49°03N 8°23E, pop (2000e) 284 000. Capital of Karlsruhe district, SW Germany; port on R Rhine, 56 km/35 mi S of Mannheim; former capital of Baden; birthplace of Karl Benz; railway; university (1825); oil refining, machine tools, chemicals, tyres, machinery, defence equipment, rubber products, dairy produce; palace (1752–85). Coordinates: 49°1′N 08°24′E Karlsruhe (po…

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karma - Karma in the Dharma-based religions, Analogs of Karma, Western interpretation

In Indian tradition, the principle that a person's actions have consequences meriting reward or punishment. Karma is the moral law of cause and effect by which the sum of a person's actions are carried foward from one life to the next, leading to an improvement or deterioration in that person's fate. Karma is a sum of all that an individual has done, is currently doing and will do. Individu…

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Karnataka - Origin of Name, History, Demography, Geography, Government and Administration, Transportation, Utility, Language, Economy, Literature and inscriptions

pop (2001e) 52 734 000; area 191 773 km²/74 024 sq mi. State in SW India; bounded W by the Arabian Sea; formed as Mysore under the States Reorganization Act of 1956, bringing the Kannada-speaking population of five states together; official language, Kannada; renamed Karnataka, 1973; crossed by numerous rivers; bicameral legislature comprises a 63-member Legislative Council and an elected…

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Karol Szymanowski

Composer, born in Tymoszowska, Ukraine. He became director of the State Conservatory in Warsaw, and is widely held to be the greatest Polish composer since Chopin. His works include the famous operas Hagith (1913) and Krol Roger (1918–24, King Roger), incidental music, symphonies, concertos, chamber music, piano music, and many songs. Karol Maciej Korwin-Szymanowski (October 6, 1882 - Marc…

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Karoo - Great Karoo, Little Karoo

Dry steppe country in South Africa, from the Orange R down to the Cape; Karoo National Park covers 180 km²/70 sq mi of the arid region called the Great Karoo; established in 1979. The Karoo is a semi-desert region of South Africa. The Great Karoo has an area of more than 400,000 square kilometers. In recent history - less than two hundred years ago - large herds …

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K - Geography, Population, Art and Culture

pop (2000e) 5040; area 301 km²/116 sq mi. Mountainous, elongated island of the Dodecanese group, E Greece, in the Aegean Sea, between Rhodes and the E end of Crete; length 48 km/30 mi; rises to 1216 m/3989 ft; capital, Pigadhia; numerous bathing beaches. The island is located about 29.4 miles south-west of Rhodes, in that part of the Mediterranean which was called, after it, the "C…

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Karrie Webb - Results in LPGA majors, LPGA Tour career summary

Golfer, born in Ayr, Queensland, NE Australia. In 1996 she became the first woman to break the $1 million prize-money barrier while playing on the US Ladies' PGA tour, and was named ‘Rookie of the Year’. She won the Women's British Open title in 1995, the youngest ever winner, and won it again in 1997 and 2002. Other major tournament titles include the Australian Ladies' Masters (1998, 1999, 200…

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Karst

Barren, stony limestone plateau in the Dinaric Alps of SW Slovenia; extending c.80 km/50 mi from the R Isonzo (NW) to the Kvarner Gulf (SE); notable caves at Postojna; the name has come to be used in geography to describe limestone topography of this kind. Kras (Carso in Italian), also called the Classical Karst or the Kras Plateau, is a limestone borderline plateau region of southwestern…

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Kaspar Hauser - Life, Documentation, Legacy, Fiction

German foundling, a ‘wild boy’, found in the market place of Nuremberg in May 1828. Though apparently 16 years old, his mind was a blank, and his behaviour that of a little child. He later gave some account of himself, as having lived in a hole, looked after by a man who had brought him to the place where he was found. In 1833 he was discovered with a wound in his side, from which he died. Many …

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Kaspar Schwenkfeld (von Ossig) - Early life, As a Philosopher, The Schwenkfelder Church

Writer and preacher, born in Ossig, E Germany. He served at various German courts, and c.1525 developed a form of Protestantism. His doctrines resembled those of the Quakers, and brought him banishment and persecution, but he gained disciples everywhere. Most of his works were burned by both Protestants and Catholics. Some of his persecuted followers (most numerous in Silesia and Swabia) emigrated…

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katabatic wind

A local downslope wind which develops in a valley. At night, surface air over mountain ridges cools faster than air above the valley floor. Thus, colder and denser air flows from high elevations to valley bottoms. Downslope winds also flow from mountainous areas to adjacent lowlands: the chinook wind of the Rockies and the Föhn wind of the European Alps are warm katabatic winds; the Mistral of th…

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Kate Adie

News reporter and correspondent, born in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. She studied at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, then joined local BBC radio (1969–76), moving to BBC TV South (1977–8). As a reporter for BBC TV News (1979–81), correspondent (1982), and chief correspondent (1989–2003), she became a familiar figure presenting reports from the heart of war-torn countries a…

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Kate Chopin - Childhood, Early adulthood, Hard years, The writing years

Novelist, short-story writer, and poet, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. Educated in St Louis, she married Oscar Chopin, a Creole cotton trader from Louisiana, by whom she had six children. After her husband died of swamp fever (1882), she returned with her children to St Louis, where she began to compose sketches of her life, collected in Bayou Folk (1894) and A Night in Acadie (1897). This work …

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Kate DiCamillo

Children's writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. She suffered from chronic pneumonia as a child and on the advice of doctors was taken to live in Florida by her mother, where she later studied English at the University of Florida, Gainesville. While working in a book warehouse she wrote her first novel for children, Because of Winn-Dixie, which was named the 2001 Newbery Honor Book. Her…

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Kate Douglas Wiggin

Writer and educator, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Raised in Maine, where her widowed mother moved to, she attended various schools in the NE before moving to California (1873) with her mother and stepfather. She took a course to be a kindergarten teacher, and from 1877 was active in the operation of kindergartens and promoting the kindergarten movement in California. She married in 188…

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Kate Greenaway

Artist and book-illustrator, born in London, UK. She became well known in the 1880s for her coloured portrayals of child life, in such works as The Birthday Book (1880). The Greenaway Medal is awarded annually for the best British children's book artist. Kate Greenaway (Catherine Greenaway) ( London, March 17, 1846 - November 6, 1901) was a children's book illustrator and writer. …

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Kate Millett - Bibliography, Resources

Writer, political activist, and artist, born in St Paul, Minnesota, USA. Her Columbia University PhD dissertation, published as Sexual Politics (1970), catapulted her to national prominence in the feminist movement. A professor, prolific writer, and artist, she founded the Women's Art Colony Farm and exhibited her paintings internationally. Kate Millett (born September 14, 1934) is an Ameri…

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Kate O'Brien - Bibliography

Playwright and novelist, born in Limerick, Co Limerick, SW Ireland. She studied at Dublin, and began a career in London as a playwright when she was 30, publishing her prizewinning Without My Cloak in 1931. Other works include Mary Lavelle (1936), The Land of Spices (1941), and As Music and Splendour (1958). A remarkable observer of life, her novels are best understood by an appreciation of her co…

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Kate Roberts

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Rhosgadfan, Gwynedd, NW Wales, UK. She studied at the University College of North Wales, Bangor, and is regarded as the most distinguished prose writer in Welsh in the 20th-c. Among her works is O Gors y Bryniau (1925, From the Swamp of the Hills), Traed mewn Cyffion (1936, Feet in Chains), and Y Byw Sy'n Cysgu (1956, The Living Sleep). Kate Roberts …

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Kate Sheppard - Early life, Women's suffrage movement, National Council of Women, Later life

Suffragist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. She emigrated to New Zealand in 1869. She possessed a strong sense of social responsibility, allied to the belief that women should be entitled to participate fully in political affairs. In 1887 she became an officer of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and from that position led a nation-wide struggle for the enfranchisement of wome…

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Kate Smith - Radio, Listen to

Singer, born in Greenville, Virginia, USA. While appearing on Broadway as the contralto lead in Flying High (1930), she was discovered by agent Ted Collins. She began her radio show on CBS in 1931, immortalizing God Bless America (1938), and during World War 2 she toured widely to sell war bonds and entertain the troops. Star of the Kate Smith Hour (1950–4) on National Broadcasting Company televi…

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Kate Winslet - Biography, Selected filmography

Actress, born in Reading, S England, UK. Raised in a show business family, she trained at a school for the performing arts until 1991, then secured a number of stage roles. Her breakthrough into films came with Heavenly Creatures (1994), and later successes include Sense and Sensibility (1995), Titanic (1997), Iris (2001), Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004, Best Actress Oscar nomination)…

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Kathak - History of Kathak, Gharanas, Today, Innovation within Tradition

A major form of Indian classical dance. It was developed in NW India from the 15th to the 18th-c, and is more relaxed in performance than the older forms such as Bharata Natyam. It is often secular rather than religious, using a dramatic story-telling form that may include improvisation. Musical accompaniment is provided by drums, bowed and stringed instruments, and the human voice. It is strongly…

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Kathakali - Kathakali plays, Music, Performance, Acting, Make-up, Other forms, Awards for Kathakali artistes

Epic theatre from the SW coastal region of India in which troupes of actors, in stylized make-up and costume, enact dramas based on the Ramayana and Mahabharata, using music, song, dance, and an elaborate system of hand symbols equivalent to speech. Kathakali (Malayalam:കഥകളി , Sanskrit:कथकळि) is a form of Indian dance-drama. Kathakali is traditionally performed in the H…

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Katharine (Houghton) Hepburn - Hepburn's early years, Acting career, Death, Honors, Family, Trivia, Stage work, Filmography, Further reading

Actress, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. She studied at Bryn Mawr College, PA, made her professional stage debut in 1928 in Baltimore, and from 1932 attained international fame as a strong character actress. Among many of her outstanding films was Woman of the Year (1942), which saw the beginning of a 25-year professional and personal relationship with co-star Spencer Tracy. She won Oscars for…

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Katharine Cornell - Acting and writing career

Stage actress, born in Berlin, Germany. Her debut in the USA was with the Washington Square Players (1916), and her first New York success was A Bill of Divorcement (1921). She married, then formed a successful team with her producer-director husband, Guthrie McClintic. She was known for her performances in many theatre classics, including the role for which she was best known, Elizabeth Moulton-B…

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Katharine Graham - Early life, Marriage, Ownership of The Washington Post, Other, Close ties to power, Trivia

Publisher, born in New York City, New York, USA. After the suicide of her husband, Philip Graham (1963), she became president of a communications empire (formerly owned by her father, Eugene Meyer) that included the Washington Post and Newsweek magazine, among other interests. As Post publisher (1969–79), she helped broaden the newspaper's circulation and reputation. She was awarded a Pulitzer Pr…

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Katharine Hamnett

Fashion designer, born in Gravesend, Kent, SE England, UK. She studied fashion at art school in London, then worked as a freelance designer, setting up her own business in 1979. She draws inspiration for designs from workwear, and also from social movements, such as the peace movement, which she supports. Hamnett founded the Katharine E. In the early 1980s Hamnett's oversized t-shirts with …

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Katharine Susannah Prichard - Reference, Bibliography, Acknowledgements

Writer, born in Levuka, Fiji. She studied in Melbourne, and worked as a journalist there and in London, where she published her first novel, The Pioneers (1915). In 1916 she returned to Australia, and produced 12 novels, many poems, plays and short stories, and an autobiography. Notable titles include Coonardoo (1929), and the Australian goldfields trilogy: The Roaring Nineties (1946), Golden Mile…

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Katharine Tynan

Poet and novelist, born in Dublin, Ireland. She was a friend of Parnell, the Meynells, and the Rossettis, and a leading author of the Celtic literary revival. She wrote volumes of tender, gentle verse, and many novels and autobiographical works, including Oh! What a Plague is Love (1896), She Walks in Beauty (1899), The House in the Forest (1928), and Memoires (1924). …

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K

Artist and sculptor, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). She studied in Königsberg, then Berlin, where she married a doctor, Karl Kollwitz, who established a clinic in a poor quarter of the city, giving her an insight into life at the lowest levels of society. She chose serious, tragic subjects, with strong social or political content, such as the ‘Weaver's Revolt’ (1897–8)…

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Katherine (Sophie) Dreier - Birth, Arts

Painter and patron, born in Milford, Connecticut, USA. Together with Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray, she founded the New York City based Société Anonyme (1920), and became a famous promoter and patron of modern artists. The society was significant in that it had the first public collection of modern art in America, and it became a model for the Museum of Modern Art in 1929. Her own work had a dynami…

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Katherine Anne (Maria Veronica Callista Russell) Porter - Biography, Quotes, Awards and honors, Works

Writer, born in Indian Creek, Texas, USA. After being educated mainly at home, she worked as a journalist in Denver, CO and Chicago. She would later elaborate on and exaggerate certain aspects of her life, but she does seem to have lived in Mexico and in Europe for some years, and married three times. Her first collection of short stories, Flowering Judas, and Other Stories (1930), gained her cons…

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Katherine Dunham - Background and anthropology, Career, family, and politics, Awards, Books, Filmography, Obituaries

Modern dancer and choreographer, born in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA. She studied at the University of Chicago, and went on to earn a doctorate in anthropology. Turning to dance, she started her first school in Chicago (1931), later becoming dance director for the Works Progress Administration's Chicago theatre project. A flamboyant performer, she was best known for her choreography in such musicals…

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Katherine Esau

Botanist, born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia. She emigrated with her family to Germany (1919), finished college there (1922), then moved to the USA (1922) to further her education. She taught botany at the University of California, Davis (1931–63), then moved to the University of California, Santa Barbara (1963–5). She made major contributions to the light and electron microscopy of virus-infected pl…

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Katherine Mansfield - Final years, Legacy, Selected bibliography

Short-story writer, born in Wellington, New Zealand. She studied at Queen's College, London, then took up music for two years in New Zealand before returning to London to pursue a literary career. In 1918, after some traumatic early experiences that marked her work, she married the writer John Middleton Murry. Her first major work was Prelude (1917), a long, delicate evocation of the New Zealand o…

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Katherine Paterson

US writer, born in China to missionary parents. Her early childhood was spent in China, and during World War 2 she was evacuated with her family to America. She later studied English at Kings College in Bristol, TN. Her award-winning books for children include Master Puppeteer (1977, National Book Award) and Bridge to Terabithia (1978, Newbery Medal). In 1998 she received the Hans Christian Anders…

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Katherine Philips - Bibliography

Poet, born in London, UK. The first English woman poet to have her work published, she organized a salon for the discussion of poetry and religion. She became known by the admiring title ‘Matchless Orinda’, and was made the subject of several verses. Her own work includes verses prefixed to Vaughan's Poems (1651), a translation of Corneille's Pompée (performed in Dublin in 1663), and a posthumo…

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Kathleen (Jessie) Raine

Poet, born in Ilford, E Greater London, UK. Brought up partly in Northumberland, she went on to study at Girton College, Cambridge. Her first collection, Stone and Flower (1943), was illustrated by Barbara Hepworth. Later books include The Year One (1952), The Lost Country (1972), Living With Mystery: Poems 1987–91 (1992), and Collected Poems (2000). She also published four volumes of autobiogra…

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Kathleen Battle

Soprano, born in Portsmouth, Ohio, USA. American trained, she sang with major orchestras before making her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1978. Her rich, seemingly effortless voice, and her vivacious interpretations on stage and in concert, made her one of the most popular singers with both critics and the public. Kathleen Battle is an American soprano, born August 13, 1948, in Portsmouth, Ohi…

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Kathleen Ferrier - Popular recitals, Music samples, Discography, Biography

Contralto singer, born in Higher Walton, Lancashire, NW England, UK. A singing prize at a local music festival led her to undertake serious studies in 1940, and she rapidly won a great reputation. One of her greatest successes was in Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) at the first Edinburgh Festival (1947). Kathleen Mary Ferrier (22 April 1912 – 8 October 1953) was an …

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Kathleen Norris

Writer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. She was educated locally, and after the death of her parents (1899) she worked at a hardware store and a library to help support her siblings. She spent a few months at the University of California, Berkeley (1903), and wrote society columns for local newspapers. She married the writer Charles Gilman Norris (1909) and moved to New York City, though s…

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Kathleen Turner - Early life, Career, Awards, Personal life, Political involvement, Trivia, Filmography

Actress, born in Springfield, Missouri, USA. She made her film debut in Body Heat (1981), and went on to star in such popular films as Romancing the Stone (1984), Prizzi's Honor (1985), and War Of The Roses (1989). She received a Best Actress Oscar nomination for her role in Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), and provided the husky voice for Jessica Rabbit in the film ‘Who Framed Roger Rabbit?’ (1988…

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Katowice - Education, Sports, Famous people from Katowice

50°15N 19°01E, pop (2000e) 370 000. Capital of Katowice voivodship, S Poland; centre of the Upper Silesian Industrial Region; airport; railway; two universities (1945, 1968); coal mining, iron and steel, zinc works, chemicals, optics, fertilizer; Ko?ciuszko Park, cathedral; drama festival (Nov). Katowice ([,katɔ'vʲitsɛ] (help·info); Inhabited mainly by Germans, Silesians , Jews and …

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Katyn massacre - Execution, Discovery, Revelations, Katyn in fiction, Original documents, Further reading

A massacre of 14 000 Polish army officers in May 1940 in the Katyn forest near Smolensk, Belarus. The officers were shot and buried, and their mass graves were discovered by German occupying forces in 1943. Soviet authorities persistently denied responsibility for the massacre, blaming it on the Germans. In 1989 the Soviet–Polish historical commission (set up in 1987 to establish the truth) repo…

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Kauai - History

pop (2000e) 58 500; area 1692 km²/653 sq mi. Island of the US state of Hawaii; forms Kauai county with Niihau I; chief town, Lihue; sugar; tourism. Kaua‘i (usually called Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands, pronounced kawa-ee) is the oldest and fourth largest of the main Hawaiian Islands, having an area of 1,430.43 km² (552.29 sq mi). Of volcanic origin, the highest p…

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Kaufmann Kohler - Article References

Rabbi and scholar, born in Fürth, Germany. During his studies in Munich and Berlin, he moved away from orthodox Judaism. In 1869 he went to the USA as rabbi of the Beth-El Congregation in Detroit. In 1871 he went to Sinai Temple in Chicago and, despite fierce criticism, brought about a number of radical reforms, and became rabbi of Temple Beth-El in New York City (1879), where he made similar cha…

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Kaunas - History, Points of interest, Sports, Education, Annual events, Public art, Trivia

54°52N 23°55E, pop (2000e) 431 000. Ancient town and river port in Lithuania; on the R Neman at its confluence with the R Vilnya; capital of independent Lithuania, 1918; airfield; railway; chemicals, radio engineering, machines, clothing, foodstuffs, woodworking; ancient centre of artistic trades; castle (13th–17th-c), Massalski Palace (17th-c), Vytautas church (1400). Kaunas (pronunci…

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kava

A Polynesian beverage made by fermenting chewed or grated, peeled roots of Piper methysticum, a relative of black pepper. The drink is narcotic and sedative as well as intoxicating. …

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Kawasaki

35°32N 139°41E, pop (2000e) 1 192 000. Capital of Kanagawa prefecture, Kanto region, E Honshu, Japan; S of Tokyo, on W shore of Tokyo-wan Bay; railway; iron, steel, oil industry, electronics, shipbuilding, machinery, chemicals, textiles. Kawasaki can refer to: …

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Kay Boyle - Early life, Marriage, affairs, McCarthyism, later life

Novelist, short story writer, poet, and essayist, born in St Paul, Minnesota, USA. She was educated in the USA, studying music and architecture, then lived in Europe for 30 years as part of the literary fraternity of Paris's Left Bank, and as a correspondent for The New Yorker (1946–53). Her novels include Plagued by the Nightingale (1931) and Generation Without Farewell (1960), but she is partic…

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Kay Cottee

Yachting record holder, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. She was the first woman to complete a solo, nonstop, unassisted circumnavigation of the world, arriving in Sydney harbour in June, 1988. She sailed 25 000 nautical miles in her 12-m Cavalier 37 sloop First Lady in 189 days, a record time for a woman. She was named Australian of the Year in 1989. Kay McLaren, the younges…

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Kay Thompson

Actress, singer, and writer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. She began her career as a pianist (1928), and built a career as a singer, arranger, composer, choreographer, and actress. Based primarily in Beverly Hills, CA, she launched a second career as a writer with her children's series, beginning with Eloise: A Book for Precocious Grown Ups (1955). Kay Thompson (November 9, 1909 in St. L…

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kayak - Origins, Modern kayaks, Modern kayak design, Trivia

A small double-ended craft of Eskimo design, similar to a canoe, but enclosed except for a very small cockpit. It is made effectively watertight by a detachable spray deck attached to the body of the paddler. It is usually propelled with a double-ended paddle. Kayaks typically accommodate one, two or occasionally three paddlers who sit facing forward in one or more cockpits below the deck o…

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Kaysone Phomvihane

Laotian prime minister (1975–91), born in Savannakhet province, SW Laos. He studied at Hanoi University, fought with the anti-French forces in Vietnam after World War 2, and joined the exiled Free Lao Front (Neo Lao Issara) nationalist movement in Bangkok in 1945. He later joined the Communist Pathet Lao, becoming its leader in 1955. He became prime minister of the newly formed People's Democrati…

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Kazakhstan - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Foreign relations, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Further reading, References and notes

Official name Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakh Qazaqstan Respublikasï, Russ Kazakhskaya Kazakhstan, also spelled Kazakstan or Khazakhstan, (Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA [qɑzɑqˈstɑn]; Kazakhstan was a republic of the former Soviet Union and is now a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Humans have inhabited what is now known as Kazakhstan since…

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Kazan - Name, History, Historical population, Historical naming, Central Kazan, Education, Administrative system, Economy, Languages, City ethnic communities

55°45N 49°10E, pop (2000e) 1 100 000. River-port capital of Tatarstan, E European Russia; on the R Volga at its confluence with the R Kazanka; founded, 13th-c; airport; railway; university (1804); important industrial and cultural centre of the Volga region; chemicals, engineering, instruments, machines, fur, leather, foodstuffs; Cathedral of the Annunciation (19th-c), Governor's Palace (1845…

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Kazimir (Severinovich) Malevich - Life and work, Quote, Selected works, External links and references

Painter and designer, born in Kiev, Ukraine. He studied in Moscow in 1902 and, together with Mondrian, was one of the earliest pioneers of pure abstraction, founding the Suprematist movement. He claimed to have painted the first totally abstract picture, a black square on a white background, as early as 1913. Certainly he was exhibiting similar work by 1915, and went on to paint a series entitled …

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Kazuo Ishiguro - Literary characteristics, Works

Novelist, born in Nagasaki, Japan. He came to Britain to study at the University of Kent before joining Malcolm Bradbury's creative writing course at the University of East Anglia. His third novel, The Remains of the Day (1989, filmed 1993), won the Booker Prize and established his reputation. Later books (all written in English) include The Unconsoled (1995), When We Were Orphans (2000), and Neve…

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kea

A large, stocky, dull-coloured parrot (Nestor notabilis) native to S New Zealand; male with long upper bill; inhabits forest or open country; eats fruit, leaves, insects, or carrion; scavenges on refuse dumps; nests in hole. (Family: Psittacidae.) …

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Keanu Reeves - Biography, Selected filmography

Film actor, born in Beirut, Lebanon. He acted in several Canadian television plays, and had a small part in Youngblood (1986) before gaining attention for his performance in The River's Edge (1986). Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure (1989), and its sequel Bill and Ted's Bogus Journey (1991), brought him international recognition. Later films include Much Ado About Nothing (1993), Speed (1994), Th…

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Kebnekaise

67°55N 18°35E. Peak in the Kjölen Mts, NW Sweden; height 2111 m/6926 ft; highest peak in Sweden; several glaciers. Kebnekaise (from Sami Giebmegáisi or Giebnegáisi, "Cauldron Crest") is the highest mountain in Sweden. The Kebnekaise massif, which is part of the Scandinavian Mountains, has two peaks, of which the southern, glaciated one is highest at 2,103 metres (ca. …

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Kedah - History, Economy

pop (2000e) 1 758 000; area 9425 km²/3638 sq mi. State in NW Peninsular Malaysia; bounded E by Thailand and W by the Strait of Malacca; governed by Thailand from early 19th-c until 1909, when it came under British rule; capital, Alor Setar; rice, rubber, tin, tungsten. Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. Kedah has a long history. According to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the…

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Kees Boeke

Educational reformer in The Netherlands. After training as an engineer, he attended a course for Quaker missionaries in the UK. Inspired by teaching his own children he began his own school, since widely copied, based on self education and the development of social sensitivity. Children of both sexes and all ages are taught together, but individually. Cornelis Boeke (September 25, 1884 - Ju…

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keeshond - Appearance, Temperament, Health, Grooming, History, Miscellaneous

A small, sturdy spitz breed of dog from The Netherlands; grey with dark tinges; head dark with pale rings around eyes; coat very thick, especially around neck; tail tightly curled; formerly used as a guard dog, especially on barges. The Keeshond (pronounced KAYZ-HOND; A member of the spitz group of dogs, the Kees is 17 to 18 inches (about 45 cm) tall and weighs 35 to 40 pounds (…

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kefir - Making Kefir, Health Benefits, Drinking Kefir, Different milk types

A fermented milk originating in the Caucasus. Traditionally made from camel's milk, it is now made from cow's milk, and can be mild, medium, or strong, depending on the degree of fermentation. Kefir (alternately kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, matsoun, matsoni, waterkefir, milkkefir, búlgaros) is a fermented milk drink originating in the Caucasus. This drink is prepare…

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Keighley - History, Geography, Architecture, Local highlights, Famous people, The Joy of Keighley, Politics

53º52N 1º54W, pop (2002e) 50 100. Town in Bradford borough, West Yorkshire, N England, UK; part of West Yorkshire urban area; located on the R Aire, 16 km/10 mi NW of Bradford; birthplace of Gordon Bottomley, Asa Briggs, J R Firth; railway; textiles, textile machinery, machine tools. Keighley (pronounced Keith-Leigh or [ˈkiːθli]) is a town and civil parish in the county of West Yor…

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Keira (Christina) Knightley - Biography, Selected filmography

Actress, born in London, UK. Born into a showbusiness family, she began acting at an early age and made her film debut at the age of nine in A Village Affair (1994). Her first major part came in Star Wars: Episode 1 - The Phantom Menace (1999) and she became well-known for her role as tomboy footballer Juliette ‘Jules’ Paxton in Bend It Like Beckham (2002). Later films include Pirates of the Car…

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Keith (Ross) Miller - Test debut

Cricketer, born in Melbourne, Victoria, NE Australia. He played for Victoria's second X1 while still at Melbourne High School and in his first first-class match in Feb 1938, scored 181 for Victoria against Tasmania. He joined the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942, spending his wartime service in England piloting Mosquitoes on missions over Germany. He joined New South Wales in 1947, captaining th…

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Keith (Spencer) Waterhouse - Published Books

Novelist and playwright, born in Hunslet, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He worked at various jobs before becoming a journalist. His second novel Billy Liar (1959) became a best-seller, and was adapted for stage (1960) and screen (1963). He is especially known for his partnership with Willis Hall (1929–2005), with whom he wrote several plays, screenplays, and revues, including Celebration (1961) …

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Keith Jarrett - Early years, 1970s quartets, Solo piano, The standards trio, Classical music, Other works, Idiosyncrasies, Media

Jazz pianist and composer, born in Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA. He played with Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers and the Charles Lloyd Quartet in the 1960s, and Miles Davis in the early 1970s, before forming his own trios and quartets with a strong aversion to electronic instrumentation. He frequently sings, whoops, and gesticulates along with his playing which, together with his very long improvizato…

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Kelantan - History, Geography, Economy, Climate, Politics, Demographics, Cuisine, Government structure of Kelantan, Kelantan and Patani

pop (2000e) 1 519 000; area 14 796 km²/5711 sq mi. State in NE Peninsular Malaysia; bounded N by Thailand and E by the South China Sea; drained by the R Kelantan and its tributaries; governed by Thailand from early 19th-c until 1909, when it came under British rule; capital, Kota Baharu; rice, rubber, copra, tin. Kelantan (Jawi: كلنتن, Thai:กลันตัน), is one of the…

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keloid - Occurrence, History in medicine, Intentional keloids, Locations of keloids, Incidence, Treatments, Case presentation

The overgrowth of scar tissue (fibroblasts and collagen) in response to a surgical or accidental wound of the skin. It appears as a raised, warm, reddened, tender lump along the line of the wound. It is more common in people of African descent, and is sometimes induced deliberately as a form of body art. A keloid is a special type of scar which results in an overgrowth of tissue at the site…

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kelp

A large brown seaweed common in lower inter-tidal and sub-tidal zones in colder seas; life-cycle involves alternation between a filamentous form (gametophyte) and a large robust form (sporophyte) differentiated into a holdfast, narrow stalk (stipe) and a flattened blade. (Division: Phaeophyceae. Order: Laminariales.) Kelp are large seaweeds (algae), belonging to the brown algae and classifi…

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kelpie - Kelpie Legends

A breed of dog developed in Australia as a sheepdog from imported Scottish sheepdogs; medium size with thick, coarse coat and bushy tail; muzzle pointed; ears erect; also called Australian kelpie. The kelpie is a supernatural shape-shifting water horse from Celtic folklore that is believed to haunt the rivers and lochs of Scotland and Ireland. It was often described as a majestic whit…

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Kelsey Grammer - Acting career, Personal life, Selected film and television work, Awards

Actor, born on St Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Brought up in New Jersey and Florida, he trained at the Juilliard School for two years before being expelled, then acted on stage in theatres across the USA. He is best known for his role as Dr Frasier Crane, originally seen in Cheers (1982–93) and Wings, and then in Frasier (1993–2004, 32 Emmys). His feature films include Down Periscope (1996) and Th…

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Kelso - Places, People

55º36N 2º25W. Market town and burgh in Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK; at the junction of the Teviot and Tweed rivers, 29 km/18 mi NE of Hawick; birthplace of Sir William Fairbairn and brothers James and John Ballantyne; Kelso abbey (1128); Floors Castle (1721) built by William Adams is nearby; a holly tree in the grounds is said to mark the spot where King James II was killed (1460) by an …

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kelvin - Typographical and usage conventions

Base SI unit of thermodynamic temperature; symbol K; defined as the fraction 1/273·16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water; named after Lord Kelvin; always written K, not °K. The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero—the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a subs…

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Ken (Elton) Kesey - Early life, Experimentation with psychoactive drugs, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest

Writer, born in La Junta, Colorado, USA. He worked as a ward attendant in a mental hospital, an experience he used to telling effect in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962). Filmed in 1975 by Milos Forman, it won five Oscars. After the failure of Sometimes a Great Notion (1966), he relinquished ‘literature’ for ‘life’. He served a prison sentence for marijuana possession, and formed the ‘Me…

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Ken Russell - Filmography

Film director, born in Southampton, Hampshire, S England, UK. In 1955 he made some documentary shorts which earned him a freelance assignment with BBC Television, for whom he produced experimental studies of Debussy, Isadora Duncan, Delius, and Richard Strauss, which gradually abandoned naturalism. He turned to feature films with Women in Love (1969), but continued with musically inspired themes i…

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kendo - Equipment and costume, History, Modern kendo, Competition, Kata, Kendo outside Japan

The Japanese martial art of sword fighting, now practised with shiani, or bamboo swords. The earliest reference to the art is in AD 789. The object is to land two scoring blows on the opponent's target area. Kendokas (participants) wear traditional dress of the Samurai period, including face-masks and aprons, and are graded according to ability from 6th to 1st Kyu, and then from 1st to 10th Dan. …

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Kenesaw Mountain Landis - Judicial career, Baseball commissioner, Popular culture

Judge and baseball commissioner, born in Millville, Ohio, USA. A lawyer appointed federal district judge in Chicago (1905), he gained attention for his dramatic $30 million ruling against Standard Oil (later reversed) and for patriotic cases connected with the Espionage Act of 1917. As baseball's autocratic first commissioner (1920–44), he banned for life eight players who had previously been acq…

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Kenichi Fukui

Chemist, born in Nara, C Japan. He studied at Kyoto University, becoming professor of physical chemistry there (1951–82), and director of the Institute for Fundamental Chemistry in 1988. He worked on the theory of chemical reactions, and developed the frontier orbital method for predicting the path of pericyclic organic reactions. He shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1981. …

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kennel cough - Infection, Symptoms, Treatment and prevention

An infection of the upper respiratory tract in dogs, resulting in a characteristic, harsh, non-productive cough. The disease is highly infectious and especially prevalent in boarding kennels, dog homes/pounds, and similar concentrations of unrelated animals during the summer months. The condition is usually self-limiting, though treatment is usually necessary to avoid complications. Bacteria (Bord…

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Kenneth (Adolf) Slessor - Poetry, Bibliography

Poet and journalist, born in Orange, New South Wales, SE Australia. He was editor of Smith's Weekly before being appointed as a World War 2 correspondent (1940–4). His best-known poem is ‘Beach Burial’, a tribute to Australian troops who fought during the War. He published several books of verse, including Poems (1957). He also edited the 1945 collection in the series ‘Australian Poetry’, and…

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Kenneth (Bancroft) Clark - Early life, Early career, Clark the broadcaster, Later life, Quotes

Psychologist, born in the Panama Canal Zone. Emigrating to New York City with his mother (1919), he studied at Howard University (1935) and Columbia University where he earned a PhD in psychology (1940). Teaching at City College of New York (1942), he aided Gunnar Myrdal with his monumental study of America's racial problems. In 1956 he and his wife Mamie founded the Northside Center for Child Dev…

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Kenneth (Charles) Branagh - Biography

Actor and director, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1984. In 1987 he co-founded and became co-director of the Renaissance Theatre Company, starring in successful tours in 1988 and 1989, and in 1998 co-founded the Shakespeare Film Company. His film credits as director/actor include the rem…

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Kenneth (David) Kaunda - Early life, Independence Struggle, Presidency, Fall from power, Post presidency

Zambian statesman and president (1964–91), born in Lubwa, N Zambia. He became a teacher in Zambia and Tanganyika (Tanzania), then joined the African National Congress, becoming its secretary-general, and in 1958 founding a development of this organization, the Zambian African National Congress. He was subsequently imprisoned, and the movement banned. Elected president of the United National Indep…

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Kenneth (Douglas) McKellar

US representative and senator, born in Richmond, Alabama, USA. Elected to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Tennessee, 1911–17) and to the US Senate (1917–53), he exercised power through his positions on crucial committees. He gained his greatest public exposure through his strong opposition to the appointment of David E Lilienthal to head the Tennessee Valley Authority and then the Ato…

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Kenneth (Harry) Clarke - Early life, Parliament and Cabinet, Since 1997

British statesman, born in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was called to the bar in 1963, and became a Conservative MP in 1970, representing Rushcliffe, Nottinghamshire. After junior posts in the Heath administration (1971–4), he entered Margaret Thatcher's government in 1979, in 1988 was appointed secretary of state for health, then became home secretary unde…

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Kenneth (Jay) Koch - Life, Career, Poetry, Selected Works

Poet and writer, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He studied at Harvard (1948 BA) and Columbia University (1959 PhD), where he taught from 1959. A leading figure of the New York school of poetry, he is known for his urban settings, as in Poems (1953), and for his witty metaphors, as in ‘One Train May Hide Another’ (1993). Later works include On the Great Atlantic Rainway: Selected Poems 1950-1988.…

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Kenneth (Joseph) Arrow - Arrow's impossibility theorem, General equilibrium theory, Endogenous growth theory, Information economics, Works, Trivia

Economist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Columbia University, and after a brief period at the Cowles Commission at the University of Chicago, he taught at Stanford (1949–68, 1979) and at Harvard (1968–79). He was recognized early in his career for his ‘impossibility theorem’, a study of collective choice that employs the notational system of logic to illustrate that more …

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Kenneth (Lewis) Roberts

Writer, born in Kennebunk, Maine, USA. He studied at Cornell (1908 BA), where he was the editor of the humour magazine. He became a reporter and columnist for the Boston Sunday Post (1909–17), and also wrote verse, plays, and editorials. A reporter for the Saturday Evening Post during the 1920s, he then began working on the first of many historical novels. His best-known books include Arundel (19…

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Kenneth Anger - Filmography

Film-maker and writer, born in Santa Monica, California, USA. Raised in Hollywood as a child actor, he early rejected conventional films and by age 15 was making provocative short experimental films. He worked for some years in Europe making outrageous and often inscrutable films, and although he gained a reputation among avant-garde film-makers and buffs, he did not come to wider attention until …

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Kenneth Burke - Early life, Influences, Philosophy, Later Works, Principal Works

Literary critic and poet, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. After dropping out of Columbia University, he began his writing career in New York City, serving as music critic at Dial magazine (1927–9). He wrote fiction, poetry, and literary criticism and theory, won a Guggenheim Fellowship (1935), and taught at various colleges, mainly Bennington, VT (1943–61). A complex writer, he is best kn…

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Kenneth Craik

British experimental psychologist. He studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge, and spent much of World War 2 on applied military research on topics which included servo-mechanisms and ‘human factors’ in design. In 1944 he was appointed director of the new Unit for Research in Applied Psychology at Cambridge. He pioneered the psychological school of thought in which the mind is considered as a complex…

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Kenneth Grahame - Life, Works, Bibliography

Writer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He entered the Bank of England in 1879, became its secretary in 1898, and retired for health reasons in 1908. He wrote several stories for children, the best known being The Wind in the Willows (1908), which was dramatized in 1930 by A A Milne as Toad of Toad Hall. Kenneth Grahame (March 8, 1859 – July 6, 1932) was a British writer, mainly of th…

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Kenneth Leighton - Selected Works, Selected Recordings

Composer and pianist, born in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. After graduating from Oxford, he studied composition in Rome. He taught composition at Edinburgh University from 1956, and from 1970 was professor of music there. His works include choral music, piano concertos, three symphonies, organ and chamber music, and an opera, Columba (1981). Kenneth Leighton (b. Wakefield, Octo…

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Kenneth Millar

Writer, born in Los Gatos, California, USA. He studied at the University of Western Ontario (1938 BA), the University of Toronto (1938–9), and the University of Michigan (1943 MA; 1951 PhD). He taught history and English at the Kitchener Collegiate Institute, Ontario (1939–41), and at the University of Michigan (1942–4, 1948–9). Best known as Ross Macdonald, he is credited with turning the det…

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Kenneth Noland - Further reading

Painter, born in Asheville, North Carolina, USA. He studied at Black Mountain College (1946–8). Influenced initially by Klee and Matisse and by the New York Action Painters, he developed his own kind of hard-edge minimalist abstract painting in the late 1950s. He restricts his shapes to circles, ovals, chevrons, and (after c.1966) horizontal stripes. His ‘plaid’ paintings date from c.1971. …

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Kenneth Rexroth - Early years, Travels, Love, marriage, sacrament, Poetic influences, The Beat Generation, Critical work, Teaching

Poet, writer, and painter, born in South Bend, Indiana, USA. He moved to Chicago (1917), studied at the Art Institute there, and then studied at the New School of Social Research and the Art Students League in New York City. He moved to Santa Barbara, CA (1958). Although he had several occupations, including journalism, he is best known for his critical essays and his naturalistic erotic poetry. …

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Kenneth Starr - Early life, Pre-Independent Counsel activities, Time as Independent Counsel, Second thoughts

Lawyer, born in Vernon, Texas, USA. He graduated in 1968 from George Washington University, Washington, DC, and rose rapidly as a Republican lawyer, becoming the youngest-ever judge on the US Court of Appeal in 1983, and solicitor general under President George Bush. He became nationally known as the Independent Prosecutor chosen to investigate the alleged misdeeds of President Clinton, first with…

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Kenneth Tynan

Theatre critic, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He read English at Oxford, where he became deeply involved in the theatre. As drama critic for several publications, notably The Observer (1954–63), he was one of the first to champion John Osborne and the other new playwrights of the time. He became literary manager of the National Theatre (1963–9), an editor in films and televis…

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Kenneth Williams - Life and career, Performances

Actor and comedian, born in London, UK. He made his London debut in 1952, starred in comedies and revues such as Share My Lettuce (1957) and One Over the Eight (1961), and in the radio series Round the Horne and Stop Messing About. His affected style of speech and rich, punctilious enunciation made him instantly recognizable. He made several films, most famously in the Carry On series of comedies,…

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Kenny (Ray) Rogers - Selected discography, Trivia, Record Labels

Popular singer and guitarist, born in Houston, Texas, USA. While in high school he performed on American Bandstand, and in the 1960s–1970s played in various jazz, folk, and country-rock groups including Kenny Rogers and the First Edition. On his own as a country singer, he found wide popularity with the hit ‘Lucille’ (1977), and then produced such hits as ‘Lady’ (1980) and ‘I Don't Need You

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Kenny Dalglish - Club statistics, Playing Honours, Awards

Footballer and manager, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He joined Glasgow Celtic in 1967, transferring to Liverpool in 1977 for a then record fee between two British clubs of £440 000. He won 102 caps for Scotland, in addition to three European Cups. Unexpectedly invited to manage Liverpool while still a player, he confounded the pundits by being an instant success. In his first season, Liverpo…

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Kent - Geography, Political divisions, Economy, Kent and London, Ceremonial county, Cities, towns and villages

pop (2001e) 1 329 700; area 3730 km²/1440 sq mi. County in SE England, UK; bounded N by the R Thames estuary and E by the English Channel; rises to 251 m/823 ft in the North Downs; The Weald in the SW; drained by Thames, Medway, and Stour Rivers; high chalk cliffs, especially at Dover; county town, Maidstone; principal cross-Channel ports, Dover, Folkestone, Ramsgate, Sheerness; Medway a …

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Kentucky - Origin of name, Geography, History, Law and government, Demographics, Transportation, Cities and towns, Education, Culture, Sports

pop (2000e) 4 041 800; area 104 658 km²/40 410 sq mi. State in EC USA, divided into 120 counties; the ‘Bluegrass State’; part of the territory ceded by the French (1763); explored by Daniel Boone from 1769; the first permanent British settlement at Boonesborough, 1775; included in US territory by the Treaty of Paris, 1783; originally part of Virginia; admitted to the Union as the 15th s…

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Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

(1798) Declarations by two state legislatures that the Alien and Sedition laws violated the US Constitution. They were written by Thomas Jefferson (Kentucky) and James Madison (Virginia). The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were important political statements in favor of states rights written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1798. They were passed by the two st…

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Kenya - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Environment, Climate, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Kenya in culture

Official name Republic of Kenya The Republic of Kenya is a country in Eastern Africa. Fossils found in East Africa suggest that primates roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent finds near Kenya's Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis (1.8 and 2.5 million years ago) and Homo erectus (1.8 million to 350,000 years ago) are possible direct anc…

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Kenya African National Union (KANU)

The party which led Kenya to independence in 1963. It was founded in 1960 as a successor to the Kikuyu Central Association of 1929 and the Kenya African Union of 1947. The Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) was a rival body which represented mainly non-Kikuyu groups. KANU won the first Kenyan election, with President Kenyatta becoming the leader of independent Kenya, although he tried to bring …

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Kenyon Cox

Painter and art critic, born in Warren, Ohio, USA. An academic painter, he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1876), and with Gérôme in Paris (1878–82), before returning to New York City. He painted Augustus St Gaudens, the famous sculptor, in 1908. His art criticism, such as Painters and Sculptors (1907), was widely read. Kenyon Cox (October 27, 1856 – March 17, 191…

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Kenzaburo Oe - Life, Works, Bibliography, Awards

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Shikoku, S Japan. He studied French at the University of Tokyo, and became known for his short stories capturing the mood of post-war Japan, such as The Catch (trans 1959, Akutagawa Prize). His major books include Hiroshima Notes (1965; trans 1981), A Personal Matter (1964; trans 1968), The Silent Cry (1967; trans 1974, Tanizaki Prize), and A Healing Family…

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Kenzo

Fashion designer, born in Kyoto, C Japan. After studying art and graduating in Japan, he worked there for a time, but produced freelance collections in Paris from 1964. He started a shop called Jungle Jap in 1970, and is known for his innovative ideas and use of traditional designs. He creates clothes with both oriental and Western influences, and is a trendsetter in the field of knitwear. …

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Kenzo Tange - Selected projects

Architect, born in Osaka, C Japan. He was raised in Imbari and studied architecture at the Tokyo Imperial University (1935–8, 1942–5), where he became professor (1949–74, then emeritus). His best-known early work is the Hiroshima Peace Centre (1949–55). Later works include the Shizoka Press and Broadcasting Centre (1966–7), the dramatic National Gymnasium for the 1964 Olympic Games, and the t…

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Kepler's laws of planetary motion - Kepler's first law, Kepler's second law, Kepler's third law

Fundamental laws deduced by Kepler from Tycho Brahe's data, which clarified the spatial organization of the solar system. (1) Each planet travels an elliptical orbit with the Sun at one focus. (2) For a given planet radius, the vector to the Sun sweeps equal areas in equal times. (3) For any two planets, the squares of the periods are proportional to the cubes of the distances from the Sun. Newton…

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Kerala - History, Geography, Flora and fauna, Subdivisions, Politics, Economy, Transport, Demographics

pop (2001e) 31 838 600; area 39 000 km²/15 000 sq mi. State in S India, bounded W along the Malabar coast by the Arabian Sea; capital, Trivandrum; governed by a 140-member unicameral legislature; crossed by several rivers; created out of the former state of Travancore–Cochin under the 1956 States Reorganization Act; rice, tapioca, coconut, oilseeds, sugar cane, pepper, rubber, tea, coffe…

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keratin - Keratin and hair protein biochemistry, List of human tissues containing keratin

A tough, fibrous protein synthesized by the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) of vertebrates. It is the major component of hair, nails, claws, horns, feathers, scales, and the dead outer layers of cells of skin. Evidence is given for the progress in hair keratin research by bringing out four examples from the recent hair science literature. [ 1] published a new method of solubilization an…

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Keri (Ann Ruhi) Hulme

Writer, born in Otautahi, Christchurch, New Zealand. She studied at the University of Canterbury (1967–8), and later became writer in residence at the universities of Otago (1978) and Canterbury (1985). From a novelist with a moderate measure of local recognition, she acquired international renown in 1985 when her story The Bone People (1984) was awarded the Booker Prize. Maori themes figure prom…

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Kermit Roosevelt - Childhood, Education, River of Doubt South American expedition, Marriage in 1914

Explorer and army officer, born in Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York, USA, the son of Theodore Roosevelt. He hunted and explored with his father (1909, 1913) and served with both the British aand the US armies during World War 1. In 1920 he formed the Roosevelt Steamship Co. With his brother, Theodore Roosevelt Jr, he collected rare animals and birds in Turkestan and China for the Field Museum in …

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Kerry

pop (2000e) 123 000; area 4701 km²/1815 sq mi. County in Munster province, SW Ireland; bounded W by Atlantic Ocean; rises to Slieve Mish Mts on N side of Dingle Bay and Macgillycuddy's Reeks on S side; watered by Feale and Blackwater Rivers; capital, Tralee; chief towns include Killarney (notable lakeland area) and Listowel; tourism, fishing, textiles. In movie: In…

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Kerry (Francis Bullmore) Packer - Business, Media interests, Founder of World Series Cricket, Controversy, Failing health, Death

Media proprietor, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He inherited the Australian Consolidated Press (ACP) group from his father, Sir Frank Packer. In the 1977–8 season he created ‘World Series Cricket’, contracting the leading Test cricketers for a knock-out series of one-day matches and ‘Super-Tests’, played in colourful costume and often under floodlights, sole television rights…

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kerygma - The Kerygma of the Early Church

(Gr ‘proclamation’, ‘that which is announced’, often referring to the content of a priestly or prophetic proclamation) In the New Testament it often refers to the Apostles' announcement of the saving nature of Jesus's death and resurrection (1 Cor 15.3–5), so that Jesus becomes not just the proclaimer of salvation but that which is proclaimed. Kerygma (κηρύσσω, kērússō, to cr…

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kestrel

A falcon of the worldwide genus Falco (13 species), especially Falco tinnunculus; inhabits open country and cultivation, occasionally forest; eats insects and small vertebrates; catches prey on ground after hovering. (Family: Falconidae.) …

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ketch

A two-masted fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessel. The shorter (after-) mast, called the mizzen, is placed in position forward of the rudder post. By contrast, in a yawl, this mast is placed aft of the rudder post. A ketch is a sailing craft with two masts: a main mast, and a shorter mizzen mast abaft (rearward of) the main mast. On older, larger ketches the main mast may in addition carry on…

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Kevin (Delaney) Kline - Biography, Selected filmography

Film actor, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He studied music at Indiana University, then switched to drama, training at the Juilliard School in New York City. On Broadway he won Tonies for two hit musicals, On the Twentieth Century (1978) and The Pirates of Penzance (1980). Though known for his dramatic abilities, it was his comic role in A Fish Called Wanda (1988) that earned him an Oscar as Bes…

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Kevin Bacon - Life and Career, Personal life, The Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon, Music, Filmography, Trivia

Actor and musician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied acting at the Circle in the Square Theater in New York, and after some stage work gained his first feature film role in National Lampoon's Animal House (1981). Later films include Footloose (1984), JFK (1991), The River Wild (1993, Golden Globe Best Actor nomination), Apollo 13 (1995), Hollow Man (2000), Mystic River (2003), a…

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Kevin Costner - Biography, Personal life, Filmography

Film actor and director, born in Compton, California, USA. He studied at California State University (1978), became an actor, and established a reputation in the critically acclaimed films Bull Durham (1988) and Field of Dreams (1989). He directed and starred in the epic film Dances With Wolves (1990), a major triumph which won seven Oscars. Further successes followed with starring roles in Robin …

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Kevin Spacey - Selected filmography, Discography

Film and theatre actor, born in South Orange, NJ, USA. He studied drama at the Juilliard School for two years. After various roles on stage and in television in the USA, he moved into films, his early film work including Working Girl (1988), See No Evil, Hear No Evil (1989), and Glengarry Glen Ross (1992). During the 1990s The Usual Suspects (1995) and Se7en (1995) catapulted him into internationa…

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Key Pittman

US senator, born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA. He joined the Alaskan gold rush (1897–1901) and was a lawyer who specialized in mining law. He served in the US Senate (Democrat, Nevada, 1913–40), and, as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he strongly supported President Franklin Roosevelt's foreign policy. Above all, he looked after the interests of the silver-mining states, an…

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keyboard instrument - History, List of keyboard instruments

A musical instrument in which the different pitches are controlled by means of a keyboard, ie a succession of levers arranged (for acoustical, historical, or practical reasons) in two rows. The front row produces the notes of the diatonic C major scale, the rear the pitches in between; played in order from left to right, they produce an ascending 12-note chromatic scale. In modern keyboards the fr…

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KGB - Purpose and tasks, Modus operandi, History of the KGB Organization, KGB Operations within the United States

Abbreviation of Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (‘Committee for State Security’), after 1953 one of the Soviet Union's two secret police organizations with joint responsibility for internal and external order and security. Its tasks included the surveillance of key members of the Communist Party, the administration, and the military; the monitoring and regulation of dissidents; and espionag…

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Khajuraho - Architecture, Landscape, Clarification on Erotic Sculptures

A group of 20 Hindu temples in Madhya Pradesh, India; a world heritage site. The temples were constructed, mainly of sandstone, in 950–1050. The sculptures which embellish their internal and external walls are considered masterpieces of erotic art. One of the most popular tourist destinations in India, Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu temples, famous for their erotic sculp…

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Khalil Gibran - Youth in Lebanon, Cultural growth and works, Death and legacy, Selected works, Trivia

Poet, painter, and novelist, born in Bechari, Lebanon (now Syria). His mother emigrated to the USA in 1894 and settled in Boston. He travelled to Lebanon to study with the Maronite (Christian) clergy (1897–9), then returned to Boston, where he was befriended by Mary Haskell, a wealthy patroness of the arts. After studying art in Paris, he settled in New York City where he painted, sculpted, and w…

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Kharkov - Geography, History, Government, Modern Kharkiv

50°00N 36°15E, pop (2000e) 1 596 000. Capital city of Kharkovskaya oblast, Ukraine, on tributaries of the R Severskiy Donets; founded as a fortress, 1655–6; badly damaged in World War 2; airport; railway junction; university (1805); Donets Basic coalfield nearby; heavy engineering, machines, metalworking, foodstuffs, building materials; Pokrovskii cathedral (1689), Uspenskii cathedral (1821

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Khartoum - History, Development, Economy, Education, Transportation

15°33N 32°35E, pop (2000e) 764 000. Capital of Sudan, near the junction of the White Nile and the Blue Nile Rivers, 1600 km/1000 mi S of Cairo (Egypt); founded, 1820s; garrison town in 19th-c; scene of the British defeat by the Mahdi, in which General Gordon was killed, 1885; city regained by Lord Kitchener, 1898; airport; railway; university (1955); major communications and trade centre; he…

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khat

A shrub (Catha edulis) growing in E Asia and the SW part of the Arabian peninsula, whose leaves are chewed for their stimulant effect. The active principle is cathinone, whose properties are similar to amphetamine. Early results from a study in 2004 suggest that its medical usage could boost male fertility. …

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Khmer Empire - History

Buddhist kingdom/empire in SE Asia, founded in the 6th-c, with its capital at Angkor Thom from 802. By the 12th-c it included S Laos, much of Thailand, and Cambodia. Vast funerary temples were erected at Angkor Wat (early 12th-c). Cambodia was invaded by the Mongols (1284) and the newly established Siamese kingdom (after 1350). Angkor was abandoned in 1431, and the Khmer Empire had collapsed by 14…

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Khmer Rouge - Origins of the Khmer Rouge, Path to power, The Khmer Rouge in power

A Cambodian communist guerrilla force. It gained control in 1975 and, led by Pol Pot, set about a drastic transformation of ‘Democratic Kampuchea’, involving mass forced evacuation from the towns to the countryside, the creation of agricultural co-operatives, and the execution of thousands of ‘bourgeois elements’. More than 90% of Cambodia's traditional artists, performers, and scholars were m…

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Khoisan - Bibliography

A collective term for the San (Bushmen) and Khoi (Hottentot) peoples of S Africa. The San were formerly hunter-gatherers, with a simple material culture but a rich oral literature and accomplished rock art. They once populated most of EC and S Africa, but today are marginalized in the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. Many now work for African or white cattle-farmers. The Khoi were traditionally pastor…

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Khyber Pass - Geography, History, Trivia

A defile through the Safed Koh mountain range on the frontier between Pakistan and Afghanistan. A route favoured through history by both traders and invaders, it is 45 km/28 mi long, and reaches heights of 1280 m/3518 ft. The present road was built by the British during the Afghan Wars, when the Pass was the scene of several clashes. Coordinates: 34°5′36″N, 71°9′5″E …

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kibbutz - History, About, Future, Further reading

A Jewish co-operative settlement in Israel which is mainly self-supporting in terms of food supplies and A Jewish co-operative settlement in Israel which is mainly self-supporting in terms of food supplies and many other goods. A kibbutz may support itself through agricultural, industrial, or entrepreneurial means. The first kibbutz, Deganya, was founded in 1910; its land was held in the name of t…

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Kid Ory

Trombonist and composer, born in La Place, Louisiana, USA. He rose to fame as leader of a well-known New Orleans jazz band (1911), later forming a new band in Los Angeles (1919). During the 1920s he made numerous records, playing with such popular jazz musicians as King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, and Jelly Roll Morton, and is remembered for his composition, ‘Muskrat Ramble’ (1926). He retired in 1…

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Kiel - History, Notable people, Sister towns

54°02N 10°08E, pop (2000e) 251 000. Port and capital of Schleswig-Holstein province, N Germany; at S end of the Kieler Förde, an arm of the Baltic Sea; Kiel Canal (1877–95), 98 km/61 mi between North Sea and Baltic Sea; badly bombed in World War 2; railway; university (1665); ferry service to Scandinavia; naval base; shipbuilding, engineering, precision instruments, fish processing, oil, r…

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Kielder Water

Reservoir in Northumberland, NE England, UK; one of the largest artificial lakes in Europe, supplying water to the industrial NE; built 1974–82 by damming R North Tyne; first regional water grid system in UK; planting of nearby Kielder Forest begun in 1922; area with other Border forests, 650 km²/250 sq mi; largest area of planted forest in Europe. A change in economic direction away f…

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Kieren (John) Perkins - Biography

Swimmer, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. He won the silver medal in the 1500 m freestyle at the 1990 Commonwealth Games, and set four world records (at 800 m and 1500 m) in the year leading up to the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, where he won the 1500 m final, breaking the Games record in the process, and regaining the title at the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996. In 1994, he broke his ow…

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Kiev - Environment, History, Government, Demographics, Modern Kiev, Transportation, Tourism, Economy, Education, Kiev or Kyiv?

50°28N 30°29E, pop (2000e) 2 587 000. Capital city of Ukraine, on R Dnepr; earliest centre of Slavonic culture and learning; founded, 6th–7th-c; capital of mediaeval Kievan Russia, 9th-c; conquered by Mongols, 1240; capital of Ukraine SSR, 1934; besieged and occupied by Germany in World War 2; airport; railway; university (1834); major industrial, cultural, and scientific centre; chemicals, …

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Kildare - History, Places of Interest

pop (2000e) 124 000; area 1694 km²/654 sq mi. County in Leinster province, E Ireland; watered by Liffey and Barrow Rivers; low-lying C plain known as the Curragh; capital, Naas; other chief towns, Kildare, Athy, Droichead Nua; farming, cattle, horse breeding; national stud at Tully, racecourse at the Curragh. This article is about the town of Kildare, for the Irish county see County K…

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Kiliaen van Rensselaer

Dutch merchant, born in Hasselt (Southern Netherlands), land developer and director of the Dutch West India Company (WIC). In 1629 the Company offered land for the foundation of colonies and, although he himself remained in Amsterdam, van Rensselaer was responsible for founding the colony of Rensselaerswijck on the Hudson in the New Netherlands, the only colony to become successful. It later serve…

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Kilkenny (city) - History, Architecture, Industry, Sport, Tourism, Additional reading

52°39N 7°15W, pop (2000e) 18 000. Capital of Kilkenny county, Leinster, SE Ireland, on R Nore; railway; clothing, footwear, brewing; Kilkenny College and design workshops; cathedrals, town hall (Tholsel), 18th-c Kilkenny Castle, Bishop Rothe's house; Kilkenny Arts Week (Aug). Kilkenny (Irish: Cill Chainnigh) is the county seat of County Kilkenny, Ireland. Kilkenny is located on the Rive…

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Kilkenny (county) - History, Architecture, Industry, Sport, Tourism, Additional reading

pop (2000e) 75 000; area 2062 km²/796 sq mi. County in Leinster province, SE Ireland; fertile county watered by R Nore; Slieve Ardagh Hills rise W; capital, Kilkenny; agriculture, livestock. Kilkenny (Irish: Cill Chainnigh) is the county seat of County Kilkenny, Ireland. Kilkenny is located on the River Nore is famed for its history and nightlife. Kilkenny was granted a Ro…

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Killarney - Transport, Sport, Tourism, People from Killarney

52°03N 9°30W, pop (2000e) 10 000. Resort town in Kerry county, Munster, SW Ireland; centre of scenic lakeland area; railway; engineering, container cranes, hosiery; pan-Celtic week with Celtavision Song Contest (May); Killarney regatta (Jul); Kerry boating carnival (Sep). Killarney (Irish: Cill Airne, meaning "The church of the sloe") is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. The…

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killifish - Range and habitat, Territorial behavior, Diet, Reproduction, Killifish as pets

Small, colourful, carp-like freshwater fish widespread in tropical and warm temperate regions; jaws bearing small teeth; lacks bony linkage between swim bladder and inner ear; popular as an aquarium fish; also called top minnows. (Family: Cyprodontidae.) A killifish is any of various small, mainly oviparous (egg-laying) cyprinodont fish (order Cyprinodontiformes, family Cyprinodontidae). Al…

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kiln - Ceramic or Pottery kilns, Wood-Drying Kilns

An oven for baking clay for bricks or pottery, or the clay and lime for cement, usually constructed of fireclay or resistant alloys. The term is also used for ovens operating at low temperatures for the drying of hops or grain. Kilns are used to harden, burn or dry materials. Specific uses include: See also: Kilns are an essential part of the manufacture of all ceram…

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kilogram - History, SI multiples

Base SI unit of mass; symbol kg; defined as equal to the international prototype of the kilogram, a platinum–iridium bar kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sèvres, near Paris; commonly used as gram (g, 1/1000 kg) and tonne (t, 1000 kg); 1 kg = 2·205 pounds. The kilogram or kilogramme, (symbol: kg) is the SI base unit of mass. The kilogram was ori…

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Kim (Avril Phaedra Douglas) Campbell - Personal background, Political life, Prime Ministership, The 1993 election, Post-political career, Legacy, Honorary degrees

Canadian stateswoman, and Canada's first woman prime minister (1993), born in British Columbia, SW Canada. Her first public office was as school trustee with the Vancouver School Board (1980). She later ran unsuccessfully as a Social Credit candidate in the British Columbia provincial election, then was elected for the province in 1988 as a federal conservative. She served as minister of justice a…

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Kim (Christian) Beazley - Early life, Career in government, First term as ALP leader, Opposition backbencher

Politician, born in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. He was educated at the University of Western Australia and Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, returning to take up an academic post at Murdoch University. In 1980 he was elected as an MP for the West Australian seat of Swan, but transferred to the seat of Brand in 1996. He held a number of portfolios, including defence, employment, educa…

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Kim Basinger - Filmography, Television work

Film actress, born in Athens, Georgia, USA. She appeared in television commercials and was a top model before making her feature film debut in Hard Country (1981). Other films include Nine ½ Weeks (1986), The Real McCoy (1993), I Dreamed of Africa (2000), 8 Mile (2002), Cellular (2004), and The Sentinel (2006). She won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in L.A. Confidential (1997). Her second m…

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Kim Il-sung - Leader of North Korea, Family life

North Korean soldier, statesman, prime minister (1948–72), and president (1972–94), born near Pyongyang, Korea. He founded the Korean People's Revolutionary Army in 1932, and led a long struggle against the Japanese. He proclaimed the Republic in 1948, and became effective head of state. He was re-elected president in 1982 and 1986, established a unique personality cult wedded to an isolationist…

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Kim Novak - Early life, Career, Personal life, Filmography, Trivia

Film actress, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She made her screen debut in The French Line (1954), then starred in The Pushover (1954), and soon became a leading box-office attraction of the 1950s - perhaps the last of the ‘sex goddesses’ produced by the Hollywood star system. Her films include The Man With The Golden Arm (1955), Pal Joey (1957), Vertigo (1958), The Amorous Adventures of Moll Fl…

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Kim Philby - Early life, Spy and traitor, Postwar career, Moscow, Chronology, Philby in popular culture

Double agent, born in Ambala, N India. He studied at Cambridge, where, like Burgess, Maclean, Blunt, and others, he became a Communist. Already recruited as a Soviet agent, he was employed by the British Secret Intelligence Service (1944–6) as head of anti-Communist counter-espionage. He later became first secretary of the British embassy in Washington, working in liaison with the CIA (1949–51),…

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Kim Young-Sam

South Korean politician and president (1993–8), born in Pusan, SE Korea. He studied at Seoul National University, and was elected to the National Assembly in 1954. A founder member of the Opposition New Democratic Party, he became its president in 1974. His opposition to the Park Chung-Hee regime (1963–79) resulted in his being banned from all political activity (1980). He staged a 23-day pro-de…

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kimono - History and description, Women's kimono, Men's kimono, Kimono accessories and related garments

Japanese traditional costume, today mostly worn for special occasions, such as weddings and the tea ceremony. It is not worn to work except by Buddhist priests, waitresses in traditional style restaurants, and a few others. Plain colours are for men; bright for girls and young women. The obi (waist sash) for women is frequently of an expensive material. Kimono (Japanese: 着物, literally "…

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kindergarten - History, Kindergarten systems of various countries, Function of Kindergarten, What should kindergarten activities include?, Readings

A nursery school for children under the age at which they must legally attend school. In many countries the kindergarten is organized on informal lines, with the emphasis on social development as well as on preparation for formal schooling. Provision of preschool education varies from near universal availability to very low. In the USA, kindergartens are part of the public school system. Ki…

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kinesics

The study of visual body language as communication. Kinesics is concerned partly with the conventional movements and gestures that convey deliberate messages, and also with the way facial expressions, body movements, and posture provide patterns of involuntary clues to the emotional state of the person observed, and to the nature of social interaction. It particularly studies the way winks, eyebro…

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kinesiology

A system of diagnosis and treatment which uses assessment of a patient's muscle responses to manual pressure to detect and locate blockage and imbalance of energy flow; developed by US chiropracter George Goodheart. Diagnosis is based on the belief that each group of muscles is related to other distant parts of the body, and generally follows the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. The kin…

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kinetic art - Types of Kinetic Art, Selected kinetic artists

A term applied to certain types of modern art, especially sculptures, which move. For example, the hanging mobiles of the US sculptor Alexander Calder (1898–1976), all the parts of which revolve separately to create changing patterns in space, usually rely on air currents, but some kinetic works are connected to a motor. Kinetic art is art that moves, or appears to move. Kineti…

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kinetic energy - Simple explanation, Definition, In Newtonian mechanics, In relativistic mechanics, In quantum mechanics

Energy associated with an object's motion; a scalar quantity; symbol K, units J (joule). For an object of mass m moving with velocity v, kinetic energy K = mv2/2. A change in kinetic energy is work done to the object by a force. Kinetic energy is the energy that a body possesses as a result of its motion. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic e…

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King (Wallis) Vidor

Film director, born in Galveston, Texas, USA. Fascinated with films as a youth, he worked as a projectionist, then filmed local news events. With his new bride, Florence Arto, he went off to Hollywood (1915), where her career as an actress quickly took off, but it was 1919 before Vidor directed his first feature film, establishing his reputation with The Big Parade (1925). In many of his early fil…

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King Charles spaniel

A breed of dog developed in Britain, receiving its name for its popularity under King Charles II; small active spaniel with short legs, long low-set ears, and large round frontal eyes; in original paintings, with a long face and flat skull; by 19th-c bred to a completely flat face, undershot jaw, and domed skull; this breed in the USA also called English Toy Spaniel; during 1920s, breeders worked …

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king cobra - Hunting, diet and venom

The world's largest venomous snake (Ophiophagus hannah), native to India and SE Asia; (length, up to 5·5 m/18 ft); inhabits forests, especially near water; eats snakes (including venomous species) and monitor lizards; female builds nest on ground and coils on top to incubate eggs; also known as hamadryad. The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the longest of the venomous land snakes, gro…

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King Philip's War - The war, Aftermath, Bibliography

(1675–6) An attempt by the Indians of C New England to stop further white expansion. It was led by Metacom (Philip), chief of the Wampanoags, who tried to build an inter-tribe coalition. The Indians lost, and were killed or enslaved. King Philip's War (Metacom's War) was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and thei…

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King William's Town - Founding and refounding

32º51S 27º22E, pop (2002e) 103 700. City in Eastern Cape province, South Africa; located in the Buffalo R valley; established by the London Missionary Society (1826); destroyed by the Xhosa tribespeople (1835) who, in turn, were driven away by Sir Benjamin D'urban, Governor of the Cape, who proclaimed a new district with the capital named after the reigning British monarch; after the last fron…

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kingdom (biology) - Two empires, four kingdoms, Five kingdoms, Summary

The highest category into which organisms are classified. Traditionally two kingdoms have been recognized - Plantae (plants) and Animalia (animals) - but increasing knowledge of micro-organisms has made it difficult to fit them into this system. Modern systems recognize five kingdoms: Monera (comprising the procaryotes such as bacteria and blue-green algae), Protoctista (comprising the eucaryotic …

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kingfisher

A bird found almost worldwide (especially Old World tropics); short-tailed, with large head; bill usually long, straight; bright blue-green back; occupies diverse habitats, usually (but not necessarily) near water. Some species eat only fish; most eat insects and small vertebrates. (Family: Alcedinidae, c.85 species.) Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfisher…

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Kingston (Canada) - Jamaica, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand

44°14N 76°30W, pop (2000e) 63 400. City in SE Ontario, Canada; at the NE end of L Ontario, where it joins the St Lawrence R; site of former fort (Fort Frontenac); founded in 1784 by United Empire Loyalists; Canadian naval base in War of 1812; capital of United Canada, 1841–4; railway; Royal Military College (1876); Queen's University (1841); textiles, chemicals, mining machinery, aluminium pr…

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Kingston (Jamaica) - Jamaica, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand

17°58N 76°48W, pop (2000e) 690 000 (metropolitan area). Capital city and commercial centre of Jamaica; on N side of a landlocked harbour, SE coast; founded, 1693; capital, 1870; airport; railway; Institute of Jamaica (1879); University of the West Indies (1948); agricultural trade, cement manufacture; St Peter's Church (1725), coin and note museum, national gallery, Hope Botanical Gardens, Tuf…

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