Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 42

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Jonathan Mayhew

Protestant clergyman, born on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, USA. A minister's son, he graduated from Harvard (1744) and became pastor of West Church, Boston, three years later. He was a theological liberal opposed to Calvinist notions of predestination, and is acknowledged as a forerunner of Unitarianism. A political liberal also, he delivered a sermon on the Stamp Act (1765) that advocated re…

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Jonathan Swift - Biography, Writings, Works, Works, Biographical Sources

Clergyman and satirist, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Dublin, then moved to England, where he became secretary to the diplomat, Sir William Temple. During a visit to Ireland, he was ordained in the Anglican Church (1695). He wrote several poems, then turned to prose satire, exposing religious and intellectual complacency in A Tale of a Tub (1704), and produced a wide range of political an…

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Jonathan Trumbull

Merchant and US governor, born in Lebanon, Connecticut, USA, the brother of John Trumbull, the painter. He was a Continental army paymaster (1775–8), the first comptroller of the treasury (1778–9), and George Washington's secretary (1781–3). He served as a congressman (1789–94; Speaker of the House 1791–4) and senator (1795–6) before becoming governor of Connecticut (1797–1809). In 1809 he …

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Jonathan Trumbull

Patriot and US governor, born in Lebanon, Connecticut, USA, the father of John Trumbull and Jonathan Trumbull. Originally a successful merchant, he was governor of Connecticut (1769–84) and the only colonial governor to adopt a radical stance at the start of the American Revolution. He made Connecticut a principal source of supplies for the Continental army. Jonathan Trumbull, Sr. (12 Octo…

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Jonathon (Espie) Porritt - Bibliography

Green politician and environmentalist, born in London. He studied at Oxford, became a comprehensive schoolteacher, and entered politics to become chair of the fledgling UK Ecology (now Green) Party (1978–84). Following the rapid expansion of the party after the 1979 and 1983 general elections, he wrote an important green text, Seeing Green (1984), becoming director of Friends of the Earth (UK) (1…

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Jones Very

Poet, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard Divinity School (1836–8), but resigned and spent a month in an asylum. After working briefly as a minister, he retired to Salem and became a Transcendentalist poet, publishing Essays and Poems (1839). Jones Very (1813 - 1880) was an essayist and poet, born at Salem, Mass., where he became a clergyman and something of a mystic. …

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Joni Mitchell - Early life, Career, Musical legacy, Awards and honours, Discography, Multimedia

Singer and songwriter, born in Fort McLeod, Alberta, W Canada. Her compositions, highly original and personal in their lyrical imagery, first attracted attention among folk-music audiences in Toronto while she was still in her teens. She moved to the USA in the mid-1960s, and in 1968 recorded her first album, Joni Mitchell (1968). Other highly successful albums followed, including Clouds, Ladies o…

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Jonny Wilkinson - Early life

Rugby Union player, born in Surrey, SE England, UK He studied at Lord Wandsworth College, Hampshire, and played cricket and tennis for Hampshire Schools before deciding on a career in rugby. He signed for NE team Newcastle Falcons, playing at fly half, and was part of their 1997–8 championship winning season. Called up to the England first-team squad, his debut against Ireland (1998) as a substit…

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Joop (Johannes Marten) den Uyl - Career

Dutch economist, politician, and prime minister (1973–7), born in Hilversum, WC Netherlands. After 1948 he worked as a journalist for Het Parool and Vrij Nederland, and in 1949 became director of the Partij van de Arbeid's (PvdA) Academic Bureau, the Wiardi Beckman Stichting. He served on the Amsterdam Council (1952–65), entered parliament in 1956 (PvdA), and as minister of economic affairs (196…

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Jordan

Official name Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Arabic Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniya al-Hashemiyah …

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Jordanes - Life and times before conversion, Conversion and after, Publications

Gothic monk and historian. His chief work was a history of the Goths, De origine actibusque Getarum (c.551, On the Origins and Deeds of the Getae), condensed from a lost book by Cassiodorus. It is important as a contemporary source on both the Goths and the Huns. Iordanis, known in English as Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes, 'bold as a boar'), was a 6th century churchman who turne…

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Jorge Amado - Biography, Works

Novelist, born in Ferradas, near Ilhéus, NE Brazil. He spent part of his childhood on a cacao plantation in NE Brazil, and his early writing focused on the poverty and social conditions of the plantation workers. He became a journalist in 1930, was imprisoned for his political beliefs in 1935, and spent several periods in exile. He was elected a Communist deputy of the Brazilian parliament (1946

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Jorge Bolet

Pianist, born in Havana, Cuba. He studied at the Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia, from the age of 12, where he became head of piano studies. He is renowned for his interpretation of Liszt, and of the German, Spanish, and Russian Romantics. He became a US citizen in 1944. Bolet was born in Havana in Cuba and studied at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where he himself t…

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Jorge Luis Borges - Life, Work, Critical bibliography

Writer, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He studied there and at Geneva and Cambridge. From 1918 he was in Spain, where he was a member of the avant-garde Ultraist literary group, returning to Argentina in 1921. His first book of poems, Fervor de Buenos Aires, was published in 1923, and in 1941 appeared the first collection of the intricate and fantasy-woven short stories for which he is famous. L…

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jornada - Model Variations

In Spanish drama, an act of a play, later referred to as an ‘acto’. The term was originally used because no single act was to contain events exceeding the limits of one day (or jornada), though any length of time might elapse between acts. Originally in five jornadas, the Golden Age play was probably first reduced to three acts by Antonio Diez in his Auto de Clarindo (c.1535), which has otherwis…

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Joschka Fischer - Early life, Green politician, Foreign Minister, Life after Politics, Private life, Further reading

German politician, born in Gerabronn, Germany. A member of the Bündnis 90/Die Grünen party, he became Minister für Umwelt und Energie and Deputy Ministerpräsident in Hessen (1985–7, 1991–4), and speaker of the Bundestagsfraktion of his party (1994–8). In October 1998 he became Vice-Chancellor and foreign minister in the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) government. Joseph…

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Jos - Iturbi's granddaughters

Pianist, born in Spain. A disciple of Malats in Valencia, in 1913 he was awarded first prize by the Paris Conservatory. He became a professor in Geneva and then moved to the USA, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1948. Famous as a soloist, he also dedicated himself to orchestra direction and acted in several films. José Iturbi (born 28 November 1895 in Valencia, Spain; He was involved in a…

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Josef Albers

Painter and designer, born in Bottrop, W Germany. He trained in Berlin, Essen, and Munich, and from 1920 was involved with the Bauhaus. In 1933 he fled Nazi Germany to the USA, teaching at the experimental Black Mountain College, NC (1933–49) and at Yale (1950–60). He became a US citizen in 1939. As a painter he was interested chiefly in colour relationships, and from 1950 produced a series of w…

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Josef Mengele - Early life, career, and education, Auschwitz, Josef Mengele's escape and Hiding

Physician, born in Günzburg, S Germany. He studied philosophy in Munich, where he encountered the racial ideology of Alfred Rosenberg. He later studied medicine at the University of Frankfurt, after which he joined the Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene (1934). An ardent Nazi, he served as medical officer with the Waffen SS during World War 2, and was appointed chief doctor at th…

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Josep Puig i Cadafalch

Architect, politician, and writer, born in Mataró, Catalunya, NE Spain. He studied science, physics, and mathematics in Barcelona and Madrid (1888). As an architect he collaborated in local initiatives such as the Public Library, the Archaeological Museum, and the Arts School. As the municipal architect he restored the boardroom of the Town Hall and built various public buildings for the citizens…

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Joseph - Famous persons with the surname Joseph, Placenames, Joseph and the arts, Other language variants

Biblical character, the subject of many stories (Gen 37–50); the 11th son of Jacob, but the first by his wife Rachel. He is depicted as Jacob's favourite son (marked by the gift of a multicoloured coat) who was sold into slavery by his jealous brothers, yet who by prudence and wisdom rose from being a servant to high office in Pharaoh's court, with special responsibility for distributing grain su…

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Joseph (Alberic) Fiennes - Selected filmography, Selected plays, Awards, Nominations

Actor, born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, S England, UK, the brother of Ralph Fiennes. He trained at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (1993) in London, then had a number of stage roles before joining the Royal Shakespeare Company for two seasons. His first feature film appearance was in Stealing Beauty (1996), and he became known after his role as Sir Robert Dudley in Elizabeth (1998). Later fil…

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Joseph (Clay Styles) Blackburn - Dates of birth and death

US representative and senator, born in Woodford Co, Kentucky, USA. A Confederate war veteran, he served in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Kentucky, 1875–85) and the US Senate (1885–97). He also served as governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1907–9). Joseph Blackburn, also known as Jonathan Blackburn, (dates of birth and death uncertain - see note below) was an English portrait …

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Joseph (Earle) Spencer

Geographer, born in Bolivar, Missouri, USA. After earning his PhD at the University of California, Berkeley, he spent several years in China. In 1940 he joined the faculty at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he remained until 1975, with an interruption during World War 2. With William E Thomas he wrote Cultural Geography (1969), Asia, East by South (1971), and Introducing Cultural …

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Joseph (Emerson) Worcester - Works

Lexicographer, born in Bedford, New Hampshire, USA. He worked on the family farm until he entered Phillips Academy at age 21, and then studied at Yale College (1811 BA). While teaching school he began the compilation of several gazetteers and textbooks in geography and history. In 1828 he published a revision of Samuel Johnson's famous Dictionary of the English Language, and the next year, under t…

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Joseph (Farwell) Glidden - Patents

Inventor, born in Charlestown, New Hampshire, USA. He worked on the family farm and as a teacher before moving West in 1844 and gradually acquiring large landholdings in Illinois and Texas. He patented an improved type of barbed wire in 1874, but sold his interest in the Barb Fence Co in 1876. By 1880 the factory was turning out 80 million pounds of wire a year, and his invention ultimately fenced…

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Joseph (Francis) Lamb

Composer, born in Montclair, New Jersey, USA. As a young white man, he studied the published scores of the African-American ragtime composers such as Scott Joplin and James Scott. He then published his own rag, ‘Sensation’ (1908) and by 1919 had composed 12 more that ensured his later reputation. He remained unknown for years while working in the New York textile trade. He resumed composing in 1…

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Joseph (Geating) McCoy

Cattleman, born in Sangamon Co, Illinois, USA. Working as a cattleman, he developed Abilene, KS on the Kansas Pacific railroad as the main shipping point for cattle to the East, and this ushered in the Long Drive (for cattle) over the Chisholm Trail from Texas (1866–75). He set up other cattle drives and served as an agent for the Cherokee. His Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade (1874) is a ba…

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Joseph (Hayne) Rainey

US representative, born in Georgetown, South Carolina, USA. A barber with little formal education, he was the first elected black US congressman (Democrat, South Carolina, 1871–9), afterwards working as a banker and broker in Washington, DC. Joseph Hayne Rainey (June 21, 1832 – August 1, 1887) was the first African American person to serve in the United States House of Representatives an…

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Joseph (Henry Maclagan) Wedderburn - Life, Work

Mathematician, born in Forfar, Angus, E Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University, visited Leipzig, Berlin, and Chicago, then returned to Edinburgh as a lecturer (1905–9). In 1909 he went to Princeton, and settled there after World War 1 until retiring in 1945. His work on algebra includes two fundamental theorems known by his name, one on the classification of semi-simple algebras, the ot…

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Joseph (Knefler) Taussig

US naval officer, born in Dresden, Germany (while his American father served in the European Squadron). Wounded during service in China's Boxer Rebellion, he commanded destroyers in World War 1. During 1920–36 he served mainly at the Naval College or in staff positions, and although he seemed marked for the navy's top post, a longstanding feud with Franklin Roosevelt sidelined his career. In 1943…

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Joseph (Marie Antoine Hubert) Luns

Dutch politician of international renown, diplomat, and lawyer, born in Rotterdam, W Netherlands. He was in diplomatic service from 1940 (Berne, Lisbon, London) and was a member of the Dutch delegation to the UN in 1940–52. Brought into government by the Katholieke Volkspartij (KVP) in 1952 as minister without portfolio to assist the foreign minister, he served as minister of foreign affairs in a…

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Joseph (Marie Auguste) Caillaux - Caillaux's Ministry, 2 July 1911 - 14 January 1912

French statesman, financier, and prime minister of France (1911–12), born in Le Mans, NW France. He trained as a lawyer, was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1898, and became finance minister in several governments. His brief term as prime minister ended when he was overthrown for showing too conciliatory an attitude towards Germany. In 1914, his second wife shot Gaston Calmette, editor of F…

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Joseph (Rogers) Brown

Inventor, engineer, and manufacturer, born in Warren, Rhode Island, USA. He became a machinist (1827) and set up a shop (1831) to manufacture tools. In 1858 he began the manufacture of sewing machines, forming a company in 1866. He invented milling and grinding machines, and cutters, and he simplified the Vernier caliper (1852). Joseph Brown may refer to: …

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Joseph (Walton) Losey - Filmography as director includes

Film director, born in La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA. He attended Dartmouth College, NH, and Harvard, and worked first as a show-business reporter before becoming a stage director on Broadway. His early films centred on controversial topics, and when he was blacklisted as a suspected Communist by the McCarthy Committee he left Hollywood for England (1952). Working anonymously at first, he went on to d…

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Joseph Addison - Life and writing, Cato, Summary, Quotes

Essayist and politician, born in Milston, Wiltshire, S England, UK. A student at Oxford, he was a distinguished Classical scholar and fellow of Magdalen College (1698–1711), beginning his literary career in 1693 with a poetical address to Dryden. In 1699 he obtained a pension to train for the diplomatic service, and spent four years abroad. While under-secretary of state (1706–8) he produced his…

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Joseph Arnold - Resources

Botanist, born in Beccles, Suffolk, E England, UK. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and accompanied Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles as naturalist to Sumatra, where he died. He discovered the largest flower known, Rafflesia arnoldi. …

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Joseph Aspdin

Bricklayer and inventor, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. A stonemason by trade, in 1824 he patented what he called Portland cement, manufactured from clay and limestone. Joseph Aspdin (1788 – 20 March 1855) was a British mason, bricklayer and inventor who patented a process for making Portland cement on 21 October 1824. This first true artificial cement was the first r…

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Joseph Bellamy - Life, Estimations of Bellamy

Protestant theologian, born in Cheshire, Connecticut, USA. A farmer's son, he graduated from Yale (1735), studied theology with Jonathan Edwards, and preached in several churches before becoming pastor in Bethlehem, CT (1738), where he remained for the rest of his life. His influential True Religion Delineated (1750) was both a defence of Edwardian theology and a softening of it by making the poss…

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Joseph Beuys - Early life, After the war, Artistic Development and Notoriety, Critiques of Beuys, Further reading

Avant-garde artist, born in Krefeld, W Germany. He studied art at Düsseldorf Academy, where he later became professor of sculpture (1961–71). His sculpture consisted mainly of ‘assemblages’ of bits and pieces of rubbish; for one typical exhibit he smeared frankfurters with brown shoe polish. He also staged multimedia ‘happenings’. He was much admired and imitated by the younger avant-garde f…

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Joseph Black

Chemist, born in Bordeaux, SW France. He studied at Belfast, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, and in 1756 showed that the causticity of lime and alkalis is due to the absence of the ‘fixed air’ (carbon dioxide) present in limestone and the carbonates of the alkalis. He evolved the theory of ‘latent heat’, on which his scientific fame chiefly rests, and founded the theory of specific heats. In 1766 he b…

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Joseph Blackburn - Dates of birth and death

American painter. It is believed he lived in Boston and Portsmouth, New Hampshire (c.1750–65). During that time he painted portraits, such as the documented canvas, ‘Mrs Nathaniel Barrell’ (1762). Joseph Blackburn, also known as Jonathan Blackburn, (dates of birth and death uncertain - see note below) was an English portrait painter who worked mainly in Bermuda and in colonial Amer…

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Joseph Bodin de Boismortier - Biography, A Quote, Principal Works, Selected discography

Musician and composer, born in Thionville, NE France. He travelled extensively in France, married in 1720, and produced the first editions of his works in Paris in 1724. He composed a great variety of works, including operas, ballets, suites, sonatas, motets, and cantatas, gaining success and fortune. He introduced the term concerto in three sections with a work for flutes (1727), his favourite in…

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Joseph Bonaparte

King of Naples and Sicily (1806–8) and of Spain (1808–13), born in Corte, Corsica, the eldest surviving brother of Napoleon I. He served Napoleon on diplomatic missions and was a humane sovereign in S Italy, but faced continuous rebellion as a nominated ruler in Spain, where his army was decisively defeated by Wellington at Vittoria (1813). He spent much of his life in exile in New Jersey, but s…

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Joseph Bosworth

Philologist, born in Derbyshire, C England, UK. Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford from 1858, he compiled An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1838), and in 1867 gave £10 000 to endow a chair of Anglo-Saxon at Cambridge. Joseph Bosworth (1789 - May 27, 1876), English scholar of Anglo-Saxon language and Anglo-Saxon literature, was born in Derbyshire. Educated at Repton, whence he proceed…

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Joseph Bramah

Inventor, born in Stainborough, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He made numerous inventions, including a beer machine used at the bar of public-houses, a safety lock, an improved water-closet (1778), a hydraulic press (1795), and a machine for printing bank-notes (1806). He was one of the first to propose the application of the screw-propeller. Joseph Bramah (1748 - December 9, 1814), born …

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Joseph Brant - Early Years, American Revolution, Later Years, Legacy, Some Descendants, Alternate spellings

Mohawk chief, born along the Ohio R in present-day Ohio, USA. As a young man, he sided with the British in their war against the French and was befriended by Sir William Johnson, who sent him to a school in Connecticut. He converted to Christianity, returned to his people as a missionary, and translated the Episcopal Prayer Book and part of the New Testament into Mohawk. During the American Revolu…

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Joseph Brodsky - In the Soviet Union, In the United States, Ideas, Quotes, Bibliography

Poet and writer, born in St Petersburg (then Leningrad), Russia. He studied in Russian secondary schools until 1956, wrote poetry, and was sentenced to a Soviet labour camp for his general refusal to conform. He was expelled from Russia (1972) and emigrated to the USA. He taught at many institutions, notably as poet-in-residence at the University of Michigan (1972). He was named Poet Laureate by t…

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Joseph Butler - Bibliography

Moral philosopher and theologian, born in Wantage, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, took orders, and was appointed preacher at the Rolls Chapel, London (1718). While holding various church appointments, he wrote his major work, The Analogy of Religion (1736), in which he argued that objections against revealed religion may also be levelled against the whole constitution of nature…

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Joseph Campbell - Life, Select works, Campbell's original voice, Influence, Controversy, Note, Bibliography of works by Campbell

Mythologist and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. A professor of literature at Sarah Lawrence College (1934–72), he entranced students with his analysis of comparative mythology, writing The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) and Masks of God (4 vols, 1959–68). Although his scholarship has been criticized, he attained the status of a virtual guru through a series of television inter…

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Joseph Chaikin

Actor and theatre director, born in New York City, USA. His early work as an actor was with the Living Theater, notably in The Connection (1960) and Man is Man (1962). In 1963 he founded The Open Theater, which for a decade produced some of the most original work in the US theatre, such as America Hurrah (1965), Terminal (1969), and Nightwalk (1973). He suffered a stroke in 1984 but went on to co-…

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Joseph Chamberlain - Early life, business career and marriage, National politics, Zenith, Decline

British statesman, born in London, UK. He entered the family business at 16, became Mayor of Birmingham (1873–5), and a Liberal MP (1876). He became President of the Board of Trade (1880), but resigned over Gladstone's Home Rule Bill (1886), which split the Liberal Party. From 1889 he was leader of the Liberal Unionists, and in the coalition government of 1895 took office as secretary for the Col…

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Joseph Conrad - Youth, Voyages, Emotional development, Novelist, Style, Novels and novellas, Short stories, Memoirs and Essays

Novelist, born in Berdichev, WC Ukraine. He joined the British merchant navy, and became a British national in 1886. He sailed to many parts of the world, married in 1896, and settled in Ashford, Kent. His first novel was Almayer's Folly (1895). His best-known works are The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), Under Western Eyes (1911), and Cha…

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Joseph Cornell - Sculpture and collage, Experimental film, Personal information, Biography

Artist, born in Nyack, New York, USA. He attended Phillips Academy in Andover, MA (1917–21), worked for his father's textile company, and after his father's death moved to Utopia Parkway, Flushing, New York City, where he spent the rest of his life. Something of a recluse, he collected ephemera, books, and objects. Often regarded as a Surrealist, he was influenced by Max Ernst's La Femme 100 Tete…

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Joseph Cotten - Biography and Career, Quote, Filmography, References

Film actor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. A member of Orson Welles Mercury Theater radio ensemble from 1937, he appeared in the Broadway production of The Philadelphia Story (1939–40), before starring in Citizen Kane (1941), The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), and Journey into Fear (1942). His many later films include Gaslight (1944), The Third Man (1949), and Heaven's Gate (1980). J…

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Joseph Devlin

Irish nationalist, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. An Ulster Catholic constitutional nationalist politician and machine boss, he became Nationalist MP for Kilkenny North (1902–6), but then captured and retained West Belfast. After the Northern Ireland settlement of 1920, he became a member in the Stormont parliament at various times for Armagh, Tyrone, Fermanagh, and Catholic Belfast. …

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Joseph Dudley - External Links

Colonial governor, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. The son of Thomas Dudley, he served as temporary governor of Massachusetts (1686), and became notorious for upholding the policies of King James II. He served as Massachusetts governor (1702–15) and came into severe conflict with the General Court. A true imperial thinker, he sought to serve the British-speaking world, n…

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Joseph Erlanger

Physiologist and administrator, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He was an instructor at Johns Hopkins (1900–6), then moved to the University of Wisconsin (1906–10), where he performed experiments on intracardiac nerve impulses. He joined Washington University (St Louis) (1910–46), where he reorganized its medical school and brought the university to scientific prominence. With former st…

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Joseph Fuchs

Violinist, born in New York City, New York, USA. A Kneisel student, he was concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra (1926–40) and thereafter pursued an active solo and teaching career. Joseph Fuchs (April 26, 1899-March 14, 1997) was one of the most important American violinists and teachers of the 20th century, and the brother of Lillian Fuchs. Born in New York, he graduated i…

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Joseph Furphy

Novelist, born near Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He worked as a farmer and a bullock-driver before moving to Shepparton, Victoria, in 1883, where he worked at the iron-foundry established by his elder brother. He contributed a series of articles to the Bulletin magazine under his pseudonym, and wrote a lengthy novel, Such is Life, which was revised, shortened, and published in 1903. His repu…

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Joseph G(urney) Cannon - Early life

US representative, born in New Garden, North Carolina, USA. A country lawyer with only six months of law school, as state's attorney in Danville, IL (1861–8) he dismissed a charge of theft against Lincoln's stepmother. A conservative Republican congressman (Illinois, 1873–91), his racy language and uncouth manners earned him his nickname. He voted against appropriations for the Civil Service Act…

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Joseph Galloway

Colonial statesman and Loyalist, born in West River, Maryland, USA. He served in the Pennsylvania assembly (1756–64, 1766–76) and was a delegate to the First Continental Congress (1774). He believed that the creation of a written constitution for the British empire would solve the existing political problems in the colonies. He joined the Loyalist camp and became the civil administrator for Phil…

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Joseph Glanvill

Philosopher and clergyman, born in Plymouth, Devon, SW England, UK. After studying at Oxford, he served as vicar of Frome (1662), rector of the Abbey Church in Bath (1666), and prebendary of Worcester (1678). He is known for The Vanity of Dogmatising (1661), in which he attacked scholastic philosophy, supported experimental science, and appealed for freedom of thought. He defended the work to the …

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Joseph Goldberger

Epidemiologist and medical researcher, born in Giralt, Hungary. He went to the USA as a child. After taking his MD at New York City's Bellevue Hospital Medical College (1895), he joined the Public Health Service (1899). He investigated the mechanisms of spread of measles, typhus, typhoid, yellow fever, and other infectious diseases. Most notably, he demonstrated that pellagra, then common in the S…

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Joseph Grimaldi

Comic actor, singer, and acrobat, born in London, UK. From 1800 until his retirement through ill health in 1828, he dominated the stage of Sadler's Wells as the figure of ‘Clown’ in the English harlequinade. Many of his innovations became distinctive characteristics of the pantomime clown, or ‘Joey’. His Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi (1838) was edited by Charles Dickens. Joseph Grimaldi (D…

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Joseph H(odges) Choate

Lawyer and diplomat, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. President of many clubs and cultural organizations in New York, he argued landmark anti-trust, libel, admiralty, and income tax cases over a 55-year legal career. He achieved major success as ambassador to Britain (1899–1905) and as a leader at the Second Hague Conference (1907). Joseph Hodges Choate (January 24, 1832 - 1917), was an …

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Joseph Heller - Biography, Works, Trivia

Novelist, born in New York City, USA. He served in the US Army Air Force in World War 2, and studied at New York, Columbia, and Oxford universities. His wartime experience formed the background for his first book, Catch 22 (1961), which launched him as a successful novelist. The anti-war plot centred on the view that US airmen on dangerous combat missions must be considered insane, but if they see…

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Joseph Henri Maurice Richard - Overview, History, Net thrust, Accidents

Ice hockey player, born in Montreal, Quebec, SE Canada. He joined the Montreal Canadians in 1942, and in 1944–5 made a record total score of 50 goals in 50 games. He won the Hart Trophy in 1947. His fierce competitiveness brought him a great following and, after an incident in March 1955 which caused his suspension for the rest of the year, there was violence and rioting on the streets. He retire…

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Joseph Henry - Early years, The Albany Academy, Influences in Aeronautics, Influences in Room Acoustics, Career, Further reading

Physicist, born in Albany, New York, USA. He worked as a tutor, then as a surveyor (1825–6) before becoming a professor at his alma mater, Albany Academy (1826–32). He began research on electromagnetism (1827), constructed the first electromagnetic motor (1829), and discovered electrical induction independent of English physicist Michael Faraday. The henry unit of inductance is named after him. …

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Joseph Henry Shorthouse

Novelist, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He was a Quaker who converted to the Church of England, and his major work, a philosophical romance entitled John Inglesant (1881), revealed an insight into religious conflicts. His other works include The Little Schoolmaster Mark (1883–4), Sir Percival (1886), A Teacher of the Violin (1888), and Blanche, Lady Falaise (1891). Jose…

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Joseph Hergesheimer - Works

Writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the Pennnsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. After a trip to Italy, he settled in West Chester, PA and wrote a series of novels, notably Java Head (1919). He continued to write, but his mannered prose was not well received. Joseph Hergesheimer (February 15, 1880 – April 25, 1954) was a prominent American writer of the early 20t…

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Joseph Hooker - Early years, Civil War, Final years and legacy

US Union soldier, born in Hadley, Massachusetts, USA. He trained at West Point (1837), served with distinction in Mexico (1846–7), and left the army in 1853 to farm in California. Recalled on the outbreak of Civil War, he led a corps at Antietam and Fredericksburg (both 1862), and succeeded Ambrose Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac (Jan 1863). He had a reputation as an aggressive c…

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Joseph Howe - Political career, Confederation Debate, Railway Promotion, Trivia

Canadian statesman, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, SE Canada. Proprietor and editor of the Halifax Nova Scotian, he became chief commissioner of railways for Nova Scotia (1854), then premier of the province (1863–1870). After federation he entered the first Canadian government at Ottawa as President of the Council, then as secretary of state. Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1…

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Joseph Hume - Medical career, Political career, Political campaigns, Legacy

British radical politician, born in Montrose, Angus, E Scotland, UK. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University, and in 1797 became assistant surgeon under the East India Company. After returning to England (1808), he sat in parliament (1812, 1819–55), where his arguments for reform included the legalizing of trade unions, freedom of trade with India, and the abolition of army flogging, naval im…

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Joseph Jackson Lister

Wine merchant and amateur microscopist, born in London, UK. A wine merchant with an interest in optics, he developed a method of building lens systems to greatly reduce chromatic and spherical aberrations. In 1826 James Smith (d.1870) built a much improved microscope to Lister's design, and this was used a year later to produce the first competent article on histology. Lister was elected a fellow …

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Joseph Jefferson - Publications

Actor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Third in a line of that name, he was part of an old theatre family. Following his debut at age three mimicking Thomas D Rice, singer of ‘Jim Crow’, he had a career that spanned 71 years. He became America's pre-eminent comedian, describing his own profile as ‘pure nutcracker type’. In 1856 he visited Europe, then returned to join Laura Keene's co…

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Joseph Jefferson Jackson - Black Sox scandal, Quotations, Books

Baseball player, born in Brandon Mills, South Carolina, USA. During his 13-year career as an outfielder (1908–20), mostly with the Cleveland Indians and Chicago White Sox, he posted a lifetime batting average of ·356, third highest in major league history, before being banned from baseball (1921) for his involvement in the 1919 ‘Black Sox’ scandal. Along with seven other White Sox players, he …

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Joseph Jenkins Roberts

First president of Liberia, born in Petersburg, Virginia, USA. Of mixed black and white heritage, he emigrated to Liberia with his widowed mother and three brothers in 1829. He became a successful merchant and caught the eye of Liberia's white governor, who appointed Roberts as his successor. The first African-American governor of Liberia, he went on to become the first president of the new countr…

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Joseph Jongen

Composer, born in Liège, E Belgium. He studied at the Liège Conservatory, and in Italy, France, and Germany. He won the Belgian Prix de Rome, and was professor at Liège Conservatoire until the outbreak of World War 1, when he went to England. He became director of the Brussels Conservatoire (1920–39). He composed piano, violin, and organ works, the symphonic poem Lalla Roukh, an opera, and a b…

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Joseph Justus Scaliger

Scholar, born in Agen, SW France, the son of Julius Caesar Scaliger. He studied in Paris, became a Protestant, and travelled widely in Europe, becoming professor at Leyden in 1593. One of the most erudite scholars of his day, a classical linguist and historian, he is best known for his Opus de emendatione temporum (1583), a study of earlier methods of calculating time. Joseph Justus Scalige…

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Joseph Kent - Early life and career, Governor of Maryland, United States Senate and later life

US representative, governor, and senator, born in Calverty Co, Maryland, USA. A congressman (Federalist, Maryland, 1811–15, 1819–26), then Republican governor (1826–9), and senator (1833–7), he raised money for the Chesapeake and Ohio canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Joseph Kent (January 14, 1779 – November 24, 1837), a Whig, was a United States Senator from Maryland, servin…

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Joseph Kessel - Bibliography includes

French journalist, reporter, and traveller, born in Clara, E Argentina. He wrote 75 novels of war, passion, and adventure, of which Le Lion (1958) is the most famous. Others include L'Equipage (1923), Les Rois Avengles (1925), Belle de Jour (1928), L'Armée des ombres (1946), Tous n'étaient pas des Anges (1953), and the best-selling Les Cavaliers (1967). Joseph Kessel (born on February 10,…

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Joseph Kosma

Composer, born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied at the Académie Liszt and became chief assistant in the Budapest Opera. He settled in Paris (1933), where he composed ballet music and opera music, such as La révolte des Canuts (1964), and music for the cinema. Les Enfants du Paradis (1945) assured his success, followed by La Bête Humaine. He also wrote songs both popular and serious based on tex…

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Joseph Lancaster

Educator and Quaker, born in London, UK. In 1798 he opened a school in London based on a monitorial system, in which the more able children taught the less able. This led to the founding of the Lancasterian method, popular in Europe and, later, North America. The Royal Lancasterian Society was formed in 1808, but Lancaster severed his connections in 1818. He was welcomed in the USA, where he found…

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Joseph Lane

US governor and legislator, born in Buncombe Co, North Carolina, USA. A farmer and merchant in Indiana, he emerged a hero from the Mexican War and was appointed first territorial governor of Oregon (1848–50). He was a member of the House of Representatives (Democrat, Oregon, 1851–9) and the Senate (1859–61). In 1860 he ran for vice-president as a Democratic that favoured secession, thus ending …

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Joseph Leidy

Zoologist, palaeontologist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a trained medical doctor and professor of anatomy at the University of Pennsylvania (1853–91). A scientist of unusual range, he published a classic anatomical text and important works on parasitology and protozoa. In addition he is regarded (along with Edward Drinker Cope and O C Marsh) as a founder of American vertebrate…

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Joseph Liouville - Other topics

Mathematician, born in St Omer, N France. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, where he trained as an engineer. He taught at the Ecole Polytechnique, the Collége de France, and the University of Paris. In 1836 he founded the Journal de Mathématiques, which he edited for nearly 40 years. His work in analysis continued the study of algebraic function theory …

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Joseph Locke

Civil engineer, born in Attercliffe, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He left school at the age of 13, became articled to George Stephenson in 1823, and began to learn the art of railway civil engineering. After almost 10 years he broke away, and built a large number of important railways in England, Scotland, and Europe. His lines were noted for being straight, and he avoided expensive tunnelling,…

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac - Biography, Achievements, Academic lineage, Literature

Chemist and physicist, born in St Léonard, C France. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, and became assistant to Berthollet (1801). He began a series of investigations into gases, temperature, and the behaviour of vapours. He made hydrogen-filled- balloon ascents to 7000 m/23 000 ft (1804) to study the laws of terrestrial magnetism and to collect samples of air for analysis, which …

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Joseph Marie Jacquard

Silk-weaver, born in Lyon, SC France. His invention (1801–8) of the Jacquard loom, controlled by punched cards, enabled an ordinary workman to produce the most beautiful patterns in a style previously accomplished only with patience, skill, and labour. But though Napoleon rewarded him with a small pension and the Légion d'Honneur, the silk weavers were long opposed to his machine. At his death h…

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Joseph McKenna

Judge, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He served the California state legislature (1875–6) and the US House of Representatives (1884–92), resigning to accept a federal judgeship. He served as US attorney general (1897) and was appointed by President William McKinley to the US Supreme Court (1898–1925). Joseph McKenna (August 10, 1843–November 21, 1926) was an American …

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Joseph Medill

Publisher and editor, born in New Brunswick, Canada. Raised mainly in Ohio and partially self-taught, he became a lawyer, bought and ran two newspapers, and in 1855 acquired part interest in the Chicago Tribune, with which he was associated as owner and editor for most of his later years. He built it into a highly professional, influential, and successful newspaper, though markedly illiberal (one …

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Joseph Medill Patterson

Newspaper publisher, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Sharing ownership and control of the Chicago Tribune with his cousin, Robert McCormick, he co-founded the Illustrated Daily News (later the New York Daily News) with him in 1919. In 1925 he moved to New York to assume management of that newspaper, the first of the sensationalist mass-audience tabloids. Joseph Medill Patterson (January 6, …

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Joseph Needham - Early career, China

Historian of science, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he taught (1924–66), becoming Master of Gonville and Caius College (1966–76) and director of the Needham Research Institute (1976–90). He trained as a biochemist, and published a pioneering History of Embryology (1934) before developing a consuming interest in the Chinese tradition of science, technology, and medicine. His…

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Joseph Parry

Musician, born in Merthyr Tydfil, S Wales, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music, London, and became professor at University College, Cardiff. He composed oratorios, operas, and songs, and became one of the leading hymn-writers in the Welsh tradition, his best-known hymn tune being ‘Aberystwyth’. Joseph Parry (May 21, 1841 — February 17, 1903), was a Welsh composer and musician. …

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Joseph Pennell

Lithographer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1878–80), moved to London (1884), and settled in New York City (1922) to teach at the Art Students League. Highly admired for his book illustrations, he is also known for his publications Lithography and Lithographers (1900) and an authorized biography of Whistler (1908). Joseph …

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Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

Physician and botanist, born in Aix-en-Provence, SE France. He travelled in Greece and Turkey with the artist Claude Aubriet, and became professor at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris (1688–1708). His definitions of the genera of plants were of fundamental importance to Linnaeus, who rejected his general classification in favour of one based on the number of the sexual parts of the flower. J…

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Joseph Priestley - Warrington, Leeds, Birmingham, London and USA, Honours and extras

Chemist and clergyman, born in Fieldhead, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. In 1755 he became a Presbyterian minister, and after moving to Leeds in 1767 took up the study of chemistry. He is best known for his research into the chemistry of gases, and for his discovery of oxygen (1774). He also wrote an English grammar and books on education and politics. His controversial views on religion and polit…

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Joseph Pulitzer

Publisher, born in Mako, Hungary. Arriving in the USA in 1864 to fight in the Union army, he then won such prominence as a reporter for a German-language daily paper in St Louis, MO that he was nominated and elected to the state legislature at age 22. After studying law and joining the bar, he turned again to journalism, acquiring the St Louis Dispatch and merging it with the Post. The resulting c…

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Joseph R(ucker) Lamar

Judge, born in Elbert Co, Georgia, USA. He served on the Georgia state legislature (1886–9) and on the state supreme court (1904–6) before his appointment to the US Supreme Court (1911–16) by President Taft. Joseph Rucker Lamar (October 15, 1857 – January 2, 1916) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court appointed by President William Howard Taft. From 18…

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Joseph Roswell Hawley - Early life and career, Civil War, Postbellum

Journalist, soldier, and US representative and senator, born in Stewartsville, North Carolina, USA. An abolitionist and founder of the Republican Party in Connecticut, he edited the Hartford Evening Press (1857–61). During the Civil War he attained the rank of major-general in the Union army. He served as governor of Connecticut (1866–7) and then as editor of the Hartford Courant (1867). He went…

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Joseph Roth - Works

Novelist, short-story writer, and critic, born in Brody, Ukraine (formerly Austria–Hungary). He studied German literature at Lemberg and Vienna before volunteering for active service in the Austrian army in World War 1. He wrote for various newspapers after the War, notably the Frankfurter Zeitung, for which he travelled extensively. His writing was influenced by both French and Russian Realism, …

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Joseph Rowntree

Quaker industrialist and reformer, born in York, North Yorkshire, N England, UK, the son of Joseph Rowntree, a Quaker grocer. With his brother, Henry Isaac (d.1883), he became a partner in a cocoa manufacturing firm in York in 1869, and built up welfare organizations for his employees. He founded the Rowntree Foundation, a Quaker charity, which funds a wide range of charities and worthy causes. …

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Joseph Saidu Momoh - Biography

Sierra Leonese soldier, politician, and president (1985–92) of Sierra Leone, born in Binkolo, Sierra Leone. He was trained at military schools in Ghana, Britain, and Nigeria, before being commissioned in the Sierra Leone army in 1963, rising to army commander with the rank of major-general (1983). In 1985, when the president, Siaka Stevens, announced his retirement, Momoh was endorsed by Sierra L…

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Joseph Saxton

Inventor, born in Huntington, Pennsylvania, USA. A banker's son, he learned the watchmaker's trade and made a clock for the belfry of Independence Hall in Philadelphia. As an official of the US Mint (1837–43), he designed and built the balances used to verify standard weights, and became superintendent of weights and measures for the US Coast Survey (1843–73). Among other inventions, he patented…

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Joseph Schillinger

Composer and theorist, born in Kharkov, Russia. He began his career in Russia and went to the USA in 1928. His mathematically-based composition system attracted many students, including Gershwin. Schillinger came to the United States of America in 1928 and received his citizenship in 1936. In his short life Joseph Schillinger achieved a very great deal in the area of music and c…

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Joseph Smith

Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons), born in Sharon, Vermont, USA. He received his first ‘call’ as a prophet at Manchester, New York, in 1820. Later he was told of a sacred religious record on golden plates, with two stones which should help to translate it, and in 1827 this was delivered into his hands. In the Book of Mormon (1830), Christ is said to have ap…

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Joseph Stalin - Introduction, Childhood and early years, Marriages and family, Rise to power

Georgian Marxist revolutionary and later virtual dictator of the USSR (1928–53), born in Gori, C Georgia, the son of a cobbler and ex-serf. He studied at Tiflis Orthodox Theological Seminary, from which he was expelled in 1899. After joining a Georgian Social Democratic organization (1898), he became active in the revolutionary underground, and was twice exiled to Siberia (1902, 1913). As a leadi…

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Joseph Stella

Painter, born in Muro Lucano, Italy. The uncle of Frank Stella, he emigrated to New York City (1896), studied at the New York School of Art under William Merritt Chase (1898), and was an illustrator for many periodicals. He travelled to Europe (1910–12) and was influenced by the Italian futurists, who stressed a dynamic and kinetic approach to art. He returned to New York (1913), travelled freque…

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Joseph Story

Jurist, born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, and was admitted to the bar. Elected to the state legislature in 1805, he became a leader of the Republican Party, and entered Congress in 1808. He became a justice of the Supreme Court (1811–45) and wrote and delivered the decision of the Supreme Court in the famous slavery case United States v. The Amistad (1841). The court …

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Joseph Sturge

Quaker philanthropist and reformer, born in Elberton, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. A prosperous grain merchant in Birmingham, he became a prominent campaigner against slavery in the British West Indies, which he helped to abolish in 1837. In 1841 he toured the US slave states with John Greenleaf Whittier, and later campaigned for the repeal of the Corn Laws, the extension of adult suffrage, a…

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Joseph Taylor Robinson

US senator, born near Lonoke, Arkansas, USA. After serving in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Arkansas, 1903–12), he was elected governor, but resigned after serving a few weeks to fill an expired term in the US Senate (1913–37). He was Senate minority leader (1923–33) and majority leader thereafter, and was Al Smith's vice-presidential running mate in 1928. In the Senate he supporte…

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Joseph Urban

Architect and set designer, born in Vienna, Austria. Pursuing a successful career in Europe as an architect, interior designer, and stage designer, he first went to the USA as designer of the Austrian pavilion at the St Louis Exposition (1904). In 1911 he returned to settle in the USA, first working for the Boston Opera Company, then moving to New York to design sets for the Ziegfield Follies (191…

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Joseph Viktor von Scheffel

Poet and novelist, born in Karlsruhe, SW Germany. His career included a spell as court counsellor in Saxony. His poems, verse epics, and prose, romantic-nationalist in tone, were great favourites with the educated middle classses at the end of the 19th-c, particularly the mediaeval novel Ekkehard (1855) and the verse epic Der Trompeter von Säckingen (1854), although now regarded as over-sentiment…

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Joseph von Fraunhofer

Physicist, born in Straubing, SE Germany. In 1807 he founded an optical institute at Munich, where he improved prisms and telescopes, enabling him to discover the dark lines in the Sun's spectrum which have been named after him. He also pioneered the use of diffraction gratings to examine spectra. In 1823 he became professor and academician at Munich. Joseph von Fraunhofer (March 6, 1787

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Joseph Ward - Early life, Early political career, First premiership, Leader of the Opposition, Second premiership, Trivia

Minister and educator, born in Perry Center, New York, USA. He studied at Andover Theological Seminary (1868). Known as the ‘Father of Congregationalism’ in Dakota Territory, he founded Yankton Academy (1872), which became Yankton College (1881), the first college in the upper Mississippi R valley. He was president of the college (1881–9) and is credited with establishing the public education s…

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Joseph Warren

Physician and Revolutionary patriot, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. Meeting John Adams while inoculating him for smallpox, he turned revolutionary, making a number of anti-British speeches at Faneuil Hall, writing articles, and mediating for removal of troops after the Boston Massacre (1770). One of three chosen to write a report on colonists' rights (1772), he dispatche…

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Joseph Weldon Bailey

US representative and senator, born near Crystal Springs, Mississippi, USA. Elected to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Texas, 1891–1901) and to the US Senate (1901–13), he successfully weathered accusations of wrongdoing in an oil company scandal that arose from his work on behalf of the Hepburn Rate Bill of 1906. Joseph Weldon Bailey (October 6, 1862 – April 13, 1929) was an…

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Joseph Wheeler - Early life, Civil War, Spanish-American War, Later life

Confederate soldier, born in Augusta, Georgia, USA. His cavalry was practically the sole organized Confederate force that contested Sherman's March to the Sea (1864). He represented Alabama in Congress (1884–1900), and was appointed to command a volunteer division (1898) and saw action against the Spanish in Cuba. Although of New England ancestry, Wheeler was born near Augusta, Georgia. …

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Joseph Wirth - First Cabinet, May - October 1921, Second Cabinet, October 1921 - November 1922

German politician, born in Freiburg im Breisgau, SW Germany. A member of the Reichstag (1914–18, 1920–33), he was appointed finance minister of Baden after the November revolution of 1918. He became Reich finance minister (1920–1) and chancellor (1921–2), and led the left wing of the Catholic Zentrum party. Reich minister for home affairs (Reichsinnenminister), he later emigrated to Switzerlan…

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Joseph Wood Krutch - Works

Writer, critic, and naturalist, born in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. He graduated from the University of Tennessee and received a PhD in English from Columbia University (1923). He was drama critic for The Nation (1924–52), and taught at Columbia (1937–52), publishing critical studies of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau. His Measure of Man won a National Book Award in 1954.…

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Josephine (Frey) Herbst - Works

Writer, born in Sioux City, Iowa, USA. From a poor family, she worked at odd jobs as she went from college to college, finally gaining her BA from the University of California, Berkeley (1918). She moved to New York City and fell in with the literary set, had an affair with Maxwell Anderson, and then went off to Berlin and Paris to write. She returned to the USA (1924) with the writer, John Herman…

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Josephine Baker - Early life, Rise to fame, Civil rights involvement, Death, Marriages and relationships, Quotes, Pop culture

Dancer and entertainer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. An amateur singer and dancer, she made her Broadway debut in Shuffle Along (1921). In 1925 she went to Paris with a show called La Revue Nègre, but the show failed, and she and many cast members were stranded there. Hired to appear in an all-black act at the Folies Bergère, she became an instant success with her scanty costume, lively danc…

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Josephine Culbertson - Places named Murphy

Authority on bridge, born in New York City, New York, USA. The first woman to play on a Vanderbilt Cup-winning team (1931), she convinced her then-husband and partner Ely Culbertson to concentrate on bridge, and helped him devise the dominant Culbertson bidding system. In 1922–30 she was reputedly the world's highest-paid bridge teacher. …

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Josephine Elizabeth Butler

Social reformer, born in Milfield, Northumberland, NE England, UK. She promoted women's education and successfully crusaded against licensed brothels and the white-slave traffic. She wrote Personal Reminiscences of a Great Crusade (1896). Two colors are called complementary colors if grey is produced when two colors are combined. Consequently, grey remains grey when its color spectrum is in…

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Josephine Lowell - First name, Last name, Companies, Places, Other

Charitable worker, born in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, USA. The sister of Robert Gould Shaw, she was influenced by her family's progressive leanings. She raised funds for freedmen's welfare after the Civil War, in which she was widowed, and reported on social conditions for the New York Charities Aid Association. Her treatise, Public Relief and Charity (1884), reflected a belief that low wages we…

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Josephus Daniels - Early Life and Career, News and Observer, Secretary of the Navy, Later Life, Bibliography

Newspaper editor, politician, and public official, born in Washington, North Carolina, USA. Prominent progressive Democratic editor of the Raleigh News and Observer, he instituted reforms as secretary of the navy (1913–21) and was ambassador to Mexico (1933–41). Josephus Daniels (18 May 1862–15 January 1948) was an American politician and newspaper publisher from North Carolina, who ser…

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Josh Gibson - Baseball Career and Statistics, Trivia

Baseball player, born in Buena Vista, Georgia, USA. A legendary hitter, he was barred from major-league baseball because he was an African-American, and could play only in the Negro National League. Playing for the Pittsburgh Homestead Grays and the Pittsburgh Crawfords, it is estimated that he hit more than 950 home runs in his career. In 1972 he was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame.…

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Joshua - Hebrew Name, Biblical account of his life, In rabbinical literature, In later literature

In the Old Testament, the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, who during the 40 years' wanderings of the Israelites acted as ‘minister’ or personal attendant of Moses, and upon Moses' death was appointed to lead the people into Canaan. The Book of Joshua is a narrative of the conquest and settlement of Canaan under his leadership. Josue or Yehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian…

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Joshua (Lawrence) Chamberlain - Early life, Civil War service, Post-war career, Command history, In popular media

US soldier and educator, born in Brewer, Maine, USA. The defender of Little Round Top at Gettysburg (2 Jul 1863), he commanded the force that accepted the formal surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia (Apr 1865). He served as governor of Maine (1866–71) and was president of Bowdoin College (1871–83). Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (September 8, 1828 – February 24, 1914) was a college p…

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Joshua (Lockwood III) Logan

Director and playwright, born in Texarkana, Texas, USA. He studied at Princeton, and in the late 1920s organized a summer stock company on Cape Cod that launched the careers of actors such as James Stewart and Henry Fonda. He then studied at the Moscow Art Theater under Constantin Stanislavsky, and began to direct and act on Broadway, as well as working on Hollywood films. His schedule led to a ne…

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Joshua (Mqabuko Nyongolo) Nkomo - Early life, Armed struggle, Politics

Zimbabwean statesman, born in Semokwe, Zimbabwe. Educated mainly in South Africa, he became a member of the African National Congress in 1952, and president of the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) in 1961. There followed a long period during which he was placed under government restrictions, but in 1976 he formed the Popular Front with Robert Mugabe to press for black majority rule in an ind…

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Joshua Barney

American naval officer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He served with distinction in the American Revolution, and was three times captured and imprisoned. His management of the flotilla in the Chesapeake Bay and his conduct at the battle of Bladensburg (1814) were outstanding events during the War of 1812. Joshua Barney (6 July 1759 - 1 December 1818) was a commodore in the United States…

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Joshua Humphreys

Shipbuilder and naval architect, born in Delaware Co, Pennsylvania, USA. Congress named him to refit eight merchant vessels as the first Continental naval vessels (1775). He was the first naval constructor (1794–1801), and designed five of the first six United States frigates. He personally supervised the building of the USS United States, launched in 1797. Joshua Humphreys (June 17, 1751 …

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Joshua Lederberg - Early life and education, Bacterial genetics, Post Nobel Prize research

Geneticist, born in Montclair, New Jersey, USA. He joined the University of Wisconsin (1947–58), moved to Stanford (1959–78), and then became president of Rockefeller University (1978–90), where he remained as a professor. He shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work as Edward Tatum's graduate student at Yale (1944–7), where he discovered that bacteria can reproduce s…

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Joshua Rifkin

Musicologist, pianist, and conductor, born in New York City, New York, USA. After studies in the USA and Germany, he taught at Brandeis (1970–82) and pursued a range of activities from early music scholarship and performance to arranging popular music. As a pianist he was a leading figure in the Scott Joplin ragtime revival. Joshua Rifkin (born April 22, 1944 in New York) is an American co…

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Joshua Slocum - Early life, A life on the sea, First solo circumnavigation, Disappearance, A continuing inspiration

Mariner, adventurer, and writer, born in Wilmot Township, Nova Scotia, Canada. His family was of Loyalist descent, and he went to sea as a cook and sailed in the Pacific Ocean. He became a naturalized American citizen and married twice (an Australian and an American). He built an 80-ton steamer in the Philippines (1874) and was prosperous until 1886. After being wrecked off Brazil (1887), with his…

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Joshua Vaughan Himes

Protestant religious leader, born in North Kingstown, Rhode Island, USA. He worked as a cabinetmaker before joining the ministry of the Christian Church (1827). In 1839 he fell under the spell of William Miller, who predicted the imminent Second Coming of Christ, and he became chief publicist for the Seventh Day Adventist movement. Disappointed by the failure of Miller's prophecy, Himes migrated w…

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Josiah - Judah's condition at his accession, Deuteronomic reform, Assertion of control over Israel

Biblical character, king of Judah (c.639–609 BC), a favourite of the Deuteronomistic historians because of his religious reforms (2 Kings 22–3, 2 Chron 34–5), allegedly based on the discovery of ‘the book of the law’ in the 18th year of his reign. He is credited with destroying pagan cults and attempting to centralize worship in Jerusalem and the Temple. He died in battle against the Egyptian…

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Josiah (Bushnell) Grinnell

Abolitionist and clergyman, born in New Haven, Vermont, USA. A self-described pioneer, farmer, and radical, he did much to build Iowa agriculturally and through introduction of the railroads, and was a leading abolitionist. After being forced from his Congregational pulpit in Washington, DC, for delivering anti-slavery sermons, he followed the advice of his friend Horace Greeley to ‘go West’. Mo…

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Josiah (Edward) Spurr - Books

Geologist, born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, USA. He was mining engineer to the Sultan of Turkey (1901), geologist in the US geological survey (1902), and eventually professor of geology at Rollins College (1930–2). As a result of his work, the age of the Tertiary period has been estimated at 45 to 60 million years. His explorations in Alaska (1896, 1898) were commemorated by the naming of Mt Sp…

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Josiah Bartlett - Personal life, Political career, Continental Congress, Later career, As Governor, Medical career, Later life, In fiction

Physician and US governor, born in Amesbury, Massachusetts, USA. A self-taught physician in Kingston, NH (1750–79), he reformed medical diagnosis and treatment. A member of the Continental Congress (1775–6, 1778–9), he signed the Declaration of Independence, afterwards serving as common pleas judge. Chief justice of the state superior court (1788–90), he was New Hampshire's first governor (179…

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Josiah Gilbert Holland

Writer and editor, born in Belchertown, Massachusetts, USA. Although he graduated from the Berkshire Medical College (1844), he left medicine first for teaching and then for publishing. He spent most of his career as an editor at the Springfield Republican (Massachusetts), where he worked under Samuel Bowles, son of the founder-publisher of the same name. He worked full-time at the Republican (184…

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Josiah Gorgas

US soldier, born in Dauphin Co, Pennsylvania, USA. While in command of the US arsenal near Mobile, AL, he married a local girl. Meanwhile, he had come to loathe abolitionists, and with the secession he resigned his commission and joined the Confederate army as chief of ordnance. He set up a series of arsenals, and organized the production of arms and ammunition so that Confederate forces were amaz…

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Josiah Gregg

Trader and writer, born in Overton Co, Tennessee, USA. He made frequent journeys along the Santa Fe Trail (1831–41) and wrote a frontier classic, Commerce of the Prairies (1844). He served in the Mexican War and died of exposure after crossing the Coast Range of California. …

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Josiah Harmar - References and links

US soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Quaker-educated, he fought under Washington (1778–80) and on the southern front (1781–3) during the American Revolution. From 1784–91 he headed the new nation's one-regiment military establishment. His 1790 expedition against Indians in Ohio was a notable failure, and he resigned (1792) and served as the Pennsylvania adjutant general (1793–9…

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Josiah Henson - The Henson Cabin

Social activist and minister, born in Charles Co, Maryland, USA. He was sold at auction at an early age and endured great hardships in slavery, but became a land superintendent and a Methodist preacher while still in slavery. He and his family escaped N to Canada (1830) and settled in Ontario, where he tried to develop a community for African-American escapees. It failed to attract a significant n…

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Josiah Hornblower - Engineering career, Before the revolution, Political career, Later life

Inventor and public official, born in Staffordshire, C England, UK. Hired by Colonel John Schuyler, he emigrated to New Jersey (1753), bringing engine parts that were later assembled into the first steam engine in America (1755), which was used to pump water from a copper mine. He was a member of the New Jersey legislature (1779–81), the Continental Congress (1785–6), and judge of the Essex Coun…

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Josiah Latimer Clark

Electrical engineer, born in Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. In 1854 he patented a pneumatic delivery tube, and made important inventions in connection with submarine cables. He also invented a single-lens stereo-camera. Josiah Latimer Clark (March 10, 1822 - October 30, 1898), English electrical engineer, born in Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire. His first interest …

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Josiah Meigs

Lawyer, educator, and public official, born in Middletown, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale (1778) and returned there as a tutor (1781–4), meanwhile helping to launch and edit the New Haven Gazette (1784–8), which published the ‘Hartford Wits’. Admitted to the bar (1783), he practised law in Bermuda for several years before becoming professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Yale (…

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Josiah Royce - Ideas, Trivia

Philosopher, born in Grass Valley, California, USA. He trained as an engineer, then switched to philosophy, studying in Germany and at Johns Hopkins University (under Peirce). He taught philosophy at Harvard from 1882. Much influenced by Hegel, he developed a philosophy of Idealism, emphasizing the importance of the individual in Religious Aspects of Philosophy (1885) and The World and the Individ…

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Josiah Spode

Potter, born in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, C England, UK. After working as a china retailer in London, he inherited the pottery founded c.1770 by his father, Josiah Spode (1733–97). The business flourished under his direction, and was renowned for transfer-printed earthenware, stoneware, and superbly decorated bone-china. In 1806 he was appointed potter to the Prince of Wales. In 1833 the fac…

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Josiah Strong - Primary sources, Secondary Scholarly Sources

Protestant religious leader, born in Napierville, Illinois, USA. A graduate of Western Reserve College (1869), he was ordained in 1871 and held several pastorates before writing the highly influential Our Country (1885), in which he proposed religious solutions for social and economic problems. He developed his Social Gospel themes in the New Era (1893). He founded the League for Social Service in…

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Josiah Wedgwood - Biography

Potter, born in Burslem, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He worked in the family pottery business, became a partner of Thomas Whieldon in 1754, and began to devise improved wares. In 1759 he opened a factory at Burslem, and a decade later opened one near Hanley, which he called ‘Etruria’. Inspired by antique models, he invented unglazed black basalt ware and blue jasper ware with raised designs in…

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Jotunheimen

Highest range of mountains in Europe, SC Norway; extends c.112 km/70 mi between Sogne Fjord and the upper Gudbrandsdal; more than 250 peaks over 1900 m/6200 ft, and over 60 glaciers; rises to 2470 m/8104 ft at Glittertind; many associations with folk legends and the scene of Ibsen's Peer Gynt. Jotunheimen is a mountain range in southern Norway covering an area of roughly 3,500 km². T…

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joule

SI unit of energy, work done, and quantity of heat; symbol J; named after James Joule; defined as the work done by a force of 1 newton applied over a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force. …

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journalism - Reporting, Variations of journalism, Role of journalism in society, Professional and ethical standards, Legal status

The practice and profession of producing material of current interest for the press, broadcasting, and the Internet. Originally limited to the written word (print journalism), but now extended to the spoken word on radio and television (broadcast journalism) and pictures (photojournalism), the term applies to the collecting, working up, and editing of material, especially news. Journalism has its …

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Jovian - Rise to power, Rule

Roman emperor (363–4), appointed by the army in Mesopotamia on Julian's death in battle. He was immediately forced to make a humiliating peace with Shapur II, ceding great tracts of Roman territory to Sassanian Persia, and agreeing to pay a subsidy. Flavius Claudius Iovianus, anglicized as Jovian, (c. 332 - February 17, 364) was a soldier elected Roman Emperor by the army on June 26, 363 u…

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Joy (Friedericke Victoria) Adamson - Trivia, Books

Naturalist and writer, born in Austria. Living in Kenya with her third husband, British game warden George Adamson (1906–89), she studied and painted wildlife, and made her name with a series of books about the lioness Elsa: Born Free (1960), Elsa (1961), Forever Free (1962), and Elsa and Her Cubs (1965). She was murdered in her home by tribesmen. Joy Adamson (January 20, 1910 – January …

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Joy Batchelor - Partial Director Filmography

Animated-cartoon producer, born in Watford, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. A fashion artist for Harper's Bazaar, she tried her hand at animation with Robin Hood (1935), and in 1941 married fellow-producer John Halas, to form the Halas–Batchelor animation unit. They made the first British feature-length cartoon, Handling Ships, in 1945, and the Charley series (1947). Other films included Orwell's …

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Joyce (Irene Phipps) Grenfell - Early life, Career, Death and after, Filmography

Entertainer, born in London, UK. She made her debut in The Little Revue in 1939 and, after touring hospitals with concert parties during World War 2, appeared in revue until the early 1950s, delivering comic monologues. She later appeared in her own one-woman shows, such as Joyce Grenfell Requests the Pleasure. Her monologues exploited the foibles and manners of middle-class schoolmistresses and a…

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Joyce Brothers

Psychologist and television and radio personality, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied psychology at Columbia University (1953, PhD). She memorized volumes of information on boxing and then appeared on the $64 000 Question (1955) and the $64 000 Challenge (1956), which gained her considerable publicity - a female intellectual who knew all about boxing! She soon had her own Dr Joyce…

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Joyce Carol Oates - Background and education, Select awards and honors, Bibliography, Quotes

Writer, born in Lockport, New York, USA. She studied at Syracuse University and at the University of Wisconsin, taught English at Detroit (1961–7), then became professor of English at Windsor, Ontario. Her first novel was With Shuddering Fall (1964), and Them (1969), her fourth novel, won a National Book Award. Later books include Marya: A Life (1986), We Were the Mulvaneys (1996), Broke Heart Bl…

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joystick - Technical details, History, Assistive Technology

A computer peripheral, similar to a mouse, which controls the movement of a cursor on a visual display terminal. Like the joystick of an aeroplane, it can indicate movement in any direction. A joystick is a personal computer peripheral or general control device consisting of a handheld stick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer. Mo…

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Angel Jr Cordero

Jockey, born in San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA. He began his career as a groom at the El Commondante racetrack. During his career he broke many records and was the only jockey to win more than $5 million per season six times. In 1982 he won four stakes in three days at three tracks separated by 3000 miles, and also won the Eclipse Award. In 1983 he was the fourth jockey to have more than 5000 career v…

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Edward Glenn Jr Roberts

Stock-car racing driving, born in Apopka, Florida, USA. At his death, he was the all-time stock-car money winner. He died from burns suffered in a racing crash in 1964. Fireball is often used in reference to any large explosion or burst of fire. Fireball can also refer to: In science: In games: In engineering: In fiction: …

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Burt(on Leon Jr) Reynolds

Actor and director, born in Lansing, Michigan, USA. He studied at Florida State University (1958) where he excelled in sports, but a promising career in football ended after he sustained a knee injury in a car accident. He then quit college and headed to New York to try his luck at acting. After a string of small television and film parts, he gained recognition with his role in the 1972 film Deliv…

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Juan Antonio Samaranch - Biography, IOC Presidency, Succession, Family

Sports administrator, born in Barcelona, NE Spain. He became a member of the 1956 Spanish Olympic Committee and later a member of the 1966 International Olympic Committee (IOC). In 1973 he was elected president of the Diputación de Barcelona and president of La Caixa in 1987. In 1980 he succeeded Lord Killanin as seventh president of the International Olympic Committee. He was responsible for int…

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Juan Bautista Diamante

A prolific minor Spanish playwright of the school of Calderón, whose mother was a madrileña and whose father a Sicilian of Greek parentage. He killed a man during his turbulent youth, but was freed when his father gave the man's widow 400 ducats. His admission to the Order of St John of Jerusalem did not curb his wildness. He wrote several zarzuelas and other light pieces for the courts of Felip…

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Juan de la Cierva

Aeronautical engineer, born in Murcia, SE Spain. He trained as a civil engineer but became interested in flying, and designed and built a number of gliders and aircraft (1912–19). Following the crash of one of his planes, he developed the autogiro, an aircraft with a freely rotating rotor which provides lift, achieving the first successful flight in 1923. During the Spanish Civil War, De l…

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Juan de la Cueva

Poet and playwright, born in Seville, SW Spain. He is known especially for his use of new metrical forms and his introduction of historical material into drama. The most famous of his 14 plays is the comedy El Infamador (The Scoundrel, 1581) Juan de la Cueva (born 1550 in Seville; His plays, fourteen in number, were published in 1588, and are the earliest manifestations of the dramatic meth…

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Juan de los - Characters, Connections to Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Collected editions, Links

Mystical writer, born in Oropesa, Toledo, C Spain. He studied at Alcalá and was entrusted with high office in the Franciscan Order. His Triumphos del amor de Dios (Medina del Campo, 1590) owing a good deal to Plato's views on love, as well as to St Bonaventure and Sabunde, was revised and abridged as Lucha espiritual y amorosa entre Dios y el alma (1600). His Diálogos de la conquista del espirit…

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Juan de Padilla

Poet, born in Sevilla, SW Spain. A monk of the Charterhouse of S María de las Cuevas in Sevilla, his poem in 150 coplas, ‘El laberinto del duque de Cádiz ...’ (1493), is now lost, but two major works have survived. The first is ‘Retable del Cartuxo sobre la vida de Nuestro Redentor Jesu Christo’ (1505), which he states having completed in 1500. This popular poem appeared anonymously, but Pad…

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Juan de Padilla

Spanish revolutionary leader and popular hero, born in Toledo, C Spain. He was commandant of Saragossa under Charles V, headed an insurrection against the intolerable taxation, and after some success was defeated and beheaded. His wife Maria (d.1531) held Toledo against the royal forces for a time (1521–2), then fled to Portugal. Juan de Padilla (1500?–1544?), born in Andalusia, was a Sp…

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Juan de Valladolid

A blind poet of very humble origin, born in Valladolid, NWC Spain. A converted Jew, recognized for his mastery of verse, he was a minstrel, astrologer, and satirical writer, and spent some time at the courts of Mantua and Milan. On his return to Spain by sea, he was captured by Barbary pirates and taken to Fez where he was held to ransom. He maintained a running verbal battle with the Manrique fam…

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Juan Francisco Masdeu

Historian and encyclopaedic writer, born in Palermo, NW Spain. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1759, but was exiled with the rest of the Order before completing his studies, and went to Ferrara, and later Rome. When the Order was dissolved, he returned to Spain as a secular priest, becoming archivist at León Cathedral. On the fall of Carlos IV (his protector), in 1808 he accompanied him to Rom…

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Juan Goytisolo - His work, Literary Prizes

Novelist, born in Barcelona, NE Spain, the younger brother of José Agustín Goytisolo. Outside Spain he is the best-known novelist of his generation Juegos de manos (1954), which deals with the problem of juvenile delinquents from well-to-do families provided with everything except a reason for their privileged existence, was his first book to gain wide recognition. Duelo en el Paraíso (1955) is…

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Juan Gris - Selected works

Painter, born in Madrid, Spain. He studied there, and in 1906 went to Paris, where he associated with Picasso and Matisse and became one of the most logical and consistent exponents of Synthetic Cubism. He settled at Boulogne and in 1923 designed the décor for three Diaghilev productions. He also worked as a book illustrator. In most of his paintings, the composition of the picture dictates the d…

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Juan Huarte de San Juan

Anthropologist, with an interest in physiology, medicine, and psychology, born in Saint Jean-Pied-de-Port, SW France. His family lived in the Kingdom of Navarra until its dissolution in 1530, when he emigrated to the S, establishing himself in Baeza, where he studied art. Later, in Alcalá de Henares, he qualified as a doctor of medicine (1559) after six years' training under the most important fi…

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Juan Luis Segundo - Source

Jesuit liberation theologian, born in Montevideo, Uruguay. After studying in Argentina and Europe, he became director of the Pedro Fabbro Institute of socio-religious research in Montevideo. He advocates employing a ‘hermeneutical circle’, in which the questioning of prevailing ideological and theological assumptions that govern the received way of interpreting Scripture leads to new understandi…

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Juan Manuel Fangio - Complete Formula One World Championship Results

Motor-racing driver, born in Balcarce, E Argentina, of Italian descent. He served his apprenticeship to road racing first as a mechanic, then in South American events with a car he built himself. He first took part in European Grand Prix racing in 1949, and by 1957 had won the World Championship a record five times (1951, 1954–7). He won 24 Grands Prix. After his retirement (1958) he joined Merce…

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Juan Morel Campos

Composer and conductor, born in Ponce, Puerto Rico, USA. He was the most important figure in Puerto Rican music of the 19th-c. He composed countless danzas, the dance (along with the bomba and plena) most closely associated with Puerto Rico. He conducted concerts, operas, and operettas throughout Puerto Rico and South America, and died conducting one of his own zarzuelas at his beloved La Perla th…

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Juan O'Gorman - Bibliography

Architect, born in Mexico City, Mexico. He trained in Mexico City, studied painting under Diego Rivera, then worked as a draughtsman and as director of the Town Planning Administration, beginning independent practice in 1934. His masterpieces include the windowless, mosaic-covered Library of the National University of Mexico in Mexico City (1952, in collaboration), and his own house (now demolishe…

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Juan Ruiz

Writer of the Libro de buen amor, with the Poema de mio Cid the most important long poem to survive from mediaeval Spain. Nothing is recorded of his life apart from what emerges from his book, and it has been suggested that any dates or facts found in the poem might be interpolations and that even the name ‘Juan Ruiz’ might be a pseudonym or a later invention. If the text is reliable, he was bor…

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Judah

Old Testament figure, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah. He was the founder of the greatest of the 12 tribes of Israel. …

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Judah Leon Magnes

Rabbi and educator, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied at the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati and became a Reform rabbi and an ardent Zionist. In 1906–10 he was rabbi at Temple Emanu-El in New York, after which he tried to create a Jewish community structure in New York, known as a Kehilla (1910–22), with the goal of co-ordinating Jewish religious cultural and other activities…

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Judah Monis - Early life, At Harvard, Late life

Scholar, born in Algiers or Italy. Educated in Jewish schools in Europe, he became a free citizen in New York (1715/16). The first Jew to earn a degree from Harvard College, he was granted an MA there in 1720 on the basis of his draft of a Hebrew grammar, the first to be published in America (1735). He became a Christian convert (1722) and afterwards taught Hebrew at Harvard (until 1760). J…

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Judaism - Traditional view of the development of Judaism, Critical historical view of the development of Judaism

The religion of the Jews, central to which is the belief in one God, the transcendent creator of the world who delivered the Israelites out of their bondage in Egypt, revealed his law (Torah) to them, and chose them to be a light to all humankind. The Hebrew Bible is the primary source of Judaism. Next in importance is the Talmud, which consists of the Mishnah (the codification of the oral Torah) …

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Judas Iscariot - Etymology of "Judas Iscariot", Traditional Christian views, Identity, Recent discoveries: Gospel of Judas

One of the 12 apostles of Jesus, usually appearing last in the lists in the synoptic Gospels (Mark 3.19), identified as the one who betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver by helping to arrange for his arrest at Gethsemane by the Jewish authorities (Mark 14.43–6). Other traditions indicate his role as treasurer (John 13.29) and his later repentance and suicide (Matt 27.3–10, Acts 1.16–19). The m…

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Jude Kelly

Theatre director, born in Liverpool, NW England, UK. After graduating from Birmingham University in 1975 she worked as an actress with Michael Bogdanov's Leicester Phoenix Theatre. She began her directing career in 1976 when she founded the Solent People's Theatre, a professional company in Hampshire committed to community touring. After directing 42 of their shows she was appointed artistic direc…

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Judea - History

Roman–Greek name for S Palestine, area now occupied by SW Israel and W Jordan; southernmost of the Roman divisions of Palestine; rises to 1020 m/3346 ft in the S near Hebron; chief town, Jerusalem; following 1948–9 war, W region became part of Israel, and E region part of Jordan; since 1967, West Bank and E Jerusalem occupied by Israel. In modern times, the name "Yehudah" may be used by…

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judge - Judges in the legal system, Authority of judges, Oversight of judges, Titles

A public officer with authority to adjudicate in both civil and criminal disputes; in some jurisdictions (eg the USA) this authority is limited to a single branch of law (eg administrative law judges). In the UK, judges are appointed by the sovereign on the advice of the prime minister in the cases of the offices of the Lord President and the Lord Justice-Clerk, the Court of Appeal and House of Lo…

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judicial review - Judicial review in individual countries

A legal means of obtaining remedies in a higher court against inferior courts, tribunals, and administrative bodies. In England and Wales, the High Court may make various orders, including certiorari (which quashes a decision), mandamus (to compel a duty to be carried out), and prohibition (to stop an intended action). Damages may also be awarded. In England and Wales, the increasing use of wide p…

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Judith (Arundell) Wright - Works

Poet, born near Armidale, New South Wales, SE Australia. She studied at Sydney, and worked in educational administration in Queensland. She was a militant environmentalist and a strong advocate of Aboriginal land rights. Her work is valued for the broad sympathies of The Moving Image (1946), in which she was one of the first white writers to recognize Aboriginal claims, and the personal lyrics of …

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Judith (Minna) Ward - The Nitroglycerine Evidence

Victim of a miscarriage of justice, born in Stockport, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. She was convicted and jailed for life in 1974 in England for the M62 coach-bombing by the IRA in which 12 people died. She served 18 years before having her conviction quashed by the Court of Appeal on 11 May 1992, on the basis that there had been a substantial miscarriage of justice in relation to forensic …

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Judith Chalmers

Television presenter, born in Manchester, NW England, UK. She studied in Manchester and the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, then began broadcasting with BBC Manchester, moving to BBC London in 1960. In 1972 she joined Thames Television, where she presented the long-running holiday programme Wish You Were Here...? (from 1973). She hosted her own daily programme for Radio 2 (1990), and has…

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Judith Plaskow - Reclaiming Torah

Writer and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Clark University (1968) and earned a PhD from Yale University in religious studies. Co-founder and co-editor of the Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion (1983), she was appointed professor of religious studies at Manhattan College in 1990. She wrote Standing Again at Sinai: Judaism from a Feminist Perspective (1990), as w…

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Judith Rodin - Other Professional Highlights, Controversy over Outsourcing, Sweatshops and Unionization at Penn

Psychologist and university president, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. At the psychology department at Yale University (1972–92) she established a link between eating disorders and the relationship between mothers and daughters. She chaired the department (1989–91) and was promoted to dean of the graduate school and then as Yale's provost in 1992. She became the first woman president of…

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judo - History and philosophy, Combat Phases, The Standing Phase: Tachi-Waza

An unarmed combat sport, developed in Japan, and useful in self-defence. The present-day sport was devised by Dr Jigoro Kano (1860–1938), headmaster of two leading Japanese schools, who founded the Kodokan school in 1882. Contestants wear a judogi (loose fitting suit) and compete on a mat to break their falls. They are graded in their ability from 5th to 1st Kyu, and then 1st Dan to the highest, …

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Judy Blume - Bibliography

Writer, born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA. She studied at New York University (1960), married in 1959, and was divorced in 1976. Bored with suburban life, she developed a creative outlet in writing and illustrating children's stories. After many rejection slips, she published Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret (1970), Blubber (1974), Tiger Eyes (1981), and several other novels for teenagers, th…

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Judy Chicago - Written works

Painter, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A feminist painter, she is best known for her room-sized installation, ‘Dinner Party Project’ (1979), a vision of a female Last Supper, which used several mediums including ceramics and woven materials. This well-attended travelling exhibit created controversy, but was acclaimed by many critics. Judy Chicago (born Judy Cohen on July 20, 1939) is a …

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Judy Davis - Films, Television, Awards

Actress, born in Perth, Western Australia. Originally a singer in jazz and pop groups, she studied at the National Institute of Dramatic Arts in Sydney (1974–7), made her film debut in High Rolling (1976), then worked with the Adelaide State Theatre Company, appearing in such plays as Visions (1978). Her performance as the strong-willed, 19th-c heroine of the film My Brilliant Career (1979, BAFTA…

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Judy Garland - Honors, Addiction, Legacy in gay rights, Continuing Legacy, Marriages, Filmography, Legendary Concerts, Albums, Stage

Actress and singer, born in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, USA. She made her first stage appearances in vaudeville with her parents, and became a juvenile film star in Broadway Melody of 1938, followed by The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Meet Me in St Louis (1944), directed by Vincente Minnelli, whom she later married. A demanding series of musical leads coupled with drug problems exhausted her by 1950, and …

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Jugendweihe - History, Jugendweihen in East Germany, Jugendweihen today, Books for Jugendweihe participants in East Germany

1 Since 1859, in Germany, a celebration organized by the followers of free religions for children, marking the end of their schooling. 2 Since 1954, a social event in the German Democratic Republic. Young people having finished their eighth year at school are officially received as adults, having sworn a solemn oath to the socialist state. Since 1990 this has continued on a private basis. J…

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Juggernaut

A Hindu deity equated with Vishnu. His temple is at Puri in E India, and is noted for its annual festival. The modern English sense of a massive, irresistible force (and its application to a large, heavy vehicle) is related to the belief that devotees of the god threw themselves beneath the wheels of the cart bearing his image during the festival procession. The term juggernaut is used to d…

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Jugurtha

King of Numidia (118–105 BC), after whom the Jugurthine War (112–104 BC) is named. Rome's difficulty in defeating him provided Marius with a launching pad for his career, and led to important reforms in the Roman army. Jugurtha's surrender to Marius's deputy, Sulla, ended the war, but was the starting point of the deadly feud between Marius and Sulla which plunged Rome into civil war 20 years la…

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Juilliard School - Notable students, Notable teachers

Music conservatory at Lincoln Center, New York City, USA. Founded by Frank Damrosch in 1905 as the Institute of Musical Art, it is now named after US financier Augustus D Juilliard, following a bequest made upon his death in 1919. Numerous famous musicians have trained there, and it is home to the renowned Juilliard String Quartet. The Juilliard School is recognized as one of the best perfo…

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jujube

A deciduous shrub (Ziziphus jujuba) growing to 9 m/30 ft, native to the E Mediterranean region; characteristic zig-zag stem and paired spines, one hooked, one straight; leaves oval; flowers yellow; olive-like fruits black. It is cultivated for its edible fruits. (Family: Rhamnaceae.) …

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juku

A Japanese crammer's school. Educational qualifications are crucial in Japan for getting such jobs as in a large company, or a government office. Applicants must be university graduates. Starting at primary school, many pupils have extra classes in the evenings and/or at weekends to prepare them for a series of entrance examinations, from secondary education to university. Jukus also play a…

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Jule Styne - Career, Samples

Composer and producer, born in London, UK. He emigrated to the USA in 1912 and attended the Chicago College of Music. In the 1920s and 1930s he led his own bands and played piano with Benny Goodman and Glenn Miller. His first Broadway scores were for High Button Shoes (1947) and Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1949). He composed the music for Bells are Ringing (1956) with librettists-lyricists Betty Com…

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Jules (Emile Fr - Works of Jules Massenet, See Also

Composer, born in Montaud, SW France. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, where he was professor (1878–96). He made his name with the comic opera Don César de Bazan (1872). Other operas followed, including Manon (1884), considered by many to be his masterpiece, Le Cid (1885), and Werther (1892). Among his other works are oratorios, orchestral suites, music for piano, and songs. Massene…

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Jules (Jean Baptiste Vincent) Bordet - Biography

Physiologist, born in Soignies, S Belgium. He became director of the Pasteur Institute, Brabant (1901), professor at Brussels (1907), and recognized the immunity factors in blood serum. He discovered alexine and (1906) the microbe of whooping cough (Bordetella). He was awarded the 1919 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He became Doctor of Medicine in 1892 and began his work at the Pas…

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Jules Bastien-Lepage

Painter, born in Damvillers, NE France. He is best remembered for his rustic genre scenes, such as ‘Les Foins’ (The Hayfield, 1878, Musée d'Orsay), but he also produced portraits, such as those of Sarah Bernhardt (1879) and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII). Jules Bastien-Lepage (November 1, 1848 - November 10, 1884), French painter, was born in the village of Damvillers, Meuse and …

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Jules Feiffer

Cartoonist and writer, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the Art Students League of New York and at Pratt Institute, later gaining recognition for his cartoon work in the Greenwich Village newspaper Village Voice (1956). His first collection of cartoons was called Sick, Sick, Sick (1958). Passionella, and Other Stories followed (1959), and featured the popular character ‘Munro’. He produ…

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Jules Ladoum

Athlete, born in Bordeaux, SW France. He held the world record four times for the 1500 m, 1000 m, the mile, and the 2000 m, and gained a silver medal for the 1500 m in the 1928 Olympic Games. In 1932 he was disqualified for professionalism, and a film Le Mile was made about his career in the same year. Jules Ladoumègue (December 10, 1906 - March 2, 1973 was a French middle distance run…

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Jules Laforgue - Works

French poet, born in Montevideo, Uruguay. Born into a family which hoped to make its fortune by going into exile, he was sent to live with cousins in Tarbes, then rejoined his family in Paris. He published poems in reviews with the encouragement of the Hydropathes, then became reader for the Empress Augusta, widow of William I, in Berlin (1881–6). His poetry includes Les Complaintes (1885), L'Imi…

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Jules Michelet - Biography

Historian, born in Paris, France. He taught history and philosophy at the Ecole Normale Supérieure until 1836, then at the Collège de France in 1838, where his course was suspended during the Second Empire to which he was opposed. The greatest of his many historical works is the monumental Histoire de France (24 vols, 1833–67). By refusing to swear allegiance to Louis Napoleon he lost his appoi…

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Jules Renard - Works, Quotes

Writer, born in Châlons-sur-Mayenne, SC France. He studied at Nevers and in Paris, and after his marriage in 1888 devoted himself to writing. His best-known work is Poil de carotte (1894), a bitterly ironical account of his own childhood. Although he lived mostly in Paris, he never lost touch with his native countryside, and depicted rural life with humour and cruel realism in Les Philippe (1907)…

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Jules Rimet

French football administrator. He founded the Red Star Club of Paris, became president of the French football league (1910), and was president of the French Football Federation (1919–49). He promoted the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), of which he was president (1921–56), and founded the World Cup competition (1930), his name being added to the title in 1946. J…

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Jules Romains

Writer, born in Saint-Julien-Chapteuil, SE France. He studied at Paris, and became a teacher, but established his name with his poems La Vie unanime (1908, The Unanimous Life), and brought about the Unanimist school, devoted to a belief in universal brotherhood and group consciousness. He became a full-time writer from 1919, and remained prominent in French literature, his best-known works being t…

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Jules Sandeau

Novelist and playwright, born in Aubusson, SC France. The lover of George Sand, his best-known novel was Mademoiselle de la Seiglière (1834), a story of love and class divisions in the time of Louis Philippe. A prolific novelist, he also collaborated with Émile Augier on the play Le Gendre de M Poirier (1854), again dealing with class and society. Leonard Sylvain Julien (Jules) Sandeau (F…

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Jules Verne - Reputation in English-speaking countries, Hetzel's influence, Selective bibliography, Further reading

Writer, born in Nantes, W France. He studied law at Paris, then turned to literature. From 1848 he wrote opera libretti, then in 1863 developed a new vein in fiction, exaggerating and anticipating the possibilities of science. His best-known books are Voyage au centre de la terre (1864, Journey to the Centre of the Earth), Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (1870, Twenty Thousand Leagues under the S…

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Julia - Fictional characters

Roman noblewoman, the daughter of Emperor Augustus and Scribonia. She was married at the age of 14 to her cousin Marcellus, and after his death (23 BC) she married Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (21 BC), who died in 12 BC. Augustus forced his stepson Tiberius to divorce his wife and marry Julia (11 BC). The marriage was unhappy, and Julia began to lead a promiscuous life. Her father Augustus learned of …

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Julia - Fictional characters

The name of numerous ladies of the Julian family (gens), notably: 1 the wife of Marius and aunt of Julius Caesar; 2 the daughter of Augustus by his first wife Scribonia (39 BC–AD 14), banished for adultery in 2 BC; 3 the daughter of 2 and Agrippa (c.19 BC–AD 28); her disgrace and banishment somehow involved the poet Ovid. …

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Julia de Burgos - Biographical/Documentary Films

Poet and teacher, born in Carolina, Puerto Rico, USA. One of Puerto Rico's leading 20th-c poets, influenced by Pablo Neruda, she was a prominent member of the literary Vanguard movement in San Juan in the late 1930s. Her best-known poem, ‘Río Grande de Loiza’, was written before she moved to New York City, where she spent her last years. Over the years she supported herself with a variety of jo…

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Julia Grant - Reference

US first lady (1869–77), born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. The sister of a West Point classmate of Ulysses S Grant, they were married in 1848. She helped her husband cope with his bouts of depression and hard drinking, and the public admired her style in the White House. Her autobiography was not published until 1975. Julia Grant (January 26, 1826 – December 14, 1902), wife of Ulysses S. …

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Julia Kristeva - Life, Work, The semiotic, Anthropology and psychology, Feminism, Novels, Personal, Honors, Selected Writings

French feminist and literary theorist, born in Bulgaria. She came to France in 1966 and was appointed professor of linguistics at the University of Paris (1974). Influenced by Lacan and Freud, her work, which concentrates on literature, language, and cultural history, has made her one of the most influential of French feminists. It includes Semiotiké: recherches pour une sémanalyse (1969), La R

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Julia Margaret Cameron - Early life, Photography, Later life

British photographer, born in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), E India. In 1838 she married an Indian jurist, Charles Hay Cameron (1795–1880), and moved to England in 1848. At the age of 48 she was given a camera, and went on to become an outstanding amateur photographer in the 1860s. Her close-up portraits of such Victorian celebrities as Tennyson, Darwin, Carlyle, and Newman received permanent accl…

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Julia Marlowe

Actress, born in Caldbeck, Cumbria, NW England, UK. Brought to the USA at age four, she first performed at age 12 under the name of Fanny Brough. Her adult debut in 1887 as Parthenia in Ingomar was an immediate success. After a start in musical comedies and in comic roles, she was eventually best known as a slender, pale Shakespearean, playing opposite Richard Taber and E H Sothern, to whom she wa…

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Julia McKenzie

Actress, singer, and director. An outstanding interpreter of the work of Stephen Sondheim, her London musical appearances include Maggie May (1965), Cole (1974), Guys and Dolls (1982), Into the Woods (1990), and Sweeney Todd (1993). She is also known for her TV roles, such as in French Fields (1989–91). She has also appeared in many plays, notably Alan Ayckbourn's The Norman Conquests (1974), Ten…

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Julia Morgan

Architect, born in San Francisco, California, USA. Practising independently in San Francisco, she designed more than 800 buildings, including Hearst's estates at San Simeon (1919–39) and Wyntoon (1931–42), and she influenced regional styles through her use of redwood shingle and Spanish revival style. Upon her return from Paris she took employment with the San Francisco architect John Gal…

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Julia Roberts - Filmography, Awards

Film actress, born in Smyrna, Georgia, USA. She made her screen debut in Baja Oklahoma (1988), and became well known following Mystic Pizza (1988) and Steel Magnolias (1989, Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress). Later films include Pretty Woman (1990), Michael Collins (1996), Notting Hill (1999), Erin Brockovich (2000, Oscar, BAFTA, Best Actress; Golden Globe), Ocean's Eleven (2001), and …

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Julia Ward Howe - Family, Marriage and later life

Feminist, reformer, and writer, born in New York City, USA. A wealthy banker's daughter, she became a prominent suffragette and abolitionist, and founded the New England Woman Suffrage Association (1868) and the New England Women's Club (1868). She published several volumes of poetry, as well as travel books and a play. Best known for the ‘Battle Hymn of the Republic’ (published in Atlantic Mont…

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Julian

Roman emperor (361–3), the son of a half-brother of Constantine the Great. Appointed deputy emperor in the West by his cousin, Constantius II (355), he served with great distinction on the Rhine, and was proclaimed emperor by his adoring troops in 360. As emperor, he publicly proclaimed himself a pagan (hence his nickname) and initiated a vigorous policy of reviving the old pagan cults, though wi…

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Julian (Alexander) Bream - LP, CD

Guitarist and lutenist, born in London, UK. A protégé of Andrés Segovia, he made his debut in London in 1950. He has edited much music for guitar and lute, and among the composers who have written for him are Britten, Henze, Tippett, and Walton. He formed the Julian Bream Consort in 1961, specializing in early ensemble music. In 1990 he performed at his 40th anniversary concert at the Wigmore H…

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Julian (Patrick) Barnes - Life, Works (novels unless otherwise indicated), Works as Dan Kavanagh

Novelist, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He began as a contributor to New Review, for which he wrote the infamous ‘Edward Pygge’ gossip column. Several of his books show the influence of Flaubert. His novels include Metroland (1980), Flaubert's Parrot (1984), England, England (1999), Love, etc. (2000), and Arthur & George (2005). Among his short-story collections are Cross Cha…

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Julian (Rossi) Ashton

Painter and teacher, born in Alderstone, Surrey, SE England, UK. In 1878 he emigrated to Australia and, while working as an illustrator for the Melbourne newspaper The Age, covered the capture of the Ned Kelly gang. He later moved to Sydney, and in 1896 founded the Sydney Art School. He organized the Grafton Gallery (London) exhibition of Australian art in 1898, and worked strenuously for the reco…

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Julian (William) Mack

Jurist and community leader, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He earned his law degree at Harvard, and taught law at Northwestern University (1895–1902) and at the University of Chicago (1902–11). He served as a US circuit court judge from 1913 until his death. President of the Zionist Organization of America (1918–21), he was leader of the ‘Brandeis-Mack group’ which favoured investme…

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Julian Alps

Mountain range in Slovenia and NE Italy; a SE extension of the Alpine system, bounded to the N by the Karawanken Alps; rises to 2863 m/9393 ft at Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia. Important passes of the Julians are: …

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Julian Beck

Actor, producer, and director, born in New York City, USA. With Judith Malina (1926– ) he was co-founder of the Living Theater. Known for his experimental and improvisatory approach, among his publications was The Life of the Theater (1972). Julian Beck (May 31, 1925–September 14, 1985) was an American actor, director, poet, and painter. He was born in the Washington Heights …

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Julian calendar - From Roman to Julian, Leap year error, Month names, Month lengths, Year numbering

A calendar established in 46 BC by Julius Caesar, further modified in AD 8, when leap years were correctly implemented, then used in Catholic Europe until 1582, when it was replaced by the Gregorian calendar. Since 153 BC, the year had slipped by 3 months, relative to the seasons, because of manipulations by political opportunists (to shorten officials' terms of office). Caesar ended this confusio…

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Julian Eltinge - Early years, Broadway and vaudeville, The Fascinating Widow and beyond, Hollywood and the silver screen, Offstage

Actor, born in Newtownville, Massachusetts, USA. A leading female impersonator, he charmed audiences with his elegant appearance and deft wit, touring in vaudeville (1906–32) with brief appearances on stage and screen. Julian Eltinge (born May 14, 1881; After appearing in the Boston Cadets Revue at the age of ten in feminine garb, Eltinge garnered notice from other producers and made his f…

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Julian Lloyd Webber

Cellist, born in London, UK, the brother of composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. He studied at the Royal College of Music and with Pierre Fournier in Geneva, and in 1972 made his UK debut. He has since performed with all the major British orchestras, appeared internationally, and made many recordings. His books include The Young Cellist's Repertoire (1984), The Great Cello Solos (1991), and Cello Song (1…

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Julian Schnabel - Life and art, Writing and film

Painter and conceptual artist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Houston (1969–73), settled in New York City, worked as a cab driver and cook, and travelled in Europe. A controversial avant-garde artist, he used a collage technique incorporating fibreglass, broken crockery, and various other objects on his mammoth canvases. In 1996 he made his directorial debut…

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Juliana

Queen of The Netherlands (1948–80), born in The Hague. She studied at Leyden, became a lawyer, and in 1937 married Prince Bernhard zur Lippe-Biesterfeld; they had four daughters. On the German invasion of Holland (1940), Juliana escaped to Britain and later resided in Canada. She returned to Holland in 1945, and became queen on the abdication of her mother, Wilhelmina. She herself abdicated in fa…

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Juliana Rieser Force

Museum director and art supporter, born in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA. Born into a ‘poor but proud’ family, she became a secretary at an early age and then directed a secretarial school. Moving to New York City (early 1900s) she became the private secretary to the wealthy Helen Hay Whitney. In 1912 she married Willard B Force, a dentist. Mrs Whitney's sister-in-law was the sculptor and art pa…

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Julianne Moore - Selected filmography

Actress, born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, USA. She studied drama at Boston University's School of Performing Arts, and after a number of stage parts became known for her role in the US television soap As The World Turns (1985–8). Feature film credits include The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1991), The Fugitive (1993), The Hours (2002), and Children of Men (2006). She has twice been nominated …

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Julie Christie - Early career and Academy Award, Away From Her, Trivia, Filmography

British actress, born in Chukua, Assam. She studied at the Central School of Music and Drama, London, and worked in repertory, becoming known through her role in Billy Liar (1963). In 1965 she won an Oscar for Darling. She consolidated her career with Dr Zhivago (1965), Far From the Madding Crowd (1967), and The Go-Between (1971). Subsequent films have highlighted her involvement with a variety of…

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Julie Harris

Film, stage, and television actress, born in Michigan, USA. Following her Broadway debut in 1945, she rose to stardom through her roles in The Member of the Wedding (1950), The Lark (1955), and other plays, performances she later filmed. In 1976 she successfully performed a one-woman show as Emily Dickinson in The Belle of Amherst, which she later toured, including a season in London. In 1980 she …

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Julie Walters - Partial filmography

Actress, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. She trained as a teacher at Manchester Polytechnic, and made her stage debut in Educating Rita (1980), for which she won recognition as a promising newcomer, and later a BAFTA award in the film version (1983). Later films include Killing Dad (1989), Intimate Relations (1997), Billy Elliot (2000, BAFTA, Best Supporting Actress), Harry Potte…

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Julien (Hartridge) Green - Biography, Selected works

Writer, born of American parents in Paris, France. He studied in France and at Virginia University, and was bilingual, but wrote mainly in French. His sombre novels were usually set in French provincial towns, and deal with neurotic and obsessive characters. They include Mont-Cinère (1926, trans Avarice House), Adrienne Mesurat (1927, trans The Closed Garden), Léviathan (1929, trans The Dark Jou…

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Julien Benda - Books by Benda, Secondary literature in English

Novelist, essayist, and philosopher, born in Paris, France. He studied at the University of Paris, began his writing career with an article on the Dreyfus affair in La Reine Blanche (1898), then collaborated in the Cahiers de la quinzaine of Péguy, against emotion and intuition. He was a leader of the anti-Romantic movement, and his lifelong criticism of the philosophy of Henri Bergson began with…

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Juliet (Maryon) Mills - Personal life and family

Film actress, born in London, UK, the daughter of Sir John Mills. She appeared in several films as a baby and young child, beginning with In Which We Serve (1942), and made her debut as an adult in No My Darling Daughter (1961). Later films include Carry on Jack (1964), Oh! What a Lovely War (1969), and Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1973), as well as several television movies, such as Waxwork II (1…

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Juliet Stevenson - Filmography

Actress, born in London, UK. After graduating from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art she joined the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Productions with the RSC include Measure For Measure (1978), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1981), Les Liaisons Dangereuses (1985), As You Like It (1985), and Troilus and Cressida (1985). She was made an associate artist of the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1988. Other th…

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Juliette Adam

Writer, born in Verberie, NE France. During the period of the French empire her salon became renowned for her gatherings of wits, artists, and politicians. Her first marriage was to a lawyer, La Messine, and in 1858 she published a volume of stories under that name. She produced stories and books on social and political questions, and in 1879 founded the Nouvelle Revue. She later published her Mé…

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Juliette Binoche - Awards, Filmography

Film actress, born in Paris, France. After an early start in the theatre at the age of 16 she took classes at the Paris Conservatoire in the late 1970s, and after brief appearances on television, she played a number of minor film roles before achieving stardom in André Téchiné's Rendez-vous (1985). After various roles in French films and theatrical productions she received international success…

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Julio Gonz

Sculptor, born in Barcelona, NE Spain. Educated at the Escuela de Bellas Artes, in 1900 he went to Paris, joining the avant-garde circle around Picasso. He began as a painter, but in 1927 turned to sculpture, mainly in wrought and welded iron. Like Picasso he was inspired initially by African masks, and worked in a Cubist style, but also had links with Surrealism. His chief works as a sculptor wer…

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Julio Iglesias - Biography, Musical career, Discography

Singer of popular music, born in Madrid, Spain. He was successful in the 1968 Benidorm Festival with a song he composed himself, ‘La vida sigue igual’. From 1978 he has lived in the USA. Among his best-known melodic and sentimental hit songs are ‘Hey’ (1980), ‘1110 Bel Air Place’ (1984), ‘Non Stop’ (1988), ‘Starry Night’ (1990), ‘Calor’ (1992), and ‘Crazy’ (1994). Julio José …

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Julius (Kambarage) Nyerere - Education, Political career, Economic Policies, Foreign Policy, After the Presidency, Honorary Degrees, Awards

Tanzanian statesman and president (1962–85), born in Butiama, N Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika). He became a teacher at Makerere, then studied at Edinburgh. He reorganized the nationalists into the Tanganyika African National Union (1954), of which he became president, and in 1960 became chief minister. He was premier when Tanganyika was granted internal self-government (1961), and was made presid…

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Julius (Winfield) Erving - Career, NBA statistics, Memorable feats, Quotes, Influences

Basketball player, born in Hempstead, New York, USA. One of basketball's greatest and most acrobatic players, he gained national attention while playing for the University of Massachusetts. He played forward for the American Basketball Association (ABA) Virginia Squires and New York Nets (1972–6), and for the National Basketball Association (NBA) Philadelphia 76ers (1977–87). His combined ABA an…

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Julius Axelrod - Early life and education, Research, Political views

Pharmacologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at New York University (1941) and George Washington University, Washington DC (1955), and in New York City worked as a chemist at the Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene (1935–45), and as a research associate at Goldwater Memorial Hospital (1946–9). He became a biochemist for the National Heart Institute (1949–55), then joined the Na…

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Julius Caesar Scaliger - Biography

Humanist scholar, born in Riva, N Italy. He studied medicine at Padua, became a French citizen in 1528, and settled in Agen, where he wrote learned works on grammar, philosophy, botany, zoology, and literary criticism. Titles include De plantis (1556) and his best-known work, Poetice (1561). Julius Caesar Scaliger or Giulio Cesare della Scala (April 23, 1484– October 21, 1558), was an Ita…

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Julius Friedrich Cohnheim - Biography, Selected works

Pathologist, born in Demmin, NE Germany. He held chairs in Kiel, Wroc?aw (formerly Breslau, Prussia) and Leipzig, and worked on many problems, including infectious diseases and cancer. He first elucidated completely the microscopical events of inflammation, and provided the first proof that tuberculosis was an infectious disease. Julius Friedrich Cohnheim (July 20, 1839 - August 15, 1884) w…

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Julius Kahn - Location of Source Materials Relating to Julius Kahn

US representative, born in Baden, Germany. Emigrating to the USA as a child, he was an actor and lawyer before going to Congress (Republican, California, 1899–1924), where he sponsored the Selective Draft Act of 1917. Julius Kahn (February 28, 1861 - December 18, 1924), was a United States congressman who was succeeded by his wife Florence Prag Kahn after his death. He was elected as a Rep…

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Julius Leber - Reference

German politician, born in Lübeck, N Germany. A social economist, he joined the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) in 1913, became editor-in-chief of the Lübecker Volksbote (1921–33), member of the Reichsrat (1924–33), and was interned (1933–7). He became involved with the Kreisauer Kreis and was foreseen in the Goerdeler cabinet as minister of the interior. He was sentenced to dea…

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Julius Raab

Austrian statesman and chancellor (1953–61), born in St Pölten, NC Austria. He became an engineer, was a Christian Socialist member of the Austrian Diet (1927–34), and federal minister of trade and transport (1938). He retired from politics during the Nazi regime. In 1945 he was one of the founders of the People's Party, becoming its chairman (1951–60). Julius Raab (November 29, 1891 - …

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Julius Rosenwald - Early life, Philanthropy

Merchant and business executive, and philanthropist, born in Springfield, Illinois, USA. He was born across the street from Abraham Lincoln's house and was influenced by the Lincoln mystique. He ran a menswear shop in Chicago (1885–95), and when the recently formed Sears, Roebuck & Co moved to Chicago (1893), he became its vice-president (1895–1910), president (1910–25), and chairman of the boa…

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Julius Sterling Morton

Agriculturalist, born in Adams, New York, USA. After college he relocated to Nebraska City, where he edited the town's newspaper (1854). Active in the territory of Nebraska's politics, he served on the territorial legislature (1855–8) and was appointed secretary of the territory by President James Buchanan (1858–61). He loved trees, and in 1872 he had Nebraska observe an ‘arbor day’ on which t…

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Julius Streicher - Early life, Nazism, Trial and execution, Influence

Nazi journalist, and politician born in Fleinhausen, SC Germany. He was associated with Hitler in the early days of Nazism, founding the Nuremberg branch of the party, taking part in the 1923 Munich putsch. A ruthless persecutor of the Jews, he incited anti-Semitism through the newspaper Der Stürmer, which he founded and edited (1923–45). He was hanged at Nuremberg as a war criminal. Juli…

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Julius Wagner-Jauregg

Neurologist and psychiatrist, born in Wels, N Austria. He became professor at Vienna (1883–9) and Graz (1889–93), then returned to Vienna, where he directed the university hospital for nervous and mental diseases until 1928. He was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery in 1917 of a treatment for general paralysis (a late complication of syphilis) by infection …

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Julius Wellhausen

Biblical scholar, born in Hameln, NC Germany. He studied at Göttingen, and became professor at Greifswald (1872), Halle (1882), Marburg (1885), and Göttingen (1892). He is best known for his investigations into Old Testament history and source criticism of the Pentateuch. He published several works, notably the Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels (1883, trans History of Israel). Julius Wel…

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July Days - Causes, Bolshevik Response, Consequences

(2–5 Jul 1917) Anti-government demonstrations in Petrograd marking a decisive stage in the Russian Revolution. Demonstrators demanded Russia's withdrawal from World War 1, the overthrow of the provisional government, and the transfer of ‘All power to the soviets’. Lenin judged the time for a proletarian-socialist revolution to be premature, and urged restraint. The July Days took place b…

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July Revolution - Background, Charles X's reign, The Revolt, Result

(1830) A three-day revolt in Paris which ended the Bourbon Restoration, forcing the abdication of the reactionary Charles X (r.1824–30). It resulted in the establishment of a more liberal regime dominated by the wealthy bourgeoisie, the so-called July Monarchy, under the Orleanist, Louis Philippe, ‘King of the French’. The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, was…

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June (Rosemary) Whitfield - Selected filmography

Comic actress, born in London, UK. She studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and worked in revues, musicals, and pantomimes before achieving success as Eth Glum in the long-running radio series Take It From Here (1953–60). She has been an indispensable part of UK television light entertainment in such series as Faces of Jim (1962–3), Beggar My Neighbour (1966–7), and Absolutely …

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June Bronhill - Training, Work, Honour

Soprano, born in Broken Hill, New South Wales, SE Australia, from which she adapted her stage name. After winning the Sydney Sun aria competition in 1950, she went to London for further study. She made an immediate success at Sadler's Wells in musicals and operetta (1954), and later took the lead in Lucia di Lammermoor at Covent Garden (1959). Her most successful role was as Hanna Glawari in Franz…

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June Christy - Early life, Stan Kenton's Orchestra, Solo career

Vocalist, born in Springfield, Illinois, USA. A singer associated with West Coast jazz, she began with prominent Chicago society bands before joining Stan Kenton's orchestra in 1945. After Kenton disbanded in 1949, she worked solo and recorded her classic album Something Cool in 1953. She toured occasionally in the USA and abroad until her retirement in the late 1960s. June Christy (born No…

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June Jordan - Early life, Career, Quotes, Bibliography

Poet, writer, and scholar, born in Harlem, New York, USA. She studied at Barnard College, New York (1953–5, 1956–7), the University of Chicago (1955–6), and taught at many institutions, notably at State University of New York, Long Island (1981). From 1989 she was a professor of African-American studies at the University of California, Berkeley. During the late 1960s she became active on the po…

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Junge Liberale

A German liberal organization, founded in 1980. It was recognized by the Freie Demokratische Partei (FDP) in 1982 as its youth organization, after the Jungdemokraten had distanced themselves from the FDP because of its coalition move to the Christlich-Demokratische Union (CDU). Julis (Hebrew: ג'ולס) is an Arab village and local council in the North District of Israel. …

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Junge Union (JU) - Philosophy, Well-known former members of the Junge Union, Chairpersons, International relations

The youth organization of the Christlich-Demokratische Union (CDU) and the Christlich-Soziale-Union (CSU), founded in 1945–7. Members (aged 16–35) do not have to belong to either party. The Junge Union (Young Christian Democrats) or JU is the joint youth organisation of the two German political parties CDU and CSU. In its manifesto the JU defines itself as a liberal, social, c…

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Jungfrau

46°33N 7°58E. Mountain peak in the Bernese Alps, SC Switzerland; height 4158 m/13 642 ft; mountain railway to near the summit; first ascended in 1811. The Jungfrau (German: "virgin") is the highest peak of a mountain massif of the same name, located in the Bernese Oberland region of the Swiss Alps, overlooking Grindelwald. The train into the mountain leaves from Kleine Sche…

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Junichiro Tanizaki - Bibiliography

Novelist, born in Tokyo, Japan. He became known in the West only after the translation in 1957 of his long novel Sasameyuki (1943–8, trans The Makioka Sisters), a notable example of descriptive realism. Among his later novels are Kagi (1960, The Key) and Futen rojin nikki (1962, Diary of a Mad Old Man). He also translated Murasaki's The Tale of Genji (1010) into modern Japanese. …

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Junio Valerio Borghese - Early career, World War II, Political activism after the war, Further reading

Naval officer, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. He was a submariner and leader of the X MAS flotilla during World War 2, and headed the repression of the partisan movement. After the war he became a member of the MSI (Italian Social Movement) and in 1967 founded the extreme right-wing movement Fronte nazionale (National Front). He escaped to Spain after becoming involved in a failed coup. Princ…

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juniper

An evergreen coniferous tree or shrub native to most of the N hemisphere; leaves of two kinds, needle- or scale-like, in some species on the same tree; cones fleshy, berry-like. The timber is durable; the foliage yields an oil used in perfume; and the berries are used to flavour gin. (Genus: Juniperus, 60 species. Family: Cupressaceae.) …

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Junius Brutus Booth

Actor, born in London, UK. A success in London, he went to the USA in 1821. A handsome, eccentric man known for his tragic roles, he fathered three theatrical sons: Junius Brutus Booth, Jr, Edwin Booth, and John Wilkes Booth. Junius Brutus Booth (May 1, 1796–November 30, 1852) was a British and American actor. He was the father of John Wilkes Booth (the assassin of U.S. President Abraham …

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Junius S(pencer) Morgan

Banker, born in West Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, the father of John Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913). He grew up in Hartford and worked as a clerk in a dry-goods house. He joined the London firm of George Peabody & Co (1854), which became J S Morgan & Co (1864–90). Although he spent more than half his life abroad, he remained influential in New York and Connecticut. His firm sided with the Union…

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Junkers - WWI, Interbellum, Nazi takeover, World War II

Prussian aristocrats whose power rested on their large estates, situated predominantly to the E of the R Elbe, and on their traditional role as army officers and civil servants. Their position came increasingly under threat in late 19th-c Germany as a result of industrialization, but they jealously safeguarded their privileges and power. Junkers was a major German aircraft manufacturer. …

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