Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 40

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom

South African statesman and prime minister (1954–8), born in Willowmore, S South Africa. He studied at Victoria College, Stellenbosch, and Pretoria University, and after a start in the civil service, took up law practice in the Transvaal. Elected MP for Waterberg in 1929, he became leader of the extremists in the National Party. His two main political ends were the setting up of an Afrikaner Repu…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Hevelius - Works

Astronomer, born in Gdansk, N Poland. He studied at Leyden, built his own observatory in Gda?sk, and made his own instruments. He catalogued 1564 stars in Prodromus Astronomiae (1690), discovered four comets, and was one of the first to observe the transit of Mercury. He gave names to many lunar features in his atlas of the Moon, Selenographia (1647). Johannes Hevelius (Latin), also called …

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Itten - Books

Painter and teacher, born in Sudern-Linden, WC Switzerland. He studied art in Stuttgart (1913–16) before moving to Vienna, where he started his own art school. A leading theorist at the Bauhaus (1919–23), he wrote on the theory of colour (Kunst der Farbe, 1961) and developed the idea of a compulsory ‘preliminary course’, based on research into natural forms and the laws of basic design. This h…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Kepler - Life, Work, Writings by Kepler, Named in Kepler's honor, Kepler in fiction

Astronomer, born in Weil-der-Stadt, SW Germany. He studied at Tübingen, and in 1593 was appointed professor of mathematics at Graz. In c.1596 he commenced a correspondence with Tycho Brahe, who was then in Prague, and from 1600–1 worked with him, showing that planetary motions were far simpler than had been imagined. He announced his first and second laws of planetary motion in Astronomia nova (…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Popitz - Life, Works by Popitz, Works about Popitz

German politician and lawyer, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. Appointed Prussian finance minister (1933), he became an opponent of the NS-regime but remained controversial because of his contacts with Heinrich Himmler. He was arrested after the attempt on Hitler's life (20 Jul 1944), and was executed in 1945. As a pharmacist's son, Popitz studied political science and law in Dessau, Lausanne, …

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Rau - Political biography, Motto and maxim, Private life

German politician and president (1999–2004), born in Wuppertal-Barmen, W Germany. He dropped out of school in 1949 and was first a bookseller's apprentice and then a manager in a publishing company before becoming a full-time politician. First elected to the North Rhine–Westphalia state parliament in 1957 (to 1999), he also served as mayor of Wuppertal (1969–70) and became a member of the Socia…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Stark - Affiliation with National Socialism, Publications

Physicist, born in Schickenhof, SE Germany. He studied at Munich, and became professor at Griefswald and Würzburg. In 1913 he discovered the effect, named after him, concerning the splitting of spectrum lines by subjecting light-emitting atoms to a strong electric field. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1919. A supporter of Hitler, in 1947 he was sentenced to four years in a labour c…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Sturm

Educationist, born in Schleiden, W Germany. He studied at Louvain University, taught there, lectured in Paris (1530–6), and was appointed rector of a new Gymnasium (high school) in Strasbourg, where he reorganized the education of the town, His new curriculum was adopted by other Protestant countries, including Britain, and became a model for secondary schools. He took a prominent part in religio…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Tauler

Writer, born in Strasbourg, Alsace, of a prosperous bourgeois family. After entering the Dominican order, he became a pupil of Meister Eckhart. Some 80 mystical sermons (1339–61) remain from his career in Strasbourg and Basel which made their mark on the devotional literature of the time. Couched in relatively plain language, they are didactic and ethical in tone, and favour the active over the c…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen - Literature

Writer and poet, born in Farsø, N Denmark. A student of medicine in Copenhagen, he turned to writing. His early works detail his native land and its people, as in Himmerlandshistorier (1898–1910), but many of his works, such as The Forest and Madama d'Ora (1904), are based on his extensive travels in the Far East and America. He wrote many tales under the title Myter (Myths), as well as a psycho…

less than 1 minute read

Johannes von Saaz

Writer, born in Sitbor, Bohemia. A notary, school director, and town clerk, his great linguistic model was Johannes von Neumarkt, whose Prager Kanzleisprache (created for the imperial Chancellery) was one of the bases for New High German. Von Saaz's disputatory Der Ackermann aus Böhmen or Streitgespräch zwischen dem Ackermann und dem Tod (c.1400) combined mediaeval (cf. Langland's Piers Plowman)…

less than 1 minute read

Johannesburg - History, Government, Crime, Geography and climate, Demographics, Economy, Suburbs, Tourism, Transport, Universities in Johannesburg, Sister cities

26°10S 28°02E, pop (2000e) 1 837 000 (metropolitan area). Largest city in South Africa, and capital of Gauteng province; 50 km/31 mi SSW of Pretoria; altitude 1665 m/5462 ft; founded in 1886 after the discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand; airport; railway; two universities (1922, 1966); commerce (stock exchange), chemicals, textiles, clothing, leather products, engineering, diamond cutt…

less than 1 minute read

John (Aaron) Lewis

Jazz musician, born in La Grange, Illinois, USA. As a pianist and arranger, he was employed (1945–51) by many bandleaders, including Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Illinois Jacquet, and Lester Young. In 1952 he recorded with vibraphonist Milt Jackson and other members of the original Gillespie band's rhythm section. By 1954 this group had coalesced as the Modern Jazz Quartet, with …

less than 1 minute read

John (Alexander Reina) Newlands

Chemist, born in London, UK. He worked in a sugar refinery at the Victoria Docks, London. He was the first to arrange the elements in order of atomic number and to see the connection between every eighth. This ‘law of octaves’ brought him ridicule at the time (1864), but it was the first idea of a periodic law, and in 1887 the Royal Society awarded him its Davy Medal in recognition of his work. …

less than 1 minute read

John (Alfred) Williams - Early life, Film scoring, Collaborations with Steven Spielberg, Conducting and performing, The Olympics, Concert works, Awards

Writer, born in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. He studied at Syracuse (1950 BA; graduate study 1950–1), and then worked in Syracuse for the county welfare department and in public relations (1952–4). In Hollywood and New York City he worked in television and radio (1954–5), and also worked in publishing for a variety of employers in New York City (1955–9), and as a correspondent in Africa for News…

less than 1 minute read

John (Andrew Howard) Ogdon

Pianist, born in Mansfield Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He studied in Manchester, and in 1962 was joint prizewinner in the Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow. He had a powerful technique, a remarkable memory, and a huge repertory. He also composed, his works including a piano concerto. Illness forced him to give up playing for several years. John Andrew Howard Ogdon (Mansfield …

less than 1 minute read

John (Angus) McPhee - Books by John McPhee, Articles by John McPhee

Writer, born in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Princeton (1953 BA) and at Cambridge University, England (1953–4). He worked as a television playwright for Robert Montgomery Presents (1955–7) and as an associate editor for Time magazine (1957–64). In 1964 he became a staff writer for the New Yorker and also taught journalism at Princeton (1975). His non-fiction books, acclaimed for th…

less than 1 minute read

John (Anthony) Ciardi - On Words, Bibliography, External Links

Poet, writer, and teacher, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He attended Bates College (1934–6), Tufts (1938 BA), and the University of Michigan (1939 MA). He taught at many institutions, was director of the Bread Loaf Writers Conference, Vermont (1956–72), and was poetry editor of the Saturday Review (1956–72). Based in Metuchen, NJ in his later years, he was known as a lecturer and etymolog…

less than 1 minute read

John (Anthony) Curry - Competitive highlights, Navigation

Ice skater, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He began skating when a child, was British junior figure-skating champion (1967), and British national champion (1970). He competed in various world-class competitions, set a new standard for artistic interpretation by introducing ballet-like movements into the free-skating routine, and won the gold medal for men's figure skating in his…

less than 1 minute read

John (Arthur Thomas) Robinson

Anglican clergyman and theologian, born in Canterbury, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and lectured there until his appointment as Bishop of Woolwich (1959–69). In 1963 he published Honest to God, which he described as an attempt to explain the Christian faith to modern society. It scandalized the Conservatives, became a best seller, and blocked his chances of further ecclesiastica…

less than 1 minute read

John (Augustine) Zahm

Catholic priest, science educator, and writer, born in New Lexington, Ohio, USA. A science professor at Notre Dame (1875–92), he lectured widely, defending the compatibility between Christian doctrine and evolutionary theory, but his study, Evolution and Dogma (1896), was condemned by the Vatican. After serving as US provincial of the Holy Cross Fathers (1898–1906), he travelled in the W hemisph…

less than 1 minute read

John (Baptist) Purcell - Details

Catholic prelate, born in Mallow, Ireland. As bishop (from 1833) and archbishop (from 1850) of Cincinnati, he presided over a period of tremendous growth. A temperance advocate and opponent of ethnic parishes, he resigned because of an 1879 diocesan financial scandal, in which he, however, was not implicated. He was about 43 years old, and a private in the 9th Lancers (The Queen's Royal), B…

less than 1 minute read

John (Barrington) Wain - Life and work, Literary associations, Works

Writer and critic, born in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and lectured in English at Reading (1947–55) before becoming a freelance writer. His novels include Hurry on Down (1953) and The Contenders (1958), tilting at post-war British social values as viewed by a provincial. He also wrote poetry (Poems, 1949–79 appeared in 1981), plays, and several books of li…

less than 1 minute read

John (Bordley) Rawls - Biographical sketch, Rawls's contribution to political and moral philosophy, A Theory of Justice

Philosopher, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He studied at Princeton, and taught at Princeton and Cornell before going to Harvard as professor in 1962. His best-known work, A Theory of Justice (1971), has probably been the most discussed text in social and political philosophy since World War 2, reviving an interest in social contract theory, rights, and liberalism. John Rawls (February 2…

less than 1 minute read

John (Campbell) Wells

British actor, playwright, humorist, and director. He read French and German at Oxford, and taught both languages at Eton (1961–3), while contributing material for revues at the Edinburgh Festival. He was a co-editor of the satirical magazine, Private Eye (1964–7), contributed the supposed diary of Mrs Wilson (prime minister Harold Wilson's wife) and the ‘Dear Bill’ letters, the supposed corre…

less than 1 minute read

John (Charles Bryan) Barnes

Footballer, born in Kingston, Jamaica. A winger, he joined Watford in 1981, moving to Liverpool in 1988, to Newcastle United in 1997, and on loan to Charlton Athletic in 1998. He then joined Kenny Dalglish at Celtic Football Club as team coach (1999–2000). A brilliant solo goal against Brazil in a friendly in 1984 launched his international career, and he went on to win 79 caps for England, makin…

less than 1 minute read

John (Christopher) Williams - Early life, Film scoring, Collaborations with Steven Spielberg, Conducting and performing, The Olympics, Concert works, Awards

Guitarist, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. Resident in England since 1952, he trained at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana di Siena, Italy, and the Royal College of Music, London, studied with Segovia, and made his professional debut in 1958. He has since taught at colleges in London and Manchester. His musical sympathies are wide-ranging, from renaissance to jazz. Several modern composer…

less than 1 minute read

John (Collins) Warren

Surgeon, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The son and nephew of famous Boston doctors, he studied surgery with his father John Warren (1753–1815) and then completed his studies in Europe. He set up a practice in Boston (1802) and was on the faculty of the Harvard Medical School for most of his career (1809–47). Active in reforming medical education and practice in America, he was one of the f…

less than 1 minute read

John (Coolidge) Adams - Early Life, Politics, Continental Congress, Thoughts on Government, Declaration of Independence, Constitutional ideas, Vice Presidency

Composer, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, then taught at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music (1972–82) and was composer in residence with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra (1982–5). His music, notably the opera Nixon in China (1987), is of the ‘minimalist’ school, stressing relentless repetition. On the Transmigration of Souls, an orchestral and choral work…

less than 1 minute read

John (Cox) Stevens

Engineer and inventor, born in New York City, USA. He studied law, but never practised. A colonel in the Revolutionary Army, he became interested in steamboat design, patenting (1803) a multi-tubular boiler for his first steamboat, which was propelled by twin Archimedes screws driven through gears by a high-pressure steam engine. Design problems led him to revert to paddle wheels which could be dr…

less than 1 minute read

John (Dennis) Profumo - Early life and career, Political career, The "Profumo Affair", Later life, Death and tributes

British Conservative statesman. He studied at Brasenose College, Oxford, and became an MP in 1940, holding several government posts before becoming minister of state for foreign affairs (1959–60) and secretary of state for war (1960–3). He resigned in 1963 as a result of a scandal following his admission that he had earlier been guilty of a grave misdemeanour in deceiving the House of Commons ab…

less than 1 minute read

John (Derrick Mordaunt) Snagge

British broadcaster. He studied at Oxford, and joined the BBC as an assistant station director in 1924. He became an announcer in 1928, worked in outside broadcasts (1933–9), then held a series of senior posts in programme presentation, retiring from the BBC in 1965. He provided the commentary on the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race for half a century (1931–80). More than anyone else, his voice ca…

less than 1 minute read

John (Desmond) Humphrys

Television journalist and presenter, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. He was educated at Cardiff High School and began his career with the Western Mail. In 1966 he joined the BBC as a reporter and became foreign correspondent in the USA and South Africa (1970–80), diplomatic correspondent (1980–1), and presenter on the Nine O'Clock News (1981–6). He joined the Today programme on Radio 4 (1987), an…

less than 1 minute read

John (Edensor) Littlewood

Mathematician, born in Rochester, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, lectured in Manchester (1907–10), then returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity, and remained there for the rest of his life. In collaboration with Godfrey Hardy, he wrote papers on summability theory, Tauberian theorems, Fourier series, analytic number theory, and the Riemann zeta-function. He was appointed to t…

less than 1 minute read

John (Edward) Masefield - Life, Works, Popular culture

Poet and novelist, born in Ledbury, Herefordshire, WC England, UK. Trained for the merchant service, he served his apprenticeship on a sailing ship. Ill health drove him ashore, and after three years in New York he returned to England to become a writer in 1897, first making his mark as a journalist. His earliest and best-known poetical work, Salt Water Ballads (containing ‘Sea Fever’), appeared…

less than 1 minute read

John (Edward) Redmond - Education and professional career, Distinguished political career, Home rule, Easter rebellion, Redmond's personal vision

Irish politician, born in Dublin, Ireland. He was called to the bar in 1886, and entered parliament in 1881. A champion of Home Rule, he became chairman of the Nationalist Party in 1900. He declined a seat in Asquith's coalition ministry (1915), but supported the War. He deplored the Irish rebellion, and opposed Sinn Féin. John Edward Redmond (September 1, 1856 – March 1918) was the lead…

less than 1 minute read

John (Edward) Thaw

Actor, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and went on to a prolific career in television, theatre, and films. Best known for his television work, which included The Sweeney (1974–8), Inspector Morse (1987–2000), Kavanagh QC (1995–2000), Goodnight Mr Tom (1999), and The Glass (2001). He won a number of BAFTA awards a…

less than 1 minute read

John (Eric) Adair - Source

British leadership-development consultant and writer. He studied at Cambridge, London, and Oxford universities, and developed his Action-Centred Leadership model while involved with leadership training at Sandhurst Military Academy (1963–9) and as an associate director of the Industrial Society (1969–73). The model states that a leader has to ensure that needs are met in three related areas - ge…

less than 1 minute read

John (Ernst) Steinbeck - Biography, Political views, Works, Bibliography, Quotation

Writer, born in Salinas, California, USA. He studied sporadically at Stanford (1919–25) before working in New York City as a reporter and bricklayer. He returned to California and worked at a variety of jobs until he could support himself as a writer. His fourth novel, Tortilla Flat (1935), was the first to gain him any critical or financial recognition. It was followed by In Dubious Battle (1936…

1 minute read

John (Esten) Cooke

Writer, born in Winchester, Vriginia, USA. He earned a national reputation with historical romances set in old Virginia, such as The Virginia Comedians (1854). His Civil War service with the Confederate army inspired him to write war novels and biographies of ‘Stonewall’ Jackson (1863) and Robert E Lee (1871). Returning to Virginia after the war, he wrote idealized novels of the antebellum South…

less than 1 minute read

John (Forbes) Kerry - Family history and childhood years, Military service (1966–1970), Anti-war activism (1970–1971)

US politician, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. He studied at Yale University, and then served with the US Navy in the Vietnam War, winning several awards for bravery in combat. He embarked on a career in law and worked as a prosecutor in Massachusetts before going into politics. In 1982 he was voted lieutenant governor for Massachusetts, and became senator in 1984, being successfully re-elected fo…

less than 1 minute read

John (Francis) Dodge

Automobile manufacturer, born in Niles, Michigan, USA. With his brother, Horace (Elgin) Dodge (1868–1920), also born in Niles, he began as a bicycle manufacturer in Ontario, Canada, then moved to Detroit (1901) to open a machine shop for the manufacture of automobile parts. In 1914 they expanded to make their own automobiles, and their innovations included the use of conveyor belts in manufacturi…

less than 1 minute read

John (Francis) McCormack - Bibliography

Tenor, born in Athlone, near Dublin, Ireland. He studied in Milan, made his London debut in 1905, and was engaged by Covent Garden opera for the 1905–6 season, appearing also in oratorio and as a Lieder singer. As an Irish nationalist, he did not appear in England during World War 1, but took US citizenship in 1919, and turned to popular sentimental songs. He was raised to the papal peerage as a …

less than 1 minute read

John (Francisco) Rechy - Novels and other works, Other works, Awards

Writer, born in El Paso, Texas, USA. He studied at the University of Texas, El Paso (BA), and at the New School for Social Research, New York City. He taught creative writing at several institutions and lived in Los Angeles and New York City. His novels primarily dealt with the search for love and identity by homosexual and bisexual characters, as in City of Night (1963) and Bodies and Souls (1983…

less than 1 minute read

John (Frederick) Kensett

Painter, born in Cheshire, Connecticut, USA. He began his career as an engraver, printing maps and banknotes in New York City. In 1840 he travelled in Europe, returning to New York in 1847. From then on he painted the detailed and luminous landscapes which made him a leader of the Hudson River School from 1850–70, as seen in ‘Lake George’ (1869). Artist John Frederick Kensett was born on…

less than 1 minute read

John (French) Sloan - Further reading

Artist, born in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Philadelphia Spring Garden Institute and Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and worked as a commercial artist and newspaper art reporter. Influenced by Robert Henri, and a member of ‘The Eight’, he produced a series of intimate warm-hearted etchings based on New York City life, which gave rise to the name ‘Ashcan school’. Throughout …

less than 1 minute read

John (Gadsby) Chapman

Painter, born in Alexandria, Virginia, USA. A portrait and historical painter who divided his time between New York and Washington, DC, he painted the famous mural, ‘Baptism of Pocahontas’ (1837–42) in the Rotunda of the Capitol Building in Washington, DC. John Chapman may be: …

less than 1 minute read

John (Galvin) Mitchell

Writer, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He studied at Yale (1954 BA), and became a journalist for a variety of newspapers including the New York Journal-American (1958–65). A science editor and writer for Newsweek (1965–8), he was a member of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (1966–8). His essays, articles, and historical sketches have appeared in numerous periodicals, notably …

less than 1 minute read

John (George) Walker

Athlete, born in Papakura, New Zealand. A world record holder at the 4 x 1500 m relay with the New Zealand team in Oslo in 1973, he gained international recognition at the 1974 Commonwealth Games when he won the silver medal behind Filbert Bayi's world record winning gold. He also took bronze in the 800 m. He was the first person to run a mile in less than 3:50 s in 1975. He set a world record …

less than 1 minute read

John (Gerard) Braine - Select bibliography

Writer, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. The success of his first book, Room at the Top (1957), enabled him to become a full-time novelist. The theme of aggressive ambition and determination to break through social barriers identified him with the ‘Angry Young Men’ of the 1950s. His novels deal mostly with the north of England and northerners, and include The Vodi (1959), Life at…

less than 1 minute read

John (Goodwin) Tower - Early life, education, and military, Family life, Early political career, In the Senate, Retirement

US senator, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He served in the navy during World War 2 and then studied at the London School of Economics. He was the first Republican ever elected to the US Senate from Texas (1961–85). He specialized in defence matters, was chairman of the Armed Services Committee, and chaired the Iran-Contra investigation (1986–7). In 1989 he was nominated for secretary of defence, …

less than 1 minute read

John (Harris) Harbison

Composer, born in Orange, New Jersey, USA. After studies at Harvard, Princeton, and in Berlin, he taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1969. He is admired for writing communicative music with an eclectic blend of techniques. John Harris Harbison (born December 20, 1938 in Orange, New Jersey) is a composer, best known for his operas and large choral works. Har…

less than 1 minute read

John (Harwood) Hick - Hick's Most Widely Known Ideas, Major works, Additional Selected Works

Theologian and philosopher of religion, born in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University, and was ordained in the Presbyterian Church of England in 1953. After a long teaching career in the USA and Cambridge, he held professorships in Birmingham (1967–82) and at Claremont Graduate School, CA (1979–92, now emeritus). He has produced several standard textbook…

less than 1 minute read

John (Henry) O'Hara - Life and work, Columns, Death, Bibliography

Writer, born in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, USA. He attended the Niagara Preparatory School (Niagara Falls, NY), and then worked as a reporter in Pottsville (1924–6), and held a variety of other jobs, such as steel worker and gas meter reader. He moved to New York City where he worked as a film critic and, using the name of Franey Delaney, as a radio commentator. He was a newspaper editor in Pittsb…

less than 1 minute read

John (Herbert) Dillinger - Early days, Robbery career, Death, Was it Dillinger?, Trivia, Tributes to Dillinger

Gangster, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The most famous of all US bank robbers, he specialized in armed robberies, terrorizing Indiana and neighbouring states (1933–4). After escaping from Crown Point county jail, where he was held on a murder charge, he was shot dead by FBI agents in Chicago. Some researchers have claimed that another man, not Dillinger, was killed by the FBI, as a hoax by…

less than 1 minute read

John (Howard) Northrop

Biochemist, born in Yonkers, New York, USA. He spent most of his career pursuing viral and enzyme research at the Rockefeller Institute (later university) (1924–61), with time also spent as professor of bacteriology at the University of California, Berkeley (1949–58). During the 1930s, he and his colleagues isolated the enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin. In 1939 he was the first to isolate a bact…

less than 1 minute read

John (Hoyer) Updike - Overview, Literary works

Writer, poet, and critic, born in Shillington, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Harvard (1954 BA) and the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Arts, Oxford (1954–5), and though he would not develop his youthful talents as an artist, he never lost his interest in art. He worked on the staff of the New Yorker for two years (1955–7), and while maintaining his relationship with that periodical, over th…

1 minute read

John (Inkster) Goodlad

Educator, born in North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He became professor and director of the University of California, Los Angeles Elementary School (1960–85) and dean of the Graduate School of Education (1967–83). In his major study, A Place Called School (1984), he criticized public schools' failure to teach analytical thinking. Goodlad has published over 30 books, over 100 chap…

less than 1 minute read

John (Jackson) Sparkman

US representative and senator, born in Hartselle, Alabama, USA. A farmer's son and a lawyer, he represented Alabama in Congress (Democrat, 1937–46) before being elected to the Senate (1946–79). A Southern conservative in the matter of civil-rights issues, he was moderate enough to be the Democrat candidate for vice-president (1952), and he chaired the Foreign Relations Committee (1975–9). …

less than 1 minute read

John (Jacob) Rhodes

US representative, born in Council Grove, Missouri, USA. A World War 2 veteran, he was judge advocate of the Arizona National Guard (1947–52) before going to Congress (Republican, 1953–83) where he was minority leader for eight years. John Rhodes may refer to: …

less than 1 minute read

John (James) Osborne - Complete works

Playwright, film producer, and actor, born in London, UK. Educated at public school in Devon, he was briefly a copywriter, and he wrote his first plays while working as an actor in repertory theatres. Look Back in Anger (1956, filmed 1958), his first play as sole author, established him as the first of the ‘Angry Young Men’, and introduced the character of Jimmy Porter. The Entertainer (1957, fi…

less than 1 minute read

John (Joseph) Curtin - Militant youth, Labor politician, Wartime leader, The Curtin legend

Australian statesman and prime minister (1941–5), born in Creswick, Victoria, SE Australia. He was active in trade union work, and edited a Perth newspaper. In 1928 he entered parliament, became leader of the Labor Party (1934), and was prime minister during most of World War 2. He organized national mobilization during the Japanese war, and died in office. John Curtin (8 January 1885 – …

less than 1 minute read

John (Joseph) Hughes

Catholic prelate, born in Co Tyrone, Ireland. Emigrating to the USA in 1817, he was ordained (1826) and carried out pastoral work in Philadelphia. He became coadjutor bishop of New York (1838), and succeeded four years later to the see, which was made an archdiocese in 1850. He founded St John's (now Fordham) College (1841), set up an ambitious parochial school system, helped found the American Co…

less than 1 minute read

John (Joseph) Keane

Catholic prelate, born in County Donegal, Ireland. Emigrating with his parents (1846), he settled in Baltimore, studied for the priesthood, and after ordination did parish work. In 1878 he became Bishop of Richmond. Regarded as a liberal, he earned a national reputation as a co-founder and first rector (1889–97) of Catholic University in Washington, DC. He held Vatican posts in Rome (1897–9), an…

less than 1 minute read

John (Joseph) Sirica

Judge, born in Waterbury, Connecticut, USA. The son of an immigrant Italian barber, he studied at Georgetown Law School (1926), but tried his hand at boxing before setting up his law practice in Washington, DC. He moved between government law appointments and private practice before being appointed to the Federal bench by President Eisenhower in 1957. Becoming chief judge (1971), he assigned the W…

less than 1 minute read

John (Lawrence) Ashbery - Life, Works, Bibliography, Secondary Sources

Poet and critic, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Harvard, Columbia, and New York universities, then spent some years as an art critic in Europe. He became associated with the New York School of poetry, publishing his first volume in 1953. Some Trees (1956) attracted considerable critical attention, and his 12th collection, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975) received several prizes, …

less than 1 minute read

John (Leslie) Prescott - Early life, Parliament, Deputy Prime Minister, Controversies, Trivia

British politician, born in Prestatyn, Denbighshire, NC Wales, UK. He served in the merchant navy (1955–63), and studied at Oxford and Hull universities. In 1968 he became an officer of the National Union of Seamen, and a Labour MP in 1970. Although opposed to Britain's membership of the European Community, he was elected to the European Parliament in 1975, and became leader of the Labour group (…

less than 1 minute read

John (Louis Emil) Dreyer

Astronomer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He worked at Birr Castle, Ireland, then became director of Armagh Observatory. He produced the standard catalogue on star clusters, nebulas, and galaxies, the New General Catalogue (NGC), which is still in use today. John Louis Emil Dreyer (February 13, 1852 – September 14, 1926) was a Danish-Irish astronomer. He was born Johan Ludvig E…

less than 1 minute read

John (Marcellus) Huston - Filmography

Film director, screenwriter, and actor, born in Nevada, Missouri, USA. He is the son of Walter Huston, and father of actress Anjelica Huston. After his acting debut off Broadway (1925), he held various jobs (including a hitch in the Mexican cavalry) until 1938, when he became a scriptwriter in Hollywood. His successes included Jezebel (1938), Sergeant York (1941), and The Maltese Falcon (1941), wi…

less than 1 minute read

John (Marlan) Poindexter - Education and early career, Naval career, U.S. Executive branch service

US naval officer and statesman, born in Washington, Indiana, USA. He studied at the US Naval Academy and the California Institute of Technology, and became chief of naval operations during the 1970s. In 1981 he joined President Reagan's National Security Council (NSC), becoming National Security Adviser in 1985. He resigned the following year, together with his assistant, Oliver North, in the afte…

less than 1 minute read

John (Marshall) Harlan - Biographical Information, Tenure at the Supreme Court, Death and Legacy

Jurist, born in Boyle Co, Kentucky, USA. He studied at Transylvania University and was admitted to the bar in 1853. An unsuccessful candidate for the US House of Representatives in 1858, he was a presidential elector on the Bell–Everett (Constitutional Union) ticket in 1860. Appointed to the Supreme Court where he became the outstanding liberal justice, he served 34 years (1877–1911), and is bes…

less than 1 minute read

John (Marwood) Cleese - Biography, Just For Laughs 2006, Radio credits, Television credits, Filmography, Trivia, Further reading

Comic actor and writer, born in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, SW England, UK. As a student at Cambridge he joined the Footlights Revue (1963). He appeared in the Broadway production of Half a Sixpence (1965) and returned to Britain to write and perform in such television series as The Frost Report (1966). He joined Monty Python's Flying Circus (1969–74), an anarchic series that changed the face of…

1 minute read

John (Milton) Cage - Early life and work, Apprenticeship, The Cornish School years, Asian aesthetics, Chance, Black Mountain, 4’33’’

Composer, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He studied with a number of teachers, including Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg, who encouraged his avant-garde interests. He began writing all-percussion pieces in the 1930s and proclaimed the use of noise as the next musical horizon. In 1938 he introduced the ‘prepared piano’, an instrument whose sound is radically modified by various objects …

less than 1 minute read

John (Milton) Hay

Journalist, historian, poet, and diplomat, born in Salem, Indiana, USA. After working in a law office next to that of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield, IL, he served President Lincoln in the White House as assistant private secretary (1861–5) in a close relationship that has been described as resembling that of father and son. He then served as diplomat in Paris (1865–76), Vienna (1867–8), and Ma…

less than 1 minute read

John (Newton) Mitchell

Lawyer and US cabinet member, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. A wealthy New York investment lawyer (1936–68), he specialized in municipal bonds. President Nixon's 1968 campaign manager and attorney general (1969–73), he used illegal surveillance methods against student radicals and African-American activists. Convicted of obstruction of justice in the Watergate investigation, he served 19 months…

less than 1 minute read

John (of England) - Popes, Antipopes, Rulers, Other

King of England (1199–1216), the youngest son of Henry II, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK, and one of the least popular monarchs in English history. He tried to seize the crown during Richard I's captivity in Germany (1193–4), but was forgiven and nominated successor by Richard, who thus set aside the rights of Arthur, the son of John's elder brother Geoffrey. Arthur's claims were s…

less than 1 minute read

John (Patrick) McEnroe - Playing style, Famous battles with Björn Borg (1980-81)

Tennis player, born in Wiesbaden, WC Germany. He trained at Port Washington Tennis Academy in New York State, and at 18 became the youngest man to reach the Wimbledon semifinals (1977). He won four US Open singles titles (1979–81, 1984) and three Wimbledon singles titles (1981, 1983-4), and was an invaluable member of the US Davis Cup team between 1978 and 1985. He was also Grand Prix winner in 1…

less than 1 minute read

John (Paul) Corigliano

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After some years working in television and radio, he taught in New York and was composer-in-residence of the Chicago Symphony (1987–90). His music has been described as polished, popularistic avant-gardism. His Symphony No 1 received a Grammy award in 1992. John Corigliano (born February 16, 1938) is an American composer of classical music. …

less than 1 minute read

John (Paul) Goode

Cartographer and geographer, born near Stewartville, Minnesota, USA. In 1903 he helped found the department of geography at the University of Chicago. His work in cartographic representation and ‘projections’ was a great boost to American geography in the first third of the century. He also displayed great knowledge of economic geography. This article incorporates facts obtained from the …

less than 1 minute read

John (Peter) Berger - Biography, Sources, Bibliography

Novelist, playwright, and art critic, born in London, UK. After studying at the Central and Chelsea Schools of Art he began to work as a painter and a drawing teacher, but soon turned to writing. His Marxism and artistic background are ever present in his novels, which include A Painter of Our Time (1958), The Foot of Clive (1962), and Corker's Freedom (1964). G (1972), a story of migrant workers…

less than 1 minute read

John (Peter) McGrath

Playwright and theatre director, born in Birkenhead, Merseyside, NW England, UK. Between 1958 and 1961 he was a television director with the BBC, and wrote scripts for Z Cars. He founded the 7:84 Theatre Company in 1971, and was their artistic director until 1988. His many popular political plays include Fish in the Sea (1975), Yobbo Nowt (1978), and Swings and Roundabouts (1981). Later works incl…

less than 1 minute read

John (Philip) Holland

Inventor, born in Liscannor, Co Clare, W Ireland. He studied in Limerick, and taught there until emigrating to the USA in 1873. He continued as a teacher until 1879, and began designing submarines, building the Fenian Ram (financed by the Fenian Society), which was launched on the Hudson R in 1881. In 1898 he launched the Holland VI, and successfully demonstrated it on and under the Potomac R. It …

less than 1 minute read

John (Purroy) Mitchel - Deportation and the Jail Journal, Pro-slavery campaigner in the United States, Elected an MP

Mayor, born in Fordham, New York, USA. The grandson of the ardent Irish nationalist, John Mitchel, he was a lawyer who came to prominence as a special investigator of New York City officials (1906). Running as a fusion candidate, he won the New York mayoralty in 1913, the youngest mayor in the city's history. He introduced a number of much-needed civic reforms, including a programme of tax relief,…

less than 1 minute read

John (Richard) Hersey - Bibliography

Writer, born in Tientsin, E China. He studied at Yale, and became a correspondent in the Far East for Time magazine (1937–46). Acclaimed for his clever fictionalizing of fact, his early novel, A Bell for Adano (1944), won the Pulitzer Prize, and was dramatized and filmed. Hiroshima (1946) was the first on-the-spot description of the effects of a nuclear explosion. Other titles include The War Lov…

less than 1 minute read

John (Richard) Pilger - Life and career, Criticism of 'mainstream' journalism

Journalist and documentary film-maker, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. A provocative and controversial journalist who has worked mainly in Britain, he has twice won the British Journalist of the Year award and is a winner of the UNESCO Peace Prize. His film Year Zero (1979) exposed the atrocities of Pol Pot to the world. Later films include Vietnam: The Last Battle (1995) and Inside…

less than 1 minute read

John (Richard) Reid

Cricketer, born in Auckland, New Zealand. For almost 15 years he was the batting lynchpin in a weak New Zealand Test side. Six of his 39 first-class centuries were made in Tests, for which he was selected 58 times. He took part in four record Test stands for New Zealand, and held the record for the number of sixes in a first-class innings (15) from 1962–3 to 1995. John Reid may refer to: …

less than 1 minute read

John (Richard) Schlesinger - Selected Films

Film director, born in London, UK. He directed art documentary films for television, and made his first feature film of contemporary social realism, A Kind of Loving, in 1962, followed by Billy Liar (1963). His interpretation of Hardy's Far from the Madding Crowd (1967), the downbeat urban Midnight Cowboy (1969, Oscar), and the sensitive Sunday, Bloody Sunday (1971) showed his width of range. Late…

less than 1 minute read

John (Richard) Slattery

Catholic religious leader, born in New York City, New York, USA. Heir to a construction company fortune, he was ordained as a Mill Hill Father (1877). In 1884 he became a missionary among African-Americans in the Richmond, VA area. As rector of a Boston seminary (from 1888) and founder of the Josephite Fathers (1892), he trained other priests for such missionary work. A progressive concerned with …

less than 1 minute read

John (Robert) Fowles - Bibliography

Writer, born in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, served in the Royal Marines (1945–6), became a teacher, and published his first novel, The Collector, in 1963. His writings combine a topographical interest in Devon, a respect for the Victorian novel of social life and personal relationships, and an interest in contemporary developments in the French novel. His books incl…

less than 1 minute read

John (Robert) Schrieffer

Physicist, born in Oak Park, Illinois, USA. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Illinois University, then taught at Chicago, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Cornell (1969–75), and California (Santa Barbara) universities. Collaboration with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper led to the BCS (Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer) theory of superconductivity, for which all three shared the 1972 Nobe…

less than 1 minute read

John (Robert) Wooden - High School and College, Coaching Career, The Wooden Championships, Legacy, Following Wooden

Basketball coach, born in Martinsville, Indiana, USA. As a student he was College Player of the Year (1932), but it was as coach that his reputation grew. He was head basketball coach at the University of California, Los Angeles (1948–75), and named Coach of the Year by the US Writers Association six times between 1964 and 1973. As a high school student, Wooden played in Indiana where he l…

less than 1 minute read

John (Roderigo) Dos Passos - Early life, Literary career, Influence, Artistic career, Dos Passos Prize, Literary works

Novelist and war correspondent, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Harvard, and was an ambulance driver in the later years of World War 1, out of which came his antiwar novel, Three Soldiers (1921). He then worked in Europe and elsewhere as a newspaper correspondent. His best-known work is the trilogy on US life, U.S.A. (1930–6). John Rodrigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 — Sep…

less than 1 minute read

John (Sharp) Williams - Early life, Film scoring, Collaborations with Steven Spielberg, Conducting and performing, The Olympics, Concert works, Awards

US representative and senator, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. A lawyer and cotton plantation owner, he was minority leader in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Mississippi, 1893–1909), and chairman of the Library and University Committees in the Senate (1911–23). John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is one of the most widely recognized composers of film scores. …

less than 1 minute read

John (Simmons) Barth - Literary work, Selected works

Writer and educator, born in Cambridge, Maryland, USA. He studied at Johns Hopkins University where, during a long academic career, he joined the English faculty in 1973. His novels, some set on Maryland's Eastern Shore, were distinctive for their formal ingenuity and an existential questioning bordering on nihilism. They include The End of the Road (1958), Chimera (1972, National Book Award), and…

less than 1 minute read

John (Sleigh) Pudney - Works

Writer, born in Langley, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. Educated at Gresham's School, Holt, he joined the BBC as a radio producer and scriptwriter, then worked on the News Chronicle and later The Daily Express and News Review. His poem ‘For Johnny’, written during an air raid in London in 1941, became immediately popular, later appearing in the collection Dispersal Point and Other Air Poems (1…

less than 1 minute read

John (Steuart) Curry - Competitive highlights, Navigation

Painter, born in Jefferson Co, Kansas, USA. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1916–18), made drawings for the Ringling Brothers Circus in 1932, and later became artist in residence at the University of Wisconsin (1936–46). ‘Tornado Over Kansas’ (1933) is a fine example of his populist subject matter, and ‘The Mississipi’ (1935) demonstrates his sensitivity to social issues. …

less than 1 minute read

John (Thomas) Sayles

Writer, film scriptwriter, director, and actor, born in Schenectady, New York, USA. After graduating from Williams College, he wrote fiction, publishing prize-winning short stories and the novels Pride of Bimbos (1975) and Union Dues (1977). These led him to Hollywood and scriptwriting, and he spent several years working on low-rate films until he was able to write, direct, and act in The Return o…

less than 1 minute read

John (Thompson) Stonehouse - Education and early career, Stonehouse becomes an MP, Business interests, Fakes his own death, On trial

British politician, born in Southampton, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at the London School of Economics, and was elected to the House of Commons as a Labour MP in 1957. He held junior ministerial posts under Harold Wilson before being appointed minister of technology (1967–8) and minister of posts and telecommunications (1968–70). Complications in his financial affairs and private life l…

less than 1 minute read

John (Towner) Williams - Early life, Film scoring, Collaborations with Steven Spielberg, Conducting and performing, The Olympics, Concert works, Awards

Film composer and conductor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He is the leading screen composer of his generation, his early films including Superman (1978) and the Star Wars and Indiana Jones series. In 1980 he became conductor of the Boston Pops, retiring from that post in 1992 to devote his time to composing. Later scores include A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001), Harry Potter and the Ph…

less than 1 minute read

John (Urpeth) Rastrick

Civil and mechanical engineer, born in Morpeth, Northumberland, NE England, UK. Articled to his father, from c.1801 he gained experience with several firms of iron-founders, and designed and built the cast-iron bridge over the Wye at Chepstow (1815–16). He was engineer of the Stratford & Moreton horse-drawn railway (1822), and in 1826, with George Stephenson, supported the use of steam locomotive…

less than 1 minute read

John (Vincent) Atanasoff - Education, Computer development, Intellectual property entanglement, Postwar life, Honors and distinctions, External links and references

Physicist and computer pioneer, born in Hamilton, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Florida, Iowa State College, and the University of Wisconsin. In 1942, with the help of Clifford Berry (1918–63), he built an electronic calculating machine - the ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) - one of the first calculating devices using vacuum tubes. John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903

less than 1 minute read

John (Vliet) Lindsay - Early life, Mayoralty, Assessment

Mayor and US representative, born in Queens, New York, USA. He studied at Yale University and Yale Law School, and became executive assistant US attorney general (1955–6) and a three-term member of the House of Representatives from New York City's ‘Silk Stocking’ district on the Upper East Side (Republican, 1959–65). A liberal Republican in 1971, during his first term as mayor of New York (196…

less than 1 minute read

John (White) Alexander

Painter, born near Pittsburg, Allegheny Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He began as an illustrator for Harper's Weekly in New York (c.1874), studied in Germany and Venice (1877), returned to New York (1879), and moved to Paris (1890–1901). He settled in New York (1901) and was a successful portrait painter using an Art Nouveau style, as seen in ‘Isabella; or the Pot of Basil’ (1897). John Alexand…

less than 1 minute read

John (William) Coltrane - Early life and career (1926-1954), The Classic Quartet (1960-1965)

Jazz musician, born in Hamlet, North Carolina, USA. Originally an alto saxophonist, he moved to Philadelphia after graduating from high school, where he had received his first formal training. He played with a local group (1945), then spent part of his military service (1945–6) in a US Navy band stationed in Hawaii. He studied woodwind at the Granoff Studios and the Ornstein School of Music in Ph…

less than 1 minute read

John (William) Gardner - Early life and education, Fiction, Teaching and criticism, Scholarship, Cancer, Family life, Books by Gardner

Educator and social activist, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. As president of the Carnegie Corp and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (1955–65), and as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (1965–9), he exerted a powerful innovative influence on mathematics teaching, civil rights, and children's television. He founded (1970) and was first chairman (until 1977) o…

less than 1 minute read

John (William) Heisman

Coach of American football, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. He began coaching in 1892 at Oberlin College and was successful at several schools. His longest tenure was at Georgia Tech (1904–19), where he produced undefeated teams during 1915–17. A supreme innovator, he invented numerous plays and championed the legalization of the forward pass. The Heisman Trophy, awarded annually since 1935 to col…

less than 1 minute read

John (William) McCormack - Bibliography

US representative, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A public-school graduate who studied law privately, he became a lawyer (1913) and a power in Democratic politics after he returned from the army (1918). He served in both the Massachusetts House and Senate (1920–6) before going mid-term to the US House of Representatives (1928–71). A skilled tactician, he was majority leader and minority whi…

less than 1 minute read

John (William) Solomon

British croquet player. He made his international debut against New Zealand in 1950 at age 19, and never missed an England Test Match between 1950 and 1973. He won a record 10 Open Croquet Championships (1953, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1963–8), the Men's Championship 10 times between 1951 and 1972, the Open Doubles Championship 10 times (all with Edmond Cotter) between 1954 and 1969, and the Mixed Double…

less than 1 minute read

John (Winslow) Irving - Career, Recent, Bibliography, Quotes

Writer, born in Exeter, New Hampshire, USA. He studied at the universities of New Hampshire (1965 BA), Iowa (1967 MFA), Pittsburgh (1961–2), and Vienna (Austria) (1963–4), and went on to teach at Mount Holyoke (1967–72), the University of Iowa (1972–5), and at Bread Loaf Writers Conference, Middlebury, VT. His first three novels received little attention, but he made his name with The World Ac…

less than 1 minute read

John (Winston) Howard - Early life, Rising politician, Success, failure, success, Prime Minister

Australian statesman and prime minister (1996– ), born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. Educated at Sydney University, he became a solicitor, and was elected Liberal MP for Bennelong, New South Wales, in 1974. He held ministerial posts in business and trade before becoming Federal Treasurer (1977–83) and deputy-leader (1983–5) then leader of the Liberal Party in Opposition (1985–9, 19…

less than 1 minute read

John (Winston) Lennon - Role in the Beatles, Lennon and his families, Lennon and Yoko Ono, Solo career

Pop star, composer, songwriter, and recording artist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He was the Beatles rhythm guitarist, keyboard player, and vocalist, and a partner in the Lennon–McCartney song-writing team. He married Japanese artist Yoko Ono - his second marriage - in 1969. Together they invented a form of peace protest by staying in bed while being filmed and interviewed, and…

less than 1 minute read

John Adair - Source

Scottish surveyor and cartographer, who did notable work in mapping Scotland and its coast and islands. He prepared maps of counties in the central belt of Scotland (1680–6), and in 1703 published Description of the Sea-Coast and Islands of Scotland (Part 1). John Adair (January 9, 1757 – May 19, 1840) was an American pioneer, soldier and statesman of Mercer County, Kentucky. …

less than 1 minute read

John Adams - Early Life, Politics, Continental Congress, Thoughts on Government, Declaration of Independence, Constitutional ideas, Vice Presidency

British seaman, and a ringleader in the mutiny against Captain William Bligh on the Bounty in 1789. With other mutineers he founded a colony on Pitcairn I. When the island was visited in 1809 by the US sealer Topaz, Adams was the sole European survivor. Revered as the patriarch of the Pitcairn settlement, he received a royal pardon for his part in the mutiny. John Adams (October 31, 1735

less than 1 minute read

John Adams - Early Life, Politics, Continental Congress, Thoughts on Government, Declaration of Independence, Constitutional ideas, Vice Presidency

US statesman and second president (1797–1801), born in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard and settled into a law practice in Boston. Although he defended British soldiers after the Boston Massacre (1770), he had also shown ‘patriot’ sympathies by pamphleteering against the Stamp Act (1765). Having gained prominence as a political thinker and writer, he was sent as…

1 minute read

John Addington Symonds - Early life, Marriage and continued writings, After death, Homosexuality and homosexual writings

Writer and critic, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became a fellow of Balliol College in 1862. His major work was History of the Italian Renaissance (7 vols, 1875–86), and he also wrote travel books, literary monographs, biographies, translations, and poetry. In 1877 he settled for health reasons in Davos, Switzerland. John Addington Symonds (October 5, 1840…

less than 1 minute read

John Albion Andrew - Early life and career, Governor of Massachusetts

US governor, born in Windham, Maine, USA. He studied at Bowdoin College, where he was known for his strong anti-slavery views. A Boston lawyer, he helped to organize the Free Soil Party (1848), became a leader of the new Republican Party, and raised money for John Brown's defence (1859). As governor of Massachusetts (1860–6), he worked indefatigably to raise and equip regiments for the Union caus…

less than 1 minute read

John Alden

Pilgrim, born in England, UK. He was a cooper aboard the Mayflower and signed the Mayflower Compact. Although he did marry Priscilla Mullens, there is no basis for the story told in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's The Courtship of Miles Standish. He held several important posts within the Duxbury colony, where he had moved to from nearby Plymouth c.1627. John Alden (1599?-September 22, 1687) w…

less than 1 minute read

John Alden Carpenter

Composer, born in Park Ridge, Illinois, USA. A student of John Knowles Paine at Harvard and Edward Elgar in England, he pursued a business career while also actively composing. He was noted for basing his music on urban subjects, with reference to jazz and popular culture, as in the ballets Krazy Kat (1922) and Skyscraper (1926). John Alden Carpenter (February 28, 1876 - April 26, 1951) was…

less than 1 minute read

John Alderton

Actor, born in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. A member of the York Repertory Company, he made his debut in Emergency Ward 10 (1961), and his West End debut in Spring and Port Wine at the Apollo Theatre. From 1969 he appeared regularly on stage, and became popularly known on television with series such as Please Sir, My Wife Next Door, and Forever Green (with actress wife Pauline Colli…

less than 1 minute read

John Alexander Dowie - Faith healer, Ahmadiyya Movement

Religious leader, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He emigrated to Australia in 1860 and became a Congregational pastor in Sydney. In 1888 he emigrated to the USA, where he organized the Christian Catholic Church in Zion (1896). He became a faith healer, and proclaimed himself ‘Elijah the Restorer’, in 1901 founding near Chicago the prosperous industrial and banking community called ‘Zion Ci…

less than 1 minute read

John Amery

British pro-Nazi adventurer, the son (later disowned) of L S Amery. Recruited by the Nazis in France, he began pro-Hitler broadcasts from Berlin in 1942. He tried to raise an anti-Bolshevik free corps in the British internee camp at St-Denis to fight for the Nazis on the Russian front (1943), and made speeches for Hitler in Norway, France, Belgium, and Yugoslavia (1944). Captured by Italian partis…

less than 1 minute read

John Anderson

Scientist, born in Roseneath, Argyll and Bute, W Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow, where he became professor of oriental languages, and then of natural philosophy. He also established a bi-weekly class for mechanics, and at his death left all he had to found Anderson's College in Glasgow. See also, …

less than 1 minute read

John Anderson

Philosopher, born in Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow University and taught (1918–27) at the universities of Cardiff, Glasgow, and Edinburgh before becoming professor of philosophy at the University of Sydney (1927–58). He can be regarded as the founder and main exponent of an Australian school of philosophy, espousing a distinctive blend of realism, empiricism, and materialism. His articles …

less than 1 minute read

John Arbuthnot - Biography, Life during the Hanoverians, Literary significance

Physician and writer, born in Inverbervie, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland. UK. A close friend of Jonathan Swift and all the literary celebrities of the day, he was also a distinguished doctor and writer of medical works, and a physician in ordinary to Queen Anne (1705). In 1712 he published five satirical pamphlets against the Duke of Marlborough, called The History of John Bull, which was the origin …

less than 1 minute read

John Archibald Campbell - Further reading

Judge, born near Washington, Georgia, USA. An experienced lawyer, he was appointed by President Millard Fillmore to the US Supreme Court in 1853. Known for his independence and strict interpretation of the Constitution, he was attacked by abolitionists for supporting the Dred Scott decision. He opposed secession, but when Georgia seceded he resigned from the court (1861) and served as assistant se…

less than 1 minute read

John Archibald Wheeler - Biographical summary, Bibliography

Theoretical physicist, born in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. He studied at Johns Hopkins and Copenhagen universities, and spent most of his career at Princeton (1938–76), before moving to the University of Texas, Austin (1976–86). With Niels Bohr, he explained the mechanism of nuclear fission (1939), and later led a Princeton team working on the hydrogen bomb (Project Matterhorn). He worked with R…

less than 1 minute read

John Arden

Playwright, born in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at King's College, Cambridge, and the Edinburgh College of Art. His first play, the romantic comedy All Fall Down, was produced in 1955. His aggressive awareness of N England is particularly evident in The Workhouse Donkey (1963), a caricature of northern local politics, and in Serjeant Musgrave's Dance (1959), following the …

less than 1 minute read

John Armstrong - Early life, Indian wars, American Revolution, Later life

American soldier and explorer, born in New Jersey, USA. He was a militia officer in the American Revolution and then served in the regular army (1784–93). He commanded Fort Pitt (1785–6) and was sent on a secret government exploration mission into Spanish territory and up the Missouri River (1790). He fought heroically in General Harmar's Indian campaign (1790) and later served as treasurer of t…

less than 1 minute read

John Ashcroft - Early career: lawyer, governor, U.S. Senator, 2000 reelection campaign

US attorney general, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Yale University (1964) and trained as a lawyer at Chicago (1967), then taught business law at Southwest Missouri State University (1968–73). He became Missouri's state auditor (1973–4), assistant attorney general (1975–6), and attorney general (1976–84). Elected governor of Missouri for two terms (1984–92), he then entered the…

less than 1 minute read

John Aubrey

Antiquary and folklorist, born in Easton Percy, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford and London, training as a lawyer, but was never called to the bar. Only his quaint, credulous Miscellanies (1696) of folklore and ghost-stories was printed in his lifetime, but he left a large mass of unpublished materials. He also collected biographical and anecdotal material on celebrities of his time,…

less than 1 minute read

John Austin

Jurist, born in Creeting Mill, Suffolk, E England, UK. In 1818 he was called to the bar at the Inner Temple, London, and was appointed professor of jurisprudence at the University of London (1826–32). His Province of Jurisprudence Determined (1832), defining the sphere of ethics and law, came to revolutionize English views on the subject. …

less than 1 minute read

John B(atterson) Stetson

Manufacturer, born in Orange, New Jersey, USA. Born into a family of hatters with 11 siblings, he learned the trade and set out on his own. Ill health forced him West, where a life outdoors restored him, and in 1865 he moved to Philadelphia and opened a hat factory. He achieved success by relying on his own taste for style and by building a reputation for quality. At his death he left an industria…

less than 1 minute read

John Bachman

Clergyman and naturalist, born in Rhinebeck, New York, USA. A naturalist and a spiritual thinker from his youth, he was ordained as a Lutheran minister (1814) and led a congregation in Charleston, SC (1815–65). He met John James Audubon in 1831 and they co-wrote The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845–9). Two of Bachman's daughters married Audubon's sons. Unfortunately connected with th…

less than 1 minute read

John Backus

Mathematician and computer specialist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He was the project leader of the group at International Business Machines (IBM) that developed FORTRAN (1953–7), the first high-level language in data processing. He also worked on the IBM 704 computer with Gene Amdahl during the 1950s, and worked on ALGOL 58 and 60. John Warner Backus (born December 3, 1924) i…

less than 1 minute read

John Bacon

Sculptor, born in London, UK. He became one of the first students of the Royal Academy Schools, and is responsible for the monuments to William Pitt the Elder in Westminster Abbey and the Guildhall, the statue of Dr Johnson in St Paul's, and others. John Bacon (November 24, 1740 - August 4, 1799) was a British sculptor. he imitated them with so much success that in 1758 a small figure of Pe…

less than 1 minute read

John Baillie

Theologian, born in Gairloch, Highland, N Scotland, UK. He studied at Inverness Academy and Edinburgh, and trained for the ministry at New College, Edinburgh, Marburg, and Jena. After World War 1 he went to the USA, where he taught at Auburn Theological Seminary (1920–7) and Union Seminary (1930–5), both in New York, before returning to Scotland. He was a key contributor to mid-20th-c religious,…

less than 1 minute read

John Bale

Clergyman and playwright, born in Cove, Suffolk, E England, UK. A Carmelite by training, he became a Protestant in 1533, and was later made Bishop of Ossory in Leinster. He became so obnoxious to Roman Catholics with his polemical writings that his house was attacked and five servants killed. On Queen Elizabeth I's accession he was made a prebendary of Canterbury. His drama, King John (c.1535), is…

less than 1 minute read

John Ball

Botanist and alpinist, born in Dublin, Ireland. He was the first president of the Alpine Club (1857) and author of the Alpine Guide (1863–8). Liberal MP for Carlow, Ireland, he was colonial under-secretary (1855–7), and wrote on the botany of Morocco and South America. John Ball may be: …

less than 1 minute read

John Barbour - Biography, Father of Scots language poetry, The Brus, Legends of the Saints, Buik of Alexander

Poet, clergyman, and scholar, probably born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. He was Archdeacon of Aberdeen from 1357, or earlier, till his death. His national epic, The Brus, written in the 1370s, is a narrative poem on the life and deeds of King Robert I, the Bruce, preserving many oral traditions. In a letter of safe-conduct dated 1357, allowing him to go to the University of Oxford for stud…

less than 1 minute read

John Bardeen - Early life and education, Later life and career

Physicist, born in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. He studied electrical engineering at Wisconsin University, and mathematical physics at Princeton (1936). After World War 2, he joined a new solid-state physics group at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where with Walter Brattain and William Shockley he developed the point-contact transistor (1947), for which they shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1956. P…

less than 1 minute read

John Barry

US naval officer, born in Tacumshane, Co Wexford, SE Ireland. He went to sea early and settled in Philadelphia by 1760. An ardent patriot, he became a Continental Navy captain, and commanded the USS Lexington and Effingham (1776–8). He took the Marquis de Lafayette back to France after the victory at Yorktown (1781), and captured numerous British vessels in 1782. After the Revolution, he worked i…

less than 1 minute read

John Barrymore - Background, Marriages, Dying words, Quotation

Stage and film actor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Brother of Ethel Barrymore and Lionel Barrymore of the great acting family, he made his debut in 1903 and became a matinee idol. He triumphed on stage as Hamlet (1922), then turned to films and radio. Married four times, he caricatured his own decadent, alcohol-ridden life in a series of minor comedies, including The Great Profile (194…

less than 1 minute read

John Bartram - Background, Contact with other botanists

Botanist, born near Darby, Pennsylvania, USA. He developed an early interest in botany while growing up on his father's farm, and after completing country school at age 12, he taught himself classical languages, medicine, and surgery from books. In 1728 he purchased land at Kingsessing, near Philadelphia, which he developed into the first botanical garden in the American colonies and where he cond…

1 minute read

John Baskerville - Sculpture

Printer, born in Wolverley, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. He became a writing master in Birmingham, and from 1740 carried on a successful japanning (varnishing) business there. In c.1750 he began to make experiments in letter founding, and produced the types named after him. His works include editions of Virgil, Milton, and the Bible. In 1758 he became printer to Cambridge University. Joh…

less than 1 minute read

John Bassett Moore - Works

International jurist, born in Smyrna, Delaware, USA. He combined public service with legal scholarship as a professor of law and diplomacy at Columbia University (1891–1924). At the US State Department (1885–91), he dealt with all major American consular business. He was assistant secretary of state during the Spanish-American War and a State Department counsellor (1913–14), and became the firs…

less than 1 minute read

John Bates Clark - Major works

Economist, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. He pioneered the marginal productivity theory and engaged in a lifelong debate with the Austrian economist Bohm-Bawerk regarding the fixed status of capital funds. He taught at Smith College (1881–93) and Johns Hopkins (1893–5) before moving to Columbia University, where he remained until his retirement in 1923. Clark was born and raised i…

less than 1 minute read

John Bell

Sculptor, born in Hopton, Suffolk, E England, UK. He produced the Guards' Memorial (1858) in Waterloo Place, and the American group in the Hyde Park Albert Memorial (1873). He popularized carved wooden breadknives and trenchers. …

less than 1 minute read

John Bell

US senator and cabinet officer, born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. A prominent Tennessee lawyer, he served in the US House of Representatives (1827–41), first as a Democrat, then as a Whig, and as the latter he served less than a year as secretary of war (1841) and then as a moderate US senator from Tennessee (1847–59). Although he owned slaves, he was opposed to the spread of slavery in the new…

less than 1 minute read

John Bell Hatcher

Palaeontologist, born in Cooperstown, Illinois, USA. His leadership of numerous expeditions in the USA and Patagonia (1896–9) established him as a major American collector of fossils. He discovered the first fossil remains of Triceratops in 1889. John Bell Hatcher (October 11, 1861 – July 3, 1904) was an American paleontologist and renowned fossil-hunter most famous for discovering Toros…

less than 1 minute read

John Bell Hood - Early life, Civil War, Post-bellum career

US soldier, born in Owingsville, Kentucky, USA. A doctor's son, he graduated from West Point (1853) near the bottom of his class, and served in California and Texas. Resigning to join the Confederate service, he commanded a brigade at Second Bull Run and Antietam (both 1862) and a division at Gettysburg, where he was seriously wounded. Wounded again at Chickamauga (1863), he recovered from the amp…

less than 1 minute read

John Belushi - Biography, Death, Filmography, Trivia, Recurring Characters on SNL, Celebrity Impersonations on SNL

Comedian and actor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. After appearing with the Second City comedy troop in the 1970s, he achieved national recognition in National Lampoon's Lemmings (1973). On the National Broadcasting Company's Saturday Night Live (1974–9), he portrayed uniquely manic characters. He left to star in films, including The Blues Brothers (1980), then died of a drug overdose in Califor…

less than 1 minute read

John Benbow

English naval commander, born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He was master of the fleet at Beachy Head (1690), and at Barfleur and La Hague (1692). He commanded squadrons off Dunkirk (1693–5), and as a rear-admiral was commander-in-chief West Indies from 1698. In 1702, he came up against a superior French force off Santa Marta. For four days he kept up a running fight, almost deserted…

less than 1 minute read

John Berryman - Published works, Writers' Workshop, Suicide, Poetry, Bibliography

Poet, biographer, novelist, and academic, born in McAlester, Oklahoma, USA. He studied at Columbia and Cambridge (UK) universities, and taught at several universities before becoming professor of humanities at the University of Minnesota (1955–72). Often pigeon-holed as a confessional poet, he disparaged the label. Homage to Mistress Bradstreet (1956), established his reputation, and his major wo…

less than 1 minute read

John Bertram Andrews

Labour expert, social reformer, and economist, born in South Wayne, Wisconsin, USA. He studied history and economics at the University of Wisconsin (PhD) under labour historian John R Commons (1908), and became the executive secretary of a new organization he co-founded, the American Association for Labor Legislation, which promoted progressive labour legislation. To support its work he also found…

less than 1 minute read

John Bertram Phillips

Bible translator, writer, and broadcaster, born in London, UK. He was made famous by Letters to Young Churches (1947), translations of Paul's epistles begun in 1941 to encourage his church youth club, and in due course by the complete New Testament in Modern English (1958). He wrote a dozen best sellers, including Your God is Too Small (1952), A Man Called Jesus (1959), and Ring of Truth: a Transl…

less than 1 minute read

John Birch Society - Core values, Origins, Robert Welch and "The Politician", 1960s, 1970s, After Welch, New American

A moderately sized, extreme right-wing pressure group in the USA which promotes conservative ideas and policies, and is strongly patriotic and anti-communist. Founded in 1958, the name derives from a US missionary and intelligence officer, killed by Chinese communists on 25 August 1945, who was seen by the Society as the first hero of the Cold War. The John Birch Society is an Americanist o…

less than 1 minute read

John Blair - Career before the Constitutional Convention, Contributions to the constitutional convention, Supreme Court Service

Judge, born in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. He attended the Constitutional Convention (1787) and signed the US Constitution. Known for his support of a strong national government, President Washington appointed him to the first US Supreme Court (1789–96). John Blair (1732–August 31, 1800) was an American politician, Founding Father, and Patriot. John Blair was one of the best…

less than 1 minute read

John Blow - Listening

Composer, born in Newark, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He became organist at Westminster Abbey (1668), Master of the Children at the Chapel Royal (1674), and Master of the Children at St Paul's (1687). He is known for his vast output of anthems and church services, and also for his masque, Venus and Adonis (1680–5), which was performed before Charles II. John Blow (1649 – October 1, 1…

less than 1 minute read

John Bodkin Adams - Edith Alice Morrell, Gertrude Hullett, The Investigation and Trial

British physician. A general practitioner in Eastbourne, SE England, UK, he was tried in March 1957 for the murder of one of his patients, Edith Alice Morrell. Morrell had died in mysterious circumstances, following long courses of heroin and morphine prescribed by Adams, who was a beneficiary of her will. Although found not guilty, he was struck off the Medical Register, but reinstated in 1961. W…

less than 1 minute read

John Boorman - Filmography

Film director, born in Shepperton, Surrey, SE England, UK. He worked for Southern Television, and became head of the BBC documentary unit (1962). He made his first feature film Catch Us if You Can (1965), and followed this with the stylish American thriller Point Blank (1967). Later films include Deliverance (1972), Excalibur (1981), Hope and Glory (1987), Beyond Rangoon (1995), The General (1998)…

less than 1 minute read

John Boyd Thacher - Politics

Book collector, public official, and writer, born in Albany, New York, USA. Associated with his family's manufacturing firm for most of his life, he was also a state senator and mayor of Albany. As a hobby he collected incunabula and valuable materials on Christopher Columbus, of whom he wrote a biography. John Boyd Thacher (1847-09-11–1909-02-25) was the Mayor of Albany, New York and New…

less than 1 minute read

John Boyle O'Reilly - Early life, Transportation, Escape, Recognition, Works of John Boyle O'Reilly, Contempory Peformances, Trivia

Writer, editor, and poet, born near Drogheda, Ireland. He was apprenticed as a journalist and worked in Ireland and England. He was arrested and tried (1866) on the charge of being a Fenian and traitor to England, and was convicted, imprisoned, and deported to the penal colony in Australia (1868). He escaped to the USA (1869), settled in Boston, and resumed his career as a journalist. He became co…

less than 1 minute read

John Bratby

Artist and writer, born in London, UK. He studied at Kingston Art School and the Royal College of Art. A leading protagonist of English ‘New Realism’, in the mid-1950s he was associated with the ‘kitchen sink’ school because of his preoccupation with working-class domestic interiors, as in ‘Baby in Pram’ (Liverpool). He represented Britain at the 1956 Vienna Biennale, but after that his repu…

less than 1 minute read

John Bright

Radical British statesman and orator, born in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. When the Anti Corn-Law League was formed in 1839 he was a leading member, and engaged in free trade agitation throughout the country. In 1843 he became MP for Durham, and strongly opposed the corn laws until they were repealed (1846). Elected in 1857 for Birmingham, his name was closely associated with the …

less than 1 minute read

John Broadwood

Piano manufacturer, born in Cockburnspath, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. He walked to London to become a cabinet-maker, married the daughter of the Swiss-born harpsichord-maker, Burkhardt Tschudi (1702–73), and founded with him the great London pianoforte house (1770). His grandson, Henry Fowler Broadwood (1811–93), was also a great improver of the piano. He inherited his father Jame…

less than 1 minute read

John Brougham

Actor, playwright, and manager, born in Dublin, Ireland. He began his acting career in London and went to the USA in 1842. A popular comedian, specializing in stage Irishmen, he wrote over 100 plays, including spoofs such as Much Ado about the Merchant of Venice (1869). His adaptation of Dombey and Son in 1848 was a considerable success, but his efforts to manage theatres, among them Brougham's Br…

less than 1 minute read

John Brown - Scotsmen, Other Americans and Canadians, Fictional characters, Things

Manservant, born in Crathie, Deeside, NE Scotland, UK. He was raised on a farm, and was employed at Balmoral Castle at the time of its purchase (1852) by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He was ghillie to Albert and favourite servant to Victoria, and after Albert's premature death (1861) he became a great support to the grieving queen. She came to depend on him as loyal servant, groom, and friend…

less than 1 minute read

John Brown - Scotsmen, Other Americans and Canadians, Fictional characters, Things

Physician, born in Bunkle parish, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. He taught at Duns and Edinburgh, and after studying medicine became assistant to Professor William Cullen. He founded the Brunonian system of medicine in which diseases are divided into the sthenic, caused by an excess of excitement, and the asthenic; the former to be removed by debilitating medicines, and the latter by stimulant…

less than 1 minute read

John Brown - Scotsmen, Other Americans and Canadians, Fictional characters, Things

Abolitionist, born in Torrington, Connecticut, USA. The son of an itinerant tradesman, he grew up in Hudson, OH and received little formal schooling. His mother died insane when he was eight years old, and several of her nearest relations were also seriously disturbed. He became a tanner, one of his father's trades, then successively a land surveyor, shepherd, and farmer. He married (1820), and af…

1 minute read

John Brown Russwurm - Early life, Schooling, Abolitionism, Liberia, Africa

Journalist and public official, born in Port Antonio, Jamaica. In 1827, with John Cornish, he published the first US black newspaper, Freedom's Journal, dedicated to promoting black freedom and citizenship. In c.1828 he emigrated to Liberia, where he held public office and edited a newspaper. John Brown Russwurm (1799-1851) was an African American abolitionist from Jamaica. John…

less than 1 minute read

John Browning - History, Military weapons, Selected patents, Trivia

Pianist, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. From a musical family, he studied at Juilliard and won the Leventritt Award in 1955. He became an international soloist, his concerto repertoire stretching from Mozart to Barber. John Moses Browning (January 21, 1855 – November 26, 1926), born in Ogden, Utah, was an American firearms designer who developed myriad varieties of weapons, cartridges, an…

less than 1 minute read

John Bruton - Front bench to minister, Minister to leader, Career in opposition (1990–1994), Political career

Irish statesman and prime minister (1994–7), born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied economics under Garret FitzGerald at University College Dublin. When only 22, he was elected to the Dáil Éireann in 1969. He became minister of finance in FitzGerald's first administration (1981–2), and tried unsuccessfully to solve Ireland's public finance crisis by raising taxation. In FitzGerald's second coalit…

less than 1 minute read

John Buford - Early years, Civil War, Death and legacy, In popular media

Union soldier, born in Woodford Co, Kentucky, USA. He trained at West Point (1848), and commanded a cavalry division during the Gettysburg campaign. On 1 July 1863, with a single brigade of dismounted troopers, he parried a heavy Confederate attack long enough to allow Union infantry to reach the battlefield. He died of illness later that year. John Buford, Jr. (March 4, 1826 – December 1…

less than 1 minute read

John Bull - External references

Musician, born in Somerset, SW England, UK. He was appointed organist in the Queen's Chapel (1586), first music lecturer at Gresham College (1597), and organist to James I (1607). A Catholic, he fled abroad to escape persecution in 1613, and in 1617 became organist of Antwerp Cathedral. A virtuoso player, he was one of the founders of contrapuntal keyboard music. He has been credited with composin…

less than 1 minute read

John Bull - External references

A personification of the typical Englishman, or of England itself, first depicted in The History of John Bull by Arbuthnot. In many political cartoons of the 18th-c and 19th-c, he is drawn as a short stocky figure, often wearing a waistcoat showing the British flag. John Bull is a national personification of the Kingdom of Great Britain created by Dr. John Arbuthnot in 1712, and popularized…

less than 1 minute read

John Bunyan - Life, The Pilgrim's Progress

Writer, born in Elstow, Bedfordshire, SC England, UK. He worked as a tinker, and fought in the parliamentary army during the English Civil War (1644–5). In 1653 he joined a Nonconformist Christian fellowship, preaching around Bedford. In 1660 he was arrested for preaching without a licence and spent 12 years in Bedford county gaol, where he wrote prolifically, including his impassioned and tormen…

less than 1 minute read

John Burgoyne - Biography

British general and playwright, born in Sutton, Bedfordshire, SC England, UK. He entered the army in 1740, and gave distinguished service in the Seven Years' War (1756–63). He then sat in parliament as a Tory, and in 1777 was sent to America, where he led an expedition from Canada into New York State, taking Ticonderoga, but being forced to surrender at Saratoga. He later joined the Whigs, and co…

less than 1 minute read

John Burke

US governor, federal official, and judge, born in Keokuk Co, Iowa, USA. He moved to the Dakota Territory (1888) and served in the North Dakota state senate (1893–5). He was the Democratic governor of North Dakota (1907–12) and treasurer of the United States (1913–21), after which he served on the North Dakota Supreme Court (1925–37). North Dakota placed his statue in the US Capitol. Joh…

less than 1 minute read

John Burroughs - Early life, Marriage and Career, Writing, Bibliography

Naturalist and writer, born near Roxbury, New York, USA. Raised on a farm in the lower Catskills, and intermittently educated, he taught at schools in Illinois and New Jersey, and published his first nature essay in 1860. He took a job as a treasury department clerk in Washington (1863) and met Walt Whitman there, who provided the title for his first book, Wake-Robin (1871). On assignment in Engla…

less than 1 minute read

John Byrne - Biography, Art style, Selected bibliography

Playwright and stage designer, born in Paisley, Renfrewshire, W Scotland, UK. His first play, Writer's Cramp, was produced at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe (1977). The Slab Boys (1978), concerning the lives of employees at a carpet factory, grew into a trilogy with Cuttin' A Rug (1980), and Still Life (1983). He also wrote the highly acclaimed Tutti Frutti (1987), a BBC Scotland television series …

less than 1 minute read

John Cabot - Biography, Gallery, External links and references, Further reading

Navigator, born possibly in Genoa, NW Italy, who discovered the mainland of North America. Little is known about his life. About 1490 he settled in Bristol, and set sail in 1497 with two ships, accompanied by his three sons, sighting Cape Breton I and Nova Scotia on 24 June. He set out on another voyage in 1498, and died at sea. Giovanni Caboto (c. Almost nothing his known about…

less than 1 minute read

John Cadbury

Quaker businessman, the son of Richard Tapper Cadbury, who had settled in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK in 1794. He founded the cocoa and chocolate business of Cadburys. Bourneville was a model town built by the Cadbury family for their employees. John Cadbury (1802 – 12 May 1889), was proprietor of a small chocolate business in Birmingham, England, that later became part of Ca…

less than 1 minute read

John Caius - Medical career, Works by Caius

Physician and scholar, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. He became a student at Gonville Hall, Cambridge (1529), and a fellow in 1533. He studied medicine at Padua, then lectured on anatomy in London (1544–64). President of the College of Physicians nine times, he was physician to Edward VI, Mary I, and Queen Elizabeth I. In 1559 he became the first Master of Gonville and Caius College, Ca…

less than 1 minute read

John Calvin - Biography, Calvin's thought, Writings by Calvin, Reformed Geneva, Popular culture

Protestant reformer, born in Noyon, N France. He studied Latin at Paris, then law at Orléans, where he developed his interest in theology. In Bourges and other centres he began to preach the reformed doctrines, but was forced to flee from France to escape persecution. At Basel he issued his influential Christianae religionis institutio (1536, Institutes of the Christian Religion), and at Geneva w…

less than 1 minute read

John Cameron (Andrieu Bingham Michael) Morton

British writer and journalist. After serving in World War 1, he took up writing and published many books of humour, fantasy, and satire, as well as a number of historical works, including several on the French Revolution. From 1924 to 1975 he contributed a regular humorous column, ‘By the Way’, to the Daily Express under his pseudonym. Beachcomber or Beachcombers (which redirects here) ma…

less than 1 minute read

John Campbell Greenway

Mining engineer, born in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. He graduated from Yale (1895), served in the Spanish-American War with the Rough Riders (1898), and was a brigadier-general during World War 1. He became a mining superintendent in Minnesota (1905–10), then moved to Arizona (1910) and managed a mining company, a lead company, and a railroad. Arizona placed his statue in the US Capitol. Joh…

less than 1 minute read

John Canton

Physicist, born in Stroud, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. A schoolmaster in London, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1749. He invented an electroscope and an electrometer, originated experiments in induction, was the first to make powerful artificial magnets, and in 1762 demonstrated the compressibility of water. Canton was born in Middle Street Stroud, Gloucestershire, th…

less than 1 minute read

John Capgrave

Chronicler, theologian, and provincial of the Augustine Friars in England, born in Lynn, Norfolk, E England, UK. He was ordained priest c.1418, having already entered his order in Lynn. His works include Bible commentaries, sermons, a life of St Catherine in verse, and A Chronicle of England from the Creation to 1417. John Capgrave (1393-1464) was an English historian and theologian. …

less than 1 minute read

John Carroll

First US Roman Catholic bishop, born in Upper Marlboro, Maryland, USA, the cousin of Charles Carroll. He studied in Europe, where he entered the Jesuit order (1753) and was ordained (1769). In 1774 he returned to Maryland to do pastoral work, and in 1776 joined in an unsuccessful mission to obtain a promise of Canadian neutrality in the Revolution. He became Bishop of Baltimore in 1790, and was ma…

less than 1 minute read

John Carver

Colonist in America, born in Nottinghamshire or Derbyshire, C England, UK. After emigrating to Holland in 1609, he joined the Pilgrim Fathers and became their agent for the expedition to the New World. He chartered the Mayflower, sailing in June 1620, and was elected first governor of the colony at New Plymouth, Massachusetts. He died within five months of their landing. John Carver (1576-1…

less than 1 minute read

John Cassavetes - Life and Work, A Note on Improvisation, Tributes, Selected filmography

Actor, director, and screenwriter, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Colgate University, then trained as an actor and worked in stock companies. His film debut was in Taxi (1953), and he established himself as an intense actor in films and on television. He used his earnings from a television detective series to finance his first directorial effort, Shadows (1961), which broke new ground w…

less than 1 minute read

John Catron - Further reading

Judge, probably born in Wythe Co, Virginia, USA. Elected to an early Tennessee court (1824–34), he was named to the US Supreme Court (1837–65) by President Jackson when the Court was enlarged from seven judges to nine. Known as a ‘Jacksonian jurist’, he argued vehemently for states rights. John Catron (January 7, 1786-May 30, 1865) was an American jurist who served as a Supreme Court ju…

less than 1 minute read

John Cawte Beaglehole

Writer and historian, born in Wellington, New Zealand. He graduated from Victoria University College, to which he returned in 1936 as lecturer in history, remaining there as professor of British Commonwealth history (1963–6). His life's work was the masterly Hakluyt Society edition of The Journals of Captain James Cook on his Voyages of Discovery (1955–67), associated with which was his The Ende…

less than 1 minute read

John Chancellor

Television correspondent and presenter, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Originally a copy boy for the Chicago Sun Times, he became a television reporter for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) local WMAQ in the 1950s. By 1958 he was NBC Vienna bureau chief, covering Soviet-American relations. Briefly host of the Today show (1961–2), he was the first working journalist to serve as Voice of Ame…

less than 1 minute read

John Chapman

Horticulturalist and missionary, born in Leominster, Massachusetts, USA. Little is known of his youth, but he appeared in Ohio in 1800 and began to plant nurseries with apples he brought from W Pennsylvania. He travelled throughout Ohio (1800–12) planting and then pruning his orchards. A mystic, he read aloud from the Bible and from the works of Emmanuel Swedenborg, and was credited with many ext…

less than 1 minute read

John Charles Olmsted - Selected works

Landscape architect, born in Geneva, Switzerland. Adopted at age seven by his uncle, Frederick Law Olmsted, he worked on survey expeditions in Nevada before joining the firm (1875), becoming a full partner in 1884. Renamed Olmsted Brothers (1898–1920), the firm flourished under his expert management and he designed comprehensive park systems for cities across America. As the first president of th…

less than 1 minute read

John Cheever - Life, Career, Trivia, Bibliography

Short-story writer and novelist, born in Quincy, Massachusetts, USA. By the time he was 22 the New Yorker was accepting his work, and for years he contributed a dozen stories a year to it. After World War 2 he taught composition and wrote scripts for television, but in 1951 a Guggenheim Fellowship allowed him to devote his attention to writing. His books include The Wapshot Chronicle (1957, Nation…

less than 1 minute read

John Clare - Poetry, Poems by Clare (chronological), Works about Clare (chronological)

Poet, born in Helpston, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. Though almost without schooling, he began to cultivate verse writing, and his Poems Descriptive of Rural Life (1820) and Shepherd's Calendar (1827) had a good reception. Despite some patronage, he was forced to live in poverty. Pronounced insane in 1837, he spent the last 23 years of his life in an asylum at Northampton, where he wrote some o…

less than 1 minute read

John Claudius Loudon - Background, Horticultural work, Publications, Prominent Loudon Designs

Horticultural writer and architect, born in Cambuslang, South Lanarkshire, WC Scotland, UK. Apprenticed to a landscape gardener, he worked in London, and founded and edited The Gardener's Magazine (1826–43) and Architectural Magazine (1834). He was a major influence in London landscape and domestic architecture, and his major work was Arboretum et fruticetum Brittanicum (8 vols, 1838). Joh…

less than 1 minute read

John Cleland - Publication of Fanny Hill, Later writing, Later life, Fanny Hill and homosexuality, Bibliography

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Westminster School, and after working and travelling abroad, published Fanny Hill, or the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (1750). A best-seller in its time, it achieved a second succès de scandale on its revival and prosecution under the Obscene Publications Act in 1963. He also practised journalism and playwriting, excelling at neither, and dabbled in C…

less than 1 minute read

John Clellon Holmes - Bibliography

Writer, born in Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Columbia University (1943, 1945–6) and the New School for Social Research (1949–50). He wrote novels and essays describing the Beat Generation, as in Nothing More to Declare (1967), and also published poetry, was a lecturer at writing workshops, and taught at the University of Arkansas (from 1977). John Clellon Holmes (March 12th,…

less than 1 minute read

John Cleveland

Cavalier poet, born in Loughborough, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He studied at Christ's College, Cambridge, and also at St John's, where he was elected to a fellowship in 1634. He joined the Royalist army, and was appointed judge advocate at Newark, but was obliged to surrender with the garrison. He was extremely popular as a poet in his day, being known for his elegies and satires. John…

less than 1 minute read

John Clifford

Clergyman, born in Sawley, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He studied at the Baptist College in Nottingham, and at University College London, and from 1858 to 1915 was pastor of Praed Street Baptist Church in Paddington. A leading passive resister to the Education Act of 1902 and a strong Nonconformist Liberal, he was created first president of the Baptist World Alliance (1905–11). John Cliffor…

less than 1 minute read

John Cocke

Electrical engineer, born in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. Working at International Business Machines' Thomas J Watson Research Center (1956), he invented RISC, the Reduced Instruction-Set Computer (1974–5). RISC technology enabled telephone-switching networks to handle 12 million instructions per second. His major research contributions were in systems architecture, hardware design, and progra…

less than 1 minute read

John Coit Spooner

US senator, born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, USA. A Civil War veteran and lawyer, he won fame for the railroad litigation cases he successfully argued before the US Supreme Court. Elected to the US Senate (Republican, Wisconsin, 1885–91, 1897–1907), he was author of a bill authorizing construction of the Panama Canal. The rise of the progressive Republicans drove him out of office, and he went int…

less than 1 minute read

John Colet

Theologian and Tudor humanist, born in London. He studied at Oxford, travelled in Italy, then returned to England where he became a priest. While lecturing at Oxford (from 1496), he worked with Thomas More and Erasmus. In 1505 he became Dean of St Paul's, where he continued to deliver controversial lectures on the interpretation of Scripture, and founded St Paul's School (1509–12). The eld…

less than 1 minute read

John Collins Warren - Warren and anesthesia, Selected works

Surgeon, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the grandson of John Warren (1778–1856). He studied for three years in Europe before returning (1869) to take up a practice in Boston. He was associated with the Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital for most of his professional career. His most important book, Surgical Pathology and Therapeutics (1895), drew on his studies of infec…

less than 1 minute read

John Colter

Trapper and explorer, born in or near Staunton, Virginia, USA. He joined the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804–6), then explored the Yellowstone area alone. He was wounded in an Indian fight (1808) and returned to St Louis, MO. Private John Colter (1774 or 1775–May 7, 1812), was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. During the winter of 1807–1808, Colter became the first person of…

less than 1 minute read

John Constable - Biography, Art, Constable locations

Landscape painter, born in East Bergholt, Suffolk, E England, UK. He trained at the Royal Academy (1799). In 1816 he married Maria Bicknell; and in 1828 received an inheritance which enabled him to continue as a painter. Among his best-received works were ‘Haywain’ (1821, National Gallery, London) and ‘The White Horse’ (1819, Frick Collection, New York City), which both gained gold medals in F…

less than 1 minute read

John Cotton

Puritan clergyman and writer, born in Derby, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He arrived in Boston, MA (1633), and soon became the teacher of the Boston Church. He originally supported Anne Hutchinson, but he joined her persecutors when he discovered that he was alone in support of her. A tireless worker, he wrote Spiritual Milk for Babes (1646), a standard textbook for New England children, and many bo…

less than 1 minute read

John Cotton Dana - Posthumously, Bibliography

Librarian and writer, born in Woodstock, Vermont, USA. He studied at Dartmouth College and held a series of positions before becoming head of the Denver Public Library in Colorado (1889), where he established the nation's first children's reading room. While working in the Newark, NJ library system (1902–29), he established the ‘Newark charging system’, a simplified lending process, and co-foun…

less than 1 minute read

John Couch Adams - Early life, Publications

Astronomer, born in Laneast, Cornwall, SW England, UK. He studied at St John's College, Cambridge, and in 1843 became fellow and mathematical tutor there. In 1845 he deduced mathematically the existence and location of the planet Neptune, his prediction occurring almost simultaneously with that of the French astronomer, Leverrier. Adams was appointed professor of astronomy at Cambridge in 1858, an…

less than 1 minute read

John Courtney Murray - Life and education, Work, Legacy and honors

Catholic theologian, born in New York City, New York, USA. A Jesuit priest with a doctorate in theology from Gregorian University in Rome (1937), he taught at a Jesuit seminary in Maryland, was religion editor of the Jesuit magazine America, and edited the journal Theological Studies. An advocate of ecumenism and freedom for all religions, he was silenced for a time by church conservatives but he …

less than 1 minute read

John Cowper Powys

Writer and critic, born in Shirley, Derbyshire, C England, UK, the brother of Llewelyn and Theodore Francis Powys. He studied at Cambridge, then worked as a teacher and lecturer, much of the time in the USA. He wrote poetry and essays, but is best known for his long novels on West Country and historical themes, such as A Glastonbury Romance (1932) and Owen Glendower (1940). His Autobiography was p…

less than 1 minute read

John Cranko

Dancer, choreographer, and director, born in Rustenburg, N South Africa. He studied at the Cape Town University ballet school, and at Sadler's Wells School in London. He choreographed for both Sadler's Wells and the Royal Ballet companies, and in 1961 became ballet director of the Stuttgart Ballet. He is known chiefly for his full-length dramatic works, such as Romeo and Juliet (1962) and Onegin (…

less than 1 minute read

John Crome

Landscape painter, chief of the Norwich School, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. He was apprenticed to a house painter (1783), then became a drawing master, and founded the Norwich Society of Artists (1803). His subjects derived from the scenery of Norfolk, such as ‘Poringland Oak’ and ‘Mousehold Heath’ (Tate, London). John Crome (December 22, 1768 - 22 April 1821) was an artist…

less than 1 minute read

John Crowe Ransom - On Being a Minor Poet, Use of Meter, Diction, Themes

Literary critic, poet, and educator, born in Pulaski, Tennessee, USA. He was educated at Vanderbilt and Oxford universities. While teaching at Vanderbilt (1914–37), he joined the Fugitive group of Southern writers, founded Fugitive, and wrote most of the poetry that was to spark the Southern literary renaissance and win the Bollingen Poetry Prize (1951). Even more influential as a critic, in The …

less than 1 minute read

John Cunningham

Military and civil aircraft pilot, born in Croydon, S Greater London, UK. He attended the Whitgift School and was apprenticed to the De Havilland Aircraft Company at Hatfield (1935–8). He became a group captain in 1944, specializing in night defence against German bombers, earning the title ‘Cat's Eyes Cunningham’ during this period. After World War 2 he became chief test pilot of the De Havill…

less than 1 minute read

John Curwen - Books

Music educationist, born in Heckmondwike, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He became a Nonconformist minister in 1838, but devoted himself to promoting the tonic sol-fa musical system. His method came to be widely used, and in 1864 he left his ministry, having established a publishing house for music. John Curwen (1816-1880) was an English Congregationalist minister, and founder of the Tonic …

less than 1 minute read

John Dalton - Death and legacy, Bibliography

Chemist, born in Eaglesfield, Cumbria, NW England, UK. After 1781 he became assistant in a boarding-school kept by a cousin in Kendal, where in 1787 he commenced a meteorological journal, continued all his life, recording 200 000 observations. In 1793 he was appointed teacher of mathematics and science in New College, Manchester. He first described colour blindness (Daltonism) in 1794, exemplifie…

less than 1 minute read

John Davenport

Clergyman, writer, and colonist, born in Coventry, West Midlands, C England, UK. He became an Anglican minister (1625) but was attracted to the Puritan faith and became a full dissenter by 1632. He resigned his post and preached briefly in Holland before emigrating to Boston (1637). With his boyhood friend, Theophilus Eaton, he founded the New Haven Colony (1638) and was the pastor of the church t…

less than 1 minute read

John Davis - People

Navigator, born in Sandridge, Devon, SW England, UK. In 1585–7 he undertook three Arctic voyages in search of a Northwest Passage, in the last of which he reached 73°N, and discovered the Strait later named after him. He discovered the Falkland Is in 1592. On a journey to the East Indies he was killed by Japanese pirates at Bintang, near Singapore. John Davis may refer to: …

less than 1 minute read

John Davis Long - Source

US governor and secretary of the navy, born in Buckfield, Maine, USA. He was governor of Massachusetts (1880–2) and a US representative (Republican, Massachusetts, 1883–9). As secretary of the navy (1897–1902) he worked closely with President McKinley, and was partly responsible for the navy's sterling performance during the Spanish-American War. Appointed 34th Secretary of the Navy by P…

less than 1 minute read

John Day - John Day

Printer, born in Dunwich, Suffolk, E England, UK. One of the first English music printers, he produced the earliest church service book with musical notation (1560), and in the same year Archbishop Matthew Parker's English version of the psalms, with music by Tallis and others. His most celebrated publication was John Foxe's Actes and Monuments (1563), better known as the Book of Martyrs. …

less than 1 minute read

John Dee - Biography, Achievements, Dee in fiction

Alchemist, geographer, and mathematician, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge and on the European mainland, where he travelled widely. He brought back many astronomical instruments, earned the reputation of a sorcerer, and was astrologer to the court of Elizabeth I. He gave advice to those seeking routes to the New World and Far East, and helped write the first English translation of Eucli…

less than 1 minute read

John Deere

Inventor and manufacturer, born in Rutland, Vermont, USA. He worked as a blacksmith until 1837, when he moved to Illinois. With a partner he designed a series of new ploughs, which sold modestly during the 1840s. He then designed on his own the first self-scouring plough, a major advance that made it substantially easier for farmers to break and turn the heavy soil of the Great Plains. In 1848 he …

less than 1 minute read

John Dennis

Critic and playwright, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, toured France and Italy, took his place among the men of fashion, and produced biting criticism to support the Whigs. He wrote nine tragedies, but had little success with them. His drama Appius and Virginia (1709) was satirized for its bombast by Pope in his Essay on Criticism (1711), thus beginning a long feud. Dennis is best kno…

less than 1 minute read

John Devoy

Journalist and nationalist, born in Kill, Co Kildare, E Ireland. He served in the French Foreign Legion and the British army, where he became an agent for the ‘Fenian’ secret society. Sentenced in 1866 to 15 years' imprisonment for organizing cells, he was amnestied on condition of exile from the UK. He settled in the USA as a journalist on the New York Herald, and helped organize Clan-na-Gael. …

less than 1 minute read

John Dewey - Educational philosophy, Dewey and historical progressive education, Deweyan pragmatism, Dewey and journalism, Major works

Philosopher, psychologist, and educator, born in Burlington, Vermont, USA. He studied at the University of Vermont and worked as a high-school teacher before taking his PhD at Johns Hopkins. He taught philosophy at the universities of Minnesota and Michigan, and gained some reputation for his book Psychology (1887) before going to the University of Chicago (1894–1904), where he established a Labo…

less than 1 minute read

John Dillon

Irish nationalist politician, born in Blackrock, Co Dublin, E Ireland. He studied at the Catholic University medical school in Dublin, and qualified as a surgeon, but turned to politics. He became a supporter of Parnell in the Land League, and in 1880 was returned for Tipperary. From 1885 to 1918 he sat for East Mayo. Following the divorce case involving Parnell in 1890, he eventually became leade…

less than 1 minute read

John Dollond

Optician, born in London, UK. A silk weaver by trade, in 1752 he turned to the study of optics, and devoted himself with the help of his son Peter (1738–1820) to the invention of an achromatic telescope. John Dollond (June 10, 1706 - November 30, 1761) was an English optician. Dollond was the son of a Huguenot refugee, a silk-weaver at Spitalfields, London, where he was born. …

less than 1 minute read

John Donne - Early life, Career, Personal Life, Bibliography, Trivia, Critical Works

Poet and priest, born in London, UK. Of Welsh extraction, he was educated at Oxford and Cambridge, studied law in London, and in 1598 became secretary to Thomas Egerton (1540–1617), keeper of the Great Seal. His career prospects were excellent, but his secret marriage to the Lord Keeper's niece had him dismissed and cast into prison. Originally a Roman Catholic, he then joined the established Chu…

less than 1 minute read

John Dowland - Life, Bibliography

Composer, lutenist, and songwriter, born possibly in Westminster, London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and having failed to become a court musician to Queen Elizabeth I, entered the service of the Duke of Brunswick (1594), and subsequently went to Italy. He returned to England in 1596, where he wrote his first book of ‘ayres’. In 1598 he became lutenist to Christian IV of Denmark, producing further…

less than 1 minute read

John Drinkwater

Poet, playwright, and critic, born in London, UK. He was an insurance clerk who achieved an immediate success with his play Abraham Lincoln (1918), following this with Mary Stuart (1921) and other historical dramas. His first volume of poems appeared in 1923, and he also wrote several critical studies. He was one of the founders of the Pilgrim Players, and became manager of the Birmingham Repertor…

less than 1 minute read

John Dryden - Early life, Later life and career, Reputation and Influence, Major works, Select bibliography

Poet, dramatist, and critic, born in Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he held republican sympathies, and went to London in 1657. In 1658, he wrote Heroic Stanzas in homage to Oliver Cromwell. On the restoration of Charles II, he published Astraea Redux (1660) in praise of the new monarch. He wrote several plays and satires for the court, his first successf…

1 minute read

John Duncan Fergusson

Painter, born in Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK. He took up painting after a medical training. He is best known for his series of World War 1 paintings of naval dockyards and his portraits of the female nude, which reveal an understanding of Cézanne, Cubism, and Fauve colour, as well as an interest in new ideas about dance, movement, and rhythm. John Duncan Fergusson (1874 - 1961) was a…

less than 1 minute read

John Dunmore Lang - Background and Family, Lang and the claims of the Church of England, Educational endeavours

Australian politician and clergyman, born in Greenock, Inverclyde, WC Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow University, arriving in New South Wales in 1823 with a mission to establish Presbyterianism in the new colony, and the foundation stone of Scots Church, Sydney, was laid in the following year. He was also instrumental in persuading the English government to subsidize those who wished to emigra…

less than 1 minute read

John Dunstable - Life, Music and influence, References and further reading

The most important English composer of the 15th-c, whose influence on his continental contemporaries was considerable. He wrote motets, Masses, and secular songs, including the three-part ‘O rosa bella’. He was also skilled in mathematics and astronomy. John Dunstaple or Dunstable (c. The spelling "Dunstaple" is generally to be preferred, since it occurs in more than twice as …

less than 1 minute read

John Edgar Wideman - Early life, Writing and teaching career, Major Works

Writer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He earned degrees from the University of Pennsylvania and Oxford University, UK (Rhodes Scholar), then attended the Iowa Writers' Workshop. He taught at the universities of Pennsylvania (1966–74), Wyoming (1974–85), and Massachusetts (1986). His complex and literate fiction often drew on the African-American urban culture of his youth, and i…

less than 1 minute read

John Endecott - Biographical Information

Colonial official, born in Chagford, Devon, SW England, UK. He landed at Salem and was in charge of the settlement there (1628–30) until the arrival of John Winthrop. He led a punitive expedition against the Indians (1636), which helped to bring on the Pequot War. As governor (1655–65), his Puritan intolerance and lack of tact led to a number of persecutions and executions of religious dissenter…

less than 1 minute read

John England - Early life, Bishop, African Americans, Death, Websites

Catholic prelate, born in Cork, S Ireland. He became prominent in Ireland as a pastor, preacher, editor, and defender of Irish rights, before being consecrated bishop of the missionary diocese of Charleston, SC (1820), embracing the Carolinas and Georgia. A progressive, widely known for his efforts to counter anti-Catholic prejudice and champion the separation of Church and state, he founded and b…

less than 1 minute read

John Ericsson - Early career, The propeller, The USS Monitor, Inventions, Fellowships, Monuments and memorials

Engineer and inventor, born in Långbanshyttan, Varmland Co, Sweden. He served as a topographer and a captain in the Swedish army, then moved to London and worked as an independent engineer (1826–39), developing the idea of placing a ships' engine below the waterline. His Novelty was the world's first propeller-driven commercial ship. He went to New York (1839) with a commission to build a ship f…

less than 1 minute read

John Erskine - Earls of Mar

Educator, novelist, and musician, born in New York City, USA. As a youth he showed serious talent as a pianist, but after studying at Columbia University (1903) he became a professor of English. Most of his academic career was at Columbia (1909–37), where his emphasis on studying the classic texts gave rise to the ‘great books’ programmes adopted by many educational institutions. As a literary …

less than 1 minute read

John Evelyn - Trivia

Diarist and writer, born in Wotton, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford and London, and travelled abroad during the Civil War. He was much at court after the Restoration, acted on public committees, and became one of the Commissioners of the Privy Seal (1685–7) and treasurer of Greenwich Hospital (1695–1703). With Robert Boyle, he was a founder-member of the Royal Society (1662). His ma…

less than 1 minute read

John Fairfax - Overview, Librarian, Purchase, Accident, Churches

Australian newspaper proprietor, born in England, UK. He ran a newspaper in Warwickshire, but went to Sydney in 1838 after being bankrupted by a defamation writ. In 1841, with Charles Kemp, he bought the Sydney Herald, changing its name in 1842 to The Sydney Morning Herald. In 1853, after Kemp's retirement, John Fairfax & Sons became responsible for the newspaper, and it became an influential, wid…

less than 1 minute read

John Fenno

Journalist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. From 1789 he published and edited the pro-Federalist Gazette of the United States, backed by Alexander Hamilton. It was a vitriolic partisan paper, though perhaps less cutting, and less expert, than a rival paper edited by Philip Freneau. Fenno was born in Boston, the son of Ephraim Fenno, leather-dresser and alehouse keeper, and Mary Chapman.…

less than 1 minute read

John Filson

Explorer and writer, born in Chester Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He entered Kentucky in 1783 and wrote Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucky (1784) to attract settlers. (The so-called ‘autobiography’ of Daniel Boone first appeared in this book.) He was killed by an Indian while helping to lay out the settlement of Cincinnati. John Filson was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania,…

less than 1 minute read

John Fiske

Historian and philosopher, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. A precocious child, he changed his name to John Fisk at age 13, and to Fiske at 18. After graduating from Harvard University (1863), he tried his hand at law and became a lecturer (1869–79) and librarian (1872–9) at Harvard. A prolific author, he then embarked on a career as one of America's most celebrated lecturers on history. He p…

less than 1 minute read

John Flamsteed

The first Astronomer Royal of England (1675–1719), born in Denby, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and in 1676 instituted reliable observations at Greenwich, near London, providing data from which Newton was later able to verify the gravitational theory. Flamsteed accurately calculated the solar eclipses of 1666 and 1668. On August 16, 1680 Flamsteed catalogu…

less than 1 minute read

John Flaxman

Sculptor and illustrator, born in York, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy, and thereafter was constantly engaged upon sculpture, but his chief source of income was the Wedgwood house, which he furnished with renowned pottery designs. He also studied at Rome (1787–94), where he began his illustrations to the Iliad and Odyssey (1793), and other works. In 1810 he became…

less than 1 minute read

John Fletcher

Playwright, born in Rye, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He came of a literary family, and studied at Cambridge, but little else is known about him apart from his theatrical work. It is difficult to disentangle his own plays from those in which he collaborated with Beaumont, Massinger, Rowley, and Shakespeare. He is best known for his collaboration with Beaumont in such works as Philaster (1610), A K…

less than 1 minute read

John Florio

Lexicographer and translator, born in London, UK. About 1576 he was a tutor in foreign languages at Oxford, and in 1578 published his First Fruits, accompanied by A Perfect Induction to the Italian and English Tongues. His next work was Second Fruits, with 6000 Italian proverbs (1591). His Italian and English dictionary, entitled A World of Words, was published in 1598. In 1603 he was appointed re…

less than 1 minute read

John Ford - From Feeney to Ford, Awards, Politics, Filmography

Playwright, born in Ilsington, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied for a while at Oxford and entered the Middle Temple in 1602. He often collaborated with Dekker, Rowley, and Webster. His own plays were greatly influenced by Robert Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), which led him into the stage presentation of the melancholic, the unnatural, and the horrible in such works as The Lover's Melancho…

less than 1 minute read

John Ford - From Feeney to Ford, Awards, Politics, Filmography

Film director, born in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, USA. He left Maine for Hollywood in 1913 and worked as a stagehand and propman. He began directing in 1917, and was to turn out over 125 features, making his debut with a western, The Tornado. Over the years, he developed his own small acting company, which featured John Wayne, Ward Bond, James Stewart, Henry Fonda, and many others. Adept at all genres…

less than 1 minute read

John Foster

Printer, born in Dorchester (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard University (1667), established the first printing office in Boston (1675–81), and is known for the earliest woodblock engraving in America, a portrait of Reverend Richard Mather (1670). …

less than 1 minute read

John Foster Dulles - Political career, Secretary of State, Death and legacy, Bibliography

US Republican secretary of state (1953–9), born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He studied at Princeton and the Sorbonne, and became a lawyer. During World War 2 he advocated a world governmental organization, and in 1945 advised at the Charter Conference of the UN, thereafter becoming US delegate to the General Assembly. As US secretary of state he opened a vigorous diplomacy of person…

less than 1 minute read

John Foulds

Composer, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. Largely self-taught, he played cello in the Halle Orchestra under Richter, who premiered his Cello Concerto (1911). From 1915 he became fascinated with oriental, especially Indian, music, and absorbed Eastern and Western styles in a remarkable fusion. In 1935 he emigrated to India, where he died from cholera. His major works include…

less than 1 minute read

John Foxe - Education and Resignation from Oxford, Life in London under Edward VI, Marian Exile, Return to England

Preacher and writer, born in Boston, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Oxford and was a fellow of Magdalen College (1538–45) until his strong Protestant views forced his resignation. He lived on the European mainland during the reign of Mary I and returned to England on the accession of Elizabeth I. He wrote numerous controversial sermons, but is best remembered for his book Actes and M…

less than 1 minute read

John Francome - Bibliography

Jockey and trainer, born in Swindon, Wiltshire, S England, UK. In 1970–85 he rode a record 1138 winners over fences. He won the 1978 Cheltenham Gold Cup, the 1981 Champion Hurdle, and twice won the King George VI Chase (1982, 1984). Only the second man to surpass 1000 winners, he was seven times National Hunt champion jockey (1976, 1979, 1981–5). He retired in 1985, and became a trainer, novelis…

less than 1 minute read

John Frederic Daniell

Chemist and meteorologist, born in London, UK. Professor of chemistry at King's College, London, from 1831, he wrote an Introduction to Chemical Philosophy (1839). He invented a hygrometer (1820), a pyrometer (1830), and the Daniell electric cell (1836). John Frederic Daniell (March 12, 1790 - March 13, 1845) was an English chemist and physicist. Daniell was born in London, and …

less than 1 minute read

John Frederick Nims - Bibliography

Poet, born in Muskegon, Michigan, USA. He studied at the University of Notre Dame (1937 BA; 1939 MA) and the University of Chicago (1945 PhD), and taught at many institutions, including Notre Dame (1939–45, 1946–62), the University of Illinois, Urbana (1961–4), and at the Chicago branch (1965–73, 1977–85). The editor of Poetry magazine (1978–84), he also served as a poetry judge for the Nati…

less than 1 minute read

John G(amble) Kirkwood - Early life and background, Education, Academic career

Physical chemist, born in Gotebo, Oklahoma, USA. He performed research in Europe (1931–2) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1931–4), then taught chemistry at Cornell (1934–47) and the University of Chicago (1937–8). He moved to the California Institute of Technology (1947–51), then became professor of chemistry at Yale (1951–9). His elegant mathematical approach to research m…

less than 1 minute read

John G(ilbert) Winant

US governor and government official, born in New York City, New York, USA. A member of a wealthy family, he became a history teacher at his former preparatory school, St Paul's School, in Concord, NH (1911–17), and as a moderate Republican he served in the New Hampshire legislature (1916–17). After a spell in the American Air Service (1917–18), he returned to St Paul's until 1920, when he joine…

less than 1 minute read

John Galsworthy - Adaptations, Selected works

Novelist and playwright, born in Kingston Hill, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was called to the bar in 1890, but chose to travel and set up as a writer. From the start he was a moralist and humanitarian, but his novels were also to be documentaries of their time. The six linked novels comprising The Forsyte Saga (1906–28), recording the life of the affluent British middle-clas…

less than 1 minute read

John Galt

Novelist and essayist, born in Irvine, North Ayrshire, W Scotland, UK. Educated at Greenock Grammar School, he went to London at 25 as a merchant, writing in his spare time. His business failed (1808) and he travelled to the European mainland, where he met Byron, and produced a poorly received biography. He gained recognition when his work was published in Blackwood's Magazine in 1820. His memorab…

less than 1 minute read

John Garfield - Academy Award nominations, Filmography

Film and stage actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. A one-time juvenile delinquent, he gained a reputation acting with the leftist Group Theater in New York City, then enjoyed both critical and popular acclaim for his first featured role in the film Four Daughters (1938). He went on to play a series of aggressive or embittered characters in such films as The Postman Always Rings Twice (194…

less than 1 minute read

John Gay - Biography, Partial list of works

Poet and playwright, born in Barnstaple, Devon, SW England, UK. He was apprenticed to a London silk mercer, but turned to literature, writing poems, pamphlets, and in 1727 the first series of his popular satirical Fables. His greatest success was The Beggar's Opera (1728), which achieved an unprecedented theatrical run of 62 performances. He was a friend of Pope and Swift. John Gay (30 June…

less than 1 minute read

John Gerard - Reference

Herbalist and barber-surgeon, born in Nantwich, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. His London garden became famous for its rare plants, and for 20 years (1577–98) he was superintendent of Lord Burghley's gardens. He wrote The Herball, or General Histoire of Plantes (1597). Containing over 1000 species, it was the first plant catalogue. John Gerard (Nantwich, 1545 – February, 1611/12 in London ) …

less than 1 minute read

John Gibson

Sculptor, born in Gyffin, Gwynedd, NW Wales, UK. Apprenticed to a monumental mason, he found a patron in William Roscoe (1753–1831). He went to Rome in 1817, studied under Canova, and lived there permanently. His best works are ‘Psyche borne by Zephyrs’, ‘Hylas surprised by Nymphs’, and ‘Venus with the Turtle’. The controversial innovation of tinting his figures (eg his Venus) he defended b…

less than 1 minute read

John Gibson Lockhart

Biographer, novelist, and critic, born in Wishaw, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow and Oxford, and practised law in Edinburgh before becoming a writer. In 1820 he married Sophia, the eldest daughter of Sir Walter Scott, and produced four novels in four years. Lives of Burns and Napoleon followed in 1828 and 1829, and his masterpiece, the Life of Sir Walter Scott, in 1837–8…

less than 1 minute read

John Glas

Clergyman and founder of a small religious sect, born in Auchtermuchty, Fife, E Scotland, UK. From 1719 he was minister of Tealing near Dundee. Deposed in 1728 for opposing the concept of a national church, he formed a congregation later known as the Glassites or Sandemanians, based on simple apostolic practice. The latter name was from his son-in-law Robert Sandeman (1718–71), through whom his t…

less than 1 minute read

John Goodman - Filmography

Film actor, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He became well known for his role as the husband Dan in the television comedy series Roseanne (1988–97). His films include King Ralph (1991), Barton Fink (1991), The Flintstones (1994), The Borrowers (1997), Bringing Out the Dead (1999), and Beyond the Sea (2004). John Stephen Goodman (born June 20, 1952 in Affton, Missouri) is a male Golden Glo…

less than 1 minute read

John Goodricke

English astronomer, born in Groningen, N Netherlands. A deaf-mute from childhood, he studied at Warrington Academy (1778–81) in England, where he excelled in mathematics. In 1782 he noticed that the brightness of the star known as Algol varied, and was the first to establish the periodic nature of this variation. He also suggested that the variability of Algol was due to its being eclipsed by a d…

less than 1 minute read

John Gorrie

Physician and inventor, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. He graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City (1833) and took up residence in Apalachiola, FL. In c.1840 he conceived the idea of cooling the air in sick rooms and hospitals, and in 1851 he received the first patent for mechanical refrigeration in the USA. Unable to raise money to manufacture his new machi…

less than 1 minute read

John Gould

Ornithologist and publisher, born in Lyme Regis, Dorset, S England, UK. In 1827 he became curator and preserver (taxidermist) to the new Zoological Society's museum in London. An accomplished artist, he travelled widely, drawing birds whose skins he collected for the museum. Working with the newly developed technique of lithography, and assisted by his talented wife Elizabeth, née Coxon (d.1841),…

less than 1 minute read

John Gould Fletcher

Poet and essayist, born in Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. He followed the Imagists while living in London and Paris (1908–33), but later turned to American subjects. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1939 for his Selected Poems. He published the autobiographical Life Is My Song in 1937. John Gould Fletcher (January 3, 1886 – May 20, 1950) was a Pulitzer Prize winning Imagist poet and author. …

less than 1 minute read

John Gower - Life, Works, List of works

Mediaeval poet, born in Kent, SE England, UK, a friend of Chaucer. His works include many French ballads, written in his youth, and Vox clamantis, in Latin elegiacs (1382–4), describing the rising under Wat Tyler. His best-known work is the long English poem, Confessio amantis (c.1383), comprising over 100 stories from various sources on the theme of Christian and courtly love. He became blind in…

less than 1 minute read