Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 39

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Jean Renoir - A classic sequence of films, Exile in Hollywood, A transatlantic life, Last years, Filmography

Film director, born in Paris, France, the son of Pierre Auguste Renoir. After serving in World War 1 (where he won the Croix de Guerre), he studied ceramics, then began writing screenplays, and turned to silent film-making. His version of Zola's Nana (1926), La Grande Illusion (1937, The Great Illusion), La Règle du Jeu (1939, The Rules of the Game), The Diary of a Chambermaid (1946), and Le Déj…

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Jean Rhys - Selected bibliography

Novelist, born in Roseau, Dominica. She moved to England in 1910 to train at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, but her father's death after only one term obliged her to join a touring theatre company. After World War 1, she lived in Paris, where she wrote short stories and several novels on the theme of female vulnerability, including The Left Bank (1927), After Leaving Mr Mackenzie (1931…

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Jean Richepin - Reference

Poet, playwright, and novelist, born in Médéa, N Algeria. He gave up medical training to study literature at the Ecole Normale, and later served in the Franco-Prussian War. The deep realism of his first book of poems Chanson des gueux (1876, Song of the Poor), earned him a spell in prison for its coarse language (‘outrage aux bonnes moeurs’). Other works include Les Caresses (1877, Caresses), …

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Jean Rindlaub - Places

Advertising executive, born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. She joined the New York advertising agency BBDO in 1930 as a copywriter, working on the General Mills and Campbell's Soup accounts among others. She organized innovative market research panels that were prototypes of focus groups. As BBDO vice-president (from 1946) and board member (from mid-1950s), she became one of the most influential…

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Jean Rochefort - Filmography

Actor, born in Paris, France. Whilst pursuing a theatrical career he entered film and television, and in 1974 came to prominence with L'Horloger de St Paul (director B Tavernier). He appeared in more than 60 films for cinema and television, including Le Grand Blond avec une chaussure noire (1972, director Y Robert), Calmos (1975, director Bertrand Blier), Le Mari de la coiffeuse (1990, director P …

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Jean Roger-Ducasse

Composer, born in Bordeaux, SW France. He attended the Conservatoire with Gédalge and Fauré, where he succeeded Dukas as teacher of composition in 1935. He gained second prize in the Prix de Rome in 1902, and his works include studies for the piano, symphonic poems (‘Ulysse et les Sirènes’ (1937), a mime/drama (1913), religious works, motets, and songs. In addition he was appointed inspector-…

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Jean Senebier

Botanist and pastor, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. He studied theology, and was ordained in 1765. He was pastor of a church at Chancy, Switzerland (1769), then city librarian of Geneva from 1773. He studied botany, and in 1782 first demonstrated the basic principle of photosynthesis, which he published in Physiologie végétale (1800). He also wrote an important literary work on Geneva (1786). …

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Jean Simmons - Filmography

Film actress, born in London, UK. She made her first film appearance in Give Up The Moon (1942), and had minor parts in a number of British films before going to Hollywood in 1950, where she became a leading star of the following decade. Her films include The Robe (1953), Guys and Dolls (1955), The Big Country (1958), Spartacus (1960), and How to Make an American Quilt (1995). During the 1980s she…

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Jean Stafford - Bibliography

Short-story writer and novelist, born in Covina, California, USA. She studied at Colorado University, worked on the Southern Review, and taught at Flushing College. Boston Adventure, her first novel, was published in 1944 to great praise; The Mountain Lion, her second, appeared in 1947. She taught throughout the 1960s and published short stories, children's books, and an interview with the mother …

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Jean Stapleton

Stage and television actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. A character actress, she appeared in Broadway shows during the 1950s and 1960s, including The Bells Are Ringing (1956) and The Rhinoceros (1961). Intelligent, liberal, outspoken in real life, she gained her widest fame while portraying a woman who was virtually her opposite, Edith Bunker in All in the Family (1971–9), winning sev…

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Jean Sylvain Bailly - Biography

Astronomer and politician, born in Paris, France. He studied Halley's comet and the satellites of Jupiter, later writing his great Histoire de l'astronomie (1775–87). As president of the National Assembly and Mayor of Paris (1789–91) during the Revolution in 1789, he conducted himself with great integrity, but lost his popularity by allowing the National Guard to fire on anti-royalist crowds. He…

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Jean Tigana

French football player. He was selected 52 times and played 411 matches in Division One. His record includes the French championship with Bordeaux and Olympique Marseille (1984, 1985, 1987, 1990, 1991) and French Cup (1986, 1987) with Bordeaux. He is now coach at Monaco, who were French champions in 1997. Jean Tigana (born 23 June 1955 in Bamako, Mali) has played in midfield and managed pro…

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Jean Tinguely - Se also

Sculptor, born in Fribourg, W Switzerland. He studied at Basel, and was a pioneer of Kinetic Art. He worked in Paris from 1953 onwards, exhibiting his ‘meta-mechanical’ moving metal constructions, sometimes powered by small motors. Some of these clatter and ping, striking bottles or metal pans (musique concrète), and even make abstract drawings, but about 1960 he began programming them to destr…

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Jean Vigo

Film-maker, born in Paris, France, of Catalan origin. He studied philosophy at the Sorbonne (1925), then turned to film-making. A victim of tuberculosis, in his short life he became generally recognized as a surrealist film director, producing four films, two of which Zéro de conduite (1933) and L'Atalante (1934) are outstanding. The Prix J Vigo was set up in 1951 in his honour. Jean Vigo …

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Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr - Novels

Humorist, born in Paris, France. He published pamphlets in the review Les Guèpes (1839–46), then in Les Nouvelles Guèpes (1853–5). His first novel is his most famous, Sous les Tilleuls (1832), then appeared Voyage autour de mon jardin (1845), and Les Soirées de Sainte Adresse (1853). He retired, under Napoléon III, to the S of France to involve himself in horticulture. Jean-Baptiste A…

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Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux - Sculptures by Carpeaux

Sculptor and painter, born in Valenciennes, N France, the outstanding French sculptor of his time. After visiting Italy (1854) he returned to Paris (1862), where he produced his most famous works - a pediment for the Pavillon de Flore of the Louvre (1863) and La danse (1865) for the Paris Opéra façade, now in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. He was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1854. Also a painter, his…

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Jean-Baptiste Oudry

Painter, born in Paris, France. He studied under his father and Nicolas de Largillière. One of the greatest French painters of hunting scenes, and associated still-life paintings, he was appointed court painter to Louis XV and painter of the royal hunt. He became a designer and later director at the Beauvais tapestry works, where he produced the world-famous illustrations to La Fontaine's Fables …

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Jean-Baptiste Perronneau

Painter, born in Paris, France. A prolific painter, he achieved fame with his pastel portraits. He left Paris when he was eclipsed by his rival Maurice Quentin de la Tour. From c.1755 he travelled widely, obtaining commissions in the French provinces, Italy, England, and Russia, before settling in Holland, where he died. His works include ‘Girl with a Kitten’ (1745) and ‘Portrait of a Man’. …

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Jean-Baptiste Pigalle

Sculptor, born in Paris, France. He studied under Lemoyne and after spending some time in Italy he returned to France (1739). Extremely popular in his day, he was patronized by Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour. His works include a statue of Voltaire (1776) and the tomb of Marshal Maurice de Saxe in Strasbourg (1753–6). His ‘Vénus, l'amour et l'amitié’ (Venus, Love and Friendship) is in the Lo…

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Jean-Baptiste Rousseau

Playwright and poet, born in Paris, France. Accused of publishing libellous poetry, he was forced into exile in Vienna and then Brussels, where he died. His Odes and his Cantates remain worthy of reading, even though of a rather bombastic character. Jean-Baptiste Rousseau (April 6, 1671- March 17, 1741), was a French poet. He was born in Paris, the son of a shoemaker, and was we…

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Jean-Baptiste van Loo

Painter, born in Aix-en-Provence, SE France, of Flemish parentage, the brother of Charles André Vanloo. He studied in Rome and from 1720 became a fashionable portrait painter in Paris, where he was elected a member of the Academy (1731) and appointed professor of painting (1735). In 1737 he visited England, and painted the actor Colley Cibber, the Prince and Princess of Wales, and Sir Robert Walp…

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Jean-Claude Duvalier - Early life, Political and economic repression, Marriage, Discontent and revolt, Exile, Reference

Haitian politician and president (1971–86), born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the son of François (‘Papa Doc’) Duvalier. After studying law at the university of Haiti he followed his father into politics, becoming known as ‘Baby Doc’. At the age of 20 he became president-for-life, ruling, as had his father, through a private army. In 1986, as a result of escalating anti-government demonstration…

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Jean-Claude Killy

Alpine skier, born in Val d'Isère, E France. He won the downhill and combined gold medals at the world championship in Chile in 1966; and in 1968, when the Winter Olympics were held almost on his own ground at Grenoble, he won three gold medals for slalom, giant slalom, and downhill. He turned professional immediately afterwards and pursued a highly profitable career as an endorser and later manu…

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Jean-Edern Hallier - Overview, Style, Bibliography

Writer and polemicist, born in Edern, NW France. Son of a general, he said of himself that he was ‘méchant par volupté par plaisir du style’. Of narcissistic temperament, lyrical and médiatique, he had himself excluded from the review Tel Quel in 1963, of which he was co-founder. He published Le Grand Ecrivain in 1967. Politically left-wing after 1968, he was one of the founders of L'Idiot In…

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Jean-Georges Noverre - Reference

Dancer, choreographer, dance theorist, and ballet master, born in Paris, France. He proposed the notion of the ballet d'action, which, in its emphasis on mime and dramatic action, is commonly identified as one of the greatest influences on ballet as it is known and practised today. His Lettres sur la dance (1760–1807) aimed to elevate ballet from its position as a courtly divertissement to a seri…

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Jean-Jacques Annaud - Filmography

Film director and screenwriter, born in Draveil, NC France. After working in advertising, his first venture into film-making was La Victoire en chantant (1976), a film on colonialism which won the best foreign film Oscar the following year. After a number of satirical films which won him Césars, he directed Le Nom de la Rose (The Name of the Rose), based on Umberto Eco's mediaeval detective story…

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Jean-Jacques Beineix - Films

Film director, born in Paris, France. His first feature film, Diva (1980), became a cult film of the 1980s. He followed this with 37°2 le matin (1986, Betty Blue) starring Béatrice Dalle, the story of a doomed love affair set in contemporary France, which again found a very appreciative public. His later film Roselyne et les lions (1989) was not as successful. In 1992 he directed Yves Montand in…

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Jean-Jacques Goldman - Discography

Composer, lyricist, and performer, born in Montrouge, NC France. The son of a business family, he studied at Hautes Etudes Commerciales and was guitarist of the group Taï Phong in 1975. He became the most popular ‘troubadour-rock ‘ singer of the 1980s, and reached the top of the French Top 50 chart. Hit songs included ‘Compte pas sur moi ’, ‘La vie par procuration ’, ‘Elle a fait un bébé…

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Biography, Legacy, Major works, Editions in English

Political philosopher, educationist, and essayist, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. Largely self-taught, he carried on a variety of menial occupations, until after he moved to Paris in 1741, where he came to know Diderot and the encyclopédistes. In 1754 he wrote Discours sur l'origine de l'inégalité et les fondements parmi les hommes (1755, Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality A…

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Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber - Biography, Bibliography

French politician and journalist, born in Paris, France. During World War 2 he distinguished himself as a pilot with the Free French Army. He worked for the newspaper Le Monde (1948–53), then founded and ran L'Express (1953–70). Recalled into the army (1956), he was court-martialled upon the publication of his first book, Lieutenant en Algérie (1957, Lieutenant in Algeria) which exposed French …

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Jean-Louis Barrault

Actor, mime, and producer, born in Le Vesinet, NC France. He was a member of the Comédie Française (1940–6), then with his actress wife, Madeleine Renaud (1903–94), founded his own company, le Troupe Marigny, which became celebrated for its performances of Molière, Claudel, and the Gide translation of Hamlet. He became director of the Théâtre de France (1959–68), the Théâtre des Nations …

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Jean-Louis Forain

Painter and illustrator, born in Reims, NE France. He exhibited four times with the Impressionists during 1879–96. Influenced by his friends Manet and Dégas, he painted mainly interior scenes, but from 1876 achieved popular fame through his illustrations for various satirical papers in Paris. These depicted Parisian life, and he later concentrated on social inequalities and injustices. He also i…

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Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac

Writer, born probably in Balzac, near Angoulême, W France. He gained fame with his Lettres, short dissertations on political, moral, and literary matters, which appeared in numerous editions and were expanded continually from 1624. Other works include a political treatise, Le Prince (1631), Le Socrate chrétien (1652), some poetry in Latin, and a satire Le Barbon (1648). Les Entretiens (1657) and…

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Jean-Louis Trintignant

Actor and film-maker, born in Piolenc, France. He abandoned his legal studies to become an actor, making his Paris stage debut in 1951. His appearance in Et Dieu créa la femme (1956, And God Created Woman) with Brigitte Bardot brought him to popular attention. His career includes the internationally successful Un Homme et Une Femme (1966, A Man and a Woman), and a variety of work for Europe's mos…

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Jean-Luc Dehaene - Dehaene I (1992-1995), After 1999

Belgian statesman and prime minister (1992–9), born in Montpellier, S France. Educated at Namur, he was a scout commissioner (1963–7) before becoming vice-president of the CVP (Christian People's Party) youth section and going on to act in a number of different party roles. First elected to parliament in 1981, he was minister for social affairs and institutional reforms (1981–8), then deputy pr…

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Jean-Luc Godard - Cahiers and early films, Cinematic period, Revolutionary period, Later work

Film director, born in Paris, France. Educated in Paris, he was a journalist and film critic before turning director. His first major film A bout de souffle (1960, Breathless) established him as one of the leaders of Nouvelle Vague cinema. He wrote his own film scripts on contemporary and controversial themes, his prolific output including Vivre sa vie (1962, trans My Life to Live) and Weekend (19…

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Jean-Marc Nattier

Painter, born in Paris, France. The son of artist parents, he trained as an engraver and achieved fame as a portraitist of women at the court of Louis XV. He portrayed his subjects as mythological characters in a style which has become known as ‘le portrait Nattier’. His works include ‘Madame de Lambresc as Minerva’ (1737, Louvre) and ‘Duchesse d'Orléans as Hebe’ (1745). Jean-Marc Na…

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Jean-Marie Le Pen - Biography, Political career, Issues

Politician, born in La-Trinite-sur-Mer, Brittany, NW France. He graduated in law at Paris before serving in the 1950s as a paratrooper in Indochina and Algeria, where he lost an eye in a street battle. In 1956 he won a National Assembly seat as a right-wing Poujadist. He was connected with the extremist Organisation de l'Armée Sécrète before forming the National Front in 1972. This party, with …

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Jean-Marie Leclair

Composer and choreographer, born in Lyon, SC France. From a family of musicians, he is considered the founder of the French violin school, by adapting the style of Corelli. At first a dancer in the Lyon opera, he became maître de ballet in Turin, then for Louis XV in 1733. He settled in Paris at the court of La-Haye (1738–43) as theatre director of his formal pupil, the Duc de Grammont. His work…

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Jean-Paul Belmondo - Filmography as actor includes

Actor, born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, NC France. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, took part in provincial tours, and appeared in several films, but it was the film A Bout de Souffle (1959, Breathless) which made him famous. Later films include Le Voleur (1967, The Thief), Hold Up (1985), Peut-Être (1999, Perhaps), and Amazone (2000). His breakthrough role was in Jean-Luc Godard's À bout…

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Jean-Paul Gaultier

Fashion designer, born in Paris, France. At the age of eighteen he was designing for the Pierre Cardin fashion house, then joined the couture houses of Jacques Esterel and Jean Patou before producing his own independent collection in 1976. Among his well-known designs were the pointed corsets worn by Madonna during her 1990 Blonde Ambition World Tour. He reached a new audience as co-host of the ma…

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Jean-Paul Rappeneau - Filmography

Film-maker, born in Auxerre, C France. He was scriptwriter of Zazie dans le Métro, Vie Privée (director L Malle) and L'Homme de Rio (director Philippe de Broca). His first film La Vie de Château (1966) won the prix Louis Delluc. His meticulous approach, style, and ability to direct great actors was displayed in his adaptation of Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac starring Gerard Dépardieu, which won…

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Jean-Paul Sartre - Early life and thought, Sartre's metaphysics, La Nausée and existentialism

Existentialist philosopher and writer, born in Paris, France. He taught philosophy at Le Havre, Paris, and Berlin, was imprisoned in Germany (1941), and after his release joined the resistance in Paris. In 1945 he emerged as the leading light of the left-bank intellectual life of Paris. His name is synonymous with existentialism, a philosophy which seeks the freedom of the individual human being, …

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Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian

Writer, born in Sauve, S France. He joined the court of the Penthièvres at Anet, then at Sceaux. Grand-nephew of Voltaire, he was a fabulist songwriter. His works include five books of Fables (1792), a novel, Gonzalve de Cordoue (1792), and the plays Le Bon ménage and Les Jumeaux de Bergame (1782). Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian (March 6, 1755 château of Florian, near Sauve – September …

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Jean-Pierre Papin

French football player. A forward with 54 selections and 30 goals (as of 1999), his record includes best scorer in championships (1988–92), 150 goals in Division One, winner of the UEFA Cup in 1996 with Bayern, and many trophies with Marseille and AC Milan. …

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Jean-Pierre Serre - Life and career, Early work, Foundational work in algebraic geometry and the Weil conjectures, Other work

Mathematician, born in Bages, S France. He studied at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, then worked at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the University of Nancy, becoming professor at the Collège de France in 1956. He has carried out research in homotopy theory, algebraic geometry, class field theory, group theory, and number theory. In 1954 he was awarded the Fields Medal, and in…

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Jeane (Duane Jordan) Kirkpatrick - Biography, Views, Books, Quotes

Political scientist and government official, born in Duncan, Oklahoma. She studied at Barnard College (1948) and Columbia University (1950), and gained work as a research analyst at the Intelligence and Research Bureau of the US State Department. A professor at George Washington University (1967–81), she was a Democratic activist and wrote Political Woman (1974). Opposed to President Carter's for…

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Jeanette MacDonald - Early Years, Broadway, Motion Pictures, Concerts, Recordings, Opera, War Work, Musical Theatre, Marriage, Death, Controversy, Epilogue

Soprano, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Five years after her 1920 debut in a Broadway chorus, she began appearing in films. Though she sang occasionally in opera, she was best known for roles opposite Nelson Eddy (1901–67) in film operettas such as Naughty Marietta (1935) and Rose Marie (1936). Jeanette MacDonald (June 18, 1903 – January 14, 1965) was a singer and actress best …

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Jeanette Winterson - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK, and adopted into a Pentecostal family as an infant. Educated at Oxford, her first novel, the autobiographical Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit (1987), won the Whitbread Prize. Later books include The Passion (1987), Sexing The Cherry (1989), Gut Symmetries (1997), Lighthousekeeping (2004), and a collection of stories, World and Other …

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Jeanne Marie de la Motte Guyon

Mystic, born in Montargis, C France. She was married at 16 to the wealthy and elderly Jacques de la Motte Guyon. A widow at 28, she determined to devote her life to the poor and needy, and to the cultivation of spiritual perfection. Between 1681 and 1686 she visited several cities, but had to move on when her Quietist teachings upset the local bishops. She finally settled in Paris, but was arreste…

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Jeanne Moreau - Selected Filmography

Actress and director, born in Paris, France. The daughter of a former dancer with the Tiller Girls, she became a pupil at the Conservatoire National d'Art Dramatique, and made her stage and film debuts in 1948. An association with the directors of the French New Wave brought her recognition as an intense, hypnotic film actress. Her most famous films include Jules et Jim (1961), Journal d'une femme…

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Jeannette Rankin - Biography

US representative, born in Missoula, Montana, USA. A graduate of the University of Montana (1902) and of the New York School for Social Work (1909), she fought for women's suffrage and helped obtain it in Montana (1914). Running on a platform that called for prohibition and ‘preparedness that will make for peace’ (1916), she was the first woman elected to the US House of Representatives (Republi…

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Jeannie Robertson

Folk singer, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. She was virtually unknown beyond the NE of Scotland until discovered in 1953 by Scottish folklorist Hamish Henderson (1919–2002). Her huge repertoire of classic traditional ballads and other songs, together with her powerful and magnetic singing style, exerted a profound influence on the folk-music revival. Although she lived most of her life in Abe…

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Jedediah (Strong) Smith - Birth and accomplishments, Pioneering the Shining Mountains (ill-fated first attempt)

Explorer and fur trader, born in Bainbridge, New York, USA. Starting in the fur trade with General William Ashley in St Louis (1822), he took over Ashley's Rocky Mountain trade (1826) with two others. In 1826–30 he led exploratory expeditions from Great Salt Lake, Utah, across the Mohave desert into California, where he was nearly imprisoned by the Mexican governor. He then went N through the Sie…

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Jedidiah Morse - Quotes

Minister and geographer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Graduating from Yale (1783), he stayed there to study for the ministry, teaching at schools to support his studies, and writing the first American geography textbook, Geography Made Easy (1784), later reprinted in some 25 editions. After several short-term preaching assignments, he settled in the First Congregation Church, Charlestown, …

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jeep - Jeep lineup

The name given to a general purpose (GP) light vehicle developed in World War 2 for the United States Army. It became particularly renowned for its exceptional sturdiness and capability for operating on rough terrain, because of its high clearance and four-wheel drive. After the War, its easy availability, alongside its technical features, laid down the standard against which later specialized rou…

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Jeff Bridges - Partial filmography

Film actor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA, the son of actor Lloyd Bridges (1913–98). He appeared in the television series Sea Hunt as a child, and after military academy and the coastguards he became a professional actor, receiving Oscar nominations for The Last Picture Show (1971), Starman (1984), and Tucker (1988). Later films include The Fisher King (1991), The Mirror Has Two Faces (199…

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Jefferson (Finis) Davis - Early life, education, and military career, Return to politics, Leadership of the Confederacy, Cabinet

US statesman and soldier, president of the Confederate States during the Civil War (1861–5), born in Fairview, Kentucky, USA. He trained at West Point (1828) and served on the frontier for seven years. Shattered by the death of his wife of three months (the daughter of Zachary Taylor), he secluded himself on his Mississippi plantation, later marrying Varina Howell (1845). He served in the US Hous…

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Jeffrey Dahmer - Early life, Later murders, Capture, Trial and imprisonment, Victims, Pop culture references, Literature

Convicted murderer, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. He confessed to 17 killings, committed in the USA over several years, and was found guilty in 1992 of 15 of these murders. His insanity plea having been rejected by the jury, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. He was killed in prison by a fellow prisoner. Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer (May 21, 1960 – November 28, 1994) was an American ser…

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Jeffries Wyman

Anatomist and ethnologist, born in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, USA. The leading anatomist of his day, he lectured among other institutions at Harvard, where he was curator of what became the Peabody Museum (1866–74). His published work, renowned for its precision and accuracy, included the first description of the gorilla's skeletal structure, but he is best known by later archaeologists for his p…

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Jeffries Wyman

Molecular biologist, born in West Newton, Massachusetts, USA. The grandson of Harvard anatomist and zoologist Jeffries Wyman (1814–74), he taught and performed research at Harvard (1928–51), became a scientific adviser to the US Embassy, Paris (1951–4), then directed UNESCO's Middle East Science Office (1955–9). He relocated to the Regina Elena Institute in Rome (1960–84), where he remained a…

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Jehan Rictus

Poet, born in Boulogne-sur-Mer, N France. He first published poems under his own name while he was employed by the city of Paris, then two years later began to write in street slang, which he recited in the cabaret des Quat'z'Arts (1896) and at the Chat Noir (1897). These texts were collected together in Soliloques du Pauvre (1897) and Les Cantilènes du Malheur (1902). He published a largely auto…

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Jehovah's Witnesses - History, Demographics, Organizational structure, Beliefs and practices, Critical views, Controversy, Persecution, Further reading

A millenarian movement organized in the USA in 1884 under Charles Taze Russell (1852–1916). They adopted the name Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931; previously they were called ‘Millennial Dawnists’ and ‘International Bible Students’. They have their own translation of the Bible, which they interpret literally. They believe in the imminent second coming of Christ, avoid worldly involvement, and ref…

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Jehudi Ashmun

Colonial agent, writer, and philanthropist, born in Champlain, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Vermont (1816), and entered the Congregational ministry, becoming involved in various educational and journalistic enterprises. In 1822 he sailed from Baltimore to Liberia with a boatload of returning African-American slaves. There he held off an attack by native chiefs and survived the fe…

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Jelle Zijlstra

Dutch politician and economist, born at Oosterbierum, N Netherlands. As minister of economics (1952–9) and finance (1959–63) he revalued the guilder in 1961, tying it to the German mark. He retired from politics in 1963, becoming president of the Netherlands Bank (1967–81), when he was succeeded by Wim Duisenberg. He was also President of the Bank for International Payments and minister of stat…

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Jelly Roll Morton - Birth, New Orleans, Touring, Victor Company, New York City, The Library of Congress interviews, Later years

Jazz pianist, composer, and bandleader, born in Gulfport, Louisiana, USA. He worked as a gambler and pimp as well as a piano entertainer. His genius as a jazz pioneer is revealed in the recordings he made (1923–7) while living in Chicago. His unaccompanied piano solos made best sellers of such tunes as ‘King Porter Stomp’, ‘Wolverine Blues’, and ‘Jelly Roll Blues’. His orchestral arrangemen…

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jellyfish - Life cycle and reproduction, Defense and feeding mechanisms, Body systems, Blooms and grouping, Jellyfish in captivity

A typically bell-shaped, marine coelenterate with a ring of marginal tentacles containing stinging cells and a central mouth on undersurface of bell; body displays a 4-part radial symmetry; endodermal gastric tentacles present in gut; represents the medusa phase of the coelenterate life-cycle, the polyp phase being reduced or absent. (Phylum: Cnidaria. Class: Scyphozoa.) The box jellyfish or sea w…

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Jena - History, Economy, Transportation, Colleges, universities and research institutes, Museums, Culture, Famous residents, Sister cities

50 56N 11 35E, pop (2000e) 105 300 Town in Jena district, Gera, EC Germany, on R Saale; first planetarium built here, 9th-c; defeat of Prussians by Napoleon, 1806; railway; university (1588); chemicals, precision instruments. Coordinates: 50°56′N 11°35′E Jena is a town in central Germany on the River Saale. Jena was first mentioned in a 1182 document. …

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Jennie Tourel - People, Places, Scottish clan

Mezzo-soprano, born in St Petersburg, Russia. She studied voice in Paris, making her operatic debut there in 1933. In 1940 she went to the USA, joined the Metropolitan Opera (1944), and was an active recitalist, excelling in a wide range of styles including contemporary opera. Davidson is a name of several people and places. Davidson is the name of several places in the United S…

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Jennifer (Joanne) Aniston - Biography, Selected filmography, Awards

Actress, born in Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles, California, USA. She trained at the High School for the Performing Arts in New York City, worked off-Broadway, then went to Hollywood, where she eventually achieved success through her role as Rachel Green in the acclaimed television series Friends (1994–2004). Roles in feature films include Leprechaun (1993), She's the One (1996), The Object of My Affe…

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Jennifer (Lynn) Connelly - Early life, Early career, Breakthrough, Personal life, Selected filmography

Actress, born in Catskill Mountains, New York, USA. Brought up in Brooklyn Heights, she began a modelling career and appeared in magazine advertisements and televison commercials. Her acting debut came in an episode of the British TV series Tales of the Unexpected (1979) and her first film role was in Once Upon a Time in America (1984). Later films include The Rocketeer (1991), Mulholland Falls (1…

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Jennifer (Marie) Capriati - Grand Slam singles finals, Titles (14), Grand Slam singles performance timeline

Tennis player, born in New York City, New York, USA. Hailed as a tennis phenomenon at the age of 13, she turned professional in 1990 and went on to win a gold medal at the Barcelona Olympics in 1992. In 1994 personal problems resulted in an extended break from tennis, but in 2001 she made a successful comeback, winning the French Open and Australian Open singles titles that year. She retained the …

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Jennifer Lopez - Awards and nominations, Selected filmography

Actress and pop singer, born in the Bronx, New York City, USA. She trained as a dancer and gained a part in the television comedy sketch series In Living Color (1990–3). She went on to co-star in the feature film Money Train (1995) and took the title role in Selena (1997). Later films include Out of Sight (1998), The Wedding Planner (2001), Shall We Dance? (2004), and Monster-in-Law (2005). Also …

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Jennifer Saunders - Biography, Film and television, Bibliography

Comedy writer and actress, born in Sleaford, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. Trained at the Central School of Speech and Drama, London, she teamed up with Dawn French in a comedy act, taking it from clubs to theatre (An Evening with French and Saunders, 1989), and making a successful breakthrough into television with ‘The Comic Strip Presents ...’ (1990), ‘Girls on Top’ and six series of ‘Frenc…

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Jenny Agutter - Early life, Film career, Selected Film and Television, Awards

Film and stage actress, born in Taunton, Somerset, SW England, UK. She became known following her role in The Railway Children (1970). Her other film credits include The Snow Goose (1971, Emmy, Best Supporting Actress), Equus (1977, BAFTA), Child's Play 2 (1991), and Blue Juice (1995). Television work includes A Respectable Trade (1998), a new adaptation of The Railway Children (2000), Spooks (200…

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Jenny Geddes

Scottish vegetable-seller, traditionally reputed to have started the riots in St Giles' church, Edinburgh, by throwing her wooden stool at the preacher, Bishop Lindsay, when Laud's prayer book was introduced on Sunday, 23 July 1637. Her story appears in full detail in Phillips's continuation of Baker's Chronicle (1660). The legendary Jenny Geddes famously threw her stool at the head of the …

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Jenny Lind - Namesakes and commemorations

Soprano, born in Stockholm, Sweden. She trained in Stockholm and Paris, made her debut in Stockholm in 1838, and attained great popularity everywhere. After 1856 she lived in England, and became professor of singing at the Royal College of Music (1883–6). For the locomotive named after her, please see Jenny Lind locomotive Johanna Maria Lind (October 6, 1820 – November 2, 188…

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Jenny Shipley

New Zealand politician and prime minister (1997–9), born in Gore, New Zealand. She studied at Christchurch Teachers College, worked as a primary-school teacher, then entered politics, becoming an MP for the (conservative) National Party in 1987. Her ministerial portfolios included social welfare (1990–3), health (1993–6), women's affairs (1990–6, 1997), and transport (1997). She became the cou…

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Jens (Christian) Clausen

Botanist, born in North Eskilstrup, Denmark. He carried out genetic research in Copenhagen (1921–31), where his study of violets led to his recruitment by taxonomist Harvey Monroe Hall to join the Carnegie Institution's laboratory at Stanford University (1931–69). There Clausen became the cytologist, geneticist, and unofficial leader of climatological transplant studies over two decades. With co…

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Jens Jensen

Landscape architect, born in Dybbol, Denmark. Arriving in the USA at age 24, he became a gardener in the Chicago West Parks (1886) and rapidly rose to become superintendent of Humboldt Park - a position he held until 1900, when he was dismissed because he exposed graft in the Chicago parks system. Creating the ‘prairie style of landscape design’, he distributed local plants along broad lawns for…

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jerboa - Classification

A mouse-like rodent; moves by jumping (may leap 3 m/10 ft); hind legs at least four times as long as front legs; ears large; long tail, with long hairs at tip; eats seeds, plants, or insects; does not drink; also known as desert rat. (Family: Dipodidae, 31 species.) Jerboas are the members of the family Dipodidae; …

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Jeremiah - Introspection, Jeremiah in legend and midrash, Writings and authorship, Contemporary Commentary

Old Testament prophet, whose prophecies are recorded in the Book of Jeremiah, born near Jerusalem. He was in Jerusalem during the siege by Nebuchadrezzar II, and was persuaded to flee to Egypt after the assassination of Gedaliah, the governor appointed by the Babylonians for the province of Judah. Jeremiah is said to have been stoned to death by his fellow Jews for constantly rebuking them for ido…

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Jeremiah Clarke - Suicide, Works

Composer, probably born in London, UK. He studied under John Blow at the Chapel Royal, and became organist of Winchester College in 1692, and of St Paul's Cathedral three years later, following his master at the Chapel Royal in 1704. The real composer of the Trumpet Voluntary long attributed to Purcell, Clarke wrote operas, theatre music, religious and secular choral works, and music for harpsicho…

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Jeremiah Dummer - Background and Early Life, Education and Early Career

Silversmith, engraver, and painter, born in Newbury, Massachusestts, USA. Known as the first American-born silversmith, he completed a Boston apprenticeship with John Hull and went on to make some of the finest silver pieces of his time. He is said to have introduced the ornamentation known as gadrooning, curved flutings cut on the surface of silver. Jeremiah Dummer (1681 – May 19th, 1739…

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Jeremiah Horrocks - Further reading

Astronomer, born in Toxteth, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and was ordained in 1639. He was curate of Hoole, Lancashire, where he made the first recorded observation of the transit of Venus (24 Nov 1639, old dating style) which he had predicted. He showed the Moon's orbit to be approximately elliptical, and calculated an improved value for the solar parallax. Jeremiah…

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Jeremiah Morrow

US representative, senator, and governor, born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, USA. A self-educated surveyor who promoted Ohio's statehood in 1800, he sponsored legislation for affordable public land sales in Congress (Republican, Ohio, 1803–13) and the Senate (1813–19). As governor (1823–6), he promoted public education and canal-building programmes. He returned to Congress as a Whig (1840–3). …

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Jeremiah O'Brien

Revolutionary hero, born in Kittery, Maine, USA. He ably defended Machias, Maine (then part of Massachusetts), against British vessels, and captured HMS Margaretta in what was counted as the first naval battle of the Revolution. He commanded privateers (1777–80), and was captured and briefly imprisoned in England (1780). Captain Jeremiah O’Brien (1744–1818) was in command of Unity when…

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Jeremias Gotthelf

Swiss writer, born in Murten, Canton Fribourg. Trained in theology and pursuing the career of parish priest, he began writing with the aim of instructing his flock, but soon gained literary renown as a leading representative of realistic rural ‘Heimatdichtung’, employing a direct approach and picturesque language. Wie Uli der Knecht glücklich wird (1841) and Uli der Pächter (1849) are prime ex…

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Jeremy (Charles Robert) Clarkson - Biography, Television career, Engineering interests, Views, Works

Journalist and television presenter, born in Doncaster, S Yorkshire, N England, UK. A junior reporter on the Rotherham Advertiser (1978–83), he founded the Motoring Press Agency (1983), then joined the BBC as presenter on Top Gear (1989–98) and Jeremy Clarkson's Motorworld (1995– ). He is a regular columnist for leading newspapers and for Top Gear magazine, which he founded in 1993. In 1999 he …

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Jeremy (Dickson) Paxman - Author, University Challenge, Trivia

Television presenter and journalist born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, then joined BBC 1 as presenter on Tonight (1977–9), Panorama (1979–84), the Six O'Clock News (1985–6), and Breakfast Time (1986–9). Programmes on BBC 2 include Newsnight (1989– ), on which he developed a reputation as a tough but fair interviewer, Did You See? (1991–3), and University C…

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Jeremy (John) Irons - Early life, Private life, Trivia, Selected filmography

Actor, born in Cowes, Isle of Wight, S England, UK. A student with the Bristol Old Vic, he made his London stage debut as John the Baptist in the rock musical Godspell (1971–2), and joined the Royal Shakepeare Company. In 1984 he won a Tony award for Best Actor in The Real Thing. His role as Charles Ryder in the acclaimed television series Brideshead Revisited (1981) made him a household name. La…

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Jeremy Bentham - Life, Works, Utilitarianism, Economics, Animal rights, Bentham and collectivism

Philosopher, jurist, and social reformer, born in London, UK. He entered Oxford at the age of 12, and was admitted to Lincoln's Inn at 19. He is best known as a proponent of utilitarianism in his pioneering works A Fragment on Government (1776) and Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789), which argued that the proper objective of all conduct and legislation is ‘the greates…

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Jeremy Collier

Clergyman and nonjuror, born in Stow cum Quy, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, afterwards becoming rector of Ampton near Bury St Edmunds, and lecturer at Gray's Inn. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to William III and Mary in 1689, waged war on the crown with incisive pamphlets, and was arrested in 1692 on suspicion of being involved in a Jacobite plot. In 1697 he …

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Jeremy Rifkin - Education, Published works, Influence in Europe, Foundation on Economic Trends, Books

Social activist and writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He graduated from the Wharton School of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy of Tufts University, but America's role in the Vietnam War so disturbed him that he helped organize the first national rally against the war (1967). He then founded and directed the People's Bicentennial Commissio…

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Jeremy Taylor - Career under Laud, A Royalist prisoner, Writings, Made a bishop in Ireland at the Restoration

Theologian, probably born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, became a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford (1636), chaplain to Archbishop Laud, and rector of Uppingham (1638). During the Civil War he is said to have accompanied the Royal Army as chaplain, and was taken prisoner at Cardigan Castle (1645). After the downfall of the cause he sought shelter in Wales,…

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Jerez (de la Frontera) - Demographics, History

36°41N 6°07W, pop (2000e) 185 000. Picturesque town a few miles inland from Cádiz, Andalusia, S Spain, giving its name to sherry; airport; noted centre for sherry, wine, and brandy; horse breeding; Fiesta of the Horse (May), wine festival (Sep). Jerez de la Frontera (in former times also known as Xerez or Xeres) is a city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous com…

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Jericho - Recent history, Archaeology, Biblical references

31°51N 35°27E, pop (2000e) 29 000. Oasis town in Jerusalem governorate, Israeli-occupied West Bank, W Jordan, 38 km/24 mi NE of Jerusalem; focus of the state of Palestine (area 62 km²/24 sq mi), following Israeli–PLO peace agreement, 1993; 95% Sunni Muslim, 5% Christian; farming, tourism; site of the world's earliest known town, continuously occupied c.9000–1850 BC; a tell (mound), are…

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Jerome (Clarke) Hunsaker

Aeronautical engineer, born in Creston, Iowa, USA. He was designer of the flying boat NC-4, which made the first transatlantic flight (1919), and the dirigible Shenandoah. He also founded the first college course in aeronautical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1914), and while teaching there (1912–52) he developed the first modern wind tunnel in America. In charge of Ame…

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Jerome (David) Kern - Classical Works, Complete Work for Broadway, Trivia

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After a start in Broadway theatres as a rehearsal pianist, he began contributing songs to musical shows. With librettist Guy Bolton, he wrote his first hit show, Very Good, Eddie (1915), which brought a new sophistication to musical theatre by connecting songs and story more closely than the popular shows of the time. With lyricist Oscar Hammerstein …

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Jerome (Seymour) Bruner - The Narrative Construction of Reality, Bibliography

Psychologist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Duke University and Harvard, and was professor of psychology at Harvard (1952–72), Oxford (1972–80), and the New School for Social Research, New York City. In a number of works published in the 1960s he stressed the centrality of teaching for underlying cognitive structure, and the usefulness of the ‘spiral curriculum’. His humanities pro…

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Jerome Frank - Biography, Works

Judge and legal philosopher, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago, and before attending its law school, he served as secretary to his political science professor, Charles E Merriam. He handled corporate reorganizations in Chicago (1912–29) and New York (1929–33) and then served as counsel to several New Deal agencies. He then joined the Securities and Exc…

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Jerome I(saac) Friedman

Physicist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He taught at the University of Chicago (1956–7) and Stanford University (1957–60) before joining the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1960). He shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Physics (with R E Taylor and H W Kendall) for experiments (1967–73) confirming the existence of the quark. Jerome Isaac Friedman (born March 28, 1930) is an American…

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Jerome Karle

Physicist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the City College of New York, Harvard, and Michigan University. He made his career in the US Naval Research Laboratories in Washington, specializing in diffraction methods for studying the fine structure of crystalline matter. For his major contribution in this field, he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1985 with Herbert Hauptman. …

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Jerome of Prague

Religious reformer, born in Prague, Czech Republic. He studied at Prague and Oxford. A friend and collaborator of John Huss, he also became a disciple of Wycliffe, and zealously spread his teachings after returning to the European mainland (1401), but in each city the ecclesiastical authorities forced him to move on. From the Sorbonne (1405), he moved to Heidelberg and Cologne (1406), Vienna (1410…

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Jerry (Alan) West - Early life and sports, NBA career, Management

Basketball player, born in Cabin Creek, West Virginia, USA. He was an All-American at the University of West Virginia (1956–60) and he co-captained the US Olympic team to a gold medal in 1960. He then played for the Los Angeles Lakers (1960–74), where he was a 10-times All-NBA (National Basketball Association) first-team selection. One of the game's greatest guards, he averaged 27 points per gam…

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Jerry (Ray) Lucas - High school, Ohio State University, 1960 Olympics, Professional basketball, Retirement

Basketball player, born in Middletown, Ohio, USA. After playing at Ohio State University (1959–62), he played forward for 10 years in the National Basketball Association (NBA) (1964–73), mostly for the Cincinnati Hawks. He was named to the All-NBA first team three times (1965–6, 1968), and in 1979 he was elected to basketball's Hall of Fame. Jerry Ray Lucas (born March 30, 1940) was a le…

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Jerry Brown - Early life and education, Legal career and entrance into politics, Governorship, 1976 presidential campaign

US governor and political maverick, born in San Francisco, California, USA. The son of California governor ‘Pat’ Brown, he studied at a Jesuit novitiate (1956–60). Torn between contemplation and action, he became a lawyer (1964), then served as secretary of state (1970–4) and governor (Democrat, 1975–83) of California, and as such became known for turning down many perks of office. He would l…

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Jerry Bruckheimer - Filmography (producer)

Film producer, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He studied psychology and photography at the University of Arizona, and took up a career in advertising. He moved into film production, and in 1983 teamed up with Don Simpson (1943–96) to head a company that produced such successful films as Flashdance (1983), Beverly Hills Cop (1984), Top Gun (1986), Days of Thunder (1990), and Dangerous Minds (1995…

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Jerry Falwell - Education, Health, The National Liberty Journal, Thomas Road Baptist Church, Liberty University

Protestant evangelist, born in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA. He studied engineering, then turned to religious studies after a conversion. In 1956 he founded a Baptist church in Lynchburg and later launched an extremely popular television programme, ‘The Old-Time Gospel Hour’, and established Liberty Baptist College. From 1979 his Moral Majority became a political force for advancing the social agend…

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Jerry Garcia - Early years, Career with the Grateful Dead, Side projects, Life and Death, Legacy, Discography

Band leader, guitarist, and songwriter, born in San Francisco, California, USA. The son of a Spanish immigrant who became a bandleader popular in the San Francisco area, he studied piano as a boy but turned to the guitar in his teens. He dropped out of school at age 17 and served nine months in the US Army before being discharged for poor conduct. He began to play folk and blues guitar, alone or w…

1 minute read

Jerry Herman - Off-Broadway Revues, Broadway musicals, Films, Television, Other shows, Awards and nominations, Reference

Composer and lyricist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied drama at the University of Miami, won the Snark's award for playwriting, and his college revue, I Feel Wonderful, had an off-Broadway run. His first successful Broadway musical, Milk and Honey (1961), was followed by the Tony Award-winning hits Hello Dolly (1964), Mame (1966), and La Cage aux Folles (1983), the first Broadway …

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Jerry Lee Lewis - Hit singles

Musician, born in Ferriday, Louisiana, USA. A singer and pianist, he emerged in 1956 as one of the most fervent and blues-flavoured of the rock 'n' roll originators. He began singing in Assembly of God churches and Bible schools before working as a session musician at Sun Records in Memphis, TN. His first recordings for Sun (1957), ‘Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On’ and ‘Great Balls of Fire’, caus…

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Jerry Lewis - Filmography

Film actor, director, and producer, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. A zany, mugging, sentimental comic, he worked as a one-night-stand entertainer until he met singer Dean Martin in 1946. The team made their first screen appearance in My Friend Irma (1949), and made 16 more films together before splitting up. Lewis began producing and then directing his own films, becoming a special favourite in …

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Jerry Rubin

Activist, writer, and entrepreneur, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. A reporter for the Cincinnati Post and Times-Star (1956–61), he was an anti-war organizer and co-chairman for the Vietnam Day Committee, Berkeley, CA (1965). He ran for mayor of Berkeley in 1966. The first person ever to testify before the House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC) in costume (1966), he was a co-founder of th…

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Jerry Seinfeld - Early life, Seinfeld, Post-Seinfeld, Books, Family, Personal income, Car collection, Other Interests

Comedian, actor, and writer, born in Brooklyn, New York City, USA. He studied at Queen's College, then began working in Manhattan comedy clubs, eventually becoming MC at the Comic Strip. He later starred in his own television special Jerry Seinfield's Stand-up Confidential (1987) and went on to become a household name with his successful long-running sit-com series Seinfeld (1990–9). He continues…

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Jerry Springer - Early years, Political career, Politics to journalism, The Jerry Springer Show, Modern political involvement

Television presenter, lawyer, and politician, born in London, England, UK. His parents fled Nazi Germany to London, and in 1949 they emigrated to Queens, New York. He studied political science at Tulane University (1965) and gained a law degree from Northwestern University (1968). He began practising law in Cincinnati, where he became a member of the city council (1971–7) and was elected mayor (1…

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Jerry Wexler - Career, Movie portrayal

Record producer, born in New York City, New York, USA. An aficionado of the black music that he heard in New York jazz clubs in the 1930s, he served in the US Navy during World War 2 and worked for BMI and the publishing division of MGM between the late 1940s and early 1950s. He wrote a column for Billboard (1948–51) in which he reported on black popular music and coined the term ‘rhythm-and-blu…

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Jersey

pop (2000e) 90 000; area 116 km²/45 sq mi. Largest of the Channel Is, lying W of Normandy; chief languages, English with some Norman-French; airport; ferries to UK and France; capital, St Helier; noted for its dairy farming (Jersey cattle) and potatoes; tourism; Jersey Zoological Park founded by Gerald Durrell in 1959; underground German headquarters from World War 2. …

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Jerusalem - History, Status of Jerusalem, Physical geography, People and culture, Economy, Tourism, Transportation, Sports, Education, Museums

31°47N 35°15E, pop (2000e) 686 000. Capital city of Jerusalem district and the State of Israel; a holy city of Christians, Jews, and Muslims, on the E slope of the Judean range; the old city is a world heritage site, surrounded by a fortified wall and divided into four quarters (Armenian, Muslim, Christian, Jewish); ancient holy city, frequently referred to in Biblical sources; part of Roman E…

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Jerusalem artichoke

A large perennial growing to 2·8 m/9·2 ft (Helianthus tuberosus), a native of North America; numerous underground stolons have potato-like tubers at their tips, persisting through the winter; leaves lance-shaped, coarsely toothed; flower-heads 4–8 cm/1½–3 in across, yellow, surrounded by dark green pointed bracts. Introduced to Europe in the 16th-c, it has been cultivated for its edible t…

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Jerzy Grotowski - The Notion of a 'Poor' Theatre, The Objective Drama Phase

Theatre director, teacher, and drama theorist, born in Rzeszów, SE Poland. His work had a major impact on experimental theatre and actor training in the West during the 1960s and 1970s. After studying in Kraków and Moscow, he founded the Theatre of 13 Rows in Opole (1956–64), which moved to Wroc?aw as the Laboratory Theatre (1965–84). After 1982 he lived and worked in the USA and Italy. …

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Jesse (Louis) Jackson - Early life, Civil Rights leader, Presidential candidate, Current activities, Criticism and controversies, Family

Civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and presidential candidate, born in Greenville, South Carolina, USA. Son of an Alabama sharecropper (he adopted his stepfather's last name), he was a good enough athlete in high school to be offered a contract by the Chicago White Sox, but he turned it down because a white player was given so much more money. He also turned down an athletic scholarship at t…

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Jesse (William) Lazear

Physician, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. After graduating from Columbia's medical school and working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, he gained a reputation for his work in bacteriological research. An outbreak of yellow fever in Cuba led to his being appointed an assistant surgeon in the US Army and assigned to a Yellow Fever Commission with Walter Reed, James Carroll and Aristides Agramont…

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Jesse (Woodson) James - Rumors of survival, Legacy, Jesse James in popular culture, Museums

Wild West outlaw, born in Centerville, Missouri, USA. After fighting with a guerrilla group in the Civil War, he and his brother Frank James (1843–1915) led numerous bank, train, and stagecoach robberies in and around Missouri, before Jesse was murdered for a reward by Robert Ford, a gang member. Frank gave himself up soon after, stood trial, was released, and lived the rest of his life on the fa…

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Jesse Douglas - Literature

Mathematician, born in New York City, New York, USA. He taught at a number of American universities, including Columbia (1920–6), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1930–6), and New York City College (1955–65). Concentrating largely on geometry, his specialty was the problem of Plateau, and he wrote over 50 papers on geometry and group theory. Douglas later became a full professo…

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Jesse Holman Jones

Businessman and government official, born in Robertson Co, Tennessee, USA. A lumber and real-estate magnate based in Houston, TX, he provided financial support for the Democrats. Head of the Reconstruction Finance Committee (1932–40), he set loan terms for banks and corporations, becoming secretary of commerce (1940–5). He later published the Houston Chronicle. Born in Robertson County, T…

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Jesse Owens - Early years, NCAA, Berlin Olympics, Post Olympics, Trivia

Track and field athlete, born in Danville, Alabama, USA. After setting records as a schoolboy athlete in Cleveland, he attended Ohio State University where (25 May 1935), he set three world records and tied another in the span of about an hour. (His 26 ft 8 in long jump was not broken until 1960.) At the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany, he disproved for the world Adolf Hitler's proclamation of …

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Jessica (Lucy) Mitford - Adolescence, Life in America, Communism, Civil Rights activism, Investigative journalism, Bibliography

Writer, the sister of Diana, Nancy, and Unity Mitford. She wrote Hons and Rebels (1960), her autobiography and story of the unconventional Mitford childhood. She went to the USA in 1939, became a Communist, and married in 1943. Later books included The American Way of Death (1963), The Trial of Dr Spock (1970), The Making of a Muckraker (1979), and Grace Had an English Heart: the Story of Grace Da…

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Jessica Lange - Filmography, Academy Awards and nominations

Film actress, born in Cloquet, Minnesota, USA. She studied at the University of Michigan and the Opera Comique in Paris. After her first film, the 1976 remake of King Kong, she won acclaim for her performance in The Postman Always Rings Twice (1981). She received an Oscar nomination as Best Actress for her role in Frances (1982), and won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in Tootsie (1982). Lat…

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Jessica Tandy - Awards, Filmography

Stage and film actress, born in London, UK. Starting her career in England, she first acted in the USA in 1930, but not until playing Blanche in the original production of A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) did she begin to be perceived as an American actress. After her marriage (1942) to Hume Cronyn they often appeared together on stage. She won an Oscar in 1989 as the leading actress in Driving Mis…

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Jessie Marion King

Designer and illustrator, born in Bearsden (formerly New Kilpatrick), East Dunbartonshire, WC Scotland, UK. She studied at the Glasgow School of Art and won a travelling scholarship to Italy and Germany. She was an internationally renowned and much sought-after book illustrator, who also designed jewellery and wallpaper, and was greatly involved with batik and pottery. King was made Tutor i…

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Jessie R(edmon) Fauset - Her life and work, Selected works, Quotes

Writer, born in Fredericksville, New Jersey, USA. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Cornell University and studied at the Sorbonne, Paris. She had a long career teaching high school in Washington, DC, and New York, later joining the faculty of the Hampton Institute (1949). As literary editor of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's magazine Crisis (1919–26), she was inf…

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jet - Music, Fiction, Sports, Culture

A resinous, hard, black variety of lignite, formed from wood buried on the sea floor. It is often polished, and used in jewellery. …

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jet engine - History, Types, Type comparison, Turbojet engines, Turbofan engines, Major components, Advanced designs, Trivia

An engine that accelerates a fluid into its surrounding environment to form a fast-moving jet. The reaction felt by the engine to this expulsion is the thrust force, which acts in the opposite direction to the jet. This reactive thrust force is the propulsion force of the engine. Although by definition a rocket motor and a ship's propeller produce thrust in this way, the term is usually taken to a…

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jet lag - Causes

Unpleasant mental and bodily sensations of fatigue, inability to concentrate, and impaired judgment, induced by rapid air travel through several time-zones. The condition is due to a disturbance in biological circadian rhythms, and usually subsides within a few days. To meet Wikipedia's style guidelines and conform to our policies regarding neutral point of view, original research, and veri…

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jet stream - Description, Cause, Discovery, Uses

A narrow band of high velocity, westerly winds found at or just below the top of the troposphere at c.9000–15 000 m/30 000–50 000 ft. Maximum velocities are 100–150 mph (c.45–70 m/s), but may increase to 300 mph (c.135 m/s) in winter. Jet streams are found in both hemispheres. Jet streams are fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents found in the atmosphere at around 11 kilo…

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jew's harp - Use, Names of specific Jew's harps around the world

A simple musical instrument held between the player's lips and teeth. A flexible metal tongue is set in motion with the hand, and the pitch and timbre of its vibrations are controlled by the mouth. The origin of the name itself is unknown. The instrument is a lamellaphone, which is in the category of plucked idiophones: it consists of a flexible metal or bamboo tongue attached to a frame. T…

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Jewish philosophy - Approaches

Judaism, like Christianity and Islam, represents a constructive synthesis of biblical monotheism and Greek philosophical thought. The Hebrew Bible, though nowhere presenting a systematic philosophy, is rich in reflections on metaphysics, physics, and ethics, and the earliest Greek references to the Jews described them as a race of philosophers. Jews responded by rewriting the Bible in the language…

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Jezebel

Phoenician princess, the daughter of Ethbaal, King of Tyre and Sidon, and wife of King Ahab of Israel (869–850). She introduced Phoenician habits (and religion) to the capital, Samaria, thus earning the undying enmity of the prophet Elijah and his successors. After Ahab's death, Jezebel was the power behind the throne of her sons until the usurper Jehu seized power in an army coup. He had Jezebel…

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Jiang Jieshi - Early life, Rise to power, "Tutelage" over China, Wartime leader of China, Losing China

Revolutionary leader of 20th-c China, the effective head of the Nationalist Republic (1928–49), and head thereafter of the emigré Nationalist Party regime in Taiwan, born into a merchant family in Zhejiang. He interrupted his military education in Japan to return to China and join the Nationalist revolution. In 1918 he joined the separatist revolutionary government of Sun Yixian (Sun Yatsen) in …

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Jiang Jingguo - Early life, Mayor of Shanghai, Political career in Taiwan, Presidency, Death and legacy

Taiwanese prime minister (1972–8) and president (1978–87), born in Chekiang Province, China. The son of Jiang Jieshi, he studied in the Soviet Union during the early 1930s, returning to China with a Russian wife in 1937. After the defeat of Japan in 1945 he held a number of government posts before fleeing with his father and the defeated Kuomintang forces to Taiwan in 1949. He was defence minist…

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Jiang Qing - Early years, Downfall, Jiang Qing On Trial

Chinese politician, born in Zhucheng, Shandong Province, E China. She studied at Qingdao University, and was an actress in Shanghai when she went to the Chinese Communist Party headquarters at Yenan to study Marxist–Leninist theory (1936), and met the Communist leader, Mao Zedong; she became his third wife in 1939. In the 1960s she began her attacks on bourgeois influences in the arts and literat…

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Jiang Zemin - Background and ascendancy, Early leadership, Taking power, 16th Party Congress and retirement, Legacy

Chinese president (1993–2003), born in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, E China. An electrical engineer, he became commercial counsellor at the Chinese embassy in Moscow (1950–6) and during the 1960s and 1970s held a number of posts in the ministries of heavy industry and power. He was elected to the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) central committee in 1982, and appointed Mayor of Shanghai in 1985. A…

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Jiddu Krishnamurti - Teachings, Quotations, Influence, Criticism of Krishnamurti, Partial list of published works

Theosophist, born in Chennai (formerly Madras), SE India. He was educated in England by Annie Besant, who in 1925 proclaimed him the Messiah. Later he rejected this persona, dissolved The World Order of the Star in the East (founded by Dr Besant), and travelled the world teaching and advocating a way of life and thought unconditioned by the narrowness of nationality, race, and religion. He set up …

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jig - Origins and etymology

A dance of Great Britain and Ireland. The Irish jig involves rapid, intricate footwork, a rigidly-held body, and vigorous leaps. The French gigue is probably derived from it. Several different types are recorded from the 16th-c to the 19th-c. Jig music is usually in 6/8 time, with some varieties (the hop or slip jig) in 9/8 time. The Gillie Callum sword dance of Scotland is a jig performed by one …

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jihad - Modern day Jihadists, Classifications of Jihad by Muslims, Jihad as warfare, Warfare in Muslim societies

The term used in Islam for ‘holy war’. According to the Qur'an, Muslims have a duty to oppose those who reject Islam, by armed struggle if necessary, and jihad has been invoked to justify both the expansion and defence of Islam. Islamic states pledged a jihad against Israel in the Mecca declaration of 1981, though not necessarily by military attack. The term "Jihad" is often used to descr…

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Jill Ker Conway - Life and education, President of Smith College, The Road from Coorain, List of works

Historian and teacher, born in Hillston, Australia. Raised on a sheep ranch, she became a historian at the University of Sydney, then joined Harvard (1960). She taught women's history at the University of Toronto (1964–75), becoming Smith College's first woman president (1975–85). A visiting professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she wrote a best-selling memoir, The Road from Coorai…

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Jilly Cooper - Life, Career, List of works

Writer and journalist, born in Hornchurch, London, UK. She grew up in Yorkshire, was educated in Salisbury, became a reporter on a local paper (1957–9), and tried many other occupations before becoming a writer. She produced a regular column for the Sunday Times (1969–82) and The Mail on Sunday (1982–7), and has written a number of general interest works, including How To Stay Married (1969), J…

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Jilong - History, Administration, Population growth, Sister cities, Sources and external links

25°06N 121°34E, pop (2000e) 385 000. Independent municipality and second largest seaport in Taiwan; on N coast of Taiwan I, overlooking the East China Sea; occupied by the Spanish and Dutch, 17th-c; destroyed by earthquake, 1867; occupied by the Japanese, 1895–1945; naval base; shipbuilding, fishing, chemicals, coal. Keelung was first inhabited by the Ketagalan, a tribe of Taiwanese ab…

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Jim Bowie - Family history, Life, Jim Bowie in Drama and Literature, Miscellaneous

US pioneer, born in Logan Co, Kentucky, USA. After settling in Texas, he became a naturalized Mexican citizen. As a colonel in the Texan army, he was killed at the Battle of the Alamo. He may have been the inventor of the curved dagger or sheath-knife, that was later named after him. James Bowie (1796 - March 6, 1836), aka Jim Bowie, was a 19th century pioneer and soldier who took a promine…

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Jim Brown

Player of American football, born in St Simon Island, Georgia, USA. An All-American halfback at Syracuse University (1956), he had nine outstanding years with the Cleveland Browns in the National League (1957–66), during which he led the league eight times in rushing. His 126 career touchdowns remained an NFL record for almost 30 years until overtaken by Jerry Rice. He was elected to the Football…

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Jim Carrey - Selected filmography, Awards Nominations

Actor and entertainer, born in Newmarket, Ontario, Canada. He moved to Los Angeles in 1981, where he worked in nightclubs as a stand-up comedian and impressionist. He gained a role in the TV comedy sketch series In Living Color (1990–3) and appeared in the feature film Earth Girls Are Easy (1989), for which he also co-wrote the script. Known for his extrovert personality, later films include Ace …

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Jim Clark - Complete Formula One results, Indy 500 results

Motor-racing driver, born in Kilmany, Fife, E Scotland, UK. He won his first race in 1956, becoming Scottish National Speed Champion (1958–9). After joining the Lotus team in 1960, he went on to become World Champion Racing Driver (1963, 1965), and respected by all in the industry as a gentleman. He won in all 25 Grands Prix. He was killed during a Formula Two race in Hockenheim, Germany. …

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Jim Crow Laws - Origins of the Jim Crow laws, Examples of Jim Crow laws in various states

A nickname for statutes enacted by Southern states and municipalities in the USA, beginning in the 1880s, to keep black people in a segregated condition. The term is believed to be derived from a character in a minstrel show. The court ruling in 1896 in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate facilities for whites and blacks were constitutional, encouraged the enactment of further discriminatory laws in …

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Jim Dine

Painter and sculptor, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He studied at the Boston Museum School (1953–5), moved to New York City (1958), travelled to London (1967), and settled in Putney, VT (1970). Known as a new realist, he used many mediums, including ‘happenings’ (a type of spontaneous performance), constructional sculpture, collage, and painting. He is noted for his preoccupation with hearts a…

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Jim Henson

Puppeteer, born in Greenville, Mississippi, USA. He lived near Washington, DC, working on a local television station as a puppeteer while studying at Maryland University. His ‘Muppets’ (Marionettes/puppets) first appeared on a five-minute programme entitled ‘Sam and His Friends’. Other commercial and short appearances led to nationwide popularity on the children's television workshop, Sesame S…

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Jim Jarmusch - The Sons of Lee Marvin, Filmography, Appearances As Himself, Further reading

Film scriptwriter and director, born in Akron, Ohio, USA. He studied at Columbia University, then went to France, where he discovered European films, became acquainted with Nicholas Ray, and set about making his first film, Permanent Vacation (1981). This was never released, and it was his Stranger Than Paradise (1984) that gained both critical acclaim and a devoted if small following. Down by Law…

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Jim Laker

Cricketer and broadcaster, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He was a member of the Surrey county side which won seven consecutive championships between 1952 and 1958. His off-spinners (along with the bowling of Tony Lock) were a large factor in England's domination of international cricket in the late 1950s. His great season was 1956, when he took 19 of the 20 Australian wickets in…

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Jim Lehrer - History, Written works, External links

Television journalist, born in Wichita, Kansas, USA. A former Dallas Morning News reporter and Dallas Times Herald editor, he joined the Public Broadcasting Service (1972), creating with Robert MacNeil an award-winning, hour-long alternative to network news, the MacNeil and Lehrer Report. He is known for his low-key, informal broadcasting style. He also turned to writing, publishing several novels…

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Jim Morrison - Biography, Artistic roots, Influence, Jim Morrison The Doors' legacy

Rock singer and songwriter, born in Melbourne, Florida, USA. He wrote poetry and studied film at the University of California, Los Angeles where he met keyboard player Ray Manzerek with whom he formed the rock band, The Doors (1965). With such hit songs as ‘Light My Fire’ (1967) and ‘Hello, I Love You’ (1968), they were one of the most popular bands of the 1960s. A controversial figure who had…

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Jim Ryun - Athletics, Personal, Career prior to election to Congress, House of Representatives, Controversies

Athlete, born in Wichita, Kansas, USA. In 1966, while still in his teens, he set a world record time of 3 min 51·3 s for the mile. The following year he established a world record in the 1500 m, clocking 3 min 33·1 s. Never as successful in top-class competition as he was against the clock, he failed to take the gold medal at the Olympic Games of 1964, 1968, and 1972. He turned professional…

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Jim Sullivan

Rugby league player, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. He played rugby union for Cardiff before joining Wigan rugby league club in 1921. His all-time records include 2867 goals in a career, 22 in one match against Flimby and Fothergill in 1925, and 928 senior appearances. His total of 6022 points was surpassed by Neil Fox in 1978. Player-coach of Wigan in 1932, he retired in 1946, and later coached Ro…

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Jim Thorpe - Early life, A rising star, Later life and death, Legacy, Reinstated

Athlete, born in Oklahoma, USA. Voted in 1950 by an Associated Press panel as the greatest athlete of the century, he attended the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania (1903–12), where he starred as an All-American football halfback (1911–12). In 1912 he won gold medals in the Olympic decathlon and pentathlon, but was later forced to return the medals because he had played semi-prof…

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Jim Wright

US representative, born in Fort Worth, Texas, USA. An army veteran with a Distinguished Flying Cross, and an amateur boxer, he served in the Texas legislature (1947–9) and was Democratic mayor of Weatherford, TX (1950–4) before going to the US House of Representatives (1955–89). A member of the Public Works Committee, he protected Texas oil interests and ran unsuccessfully for Lyndon Johnson's …

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Jimi Hendrix - Biography, Death, Personality, Legacy, Trivia, Discography

Rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. He learned basic blues licks as a sideman for Little Richard and the Isley Brothers. After his 1965 discharge from the army, he explored electronic tricks on his guitar at ear-splitting amplitude, to which he added stage gimmicks, playing behind his back or with his teeth. Discovered by Chas Chandler (1938–96), who took him…

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Jimmie Foxx

Baseball player, born in Sudlersville, Maryland, USA. During his 20-year career (1925–45), mostly with the Philadelphia Athletics and Boston Red Sox, the powerfully built first baseman (he also caught and played other positions) hit 534 home runs and won the league Most Valuable Player award three times (1932, 1933, 1938). He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1951. James Emory Foxx…

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Jimmie Lunceford

Jazz dance-band leader, born in Fulton, Missouri, USA. As a child he became a proficient player of wind instruments, but preferred conducting to playing. He began a career as a professional bandleader in 1929, and enjoyed success during the 1930s and early 1940s. James Melvin "Jimmie" Lunceford (June 6, 1902–July 12, 1947) was an American jazz alto saxophonist and bandleader of the swing …

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Jimmy Boyle

Convicted murderer, born in the Gorbals, Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. A member of a powerful gang in Glasgow, he was twice charged with murder and cleared, and was eventually imprisoned for serious assault. His reputation as ‘Scotland's Most Violent Man’ appeared to be confirmed when he was convicted for the murder of Babs Rooney in 1967 and given a life sentence. In 1973 he was one of the first off…

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Jimmy Breslin

Journalist, born in the New York City borough of Queens, New York, USA. Starting as a sportswriter for the New York Herald Tribune, he evolved into a self-described ‘street reporter’. His columns, for a sequence of New York papers, offered vignettes, character sketches, and commentary, in a scrappy, colloquial style. Also a novelist, he won a 1986 Pulitzer Prize for commentary. Jimmy Bres…

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Jimmy Carruthers

Boxer, born in Paddington, Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. In the course of a very short professional boxing career - only 19 bouts, all of which were won - he established himself as the greatest of Australian boxers. He became world bantamweight champion by knocking out Vic Toweel in the first round in 1952. He retired while not yet 25 to become a boxing referee and pub owner. James…

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Jimmy Carter - Early years, Early political career, Governor of Georgia, 1976 presidential campaign, Post-presidency, Trivia, Bibliography

US statesman and 39th president (1977–81), born in Plains, Georgia, USA. He trained at the US Naval Academy (1946) and served in the navy until 1953, during which time he worked under Admiral Hyman Rickover on the naval nuclear reactor project. He left the navy to take over the family's peanut business, which he expanded. He served two terms as a Democrat in the Georgia legislature (1963–7), and…

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Jimmy Connors - Grand Slam singles finals, Grand Slam results, Singles record

Tennis player, born in Belleville, Illinois, USA. A left-hander who specialized in the two-handed backhand, he won Wimbledon twice (1974, 1982), the Australian Open (1974), and the US Open five times (1974, 1976, 1978, 1982–3). In 1984 he became the first player ever to win 100 singles titles. Noted in his early years for his boisterous behaviour that defied the traditionally decorous manners of …

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Jimmy Durante - Early years, Radio, Television, Marriages, Late years, Filmography, Listen to

Comedian, born in New York City, USA. He began his career as a saloon pianist in Coney Island before partnering two vaudevillians in a club act. They opened the Club Durant in New York City in 1923. He had a large nose which he used to comic advantage, hence his nickname. He became a popular and versatile entertainer on Broadway and radio, and in later years appeared in the films Jumbo (1962) and …

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Jimmy Galanos

Fashion designer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He worked for Paris and New York City designers before opening Galanos Originals, Los Angeles (1951). Often named as America's greatest designer, he specialized in cocktail and evening dresses, famous for their exquisite construction and high prices. James Galanos ([gulAn´Os]) 1925–, was an American fashion designer, was born in …

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Jimmy Giuffre

Jazz musician and composer, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He played clarinet and saxophones with various bands during the 1940s, then for over a decade specialized in the clarinet, developing a distinctive breathy tone. He formed groups of various sizes, early albums including Ad Lib (1959), Jimmy Giuffre With Strings (1960), and Free Fall (1962). He later worked also as a composer, his compositions…

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Jimmy Greaves - Playing career

English footballer and television commentator, born in London, UK. He scored 357 goals in 517 league matches with Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United. His highly individual style of play made him difficult to fit into a team pattern, and Alf Ramsey felt able to do without him in the World Cup Final of 1966. After his retirement he made a new career as a television sports commentator, a…

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Jimmy Hoffa

Labour leader, born in Brazil, Indiana, USA. A grocery warehouseman member of the Teamster's Union in 1931, he became vice-president of his Union in 1952, and president in 1957. Following corruption investigations, he was imprisoned in 1967 for attempted bribery of a federal court jury. His sentence was commuted by President Nixon, and he was given parole in 1971, on condition that he resigned as …

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Jimmy Savile - Early life, Television career, Radio Career, Honours, Character, Works

Television and radio personality, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. A former miner, he achieved fame as a radio disc jockey and television personality, with regular appearances on BBC's Top of the Pops from 1964. He also hosted Jim'll Fix It from 1975, helping to realize the dreams of ordinary people. His flamboyant style contrasts with his other role as a voluntary helper at Leeds Inf…

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Jimmy Walker

Mayor and songwriter, born in New York City, New York, USA. He graduated from law school but was more interested in writing lyrics for popular songs, his only memorable one being ‘Will You Love Me in December as You Do in May?’, (1905). Turning to politics, he gained the support of the Democratic machine, and by 1914 was serving in the New York state senate. In 1921–5 he was the leader of Democ…

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Jo Davidson

Sculptor, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the Art Student League (C.1899) and Yale Art School (c.1890), then worked for some years in New York City. From 1907 he lived primarily in Paris, retiring to the USA in 1940. He is known for his sculptured portraits, which include Woodrow Wilson (1916), Gertrude Stein (1920), and Allied war leaders (1918–19). Born in New York City, Davids…

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Jo Mielziner

Set and theatre designer, born in Paris, France. In the course of his career, he designed the sets for over 400 Broadway plays, most of the major productions during the 1930s–1950s. Turning his back on the earlier tradition of theatrical realism, he often employed mere suggestions of settings, using scrims and isolated scenic units to create further effects. His use of lighting to change the dram…

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Joachim Camerarius

Classical scholar and Lutheran theologian, born in Bamberg, SEC Germany. A friend of Melanchthon, he embraced the Reformation at Wittenberg in 1521, and helped to formulate the Augsburg Confession of 1530. He was professor of Greek and Latin at Tübingen (1535) and Leipzig (from 1541). Joachim Camerarius (April 12, 1500 – April 17, 1574), German classical scholar, was born at Bamberg, Bav…

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Joachim du Bellay

Poet and prose writer, born in Lire, NW France. After his friend and fellow-student, Ronsard, he was the most important member of the Pléiade. His Défense et illustration de la langue Française (1549, The Defence and Illustration of the French Language), the manifesto of the Pléiade, advocating the rejection of mediaeval linguistic traditions and a return to Classical and Italian models, had a…

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Joachim Murat - Children

French marshal and king of Naples (1808–15), born in La Bastide-Fortunière, SC France. He enlisted in the cavalry on the eve of the French Revolution (1787), and was promoted to general of division in the Egyptian campaign (1799). He married Napoleon's sister, Caroline, after helping him become First Consul. He failed to gain the Spanish crown (1808), and was proclaimed King of the Two Sicilies.…

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Joachim von Ribbentrop - Early career, Travelling diplomat, A Royal Affair?, Declining influence, Trial and execution

German statesman, born in Wesel, W Germany. He became a member of the National Socialist Party in 1932 and, as Hitler's adviser in foreign affairs, was responsible for the Anglo-German naval pact (1935). He became ambassador to Britain (1936) and foreign minister (1938–45). Captured by the British in 1945, he was condemned and executed at Nuremberg. Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Rib…

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Joan (Dawson) Bakewell

Broadcaster and writer, born in Stockport, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. She studied at Cambridge, and became known for her regular contributions and series on BBC television, such as Late Night Line Up (1965–72), Holiday (1974–8), and Heart of the Matter (1988–2000). Her ITV work included four series of Reports Action (1976–8), and she also did a great deal of radio broadcasting, such a…

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Joan (Delano) Aiken - Notable works

Writer, the daughter of Conrad Aiken, born in Sussex, SE England, UK. She was educated privately, then worked as a librarian for the UN Information Committee (1943–9) and as features editor for Argosy magazine (1955–60). Her many books for children include All You've Ever Wanted (1953), The Kingdom and the Cave (1960), Tales of Arabel's Raven (1974), Voices Hippo (1988), Dangerous Games (1999), …

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Joan (Henrietta) Collins - Biography, Homes, Books, TV adverts, Music, Titles, Filmography, Theatrical credits, Television credits

Actress, born in London, UK. She made her film debut in Lady Godiva Rides Again (1951) and used her sultry appeal and headline-catching private life to build a career as an international celebrity. By the 1970s she was appearing in low-budget horror films and softcore pornography, but her fortunes were revitalized with a leading role in the universally popular television soap opera Dynasty (1981–…

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Joan (Maud) Littlewood - Bibliography

Theatre director, born in Stockwell, London, UK. She trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and with Ewan MacColl founded in Manchester the Theatre of Action (1934) and the Theatre Union (1936). Out of this pioneering work in left-wing, popular theatre was formed the Theatre Workshop in 1945. She directed the first British production for Brecht's Mother Courage in Barnstaple in 1955…

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Joan Baez

Folksinger, born in Staten Island, New York City, USA. During the revival of traditional folk music in the 1960s she became popular with young audiences for her songs and political views. She gave free concerts supporting civil rights, UNESCO, and anti-Vietnam war rallies, and was imprisoned briefly (1967) for refusing to pay tax towards war expenses. In 1968 she published an autobiography, Daybre…

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Joan Crawford - Early life, Career, Marriages and Residences, Adopted children, Religion, Work at Pepsi, Later career, Final years

Film actress, born in San Antonio, Texas, USA. At first a nightclub dancer, she started in silent films in 1925, taking the lead in Our Dancing Daughters (1928). She became an established star in the 1930s and 1940s, winning an Oscar for Mildred Pierce (1945); her last great role was in Whatever Happened to Baby Jane? (1962), in which she co-starred with her long-standing rival, Bette Davis. After…

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Joan Didion - Fiction, Nonfiction

Writer, born in Sacramento, California, USA. She studied at the University of California, Berkeley (1952–6) and married the writer John Gregory Dunne in 1964. She became associate feature editor of Vogue in New York City (1956–63), and also worked and wrote for the Saturday Evening Post, Esquire, and National Review. Her novels portray contemporary social tensions in a laconic style that has aro…

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Joan Fuster

Essayist, poet, and critic in the Valencian form of Catalan, born in Sueca, Valencia, E Spain. His early poetry appeared in Valencian, Sobre Narcís (1948), 3 poèmes (1949), Ales or mans (1949), followed by Va morir tan bella (1951). His anthologies include Antología del surrealismo español (1952, with José Albi), La poesía catalana fins a la Renaixença (1954), Antología de la poesía valen…

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Joan Ganz Cooney - Childhood, Life in New York City, Television production, Children's Television Workshop established, Honors, Trivia

Television executive, born in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. After working as a teacher, she became a newspaper reporter in Arizona, then a National Broadcasting Company publicist (1954–62) before producing documentaries for public television (1962–7). She created Public Broadcasting System's Sesame Street (1968) for pre-school children. As president of the Children's Television Workshop (1970–88), the…

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Joan Greenwood

Actress, born in London, UK. She studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, before making her stage debut in Le Malade Imaginaire (1938). A woman of distinctive style, her husky tones and feline grace allowed her to be witty and sensual in the portrayal of classical roles and contemporary femmes fatales. Her film credits include the influential and enduring Ealing comedies Whisky Galore…

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Joan Mitchell

Painter, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She studied for two years at Smith College, then transferred to the Art Institute of Chicago so as to paint full time. Coming to New York City in 1947, she became one of the early abstract expressionists. In 1959 she moved to Paris, then in 1967 to Vetheuil, a village near Paris where Monet once lived (1878–81). She continued to paint in the abstract expre…

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Joan of Navarre

Queen consort of Henry IV of England, and stepmother of Henry V. She married first the Duke of Brittany (1386), by whom she had eight children; after his death (1399), she married Henry IV (1402), leaving her older children in Brittany. After Henry's death in 1413, her situation became difficult, because Brittany, ruled by her eldest son John, was hostile to England. She was falsely accused of wit…

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Joan Rivers - Biography, Awards, TV Work, Filmography

Comedienne and writer, born in Larchmont, New York, USA. She appeared as a film extra in 1951, and after graduating from college, became a fashion co-ordinator. She had parts in minor plays before working with the Chicago improvisational troupe Second City (1961–2), where she developed her acid-comedy routines. Success came with an appearance on The Tonight Show in 1965. She made her Las Vegas de…

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Joan V(iolet) Robinson

Economist, born in Camberley, Surrey, SE England, UK. She studied at Cambridge, and taught there (1931–71), in 1965 succeeding her husband (Edward) Austin (Gossidge) Robinson (1897–1993) as professor of economics. She was one of the most influential economic theorists of her time, playing a leading role in the 1930s in the development of theories of imperfect competition, and in the post-war per…

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Joanna Southcott - Further reading

Religious fanatic, born in Dorset, S England, UK. In c.1792 she declared herself to be the woman (predicted in Rev 12) who would give birth to the second Prince of Peace. She went to London, where she obtained a great following, but died soon after the predicted date of the birth. Her followers, who believed she would rise again, were still to be found at the beginning of the 20th-c. Joanna…

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Joanne (Mich - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. The daughter of an English father and French mother, her childhood was spent living between Barnsley in South Yorkshire, and France. She studied at Cambridge and became a teacher of French at Leeds Grammar School (1989–99). Her first successful novel, Chocolat (1999; filmed 2000), was shortlisted for the Whitbread Book Award. Further boo…

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Joanne Woodward - Career, Private life, Trivia

Film actress, born in Thomasville, Georgia, USA. After starting on Broadway and in TV dramas, she made her first film, Count Three and Pray, in 1955, later winning an Oscar for The Three Faces of Eve (1957). She starred in two films directed by her husband, Paul Newman - Rachel Rachel (1968, Oscar nomination) and The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds (1972, Cannes Best Actress). Sh…

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Joaquim (Alberto) Chissano

Mozambique statesman, prime minister (1974–75), and president (1986–2005), born in Chibuto, S Mozambique. During the campaign for independence in the early 1960s he joined the National Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) and became secretary to its leader, Samora Machel. When internal self-government was granted in 1974 he was appointed prime minister. He then served under Machel as…

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Joaquin (Rafael) Phoenix - Selected filmography

Film actor, born in San Juan, Puerto Rico. One of five children born to Children of God missionaries, he travelled with his family in South America before settling in Los Angeles. Together with his siblings, he gained television work in commercials and sitcoms, and made his feature film debut in Space Camp (1986). Success came with To Die For (1995) in which he starred with Nicole Kidman, and late…

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Joaquin Miller

Poet, born in Liberty, Indiana, USA. He settled in the Old West after practising law in Oregon. A flamboyant character, at one time he owned a newspaper and a pony express, and took the name Joaquin from a Mexican brigand. After a brief spell in the UK, where he was much admired, he settled in California from 1877 as a fruit-grower. His best-known poem is ‘Columbus’, with the familiar refrain ‘…

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Jocasta

In Greek legend, the wife of King Laius of Thebes and mother of Oedipus, later unwittingly becoming the wife of her son; she is called Epikaste in Homer. She bore Oedipus four children - Eteocles, Polynices, Antigone, and Ismene - and killed herself when she discovered her incest. In Greek mythology, Jocasta, also Iocaste (Iοκαστη) or Epikastê, was a daughter of Menocenes, Queen of T…

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Jochen Klepper

Writer, born in Beuthen on the Oder, Germany. He studied theology, and wrote historical novels including Der Vater (1937) about King Friedrich Wilhelm I. His writing, including poetry, is pervaded by his deep Protestant beliefs. His diaries Unter dem Schatten deiner Flügel (1956) are devastating, particularly in light of the fact that he, his Jewish wife, and her daughter committed suicide in 194…

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Jock Stein - Playing career, European success, Scotland manager, Famous quotes

Footballer and manager, born in Burnbank, South Lanarkshire, WC Scotland, UK. His managerial career began with Dunfermline Athletic, which won the Scottish Cup. A short spell followed with Hibernian, then he returned to Glasgow Celtic in 1965, the team winning nine championships in a row, the League Cup on five consecutive occasions, and several Scottish Cups, as well as the European Cup in 1967. …

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Jodie Foster - Filmography, Award Nominations, Web sites

Film actress and director, born in Los Angeles, CA, USA. After a career in television commercials, she became known for her child roles in Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore (1974), Bugsy Malone (1976), and Taxi Driver (1976). She studied in Los Angeles and at Yale, and then established herself as an adult actress, receiving Best Actress Oscars for her roles in The Accused (1988) and The Silence of t…

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Jodocus Hondius - Biography

Flemish cartographer. He emigrated to London c.1584 and moved from there to Amsterdam c.1593. In addition to his own maps of the world and the hemispheres, he engraved much of John Speed's work. Jodocus Hondius (October 14, 1563—February 12, 1612), sometimes called Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his son) was a Flemish artist, engraver, and cartographer. He is best…

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Jodrell Bank - General information, Statistics of the Lovell Telescope, Timeline, Reference in fiction

53°13N 2°21W. Observatory station in Macclesfield district, Cheshire, NWC England, UK; 5 km/3 mi NE of Holmes Chapel; leading radio astronomy centre. The Jodrell Bank Observatory (originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966-1999) is near Goostrey, Cheshire in the north west of England. It was named after a …

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Jody Williams

US activist, born in Putney, Vermont, USA, the campaign co-ordinator for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She shared the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize along with the organization for their work towards the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines. Jody Williams (born October 9, 1950 in Putney, Vermont) is an American teacher and aid worker who received the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize jo…

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Joe Calzaghe

Boxer, born in London, England, UK. The son of an Italian father and Welsh mother, he settled with his family in Newbridge, S Wales when a young boy. Encouraged by his father Enzo, who later became his trainer, he joined the Newbridge Boxing Club at the age of nine, and after winning British schoolboy titles he went on to win three consecutive British ABA titles (1991–3) in welter, light-middle, …

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Joe Cesare Colombo

Designer, born in Milan, N Italy. One of the most versatile Italian designers of the 1960s, his interests included lighting, glass, furniture and, in particular, multi-function storage furniture. A logical extension of this led him to design compact ‘core’ units containing all the requirements necessary for the living environment. The best example was his ‘Total Furnishing Unit’ (1971) at the …

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Joe Clark - Family, Political career, Under Mulroney, Second PC leadership, Progressive Conservative/Canadian Alliance merger, Clark today

Canadian statesman and prime minister (1979–80), born in High River, Alberta, W Canada. At first a journalist, then professor of political science, he was elected to the Federal parliament in 1972, becoming leader of the Progressive Conservative Party (1976) and of the Opposition. In 1979 he became Canada's youngest ever prime minister. His minority government lost the general election the follow…

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Joe Davis

Billiards and snooker champion, born in Whitwell, Derbyshire, C England, UK. The first great snooker player, he popularized the game in the 1920s. Responsible for inaugurating the World Championship in 1927, he won every title between then and 1946, when he retired from world championship play. He retired from all competitive play in 1964. In 1955 at the Leicester Square Hall he became the first m…

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Joe DiMaggio - Early life, "The Yankee Clipper", Military service, Personal life, Death, Legacy, See Also

Baseball player, born in Martinez, California, USA. One of baseball's most graceful players, he spent his entire career as an outfielder for the New York Yankees (1936–51), during which he was named the American League Most Valuable Player three times (1939, 1941, 1947). Although he hit 361 lifetime home runs and posted a career batting average of ·325, he is most remembered for hitting in a rec…

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Joe Frazier - Life and Career

Boxer, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, USA. At the Tokyo Olympic Games (1964) he won the gold medal in the heavyweight class and quickly turned professional. He went on to become the world heavyweight champion (1970), defeating Jimmy Ellis in New York City, and later became the first man to knock down Muhammad Ali while winning the first (1971) of their three epic fights; but he lost the title t…

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Joe Hill - Trial and execution, Remains, Influence and tributes

Labour leader and songwriter, born in Gäyle, Sweden. Little is known of his early life (even his Swedish name is in dispute), but he apparently worked as a seaman and arrived in the USA c.1901. Joining the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (‘Wobblies’) in 1910, he participated in organizing strike actions in California and Mexico. While he seems to have led a hobo-like existence, he contrib…

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Joe Lapchick

Basketball coach, born in Yonkers, New York, USA. He played in the American Basketball League during basketball's formative years (1927–31). One of the game's greatest coaches, he coached 20 years at St John's University (1937–65) and for nine seasons with the National Basketball Association New York Knicks (1948–56). He was elected to basketball's Hall of Fame in 1966. …

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Joe Louis - Biography, References and Notes

Boxer, born in Lafayette, Alabama, USA. His reign as heavyweight champion of 11 years and eight months is the longest in boxing history (1937–49). He turned professional in 1934 and won the heavyweight title in 1937 with a knockout of James J Braddock in the eighth round. He defended his title 25 times, a record for any weight division, and posted a career record of 68 wins, three losses, with 54…

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Joe Mercer

Footballer and manager, born in Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. Already an established player with Everton when war broke out in 1939, he began a new career with Arsenal in 1946, with whom he gained two more championship medals and an FA Cup-winners' medal. He was chosen Player of the Year in 1950 when 35 years old. With Aston Villa and Manchester City he was a highly successful manager…

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Joe Montana - High school, College, Statistics, Personal life

Player of American football, born in New Eagle, Pennsylvania, USA. A former Notre Dame quarterback, he led the San Francisco 49ers to victories in four Super Bowls during the 1980s. An inspirational leader and talented passer, he was named the National Football League's most valuable player in 1989. He joined the Kansas City Chiefs 1993–5, before retiring. Joseph Clifford Montana, Jr., (bo…

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Joe Namath - Early life and family, College football career, Pro football career, Movie and television career, Controversial moments

Player of American football, born in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, USA. He joined the New York Jets from the unbeaten University of Alabama team in 1965, and became one of the leading quarterbacks in the 1960s. He led the Jets to a Super Bowl victory in 1969, beating Baltimore for the first win by an American Football League team over the established National Football League. His lifestyle outside f…

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Joe Orton - Early life, Meeting with Kenneth Halliwell, Orton as playwright, Death, Biography and film, Plays, Novels

Playwright and actor, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK, and trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London. His exuberant tastelessness established him as a pioneer of a style of black farce. His play What the Butler Saw (1969) carried the farce tradition of threatened adultery into the forbidden realms of incest and sexual violence. Two years before its performance he was bl…

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Joe Paterno - Head coaching records, See Also

Coach of American football, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a quarterback at Brown at the end of the 1940s he set several school records. Appointed head coach of Penn State University (1966), he not only took the Nittany Lions to numerous bowl games and national championships (1982, 1986), he also became widely admired for his loyalty to the school. …

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Joe Rosenthal - Early life, The flag-raising photo, Impact of flag raising photo

Photojournalist, born in Washington, DC, USA. He worked first as an office boy, and in 1932 became a reporter and photographer for the San Francisco News. He soon gained promotion and joined the staff of Associated Press in 1941. On the outbreak of World War 2, he joined the US Maritime Service, photographed convoys in the Atlantic Ocean and off the coasts of Britain and North Africa, and covered …

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Joe Slovo

South African political leader, born in Lithuania. He moved to South Africa as a child, and became one of the most influential white South Africans associated with the national liberation movement. He qualified as a lawyer, and became an active member of the Communist Party in the 1940s. He left the country in June 1963, and continued to work for the Communist Party and the African National Congre…

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Joe Walker

Cinematographer, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. Working in Hollywood from the late 1910s, he began to get his first credits in the 1920s and eventually filmed many well-known films, in particular those of Frank Capra. He became an expert in optics and pioneered the zoom lens. In the early 1950s he retired to pursue his research and he invented the Elektra-Zoom, used on television cameras. …

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Joe Williams

Jazz vocalist, born in Cordele, Georgia, USA. An outstanding jazz singer and popular show-business figure, he began his career in Chicago in the late 1930s with Jimmie Noone, toured with King Kolax, and gained prominence with Count Basie during 1954–60. He freelanced thereafter as a solo attraction and with all-star jazz groups. He played Bill Cosby's father-in-law, Grandpa Al, on ‘The Cosby Sho…

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Joel (Elias) Spingarn

Literary critic, writer, social reformer, and horticulturist, born in New York City, New York, USA. After taking all his degrees through to a PhD at Columbia University, he stayed on with the faculty (1899–1911) and gained an international reputation for his scholarly studies of literary criticism. His The New Criticism (1911) was among the first American works to draw heavily on the theories of …

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Joel (Israel) Cohen - Partial Discography

Lutenist and conductor, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. After studies at Brown and Harvard, and with Nadia Boulanger in Paris, in 1968 he became leader of the Boston Camerata, a leading early-music ensemble. …

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Joel Barlow

Poet, diplomat, and writer, born in Redding, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale (1778), and engaged in various activities before becoming a lawyer (1786). His early writings, including his poem ‘The Vision of Columbus’ (1787, revised as ‘The Columbiad’, 1807), made him known as one of the ‘Hartford [or Connecticut] Wits’. He went to France (1788) as an agent for a land speculation scheme a…

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Joel Chandler Harris

Writer, born near Eatonville, Georgia, USA. As a boy he worked as a printer's assistant (1860–2) on a newspaper published by Joseph Addison Turner, who also encouraged him to read and write. Turner owned a plantation, and Harris became acquainted with the African-American slaves and their speech, stories, and customs. He then became a journalist for newspapers in Macon and Savannah, GA, and in Ne…

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Joel Roberts Poinsett

US cabinet member and diplomat, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. After studying medicine and languages in Britain, he travelled widely (1801–8), and President Madison sent him as a special agent to observe and deal with independence movements in Latin America (1810–15). He was a member of the US House of Representatives (Democrat, South Carolina, 1821–5) and the first US ambassador to M…

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Joey Dunlop - Trivia

Motor-cyclist, an outstanding rider at Isle of Man TT races, born in Ballymoney, NE Northern Ireland, UK. Between 1977 and 1995 he won a record 15 races (one more than Mike Hailwood), including the Senior Tourist Trophy (TT) in 1985 and 1987–8. He won the Formula One TT for the sixth successive season in 1988, and was Formula One world champion 1982–6. He was killed in a road race in Estonia. …

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Johan Andr - History, The dispute surrounding his age

Poet and philosopher, born in Westervoort, E Netherlands. He studied classics in Leiden, and became a teacher. Athough born into a Protestant family, he rejected any dogmatism, both in religion and philosophy. He found his truth in Indian mysticism - the Brahman as eternal unity that embraces all contradictions. His poetry was published under his pseudonym, the name meaning ‘he who has overcome d…

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Johan de Witt - Mathematician, In Popular Culture

Grand Pensionary of Dordrecht from 1650, and of Holland from 1653, born in Dordrecht, W Netherlands. He was a believer in the ‘true freedom’, ie of the rule of the regents and against the stadtholders. His object was always peace in the furtherance of trade. He tried to play France and England off against each other, but was only able to end the First Anglo-Dutch War by the Act of Seclusion, a s…

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Johan Gadolin - Early life, Chemistry

Chemist, born in Turku, SW Finland. He became professor of chemistry there, and isolated the oxide of the rare element, gadolinium, named after him. Johan Gadolin (June 5, 1760 — August 15, 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist. Gadolin discovered the chemical element yttrium. Johan Gadolin was born in Turku, Finland. In 1779 Gadolin moved to Uppsala Universi…

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Johan Huizinga - Publications

Dutch historian and linguist, born in Groningen, N Netherlands. From 1905 he was professor of mediaeval and modern history at Groningen, and in 1915 professor of history at Leiden until the Germans closed the university in 1941. He was interned as a hostage at St Michielsgestel, but later freed with his movements restricted to Overijssel and Gelderland. A brilliant scholar, his work was translated…

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Johan Ludvig Runeberg

Finnish poet, writing in Swedish, born in Jakobstad, W Finland. His first poems appeared in 1830, and he became known for his epic poems, notably Elgskyttarne (1832, The Moose Hunters) and Hanna (1836). His major work is the verse romance based on Scandinavian legend, King Fjalar (1844). One of his poems became Finland's national anthem. Johan Ludvig Runeberg (5 February 1804, Jakobstad –…

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Johan Rudolf Thorbecke

Dutch liberal politician, prime minister (1849–53, 1862–6, 1871) and writer, born in Zwolle, NC Netherlands. After studying in Amsterdam, Leiden, and various German universities he was appointed professor of political and diplomatic history and statistics in Gent (1825) and Leiden (1831). In 1840 he was elected to the States of Holland, which drew up a new constitution after the secession of Bel…

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Johan van Galen

Dutch admiral, born in Essen, W Germany. After joining the Dutch Navy in 1617 he had distinguished service in the Baltic against the Dunkirk privateers and Barbary pirates. In the first Anglo-Dutch War, when his squadron controlled the Mediterranean, he won the Battle of Leghorn, where he was severely wounded and died soon after. Johan van Galen (1604 – 23 March 1653) was a Commodore in t…

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Johan van Oldenbarnevelt - Early political life, Becomes Land's Advocate, Truce with Spain, Religious conflict in the Netherlands

Possibly the most important politician in the early years of the Republic of The Netherlands, born in Amersfoort, a member of an aristocratic family. In 1569 he was Advocate of the Court of Holland and opted for the Revolt in 1572. He was Pensionary of Rotterdam (1576) and influenced the text of the Union of Utrecht. In 1586 he was Advocate of Holland and supported Maurice of Orange as stadtholder…

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Johann (Joachim) Winckelmann - Biography, Critical response, Works, His sexuality and lifestyle

Archaeologist and art historian, born in NEC Stendal, Germany. He studied theology and medicine at Halle and Jena universities, in 1748 turned to the history of art, and became librarian to a cardinal in Rome (1755). His works include the pioneering study, Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (1764, History of the Art of Antiquity), and in 1763 he became superintendent of Roman antiquities. He was …

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Johann (Wenzel Anton) Stamitz - Early life and education, Violinist, Founder Mannheim School, Death

Violinist and composer, born in Havli?k?v Brod, C Czech Republic. He became concert master at the Mannheim court in 1745, where he developed sonata form, and trained the orchestra to a level of perfection unrivalled in Europe. His works include 74 symphonies, several concertos, chamber music, and a Mass. He founded a school of symphonists which had a profound influence on Mozart. Johann Wen…

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Johann Agricola

Protestant reformer, born in Eisleben, C Germany. Having studied at Wittenberg and Leipzig, he was sent to Frankfurt by Luther in 1525 to institute Protestant worship there. Appointed in 1536 to a chair at Wittenberg, he resigned in 1540 over his opposition to Luther in the great Antinomian controversy. He later became court preacher in Berlin. Notable people by this name include: …

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Johann Christoph Adelung

Philologist and librarian, born in Spantekow, NE Germany. Influenced by the Enlightenment, he wrote on cultural history as well as on grammar, advocating the unity of the German literary language. His works include Versuch eines vollständigen grammatisch-kritischen Wörterbuchs der hochdeutschen Mundart (5 vols, 1774–86). Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 1732 – 10 September 1806) was …

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Johann Christoph Gottsched

Writer and literary theorist, born in Judittenkirchen, East Prussia. The son of a parish priest, he studied theology, philosophy, and philology in Königsberg, then fled to Leipzig, probably to escape military service. After becoming professor of poetry (1730) and logic and metaphysics (1734), in 1739 he was appointed rector of the university there, already a renowned (if controversial) figure in …

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Johann Elert Bode - Biography

Astronomer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He became director of the Berlin Observatory. The arithmetical relation he observed between the distances of the planets from the Sun is called Bode's law. Johann Elert Bode (January 19, 1747 – November 23, 1826) was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularization of the Titius-Bode law as well as his works to determine the …

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Johann Fischart - Biography

Writer, born in Strasbourg, Alsace. He was a much-travelled humanist, adept in old and new languages, and an esteemed jurist (from 1581) at the imperial Reichskammergericht in Speyer. This post was preceded by satirical writings aimed against the papacy, his particular targets being Jesuits and monks. He is prized not so much for originality as for command of style. His works include Das glückhaf…

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Johann Franz Encke

Astronomer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He studied at the University of Göttingen, was director of the Seeberg Observatory near Gotha, Germany (1822–5), and subsequently became director of the Observatory at Berlin University. He determined the period of the comet which now bears his name (1819), and accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun. Johann Franz Encke (Septemb…

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Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

Anthropologist, born in Gotha, C Germany. He studied at Jena and Göttingen, where he became professor of medicine in 1776. By his study of comparative skull measurements, he established a quantitative basis for racial classification. Blumenbach was born at Gotha, studied medicine at Jena, and graduated in 1775 with his MD thesis De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Varieties …

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Johann Friedrich Fasch

Organist and composer, born in Buttelstedt, EC Germany. Educated at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, he was appointed Kapellmeister at Zerbst in 1722. He composed numerous works, including church music, orchestral works, and chamber music, many of which were greatly admired by J S Bach. Johann Friedrich Fasch (April 15, 1688 – December 5, 1758) was a German composer. He was born in …

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Johann Friedrich Herbart - Life, Philosophy, Bibliography

Philosopher and educational theorist, born in Oldenburg, NW Germany. After studying at Jena, he taught in Switzerland (1797–1800), where he became interested in Pestalozzi's educational methods. He was professor of philosophy at Göttingen (1805–8), and at Königsberg as Kant's successor (1809–33), before returning to Göttingen (1833–41). His metaphysics posited a multiplicity of ‘reals’, a…

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Johann Friedrich Overbeck - Publications

Painter, born in Lübeck, N Germany. He studied art in Vienna (1806–10), and led the group of German artists known as the Nazarenes, or Lucas Brotherhood, which went to Rome (1810). He painted in fresco as well as oil, mainly religious and historical subjects, notably the ‘Rose Miracle of St Francis’ (1829, Portiuncula Chapel at Assisi). Johann Friedrich Overbeck (4 July 1789 – 1869), …

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Johann Fust - Family background, Printing

Printer and goldsmith, born in Mainz, WC Germany. In 1450 and 1452 he made loans to the printer Gutenberg, to help complete the printing of his Bible. When the loans were not repaid he sued for the debt, receiving, in lieu of payment, Gutenberg's printing plant, with which he started his own business, taking Peter Schöffer, his son-in-law, as partner. They published the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. …

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Johann Georg Albrechtsberger

Composer and writer on musical theory, born in Klosterneuburg, NE Austria. He became court organist at Vienna and chapel master of St Stephen's. Hummel and Beethoven were among his pupils. Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (February 3, 1736 - March 7, 1809) was an Austrian musician who was born at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna. He originally studied music at Melk Abbey and philosophy a…

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Johann Georg Hamann

Writer, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). A visit to London in 1758 after theological and other studies led him to intensified study of the Bible and a turn to the irrational. He sought a comprehensive religious renewal of life through the word of God and viewed art as an expression of man in his totality. He exercised significant influence on the emotionally radical literary…

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Johann Gottfried Galle - First Neptune observation

Astronomer, born in Pabsthaus, EC Germany. In 1846, at Berlin Observatory, he discovered the planet Neptune, whose existence had been postulated in the calculations of Leverrier. Johann Gottfried Galle (June 9, 1812 in Radis, Saxony-Anhalt – July 10, 1910 in Potsdam, Brandenburg) was a German astronomer at the Berlin Observatory who, with the assistance of student Heinrich Louis d'A…

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte - Life and work, Fichte's philosophical writings, Bibliography

Philosopher, born in Rammenau, E Germany. He studied theology and then philosophy at Jena, becoming an ardent disciple of Kant. As professor of philosophy at Jena (1794) he modified the Kantian system in his Wissenschaftslehre (1785, Theory of Knowledge) by substituting for the ‘thing-in-itself’ as the absolute reality, the more subjective Ego, the primitive act of consciousness. In 1805 he beca…

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Johann Heinrich Lambert

Mathematician, born in Mülhausen, Alsace, NE France. Largely self-educated, he worked as a secretary and tutor, and in 1764 moved to Berlin, where Frederick the Great became his patron. He was among the first to appreciate the nature of the Milky Way, and in an inconclusive attempt to give a rigorous proof of Euclid's parallel postulate he established several theorems in non-Euclidean geometry. H…

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Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

Educationist, and pioneer of mass education for poor children, born in Zürich, N Switzerland. He worked as a farmer (1769), then tried to educate waifs and strays in his home (1774). After several failed attempts, he managed to open a school at Berthoud (Burgdorf), where he wrote Wie Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrt (1801, How Gertrude Educates her Children), the recognized exposition of the Pestalozzia…

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Johann Jacob Dillenius

Botanist and botanical artist, born in Darmstadt, WC Germany. He moved to England in 1721, and from 1734 was first Sherardian professor of botany at Oxford. His work was of fundamental importance in the study of mosses. Johann Jakob Dillen (Dillenius) (1687-April 2, 1747) was a German botanist. Dillen was born at Darmstadt and was educated at the University of Giessen, where he …

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Johann Jakob Bachofen

Jurist, anthropologist, and historian, born in Basel, N Switzerland. Professor of Roman law at Basel University (1841–5), he is known for his work on the theory of matriarchy, Das Mutterrecht (1841). The Swiss anthropologist and sociologist Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815 – 1887), is most often connected with his theory of matriarchy, or Mutterrecht, the title of his seminal 1861 book …

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Johann Jakob Balmer - Honors

Physicist, born in Lausanne, W Switzerland. He derived a formula for frequencies of hydrogen lines in the visible spectrum. The Balmer series is the atomic spectrum of hydrogen in the visible and near ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Johann Jakob Balmer (May 1, 1825 – March 12, 1898) was a Swiss mathematician and an honorary physicist. He was born in Lausen…

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Johann Jakob Bodmer

Writer and literary theorist, born in Greifensee, near Zürich, N Switzerland. An associate of Goethe, Klopstock, and Wieland, his critical and aesthetic writings significantly shaped literary theory in the 18th-c. Together with his friend Johann Breitinger, with whom he founded the periodical Discourse der Mahlern (1721–3), he opposed the rigidities of Gottsched's interpretation of the French cl…

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Johann Jakob Froberger - Life, Works, Influence

Composer, born in Stuttgart, SW Germany. A pupil of Frescobaldi, he was court organist at Vienna (1637–57), and made concert tours to Italy, Paris, London, and Brussels. Of his many compositions, the best remembered are his suites for harpsichord. Johann Jakob Froberger (May 18, 1616 – May 7, 1667) was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist. Froberger was …

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Johann Joachim Quantz

Flautist and composer, born near Göttingen, C Germany. He spent many years in the service of the King of Saxony, toured extensively in Italy, France, and England, and became teacher of Frederick II, and later his court composer. Author of a treatise on flute-playing, he composed some 300 concertos for one or two flutes as well as a vast quantity of other music for this instrument. Johann J…

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Johann Karl Rodbertus

Economist and politician, born in Greifswald, NE Germany (formerly Swedish Pomerania). He held law appointments under the Prussian government, but in 1836 settled down on his estate. In 1848 he entered the Prussian National Assembly, and in 1849 he carried the Frankfurt constitution. The founder of scientific Socialism, he held that the socialistic ideal would come gradually according to the natur…

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Johann Kaspar Lavater - Biography

Physiognomist, theologian, and writer, born in Zürich, N Switzerland. In 1769 he received Protestant orders, and made himself known by a volume of poems, Schweizerlieder (1767). He attempted to elevate physiognomy into a science in his Physiognomische Fragmente (1775–8, trans Essays on Physiognomy), written with the assistance of Goethe. While tending the wounded at the capture of Zürich by Mas…

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Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt

Architect, born in Genoa, NW Italy. He studied in Rome, joined the Austrian army as a fortifications engineer (1695–1701), then became court engineer in Vienna. His earlier works were heavily influenced by the Italian school, as seen in the Mansfield Fondi garden palace (1697–1715). He gradually developed a more mature style, less Classical and more intuitive, as seen in the Starhemborg-Schönbe…

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Johann Nepomuk Hummel - Life, Influence, Music, List of works

Pianist and composer, born in Bratislava, Slovak Republic (formerly Pressburg, Austria). He was taught by his father and, when the family moved to Vienna, by Mozart. He began playing in public in 1787, and after a tour of Germany, Denmark, Britain, and Holland he studied composition under Albrechtsberger. In 1804 he became Kapellmeister to Prince Esterházy, and later held similar appointments at …

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Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim

Clergyman, theologian, and historian, born in Trier, W Germany. He was ordained in Rome (1728), and became professor of law at the University of Trier (1734) and Bishop of Trier (1748). He wrote two works on the history of Trier (1750–7), but is remembered chiefly for a theological essay (1763) in which he propounded a system of Church government combining an exaggerated Gallicanism with the demo…

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Johann Pachelbel - Life, Works

Composer and organist, born in Nuremberg, SC Germany. He held a variety of organist's posts before he returned to Nuremberg as organist of St Sebald's Church (1695). His works, which include six suites for two violins, and organ fugues, profoundly influenced J S Bach. His best-known composition is the Canon in D Major. Johann Pachelbel (IPA: [paˈxɛlbəl]) (baptized September 1, 1653 – M…

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Johann Paul (Friedrich) Richter - Life and work, Characteristics of his work, Reception, 19th century works on Jean Paul, Quotations

Novelist and humorist, born in Wunsiedel, E Germany. He studied theology in Leipzig, then turned to literature, and after several years struggling to publish, began to teach (1787). He produced a wide range of works, achieving success with such romances as Die unsichtbare Loge (1793, The Invisible Lodge), Hesperus (1795), and the four-volume Titan (1800–3). Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – No…

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Johann Peter Eckermann

Writer, born in Winsen, NC Germany. He studied at Göttingen. The publication of a critical appreciation of Goethe led to his move to Weimar, where he assisted Goethe in preparing the final edition of his works. He achieved fame with his Gespräche mit Goethe (3 vols, 1836–48, Conversations with Goethe). Johann Peter Eckermann (September 21, 1792 - December 3, 1854), German poet and author…

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Johann Peter Hebel - Life, Works

Writer, born in Basel, N Switzerland. A theologian and school director, his nostalgic Alemannische Gedichte (1803, 1820) established the Alemannic dialect in literary language. He also wrote in High German, notably in the tales and anecdotes published in 1808–15 in his country almanac Der Rheinländische Hausfreund and collected as Schatzkästlein des Rheinischen Hausfreundes (1811). Pious but hu…

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Johann Reinhold F

Naturalist and clergyman, born in Tczew, N Poland (formerly Dirschau, Germany). He studied theology at Halle, and undertook a survey of new German colonies on the Volga, in SW Russia. He taught at the Dissenter's Academy in Warrington, Cheshire. (1766–9), and accompanied Cook as naturalist on his second world voyage on the Resolution (1772–5). A pioneer ornithologist of Antarctica, New Zealand, …

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Johann Sebastian Bach - Biography, Style, Works, Performances, Legacy, Eponyms

Composer, one of the world's greatest musicians, born in Eisenach, C Germany. He was orphaned by the age of 10, and brought up by his elder brother, Johann Christoph Bach (1671–1721), organist at Ohrdruf, who taught him the organ and clavier. He attended school in Lüneburg, before in 1703 becoming organist at Arnstadt. He found his duties as choirmaster irksome, and angered the authorities by hi…

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Johann Tetzel

Monk, born in Pirna, E Germany. He became a Dominican in 1489, and was appointed in 1516 to preach an indulgence in favour of contributors to the building fund of St Peter's in Rome. This he did with great ostentation, thereby provoking the Wittenberg theses of Luther, and his own reply. Johann Tetzel (1465- August 11, 1519) was a German Dominican friar who is perhaps best known for selling…

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Johann von Lamont - Honors

Astronomer, born in Braemar, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. He took German nationality, and became director of Bogenhausen Observatory in 1835. He was appointed professor of astronomy at Munich, and is noted for discovering that the magnetic field of the Earth fluctuates in a period of over 10 years. His best-known work is Handbuch des Erdmagnetismus (1849, Handbook of Terrestrial Magnetism). …

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Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

Physicist, born in Bonn, W Germany. He became professor of physics and chemistry at Münster (1879–89). He was the first to determine the charge-carrying capacity of ions, which brought greater understanding of electrochemical reactions, and he also studied electrical discharges in gases. Hittorf was the first to compute the electricity-carrying capacity of charged atoms and molecules (ion…

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Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim

Poet, born in Ermsleben-Halberstadt, Germany. He studied in Halle, where he helped to found the anacreontic poetic circle ‘Hallescher Dichterkreis’, and made the acquaintance of Jacobi, Michaelis, Heinse, Voß, Herder, Goethe, Wieland and Kleist. Gleim's fables, odes, and ballads were accompanied by slight but charming songs to wine and love. Partly through the young poets whose careers he helpe…

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Johanna Spyri

Writer, born in Hirzel, near Zürich, N Switzerland. Author of the much-loved ‘Heidi’ books set in the Swiss Alps, they have since been translated into many languages and made into countless films and television series. Johanna Spyri (June 12, 1827 - July 7, 1901) was an author of children's stories, and is best known for Heidi. Born Johanna Louise Heusser in the rural area of Hirzel, …

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Johannes (Gensfleisch) Gutenberg - Life, Gutenberg's printed books with movable type

Printer, born in Mainz, WC Germany. He is regarded as the European inventor of printing from movable type (Chinese movable type dates from the 1040s). Between 1430 and 1444 he was in Strasbourg, probably working as a goldsmith, and here he may have begun printing. In Mainz again by 1448 he entered into partnership with Johann Fust, who financed a printing press. This partnership ended in 1455, whe…

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Johannes Althusius - Biography

Jurist, born in Diedenshausen, Germany. Under the name of Politik he developed, on the basis of Calvinist determinism, a system of social doctrine which traced all societal activity back to man's original willingness for ‘symbiosis’, a desire to share his life with others (Lat consociatio). Under this theory, the supreme state authority (Lat maiestas) is vested inalienably and indivisibly in the…

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Johannes Bobrowski - Life, Literary works, Films, Opera, Prizes

Poet, born in Tilsit, Germany. His early poems appeared in Das Innere Reich, the Nazi journal. He served on the E front in World War 2, and was taken prisoner. He returned to East Germany in 1949, when his poems began to appear in the Communist magazine Sinn und Form. He published only two volumes: Sarmatische Zeit (1961, Sarmatian Times) and Schattenland Ströme (1962, Shadowland Rivers), but his…

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Johannes Brahms - Life, Works, Influences on Brahms, Brahms's personality, Legacy, Books

Composer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. The son of a poor orchestral musician, he earned his living as a pianist until 1853, when he was able to concentrate on composition. He toured with the Hungarian violinist Reményi, meeting Joachim and Liszt, and then Schumann, who helped Brahms publish his piano sonatas. He settled in Vienna, making occasional public appearances in Austria and Germany. Firmly…

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Johannes Diderik van der Waals - Biography

Physicist, born in Leyden, W Netherlands. Largely self-taught, he studied at Leyden Universiy, and became professor at Amsterdam (1877–1908). He extended the classical ‘ideal’ gas laws (of Robert Boyle and Jacques Charles) to describe real gases, deriving the van der Waals equation of state (1873). This work led others to liquefy a range of common gases, and also provided new basic concepts for…

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Johannes Ewald - Biography, Works

Poet and playwright, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. After serving as a soldier, he devoted himself to poetry. He is best known for his prose tragedy, Rolf Krage (1770) and his mythological play Balders Död (1773, The Death of Baldur). The national song of Denmark comes from his operetta, Fiskerne (1779, The Fishermen). Johannes Ewald (1743 - 1781) was a Danish national dramatist and poet. …

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