Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 38

Cambridge Encyclopedia

James Bradley - Life work

Astronomer, born in Sherborne, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became professor of astronomy there in 1721. In 1742 he succeeded Edmond Halley as professor of astronomy at Greenwich. He published his discovery of the aberration of light (1729), providing the first observational proof of the Copernican hypothesis. In 1748 he discovered that the inclination of the Earth's…

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James Bradley Thayer

Jurist, born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, USA. Educated at Harvard, he was admitted to the Boston bar in 1856 and conducted a private practice while contributing to legal volumes. He then became a professor of law at Harvard (1874–1902) and was one of those who introduced the case system to the law school. He wrote Cases on Constitutional Law (1895), A Preliminary Treatise on Evidence (1898), and…

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James Branch Cabell - Life, Works, Influence, Quotations

Writer, born in Richmond, Virginia, USA. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then worked as a journalist and coal miner. With his first novel, The Eagle's Shadow (1904), he launched a prolific literary career, producing works ranging from historical short stories to Virginia genealogy. He was known chiefly for his polished romances set in a mythical French province, Poictesme (18 vols, …

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James Bridie - Selected bibliography, Quotations

Playwright, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He qualified as a doctor at Glasgow University and became a successful consultant. Always interested in the theatre, he seized his chance when the Scottish National Players produced his Sunlight Sonata in 1928, written under the pseudonym of Mary Henderson. After that, he wrote a stream of plays, among them The Anatomist (1931), Mr Bolfry (1943), and Dr…

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James Brindley - Further reading

Engineer and canal builder, born in Thornsett, Derbyshire, C England, UK. Apprenticed to a millwright, he became an engineer, and contrived a water engine for draining a coalmine (1752). Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, employed him to build the canal between Worsley and Manchester (1759), a difficult enterprise completed in 1772. He also commenced the Grand Trunk Canal, and completed the…

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James Brown - Biography, Personal life and dedications to Brown, Trivia, Discography

Banker, born in Ireland. The son of Alexander Brown, he arrived in Baltimore, MD (1802) and in 1825 established the New York City branch of his father's firm, Brown Brothers & Co. He guided the banking house through financial crises (1837, 1857) and the Civil War. He gave generously to local institutions and was one of the founders of Presbyterian Hospital. The mayor of New York City ordered all f…

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James Brown - Biography, Personal life and dedications to Brown, Trivia, Discography

Musician, born in Barnwell, South Carolina, USA. One of the most significant figures in black pop music, he began his singing career in Macon, GA with the Gospel Starlighters. In 1954 he formed a vocal group, the Famous Flames, with whom he recorded his first ‘cry’ ballads, ‘Please, Please, Please’ (1956) and ‘Try Me’ (1958). Combining gospel and blues roots with a stage presentation that mi…

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James Brown Scott

International lawyer and educator, born in Kincardine, Ontario, Canada. He went to the USA in 1876 and served in the Spanish-American War. After a series of posts at law schools, he organized and was first dean of Los Angeles Law School (1896–9), dean at the law college of the University of Illinois (1899–1903), and professor of law at Columbia University (1903–6). He then became the chief lega…

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James Bruce - Youth, To North Africa, The Nile Ethiopia, The Return, Trivia, Biographies

Explorer, born in Larbert, Falkirk, C Scotland, UK. He became consul-general in Algiers (1763–5), and in 1768 journeyed to Abyssinia by the Nile, Aswan, the Red Sea, and Massowah. In 1770 he reached the source of the Abbai, or headstream of the Blue Nile. His Travels to Discover the Sources of the Nile was published in 1790. James Bruce (December 14, 1730 – April 27, 1794) was a Scottish…

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James Bryant Conant

Chemist, diplomat, and educator, born in Dorchester (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. A Harvard-educated organic chemist noted for his work on chlorophyll and haemoglobin, he taught at Harvard (1916–33) and was president there (1933–53), where he strengthened the professional schools, increased the geographical and social diversity of students, opened the university to women, and introdu…

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James Buchanan - Biography and early career, Election of 1856, Presidency 1857-1861

US statesman and 15th president (1857–61), born near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, USA. Building on a successful law career, he entered politics and served as a Federalist in the Pennsylvania legislature (1815–17) and the US House of Representatives (1821–31), where he went over to the Democratic Party. In 1832–3 he served as ambassador to Russia and returned to serve Pennsylvania in the US Senat…

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James Buchanan Brady

Financier, born in New York City, USA. He worked for the New York Central Railroad, became a salesman of railroad equipment (1879), and in 1888 was the only agent in the USA for the Fox Pressed Steel Car Truck Company of England. Known for living in high style as one of the great Broadway ‘sports’, he wore diamond jewellery estimated at $2 million in value. But he remained a serious businessman,…

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James Butler Hickok - Early years as a lawman, "posting" men out of town, Civil War and Scouting

Frontier figure, born in Troy Grove, Illinois, USA. He was a stagecoach driver on both the Santa Fe and Oregon trails. As a spy and scout for the Union Army, he was captured and escaped more than once. He was marshal of Hays City (1869) and of Abilene (1871), and killed a number of men in both towns, always in self-defence or in the line of duty. He toured with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (1872

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James C(lerk) Maxwell - Biography, Homage, Honours

Physicist, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge, became professor at Aberdeen (1856) and London (1860), and was the first professor of experimental physics at Cambridge (1871), where he organized the Cavendish Laboratory. In 1873 he published his great Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, which gives a mathematical treatment to Faraday's theory of electrical …

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James Cagney - Biography, Trivia, Filmography, Television, External Links

Film actor, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Columbia, and after 10 years as an actor and dancer in vaudeville, his film performance as the gangster in The Public Enemy (1931) brought him stardom. His ebullient energy and aggressive personality kept him in demand for the next 30 years, including such varied productions as A Midsummer Night's Dream (1935), Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), a…

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James Cameron - Background, Early career, Awards, Recurring Cast Members, Filmography (Director), Filmography (Screenwriter), Personal life

Film director, screenwriter, and producer, born in Kapuskasing, Ontario, Canada. His family moved to California, while he was a teenager. He dropped out of California State University at Fullerton, and had a variety of jobs before immersing himself in film techniques, and making a home-made short film. Hired by New World Pictures as a production designer, he graduated to directing. His credits as …

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James Carroll

Physician, born in Woolwich, E Greater London, UK. He emigrated in childhood to Canada and the USA. Serving as a surgeon in the US army, and in association with Walter Reed, he did valuable research on yellow fever, deliberately infecting himself with the disease in the process (1900). In 1902 he became professor of bacteriology and pathology at Columbia and the Army Medical School. James C…

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James Chalmers

Bookseller and inventor, born in Arbroath, Angus, E Scotland, UK. A bookseller and newspaper publisher in Dundee, he advocated faster mail services in 1825, and is one of several candidates cited as the inventor of adhesive postage stamps. James Chalmers (February 2, 1782 Arbroath, Angus - May 26, 1853) was a Scottish inventor who introduced the adhesive postage stamp and uniform postage ra…

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James Christie

Auctioneer, born in London, UK. He founded the well-known London auctioneering firm in 1766. Two of his sons were James (1773–1831), antiquary and auctioneer, and Samuel Hunter (1784–1865), student of magnetism and professor of mathematics at Woolwich (1806–50). Samuel's son, Sir William Henry Mahoney (1845–1922), was astronomer royal (1881–1910). Christie was educated in Glenboro, and…

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James Clark McReynolds - McReynolds in fiction

Judge, born in Elkton, Kentucky, USA. As assistant US attorney general (1903–7) and as a federal prosecutor, he gained a reputation as a ‘trustbuster’. President Woodrow Wilson named him attorney general (1913–14) and appointed him to the US Supreme Court (1914–41). A strict constructionist, he wrote over 100 dissenting opinions that often opposed New Deal measures. James Clark McReyno…

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James Clinton

American soldier, born in Little Britain, New York, USA, the brother of George Clinton. He fought with distinction in the French and Indian War (1755–63) and as a brigadier-general during the War of Independence (1775–83). He was born in Ulster County in the colony of New York, in a location now part of Orange County, New York. He was the brother of George Clinton, who was governor of New…

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James Connolly - Trivia

Irish political leader and insurgent, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He joined the British army at the age of 14, and was stationed in the Curragh and Dublin, but deserted to get married to an Irish girl in Scotland. Returning to Ireland in 1896, he organized the Irish Socialist Republican Party and founded The Workers' Republic, the first Irish Socialist paper. He toured the USA as a lecture…

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James Cook - Early life, Family life, First voyage (1768-1771), Second voyage (1772-1775)

Navigator, born in Marton, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He spent several years as a seaman in North Sea vessels, then joined the navy (1755), becoming master in 1759. He surveyed the area around the St Lawrence River, Quebec, then in the Endeavour carried the Royal Society expedition to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun (1768–71). He circumnavigated New Zealand and charted …

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James Creelman

Journalist, born in Montreal, Canada. A leading reporter for the New York World, New York Journal, and other publications, he was known for his intrepid coverage of wars and insurrections around the globe. In 1872, Creelman moved to New York, where his interest in literature and law attracted the patronage of Thomas De Witt Talmage and Republican party boss Roscoe Conking. Creel…

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James Crichton

Leading figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, born in Clunie, Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK. He studied at St Andrews, and earned a tremendous reputation as a scholar, poet, linguist, and swordsman on the European mainland. While in Mantua in the service of the duke, he was killed in a nocturnal brawl by the duke's son. His popular reputation rests on the fantastic account of his exploits writ…

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James D(wight) Dana - Early life and career, Publications, Awards, Things named in honour of Dana

Mineralogist and geologist, born in Utica, New York, USA. He studied at Yale, and was a scientific observer on the US exploring expedition under Charles Wilkes (1838–42), visiting the Antarctic and Pacific. With his father-in-law, Benjamin Silliman (1779–1864), he edited the American Journal of Science from 1840, and became professor of natural history (1849–64) and geology (1864–90) at Yale. …

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James DeLancey

Colonial official and judge, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was the chief justice of the New York Supreme Court (1733–60) and the lieutenant-governor of New York (1753–60). He became unpopular when he tried to influence the outcome of the trial of John Peter Zenger (1735). His political followers, who were identified as aristocratic and Episcopalian, became known as members of the ‘De…

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James Earl Jones - Awards, Trivia, Quotes

Stage, film, and television actor, born in Arkabutla, Mississippi, USA. The son of an ex-prizefighter-actor, he attended the University of Michigan, and after Army service he studied acting in New York and made his Broadway debut (1957). After his first major role in The Great White Hope (1966), he went on to star in a wide variety of classic and contemporary plays. His varied film career includes…

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James Earl Ray - Capture and trial, Retrial, Death, Further reading

Assassin, born in Alton, Illinois, USA. He served in the US Army (1946–8) and was imprisoned for armed robbery (1960–7). He escaped (1967) and shot and killed Martin Luther King Jr in 1968, and the next year was sentenced to 99 years in prison. Although few doubted he had fired the fatal shot, many questioned whether he acted alone. James Earl Ray (March 10, 1928 – April 23, 1998) was c…

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James Earle Fraser - Life and career, Public monuments, Images

Sculptor, born in Winona, Minnesota, USA. He lived in the Dakota territory, Minneapolis, and Chicago, where he sculpted ‘The End of the Trail’ (1894), a popular image of the American Indian. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris (1895–9), was an assistant of Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1898–1902), and settled in New York (1902). He created many public monuments and designed medallions an…

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James Edward Fitzsimmons - Sunny Jim Peanut Butter, Other uses

Horse trainer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He trained horses for the Belair stable (1923–55) and conditioned such champion thoroughbreds as Gallant Fox, Omaha, Granville, and Nashua. "Sunny Jim" was a cartoon character created in 1902 in the United States by writer Minnie Maud Hanff and artist Dorothy Ficken for an advertising campaign designed to promote Force cereal, the …

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James Edward Murray - Source

US senator, born near St Thomas, Ontario, Canada. He studied law at New York University, and became a US citizen (1901) and set up a law practice in Butte, MT. He served in the US Senate (Democrat, Montana, 1934–61) where he supported Roosevelt's policies. His advocacy of national health insurance and conservation measures was ahead of its time. James Edward Murray (May 3, 1876 - March 23,…

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James Eli Watson

US representative and senator, born in Winchester, Indiana, USA. A lawyer, he served in the US House of Representatives (Republican, Indiana, 1895–7, 1899–1909) and the Senate (1916–33), becoming majority leader (1929–33). As a party loyalist, he supported big business, isolationism, and restrictions on immigration. James Eli Watson (November 2, 1864? He was born in Winchest…

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James Fenimore Cooper - Cooper's writings

Writer, born in Burlington, New Jersey, USA. Raised in prosperous circumstances in his father's frontier settlement at Cooperstown, New York, he attended Yale University (but was expelled for a prank) and spent several years in the navy (1806–11). Living as a country gentleman, he wrote his first novel, Precaution (1820), allegedly after his wife challenged his claim that he could write a better …

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James Forten - Reference

Sail-maker and social activist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A free African-American, he joined the Continental navy at age 15 and was among those taken prisoner when his ship, the Royal Louis, was captured by the British. After being released, he returned to Philadelphia and was apprenticed to sail-maker Robert Bridges. He rose to be foreman there (1786), and when Bridges died (1798),…

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James Franck - Education and Career, Awards and Honors, Further information

Physicist, born in Hamburg, N Germany. Professor of physics at Göttingen (1920), he worked with Gustav Hertz on quantized energy absorption in molecules, for which they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1925. He emigrated to the USA in 1935, became professor of physical chemistry at Chicago (1938–49), and worked on the development of the atomic bomb in World War 2. He headed th…

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James Freeman Clarke

Protestant religious leader, born in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. He graduated from Harvard (1829) and became pastor of the Unitarian Church in Louisville, KY. He edited the Western Messenger from Louisville (1836–9), in which he published articles by, among others, Emerson and Hawthorne. He returned to Boston and founded the Unitarian Church of the Disciples (1841) and taught at Harvard Divinity…

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James Gadsden

US soldier, businessman, and diplomat, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. The grandson of Christopher Gadsden, he studied at Yale (1806), and served in the War of 1812 and during conflicts with the Seminole Indians. He was president of the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Charleston Railroad (1840–50) (renamed the South Carolina Railroad in 1842) and was a major proponent of a southern route fro…

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James Gandolfini - Background, The Sopranos years, Filmography

Actor, born in Westwood, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Rutgers University, NJ and the Actors Studio, New York City. He made his film debut in A Stranger Among Us (1992), and later films include Get Shorty (1995), The Mighty (1998), and The Mexican (2001). He became well known for his role as Tony Soprano in the television series The Sopranos (1999– ), for which he received Best Actor Golden Glob…

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James Gibbs

Architect, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. He studied under Carlo Fontana, in Italy. A friend and disciple of Wren, he became in 1713 one of the commissioners for building new churches in London. His designs included St Mary-le-Strand (1717) and St Martin-in-the-Fields (1726), the latter being perhaps his most influential and attractive work. He was also responsible for St Bartholomew's Hospita…

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James Gillray - Early life, Adult life, Gillray and the Art of Caricature

Caricaturist, born in London, UK. A letter engraver by training, from c.1779 he turned to caricature. He issued about 1500 caricatures of political and social subjects, notably of Napoleon, George III, and leading politicians. His father, a native of Lanark, had served as a soldier, losing an arm at Fontenoy, and was admitted, first as an inmate, and afterwards as an outdoor pensioner, at C…

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James Glaisher

Meteorologist, born in London, UK. He joined the Ordnance Survey in 1829, and later became chief meteorologist at Greenwich. He made a large number of balloon ascents, once reaching a height of over 11 km/7 mi to study the higher strata of the atmosphere. He compiled dew-point tables and wrote on several scientific subjects. James Glaisher was an English meteorologist and aeronaut (April …

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James Gould Cozzens - Selected works

Novelist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He published his first novel, Confusion, at the age of 19, fought in the US Army Corps in World War 2, then wrote Guard of Honor (1948, Pulitzer). His most popular success was By Love Possessed (1958, filmed 1961), but his appeal has waned since his death. James Gould Cozzens (August 13, 1903 - August 8, 1978) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning U.S. novel…

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James Hadley Chase - Selected works

Novelist, born in London, UK. He started the vogue for tough realism in gangster stories in the UK with his No Orchids for Miss Blandish (1939), the first of a number in similar vein. James Hadley Chase is a pseudonym for British author Rene Brabazon Raymond (December 24, 1906 – February 6, 1985) who also wrote under the names James L. Cain's novel The Postman Always Rings Twice (19…

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James Hal Cone - Books

Protestant theologian, born in Fordyce, Arkansas, USA. He studied at Philander Smith College (1958), received a PhD from Northwestern, and taught at two small colleges before becoming a professor of theology at Union Theological Seminary in New York City (1976). His A Black Theology of Liberation (1970) contained an angry critique of the presuppositions of white theologians. and a more measured st…

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James Hall

Lawyer and writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He saw combat in the War of 1812, then quit the army in 1818 after a dispute with his commanding officer. Settling in Shawneetown, IL, he practised law, was elected state treasurer (1828), and edited the Illinois Monthly Magazine (1830), an early midwestern literary journal. He moved to Cincinnati (1832) and, while working as a banker the…

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James Hanratty - The Murder, The Trial, Evidential anomalies, Evidence emerging after Hanratty's execution, Official Inquiries

Convicted murderer, whose case has remained controversial. One of the last persons to be executed in Britain, he was found guilty of the murder of Michael Gregsten, who was shot while in his car with his lover, Valerie Storie, in a layby on the A6 on 22 August 1961. Hanratty was arrested on 11 October. Storie, who had been raped, and paralysed by several bullets, picked out Hanratty from an identi…

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James Hargreaves

Inventor, probably born in Blackburn, Lancashire, NW England, UK. An illiterate weaver and carpenter, c.1764 he invented the spinning jenny (named after his daughter); but his fellow spinners broke into his house and destroyed his frame (1768). He moved to Nottingham, where he erected a spinning mill, and continued to manufacture yarn until his death. James Hargreaves (1720 – 22 April 177…

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James Harvey Robinson

Historian, born in Bloomington, Illinois, USA. He studied at Harvard University (1887 BA;1888 MA) and received his doctorate in Germany, then taught European history at Columbia University (1895–1919), where his espousal of ‘intellectual history’ greatly influenced students of the day. He collaborated on textbooks with Charles Beard and James Breasted and helped found the New School for Social …

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James Henry Breasted - Further reading

Egyptologist, born in Rockford, Illinois, USA. The first teacher of Egyptology in America, he was assistant in Egyptology (1895), assistant director of the Haskell Oriental Museum (1895), instructor in Egyptology (1896), and professor of Egyptology and Oriental history, all at the University of Chicago (1905–35), where he founded the Oriental Institute (1919). He is best known for his monumental …

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James Henry Greathead

Civil engineer, born in Grahamstown, S South Africa. He went to England in 1859 and studied civil engineering. At the age of 24 he undertook to build a subway under the Thames in London (1869). To penetrate the very difficult water-bearing strata he greatly improved the tunnelling shield designed (1818) by Brunel for the Rotherhithe tunnel. He engaged in various other surface and underground railw…

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James Herriot - Biography, Author, Bibliography, Quotes, Trivia

Veterinary surgeon and writer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. Beginning in the 1970s, he brought the vet's world to the notice of the public with a number of best-selling books, such as It Shouldn't Happen to a Vet and Vet in a Spin, as well as several compilations and children's books. Feature films and television series made his work known all over the world, especially the television series A…

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James Hillier - Honours

Physicist, born in Brantford, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied in Toronto, then moved to the USA in 1940 and made his career with RCA (the Radio Corporation of America). There he led the group which made the first successful high-resolution electron microscope in 1940. He continued to supervise improvements in RCA's electron microscopes, whose commercial availability after World War 2 revolutionized…

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James Hilton - Trivia

Novelist, born in Leigh, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and quickly established himself as a writer, his first novel, Catherine Herself, being published in 1920. His success was dual, for many of his novels were filmed, notably Lost Horizon (1933, Hawthornden Prize), and Goodbye Mr Chips (1934). He settled in the USA in 1935. James Hilton (September 9, 1900 - December …

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James Hoban - The White House, Other projects, Ireland commemmoration

Architect, born in Co Kilkenny, Ireland. Emigrating to the USA (1785), he designed the state capitol in Columbia, SC (1790–1). After a competition to design public buildings in Federal City, the new capital of the USA, he designed the White House (1792–1801) and rebuilt it after the destruction in the War of 1812. He served as supervisor over the construction of the US Capitol (1793–1803) and d…

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James Hogg - Biography, Reference

Writer, born near Ettrick, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. He tended sheep in his youth, and after only a spasmodic education he became a writer of ballads, which achieved some success thanks to the patronage of Walter Scott. He eventually settled in Edinburgh, and wrote several works in verse and prose, notably The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824). For the Te…

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James Hutton - Study of rock formations, Publication, Opposing theories, Acceptance of geological theories, Other contributions, Works, Cultural reference

Geologist, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied medicine there, at Paris, and at Leyden. In 1754 he devoted himself to agriculture and chemistry in Berwickshire, which led him to mineralogy and geology; in 1768 he moved to Edinburgh. The Huttonian theory, emphasizing the igneous origin of many rocks and deprecating the assumption of causes other than those we see still at work, was expou…

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James (of England) I - Summary, Childhood as King James VI of Scotland, Ascent to the throne of England

The first Stuart king of England (1603–25), also king of Scotland (1567–1625) as James VI, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry, Lord Darnley. On his mother's forced abdication, he was proclaimed king, and brought up by several regents. When he began to govern for himself, he ruled through his favourites, which caused a rebellion and a period of imprison…

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James (of Scotland) I

King of Scots (1424–37), born in Dunfermline, Fife, E Scotland, UK, the second son of Robert III. After his elder brother David was murdered at Falkland (1402), allegedly by his uncle, the Duke of Albany, James was sent for safety to France, but was captured by the English, and remained a prisoner for 18 years. Albany meanwhile ruled Scotland as governor until his death in 1420, when his son, Mur…

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James (of England) II - Early life, Religion, Reign, Glorious Revolution, Style and arms, Issue, Miscellaneous

King of England and Ireland (1685–8), also king of Scotland, as James VII, born in London, UK, the second son of Charles I. Nine months before his father's execution, he escaped to Holland. At the Restoration (1660) he was made Lord High Admiral of England, and commanded the fleet in the Dutch Wars; but after becoming a convert to Catholicism he was forced to resign his post. The national ferment…

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James (of Scotland) II

King of Scots (1437–60), the son of James I. He was six years old at his father's murder, and three rival families vied for power until James was able to assume control after his marriage to Mary of Gueldres (1449). He confiscated the estates of the Livingstone family, then quarrelled with William, Earl of Douglas, killed him in a brawl (1450), and confiscated the Douglas estates (1453). A growin…

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James Iredell - Early life, Roles in the Revolution, Supreme Court Justice, Later years

Judge, born in Lewes, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He emigrated to North Carolina at age 17 and became active in the revolution against England. He served as a North Carolina judge (1777–8) and as state attorney general (1779–81). At age 38, he was the youngest of the original six US Supreme Court justices when chosen by President Washington, serving in 1790–9. James Iredell (October 5, …

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James Jones

Novelist, born in Robinson, Illinois, USA. He studied at the University of Hawaii, then served in the US army as a sergeant (1939–44), boxed as a welterweight in Golden Gloves tournaments, and was awarded a Purple Heart. His wartime experience in Hawaii led to From Here to Eternity (1951), a classic war novel for which he received a National Book Award. Later work was disappointing, with the exce…

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James Joseph Sylvester - Biography, Bibliography

Mathematician, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge but, as a Jew, was disqualified from graduating. He became professor at University College London (1837), and the University of Virginia (1841–5). Returning to London he worked as an actuary, and was called to the bar in 1850. He then took up academic life again, becoming professor of mathematics at Woolwich (1855–70), at Johns Hopkins U…

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James Keir Baxter - Biography, Sources

Poet, playwright, and critic, born near Dunedin, New Zealand. He worked as a labourer, journalist, and teacher and led a bohemian life until he was converted to Roman Catholicism. He later founded a religious community on the Wanganui R. He published more than 30 books of poetry, notably In Fires of No Return (1958), Howrah Bridge (1961), and Autumn Testament (1972). James Keir Baxter (June…

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James Kelman - Bibliography

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He published his first book of short stories in 1983, and his first novel, The Busconductor Hines, in 1984. Regarded as one of the major talents in contemporary Scottish fiction, he won the Booker Prize in 1994 for How Late It Was, How Late. Later works include The Good Times: Stories (1998), and the novels Translated Accounts (2001…

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James Kent - Further reading

Legal scholar, born in Southeast, New York, USA. A staunch Federalist, he was chosen by John Jay and Alexander Hamilton to be Columbia College's first professor of law (1793–8). In 1798 he was appointed to the New York State Supreme Court and rose to become its chief justice (1804–14). He became chancellor of the New York State court of chancery (1814–23) where his decisions and written opinion…

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James Kirke Paulding - Important works, Sources

Writer and public official, born in Great Nine Partners (now Putnam Co), New York, USA. He had little formal schooling, but became a friend of Washington Irving and moved to New York City (c.1796) to live with Washington's brother, William Irving. He worked as a public official, and in 1807–8 he collaborated with Washington Irving on Salmagundi, a literary magazine. His public career included app…

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James Laughlin - Style, Works, Notes and references

Publisher, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Drawing on his family's fortune (from the Jones and Laughlin Steel Co), in 1936 he founded New Directions Press, which specializes in publishing quality literary works deemed unlikely to gain a mass audience. Dylan Thomas and Ezra Pound were among its authors. Laughlin was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Henry Hughart and Marjor…

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James Lawrence - Biography, Legacy

Naval officer, born in Burlington, New Jersey, USA. He served with distinction in the Tripolitan War, and won a notable victory over the British ship HMS Peacock in 1813. He was defeated and mortally wounded in the HMS Shannon–USS Chesapeake duel the same year. His famous appeal, ‘Don't give up the ship’, became a rallying cry for US sailors. James Lawrence (October 1, 1781 – June 4, 1…

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James Lee Burke - Bibliography

Writer, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He studied at the University of Southwest Louisiana (1955–7), and the University of Missouri (1959 BA; 1960 MA). He worked as a surveyor, reporter, social worker, teacher, and for the US Forest Service and the Job Corps Conservation Center in Kentucky. A writer of short stories and novels, he is best known for his series of mystery novels featuring his Cajun p…

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James Levine

Conductor, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. From a musical family, he studied piano in childhood, and soloed with the Cincinnati Symphony at the age of 10. After studies in piano and conducting at the Juilliard School, New York City (from 1961), he became assistant conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra. He made his opera debut conducting Tosca at the Metropolitan Opera in 1971; two years later he bec…

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James Lick - Early years, South American years, California years, Lick's legacy

Financier and philanthropist, born in Fredericksburg, Pennsylvania, USA. A piano-maker by training, he spent many years in South America (1820–37) and then moved to San Francisco. He made a fortune in the real-estate boom there and gave much of his fortune to public purposes. Most notably he left $700 000 to produce the most powerful telescope made to that date, and to house it he founded the Li…

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James Lind

Physician, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He served in the navy as a surgeon's mate, qualified in medicine at Edinburgh, and became physician at the Haslar naval hospital at Gosport. He is remembered for his research into cases of scurvy aboard ship; and his recommendation to the Royal Navy to issue citrus fruits and juices to sailors eradicated the disease. He also instigated delousing proce…

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James Longstreet - Early life, Career as Confederate general, Postbellum career, Legacy, In popular media

US soldier, born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, USA. Raised in Georgia and Alabama, he trained at West Point (1842) and saw service during the Mexican War. He resigned his US Army commission to join the Confederate army (Jun 1861). As one of Lee's chief lieutenants, he was an outstanding combat officer but was sometimes over-cautious as a commander; his delays at Gettysburg led to his bein…

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James Macpherson - Early life, Collecting Scottish Gaelic poetry, Ossian, Later works, Legacy, Sources for further reading

Poet, born in Ruthven, Highland, N Scotland, UK. He studied at King's College and Marischal College, Aberdeen, and became a schoolteacher and poet. In 1760 he was commissioned by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh to tour the Highlands in search of material relating to the legendary hero Fingal, as told by his son, Ossian. He published his work in 1762 as Fingal: an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Boo…

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James Madison - Early life, Political career, Author of Bill of Rights, Opposition to Hamilton, Marriage: Dolley Madison

US statesman and fourth president (1809–17), born in Port Conway, Virginia, USA. He studied at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), after which he returned to Virginia and in 1774 assumed the first of several positions in state government. In 1780 he began three years as a state delegate to the Congress under the Articles of Confederation, where he advocated a stronger national government…

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James Marsh

British chemist. An expert on poisons, he worked at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, and assisted Michael Faraday at the Military Academy. He invented the standard test for arsenic, which has been given his name. James Marsh (September 2, 1794- June 21, 1846) was a chemist who invented the Marsh test for detecting arsenic. While he was most famous for inventing the test for arsenic …

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James Mason - Filmography

Actor, born in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied architecture, then made his stage debut in 1931. He appeared at the Old Vic and with the Gate Company in Dublin before making his film debut in 1935. He became one of the most prolific, distinguished, and reliable of cinema actors. He was nominated for an Oscar for A Star Is Born (1954), Georgy Girl (1966), and The Verdict (198…

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James McCosh - Philosophical work, Main works, Sources

College president and philosopher, born in Ayrshire, SW Scotland, UK. He left a professorship at Queen's College, Belfast, Ireland (1852–68) to become president (1868–88) of the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University), and revitalized the college after its post-Civil War decline. A member of the Scottish school of philosophy, he wrote Intuitions of the Mind (1860) and Examination of..…

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James McCracken

Tenor, born in Gary, Indiana, USA. He started life as a steelworker, but his potential as a singer was spotted during service with the US Navy. He made his operatic debut as Rodolfo in Puccini's La Bohème in 1952, but his 1959 performance as Verdi's Otello in Europe marked a turning point in his career. In 1963 he returned to America to become one of the Metropolitan Opera's leading tenors, and w…

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James McCune Smith

Physician, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of a slave freed by the laws of New York, he gained his medical degree from the University of Glasgow, Scotland (1837) and practised briefly in Paris before returning to New York. He worked for 20 years on the medical staff of the Free Negro Orphan Asylum. He devoted his life to the welfare of African-Americans and to insisting on their mora…

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James McGill

Entrepreneur and philanthropist, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He emigrated to Canada in the 1770s, and made a fortune in the NW fur trade and in Montreal. He bequeathed land and money to found McGill College, Montreal, which became McGill University in 1821. James McGill (October 6, 1744 – December 19, 1813) was a Scottish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist. Born in G…

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James Michael Curley

US representative and mayor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He left high school, continuing his education in the public library, and became a powerful orator, campaigning against Democratic political bosses. He served in the US House of Representatives as a Democrat (1911–14), then left to run for Mayor of Boston, defeating ‘Honey Fitz’ Fitzgerald. As mayor (1914–18, 1922–6, 1930–4), he…

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James Mill - Career

Philosopher, historian, and economist, the father of John Stuart Mill, born in Northwater Bridge, Angus, E Scotland, UK. He studied for the ministry at Edinburgh, and became a teacher, then a journalist. A disciple and friend of Jeremy Bentham, he was an enthusiastic proponent of utilitarianism, and took a leading part in the founding of University College London (1825). His first major publicatio…

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James Monroe - Early years, Presidency 1817-1825: The Era of Good Feelings, Post-Presidency, Death

US statesman and fifth president (1817–25), born in Westmoreland Co, Virginia, USA. A combat veteran of the American Revolution, he studied law with Thomas Jefferson, who became a lifelong mentor. After serving in the Virginia legislature, he served a three-year term in the Confederation Congress (1783–6), and chaired the committee (1785) that prepared the way for framing the Constitution, thoug…

1 minute read

James Montgomery Flagg

Illustrator, born in Pelham Manor, New York, USA. Based in New York City, he studied at the Art Students League (1893), and in England and France. Working in pen and ink, watercolour, and oils, he was a prolific illustrator for periodicals. He is known for his World War 1 posters, including the ‘I Want You’ portrait of Uncle Sam, and for his popular images of young women of the time, commonly ca…

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James Mooney - Works written by James Mooney, Bibliography

Ethnologist, born in Richmond, Indiana, USA. The son of Irish immigrants, he became absorbed by North American Indian culture at an early age. He worked as a newspaperman in his home town before moving to Washington, DC (1885), where he found employment in the Bureau of American Ethnology. He remained there for the rest of his life, studying and writing about the language, folklore, and mythology …

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James Moore

American soldier, born in New Hanover Co, North Carolina, USA, the brother of Maurice Moore. A French and Indian War veteran, he served in the provincial legislature. As relations with Britain deteriorated, he sided with the Whig patriots who opposed the Loyalist Tories in North Carolina. He took command of Continental forces in North Carolina (1776) and directed them to their first victory, over …

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James Moore Wayne

Judge, born in Savannah, Georgia, USA. He served as mayor of Savannah, as a circuit court judge (1824–9), and in the US House of Representatives (Georgia, 1829). President Jackson named him to the US Supreme Court (1835–67), where he had a long but undistinguished career. James Moore Wayne (1790 - July 5, 1867) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and was a U…

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James Nasmyth

Engineer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. From boyhood he showed a talent for mechanics, building successful model steam engines while still at school. He started in business at Manchester (1834), and established at Patricroft the Bridgewater Foundry (1836). He devised and patented a steam hammer to assist with forging work (1842), and it became a major tool in the Industrial Revolution. Among…

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James Oppenheim

Poet and writer, born in St Paul, Minnesota, USA. His family moved to New York City when he was a child, and he was educated in the public schools. He took extension courses at Columbia University, then became a secretary and a teacher. He wrote sentimental stories and novels to support his family before becoming a poet, as seen in Songs for the New Age (1914). He also edited a literary magazine, …

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James Otis - Writs of Assistance, Further reading

US politician, born in West Barnstable, Massachusetts, USA. A leader of the Boston bar, he became advocate-general in 1760, when the revenue officers demanded his assistance in obtaining from the superior court general search warrants in quest of smuggled goods. He refused, citing fundamental English constitutional law, resigned, and appeared in defence of popular rights. In 1761, elected to the M…

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James Parkinson - Essay on the shaking palsy

Physician and amateur palaeontologist, born in London, UK. In 1817 he gave the first description of paralysis agitans, or Parkinson's disease. He had already described appendicitis and perforation in 1812, and was the first to recognize the latter condition as a cause of death. James Parkinson (April 11, 1755 – December 21, 1824) was an English physician, geologist, paleontologist, and po…

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James Patterson

Novelist, born in New York City, USA. He studied English at Manhattan College, and published his first novel The Thomas Berryman Number in 1976. His best-selling detective novel, Along Came A Spider (1993), introduced FBI Agent Alex Cross who features in several later books, including Kiss The Girls (1995; filmed 1997), Pop Goes the Weasel (1999), Violets are Blue (2001), Mary, Mary (2005), and Cr…

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James Paul Clarke

US senator and governor, born in Yazoo City, Mississippi, USA. A lawyer in Helena, AR, he was active in state politics, serving as Democratic governor (1895–7). Going to the US Senate mid-term (1904–16), he supported Philippine independence, regulation of the railroads, and workmen's compensation insurance. In 1913–16 he was temporary president of the Senate. …

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James Peale

Painter, born in Chestertown, Maryland, USA. He was taught by his older brother, Charles Willson Peale. He served in the Continental army (1776–9), and painted historical scenes, miniatures on ivory, and landscapes until his eyesight failed (1818). Living in Philadelphia, he helped run the Peale Museum. James Peale (1749-May 24, 1831) was an American painter, best known for his miniature a…

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James Randi - The Amazing Randi, Career as a skeptic, Legal disputes, The $1 million challenge

Magician, lecturer, and sceptic, born in Toronto, Canada. He dropped out of high school at age 17 and soon became an adept escape artist and magician. Upset by the claims of Uri Geller to have paranormal powers, he founded the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (1973). He went on to expose many frauds, notably the television evangelist Peter Popoff (1986), who c…

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James Robertson

Frontiersman, born in Brunswick Co, Virginia, USA. The ‘Father of Tennessee’, he led the first group of settlers to present-day Nashville in 1780. He proved to be an excellent Indian fighter and a maker of peace treaties with the Chickasaw (1781) and Cherokee (1798, 1807) tribes. He impressed both whites and Indians with his fairness and personal integrity. James Robertson may refer to: …

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James Rumsey - Sources

Engineer and inventor, born in Cecil Co, Maryland, USA. His steamboat, propelled by the ejection of water from the stern, was exhibited on the Potomac in 1787, and was one of the earliest constructed. He died in London while preparing a second version for exhibition on the Thames. James Rumsey (1743-1792) was an American mechanical engineer who exhibited a boat propelled by machinery in 178…

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James Russell Lowell - Early life, Poetic career, Fame as a satirist, The war years, Late life

Poet, essayist, and diplomat, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, then published two volumes of poetry, helped to edit The Pioneer, and in 1846, at the outbreak of the Mexican War, started work on what was to become The Biglow Papers (1848), a poem denouncing the pro-slavery party and the government. In 1855 he was appointed professor of modern languages and literature at…

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James S(mith) McDonnell

Aircraft manufacturer, and pioneer in space technology, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. After studying aeronautical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he became a test pilot, stress analyst, and chief engineer, before setting up his own company in 1928. This led to the founding of the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation (1939), which was to produce successful military and naval ai…

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James Sayers

British physicist. He studied at Belfast and Cambridge, where he became a fellow of St John's (1941–6). A member of the British team associated with the Manhattan atomic bomb project (1943–5), he became professor of electron physics at Birmingham (1946–72). In 1949 he was given a government award for his work on the cavity magnetron valve, which was of great importance in the development of rad…

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James Shields - Early life and career, Civil War and later career

Judge, soldier, and US senator, born in Altmore, Co Tyrone, Ireland. Setting out for Quebec c.1822, he was shipwrecked off the coast of Scotland, where he then spent several years as a tutor. In c.1826 he arrived in New York City, then settled in Illinois where he taught, fought in the Black Hawk War, and became a lawyer. As state auditor he was drawn into a quarrel with another lawyer, Abraham Li…

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James Shirley - Life

Playwright, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford and Cambridge, took holy orders, and in 1623 was appointed headmaster of the grammar school in St Albans. He moved to London (c.1624) and became a playwright. Before the parliamentary closure of the theatres in 1642, he had completed at least 36 plays and was the leading working dramatist in London. His works include the comedies The Witty Fair …

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James Spader - Filmography

Film actor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied acting at the Michael Chekov Studio, New York City, and made his film debut with Endless Love (1981). He became well known after sex, lies, and videotape (1989), for which he won the Best Actor award at the Cannes Film Festival. Later films include Storyville (1992), Stargate (1994), Crash (1997), Keys to Tulsa (1997), Supernova (2000), an…

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James Starley

Inventor, born in Albourne, West Sussex, S England, UK. He worked in a factory in Coventry, manufacturing sewing-machines and bicycles, and invented a new, improved sewing-machine and the ‘Coventry’ tricycle. He also invented the ‘Ariel’ geared bicycle in 1871, which became a standard bicycle design. James Starley (Born April 21, 1830, died June 17, 1881) was an English inventor and "Fa…

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James Stirling

Mathematician, born in Garden, Stirling, C Scotland, UK. He was expelled from Oxford for corresponding with Jacobites, and went to Venice to complete his studies. There he discovered the secrets of the Venetian glass-makers, and published a work on their techniques. His principal work was Methodus differentialis (1730), in which he made important advances in the theory of infinite series and finit…

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James Sullivan

Legal scholar, born in Berwick, District of Maine, USA. He was initially King's counsel for York Co in Maine, but took an active role in support of the American Revolution. For many years he was a prominent Boston lawyer and Massachusetts statesman. He served on the state supreme court (1776), as state attorney general (1790–1807) and as governor (1807–8). James Sullivan (April 22, 1744, …

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James Tait Black Memorial Prize

Annual literary prize awarded in two categories: best work of fiction and best biography first published in Britain in the previous 12 months. The award was established in memory of a partner at A & C Black Publishers Ltd (founded 1807 in Edinburgh by Adam Black), and is administered by the University of Edinburgh, Department of English Literature. The prize is £3000 for each category. …

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James Tassie

Modeller and gem engraver, born in Pollokshaws, Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. Apprenticed to a stone mason, he studied art at Foulis Academy in Glasgow. In 1763 he went to Dublin as a laboratory assistant to a physician, Henry Quin, with whom he developed a special composition for making portrait medallions. In London from 1766, he made reproductions of some of the most famous gems (including Catherine…

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James Thomas Fields

Writer and publisher, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA. Known for both literary and business acumen, he became head of the Ticknor & Fields publishing firm and was editor of The Atlantic Monthly (1861–70). His own literary works include Poems (1849) and Yesterdays With Authors (1876). James Thomas Fields (December 31, 1817 – April 24, 1881), American publisher and author, was born …

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James Thomson

Poet, born in Ednam, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. Educated at Edinburgh for the ministry, he abandoned his studies and turned to writing in London (1725). He is best known for his four-part work, The Seasons (1730), the first major nature poem in English, and for his ode ‘Rule, Britannia’ from Alfred, a Masque (1740), and the Spenserian allegory The Castle of Indolence (1748). James…

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James Thomson

Poet, born in Port Glasgow, Inverclyde, WC Scotland, UK. Brought up in an orphanage, he trained as an army schoolmaster at the Royal Military Academy, Chelsea, but was dismissed from army service for alcoholism in 1862. Through his friend Charles Bradlaugh he contributed (1862–75) to the National Reformer, in which appeared many of his sombre, sonorous poems, including ‘The City of Dreadful Nigh…

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James Tobin

Economist, born in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA. He studied at Harvard and, following wartime service in the US Navy, went on to teach there. In 1955 he became a professor at Yale, later serving as a member of President Kennedy's Council of Economic Advisors (1961–2). His research activities extended, developed, and refined Keynesian ideas concerning money demand, inflation, consumption, and s…

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James Van Der Zee - Biography, Photographic Techniques and Artistry

Photographer, born in Lenox, Massachusetts, USA. After attending schools in Lenox, he went to New York City c.1906 and held a series of jobs as a waiter and elevator operator. During 1909–15 he played in Fletcher Henderson's band and the John Wanamaker Orchestra (and in an orchestra that accompanied silent films). Attracted to photography, he got a job as a darkroom assistant, and after learning …

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James Van Heusen - Biography, Songs

Composer, born in Syracuse, New York, USA. In the 1930s his first popular songs were performed and recorded. He joined lyricist Johnny Burke in 1940 and began writing scores for many Bing Crosby films with such hit songs as ‘It's Always You’ (1941) and ‘Swinging on a Star’ (1944). With lyricist Sammy Cahn he wrote many popular songs of the 1950s for film and television, including ‘High Hopes

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James Ward

Psychologist and philosopher, born in Hull, NE England, UK. He studied for the Congregationalist ministry at Cambridge, but after a one-year scholarship at Göttingen studying physiological psychology under Hermann Lotze, abandoned his religious ministry and continued his studies at Cambridge, where he became a fellow (1875–1925). He established a laboratory for psychological research (1891), and…

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James Watson Webb

Journalist and diplomat, born in Claverack, New York, USA. He served in the US Army, where he won a reputation as a duellist. In 1827 he bought the New York Morning Courier, soon merged it with the Enquirer, and eventually took over editorship of the newspaper, retaining that role until 1861. A strong partisan, he originally supported Andrew Jackson but later became a prominent Whig. As a diplomat…

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James Watt - Biography, Controversy, Legacy, Honours, Remembrance, Books about Watt

Inventor, born in Greenock, Inverclyde, WC Scotland, UK. He went to Glasgow in 1754 to learn the trade of mathematical-instrument maker, and there, after a year in London, he set up in business. He was employed on surveys for several canals, improved harbours and rivers, and by 1759 was studying steam as a motive force. In 1763–4, in the course of repairing a working model of the Newcomen engine,…

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James Weddell - Early life, Voyages to the antarctic, Later life

Navigator, explorer, and seal hunter, born in Ostend, NW Belgium. He undertook three voyages to Antarctica in the sealing brig Jane, in the third of which (1822–3) he penetrated to the point 74°15 S by 34°17 W in that part of Antarctica which later took his name (Weddell Sea, Weddell Quadrant). A type of seal from this area is also named after him. James Weddell (August 24, 1787 - Sept…

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James Welch

Writer, born in Browning, Montana, USA. A Blackfeet and Gros Ventre writer, his works explored both the pride of heritage and the deep sense of loss experienced by many Indians. His books include Winter in the Blood (1974), The Death of Jim Loney (1979), and Fools Crow (1986). James Welch (7 July 1889–28 June 1978) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prest…

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James Weldon Johnson - Life and career, Tributes, Selected works, Other references

Lawyer, lyricist, writer, and social activist, born in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. After graduating from college, he organized a system of secondary education for African-Americans in Jacksonville. The first African-American to be admitted to the Florida bar through examination in a state court (1897), he moved to New York City (1901) to pursue his love of music and theatre. He, his brother J Rosa…

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James Whitcomb Riley - Legacy

Poet, born in Greenfield, Indiana, USA. He left school at age 16 and worked as a house and sign painter (1870–1) and as a lecturer (1872–6). After working in his father's law office (1875–6), he moved to Indianapolis (1879) and became a journalist (1879–88). Many of his poems were first published in the Indianapolis Journal. He was a popular, sentimental poet, often using a Hoosier (Indiana) d…

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James Wilkinson - Early life, Revolutionary War actions, Kentucky ventures, Second military career, Legacy

American soldier and conspirator, born in Calvert Co, Maryland, USA. He served in the American Revolution under Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates and joined the Conway Cabal, the group that schemed against Washington. Seemingly a conspirator by nature, he intrigued with Aaron Burr to establish a separate nation on the W frontier, and when the plot was discovered he had the effrontery to order Burr…

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James Wilson - Biography, Trivia

Judge and political thinker, born in Carskerdy, Fife, E Scotland, UK. He emigrated to the USA in 1765, and after reading law under John Dickinson he set up a practice (1768). In 1773 he began the first of his lifelong speculations in land purchases. In 1774 he distributed to members of the First Continental Congress his pamphlet, Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority…

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James Wolfe - Affair, The Wolfe legend, Further reading

British soldier, born in Westerham, Kent, SE England, UK. Commissioned in 1741, he fought against the Jacobites in Scotland (1745–6), and was sent to Canada during the Seven Years' War (1756–63). In 1758 he was prominent in the capture of Louisburg, and commanded in the famous capture of Quebec (1759), scaling the cliffs to defeat the French on the Plains of Abraham, where he was killed. …

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James Wong Howe - Life and work, Technical innovations, Selected filmography

Cinematographer, born in Canton, China. In the USA from the age of five, he entered films in 1917 and became a director of photography (1922). A meticulous lighting cameraman, he was renowned for his low-key lighting, and was a pioneer in hand-held cameras and deep focus. He won Academy Awards for his photography in The Rose Tattoo (1955) and Hud (1963), before turning to directing. Howe wa…

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James Wyatt - Early classical career, Later classical work, Gothic architecture

Architect, born in Burton Constable, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He visited Italy for several years, and achieved fame with his Neoclassical design for the London Pantheon (1772). He became surveyor to the Board of Works (1796), restored several cathedrals, and designed many country houses. His best-known work is the Gothic revival Fonthill Abbey (1796–1807), which largely collapsed in the 1820…

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Jameson Raid - Background, Initiation of the raid, Aftermath, Political impact, Effect on Anglo-Boer relations, Modern reactions

An expedition against the South African Republic (Dec 1895–Jan 1896), which was supposed to link up with a revolt by white workers on the Rand and topple the government of President Kruger. Leander Starr Jameson (1853–1917), administrator for the South Africa Company at Fort Salisbury, led a detachment of British South Africa Police into the Transvaal, but they were easily defeated and arrested.…

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Jamestown (St Helena)

15°56S 5°44W, pop (2000e) 1500. Seaport capital and only town on the British island of St Helena in the S Atlantic; passenger and cargo services to the UK and S Africa. Jamestown is the name of several places: …

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Jamestown (USA)

A deserted 25 ha/62 acre town, 24 km/15 mi inland from Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, USA, the site of the first successful British settlement in America. Excavated archaeologically 1934–56, it was founded in 1607 by 105 settlers as James Fort, but after 1699 was superseded as the capital of Virginia by Williamsburg, and abandoned. It is now a National Historical Park, with replicas of original bu…

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Jamie (Trevor) Oliver - Biography, Television shows, Live Shows, Controversy and criticism, Books, Trivia

Chef, born in Clavering, Essex, SE England, UK. His parents ran a successful pub/restaurant in Cambridge, where he grew up, and from an early age he helped in the kitchens for pocket money. He trained at Westminster Catering College, and then joined Antonio Carluccio's London restaurant before moving to the River Café Restaurant as a sous-chef. In 1999 he made the successful cooking series The Na…

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Jamie Foxx - Music Career, Discography

Actor, producer, and singer, born in Terrell, Texas, USA. After his parents separated, he was adopted and raised by his grandparents. Encouraged to play the piano from an early age, he later studied music at Juilliard School and the US International University in San Diego (1986–8). While at college he tried his luck as a stand-up comedian/impersonator and his success led him to Los Angeles, wher…

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Jan (Christiaan) Smuts - Early life, Climbing the Ladder, The Boer War, A British Transvaal, The Old Boers

South African general, statesman, and prime minister (1919–24, 1939–48), born in Malmesbury, Cape Colony, SW South Africa. He studied at Cambridge, became a lawyer, fought in the second Boer War (1899–1902), and entered the House of Assembly in 1907. He held several cabinet posts, led campaigns against the Germans in South West Africa and Tanganyika, was a member of the Imperial War Cabinet in …

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Jan (Havickszoon) Steen - Life, Works

Painter, born in Leyden, W Netherlands. He joined the Leyden guild of painters in 1648, lived in The Hague until 1654, then became a brewer at Delft and an innkeeper at Leyden. His best works were genre pictures of social and domestic scenes depicting the everyday life of ordinary folk, as in ‘The Music Lesson’ (National Gallery, London). Steen was born into a well-to-do, Catholic family …

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Jan (Maria Jozef) Vansina

Historian, cultural anthropologist, and linguist, born in Antwerp, Belgium. He went to the USA to join the University of Wisconsin faculty in 1960. His fieldwork in Africa yielded studies of Bushoong grammar (1959) and historical studies of Rwanda (1962) and the Kuba of Zaire (1963, 1964). He pioneered in developing the field of oral history, based on interviews with people whose recollections can…

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Jan de Hartog - Books (in English)(incomplete)

Writer of popular fiction, born in Haarlem, W Netherlands. At a young age, he ran away from home and went to work as a boilerman on ships. He later studied at the Amsterdam Naval College (1930–1) and joined the staff of the Amsterdam Municipal theatre (1932–7). He became popular with his novel about life on tugboats Hollands Glorie (1940, Captain Jan: A Story of Ocean Tugboats). In 1943 he took …

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Jan DeGaetani - Discography

Soprano, born in Massillon, Ohio, USA. After studies at Juilliard in New York City, she gravitated to modern music and found fame performing challenging works such as Crumb's Ancient Voices of Children, one of many works written expressly for her by major composers. Sometimes called ‘Queen of the Avant-Garde’, she actually had a vast repertoire and was an outstanding interpreter of many types of…

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Jan Earnst Matzeliger - The Lasting machine

Inventor, born in Dutch Guiana. The child of a black mother and white father, he emigrated to the USA c.1872. Although uneducated, he invented a shoe-making machine (1891) and shoe-nailing machine (1896) which revolutionized the shoe industry. His inventions formed the basis of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation. Jan was not very social in this new world. Jan was eventually recommended b…

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Jan Garbarek - Major collaborators, Notable recordings

Saxophonist and composer, born in Mysen, SE Norway. In 1967 he joined the Scandinavian orchestra led by US avant-garde composer George Russell, and in 1970 worked in the USA for a while under such leaders as Keith Jarrett and Don Cherry. Since returning to Europe he has formed successive small bands which have explored influences from India, South America, and Scandinavian folk roots, often using …

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Jan Harold Brunvand

Folklorist, born in Cadillac, Michigan, USA. He studied at Indiana University (PhD) and taught English and folklore at the University of Utah (1966). His early publications included work on Indiana, Utah, and Alberta folklore. In the 1980s he published several collections of American urban legends, including The Mexican Pet (1986). Jan Harold Brunvand (born 1933) is a professor emeritus of …

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Jan Ingenhousz

Physician and plant physiologist, born in Breda, S Netherlands. He practised as a doctor in England, then became physician to Empress Maria Theresa. He improved methods of generating static electricity (1766), and was the first to make quantitative measurements of heat conduction in metals. He is best known as the discoverer of photosynthesis (1779). Jan Ingenhousz or Ingen-Housz (December …

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Jan Karski - Early life, World War II, Post-War Career, Honors

Polish resistance hero, born in Lodz, C Poland. A Roman Catholic, he graduated from Lvov (Lwow) University in 1935, worked in diplomatic posts until 1939, then joined the army. Taken prisoner first by the Soviets then by the Germans, he escaped and became a government courier. After discovery by German intelligence, he emigrated to the USA in 1942, where he wrote the best-selling Story of a Secret…

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Jan Ladislav Dussek

Composer and pianist, born in ?áslav, C Czech Republic. In Amsterdam he produced his earliest works for the piano, and he was very popular in London (1788–1800). He was instructor to Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1803–6), and in 1808 entered Talleyrand's service. He composed over 30 sonatas. The Dussek family has an extraordinarily long history as professional musicians, starting at…

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Jan Mabuse

Painter, born in Maubeuge, N France. In 1503 he entered the painters' guild of St Luke in Antwerp, and accompanied Philip of Burgundy to Italy (1508–9), where he was greatly influenced by the High Renaissance style. He was the first artist to introduce the Italian style to Holland, and his works in that genre include ‘Hercules and Deianeira’ (1517, Birmingham). He was also a well-known portrait…

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Jan Masaryk - Early Life, Wartime, After the war, Death, Private life

Diplomat and statesman, born in Prague, Czech Republic, the son of Tomá? Masaryk. He entered the diplomatic service, and was Czechoslovak ambassador in London (1925–38). In 1941 he was appointed foreign minister of the Czechoslovak government in exile, becoming a popular broadcaster to his home country during the war. He returned with President Bene? to Prague in 1945, remaining in office. In 19…

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Jan Mayen - Economy, Society, History

area 380 km²/147 sq mi. Norwegian volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean, 480 km/298 mi E of Greenland, 576 km/358 mi NE of Iceland; length 53 km/33 mi; highest point, Beerenberg (2277 m/7470 ft); discovered by Henry Hudson in 1608; annexed to Norway, 1929; radio and meteorological stations. Jan Mayen Island, a part of the Kingdom of Norway, is a 55 km long (southwest-northeast) an…

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Jan Palach

Czech philosophy student. As a protest against the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact forces (Aug 1968), he burnt himself to death in Wenceslas Square, Prague in January 1969. He became a hero and symbol of hope, and was mourned by thousands. Huge popular demonstrations marking the 20th anniversary of his death were held in Prague in 1989, and a stone effigy to him now stands in the Charles…

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Jan Peerce

Opera singer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After years of singing popular music, he made his operatic debut in Philadelphia in 1938 and his Metropolitan Opera debut in 1941. He remained at the Met as a favourite ‘tenor-for-all-roles’ until 1962, then was active as a recitalist. Jan Peerce (June 3, 1904 – December 15, 1984) was an American tenor. He was born Jacob Pi…

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Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies, born in Hoorn, W Netherlands. He entered the service of the VOC (United East Indian Company), advancing to book-keeper-general and president of the Bantam and Jacatra offices in 1613. Governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies in 1617, he built a fort at Jacatra, first called ‘Nieuw Hoorn’, and after it had been destroyed by the English and l…

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Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck

Composer, organist, and harpsichordist, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He studied in Venice, and succeeded his father as organist of the Old Church (Oude Kerk), Amsterdam. He composed mainly church music and organ works, developed the fugue, and founded the distinctive North German school which later included Buxtehude and Bach. Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May, 1562–October 1…

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Jan Swammerdam - Biography, Research on Insects, Research on Anatomy, Contributions to Methodology, Spirituality, External Links, Bibliography

Naturalist, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He trained in medicine, then turned to the study of insects, devising a classification which laid the foundations of entomology. He first observed red blood corpuscles (1658), and discovered the valves in the lymph vessels and the glands in the Amphibia named after him. Jan Swammerdam (February 12, 1637 - February 17, 1680) was a Dutch biologi…

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Jan Tinbergen - Work

Dutch economist, born in The Hague, The Netherlands, the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen. He studied at Leyden. His major contribution was the econometric modelling of cyclical movements in socio-economic growth. He was director of the Central Planning Bureau in The Netherlands (1945–55), then professor of development planning at the Netherlands School of Economics (1955–73), and also worked with …

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Jan van der Heyden - Museums with van der Heyden's works, Exhibitions, Reference

Painter and inventor, born in Gorinchem, The Netherlands. He is best known for his novel and meticulously detailed townscapes of Amsterdam, executed in the 1660s. He was also interested in mechanical inventions, especially of fire-fighting equipment and street lighting, which he depicted in a series of engravings published in book form in 1690 under the title of Brandspuiten-boek (Fire Engine Book…

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Jan van Eyck - References

Painter, born near Maastricht, The Netherlands. The greatest Flemish artist of the 15th-c, he was successively in the service of John of Bavaria, Count of Holland, and Philip ‘the Good’ of Burgundy, for whom he undertook diplomatic missions in Spain and Portugal. From 1431 he lived in Bruges. All the works which can be definitely attributed to him date from the last 10 years of his life. His mos…

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Jan van Goyen - Biography

Painter, born in Leyden, W Netherlands. He moved to The Hague c.1632, and became a pioneer of realistic ‘tonal’ landscape, emphasizing the movement of light and shadow across wide plains and rivers under huge cloudy skies. Church towers, castles, and windmills punctuate his small, carefully painted scenes, based on pen-and-ink drawings made while travelling. Jan van Goyen (January 13, 159…

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Jan van Huysum

Painter, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He studied under his father, Justus (1659–1716), a landscape painter. Jan also painted landscapes, purely conventional in style; but his fruit and flower pieces are distinguished for their exquisite finish. Jan van Huysum (April 15, 1682, Amsterdam - February 8, 1749, Amsterdam), was a Dutch painter. He was the son of Justus van Huys…

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Jan van Schaffelaar - Historical significance, Recognition, Name

Dutch soldier in the service of David of Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht. In 1482 he had occupied Barneveld, but was besieged there. With his men he hid in the church, and to get a free pass for them, he jumped from the tower. The story, first described in an Utrecht chronicle by the town clerk Tylman Momfelen van Usselaer, has been a favourite one for writers from 1698 onwards; it was used by Antoniu…

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Jan van Scorel

Painter, architect, and engineer, born in Schoorel, The Netherlands. He trained in Amsterdam, and by 1517 was working in Utrecht. He made extensive travels in Europe, and was influenced by the work of Giorgione in Venice. After a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he returned to Italy in 1521. In Rome, Pope Adrian VI appointed him inspector of the Belvedere, and sat for a portrait (1523). He studied the wor…

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Jan Weenix - Externe links

Painter, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He was known for hunting scenes, animal subjects, and still-life paintings featuring dead gamebirds, hares, and other creatures. Jan Weenix (1640/2, Amsterdam - buried Sep 19, 1719, Amsterdam ) was a Dutch painter. At that time Jan Weenix was employed in Amsterdam to decorate a private house with wall paintings on canvas; they survive…

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Jan Wolkers - Bibliography, Reference

Novelist and sculptor, born in Oegstgeest, W Netherlands. One of the most popular Dutch writers of fiction, he began in 1963 with the collected short stories Serpentina's Petticoat. In this work and other early works, including Kort Amerikaans (1961, Crew Cut) and Gesponnen suiker (1963, Candy Floss), a recurring theme is his opposition against his Calvinist upbringing, the repression of sexuality…

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Janani Luwum

Anglican clergyman and archbishop, born in East Acholi, N Uganda. He became a teacher, was converted to Christianity in 1948, and ordained in the Anglican Church. He was theological college principal and Bishop of Northern Uganda, before election in 1974 as Archbishop of Uganda, where in 1971 Idi Amin had established a reign of terror. He spoke out fearlessly on behalf of victims and the oppressed…

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Jane (Seymour) Fonda - Ancestry and family, Acting career, Political activism, Christianity, Autobiography, Romantic relationships, Film awards and nominations

Film actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. She attended Vassar College, left to study art in Paris, returned to New York to dabble in modelling, and then began a stage career. In 1955 she co-starred with her father, Henry Fonda, in a production of The Country Girl. Her screen debut was in Tall Story (1960). She had a brief phase as a sex kitten under the direction of her French film-maker…

1 minute read

Jane (Waddington) Wyatt

Actress, born in Campgaw, New Jersey, USA. She studied at Barnard College, then joined the Berkshire Playhouse in Stockbridge, MA before moving to New York where she made her Broadway debut in 1931. When touring in the hit comedy Dinner at Eight in 1933, she was offered a contract by Universal and went on to appear in many Hollywood films, notably Lost Horizon (1937) with Ronald Colman. From the 1…

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Jane Addams - Biography, Publications

Social reformer, pacifist, and feminist, born in Cedarville, Illinois, USA. Raised in comfort by her widowed father, a state senator and abolitionist (and friend of Abraham Lincoln), she studied at the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania for a few months before spinal illness and a realization that she was not suited to the work led her to withdraw (1882). Disturbed by urban poverty and search…

1 minute read

Jane Asher - Notes references

Actress and cake designer, born in London, UK. She studied at North Bridge House and Miss Lambert's Parents' National Educational Union. From 1957 she performed regularly in the theatre and on television, her films including Alfie (1966), Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1970), Paris By Night (1988), and Closing Numbers (1994). Later stage work included roles in Alan Ayckbourn's plays House and Garde…

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Jane Austen - Life, Criticism, Filmography, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Steventon, near Basingstoke, Hampshire, S England, UK, where her father was rector. She spent the first 25 years of her life there, and later lived in Bath, Southampton, Chawton, and Winchester. The fifth of a family of seven, she began writing for family amusement as a child. Love and Friendship (published 1922) dates from this period. Her early published work satirized the sens…

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Jane Baillie Carlyle

Diarist, born in Haddington, East Lothian, E Scotland, UK, the wife of Thomas Carlyle. She was tutored by the revivalist minister Edward Irving, and he introduced her in 1821 to his friend Carlyle, whom she married in 1826. Forthright and quick-witted, she declined to become a writer, despite Carlyle's promptings. She supported Carlyle loyally through his depressions and chronic ill health, and af…

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Jane Birkin - Discography, Filmography, Private life

British actress and singer, born in London, UK. After small appearances in English-language films, she met Serge Gainsbourg who wrote songs for her and also made a film with her Je t'aime, moi non plus (1975). Her film career includes roles in La fille prodigue (1981, director J Doillon), La Belle Noiseuse (1991, director Jacques Rivette), Daddy Nostalgie (1990, director B Tavernier), and Merci Do…

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Jane Bowles

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. After her marriage to the writer Paul Bowles in 1938, she lived mostly abroad. Her literary reputation rests on a slender output from the 1940s–1950s: a novel Two Serious Ladies (1943), a play, and a volume of stories notable for its feminism and an oblique experimentalism influenced by Gertrude Stein. A stroke left her unable to read or write for her…

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Jane Byrne - Early political career, Term as Mayor, Later career

Mayor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. She worked in Chicago's anti-poverty programme (1963–8) and then as city consumer sales commissioner under Mayor Richard Daley (1968–77). She defeated the Democratic machine's candidate in the primary, and as mayor of Chicago (1980–4) became the first woman to head a major American city. The city experienced serious financial problems during her tenure, an…

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Jane Campion - Selected filmography

Film director, born in Waikanae, New Zealand. She studied at art school in Wellington and at the Australian Film, Television, and Radio School in Sydney, the city where she is now based. Her films include Peel (1984), which won the 1986 Cannes Palme d'Or for best short film, her highly original first feature Sweetie (1989), and An Angel at My Table (1990), based on Janet Frame's autobiographies. T…

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Jane Jacobs - Life, Works, Criticism of Jane Jacobs

Urban theorist and writer, born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Associate editor of Architectural Forum (1952–68), she gained a reputation for attacking urban planners for destroying diverse older neighbourhoods with expressways and housing projects, and wrote the influential The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961). She served on the New York Community Planning Board and was active in …

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Jane Maria Eliza Storms Cazneau

Adventurer, journalist, and publicist, born near Troy, New York, USA. The daughter of a lawyer (and US representative, 1825–7), she assisted her father in a failed scheme to establish a colony of German settlers in Texas (1833–5). (Later, Aaron Burr's second wife accused him of committing adultery with her. Jane had meanwhile ended her brief marriage (1825–31) to Allen B (or William F) Storms.)…

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Jane Pauley

Television presenter, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Briefly a reporter and WMAQ-TV co-presenter in Chicago, she joined National Broadcasting Company's (NBC) Today show in 1976, becoming co-presenter in 1982. Resigning after a younger female host was added in 1989, she began an NBC weekly magazine series, Real Life with Jane Pauley (from 1991), later renamed Dateline. She has received many aw…

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Jane Pierce - Reference

US first lady (1853–7), born in Hampton, New Hampshire, USA. She married Franklin Pierce in 1834. Suffering from tuberculosis and melancholic from the loss of three sons in childhood, she played little role in her husband's political career, and was known as the ‘Shadow in the White House’. Jane Means Appleton Pierce (March 12, 1806 – December 2, 1863), wife of Franklin Pierce, was Fir…

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Jane Porter

Novelist, born in Durham, Co Durham, NE England, UK. She had a great reputation as the author of historical romances, which enjoyed considerable success in their day. Her reputation was made with Thaddeus of Warsaw (1803), one of the earliest examples of the historical novel, and she was even more successful with The Scottish Chiefs (1810). After her father's death, the family moved to Edin…

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Jane Seymour - Biography, In film, In song, Historiography

Third wife of Henry VIII, the mother of Edward VI, and the sister of Protector Somerset. She was a lady-in-waiting to Henry's first two wives, and married him 11 days after the execution of Anne Boleyn. She died soon after the birth of her son, later Edward VI. Queen Jane of England née Jane Seymour (born c. Jane Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wiltshire and Mar…

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Jane Shore - Early life, first marriage, Mistress to a king, courtesan, prison and second marriage

Mistress of Edward IV, born in London, UK. She married William Shore, a goldsmith, but in 1470 became the mistress of Edward IV. Her husband abandoned her, but she lived till Edward's death in 1483 in luxury. Thereafter she became the mistress of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset. A liaison with William, Lord Hastings, alienated her from Richard III just before he seized power (1483), and he for…

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Jane Smiley - Works

Novelist, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. She grew up in St Louis, and studied at Vassar and the University of Iowa, where she attended the writers' workshop. An early short story, Lily, won the O Henry Award, later appearing in a collection, The Age of Grief (1987). Many of her stories are set on farms. A Thousand Acres (1992), a modern retelling of the King Lear story set in a farming comm…

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Janet (Netta Deweze Frazee) Scudder - Resources, Categories

Sculptor, born in Terre Haute, Indiana, USA. She studied at the Cincinnati Academy of Art and worked as a furniture carver. After studying with Frederick MacMonnies in Paris (c.1893–6), she lived most of her life there. She is known for her ornamental garden sculptures, such as ‘Frog Fountain’ (1901–4). Janet (Netta Deweze Frazee) Scudder, born on October 27, 1869 (Terre Haute, Indiana)…

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Janet Guthrie

Motor-racing driver and pilot, born in Iowa City, Iowa, USA. The daughter of an airline pilot, she flew her first Piper Cub at age 13. She worked as a commercial pilot and flight instructor while attending the University of Michigan (1960 BA), then worked as a research and development engineer for Republic Aviation Corp (1961–7). In 1961 she bought her first Jaguar XK 120 for racing, and in 1964 …

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Janet Leigh - Biography, Selected filmography

Actress, born in Merced, California, USA. She studied music and psychology at the University of the Pacific until ‘discovered’ by actress Norma Shearer, who saw her photograph at the ski resort where Janet's father worked. This led to a screen test at MGM and a starring role in The Romance of Rosy Ridge (1947). Many successful films followed, including Little Women (1949), My Sister Eileen (1955…

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Janet Reno - Biography, Priorities for Reno as Attorney General, Criticisms, Reno's Post-Political work

US attorney general (1993–2001), born in Miami, Florida, USA, the first woman to become US attorney general and the longest serving occupant of that cabinet post. She studied at Harvard Law School, and became the county prosecutor in Dade County, FL (1978–93). President Clinton named her attorney general in 1993 after two women who had been selected withdrew their candidacies. She handled the po…

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Janet Street-Porter - Early career, Television, Newspaper editor, Marriages, Other activities, Further reading

British television executive, presenter, and journalist. A columnist and fashion writer for leading magazines and newspapers, she entered independent television in 1975 as a presenter, moving on to devise such programmes as Get Fresh for ITV and Bliss and Network 7 for Channel 4. She joined the BBC as head of Youth and Entertainment Features (1988–94) and was appointed managing director of the ca…

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Janet Suzman - Early life, Career, Films and TV, Later years, Recent activities

Actress, born in Johannesburg, NE South Africa. She studied at the University of the Witwatersrand, then at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. Her many performances include Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra at Stratford in 1972, and Hedda in Hedda Gabler in London in 1976–7. In 1987 she directed Othello at the Market Theatre, Johannesburg, defying apartheid by casting a black actor in …

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Janis (Lyn) Joplin - Life and career, Legacy, Discography

Blues rock singer, born in Port Arthur, Texas, USA. At age 17 she performed with bar bands in Texas and California, then moved to San Francisco (1966) where she joined Big Brother and the Holding Company. Their best-selling album, Cheap Thrills (1968), ensured her reputation as a unique blues and rock stylist. With the Kozmic Blues Band (1969) and the Full Tilt Boogie Band (1970) she released best…

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Janosch

Writer, born in Hindenburg, Silesia, Germany. He has gained fame for his many delightful and original children's books, which he illustrates himself. He has also written novels, including Polski Blues (1991) about Poland. In 1979 he was awarded the Deutscher Jugendpreis for Oh wie schoen ist Panama (1978). Janosch (real name Horst Eckert) (born March 11, 1931) is one of the best-known Germa…

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Janus (astronomy)

The 10th natural satellite of Saturn, discovered in 1966; distance from the planet 151 000 km/94 000 m; diameter 200 km/120 mi. Janus may refer to: …

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Janus (mythology) - Janus in popular culture

An ancient Roman divinity who guards the ‘gate’ or the door; there is no Greek equivalent. Because one goes out to begin an action, Janus became the god of beginnings; he is the first god named in a list, and the god of the first month (January). He is always depicted in art with two faces, one at the back of the head. Janus was frequently used to symbolize change and transitions such as …

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Japan

Local name Nihon (Nippon) a 23 municipalities. Japan does not legally recognize an official language; Ainu, the language of the indigenous minority in northern Japan, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaidō. 84% of Japanese people profess to believe both Shinto (the indigenous religion of Japan) and Buddhism. Comp…

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Japanese

The language of Japan, spoken by c.122 million in Japan, and a further 2 million elsewhere, mainly in the USA and Brazil. The relationship of Japanese to other languages is uncertain, though it is thought to resemble the Altaic family more than others. It is not related to Chinese, though it has written records from the 8th-c in Chinese characters (kanji), still used in one of the Japanese writing…

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Japanese architecture - Asuka and Nara architecture, Heian, Kamakura period, Azuchi-Momoyama period / Sengoku period, Edo period

The architecture of Japan, largely deriving from China, based on the column and wooden frames with non-structural wood and paper infill. Unique characteristics are delicate and intricate naturalistic decorations; dominant, projecting roofs of various materials; and an ordered disposition of columns, posts, cornice brackets, and cornice rafters. The earliest surviving buildings are religious, such …

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Japanese art - History of Japanese Art, Performing arts, Aesthetic concepts, Artists

The art associated with Japan, which has always depended upon the techniques and styles of China, but is distinguished by its enthusiasm for surface pattern, its emphasis on technical virtuosity, and its fondness for strong colours. Its most characteristic achievements have been in the fields of colour-prints (the names of Utamaro, Hokusai, and Hiroshige are familiar in the West), painted scrolls,…

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Japanese literature - History, Post-war literature, Significant authors and works, Awards and contests, Resources

After some centuries of oral literature, the earliest surviving Japanese work is the Kojiki, a story of the creation of the world and of the Japanese race, which dates from AD 712; closely followed by the Nihon Shoki (720, Chronicles of Japan). Emancipation from Chinese influence was illustrated by the significant 8th-c anthology of poetry, the Man'yo-shu (Collection of the Myriad Leaves), whereas…

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Japheth

Biblical character, one of the sons of Noah who survived the Flood, the brother of Shem and Ham. He is portrayed as the ancestor of peoples in the area of Asia Minor and the Aegean (Gen 10). In Arabic citations, his name is normally given as Yafeth (????) ibnu Nuh (Japheth son of Noah). The link between Japheth and the Europeans stems from Genesis 10:5, which states that the sons of J…

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Jaroslav Seifert

Poet, born in Prague, Czech Republic. His first collection was Mêsto v slzáck (1921, City of Tears). Later works include Zhasnête svêtla (1938, Put Out The Lights), and the appearance of the post-war volume P?ílba hlíny (1945, A Helmet of Earth) established him as the national poet. He refused all compromise after the Communist takeover in 1948, and Morový sloup (1977, trans The Prague Colu…

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Jarrow March - The Jarrow March In Popular Culture

(Oct 1936) A march to London by unemployed workers in the Co Durham shipbuilding and mining town and port, to put the unemployed case. Jarrow was among the municipal boroughs worst affected by the Depression, and the march took place at a time when the economy was recovering in much of the rest of the country. It alerted the more prosperous South and Midlands to the desperate problems of depressed…

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Jascha Heifetz - Early life, Move to the United States, Recordings, Commissions, and Compositions, Third Israel Tour

Violinist, born in Vilnius, E Lithuania. The son of a violinist, he began playing at age three, entered music school the next year, and made his first public appearance at age five. After completing his studies and establishing his reputation in Europe and Russia, he made a triumphant American debut at Carnegie Hall in 1917. Remaining in the country, he became a US citizen in 1925 and bought house…

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jasmine

A slender shrub or woody climber, sometimes evergreen; flowers tubular with spreading lobes; fruit a berry. Winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), an evergreen shrub native to China, has leaves with three leaflets, and bright yellow flowers in winter. Summer jasmine (Jasminum officinale), a deciduous climber native to Asia, has pinnate leaves, and fragrant white flowers in summer. (Genus: Jasminum,…

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Jason - The early years, The quest for the Golden Fleece, The Return Journey, Jason returns

In Greek legend, the son of Aeson, King of Iolcos. When Pelias usurped the kingdom, Jason was taken away and educated by Chiron. He returned to the city wearing only one sandal, so fulfilling a prophecy which endangered Pelias. He was therefore sent on the quest of the Golden Fleece, leading the Argonauts to Colchis; there he obtained the fleece with Medea's assistance. Later he deserted her for G…

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jasper - Etymology and historical/mythical usage, Types of jasper

A red variety of chalcedony. Jasper is an opaque, impure variety of quartz, usually red, yellow or brown in color. When the colors are in stripes or bands, it is called striped or banded jasper. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper. The name means "spotted stone", and is derived from Anglo-French jaspre, from Old French jaspe…

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Jasper (Francis) Cropsey

Painter, born in Staten Island, New York, USA. He studied architecture, but after travelling in Europe (1847, 1856), he settled in Hastings-on-Hudson, NY (1864), and concentrated on landscape painting. Considered a member of the Hudson River school, his theatrical and naturalistic canvases, such as ‘View of the Kaaterskill House’ (1855) and ‘Autumn on the Hudson River’ (1860), reveal his Roman…

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Jasper Carrott

Comedy entertainer, born in Acocks Green, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK. After leaving school he had a variety of jobs before starting his own folk club in Solihull, where he sang, played the guitar, and developed a conversational comedy routine based on his observations of everyday life. By the mid-1970s his popularity had spread, and he had a hit record with ‘Funky Moped’ (1975). Successful al…

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Jasper Johns - Early life, Major works, Other work

Painter, sculptor, and printmaker, born in Augusta, Georgia, USA. He studied at the University of South Carolina, became a painter in New York City in 1952, and was attracted by the Dadaist ideas of Marcel Duchamp. Because conventional art critics placed so much emphasis on ‘self expression’ and ‘originality’, he chose to paint flags, targets, maps, and other pre-existing images in a style del…

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Jataka

Stories of the Buddha's previous births, contained in the Buddhist Sutra literature. The Jataka is a voluminous body of folklore and mythic literature, primarily associated with the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as written in the Pali language sometime before the 3rd century; Within the Pali tradition, there are also many apocryphal Jatakas of later composition (some dated…

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jaundice - Causes of jaundice, Neonatal jaundice, Jaundiced Eye

A condition in which there is a rise in the amount of bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) in the blood. These stain the skin and other tissues, including the whites of the eyes, a greenish-yellow colour. Jaundice arises as a result of (1) excessive breakdown of the blood pigment, haemoglobin (haemolytic jaundice), when abnormally large amounts of bile pigments are produced, saturating the cap…

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JAVA (computing) - History, Geography, Demographics, Culture, Languages, Religion, Ethnic groups

Trade-name of a programming language devised to create networking applications that will run on any computer, whatever operating system the computer uses. The name derives from Java coffee, whose strong, rich properties were thought by its devisers to be just as applicable to their new language. It has proved to be of special value to people wanting to manipulate data on pages of the World Wide We…

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Java (country) - History, Geography, Demographics, Culture, Languages, Religion, Ethnic groups

pop (2000e) 128 516 000; area 132 187 km²/51 024 sq mi. Island of Indonesia, in the Greater Sunda group, SE of Sumatra and S of Borneo; one of the most densely populated islands in the world; major cities include Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya; mountainous, rising to 3676 m/12 060 ft at Semeru; covered with dense rainforest; 115 volcanic peaks, 15 still active; Mt Merapi active in May 2006…

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Java Man

The first known fossil of Homo erectus, found in Java in 1891 by the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois (1858–1940). It was long known by the name he gave it: Pithecanthropus erectus. Subsequent discoveries (1920s to the present) show specimens to date from ?0·8–0·3 million years ago, with evidence of long-term trends for increased brain size and tooth reduction. Java was probably first colonized …

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Java Sea

area 430 000 km²/165 000 sq mi. Sea of SE Asia, bounded N by Borneo, S by Java, and W by Sumatra linked to the Celebes Sea by the Makassar Strait. The Java Sea (Indonesian: Laut Jawa) is a large (310,000 km²), shallow sea on the Sunda Shelf. It was formed as sea levels rose at the end of the last ice age. The Java Sea lies in the midst of the Indonesian islands of Borneo …

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Java War

(1825–30) An insurrection against the Dutch government in Java. Under Daendels and Raffles the territories of the sultanates of Jogjakarta and Surakarta had been curtailed and to compensate for their loss of income the nobility let their lands together with their inhabitants to European and Chinese developers. This was too great a burden for the population, who also were exposed to extortion by C…

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Javanese - Language, Family, Religion, Profession, Social stratification, Art, Names

The largest ethnic group of Java, Indonesia. Their language (Javanese), a member of the Austronesian family, is spoken throughout Java and in parts of Indonesia, and has a literary tradition dating from the 8th-c; but its use in writing is diminishing because of pressure from the standard language, Bahasa Indonesia. The people are Muslim with some Hindu traditions retained from an earlier period. …

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javelin throw - Famous Javelin Throwers

An athletics field event consisting of throwing a javelin (a long, lightweight, spear-like implement). The javelin consists of three parts; the pointed metal head, the shaft, and the grip. The men's javelin is 2·6–2·7 m/8·6–8·10 ft in length, and weighs 800 g/1 lb 12 oz; the women's javelin is 2·2–2·3 m/7 ft 3 in in length, and weighs at least 600 g/1·5 lb. With the javelin in …

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jaw

The upper and lower bones surrounding the mouth, which contain the teeth. The upper jaw (maxilla) is usually firmly fixed to the face, while the lower jaw (mandible) moves against it. The jaws move against each other during the chewing and grinding of food. The mandible also moves during speech. In vertebrates, the lower jaw, dentary or mandible is the mobile component that articulates at i…

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Jawaharlal Nehru

Indian statesman and prime minister (1947–64), born in Allahabad, NE India, the son of Motilal Nehru. He studied at Cambridge, became a lawyer, and served in the Allahabad High Court. He joined the Indian Congress Committee (1918), was influenced by Gandhi, and was imprisoned several times by the British. In 1929 he was elected president of the Indian National Congress. He became India's first pr…

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jay

A name used for many birds, usually of the crow family (Corvidae, 42 species), especially the common jay (Garrulus glandiarus) from N areas of the Old World. The blue jay of India (not that of North America) is a roller (Family: Coraciidae). Jay-thrushes are babblers (Family: Timaliidae). The jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy passerine birds in the crow fa…

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Jay (Arthur) Pritzker

Entrepreneur and conglomerate organizer, born in Chicago, USA, the son of Abram Nicholas Pritzker. Trained as a lawyer, he early diversified the Chicago-based family business, the Marmon Group, into lumber, and with his engineer brother, Robert Pritzker (1926– ), he built a portfolio of 60 diversified industrial corporations. He created the Hyatt Hotel chain (1957) with his brother Donald Pritzke…

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Jay (Lee) Parini

Poet and writer, born in Pittston, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Lafayette (1970 BA) and the University of St Andrews (Scotland) (1972 BPhil; 1975 PhD), and was a faculty member at Dartmouth (1975–82) before teaching at Middlebury (1982) and the Bread Loaf Writers' Conference (1982). He is known for his critical essays, novels, such as The Last Station (1990, based on the life of Leo Tolstoy) …

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Jay (Wright) Forrester

Computer engineer, born in Anselmo, Nebraska, USA. He studied at Nebraska University and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where (1944–51) he supervised the building of the Whirlwind computer, and devised the first random-access magnetic core store (memory) for an electronic digital computer. He also studied the application of computers to management problems, developing methods for…

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Jay Berwanger

Player of American football, born in Dubuque, Iowa, USA. A University of Chicago halfback, he won the first Heisman Trophy (1935) and was the first player chosen in the first National Football League player draft (1936). John Jay Berwanger (March 19, 1914 - June 26, 2002) was an American football player born in Dubuque, Iowa. …

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Jay Cooke

Financier, born in Sandusky, Ohio, USA. In 1839 he went to work for the Philadelphia banking house of E W Clark and Co, becoming a partner at age 21. As head of Jay Cooke & Co (1861–73), he gained acclaim for selling $500 million worth of Civil War bonds for the US Treasury Department in 1862, then repeating this in 1865. His attempts to finance the Northern Pacific Railway failed, triggering the…

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Jay Garner

US general, born in Arcadia, Florida, USA. He studied at Florida State University (1962) and Shippensburg University, PA. He joined the US Army in 1960, served in Vietnam, and during the 1991 Gulf War supervised the deployment of Patriot missile batteries. After the war he commanded Operation Provide Comfort for the resettlement of Kurdish refugees in N Iraq. In 1994 he became commander of the US …

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Jay Gould - Birth and early career, Marriage, The Tweed Ring, Black Friday, Late career, Death and legacy, Timeline

Financier born in Roxbury, New York, USA. A surveyor by training, he wrote History of Delaware County, and Border Wars of New York (1856). He became a tanner and leather dealer in New York (1857–60), and began speculating in small railways on the stock market. Along with associates James Fisk and Daniel Drew, he fought and beat Cornelius Vanderbilt for control of the Erie Railroad (1867–8). Havi…

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Jay McShann

Jazz musician, born in Muskogee, Oklahoma, USA. A distinctive pianist, he led a Kansas City swing band (1937–47) which included Charlie Parker (1940–1), and his own small combos thereafter. James Columbus (Jay or Hootie) McShann (born in 1909 or January 12, 1916) is an American blues and swing pianist, bandleader, and singer. He moved to Kansas City, Missouri in 1936, and set up his…

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Jay Norwood Darling

Cartoonist, born in Norwood, Michigan, USA. As a staff cartoonist on the Des Moines Register (1906–49) and the New York Tribune (later Herald Tribune) (1917–49), he won the Pulitzer Prize in 1923 and 1943. An active wildlife conservationist, he was chief of the US Biological Survey (1934–5) and president of the National Wildlife Federation (1936). Jay Norwood "Ding" Darling (October 21, …

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Jayne Mansfield - Early life, Husbands and children, Film career and celebrity, Later career, Death, Filmography, Trivia, Quotes

Film actress, born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA. She made her debut in Underwater (1954), and became known for her striking looks in such films as The Female Jungle (1955) and The Girl Can't Help It (1956). In Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter (1956), she reprised a part she had created on stage. Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer April 19, 1933 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania; In her first…

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jazz - Overview, Improvisation, History, Debates over definition of "jazz"

A type of music developed from ragtime and blues in the S states of the USA during the second decade of the 20th-c. It originated among black musicians, who were much influenced by African-inspired works songs and spirituals, but was soon taken up by whites also and spread throughout the USA and abroad, influencing such composers of ‘serious’ music as Milhaud, Ravel, Stravinsky, and Walton. What…

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jazz dance - People in the History of Jazz Dance

North American form of vernacular dancing performed to the rhythms of jazz. It is a style that swings, owing its origins to African and Caribbean forms of dance, blended with European influences. It is a popular dance style, used in musical shows on Broadway and in the UK (eg Cats, 1982). Jazz dance emphasizes fast, accurate footwork with the feet parallel, and exaggerated movements of individual …

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Jean (Baptiste) Perrin

Physicist, born in Lille, N France. He studied at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, and from 1910 was professor of physical chemistry at the University of Paris. For his research in molecular physics and radioactivity, and for his discovery of the equilibrium of sedimentation, he was awarded the 1926 Nobel Prize for Physics. Jean Baptiste Perrin (September 30, 1870 – April 17, 1942) was born…

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Jean (Baptiste) Racine - Life, Style

Dramatic poet, born in La Ferté-Milon, N France. He studied at Beauvais and Port Royal, then went to Paris, where his verses quickly made him known. He began to write plays in 1664, his major verse tragedies including Andromaque (1667), Britannicus (1669), Bajazet (1672), Phèdre (1677), and Bérénice (1679). Widely regarded as the master of tragic pathos, he then left the theatre, married, and …

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Jean (Elizabeth) Muir

Fashion designer, born in London, UK. Educated at Dame Harper School, Bedford, she started as a salesgirl with Liberty's in London in 1950, then moved to Jaeger in 1956. In 1961 she worked on her own as Jane & Jane, establishing in 1966 her own company, Jean Muir. Her clothes are noted for classic shapes, softness, and fluidity. Jean Elizabeth Muir, CBE, FCSD (July 17, 1928 - May 28, 1995) …

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Jean (Eugene Nathan) Toomer - Biography, Works

Poet and writer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He studied at the University of Wisconsin (1914) and City College, NY (1917), and worked briefly as a superintendent of a black rural school in Georgia (1921). He studied with a mystic in France (1924), lived in Harlem (1925) and Chicago (1926–33), then married and settled in Pennsylvania (1934). An important writer of the Harlem Ren…

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Jean (Felix) Piccard - Trivia

Chemist, born in Basel, N Switzerland, the twin brother of Auguste Piccard. He took a chemical engineering degree at the Swiss Institute of Technology in 1907, taught at Munich, Lausanne, and Chicago universities, and became professor emeritus of aeronautical engineering at Minnesota University (1936–52). His chief interest was in the exploration of the stratosphere, and he designed and ascended …

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Jean (Julius Christian) Sibelius - Family and personal life, Musical style, Trivia

Composer, born in Tavastehus, S Finland. He turned from law to music, studying at the Helsinki Conservatory, Berlin, and Vienna. A passionate nationalist, he wrote a series of symphonic poems based on episodes in the Finnish epic Kalevala. From 1897 a state grant enabled him to devote himself entirely to composition, and his seven symphonies (he destroyed his eighth), symphonic poems - notably Fin…

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Jean (Marie Gabriel) de Lattre de Tassigny

French soldier, born in Mouilleron-en-Pareds, France. He studied at the Jesuit College at Poitiers and at St Cyr, commanded an infantry battalion during World War 1, and was decorated with the Croix de Guerre. In World War 2 he commanded the 14th division against the advancing Germans (1940), then served in Tunisia. As commander of the French 1st Army, he took part in the Allied liberation of Fran…

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Jean (Marie Lucien Pierre) Anouilh

Playwright, born in Bordeaux, SW France, of French and Basque parentage. His first play, L'Hermine (1931), was not a success; but his steady output soon earned him recognition as one of the leading playwrights of the contemporary theatre. He was influenced by the Neoclassical fashion inspired by Giraudoux. His many plays include Le Voyageur sans bagage (1938, trans Traveller Without Luggage), Le B…

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Jean Al - Complete Formula One results

French racing driver, born in Avignon, SE France. He was Formula 3 champion in 1987, and Intercontinental champion of Formula 3000 in 1989. He won the Canadian Grand Prix in 1993, driving for Ferrari. He has raced in over 130 Grand Prix since 1989, and was fourth in the World Championships in 1996. (key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) …

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Jean Alexander

Actress, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. After several years with repertory companies, she began to appear on television, and eventually joined the cast of the long-running Coronation Street (1964–87). Her character of the dowdy, tactless gossip, Hilda Ogden, made her a national institution and won her the Royal Television Society's Best Performance Award in 1984. Her autobiography…

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Jean Arthur - Career, Retirement, Selected filmography

Film actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a teenager she modelled for popular artist Howard Chandler Christy, and this led to some small roles in New York theatres. She made her film debut in Cameo Kirby (1923) and continued to appear in unsatisfying roles until returning to the New York stage (1932). She eventually found her true screen persona in The Whole Town's Talking (1935) and …

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Jean Astruc

Physician and biblical scholar, medical consultant to Louis XV, born in Sauve, S France. He taught medicine at Montpellier and Paris. He is famous for a work he wrote on the book of Genesis which was to serve as the basis for subsequent theories of Biblical criticism. Jean Astruc (Sauves, Auvergne, March 19, 1684 - Paris, May 5, 1766) was a famous professor of medicine at Montpellier and Pa…

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Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - Life, Violon d'Ingres, Gallery

Painter, the leading exponent of the Classical tradition in France in the 19th-c, born in Montauban, S France. He studied in Paris under David in 1796, and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts; in 1801 he won the Prix de Rome. He then lived in Rome (1806–20), where he began many of his famous nudes, including ‘Baigneuse’ (1808, Louvre) and ‘La Source’ (1807, completed 1856, Musée d'Orsay). He became …

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Jean Baptiste Jacquet - Geography, History, Demographics, Economy, Energy, Transportation, Law and government, Largest cities, Education, Professional sports teams, Lists

Jazz musician and composer, born in Broussard, Louisiana, USA. An outstanding tenor saxophonist, he emerged with Lionel Hampton (1942), played with Cab Calloway (1943–4) and Count Basie (1945–6), and toured with Jazz at the Philharmonic (1944–7), leading his own bands thereafter. He co-wrote (with his pianist Sir Charles Thompson) his most celebrated piece Robbins' Nest in 1947. He was the subj…

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Jean Batten - Major flights, Her aircraft: Gypsy Moths and the Percival Gull, Bibliography

Pioneer aviator, born in Rotorua, New Zealand. In 1934, in a Gypsy Moth, she broke Amy Johnson's record for the flight from England to Australia by nearly five days. She became the first woman to complete the return journey, and in 1936 made a record-breaking flight from England to New Zealand. Jean Gardner Batten CBE (September 15, 1909–November 22, 1982) was a New Zealand aviator. …

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Jean Baudrillard - Introduction to work, The Object Value System, Simulacra and Simulation, The End of History and Meaning

Sociologist and philosopher, born in Rheims, NE France. One of the most controversial French theorists, he has been very influential in the advancement of cultural sociology and critical social theory. His works include Le Système des objets (1968) and Le Crime parfait (1994). Jean Baudrillard is a social theorist best known for his analyses of modes of mediation and technological communic…

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Jean Bodin - De la République, "On Witchcraft" (La Démonomanie des Sorciers)

Political philosopher and lawyer, born in Angers, NW France. His most important work is De la République (1576) in which he expounds his principles of society and presents his theory of an ideal government, stressing the importance of the monarchy. He also argued for religious tolerance in Colloqium Heptaplomères (1587). He died of the plague. He wrote several books, but the Inquisition c…

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Jean Borotra - Grand Slam record

Tennis player, born in Arbonne, near Biarritz, SW France. He won the men's singles title at Wimbledon in 1924 and 1926, and at Roland-Garros (1924, 1931), and his extraordinary fitness enabled him to compete in veterans' events at that same venue when he was almost 80. He also won the French and Australian championships, as well as several Davis Cup medals between 1927 and 1932 as a member of the …

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Jean Buridan - Life and work, Bibliography

Scholastic philosopher, probably born in Béthune, N France. He studied under William of Ockham and taught in Paris, publishing works on mechanics, optics, and logic. He gave his name to the famous problem of decision-making called Buridan's ass, where an ass faced with two equidistant and equally desirable bales of hay starves to death because there are no grounds for preferring to go to one bale…

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Jean Calas

Huguenot merchant, born in Lacabarède, France. In 1761 he was accused, on the flimsiest evidence, of murdering his eldest son (a suicide) in order to prevent him becoming a Roman Catholic. He was found guilty, and executed by being broken on the wheel. Voltaire, at the request of Calas's widow, led a campaign for religious toleration and legal reform which resulted in a revision of the trial. The…

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Jean Chalgrin - Further reading

Architect, born in Paris, France. A pupil of Servandou and Boullée, he designed the Church of St-Philippe-du-Roule, Paris (1774) and drew up the blueprint for the Arc de Triomphe (1806), in a typically early 19th-c revival of Greek and Roman styles. Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin (1739 – January 21, 1811) was a French architect, best known for his design for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris…

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Jean Charlot

Painter and muralist, born in Paris, France. He moved to Mexico in 1920, where he painted frescoes for the Mexican government with Diego Rivera and others. After teaching in the USA from 1929, he retired to Hawaii. His works, which are often mythical and religious in character, include Fall of Tenochtitlán (1922) and Anno DM, 1944 Press and Cameramen flash on the Spot News, W.W.II. Louis H…

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Jean Clouet

French portrait painter, the son of Jehan Clouet the Elder. He was a Flemish painter who moved to France as court painter to the Duke of Burgundy. He arrived in Paris some time after 1525 and became court painter to Francis I. His portraits were all in the Flemish tradition and of a very high quality. His works include ‘Guillaume Budé’, and others are exhibited in the Musée Condé, Chantilly. …

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Jean Cocteau - Early years, Maturity, Awards and recognitions, Filmography as director, Books by Jean Cocteau, Other references

Poet, playwright, and film director, born in Maisons-Lafitte, NC France. He had early success with his poems, which he fully exploited, and figured as the sponsor of Picasso, Stravinsky, Giorgio de Chirico, and the musical group known as Les Six. He was an actor, director, scenario writer, novelist, critic, and artist, all of his work being marked by vivacity and a pyrotechnic brilliance. His best…

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Jean Dausset

Immunologist, born in Toulouse, S France. After studying medicine in Paris, service during World War 2 in a blood transfusion unit developed his interest in haematology and the immune response to transfusion. His work in this field led to ‘tissue typing’, which has since helped to reduce the risk of rejection in organ transplant surgery. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 19…

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Jean de La Fontaine - Biography, La Fontaine's works, Further reading

Poet, born in Château-Thierry, NE France. He assisted his father, a superintendent of forests, then moved to Paris, and devoted himself to writing. His major works of verse include Contes et nouvelles en vers (1664, Tales and Novels in Verse) and Les Amours de Psyché et de Cupidon (1669, The Loves of Cupid and Psyche). He is best known for the Fables choisies mises en vers (12 vols, 1668–94), i…

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Jean Dubuffet - Biography, Selected bibliography

Artist, born in Le Havre, NW France. He studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, and invented the concept of Art Brut, pioneering the use of rubbish (eg discarded newspapers, broken glass, rough plaster daubed and scratched like an old wall) to create images. He is regarded as a forerunner of the Pop Art and Dada-like fashions of the 1960s. Dubuffet was born in Le Havre. Influe…

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Jean Dutourd - Translations

Novelist and polemicist, born in France. A member of the resistance, he took part in the Liberation of Paris. He started to paint, then turned to writing with Le Complexe de César (1946), a treatise on seduction Le Petit Don Juan, and a novel Une Tête de chien (1950). In Britian he was attached to the BBC French service (1947–50). Les Mémoires de Mary Watson (1980), a pseudo-autobiography of t…

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Jean Echenoz - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Orange, Vaucluse department, S France. A sociology graduate, he published his first novel The Greenwich Meridian in 1979. Later books include Cherokee (1983, Prix Medicis), Nous Trois (1992), Les grandes blondes (1995), and Je m'en vais (1999, Prix Goncourt). …

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Jean Eustache - Filmography

Film maker, born in Pessac, SW France. An acute observer of society in his films, they include La Rosière de Pessac (1969) and Le Cochon (1970). His most notable film is La Maman et la Putain (1973). In 1973 Jean Eustache directed what would become one of just two narrative features he would make before committing suicide in 1981. Aside from "The Mother and the Whore", Eustache’s …

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Jean Fouquet - Works

Painter, born in Tours, WC France. He opened a prosperous workshop at Tours, and in 1475 received the official title of king's painter. His most notable illuminations are found in the Antiquities of the Jews of Josephus and the Hours of Etienne Chevalier at Chantilly. Jean Fouquet or Jehan Fouquet (1420 - 1481) was a French painter. Of his life little is known, but it is certain that he was…

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Jean Froissart

Historian and poet, born in Valenciennes, N France. He served Philippa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III of England (1361–9), and also travelled widely in Scotland, France, and Italy. Returning to Hainault, he began to compile his Chronicles, wrote poems for noble patrons, and became private chaplain to Guy of Châtillon. His Chronicles, covering European history from 1325 to 1400, deal in part…

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Jean Gabin

Actor, born in Paris, France. He started his stage career as a music hall singer and dancer, and played light juvenile leads in films from 1930, but a series of dramatic roles brought him greater depth and international recognition, especially in Pépé le moko (1936), Quai des brumes (1938, trans Port of Shadows) and Le Jour se lève (1939, trans Daybreak). After World War 2 he continued to appea…

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Jean Genet - Life, Genet's works, Bibliography, Further reading

Writer, born in Paris, France. In his youth he spent many years in reformatories and prisons, and began to write in 1942 while serving a life sentence for theft. His first novel, Notre-Dame des fleurs (1944, Our Lady of the Flowers) created a sensation for its portrayal of the criminal world and exaltation of his own amoral values. He later turned from novels to plays, such as Les Bonnes (1947, Th…

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Jean Giono

Novelist, born in Manosque, SE France, the son of an immigrant Italian shoe-maker. After working in a bank (1912), and serving in the chasseurs alpins (1915–18), he lived by his writing from 1930 onwards. Successful works include Colline (1929), Un de Baumurgues (1929), Regain (1930), the trilogy Le Chant du monde (1934), and Que ma Joie Demeure (1935). His pacifist activities earned him brief pr…

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Jean Goujon

The foremost French sculptor of the 16th-c, probably born in Normandy, NW France. His finest work is a set of reliefs for the Fountain of the Innocents (1547–9, Louvre). He worked for a while at the Louvre in Paris, but his later career is obscure. He was a Huguenot, but seems to have died before the St Bartholomew massacre (1572). The purity and gracefulness of his style were disseminated…

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Jean Harlow - Early life, Career beginnings, Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Later career and death, Novel, Filmography

Actress, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. Married at age 16 to a wealthy young businessman, she moved to Beverly Hills with him and began appearing in minor film roles in 1928. Millionaire playboy and film producer Howard Hughes discovered her and propelled her into overnight stardom in Hell's Angels (1930). With her platinum-blonde hair, her slim but sexy body, and her casual, slightly vulgar …

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Jean Lipman

Folk art collector and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Wellesley and New York University. She worked for Art in America, a magazine devoted to the decorative arts. She and her husband, Howard Lipman, purchased the magazine and she became editor-in-chief (1941–71). As husband and wife they amassed several major folk art collections, while maintaining homes in Wilton, C…

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Jean Lorrain

Writer, born in Fécamp, N France. He sought his own style in the mixed atmosphere of the turn of the century. He began with poems, collections of which include Le Sang des dieux (1882) and Modernités (1883), and stories, La Forêt bleue (1883) and Viviane (1885). Other works include a play, Yanthis (1894), and a libretto for Fauré, Prométhée (1900), in collaboration with Hérold. Jean …

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Jean Mabillon

Scholar and historian, born in Saint-Pierremont, N France. A Benedictine monk (1654), he was summoned in 1664 to the abbaye de St-Germain-des-Prés in Paris to work on the editing and the presentation of the Acta Sanctorum Ordinis of Saint Benedict (1667). His research for De Re Diplomatica Libri (1681, 1704), led him to travel throughout the whole of N Europe and Italy. This work founded Latin pa…

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Jean Mairet - Other plays

Playwright, born in Besançon, NE France. He worked chiefly in Paris, where he secured important patrons. He wrote a series of plays catering for the growing taste for Classical drama, including Chryséide et Arimand (1625) and Sophonisbe (1634), notably establishing the rule of the three unities, and brought about the rise of classical comedy with Les Galanteries du Duc d'Ossonne (1632). He was e…

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Jean Martinet

French army officer. He won renown as a military engineer and tactician, devising forms of battle manoeuvre, pontoon bridges, and a type of copper assault boat used in Louis XIV's Dutch campaign. He became notorious for his stringent and brutal forms of discipline, and this led to the common use of the word martinet. He was killed by his troops at the siege of Duisberg. Jean Martinet (d. Ma…

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Jean Molinet

Poet and chronicler, born in Desvres, Burgundian Artois, France. He studied in Paris and (c.1464) entered the service of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, succeeding Georges Chastellain as chronicler and court poet. He continued the Chronique (1474–1505), but is best remembered for his version of the Roman de la Rose. Jean Molinet (1435 – August 23, 1507) was a French poet, chronicler,…

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Jean Monnet - Early years, World War I, World War II, The Monnet Plan, European Coal and Steel Community

French statesman, born in Cognac, W France. He was educated locally, and in 1914 entered the Ministry of Commerce. A distinguished economist and expert in financial affairs, he became in 1947 commissioner-general of the ‘Plan de modernisation et d'équipement de la France’ (the Monnet plan) that advocated the restoration of a strong French economy by means of centralized planning. Monnet was an …

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Jean Moulin - Before the war, The Resistance, Controversy, The legend

Civil servant and French resistance fighter, born in Béziers, S France. After studying law at Montpellier University, he entered the civil service (1925). He served for 20 years in the corps préfectoral and was appointed chef de cabinet under the communist Pierre Cot in the left-wing Popular Front Ministry. Moulin was Préfect of Chartres when France was occupied by the Germans (May 1940) and di…

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Jean Nicot

Diplomat and scholar, born in Nîmes, S France. He became French ambassador in Lisbon (1559–61), and in 1560 introduced into France from Portugal the tobacco plant, called after him Nicotiana. The word nicotine derives from his name. He also compiled one of the first French dictionaries (1606). Jean Nicot (1530 - 1600) was a French diplomat and scholar. Born in Nîmes, in the s…

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Jean Nouvel - Projects under construction, Built projects include, Non-built projects include

Architect, born in Fumel, SW France. While still at school he worked for a firm of architects, and in 1975 started his own practice and entered a number of competitions. In his designs he strives for a new language, unfettered by adherence to any particular school or style, and his work is characterized by harmony between building and setting. Among his awards are the ‘grands projets’ competitio…

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Jean Parisot de la Valette - Biography, Web Links

French knight, born in Toulouse, S France. He became grand master of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem (Hospitallers) in 1557. His exploits against the Turks culminated in his successful defence of Malta (1565), where he founded the city of Valetta. Jean Parisot de Valette (born in 1494[?]; He was a Knight of St. John all his adult life, joining the order in the Langue de Provence, and fo…

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Jean Passerat

Poet, born in Troyes, NEC France. He studied at the University of Paris, then taught at the Collège de Plessis and was appointed professor of Latin at the Collège de France in 1572. He wrote commentaries on Latin poets and composed poetry, such as ‘J'ai perdu ma tourterelle’, and wrote most of the Satire Ménippée (1594) in support of Henry of Navarre. Jean Passerat (1534-1602), French…

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Jean Patou

Fashion designer, born in Normandy, NW France. The son of a prosperous tanner, in 1907 he joined an uncle who dealt in furs. He opened Maison Parry in Paris (1912), and in 1913 sold his collection outright to a US buyer. After war service, he successfully opened again as couturier in 1919. He was noted for his designs for sports stars, actresses, and society ladies, and for his perfume, ‘Joy’. …

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Jean Petitot

Painter of enamel miniatures, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. After some years in Italy, he went to England and obtained the patronage of Charles I. After the king's execution he moved to Paris, where Louis XIV gave him lodgings in the Louvre and a share in his patronage. His remarkable works included many portaits of the king, most being based on larger paintings done by other artists. Jea…

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Jean Piaget - Early life, The stages of cognitive development

Psychologist and pioneer in the study of child intelligence, born in Neuchâtel, W Switzerland. After studying zoology he turned to psychology, became professor of psychology at Geneva University (1929–54), director of the Centre d'Epistémologie Génétique, and a director of the Institut des Sciences de l'Education. He is best known for his research on the development of cognitive functions in …

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Jean Picard

Astronomer, born in La Flèche, NW France. In 1655 he became professor in the Collège de France and helped to found the Paris Observatory. He made the first accurate measurement of a degree of a meridian, and thus arrived at an estimate of the radius of the Earth. He visited Tycho Brahe's observatory on the island of Hven, and determined its latitude and longitude. Jean-Felix Picard (July …

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Jean Pierre Boyer

Haitian politician, mulatto-born in Port-au-Prince. Sent early to France, in 1792 he entered the army. He distinguished himself against the British during their invasion of Haiti, and established an independent republic in the W part of the island. After the death of Christophe, he united the negro district with the mulatto in 1820. He governed Haiti well for 15 years, but his partiality towards t…

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Jean Redpath - Discography

Folk-singer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. She became involved in folk music while studying at Edinburgh University. In 1961 she emigrated to the USA, where her outstanding ability, particularly as an interpreter of traditional Scots ballads and the songs of Robert Burns, was quickly recognized. She made her mark at academic level, too, and for several years lectured in music at Wesleyan Uni…

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Jean Reno - Filmography

French actor, born in Casablanca, Morocco. After a number of small parts, he became well known after appearing in Le Grand Bleu (1988) directed by Luc Besson, who also directed him in Nikita (1990) and Léon (1994) in which he starred. Later roles include Inspector Bezu Fache in the Hollywood blockbuster The Da Vinci Code (2006). …

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