Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 37

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Ishmael - Ishmael in Islam, Bahá'í view

Biblical character, the son of Abraham by Hagar, his wife's maid. He was expelled into the desert with his mother from Abraham's household after the birth of Isaac. He is purported to have fathered 12 princes, and is considered the ancestor of the Bedouin tribes of the Palestinian deserts (the Ishmaelites). Mohammed considered Ishmael and Abraham as ancestors of the Arabs, and as associated with t…

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Ishmael (Scott) Reed - Selected works

Writer and poet, born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. He studied at the University of Buffalo (1956–60), and was a founder of the East Village Other, a newspaper in New York (1965). He moved to Berkeley, CA and established the Yardbird Publishing Co (1971) and a communications company (1973). He began as a poet, but is best known for his freewheeling satirical novels using African-American themes…

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Ishtar

Originally a Mesopotamian mother-goddess of love and war; also known as Astarte; later the goddess of love, identified with the planet Venus. She travelled to the Underworld to rescue her consort Tammuz, an event commemorated in annual ceremonies. Ishtar is the Assyrian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. Anunit, Astarte and Atarsamain ar…

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Isidor Straus - History

Merchant, born in Otterberg, Germany, the brother of Nathan and Oscar S Straus. His mother, Sara, brought the family to join her husband, Lazarus, in Georgia in 1854. Isidor worked as a clerk in his father's Atlanta store, and then travelled to Europe (1863) on commission to purchase supplies for the Confederacy. Stranded in Liverpool, UK, with Southern ports blockaded, he sold cotton shares and C…

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isinglass

A pure gelatin found in fish. Its particular use, for which other gelatins are not suitable, is in the clarification of fermented beverages, presumably due to its fibrous structure. The name is also applied to a form of mica, with similar appearance. Isinglass is a substance obtained from the swimbladders of fish (especially sturgeon), used mainly for the clarification of wine and beer. Pri…

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Isis - Origin of the name, Temples, Priesthood, Iconography, Isis in literature, Mythology, Links to Christianity

Ancient Egyptian goddess, wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, sometimes portrayed with horns and the Sun's disc. In Hellenistic and Roman times, she was a central figure in mystery religions, and was associated with magical beliefs. Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. First mentions of Isis date back to the Fifth dynasty of Egypt which is when the first literary inscriptions are found,…

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Islam - Beliefs, Sources of Islam, Five Pillars of Islam, Organization, Islamic knowledge, Denominations, Islam and other religions

The Arabic word for ‘submission’ to the will of God (Allah), the name of the religion originating in Arabia during the 7th-c through the Prophet Mohammed. Followers of Islam are known as Muslims, or Moslems, and their religion embraces every aspect of life. They believe that individuals, societies, and governments should all be obedient to the will of God as it is set forth in the Qur'an, which …

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Islamabad - History, Geography and climate, Vegetation, Fauna of Islamabad, Tourism and sightseeing, Sectors, Universities in Islamabad

33°40N 73°08E, pop (2000e) 329 000. Capital city of Pakistan, on the R Jhelum; a modern planned city, built since 1961; head of navigation for larger vessels in the Vale of Kashmir; two universities (1965, 1974); centre of agricultural region; shrine of Bari Imam; museum of folk and traditional heritage. Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد, abode of Islam), is the capital city of Pakis…

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Islamic architecture - Influences and styles, Interpretation, Architecture of mosques and buildings in Muslim countries, Elements of Islamic style

An architectural form at first deriving from converted Christian or pagan buildings, its distinctive features appearing after the 8th-c, such as the horseshoe arch, masonry tunnel vaults, rich carved surface decoration, mosaics, and paint. Minarets, attached to mosques and used to call followers to prayer, were developed during the Arab Umayyad dynasty. Islamic architecture (Arabic عمار…

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Islamic art - Mediums of Islamic art

An essentially ornamental and abstract style of art, in contrast to the Christian emphasis on figurative art, created largely in the service of the Islamic religion. It began in the 7th-c and spread W to Spain and E to India and China. Islamic art is a broad term used for works of art, often created by Muslims, influenced by the Islamic cultures of the various Muslim countries. Thou…

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Islamic philosophy - Definition, Introduction, Formative influences, Early and Classical Islamic philosophy, Later Islamic philosophy, Modern Islamic philosophy

The Arabic term, falsafah, indicates the Greek origins of this science in Islamic culture. A major translation movement centred in Baghdad during the 9th-c, and introduced to Muslims an eclectic body of Greek knowledge, embracing not only the ideas of Plato, Aristotle, and Pythagoras but also of Galen, Plotinus, and Proclus, as well as doctrines of hermetic origin. The complexity of this inheritan…

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island - Definition, Types

A piece of land totally surrounded by water, in an ocean, sea, or lake. It may be formed by: (1) remnants of former high land cut off from the mainland by a rise in sea level, or by subsidence, as with the islands of the Aegean, and the Western Is of Scotland; (2) volcanic eruptions on the ocean floor, as with the Hawaiian Is and Iceland; (3) deposition of sediment, as with the Frisian Is; and (4)…

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island arc - Island arcs

Oceanic islands occurring in arc-shaped chains, such as the Aleutians, Mariana, Lesser Antilles, S Sandwich, and Tonga-Kermadec Is. They usually contain active volcanoes, and are adjacent to deep ocean trenches. The theory of plate tectonics maintains that island arcs are formed by volcanism generated as the rigid plates making up the Earth's surface are recycled into the Earth's interior beneath …

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Ismail Merchant - Merchant Ivory Productions, Cooking, Death, Filmography

Film producer, born in Mumbai (Bombay), W India. In 1961 he collaborated with James Ivory in setting up a film production company, Merchant-Ivory Productions. They made their first film, The Householder, in 1963, and achieved international success with Shakespeare Wallah (1965). Later works include The Bostonians (1984), the Oscar-nominated A Room With A View (1985), Howards End (1992), The Remain…

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Ismar Schorsch

Scholar and educator, born in Hanover, Germany. He went to the USA in 1938 and became a rabbi at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, served as a chaplain in the US Army, then joined the seminary as a professor of history. In 1986 he became the seminary's chancellor and helped found the Seminary for Judaic Studies in Jerusalem. Ismar Schorsch was the sixth Chancellor of The Jewish T…

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isobar (meteorology) - Uses in News

A line on a weather map joining places of equal barometric pressure. Because of variations in barometric pressure with altitude, recordings from different elevations are corrected and adjusted to pressure at sea level. The closer the lines are together, the stronger the pressure gradient force, and therefore the stronger the winds. The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek …

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Isocrates

Greek orator and prose writer, born in Athens, Greece. In his youth, he joined the circle of Socrates, but abandoned philosophy for speech writing. He then became an influential teacher of oratory (c.390 BC), and presented rhetoric as an essential foundation of education. Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators. In his time, he was probably the most inf…

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isolationism - Introduction, Isolationism by country

A foreign policy strategy of withdrawing from international affairs as long as the country's interests are not affected. It is a means of avoiding involvement in international conflicts, and implies neutrality in most cases. It was practised by the USA, which kept out of the League of Nations, World War 1, and World War 2 until attacked by the Japanese, and has long been associated with Switzerlan…

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Isopoda

A diverse order of crustaceans characterized by a flattened body and seven similar pairs of thoracic legs; typically bottom-living in aquatic habitats, sometimes parasitic on fishes and crustaceans; some, the woodlice, are highly successful in terrestrial habitats. (Class: Malacostraca.) Isopods are one of the most diverse orders of crustaceans, with many species living in all environments,…

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isoprene - Biological roles and effects

C5H8, IUPAC 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene, a liquid, boiling point 34°C. Natural rubber may be considered an addition polymer of isoprene. It is also the basic structural unit of terpene molecules. At room temperature, isoprene is a colorless liquid which is highly flammable and easily ignited. The United States Department of Transportation considers isoprene a hazardous material and requir…

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Isoroku Yamamoto - Family background, Early career, Preparing for war, 1920s and 1930s

Japanese naval officer, born in Nagaoka, Japan. He trained at the Naval Academy, Etajima, and became naval attaché at the Japanese embassy in the USA (1926–8), chief of the aviation department of the Japanese navy (1935), and vice-navy minister (1936–9). Admiral (1940), and commander-in-chief of the combined fleet (1939–43), he planned and directed the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. …

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isostasy - Isostatic models, Isostatic effects of deposition and erosion, Isostatic effects of plate tectonics

A theory describing the state of mass balance in the Earth's crust which can be considered as less dense blocks floating on the denser semi-molten mantle. Thus high mountains must be regions where the crust is thickest, with deep roots extending into the mantle. Also, continents uplift (elastic rebound) when material is removed by erosion or an overburden of ice is melted away, as at the end of an…

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isothermal process

In thermodynamics, a process in which the temperature is constant while the system changes. Examples include melting and boiling. An isothermal process is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system stays constant: ΔT = 0. Consider an ideal gas, in which the temperature depends only on the internal energy, which is a function of the mean translational kinetic…

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isotope separation - Enrichment cascades, Commercial materials, Alternatives, Techniques, The SWU (separative work unit)

The separation of an isotopic mixture into its component isotopes. The charged ions of isotopes are deflected in electric and magnetic fields by differing amounts, depending on their mass - an effect exploited in the mass spectrometer. The rate of diffusion of a gas of isotopic mixture depends on the isotope mass, exploited in gaseous uranium hexafluoride for the enrichment of nuclear fuel. …

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Israel - Name, History, Geography and climate, Government, Military, Economy, Population, Human rights, Foreign relations

Official name State of Israel, Heb Medinat Yisrael Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל?(help·info), Medinat Yisra'el; Proclaimed independent in 1948, Israel is the world's only Jewish state, although its population includes citizens of many ethnic and religious backgrounds (see Israelis). According to the international data reported by Freedom House, the…

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Israel J(oshua) Singer

Writer, born in Bilgorai, Poland, the brother of Isaac Bashevis Singer. He and his family moved to Warsaw (1908), and he was educated to become a rabbi. By the age of 18 he left home and lived a secular life, held a series of odd jobs, and studied science, language, mathematics, painting, and writing. During World War 1 he was conscripted into the Russian army, and worked at forced labour during t…

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Israel Putnam - Early life, The American Revolution, Epilogue

American revolutionary soldier, born in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA. A captain in the French and Indian War (1755–63), he was tortured by the Indians, given command of a regiment in 1759, and in 1762 went on the West India campaign. In 1764 he helped to relieve Detroit, then besieged by Pontiac. Given command of the forces of Connecticut in 1775, then of New York, he was defeated by Howe (1776) a…

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Israel Washburn

US representative and governor, born in Livermore, Maine, USA. The eldest of 11 children, he studied law with an uncle, becoming a lawyer (1834–50) before going to the US House of Representatives (Whig, Maine, 1851–61). He left the Whig Party to form the anti-slave Republican Party in 1854 (and is credited with coining the party's name). As governor of Maine (1861–3), he provided extra voluntee…

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Israel Zangwill

Writer, born in London, UK. He studied at London University, and became a journalist, as editor of the comic journal Ariel. He was widely known for his novels on Jewish themes, such as Children of the Ghetto (1892, dramatized by him in 1899) and Ghetto Tragedies (1893). Other works include the play The Melting Pot (1908), whose title became widely used as a defining label for the view of 20th-c US…

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Issey Miyake

Fashion designer, born in Hiroshima, S Japan. After studying at Tama Art University in Toyko, he spent six years in Paris and New York City fashion houses. He showed his first collection in Tokyo in 1963, and founded his studio there in 1971. His first subsequent show was in New York City the same year, followed by one in Paris in 1973. His distinctive style combines Eastern and Western influences…

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Istanbul - Geography, Demographics, Places of interest, Education, Economy, Modern Buildings and structures with architectural significance, Sports

41°02N 28°57E, pop (2000e) 7 862 000. Capital city of Istanbul province, NW Turkey, on the Golden Horn and on both sides of the Bosporus; the only city in the world situated on two continents; chief city and seaport of Turkey; commercial and financial centre; damaged in terrorist suicide bomb attacks, 2003; the part corresponding to historic Constantinople is on the European side; founded and…

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Isthmian Games

In ancient Greece, one of the main Pan-Hellenic contests, held every other year near the Isthmus of Corinth. They were in honour of the god Poseidon, and consisted of athletic contests, horse racing, and poetical and musical competitions. The Isthmian Games were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were held at Corinth every two years. With the Nemean Games, the I…

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Istria - History, Ethnicity, Gallery

area 3160 km²/1220 sq mi. Peninsula at the N end of the Adriatic Sea, Croatia; occupied by Croats, Slovenes, and Italians; formerly part of the Italian province of Venezia Giulia; ceded to Yugoslavia, 1947 (apart from Trieste); chief town, Pula; tourist area. Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Italian: Istria) is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The region lies…

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Ita (Clare) Buttrose

Journalist, publisher, and broadcaster, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. She was educated in Sydney, and joined Australian Consolidated Press at age 15 as a copy girl, going on to become editor of the Australian Women's Weekly, Australia's leading women's magazine. In 1981 she moved to News Limited as editor-in-chief of the Sunday Telegraph, becoming the first woman in Australia to e…

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Italian literature - Origins, The Sicilian School, Religious literature, Early prose, The spontaneous development of Italian literature, The Renaissance

After some allegorical romances written under French influence in the 13th-c and the spread of love lyrics performed by troubadours, Italian literature came to precocious maturity the next century with the work of Dante (Divina commedia, c.1300), Petrarch, and Boccaccio (Decameron, 1348–58). These great poets and humanists had imitators but no real successors until the Renaissance. Then, the cour…

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Italian Wars - Prelude, Initial invasions, Shifting alliances, Habsburg against Valois, Warfare, Impact, Historiography, Aftermath, Further reading

A series of conflicts lasting from 1494 to 1559 (Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis) between the French Valois monarchs and the Habsburgs for the control of Italy. Both houses laid claim to the throne of the Kingdom of Naples, but after seven phases of warfare, involving a host of different monarchs and states, Spain emerged victorious. The Italian Wars, sometimes known as the Great Italian Wars, …

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Italic languages

The early languages spoken in the area of modern Italy. The major language of the group was Latin, the language of Rome and the surrounding provinces, evidenced in inscriptions from the 6th-c BC, and in literature from the 3rd-c BC; it is used now only in formulaic contexts of religion, and in public (usually governmental) declamations. The modern Romance languages ultimately belong to the Italic …

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italic script - History

A sloping style of handwriting introduced by Aldus Manutius of Venice in c.1500, which was later introduced into printing. Today, it has a wide range of functions, including the identification of foreign words, quoted forms, book titles, emphatic utterance, and special emotional effects. Italic script is based largely on Humanist minuscule, which itself draws on Carolingian minuscule. In re…

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Italo Balbo

Italian politician and aviator, born in Ferrara, NE Italy. One of the leaders of the March on Rome, he was the Fascist movement's military organizer. He was the first minister of aviation in Italy, and led mass flights to Brazil (1929) and the USA (1933). In 1933 he became Governor of Libya. He opposed the alliance with Germany and the antisemitic laws. In 1940 he was killed when his plane was bro…

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Italo Calvino - Biography, Bibliography, Quotations

Writer, essayist, and journalist, born in Santiago de las Vegas, N Cuba, of Italian parents. He spent his early years in San Remo, and studied at Turin, where he worked as a publisher. His first novel, Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno (1947, The Path to the Nest of Spiders), described resistance against Fascism in a highly naturalistic manner. In later works, such as I nostri antenati (1960, Our Ance…

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Italo Svevo - Selected works

Novelist, born in Trieste, NE Italy. He worked as a bank clerk, then turned to writing, encouraged by James Joyce, who taught him English. He had a considerable success with La coscienza di Zeno (1923, The Confessions of Zeno), a psychological study of inner conflicts which breaks all established patterns and where the outside world exists only in the character's mind.. Aron Ettore Schmitz …

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itch - Mechanism, Causes

An irritating sensation in the skin, which may be extremely distressing, also known as pruritus [prooriytuhs]. It may occur in one area as a result of a local irritant or skin disease (eg lice, scabies, dermatitis, psoriasis). It may also be a generalized symptom of an underlying disorder (eg lymphoma, jaundice). Occasionally the complaint is the result of a psychoneurosis. An itch (Latin: …

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Itzhak Perlman - Biography, Performances, Awards and recognitions

Violinist, born in Tel Aviv, Israel. Crippled by polio in childhood, he took up the violin with enthusiasm and made his public debut at age nine. Four years later he went to New York to study at Juilliard, where his teachers were Ivan Galamian and Dorothy Delay. After winning first prize in the Leventritt Competition in 1964, he entered the highest rank of international violin soloists. The combin…

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Ivan (Le Lorraine) Albright

Painter, born in Harvey, Illinois, USA. He turned to painting after World War 1, in which he served as a medical draughtsman in France. The clinical studies he made then of surgical operations laid the foundations of the meticulous technique he perfected later, as well as promoting an obsession with morbid subject matter. His style has been called ‘Magic Realism’, and had links with Surrealism, …

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Ivan (Sergeyevich) Turgenev - Life, Career, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Orel, W Russia. He studied at St Petersburg and Berlin universities, and joined the Russian civil service in 1841, but in 1843 abandoned this to take up literature. His first studies of peasant life, Sportsman's Sketches (1852, trans title), made his reputation, but earned governmental ill favour. He was banished for two years to his country estates, and then lived mainly in Germ…

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Ivan Boesky

Financier, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The son of a Russian immigrant, he studied law and worked as a tax accountant before moving into securities analysis, forming his own firm in 1975. Credited with (or blamed for) pioneering the junk-bond market, later a symbol of the excesses of the 1980s, he had become one of Wall Street's most successful arbitragers when he admitted to insider trading ch…

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Ivan Lendl - Grand Slam singles finals, Major tournament singles performance timeline

Tennis player, born in Ostrava, NE Czech Republic. He became a US citizen in 1992. He dominated male tennis in the 1980s, winning the singles title at the US Open (1985–7), French Open (1984, 1986–7), and Australian Open (1989, 1990), and becoming the Masters champion (1986–7) and the World Championship Tennis champion (1982, 1985). He won 94 singles titles, but failed to win at Wimbledon. He w…

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Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin

Horticulturist, born near Dolgoye, Russia. At his private orchard at Koslov, which became a state institution, he developed many new varieties of fruit and berries. His theory of cross-breeding, which postulated the idea that acquired characteristics were heritable, became state doctrine amid much controversy. In 1875, Michurin leased a strip of land of about 500 square metres not far from …

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Ivanoe Bonomi

Italian politician and prime minister (1921–2, 1944–5), born in Mantua, Lombardy, N Italy. A socialist deputy from 1909, he was expelled from the party with Bissolati-Bergamaschi at the Reggio Emilia Congress for his moderate views and support for the Libyan venture. He held a number of cabinet posts between 1916 and 1921 and became prime minister (1921–2), but was unable to confront Fascist vi…

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Ivanovo - History

57°00N 41°00E, pop (2000e) 480 000. Capital city of Ivanovskaya oblast, C European Russia; on R Uvod, 318 km/198 mi NW of Moscow; founded, 1871; noted for its revolutionary activities in the 1880s, 1905, and 1917; railway; historic centre of Russia's cotton-milling; textiles, machines, chemicals, wood products, foodstuffs. Ivanovo (Russian: Ива́ново) is the administrative cent…

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Ivar (Andreas) Aasen

Philologist, lexicographer, and writer, born in Sunnmøre, W Norway. A fervent nationalist, he was the creator of the ‘national language’ called Landsmål (later known as Nynorsk, ‘New Norwegian’), based on W Norwegian dialects. It eventually achieved recognition alongside the official Dano-Norwegian Riksmål (‘language of the realm’) in 1885. Ivar Andreas Aasen (August 5, 1813 – Se…

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Ivar Giaever

Physicist, born in Bergen, SW Norway. He studied at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, then emigrated to Canada in 1954. After moving in 1956 to the General Electric Research and Development Center in Schenectady, NY, he did research which led to a greater understanding of superconductivity, applying results developed by Leo Esaki. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics for his …

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Ivor (Bertie) Gurney

Composer and poet, born in Gloucester, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music in London. As a composer he found his voice in 1913/14 with the composition of Five Elizabethan Songs. Gassed and shell-shocked in 1917, he published two volumes of poems from hospital: Severn and Somme (1917) and War's Embers (1919). From 1922 he was confined in an asylum, and died in…

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Ivor Novello - Principal Shows, Outstanding Songs, Filmography

Actor, composer, songwriter, and playwright, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he was a chorister. His song ‘Keep the Home Fires Burning’ was one of the most popular of World War 1. He first appeared on the regular stage in London in 1921 and enjoyed great popularity, his most successful and characteristic works being his ‘Ruritanian’ musical plays such as Glamorous Nig…

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ivory - Structure, Teeth and tusks, Ivory art in the ancient world, Availability, Types of ivory

Pieces of walrus and elephant tusk, regarded as precious material by many societies throughout the world. Carved ivory ornaments, jewellery and religious objects were produced in China from about the 15th-c BC, and later by the Greeks and Romans in Europe. Most of the finest small-scale sculptures to survive from the mediaeval period are carved from ivory, and it continued to be widely used for lu…

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ivy - Uses and cultivation

An evergreen woody climber (Hedera helix), growing to 30 m/100 ft, native to Europe and W Asia; adhesive aerial roots; leaves dark green often with pale veins; those of juvenile, climbing shoots palmately 3–5-lobed; those of mature, non-climbing shoots, oval, entire; flowers greenish-yellow, 5-petalled, petals 3–4 mm/0·12–0·16 in, in rounded umbels produced on non-climbing shoots; fruits …

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Ivy League - Members, Shields and mottos, Origin of the name, Before there was an Ivy League

A group of long-established and prestigious colleges in NE USA. The league was formally established in 1956 to oversee inter-collegiate sports. It includes the universities of Harvard (Cambridge, MA, founded 1636), Yale (New Haven, CT, founded 1701), Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA, founded 1740), Princeton (Princeton, NJ, founded 1746), Columbia (New York City, NY, founded 1754), Brown (Providence…

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Iwo Jima - Naval air base, U.S. nuclear arms base

area c.21 km²/8 sq mi. The most important and largest of the Volcano Is; in the W Pacific Ocean, 1222 km/759 mi S of Tokyo; 8 km/5 mi long; maximum width 4 km/2½ mi; rises to 161 m/528 ft at Suribachi-yama, an extinct volcano; coastguard station (N); scene of major battle of World War 2 (1944–5), when the heavily fortified Japanese air base was taken in a 3-month campaign; returned t…

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Ixion - Other uses of the name

In Greek mythology, a king of Thessaly, the first murderer; also the father of the Centaurs. For attempting to rape Hera he was bound to a wheel of fire, usually located in the underworld. However, Zeus had pity on Ixion and brought him to Olympus and introduced him at the table of the gods. Instead of being grateful, Ixion grew lustful for Hera, Zeus's wife. Zeus made a cloud in the …

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Izaak Walton - Walton in literature

Writer, born in Stafford, Staffordshire, C England, UK. In 1621 he settled in London as an ironmonger, but left the city for Staffordshire during the Civil War, and after the Restoration lived in Winchester. Best known for his treatise on fishing and country life, The Compleat Angler (1653), he also wrote several biographies. Izaak Walton (August 9, 1593 - December 15, 1683) was an English …

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Izhevsk - Museums

56°49N 53°11E, pop (2000e) 690 000. Capital city of Udmurtia, Russia; founded, 1760; city status, 1918; capital of Udmurtia, 1921; renamed in honour of Soviet armaments politician, Dmitri Fedorovich Ustinov (1908–84); airfield; railway; university; cultural and educational centre; metalworking, machine building, motorcycles, paper, foodstuffs. Izhevsk (Russian: Иже́вск), from 19…

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Izmir - Lydian Smyrna, Hellenistic Smyrna, Roman and Byzantine Smyrna, Smyrna Agora

38°25N 27°10E, pop (2000e) 2 115 000. Seaport capital of Izmir province, W Turkey, on an inlet of the Aegean Sea; third largest city in Turkey; severely damaged by earthquakes, 1928, 1939; airfield; railway; two universities (1955, 1982); brewing, electronics, packaging, foodstuffs, steel, engines, cement, plastics, paper; largest poultry and egg farm in the Middle East; Kadifekale fortress (…

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J(ames) B(arry) M(unnik) Hertzog - General Hertzog

South African statesman and prime minister (1924–39), born in Wellington, Cape Colony, SW South Africa. He studied law at Stellenbosch and Amsterdam, became a Boer general (1899–1902), and was minister of justice (1910) in the first Union government. He founded the Nationalist Party in 1914, advocating complete South African independence, and in World War 1 opposed co-operation with Britain. As …

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J(ames) Walter Thompson

Advertising executive, born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, USA. He served in the Union navy in the Civil War. In 1867 he joined William Carlton's New York advertising agency, which he bought in 1878. He virtually created modern advertising, transforming it into a primary sales tool by persuading magazines and major clients of its respectability. His success in placing advertising in magazines made …

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J(ohann) C(hristian) Bach - Life, Posthumous evaluation, Further reading

Composer, born in Leipzig, EC Germany, the 11th son of J S Bach. He studied under his brother C P E Bach in Berlin, and from 1754 worked in Italy. After becoming a Catholic, he was appointed organist at Milan in 1760, and for a time composed only ecclesiastical music, including two Masses, a requiem, and a ‘Te Deum’, but later he began to compose opera. In 1762 he was appointed composer to the L…

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J(ohann) C(hristoph) F(riedrich) Bach - External LInks

Composer, born in Leipzig, EC Germany, the ninth son of J S Bach. He studied there at the Thomasschule and at Leipzig University, and became in 1750 Kapellmeister at Bückeburg. He was an industrious but undistinguished church composer. Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (June 21, 1732 – January 26, 1795), the ninth son of Johann Sebastian Bach, sometimes referred to as the "Bückeburg Bach"…

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J(ohn) Edgar Thomson - Childhood, early experience, Developing Georgia's railroads, Pennsylvania Railroad

Engineer and railroad president, born in Springfield Township, Pennsylvania, USA. He learned engineering from his father, started with the Pennsylvania Engineer Corps, and by 1830 was in charge of an engineering division. After studying advanced transportation in Europe, he became chief engineer of the Georgia Railroad (1832). In 1847 he joined the newly incorporated Pennsylvania Railroad to locat…

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J(ohn) I(nnes) M(ackintosh) Stewart - Bibliography

Critic, and writer of detective fiction, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Oxford, and taught English at Leeds, Adelaide, and Belfast universities before returning to Oxford in 1949. Under his own name he wrote several novels and critical studies, notably Eight Modern Writers (1963). He was better known for his prolific work (48 volumes) as Michael Innes, beginning with Death at th…

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J(ohn) M(axwell) Coetzee - Early life and education, Academic and literary career, Achievements and awards, Bibliography

Writer and critic, born in Cape Town, SW South Africa. The political situation in his native country provides him with the base from which to launch his allegories and fables, attacking colonialism and demythologizing historical and contemporary myths of imperialism. His first work of fiction was Dusklands (1974), followed by In the Heart of the Country (1977), Waiting for the Barbarians (1980), L…

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J(ohn) W(illiam) Dunne - Bibliography

British inventor and philosopher. He designed the first British military aeroplane (1906–7), and wrote the best-selling speculative works An Experiment with Time (1927), The Serial Universe (1934), The New Immortality (1938), and Nothing Dies (1940). After experiencing a precognitive dream of the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée, Martinique, Dunne became seriously interested in the nature of …

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J(oseph) B(anks) Rhine - Biography, Legacy, Criticism

Psychologist and parapsychologist, born in Juniata Co, Pennsylvania, USA. After taking his PhD in botany at the University of Chicago, he studied under William McDougall at Duke University, where he became professor of psychology (1937). He co-founded the Parapsychology Laboratory there (1930) and the Institute of Parapsychology in Durham, NC (1964), and is generally recognized as the founder of m…

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J(oseph) L(owthian) Hudson

Merchant, born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE England, UK. His family moved to Grand Rapids, MI from Canada in 1860. By 1866 he was managing his father's clothing store, and later opened J L Hudson (1881), an innovative men and boys clothing store in Detroit that offered moderate prices, immediate delivery, and customer returns. He incorporated (1891) and expanded into other Midwestern cities, and by …

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J(osiah) Willard Gibbs - Biography, Scientific recognition, Further reading

Mathematical physicist, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He was the seventh generation of a family of scholars and educators, and the son of Yale divinity professor Josiah Willard Gibbs. After receiving his PhD from Yale (1863), he taught Latin and natural philosophy there for three years. He then studied mathematics and physics in Paris (1866–7), Berlin (1867–88), and Heidelberg (1868–9). …

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Jabez (Lamar Monroe) Curry - Works

US representative and educator, born in Lincoln Co, Georgia, USA. He studied law at Harvard and was deeply inspired by John C Calhoun and Horace Mann. He served in the US House of Representatives (States Rights Democrat, Alabama, 1857–61) and then in the Confederate Congress (1861–3). As president of Howard College (1865–8), agent of the Peabody Fund (1881–1903), and director of the Southern E…

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jabiru

A name used for several species of stork; especially Jabiru mycteria of Central and South America; also the saddle-bill stork (Ephippiorhyncus senegalensis) from S Africa, and the black-necked stork (Ephippiorhyncus asiaticus) from India to N Australia. (Family: Ciconiidae.) The Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) is a large stork found in the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, except west of the Ande…

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jacamar

A bird native to the New World tropics; long bill and tail; iridescent plumage; inhabits forests; eats insects caught in flight; nests on ground in burrow. (Family: Galbulidae, 15 species.) The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, extending up to Mexico. …

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jacana

A bird native to the tropics worldwide; inhabits fresh water lakes and ponds; eats small aquatic animals and plants; resembles rails, but not related; toes extremely long; walks on floating vegetation; also known as lily-trotter or lotus bird. (Family: Jacanidae, 8 species.) The Jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. …

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jacaranda

A small deciduous tree (Jacaranda mimosifolia) growing to 12 m/40 ft; leaves pinnately divided into segments, which in turn are pinnately divided into numerous small, oval leaflets; inflorescences pyramidal; flowers drooping, funnel-shaped, blue. Native to Argentina, it has been widely planted in warm regions as an ornamental and street tree. (Family: Bignoniaceae.) Jacaranda is a genus o…

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Jack (Harold) Paar - The Tonight Show, Smart Television, Highly emotional, The move to prime time, Later career, Death

Television host, born in Canton, Ohio, USA. He left school at age 16 and began working as a radio announcer in the Midwest. In the US Army in World War 2 he entertained with service shows in the South Pacific. After the war he had some minor film roles and then began to appear as host of a series of radio and television shows. In 1957 he was assigned to host the National Broadcasting Company's Ton…

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Jack (Randolf) Webb - Biography, Trivia

Television actor, director, and producer, born in Santa Monica, California, USA. In 1949 he created Dragnet, a documentary style police radio show. He directed and starred in the show when it moved to National Broadcasting Company–TV (1952–9). His company, Mark VII, Ltd, produced a series of police shows, including a revival of Dragnet (1967–70) and Adam-12 (1968–75). John Randolph "Jac…

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Jack (William) Nicklaus

Golfer, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. He won the US Amateur title in 1959 and 1961, then turned professional. Runner-up to Arnold Palmer in the 1960 US Open, as amateur, he has since won all the world's major tournaments: the (British) Open (1966, 1970, 1978), the US Open (1962, 1967, 1972, 1980), the US Professional Golfers Association tournament a record-equalling five times (1963, 1971, 1973, 19…

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Jack B(utler) Yeats

Painter, born in London, UK, the brother of W B Yeats. Educated in Co Sligo, his first works were illustrations and strip cartoons, such as ‘Chubblock Homes’ for Comic Cuts. He is best known for his colourful, freely painted pictures of Irish daily life and Celtic mythology, produced after 1915. Jack Butler Yeats (1871-1957) was an Anglo-Irish artist. Yeats's early style was t…

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Jack Benny - Biography, Running gags, 39er, Sources

Comedian, born in Waukegan, Illinois, USA. He dropped out of high school to play violin for vaudeville companies, and discovered his own talent for comedy while appearing in US Navy shows in 1918. Combining his violin with his comic routines, in the 1920s he toured in vaudeville and made a few films. In 1927 he married Sadye Marks, a clerk in a retail store; she adopted the name Mary Livingstone a…

1 minute read

Jack Beresford - Achievements

Oarsman, born in London, England, UK. He competed for Great Britain at five Olympics (1920–36) as sculler and oarsman, winning three gold and two silver medals, and received the Olympic Diploma of Merit in 1949. He won the Diamond Sculls at Henley four times, and was elected president of the Thames Rowing Club in 1971. Jack Beresford, CBE, (January 1, 1899–December 3, 1977) one of the mo…

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Jack Brabham - Complete F1 World Championship Results, Indy 500 results

Motor-racing driver and constructor, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He served with the Royal Australian Air Force, and started his racing career in 1947. After winning the Australian Grand Prix in 1955, he went to the UK, where he joined the successful Cooper team. He won his first Formula 1 World Drivers' Championship at Sebring, FL, in 1959 by pushing his car over the finishing-l…

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Jack Brickhouse

Baseball broadcaster, born in Peoria, Illinois, USA. He announced Chicago Cubs games on television and radio from 1948, and in 1983 was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame. Jack Brickhouse (January 24, 1916 – August 6, 1998) was an American sports broadcast announcer. Known primarily for his enthusiastic coverage of Chicago Cubs games on television from the late 1940s until the early…

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Jack Cade

Irish leader of the insurrection of 1450 against Henry VI. After an unsettled early career he lived in Sussex, possibly as a physician. Assuming the name of Mortimer, and the title of Captain of Kent, he marched on London with a great number of followers, and entered the city. A promise of pardon sowed dissension among the insurgents; they dispersed, and a price was set upon Cade's head. He attemp…

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Jack Clayton

British film director and producer. He entered the film industry in 1935 and served in the RAF Film Unit during World War 2. His post-war feature films include The Bespoke Overcoat (1955), Room at the Top (1958, Oscar nomination for Best Director), and The Pumpkin Eater (1964). Among later films are The Great Gatsby (1974), Something Wicked This Way Comes (1983), and The Lonely Passion of Judith H…

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Jack Cunningham - Education and family life, Government career, Present day, Reference

British statesman, born in Felling, Durham, NE England, UK. Educated at Jarrow and Durham, he was a university lecturer and full-time trade union official before becoming a Labour MP (1970– ). He was minister for energy (1976–9) in the Callaghan government before holding a number of shadow posts under a succession of party leaders. In the Blair government he became minister of agriculture (1997

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Jack Davis - See Also

Writer and actor, born in Perth, Western Australia. As a prominent Aboriginal writer, he drew much from the traditions of his own people, the Nyoongarah of the SW of Western Australia. Director of the Aboriginal Centre (1967–71), he began to publish relatively late in his life. His poetry includes The Firstborn (1970), Jagardoo (1978), and Black Life: Poems (1992). Among his plays are Kullark (19…

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Jack Dee - Career, List of Awards, Biography, Trivia

Comedian and actor, born in Petts Wood, Orpington, SE London, UK. After various jobs he began his stage career in 1986 as a stand-up comedian at London's Comedy Store. He became known for his deadpan humour, and since 1990 has toured extensively with his one-man show. In 2001 television viewers voted him winner of Comic Relief's special fund-raising series Celebrity Big Brother. Television credits…

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Jack Dempsey - Biography

Boxer, born in Manassa, Colorado, USA. He worked in the copper mines and boxed in the mining camps of Colorado before becoming a professional boxer (1912). He fought in more than 100 semi-pro and professional bouts before winning the heavyweight championship in 1919 by knocking out Jess Willard. He successfully defended his title five times before losing to Gene Tunney in an upset in 1926. In the …

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Jack Frye

Airline executive, born near Sweetwater, Texas, USA. Contributing to the rise of commercial aviation, he encouraged construction of fast, comfortable, modern equipment and devices for safe all-weather flying. As president of Trans World Airlines (1934–47) he fostered international flight. Involved briefly in the film industry, he died in a car crash in Tucson, AZ. William John "Jack" Frye …

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Jack Hays

US soldier and public official, born in Little Cedar Lick, Tennessee, USA. As a captain in the Texas Rangers, he reputedly introduced Samuel Colt's revolving pistol - the six-shooter - to the frontier. He moved to California (1849) and served as the sheriff of San Francisco. He also had large real estate and banking interests in Oakland. John Coffee "Jack" Hays (January 28, 1817-April 21, 1…

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Jack Higgins - Work

Writer, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. He studied at Beckett Park College for Teachers and the London School of Economics. After army service (1947–50) and various occupations including circus hand (1950–8), he became a teacher and college lecturer. He took up full-time writing in 1970, and became a best-selling author with the success of The Eagle Has Landed (1975; …

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Jack Hobbs - Early life, His playing career, Later life, His place in cricket history, Further reading

Cricketer, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He played in county cricket for Cambridgeshire (1904) and Surrey (1905–34), and for England (1908–30), when he and Herbert Sutcliffe (1894–1978) established themselves as an unrivalled pair of opening batsmen. He made 5410 runs in 61 Test matches (average 5 Sir John Berry 'Jack' Hobbs (16 December 1882 - 21 December 1963) play…

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Jack Johnson

Boxer, the first African-American world champion (1908–15), born in Galveston, Texas, USA. He defeated the Canadian Tommy Burns at Sydney in 1908. His win provoked violent racial prejudice, and a ‘Great White Hope’ was sought to defeat him - the former champion James J Jeffries - whom he knocked out in the 15th round in a fight in 1910. He lost his title in 1915 to Jess Willard. His relationshi…

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Jack Jones

Trade unionist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He was general secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union (1969–78), favouring the decentralization of trade union power to the local branches, and had some influence on the Labour government's policies of 1974–6. Made a Companion of Honour in 1978, his autobiography, Union Man, was published in 1986. Jack Jones may …

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Jack Kerouac - Life, Career, Style, Influence, Bibliography, Further reading, Film

Writer, born in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Columbia University (1940–2), and served in the merchant marine (1942–3) and the navy (1943). Later he studied at the New School for Social Research (1948–9). He lived with his mother in Lowell, held a variety of jobs, and travelled throughout the USA and Mexico. The publication of On the Road (1957), a semi-autobiographical tale of his …

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Jack Ketch

English hangman and headsman from about 1663. He was notorious for his barbarity and bungling, particularly the executions of Lord Russell (1683) and the Duke of Monmouth (1685, where he took eight strokes of the axe to complete the execution). His name became the popular term for a hangman. John (Jack) Ketch (died 1686) was an executioner employed by King Charles II. He executed William Ru…

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Jack Kevorkian - Career, Conviction and imprisonment

Physician, born in Pontiac, Michigan, USA. He graduated in medicine at the University of Michigan in 1952, served in the Korean War, then began to specialize in pathology. He became known for his opinion that medical experimentation on condemned prisoners be legalized, and in the late 1980s became an outspoken supporter of euthanasia. Known to participate in the facilitation of deaths since 1990, …

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Jack Lemmon - Filmography, TV work, Awards and nominations

Film and stage actor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, served in the navy, and was a singing waiter, before appearing in numerous television plays. Following his film debut in It Should Happen to You (1954), he was established as a comedy performer. Some Like It Hot (1959) began a seven-film collaboration with director Billy Wilder. He received great acclaim for his perfo…

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Jack London - Personal background, Early life, First marriage (1900-1904), Second marriage

Writer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He is said to have been the illegitimate son of William Henry Chaney, an astrologer. His mother, a spiritualist, married John London shortly after Jack was born. He had little formal schooling although he was an avid reader, and he spent much of his youth on the Oakland, CA waterfront, where he worked at a variety of jobs, some of which were illegal,…

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Jack Lovelock

Athlete, born in Temuka, New Zealand. He studied medicine at Otago University before going to Oxford University as a Rhodes scholar. In 1932 he set a British record for the mile, in 1933 a world record for that distance, and at the Berlin Olympics in 1936 a world record of 3 min 47·8 s for the 1500 m. He was the Amateur Athletic Association and Empire Games champion at the mile in 1934. A nota…

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Jack Lynch - Early and private life, Sporting career

Irish statesman and prime minister (1966–73, 1977–9), born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. Following a career in the Department of Justice (1936), he was called to the bar (1945). Elected an MP in 1948, he held ministerial posts in lands (1951), the Gaeltacht (1957), education (1957–9), industry and commerce (1959–65), and finance (1965–6), before becoming prime minister. Perceived as a strong s…

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Jack Nicholson - Biography and personal life, Early acting career, Rise to fame, An American icon, Recent years, Filmography

Film actor, scriptwriter, and director, born in Neptune, New Jersey, USA. An office boy at MGM, he worked with the Players Ring Theater before making his film debut in 1958. A supporting role in Easy Rider (1969) brought him belated critical recognition. His intense charisma and acute sense of humour have illuminated a wide range of characters in such diverse films as Chinatown (1974), The Shining…

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Jack Prelutsky

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He attended Hunter College and studied voice at various music schools. He worked as a taxi driver, actor, singer, sculptor, labourer, and carpenter, among other jobs, before becoming a popular poet and storyteller for young readers. His imaginative books have caused controversy at times due to their subject matter, but readers continue to enjoy such wo…

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Jack Sheppard - Early life, Arrests and escapes, Execution, Legacy

Thief, born in London, UK. Brought up in a workhouse, his father having died, he became involved with prostitutes and thieves, and turned to petty crime. The subject of numerous ballads and popular plays, he was imprisoned four times, and made four spectacular escapes, even when manacled to the floor of his cell in solitary confinement. After his fifth arrest and imprisonment he was hanged at Tybu…

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Jack Straw

British statesman, born in Buckhurst Hill, Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at Leeds University, became president of the National Union of Students (1969–71), and was called to the bar in 1972. He became a member of Islington Council (1971–8), and was elected an MP in 1979. After holding several junior posts, he became the opposition spokesman on Treasury and economic affairs (1981–3) and the …

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Jack Teagarden

Jazz trombonist and singer, born in Vernon, Texas, USA. He started playing professionally at 10, and for him it always seemed easy. His embouchure was so sensitive that he barely moved the slide when he played, and when he sang it seemed as natural as talking. In 1928 he worked his way to Chicago, and supported himself playing in the Ben Pollack orchestra until 1933. He moved to New York as a feat…

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Jack the Ripper - Victims, Goulston Street graffiti, Ripper letters, Investigation, Media, Suspects, Jack the Ripper in culture

Unidentified English murderer, who between August and November 1888 murdered and mutilated at least seven prostitutes in the East End of London. The murderer was never discovered. The affair roused much public disquiet, provoked a violent press campaign against the CID and the home secretary, and resulted in some reform of police methods. Speculation about the murderer's identity was still continu…

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Jack Tworkov

Painter, born in Biala, Poland. His family emigrated to the USA in 1913, and he attended Columbia University (1923). He met and became influenced by the painter Willem de Kooning, later joining him and other artists who together evolved abstract expressionism. Tworkov became a leading exponent of the movement which greatly influenced American art during the 1950s and 1960s. He was chairman of the …

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Jack Warden - Biography, Selected filmography

Actor, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He took up boxing while at high school and had several professional bouts under the name of Johnny Costello before enlisting first in the US Navy (1938–41), and then the army (1942–5). After the war he went to New York to pursue a career in acting and spent some years with a theatre company in Dallas, TX, and then gained parts on Broadway and on television…

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Jack Warner

Film mogul, born in London, Ontario, SE Canada. In partnership with his older brothers Harry (1881–1958), Albert (1884–1967), and Sam (1887–1927), after a period in film exhibition and distribution, he moved into production and set up studios in 1923. The Warners were the first to introduce sound into their films, and the success of The Jazz Singer (1927) led to great expansion in both cinema o…

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Jack Welch - Early life and career, Tenure as CEO of GE, Criticism, Personal life, Books

Electronics executive, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. He joined General Electric (GE) after earning his PhD in chemical engineering (1960). Through his aggressive marketing of the company's plastics, materials, and consumer goods and services, he earned steady promotions (vice-president 1972, senior vice-president 1977–9, vice-chairman 1979–81) before becoming GE's youngest-ever chairman and…

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Jack(ie) Charlton

Footballer, born in Ashington, Northumberland, NE England, UK, the brother of Bobby Charlton. He was a part of the great Leeds United side of 1965–75 under Don Revie's management. He was almost 30 before he was capped for England, but then retained his place for five years. He later became manager of Middlesborough (1973), Sheffield Wednesday (1977), and Newcastle United (1984). He became manager…

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jackal - Trivia

A member of the dog family, resembling a large fox in appearance and habits; three African species: the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), and simien(ian) jackal (Canis simensis); also, the golden jackal (Canis aureus) from N Africa to SE Asia. A jackal is any of four small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa and Asia. …

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Jackie Coogan - Hollywood, Coogan Bill, World War II, Marriage and Children, Death and burial

Actor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. A child of show-business parents, he appeared in silent films from an early age. He featured in The Kid (1921) and became Hollywood's first major child star, earning international fame and fortune. However, his parents squandered his money, and the ensuing legal case (1938) led ultimately to the Child Actors Bill, which established a code of practice. I…

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Jackie Joyner-Kersee

Track and field athlete, born in East St Louis, Missouri, USA. One of the greatest female athletes in history, she won a silver medal in the heptathlon in the 1984 Olympics and gold medals in the 1988 and 1992 Games. She also won a gold medal in the long jump in 1988 and a bronze at the 1992 Olympics. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (born March 3, 1962) is a retired American athlete, ranked amongst th…

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Jackie Robinson - Early life, UCLA, Robinson in the Army, The Dodgers, Post-baseball life

Baseball player, the first African-American player to play major league baseball, born in Cairo, Georgia, USA. Excelling in sports at the University of California, Los Angeles, he became a star infielder and outfielder for the Brooklyn Dodgers (1947–56). Largely responsible for the acceptance of black athletes in professional sports, he led the Dodgers to six National League pennants and one Worl…

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Jackie Wilson - Career, Personal Life, Death, Tributes and Legacy, Discography

Vocalist, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. A rhythm-and-blues singer who performed with acrobatic showmanship, he began with a local gospel group, the Ever Ready Singers, after deciding against a career in boxing. In 1951 he joined Billy Ward's Dominoes, a doo-wop group, and two years later he replaced his idol, Clyde McPhatter, as the group's unbilled lead singer. He remained with the Dominoes unt…

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Jackson (Mississippi) - Places, People with the surname Jackson, People with the given name Jackson

32°18N 90°12W, pop (2000e) 184 300. Capital of state in Hinds Co, C Mississippi, USA, on the Pearl R; largest city in the state; established as a trading post (Le Fleur's Bluff), 1792; state capital, 1822; named after President Andrew Jackson; much of the city destroyed by Sherman's forces during the Civil War, 1863; airfield; railway; university; oil, natural gas, food processing, timber, met…

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Jackson Richardson - France national team, Clubs, Honours

An outstanding French handball player, born in Réunion. His successes to date include world best player award in 1995, selected over 200 times for French team-plays at mi-centre, third in the 1991 Olympic Games, the French Championship (1994, 1996) and French Cup (1993, 1995). He plays for the German club Grosswallstadt. Jackson Richardson is a French handball player. Two years…

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Jacky Ickx

Motor-racing driver, born in Brussels, Belgium. He won eight races from 116 starts in Formula One. Outstanding at endurance racing, he won 34 world sports car championship races, and was world champion in 1982–3 (both Porsche). He won the Le Mans 24-hour race a record six times, in 1969 (with Oliver), 1975 (with Bell), 1976 (with van Lennep), 1977 (with Barth and Haywood), and 1981–2 (both with …

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Jacob - Jacob in the Hebrew Bible, Other references to Jacob, Jacob's sons

Biblical character, the son of Isaac, and patriarch of the nation Israel. He supplanted his elder brother Esau, obtaining his father Isaac's special blessing and thus being seen as the inheritor of God's promises. He was re-named Israel (perhaps meaning ‘God strives’ or ‘he who strives with God’) after his struggle with a divine being. By his wives Leah and Rachel and their maids he fathered 1…

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Jacob (Aall Bonnevie) Bjerknes

Meteorologist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. The son of the famous Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes, he was instrumental in the development of weather prediction in the USA. With his father he established weather observation stations in Norway during World War 1, and developed the famous Bergen Institute in Norway. He was visiting the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1940 when …

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Jacob (August) Riis - Early life, Immigration to the United States, Journalism career, Marriages and later life, Criticism, Memorial

Journalist and social critic, born in Ribe, SW Denmark. The son of a journalist, he emigrated to New York City in 1870 and worked as a police reporter on the New York Tribune (1873) and the New York Evening Sun (1888–99). His horrifying description of immigrant poverty in New York City in 1890, How the Other Half Lives, was the first use of photographic evidence in social reportage. An enthusiast…

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Jacob (Christopher) Burckhardt - Life, Work, Divers

Historian, born in Basel, N Switzerland. He studied theology and later art history in Berlin and Bonn, became editor of the Basler Zeitung (1844–5), and was professor of history at Basel University (1858–93). He is known for his works on the Italian Renaissance and on Greek civilization. Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of…

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Jacob (Gould) Schurman - Reference

Educator, philosopher, and diplomat, born in Freetown, Prince Edward I, Canada. He studied in Britain and Germany before he went to teach philosophy at Cornell University (1886), where he promoted an idealistic approach that applied philosophy to all of human experience. In 1892 he began the Philosophical Review, the first scholarly journal of philosophy in the USA. As president of Cornell (1892–…

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Jacob (Henry) Schiff - Life, Schiff in conspiracy and fiction, Family

Financier and philanthropist, born in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany. He went to New York City at age 18 and was licensed as a stockbroker in 1866. After working in a succession of brokerage houses, he joined the investment banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co (1874), becoming its president (1885). He amassed a great fortune, primarily in railroads and insurance companies, and participated in the struggle …

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Jacob (Jennings) Brown

US soldier, born in Bucks Co, Pennsylvania, USA. Schoolteacher, surveyor, lawyer, and militia general, he commanded US forces on the New York frontier in the War of 1812, defeating the British at Ogdensburg, Sackett's Harbor, Fort Erie, Chippewa, and Lundy's Lane. During 1821–8 he served as commander of the US Army. Jacob Jennings Brown (May 9, 1775-February 24, 1828) was an American army …

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Jacob (Raphael) Druckman - Notable students, Major works

Composer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After studies at Juilliard and in Paris, he taught at Juilliard and Yale. He is best known for his colourful, rather tumultuous orchestral music in a Modernist idiom. Druckman died of lung cancer at age 67. Notable musicians who have recorded his works include Wolfgang Sawallisch, Zubin Mehta, Leonard Slatkin, Dawn Upshaw, Jan D…

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Jacob Abbott

Clergyman, born in Hallowell, Maine, USA the father of Lyman Abbott. He founded Mount Vernon School for Girls in Boston (1829) and was the author of The Young Christian (1832) and many other works. Abbott was born at Hallowell, Maine. He died in Farmington, Maine, where he had spent part of his time after 1839, and where his brother Samuel Phillips Abbott founded the Abbott School. …

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Jacob Barker

Merchant and financier, born in Swans Island, Maine, USA. He followed his brother to New York City at age 16 to become a seaman, but was persuaded to work for a company that sold goods on commission, and acquired part ownership in a fleet of merchant vessels. His first independent business venture (1801) ended in bankruptcy, but he started again as a ship merchant and became wealthy. Although he l…

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Jacob Cats - Works

Writer and statesman, born in Brouwershaven, W Netherlands. He studied literature and law, worked as a lawyer, then settled in Zeeland, where he accumulated wealth by land reclamation. He made diplomatic missions to England, and from 1621 served as a statesman in several positions. His poems and stories were usually romantic and moralistic, and enjoyed great popularity during the 17th-c. Some line…

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Jacob Collamer

US statesman, senator, and judge, born in Troy, New York, USA. He served in the War of 1812 and then practised law in Vermont (1813–33). He was judge to the Vermont Superior Court (1833–42, 1850–4), served in the US House of Representatives (Whig, Vermont, 1843–9), and was US postmaster-general (1849–50). As a US senator from Vermont (Republican, 1855–65) he played an important role in grant…

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Jacob Ford Kent

US soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He trained at West Point (1861) and saw combat during the Civil War. He served on the frontier for nearly 30 years, and commanded the 1st Infantry Division in the storming of San Juan Hill outside Santiago, Cuba (Jul 1898). Jacob Ford Kent (1835-1918) was a United States general during the Spanish-American War. Kent was born i…

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Jacob H(arold) Gallinger

US representative and senator, born near Cornwall, Ontario, Canada. A printer's apprentice in Canada, he emigrated to study medicine in Ohio (1855), opening a practice in Keene, NH (1860). He served in the US House of Representatives (Republican, New Hampshire, 1885–9) and in the US Senate (1891–1918), where he supported high tariffs. Jacob Harold Gallinger (March 28, 1837 - August 17, 19…

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Jacob Joseph - Chief rabbi, Works, Death, Rabbi Jacob Joseph School, Jacob Joseph Playground

Orthodox rabbi, born in Vilnius, E Lithuania (formerly, Vilna, Russia). He was brought from Vilna in 1888 by the Association of Orthodox Congregations to become the Chief Rabbi of New York City. His presence was desired by the Orthodox Jews who were trying to resist Americanization by founding a Jewish community that would retain Eastern European Jewish institutions. These efforts were largely suc…

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Jacob Lawrence - Life, Work

Painter, born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. He studied in New York City at the Art Workshop, Harlem, the Harlem Art Center, and the American Artists School (1937–9). Considered a leading African-American artist, he has worked in gouache and tempera. He is famous for the distinctive flat surfaces of his narrative paintings depicting social problems, as may be seen in ‘The Migration of the Ne…

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Jacob Leisler - The rebellion

Colonial leader, born in Frankfurt, Germany. He led a rebellion in New York City during the period following the Glorious Revolution in England (1689–91). As the unofficial chief executive of New York, he called the first intercolonial congress (1690) to oppose possible French incursions. Following the arrival of English soldiers (1691), he was tried, convicted of treason, and hanged. The …

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Jacob Perkins

Mechanical engineer and inventor, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, USA. Apprenticed to a goldsmith, he was a prolific inventor. He is best known for making counterfeiting more difficult by developing steel plates that could be used in place of copper in the engraving process, thus enabling much more complicated patterns to be used for bank-notes. With a partner, he established an engraving fact…

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Jacob Read

US senator, born in Christ Church, South Carolina, USA. After serving in the Continental Congress (South Carolina, 1783–5), he served in the US Senate (Federalist, 1795–1801). He was one of the so-called ‘midnight judges’ appointed by President John Adams as he left office. Following the repeal of the act and the Marbury v. Madison case, Read never actually served. …

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Jacob van Artevelde

Flemish statesman, born in Ghent, NW Belgium. He organized an alliance of Flemish towns in the conflict between France and England at the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). Elected Captain of Ghent in 1338, he ruled like an autocrat. When Edward III of England declared himself King of France in 1340, he insisted on Ghent making a treaty that accepted Edward's sovereignty. In 1345 he …

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Jacob van Campen

Architect and painter, born in Haarlem, The Netherlands. Greatly influenced by Italian style, he built the first completely Classical building in Holland. His masterpiece was the Mauritshuis, The Hague (1633), for Prince Johan Maurits von Nassau; the interior was destroyed in 1704. Other works include Amsterdam Theatre (1637) and Town Hall (1647–55, now the royal palace), and the New Church in Ha…

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Jacob van Lennep

Novelist and poet, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He studied law and became a solicitor for the Treasury, and served as MP for the Dutch Conservative Party (1853–8). Popular and well-regarded, his historical novels were inspired by Byron and Walter Scott and usually have intriguing and complicated plots. Jacob van Lennep (24 March 1802 - 25 August 1868) was a Dutch poet and novelist. …

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Jacob van Maerlant

Poet, born near Bruges, NW Belgium. He wrote romances of chivalry, but later focused on more edifying and educational subjects, including a rijmbijbel Scholastica (1271, Bible on Rhyme), a book about nature, and historical works. His poems in Wapene Martijn, Der kerken claghe, and Vanden lande van overzee are of outstanding quality. Jacob van Maerlant (born between 1230-1240 in Franc de Bru…

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Jacob Viner

Economist, born in Montreal, Canada. Educated in the USA, he is known as a leading interwar price and trade theorist as well as a historian of economic thought. While teaching at the University of Chicago (1916–46), he also served as a Special Assistant to the US Treasury (1934–9), then moved to Princeton University, where he remained until his retirement (1946–60). Jacob Viner (May 3, 1…

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Jacob Wrey Mould

Architect and designer, born in Chislehurst, Kent, SE England, UK. In New York (1852) he was an early practitioner of English High Victorian Gothic and introduced polychrome construction, including polychrome interiors. He also designed public parks. Jacob Wrey Mould (1825-1886) was an architect, illustrator, linguist and musician, noted for his many contributions to the design and construc…

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Jacobus Arminius - Life, Theology

Theologian, born in Oudewater, The Netherlands. He studied at Utrecht, Leyden, Geneva, and Basel, and was ordained in 1588. Despite early opposition to the strict Calvinistic doctrine of predestination he was made professor of theology at Leyden in 1603. In 1604 his colleague Gomarus attacked his doctrines, and from this time on he was engaged in a series of bitter controversies. In 1608 Arminius …

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Jacobus de Voragine - Biography, Works

Clergyman and hagiologist, born in Viareggio, W Italy. He became a Dominican (1244), gained a reputation as a preacher and theologian, and became Archbishop of Genoa in 1292. He wrote the Golden Legend, a famous collection of lives of the saints, translated by Caxton in 1483, and is also said to have produced the first Italian translation of the Bible. Jacobus de Voragine ((Italian) Giacomo…

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Jacobus van Looy

Writer and painter, born in Haarlem, W Netherlands. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Haarlem, and travelled to Italy, Spain, and North Africa. He contributed to De nieuwe gids from its inception in 1885, and wrote impressionistic prose. As a painter, he belongs to the Amsterdamse school. Jacobus (Jac) van Looy (Sep 12, 1855, Haarlem - Feb 24, 1930, Haarlem) was a Dutch painter and …

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Jacopo Bellini

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy, the father of Gentile Bellini and Giovanni Bellini. He studied under Gentile da Fabriano, and painted a wide range of subjects; but only a few Madonnas in Italy and drawings in the Louvre and the British Museum remain, which show his interest in architectural and landscape setting. Jacopo Bellini (c.1400-1470), Venetian painter, was one of the Bellini fami…

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Jacopo della Quercia - Biography, Main works

Sculptor, born in Siena, C Italy. His greatest works include the city's fountain (the ‘Fonte Gaia’, executed 1414–19) and the reliefs on the portal of San Petronia, Bologna. Jacopo della Quercia (c. Jacopo della Quercia takes his name from Quercia Grossa, where he was born in 1374. They traveled to Lucca, where Jacopo, together with Arnolfo di Cambio, assisted Nicola Pisano i…

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Jacopo Palma

Painter of the Venetian School, born in Serinalta, NE Italy. He is particularly remembered for the ample blonde women who appear in many of his works, which were often sacred subjects or portrait groups, notably ‘Three Sisters’ (Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden). His brother's grandson, Jacopo (1544–1628), called il Giovane (‘the Younger’), was a prolific painter of religious pictures in a…

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Jacopo Peri

Composer, born in Rome, Italy. Attached to the Medici family in Florence, he became the leading composer in a group whose aim was to restore the true principles of Greek tragic declamation. Experimenting in an instrumentally accompanied declamatory style, he wrote Dafne (1597–89) and Euridice (1600), with libretti by the poet Ottavio Rinuccini (1562–1621), which have been historically accepted a…

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Jacopo Sansovino

Sculptor and architect, born in Florence, NC Italy. He was a pupil of Andrea Contucci Sansovino, from whom he took his name, and was responsible for bringing the High Renaissance style of his native Florence to Venice. From 1529 he was chief architect in Venice, where he is noted for several buildings, notably the Library of St Mark's (1540s). His early sculptures include the ‘Bacchus’ (c.1514, …

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Jacopone da Todi - The life, Legacy

Poet, born in Todi, Umbria, C Italy. Following the tragic death of his wife, he abandoned his profession as a solicitor and joined the order of the Friars Minor in 1278. In the controversy within the order, he sided with the ‘spiritual’ faction, and was excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII (1298) and jailed. Freed in 1303, he spent his last years in a monastery. His poetry, religious in theme, i…

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Jacqueline Cochran - Early life, Contributions to aviation, Political activities, Legacy, Awards

Aviator, born in Pensacola, Florida, USA. She received her pilot's licence in 1932, became the first woman to fly in the Bendix transcontinental air race in 1935, and in 1938 secured the transcontinental record. The International League of Aviators named her the world's outstanding woman pilot (1937–50, 1953). She became director of Women Auxiliary Service Pilots in the US air force in 1943. In 1…

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Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis - Early life, family and education, Kennedy marriage, First Lady of the United States, Kennedy assassination

US first lady (1961–3), born in Southampton, New York, USA. She studied at Vassar College, the Sorbonne, and Washington University, and worked as a reporter before marrying John F Kennedy in 1953. She was not always comfortable with the demands of being the wife of a Kennedy and a politician, but as first lady she promoted her personal agenda of the arts, history, and high style. Her first child …

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Jacqueline Susann - Early years, Middle Years, Final Chapter, Star Trek IV film reference, Sources

Popular novelist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After a moderately successful career as an actress she turned to writing. Her first novel, Valley of the Dolls (1968), became an immediate best seller, as did The Love Machine (1969). Jacqueline Susann (August 20, 1918, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – September 21, 1974, New York) was an American author known for her mass-appeal nove…

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Jacqueline Wilson - Bibliography

Writer, born in Bath, SW England, UK. After attending secretarial college she began work as a journalist, working on the popular teenage magazine Jackie which was named after her. She went on to become a full-time writer and has written over 70 books, mostly for children but also several crime novels for adults. Her works for children include The Suitcase Kid (1993), The Lottie Project (1998), The…

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Jacquerie

(1358) A serious peasant rebellion in NE France, noted for its savagery. Started by mercenaries following the English victory at Poitiers (1356), it degenerated (May 1358) into bitter violence between the oppressed peasantry, aggrieved Parisians, and their noble overlords; the latter massacred the insurgents indiscriminately at Meaux and Clermont-en-Beauvaisis (Jun 1358). The Jacquerie was …

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Jacques (-Emile) Soustelle

French politician and anthropologist, born in Montpellier, S France. He studied at the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Sorbonne (1937), and began a career in anthropology, becoming assistant director of the Musée d'Homme in Paris (1937–9). He turned to politics, and during World War 2 joined the Free French government, later holding a number of posts, including Governor-General of Algeria (195…

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Jacques (-Pierre-Michel) Chaban-Delmas

French statesman and prime minister (1969–72), born in Paris, France. He studied political science and law, and worked as a journalist before joining the army (1938). An active member of the Resistance, he began work as liaison officer for the Free French government (1943), being promoted to general in 1944. He later added his Resistance code-name Chaban to his surname. With the establishment of …

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Jacques (Fran - Life and importance, Operas, Film music

Composer, born in Paris, France. He studied in Paris, won the Prix de Rome in 1919, and became director of the French Academy in Rome (1937–55) and of the Opéra-Comique in Paris. His works include seven operas, ballets, cantatas, and chamber music, the orchestral Divertissement (1930), based upon his incidental music for Labiche's play, The Italian Straw Hat, and the Escales (1922) suite. …

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Jacques (Lucien) Monod - Bibliography

Biochemist, born in Paris, France. He studied at Paris University, served in the French Resistance during World War 2, then joined the Pasteur Institute in Paris. He became head of the cellular biochemistry department in 1954, and director in 1971, as well as professor of molecular biology at the Collège de France from 1967. With François Jacob he discovered genes that regulate other genes (oper…

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Jacques (Ren - Early life and family, Early political career, Prime Minister, 1974-76

French prime minister (1974–6, 1986–8) and president (1995– ). Educated in Paris, he became a civil servant, and was first elected to the National Assembly in 1967. He gained extensive governmental experience before being appointed prime minister by Giscard d'Estaing. He resigned over differences with d'Estaing and broke away to lead the Gaullist Party. Mayor of Paris since 1977, he was an unsu…

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Jacques (Salomon) Hadamard - Biography, Writings

Mathematician, born in Versailles, NC France. He studied in Paris, became lecturer at Bordeaux (1893–7) and the Sorbonne (1897–1909), and was then professor at the Collège de France and the Ecole Polytechnique until his retirement in 1937. He was a leading figure in French mathematics throughout his career, working in complex function theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equa…

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Jacques Anquetil - Early career, Later Tour de France victories, Other races, Dauphiné and Bordeaux-Paris double

Racing cyclist, born in Mont-Saint-Aignan, Normandy, NW France. He was the first man to win the Tour de France five times (1957, 1961–4). He also won the Tour of Italy in 1960 and 1964 and the Tour of Spain in 1963. An outstanding time-trialist, he won the Grand Prix des Nations a record nine times between 1953 and 1965. He retired in 1969. Jacques Anquetil (January 8, 1934 - November 18, …

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Jacques Babinet

Physicist, born in Lusignan, W France. He standardized light measurement by using the red cadmium line's wavelength as the standard for the angstrom unit. Babinet's principle, that similar diffraction patterns are produced by two complementary screens, is named after him. Jacques Babinet (March 5, 1794 in Lusignan, France – October 21, 1872 in Paris, France) was a French physicist, mathem…

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Jacques Barzun - Life, Ideas, Books by Barzun

Educator, cultural critic, and writer, born in Créteil, Paris, France. Arriving in the USA in 1920, he studied at Columbia University (1932 PhD), joined the faculty of Columbia (1927), and remained there as a professor of history and dean (emeritus 1967). A man of wide-ranging interests, his major professional areas were 19th-c European cultural history, music, and the history of ideas. His many …

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Jacques Borel - Books

Writer, critic, and translator, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Sorbonne, taught English (1952–67), and held several university posts in the USA (1966–83). His major work, L'Adoration, won the Prix Goncourt in 1965, and other works include the novel Le Retour (1970). He also translated the poems of James Joyce (1967) and edited Paul Verlaine's complete works (1959–62). …

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Jacques Brel - Biography, Translations of his work, Discography, Filmography, Trivia

Writer, composer, and performer, born in Schaerbeek, C Belgium. The son of a manufacturing family, he arrived in Paris in 1953, and appeared at Aux Trois Baudets and at l'Olympia the same year. He wrote more than 400 songs, which he interpreted with a discreet and sincere presence, which made him famous and took him to Carnegie Hall, USA in 1965. They include ‘Les Bourgeois’, ‘La valse à Mille…

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Jacques Callot - Life and training, Technical innovations: échoppe, new hard ground, stopping-out

Engraver and etcher, born in Nancy, NE France. In 1612 he went to study in Rome, then moved to Florence, where he gained a reputation with his engravings, many based on commedia dell'arte types. He returned to Nancy (1621), became a leading late Mannerist artist, and was invited by Louis XII to Paris, where he produced some of his most notable works. He executed etchings of the siege of La Rochell…

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Jacques Cartier - Biography, Legacy, Rediscovery of Cartier's first colony, Monuments, Popular references

Navigator, born in St-Malo, W France. He made three voyages of exploration to North America (1534–42), surveying the coast of Canada and the St Lawrence R, and providing the basis for later French claims in the area. Jacques Cartier (December 31, 1491 – September 1, 1557) was a French navigator who first explored and described the Gulf of St-Lawrence and the shores of the St-Lawrence Riv…

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Jacques D'Amboise

Ballet dancer and choreographer, born in Dedham, Massachusetts, USA. After training with the School of American Ballet, he joined the New York City Ballet in 1949. For more than 30 years he performed leading roles in such Balanchine classics as Apollo. He began choreographing works in 1963, and in 1977 he formed the National Dance Institute to teach dance to children in inner-city schools. The win…

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Jacques de Lacretelle

Writer, born in Cormatin, EC France. In the tradition of the psychological novel, his books include the autobigraphical La Vie Inquiète de Jean Hermelin (1920), Silbermann (Prix Fémina, 1922), L'Ame cachée (Grand Prix du Roman, 1929), and Les Hauts Ponts (4 vols, 1932–6). He worked through the war years as a journalist for Le Figaro of which he was a director. Post-war works include Le Pour et…

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Jacques de Vaucanson - Early life, Career as Inventor of Automatons, Appointment to French Government, Legacy

Engineer and inventor, born in Grenoble, E France. He went to Paris to study mechanics, and became adept at constructing automata such as a duck which swam, quacked, flapped its wings, and swallowed its food, developing for this delicate work machine tools of lasting importance. Appointed an inspector of silk factories (1741), he devised various improvements to the machines for weaving and dressin…

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Jacques Delille - Reference

Poet, born in Aigueperse, C France. He became famous with his translation of Virgil's Les Géorgiques (1769), followed by L'Enéide (1804), and Milton's Le Paradis Perdu (1805). His own poems include Les Jardins (1782) and L'Homme des champs (1800). He was supported for a time by the Abbey of Saint-Séverin but was not, in fact, an abbot. He married and travelled to Germany, England, and Switzerla…

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Jacques Delors

French and European statesman, born in Paris, France. He served as social affairs adviser to Jacques Chaban-Delmas (1969–72). He joined the Socialist Party in 1973, represented it in the European Parliament from 1979, and served as minister of economy and finance in the administration of President Mitterrand (1981–4). He became President of the European Commission in 1985, and was elected to a s…

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Jacques Demy - Filmography includes

Film-maker, born in Pontchateau, W France. He studied at l'École des Beaux-Arts, then made his first feature film Lola (1961) in Nantes. Later films include Les Parapluies de Cherbourg (1964), Les demoiselles de Rochefort (1967), and Une Chambre en Ville (1982). His work is characterized by spectacular sets, colour, and music provided by Michel Legrand, whilst at the same time dealing with seriou…

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Jacques Derrida - Life, Work, Deconstruction, Criticisms of Derrida, Politics, Derrida and his peers

French philosopher-linguist, born in Algeria. He studied in Paris and taught at Harvard, Yale, the Sorbonne, and the Ecole Normale Supérieure. His critique of the referentiality of language and the objectivity of structures founded the school of criticism called deconstruction. He advocated that the reader should look at how a text was put together in order to reveal its hidden meanings and the a…

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Jacques Doillon - Filmography

Film-maker, born in Paris, France. The maker of varied films in which he directs professionals and non-professionals alike with rigour and patience, his works include Un Sac de billes, a story set in 1941 about a small Jewish boy who escapes to the S of France, and Ponette (1996), which produced a remarkable performance from its four-year old star, Victoire Thivisol, who received the best actress …

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Jacques Dutronc - Career history, Selected discography, Selected Filmography, Further reading

Actor, composer, and performer, born in Paris, France. As a guitarist he performed with Johnny Hallyday in cellars, then in the ‘Calypso’ bar, meeting place of the first ‘rockers’. He became the accompanist to ‘Schmoll’ (Eddy Mitchell), composed for Zouzou (ex-twister), and Françoise Hardy, his future wife. Success arrived with ‘J'aime les filles’ in 1967. Other hits followed, including

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Jacques Gabriel

Classical architect, engineer, and town planner, born in Paris, France. He went to Italy with Robert de Cotte (1689), was elected to the Académie (1699), and succeeded de Cotte as chief architect to the king (1734). He designed many town houses in Paris, including the Hôtel Biron. In the provinces he designed the Hôtel de Ville at Rennes, the Place Royale at Bordeaux, the facade of La Rochelle …

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Jacques Henri (Charles Auguste) Lartigue

Photographer, born in Curbevoie, NC France. He adopted an informal approach to the photography of everyday subjects, including experiences in World War 1 and the life of the leisured classes of the 1920s. A one-man show at the New York Museum of Modern Art in 1963 aroused wide interest, and he is noted for his collection, Diary of a Century (1970). Jacques Henri Lartigue (June 13, 1894 - Se…

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Jacques Jasmin

Dialect poet, born in Agen, SW France. The son of a poor tailor, he was for most of his life a barber and wigmaker in Agen. His first collections of poems, Charivari (1825) and Papillotos (1835), were written mainly in his native langue d'oc. He read and sang in public in Toulouse and Bordeaux to great popular acclaim. His poems include Souvenirs (1835), Martha la folle (1844), and Les Deux Frère…

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Jacques Lacan - Career, Major concepts, Writings and seminars, Lacan and his discontents, Sources

Psychoanalyst and intellectual, born in Paris, France. A critic of modern psychoanalytic revisionism, he first became known in the 1930s with some original articles on Freudian ideas. In 1953 he gave a series of weekly seminars at the University of Paris, collected together in Ecrits (2 vols, 1966, 1971) which greatly influenced French thought. He was director of the École Freudienne de Paris fro…

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Jacques Laffite - Victories

French racing driver. He was severely injured at the start of the British Grand Prix at Silverstone in 1986, after an outstanding racing career in which he won six Grand Prix between 1977 and 1988, gaining 228 points in total. (key) (Races in bold indicate pole position) …

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Jacques Lecoq

Mime artist and director, born in Paris, France. He was an actor with the Compagnie des Comédiens in Grenoble (1945), teacher-director with the Padua University Theatre, Italy (1948), and a member of the Piccolo Theatre in Milan (1951). In 1956 he returned to Paris and established the Ecole Internationale de Mime et de Théâtre. He formed his own company in 1959, and began his research into the …

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Jacques Lemercier - Further reading

Architect, born in Pontoise, NC France, regarded as one of three major creators of the French classical style, along with François Mansart and Louis le Vau. He studied in Rome (c.1607–c.14), and on his return became architect to Richelieu. He built the Pavillon de l'Horloge at the Louvre (1644), the domed church of the Sorbonne (1635), and Richelieu's palace, later the Palais-Royal (1633). He al…

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Jacques Lipchitz

Sculptor, born in Druskininkai, S Lithuania. He studied engineering, then moved to Paris (1909–11), where he started producing Cubist sculpture in 1914. In the 1920s he experimented with abstract forms he called ‘transparent sculptures’. Later he developed a more dynamic style which he applied with telling effect to bronze figure and animal compositions. He emigrated to the USA in 1941, by whic…

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Jacques Loeb - Biography, Research area, Works

Physiologist, born in Mayen, Germany. He taught and performed research in Germany (1886–91), where his controversial research on caterpillars (1888) demonstrated that animals, like plants, possess similar mechanistic physiological responses (tropisms) to environmental stimuli. In 1899 he discovered artificial parthenogenesis in sea-urchin eggs. Frustrated by Bismarck's oppressive regime, he went …

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Jacques Maritain - Life, Work, Metaphysics and epistemology, Ethics, Political theory, Sayings, Writings

Philosopher and diplomat, born in Paris, France, the godson of Léon Bloys. He studied in Paris and Heidelberg, and converted to Catholicism in 1906. He renounced his collaboration with l'Action Française following its condemnation by the pope in 1927. He was professor at the Institut Catholique in Paris (1914–40), and taught mainly in North America, at Toronto, Columbia, Chicago, and Princeton …

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Jacques Marquette - Namesakes

Catholic missionary and explorer, born in Laon, France. As a young man and a Jesuit priest, his hero was St Francis Xavier. In 1666 he went to Quebec, Canada, where he learned Indian languages and proceeded to do missionary work among the Ottawa and Huron Indians in the Great Lakes region. In 1673, he and Louis Jolliet (French explorer, 1645–1700), searched for and found (17 Jun 1673) the waters …

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Jacques Necker - Early life, Finance Minister of France, Necker in the Revolution, Retirement, Places named after Jacques Necker

Statesman and financier, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. Initially a banker's clerk, he moved to Paris (1762), founded a bank, and became a wealthy speculator. In 1776–7 he was director of the French Treasury and director-general of finances. He attempted some administrative reforms, but tried to finance French involvement in the War of American Independence by heavy borrowing, while concealing t…

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Jacques Offenbach - Works, Musical sample

Composer, born in Cologne, W Germany. He moved to Paris in 1833, directing the Théâtre-Français orchestra in 1848, and becoming manager of the Bouffes-Parisiens in 1855. He composed many light, lively operettas, such as Orphée aux enfers (1858, trans Orpheus in the Underworld). He also produced one grand opera, Les contes d'Hoffmann (The Tales of Hoffmann), which was not produced until 1881, a…

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Jacques Pierre Brissot (de Warville) - Biography

French revolutionary politician, born near Chartres, NC France. After completing his studies in Paris he abandoned the legal profession for that of journalism. He was imprisoned for four months in the Bastille on the false charge of having written a brochure against the queen. In 1789 he was present at the storming of the Bastille, and was elected representative for Paris in the National Assembly.…

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Jacques Pradon

Playwright, born in Rouen, NW France. The success of his first tragedy, Pyrame et Thisbé (1674), earned him comparison with Racine, against Phèdre, on which his detractors composed a sonnet to which he replied in the same rhymes. It needed the intervention of Condé to put an end to this ‘querelle des sonnets’ in 1677. Pradon did not lack talent, as his Regulus (1688) proved, and in fact gave …

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Jacques Rivette - Filmography

Film-maker and critic, born in Rouen, NW France. Critic for Cahiers du cinéma from 1953, and its editor (1963–5), his first feature film Paris nous appartient (1961) was a personal homage to the capital city. One of the nouvelle vague directors, he came to prominence with his film La Religieuse (1966), which was attacked by some in the Catholic Church. Among later films are La Belle Noiseuse (19…

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Jacques Santer

Statesman, prime minister of Luxembourg (1984–95), and president of the European Commission (1995– 9), born in Wasserbillig, E Luxembourg. He studied law at the universities of Strasbourg and Paris, and attended the Institute of Political Science in Paris. Entering politics, he became secretary to the Christian Social People's Party (1966–72), secretary-general (1972–4), and president (1974–8…

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Jacques Tati - Filmography, Bibliography

Actor and film director, born in Le Pecq, NC France. He began in music hall, directed his first film in 1931, then wrote, directed, and acted in slapstick film comedies. After Jour de fête (1947, trans The Big Day), directed and written by himself, he made his reputation as the greatest film comedian of the post-war period, notably in Les vacances de Monsieur Hulot (1953, Mr Hulot's Holiday), Mon…

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Jacques Thibaud

Violinist, born in Bordeaux, SW France. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire and, as well as his solo performances, played with Alfred Cortot and Pablo Casals. He was particularly renowned for his interpretations of Mozart, Beethoven, and Debussy. He died in an air crash. Jacques Thibaud (September 27, 1880 - September 1, 1953) was a French violinist. Thibaud was born in Bordea…

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Jacques Villeneuve - Complete Formula One results

Motor-racing driver, born in Quebec, SE Canada. His father, Giles Villeneuve, also a racing driver, moved the family to Monaco in 1978, but at the age of 17 Jacques returned to Quebec to begin his racing career. In 1994, in his first season on the Indy Car circuit, he was named Rookie of the Year, and in 1995 became the youngest driver to win the PPG Indy Car World Series title. He joined Formula …

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Jacques Villon

Painter and engraver, born in Damville, NW France, the brother of Marcel Duchamp and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. He studied in Paris, where he met and befriended Toulouse-Lautrec. He earned his living producing satirical drawings for illustrated newspapers, and exhibited at the Salon d'Automne from 1904. In 1911 he became a Cubist and organized the Section d'Or exhibition of 1912 with Gleizes, Léger,…

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Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

Novelist, born in Le Havre, NW France. His army service as an engineer on the island of Mauritius provided him with material for his first work, Voyage a L'Ile de France (1773). He went on to gain popular success with his novel Paul et Virginie (1787), a pastoral of innocent love destroyed when civilization interferes. In the later La Chaumière indienne (1790), a traveller finds wisdom in the cot…

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Jacques-Louis David - Early life, Early work, The Revolution, Post Revolution, Napoleon, Exile

Painter, born in Paris, France. He won the Prix de Rome in 1774, and studied in Italy until 1780. Returning to France, he became known for his paintings of classical themes and historical events, such as ‘The Oath of the Horatii’ (1784, Louvre). He entered with enthusiasm into the Revolution, and painted several of its leaders. After Robespierre's death he was twice imprisoned, and narrowly esca…

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Jacquetta Hawkes - Research into Minoan Civilization

British archaeologist and writer. She studied at Cambridge, took part in excavations in Britain, France, and Palestine (1931–40), and was principal of the UK National Commision for UNESCO (1943–9) before taking up writing full-time. She married J B Priestley in 1953, and with him wrote Journey Down a Rainbow (1955). Her other works include The World of the Past (1963) and Shell Guide to British …

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jade - History, Other names, Faux Jade

A semi-precious stone, either of two distinct mineral species: the relatively rare jadeite (a green pyroxene) which is often translucent, and nephrite (a variety of amphibole) which has a waxy lustre. Commonly green or white in colour, it is often used in ornamental carvings. Nephrite was in use for ritual objects in China by the 3rd millennium BC, the rarer jadeite in Europe for axes in the later…

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jaguar - Etymology, Taxonomy, Biology and behaviour, Ecology, Conservation status, In mythology and culture

A big cat (Panthera onca), found from S USA to N Argentina; coat with rings of dark blotches surrounding dark spots; some individuals almost black; inhabits woodland and savannah near water; swims and climbs well; eats peccaries, capybaras, other mammals, birds, fish, turtles. The jaguar (Panthera onca) (Brazilian Portuguese: onça pintada) is a New World mammal of the Felidae family and on…

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Jahangir - Birth, Education, Marriage, Revolt, His Reign, His Autobiography, Death

Mughal emperor of India (1605–27), born in Fatehpur Sikri, NC India, the son of Akbar the Great. The earlier part of his reign was a period of peace and great prosperity for the empire, with a steady growth of trade and commerce and a great flowering of the arts. The later part of the reign was characterized by continual rebellions against his rule, principally on behalf of his various sons, and …

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Jahangir Khan - Playing career, Awards and service

Squash rackets player, born in Karachi, SE Pakistan. A member of a prolific squash-playing family, he won three world amateur titles (1979, 1983, 1985), a record six World Open titles (1981–5, 1988), and eight consecutive British Open titles (1982–9). He was undefeated from April 1981 to November 1986, when he lost to Ross Norman (Australia) in the World Open final. In 2002 he was appointed pres…

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Jaime Ben

Educator, born in Vieques, Puerto Rico, USA. He served as chancellor (1941–56) and president (1966–72) of the University of Puerto Rico and as the island's resident commissioner in Washington (1972–6). He was widely credited with finding university positions for scholars who were refugees, first from Franco and later from Hitler and other dictators. He brought such distinguished guests as Nobel…

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Jainism - Overview of Jain Dharma, Universal History and Jain Cosmology, Karmic Theory, Nine Tattvas, Beliefs and practices

An indigenous religion of India which regards Vardhamana Mahavira (599–527 BC), said to be the last Tirthankara, as its founder. Jains believe that salvation consists in conquering material existence through adherence to a strict ascetic discipline, thus freeing the ‘soul’ from the working of karma for eternal all-knowing bliss. Liberation requires detachment from worldly existence, an essentia…

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Jaipur - History, Geography, Location, Climate and rainfall, Infrastructure, Places to see, Educational facilities/institutions, Industry, Demographics

26°53N 75°50E, pop (2000e) 1 708 000. Capital of Rajasthan state, NW India, SW of Delhi; founded, 1727; railway; university (1947); textiles, metallurgy, stone carving, jewellery; Maharaja's palace, Sawai Man Singh Museum, Hawa Mahal (1739), Jantar Mantar observatory (1726); known as the ‘pink city’ since 1875, when Sawai Ram Singh had all the buildings of the bazaar painted pink. Ja…

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Jaisalmer - Origin of name, History, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Tourism, Visitor attractions, Desert Festival, Gallery, Further reading

Former princely state in present-day Rajasthan, NW India; reached peak of power in 12th-c, declined after 14th-c; remained under Mughal rule; entered into political relations with the British in 1818; became part of India in 1949. Jaisalmer pronunciation?(help·info) ("The Golden City") is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Jaisalmer is named after its founder Rawal Jaisal…

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Jakarta or Djakarta

6°08S 106°45E, pop (2000e) 10 069 000. Seaport capital of Indonesia; on NW coast of Java, at mouth of R Liwung on Jakarta Bay; largest Indonesian city; developed as a trading post, 15th-c; headquarters of Dutch East India Company, 17th-c; capital of Indonesia, 1949; airport; railway; 11 universities (1950–60); timber, textiles, shipbuilding, paper, iron, rubber, tin, oil, coffee, palm oil, t…

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Jake Gyllenhaal - Biography, Personal life, Filmography, Awards, Notes and references

Actor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. Born into a show business family, his parents are director Stephen Gyllenhaal and screenwriter Naomi Foner, and his sister is actress Maggie Gyllenhaal. At age 10 he made his film debut in City Slickers (1991), and after a number of films gained recognition for his role in Donnie Darko (2001). Later films include The Day After Tomorrow (2004), Brokeback…

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Jakob Balde

Writer, theologian, and scholar, born in Ensisheim, Alsace. His career included periods as court preacher which he combined with the post of royal tutor in Munich (1638–1646). His neo-Latin works, modelled on Horace, Virgil, and Ovid, are widely thought to be more significant for Baroque literature than his German ones, apart perhaps from Agathyrsus und Ehrenpreis Mariae (1647). The poetry volume…

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Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz - Life, Lenz as a literary figure, Selected works

Writer, born in Seßwegen, Livonia, Russia. One of the chief representatives of the ‘Sturm und Drang’ drama, his sociocritical attitudes, particularly towards the nobility and the officer caste, earned him official disgrace, not least at the court of Weimar, from where he was expelled in 1776. Influenced by Rousseau during his studies in Königsberg, he also had contacts with Goethe and Herder i…

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Jakob Steiner

Mathematician, born in Utzenstorf, WC Switzerland. He had no early schooling, did not learn to read and write until he was 14, then at 18 his extraordinary gift for geometry was discovered. He studied at Heidelberg and Berlin, and became professor at Berlin in 1834. He founded and became the classical authority on modern synthetic (projective) geometry. Jakob Steiner (18 March 1796 – Apri…

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Jakob Wassermann - Life, Works

Writer, born in Fürth, SC Germany. He was a contributor to the periodical Simplicissimus, and a friend of Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Arthur Schnitzler, and Thomas Mann. His exciting novels, which feature Jewish culture and background, were extremely popular in the 1920s and 1930s until he was denounced by the Nazi regime. They include Die Juden von Zirndorf (1897), Der Moloch (1903), and the Andergas…

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Jalalabad - History, Sister cities, Trivia

34º26N 76º25E, pop (2001e) 100 000. Capital of Nangarhar province, E Afghanistan; on Kabul R, near Khyber Pass, linked by road to Kabul; founded c.1570 by Akbar the Great; nearest Afghan city of importance to the Pakistan border; in Afghan Wars, British troops held the city (1842) against an Afghan siege; a Taliban stronghold with many guerilla training camps, some believed run by Osama bin La…

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jalap

A perennial climber (Ipomaea purga) with tuberous roots and twining annual stems; leaves heart-shaped-triangular; flowers funnel-shaped, pinkish-purple; native to Mexico. The resinous roots yield a purgative drug. (Family: Convolvulaceae.) Jalap is a cathartic drug consisting of the tuberous roots of Ipomaea purge, a convolvulaceous plant growing on the eastern declivities of the Sierra Mad…

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Jamaica - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Export and import, Communications, Demographics, Emigration, Education, Military

Local name Jamaica Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, 240 kilometres (150?mi) in length and as much as 85 kilometres (50?mi) in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Formerly a Spanish possession known as Santiago, then the British West Indies Crown colony of Jamaica. The original Arawak or Taino people from South America first settled on the island betwee…

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Jamaica Kincaid - Writing career, Miscellaneous, Works

Writer, born in St John, Antigua, West Indies. She emigrated to New York City and became a staff writer for the New Yorker in 1976. She has won recognition for her collections of short stories, such as At the Bottom of the River (1983), and Annie John (1985), a short-story cycle. Her work is noted for its telling detail and poetic diction. She came to New York at the age of 17 to work for a…

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James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler - Career and controversy, Selected works, Further reading

Painter and etcher, born in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA. The son of an engineer who was employed by the Russian Tzar, after his father's death in St Petersburg, Russia (1849), he returned to America and attended West Point (1851–4) but failed academically. He moved to Paris (1855–9), then to London where he spent most of the rest of his life. (He never did return to the USA.) By 1862 he was showi…

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James (Albert) Rosenquist

Painter, born in Grand Falls, North Dakota, USA. He studied at the Minneapolis School of Art (1948), at Minnesota University (1952–4), and at the Art Students' League (1955). He began as an abstract painter, but c.1960 took to Pop Art and painted enlarged bits and pieces of unrelated everyday objects. He held an exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1972. James Rosenquist (bo…

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James (Alexander) Mirrlees - Links

Economist, born in Minnigaff, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. He studied mathematics at Edinburgh and Cambridge, then taught at Oxford (1969–95) and Cambridge. He shared the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1996 for his work in analysing the consequences of incomplete financial information. Professor Sir James Mirrlees, FBA (born 5 July 1936, Minnigaff, Wigtownshire Scotland) is a Scot…

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James (Alfred) Van Allen - Honors, Timeline (1914-2006), Quotations

Physicist, born in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, USA. Educated at Iowa Wesleyan College and the University of Iowa, he became a fellow in nuclear physics at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's department of terrestrial magnetism (1939–41). He spent several years at Johns Hopkins University in the 1940s before returning to head the department of physics and astronomy at the University of Iowa (1951–…

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James (Alward) Van Fleet - Awards and decorations

US soldier, born in Coytesville, New Jersey, USA. He trained at West Point (1915), and during World War 1 he commanded a machine gun battalion in France. In World War 2 he held successively higher commands, culminating with that of the Third Corps. In 1948–50 he was in Greece to train and equip the Greeks fighting the Communist forces there. In 1951–3 he served in Korea, commanding the US Eighth…

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James (Amos) Purdy - Selected works

Writer, born in Ohio, USA. He studied at the Universities of Chicago and Puebla, Mexico. He taught at Lawrence College (Wisconsin) (1949–53), worked as an interpreter in France, Spain, and Latin America, and maintained a home in Brooklyn, NY. After early failures at being published in America, he was aided by Dame Edith Sitwell and his career was launched in England. He is known for his satirical…

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James (Anderson) DePreist

Symphony conductor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The nephew of Marian Anderson, he studied at the University of Pennsylvania (1958) and completed his musical studies at the Philadelphia Conservatory of Music (1961). He then served with the US State Department as a specialist in American music and as a conductor in Bangkok, Thailand (1963–4). In 1964 he won first prize in the Mitropoul…

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James (Anthony) Bailey

Showman, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Proprietor of Cooper & Bailey (1872–81), he took that circus on a world tour, then combined forces with chief rival P T Barnum to form Barnum and Bailey's circus (1881–1906). James Anthony Bailey (July 4, 1847–April 11, 1906) was a circus manager. Orphaned at the age of eight, McGuinness was working as a bellhop in Pontiac, Michigan when he was d…

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James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce - Life and writing, Major works, Legacy, Bibliography

Writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied in University College, Dublin, went in 1902 to Paris to study medicine, then took up voice training for a concert career. Back in Dublin, he published a few stories but, unable to make a living by his pen, left for Pola to tutor in English. He started the short-lived Volta Cinema Theatre in 1909, and left Dublin in 1910. He later went to Zürich (1915), …

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James (Barrett) Reston - Life, Legacy

Journalist, born in Clydebank, WC Scotland, UK. Joining the New York Times Washington bureau in 1939, he became an outstanding reporter and political analyst, winning two Pulitzer Prizes (1945, 1957). In the 1960s he became associate and then executive editor of the Times, while also writing a regular column. James Barrett Reston (November 3, 1909 – December 6, 1995) (nicknamed "Scotty") …

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James (Bicheno) Francis

Engineer and inventor, born in South Leigh, Devon, SW England, UK. He emigrated to the USA in 1833, working first on railroad construction. By 1837 he had been appointed chief engineer to the Proprietors of the Locks and Canals on the Merrimack River, and when they decided in 1845 to develop the river's power potential he began to work on the design of the turbine that now bears his name. He is al…

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James (Buchanan) Duke

Businessman and philanthropist, born near Durham, North Carolina, USA. He grew leaf tobacco on his father's farm and saved his family from post-Civil War poverty. He turned to manufacturing cigarettes (1881), opened a branch factory in New York City (1884), and formed the American Tobacco Co (1890) which competed with the British Imperial Tobacco Co. He also founded the Southern Power Co (1905) to…

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James (Byron) Dean - Childhood and education, Acting career, Racing career and "Little Bastard", Death

Film actor, born in Marion, Indiana, USA. Raised on an Iowa farm, after high school he attended college in California, where he joined a small theatre group and did occasional television commercials and bit-part film appearances. Arriving in New York (1952), he obtained a part in See the Jaguar on Broadway. Continuing with small parts on television, he acted on Broadway in The Immoralist (1954), w…

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James (du Maresq) Clavell - Personal life, "The Asian Saga", Films, Novels

Novelist, cinema scenarist, director, and producer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He has worked mainly in the USA. Though his screen credits include The Fly (1958), The Great Escape (1963), and To Sir With Love (1967), he is known primarily as the author of a series of best-selling novels with an Oriental setting. King Rat was published in 1962, and was followed by Tai-Pan (1966),…

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James (Edward) Keeler

Astronomer, born in La Salle, Illinois, USA. He studied at Johns Hopkins, Heidelberg, and Berlin universities, and became director of the Allegheny Observatory, Pittsburgh (1891–8), then of the Lick Observatory, CA. He established the composition of Saturn's rings (as Maxwell had postulated), and carried out important spectroscopic work on nebulae, discovering 120 000 of them. James Edwar…

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James (Ephraim) Lovelock - Life history, Professional career, Controversy, Books

British scientist. He studied at Manchester and London, worked at the National Institute for Medical Research (1941–61), was professor of chemistry at Baylor University, TX (1961–4), and then worked as an independent scientist. He is best known as the originator of the ‘Gaia hypothesis’, a controversial ecological idea that considers the Earth as a single living entity, in his book Gaia (1979)…

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James (George) Abourezk

US representative and senator, born in Wood, South Dakota, USA. A Lebanese-American, he grew up on an Indian reservation, served in the US Navy (1948–52), then worked as an engineer before becoming a lawyer in 1966. He was a member of the House of Representatives (Democrat, South Dakota, 1971–3) and the Senate (Democrat, South Dakota, 1973–9). He was a spokesman for the Arab cause and the chair…

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James (Grover) Thurber - Biography, Career, Thurber's brain, Biographies of Thurber

Writer and cartoonist, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. One of America's great humorists, he wrote short stories and drew witty cartoons as a staff member of the New Yorker magazine (1927–33) and thereafter as a contributor, until his death in 1961. He portrayed the preposterousness and frustrations of modern life in such collections as The Owl in the Attic and Other Perplexities (1931), The Seal in …

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James (Howard) Meredith - Further reading

Civil-rights activist and business executive, born in Kosciusko, Mississippi, USA. After serving in the US Air Force, he became the first African-American to enroll in the University of Mississippi (1962), but only after he had weathered campus riots (which left two dead) and the resistance of state officials. Federal troops had to protect him on campus until he graduated (1963). He published his …

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James (Ingram) Merrill - Life, Awards, Style, Works by Merrill, Works about Merrill

Poet and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of the wealthy stockbroker Charles Merrill, he studied at Amherst (1947 BA), and then lived abroad (Greece and elsewhere) for many years, but maintained a home in Stonington, CT. He wrote plays and novels, but is best known for his elegant, elliptical poetry, as in The Changing Light at Sandover (1982), which also revealed his involvem…

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James (Iredell) Waddell

US naval officer, born in Pittsboro, North Carolina, USA. He served in the US Navy (1841–62) and then the Confederate States Navy (1862–5). He commanded the Confederate raider Shenendoah on a 58 000 mi, around-the-globe voyage (1864–5) and decimated the New England whaling fleet in the Pacific Ocean. Following an amnesty, he returned to the USA and engaged in commercial sailing. James …

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James (John Fanto) Deetz - Published works

Anthropologist, archaeologist, and museum administrator, born in Cumberland, Maryland, USA. He studied at Harvard gaining a PhD. His early work focused on North American Indians, and in his studies of residence patterns and ceramic decoration as a reflection of social organization, he was one of the first American contributors to the scientific methodology that created the so-called ‘new archaeol…

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James (Joseph) Ling

Electronics manufacturer and conglomerate organizer, born in Hugo, Oklahoma, USA. His Dallas electrical contracting firm (formed 1946) acquired numerous electronics and aircraft companies and became the conglomerate Ling-Temco-Vought Corp (LTV) (1961), which in turn he diversified into the largest conglomerate in the country. After his removal as chairman (1970), he managed other holding companies…

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James (Lafayette) Dickey

Poet and writer, born in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. He served in World War 2 before entering Vanderbilt University (1949–50). The Stone (1960) was his first published book of poems. He travelled widely and taught at a succession of universities, later becoming poetry consultant to the Library of Congress (1966–8). In addition to his poetic works, he is known for his novel Deliverance (1970), for whi…

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James (Maitland) Stewart - Other

Film star, born in Indiana, Pennsylvania, USA. An architecture student at Princeton University, he started in films in 1935, establishing a character of honesty and integrity in You Can't Take It With You (1938), Destry Rides Again (1939), and the comedy The Philadelphia Story (1940, Oscar), and It's a Wonderful Life (1946). He served with distinction in the US air force during World War 2, and re…

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James (Mark) Baldwin - Biography, Baldwin and Maine de Biran, Organic Selection, Psychologist, Baldwin effect, Influence, Written work, Additional Reading

Psychologist, born in Columbia, South Carolina, USA. A specialist in child psychology and social psychology, he was professor at Toronto (1889), Princeton (1893), Johns Hopkins (1903), and the University of Mexico (1909), settling in Paris in 1913. He was the founder-editor of the Psychological Review (1894–1909), and editor of the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1901–6). James M…

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James (Mark) Cameron - Background, Early career, Awards, Recurring Cast Members, Filmography (Director), Filmography (Screenwriter), Personal life

Journalist, born in London, UK. His career began as an office boy for the Weekly News (1935), and progressed to Fleet Street in 1940, working for The Daily Express, Picture Post, and the New Chronicle (1952–60). He became known as a roving reporter on war, poverty, and injustice, renowned for his integrity, dry wit, and concise summaries. He was also a writer and presenter of many television prog…

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James (Martin) Fenton - Published works

Poet and essayist, born in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Repton and Magdalen College, Oxford, and his first collections of poems, Terminal Moraine (1972), won the Eric Gregory Award. He was war correspondent for the New Statesman, reporting most notably on the fall of Saigon, and in 1983 he accompanied the writer Redmond O'Hanlon (1947– ) through Borneo. He has been compare…

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James (Murray) Mason - Filmography

US senator and diplomat, born in Georgetown, District of Columbia, USA, the grandson of George Mason. As US senator from Virginia (1847–61), he supported Southern rights and drafted the Fugitive Slave Act (1850). In 1861, en route to England on a mission to seek English diplomatic recognition for the Confederacy, he and John Slidell were taken by Union forces from the British ship Trent, and held…

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James (Prescott) Joule - Life, Work, Honours, Trivia

Physicist, born in Salford, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Manchester University under John Dalton. In a series of experiments (1843–78) he showed that heat is a form of energy, and established the mechanical equivalent of heat. This formed the basis of the theory of the conservation of energy. He also worked with Lord Kelvin on temperature changes in gases, which led to the fo…

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James (Robert) Mann - Education, Professional life, Service in the House, Notable Legislation

US representative, born in Bloomington, Illinois, USA. A successful attorney from Chicago, he was a Republican congressman (1897–1922), skilled in legislation and parliamentary tactics, and a protégé of Joseph Cannon. Among the acts he sponsored are the Mann–Elkins Act, which regulated railroad rates, the Pure Food and Drugs Act (1906), and the Mann Act to prohibit transporting minors across s…

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James (Rowland) Angell - Background, Published Books/Articles

Educator and psychologist, born in Burlington, Vermont, USA. The son of James Burrill Angell, he was influenced by such teachers as John Dewey and William James. He completed his graduate studies in Europe, and spent a year (1893) teaching psychology at the University of Minnesota before joining the staff of the University of Chicago (1894–1919), where he was also an administrator and president (…

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James (Rufus) Agee - List of works

Novelist, poet, film critic, and screen writer, born in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. He studied at Harvard, and worked for several magazines before being commissioned to rove the Southern states with the photographer Walker Evans, producing Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941). His film scripts include The African Queen (1951) and The Night of the Hunter (1955). His novel, A Death in the Family (publ…

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James (Simon Wallis) Hunt - Complete Formula One results

Motor-racing driver and broadcaster, born in London, UK. He studied at Wellington College, and planned to take up medicine until he was introduced to motor-racing at 18. From club racing with a Mini, where he earned the nickname ‘Hunt the Shunt’, he quickly progressed through Formula Three and Two to Formula One with the Hesketh Team, joined McLaren, and won the World Championship in 1976. He re…

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James (Vincent) Forrestal - Early life and career, Government Work, Forrestal's Death, Further reading

Cabinet officer, born in Matteawan (now Beacon), New York, USA. After making a fortune as an investment banker, he became the under-secretary (1940) and then secretary of the navy (1944). Although originally opposed to uniting the armed services into one department, he became the first secretary of defence (1947–9), where he advocated hard-line anti-Communist policies and strengthened the armed f…

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James (Wilson) Marshall

Gold finder, born in Hunterdon Co, New Jersey, USA. After some 14 years in Indiana, Illinois, and Kansas Territory, he arrived at Sutter's Fort (present day Sacramento) in 1845. After losing his land and livestock, he was building a sawmill for John Sutter, near present-day Coloma, CA (1848), when he discovered gold; this launched the California ‘gold rush’ of 1849. The government refused to rec…

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James A(nthony) Walsh - Background, Bibliography

Catholic prelate, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Ordained in 1892, he co-founded the Catholic Mission Bureau (1906) to support foreign missions and, with Father Thomas Price, won approval for a seminary for missionaries (1911). He was the first superior of the new Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America (Maryknoll), which dispatched its first missionaries in 1918. He was consecrated a bis…

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James Adair - Works

Pioneer and trader, born in Co Antrim, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He was in South Carolina by 1735 and traded with the Catawba, Cherokee, and Choctaw Indians. His book, In The History of the American Indians (1775), argued that the Indians were descended from the ancient Hebrew tribes. James Makittrick Adair, M.D. (1728—1802), a native of Inverness, and youngest son of James Makittrick, an …

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James Albertus Tawney

US representative, born near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, USA. A blacksmith who became a lawyer in 1882, he served in the Minnesota Senate. In the US House of Representatives (Republican, 1893–1911) he was majority whip and chairman of the Committee on Appropriations. James Albertus Tawney (January 3, 1855 - June 12, 1919) was a U.S. politician and a member of the United States House of Repre…

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James Anthony Froude - Other works

Writer and historian, born in Dartington, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became part of the Oxford Movement. His early novels were controversial, notably The Nemesis of Faith (1848), and he was forced to resign his post. He then worked as an essayist and editor, and wrote his History of England (12 vols, 1856–69). He became Rector of St Andrews in 1869, and professor of mod…

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James Arness - Military service in World War II, Acting career, Filmography, Television Work

Actor, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. He was wounded in the invasion in Anzio, Italy in 1944. After working as a screen actor in the 1940s and 1950s, he took on the role of Marshall Matt Dillon (after John Wayne turned it down), the no-nonsense, good-hearted hero of CBS's Gunsmoke, television's first and longest running Western series (1955–75). His brother was the television actor Peter Gr…

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James Augustine Healy

Catholic prelate, born in Jones Co, Georgia, USA. The son of a black slave woman and white plantation owner, he graduated from Holy Cross College (1849) and was ordained in Paris (1854). After serving as a pastor and administrator in the Boston archdiocese, he was named Bishop of Portland, ME (1875). The nation's first African-American Catholic bishop, though not widely known as such, he was an ef…

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James Augustus Grant - Trivia

British soldier and explorer, born in Nairn, Highland, N Scotland, UK. Educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, he joined the British army, eventually reaching the rank of colonel, and saw service in the Battle of Gujerat, the Indian Mutiny, and in the Abyssinian campaign of 1868. He is best known as a colleague of John Hanning Speke, with whom he explored the sources of the Nile (1860–3), keepin…

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James B(uchanan) Eads - Fortune, Civil War, Bridge

Engineer and inventor, born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, USA. He invented a diving bell, and founded a salvage company that made a fortune from sunken river steamboats. In 1861 he built in 100 days eight ironclad Mississippi steamers for the government, followed by other ironclads and mortar-boats. He is best remembered for the steel triple-arched Eads Bridge (1867–74) across the Mississippi at St L…

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James Barron

Naval officer, probably born in Norfolk, Virginia, USA. After youthful service in the Revolution, he became a lieutenant in the US navy (1798). Commanding the USS Chesapeake in its disastrous fight with the British Leopold (1807), he was court-martialled and found guilty of negligence. After five years with the French navy, he returned to the US navy. Convinced that Stephen Decatur was leading an …

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James Beard - Beard's Legacy: The James Beard House the James Beard Foundation, Personal Life

Cooking expert and writer, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. He published his first cookbook in 1940, hosted the first televised food show (1946–7), and founded his own New York cooking school (1955). He championed American cuisine in many articles and more than two dozen cookbooks, including James Beard's American Cookery (1972) and The New James Beard (1981). Beard's family operated a small…

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James Biddle

US naval officer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He joined the navy in 1800 and served in the Tripolitan War and the War of 1812. By leaving a lead plate at the mouth of the Columbia River (1818) he claimed the Oregon Territory for the USA, and helped to negotiate the first treaty between the USA and China (1846). James Biddle (February 18, 1783 - October 1, 1848), of the Biddle f…

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James Boswell - Early life, European travels, Mature life, Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson, Quotations

Man of letters and biographer, the son of Lord Auchinleck, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh High School and University, then studied civil law at Glasgow and Utrecht, and on his travels through Europe met Voltaire and Rousseau. At 18 he began his private, often scandalous journal, published in 18 volumes as The Private Papers of James Boswell from Malahide Castle (1928–…

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James Bowdoin

US statesman, merchant, and governor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A wealthy merchant and property owner, he served in the Massachusetts General Court and Council, and although hardly a revolutionary, he did endorse the colonists' economic quarrels with the British. He served as president of the convention that drew up the new constitution for Massachusetts (1779), then became governor (178…

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