Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 36

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Imperial War Museum - The Museum, History, Visiting the Museum, Other branches

The Museum of British and Commonwealth military operations since 1914, founded in London as a memorial to those who died in World War 1. It was housed in the Crystal Palace until 1924, when it was moved to the former Imperial Institute and then to the Royal Bethlehem Hospital. A new branch, the Imperial War Museum North, opened in Manchester in 2002. Its theme is war and conflict in the 20th and 2…

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imperialism - Etymology, Modern imperialism, Marxist theory of Imperialism

The extension of the power of the state through the acquisition, normally by force, of other territories, which are then subject to rule by the superior power; also called colonialism. Many suggest that the motivation behind imperialism is economic, through the exploitation of cheap labour and resources, and the opening up of new markets. Others suggest that non-economic factors are involved, incl…

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Imperio Argentina

Spanish film actress, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. She began her artistic career as a dancer and singer. Discovered by the film director Florián Rey, whom she married, their collaboration for more than 20 years began with La hermana San Sulpicio (1927) and embraced over a dozen titles, notably Nobleza baturra (1935) and Morena clara (1936), which was greatly popular in post-Civil War Spain. A…

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impetigo - Causes, Transmission, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

A superficial infection of the skin common in children, usually due to Staphylococcus aureus. Infection affects the face, hands, and knees, and is characterized by reddened areas followed by transient blisters which break and then develop crusts. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection most common among children age 2–6 years (rare among people not in this age group). Impetig…

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Impressionism (art) - Overview, Beginnings, Impressionist techniques, Content and composition, Post-Impressionism, Painters known as Impressionists

A modern art movement which started in France in the 1860s - though the genre was anticipated in Ming China by the landscapist Shen Zhou (1427–1509). The name, coined by a hostile critic, was taken from Claude Monet's picture, ‘Impression: sunrise’ (1872). The Impressionists, who included Pissarro, Sisley, and Renoir, rejected the dark tones of 19th-c studio painting, set up their easels out-of…

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Impressionism (literature)

A term taken from painting to signify the conveying of a subjective impression of the world rather than its objective appearance. In literature the term is rather imprecise, and to some extent overlaps with Expressionism. It relates primarily to the practice of the Symbolist poets and the psychological or stream-of-consciousness novel, drawing attention to the blurred outlines, shifting categories…

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Impressionism (music) - Overview, Beginnings, Impressionist techniques, Content and composition, Post-Impressionism, Painters known as Impressionists

A style of harmony and instrumentation which, on analogy with the Impressionist school of painting, blurs the edges of tonality, shuns the primary instrumental colours of the Romantics, and generally aims for veiled suggestion and understatement. The term has been used (sometimes indiscriminately) with reference to music by Debussy and some of his French contemporaries. Impressionism was a …

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imprinting (genetics) - Other imprinted genes

The specific silencing of some DNA regions from a parent during meiosis and the formation of sperm or egg. In the resulting offspring the genes in these areas will not be able to be active. Disease can occur where a DNA deletion from the non-imprinted parent is matched by imprinting on the corresponding chromosome from the other parent. Examples of diseases caused by imprinting are Angelman and Pr…

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improvisation - Musical improvisation, Singing Improvisation, Theater, Dance, Film, Comedy, Poetry, Television, Role-playing games

The performance of music without following a predetermined score; an important constituent of music for many centuries. In the Baroque period, a keyboard continuo player was expected to improvise an accompaniment from a figured base, while the reputations of singers and instrumentalists depended greatly on their ability to introduce suitable ornaments and embellishments, especially into slow piece…

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Imran Khan - Cricketer, Personal life and social work, Politician, Accusations of ball tampering, Further reading

Cricketer, born in Lahore, NE Pakistan. He studied at Oxford, playing in his first Test at 18 while at the university. One of the greatest all rounders, he was a fast bowler, adaptable batsman, and astute captain who inspired Pakistan's rise to prominence in world cricket. After leading Pakistan to the 1992 World Cup, he retired with a total of 3807 runs and 362 wickets in Test matches. He also pl…

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Imre Lakatos - Life, Proofs and refutations, Research programs

Philosopher of mathematics and science, born in Debrecen, E Hungary. He moved to England after the Hungarian uprising in 1956, and taught at the London School of Economics, where he became a professor in 1969. His best-known work is Proofs and Refutations (1976), a collection of articles demonstrating the creative and informal nature of real mathematical discovery. Imre Lakatos (November 9,…

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Imre Nagy - Biography

Hungarian statesman and prime minister (1953–5), born in Kaposvar, SW Hungary. He had a minor post in the Béla Kun revolutionary government in Hungary. He then went to Moscow (1929), and became a member of the Institute for Agrarian Sciences. Returning with the Red Army (1944), he was minister of agriculture, and as premier introduced milder political control. When Soviet forces began to put dow…

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Ina (Donna) Coolbrith

Writer, born near Springfield, Illinois, USA. A Californian from childhood until her death, she lived after 1865 in San Francisco, where she was Bret Harte's co-editor on Overland Monthly. Thirty years a librarian, she published three volumes of distinctively simple lyrical verse (1881–95) that were to earn her selection as the state's first poet laureate (1915). Ina Coolbrith (born Joseph…

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Incarnation - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Rastafari

In Christianity, the union between the divine and human natures in the one Jesus Christ; the ‘Word’ of God becoming ‘flesh’ (John 1.14). The term is also appropriate to other religions (eg Hinduism) in which a life-spirit is given a material form. While Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism are perhaps the most widely-known traditions to employ this concept within the context of their re…

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incense - Forms and use of incense, Manufacturing, Religious use of incense, Asian incense, Incense and cancer

A mixture of gums and spices which gives off a fragrant odour when burnt. It is widely used in many religious rites, and its smoke is often regarded as symbolic of prayer. Its use in Christianity cannot be traced before c.500. Its use in the Churches of the East is more widespread than in those of the West. Incense is available in numerous forms and degree of processing. However, incense ca…

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incest - Inbreeding among animals, Distinctions between incest and inbreeding, Genetics, Incest versus exogamy, Forms of Incest

Sexual relations with close kin. In Western society, it refers to sex in the nuclear family other than between man and wife, but the precise specification of when a relationship is too close to allow sexual relations varies between cultures and over time. The forbidding of sexual intercourse - and marriage - between kin who are regarded as too closely related, is known as an incest taboo. I…

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incitement - Relationship with other offences, The actus reus, Impossibility, Statutory incitement

To instigate or encourage another person to commit a crime or offence - itself a crime at common law. If the offence is actually committed, the inciter is as guilty as the perpetrator, and where the crime or offence is either impossible to commit or the inciter does not persuade the other to commit the crime, the inciter may be guilty of attempted incitement. While there can be incitement to commi…

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income tax - Principles, Income tax systems

A major source of government revenue, levied on personal incomes. Income below some lower limit is usually exempt, and the tax rate levied on further slices of income varies, at rates fixed from time to time in the budget. There may also be a range of special tax allowances, such as for charitable covenants. In the UK, income tax is collected ‘at source’, by deduction from wages through ‘Pay As…

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incontinence

The involuntary loss of urine or faeces, which tends to occur when intra-abdominal pressure is increased, such as during coughing. It is common in children, particularly in the form of bedwetting at night (nocturnal eneuresis). It also affects the elderly due to a loss of tone in the muscular rings (sphincters) that control the passage of urine and faeces from the bladder and bowel; these muscles …

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Increase Mather - Early life, Establishing himself in Massachusetts, Getting involved in politics, Involvement in the Salem witch trials

Congregational minister and writer, born in Dorchester (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard and Dublin, and was put in charge of Great Torrington, Devon; but in 1661, finding it impossible to conform, he returned to America, and from 1664 until his death was pastor of the Second Church, Boston. He also became president of Harvard (1681–1701). He published no fewer than …

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Independence Hall - Building Architecture, Significance, Gallery, Independence Hall in Popular Culture

A building in Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, where the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed (1776); a world heritage site. The Liberty Bell, rung at the proclamation, is kept here. Independence Hall, officially known as the Pennsylvania State House, is a U.S. national landmark located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Known primarily as the locati…

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Independent Labour Party (ILP) - Foundation and growth, The 21st anniversary congress certificate, Further reading

A British political party formed in 1893 with the objective of sending working men to parliament. It was socialist in aim, but wished to gain the support of working people whether they were socialist or not. One of its leading figures was Keir Hardie. Many of its leaders played a major part in founding the Labour Representation Committee (1900), which became the Labour Party in 1906. It was affili…

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index (mathematics)

A notation which simplifies the writing of products, eg 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 is written 24, where 4 is the index (or exponent); it can be extended to give meaning to fractional, negative, and other indices. When numbers are written in index form, eg 16 = 24, certain laws of indices exist. These are am × an = am+n; am ÷ an = am?n; (am)n = amn; a0 = 1; a?n = 1/an; a1/q = q?a; a…

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index fund - Origins of the index fund, Economic theory, Indexing methods, Advantages, Disadvantages of index funds, Diversification

An investment fund where shares are bought in all the companies listed in the main stock exchange index, then held. In this way the portfolio of shares will always equal movements in the stock market. The strategy is attractive where there is a fear of underperforming the market. It is more popular in the USA than in the UK. An index fund or index tracker is a collective investment scheme t…

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Index Librorum Prohibitorum - Some notable writers on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum

A list of books which members of the Roman Catholic Church were forbidden to read. It originated with the Gelasian Decree (496), and was frequently revised, the last revision being published in 1948. Although the Roman Catholic Church still claims the right to prevent its members reading material harmful to their faith or morals, it was decided in 1966 to publish no further editions. The In…

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indexation

A system under which contracts provide for regular revision of prices, wages, pensions, or rents in line with some chosen index of prices. The argument for indexation is that it offers stability of real incomes in times of inflation to workers or pensioners, and avoids the need for repeated ad hoc renegotiation of wages, etc. The disadvantage of widespread indexation is that if the various revisio…

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Indian architecture - Hindu architecture, Buddhist and Jain architecture, Rajput architecture, South Indian Architecture

The architecture of the Indian subcontinent, which varies greatly according to time, location, and religion. Before the 16th-c, the earliest examples are Buddhist cave temples and stupas. Hindu temples are characterized by an elaborate use of carved decoration, and can be sub-divided into three geographical types: Northern, Chalukyan, and Dravidian. The formation of the Mughal dynasty in 1526 prec…

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Indian art - Interrelationship in Indian arts, Rock cut art, Folk and tribal art, Fine Art, Music

The art associated with the Indian subcontinent. Visual art, especially sculpture, has flourished here since prehistoric times, but the historical tradition of Indian art really begins in the 3rd-c BC during the reign of Asoka (264–223 BC). Buddhist stupas (earth mounds) were adorned with relief sculpture from the 1st-c AD. Figurative sculpture at Ganhara (2nd–6th-c AD) reflected Hellenistic inf…

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Indian dance - Classical Indian dance, Indian folk dances, Shaivite tradition, Vaishnava tradition

An ancient dance tradition based on Hindu thought, but showing Arab and Mughal influences. Shiva is the god who symbolizes eternal movement. Dance forms can be divided into classical and folk. Classical dance forms are of religious or court origin, while folk forms are social and based in village life. Indian classical dance is traditionally learned through attachment to a guru, the dances ranging…

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Indian literature - Sanskrit literature, Prakrit literature, South Indian literature, Hindustani lterature, Indian literature in foreign languages, Awards

A label which includes the literatures of numerous languages, principally Classical Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi, Urdu, and Bengali. The oldest works are in Sanskrit. These include the texts of the Veda (‘sacred love’) in four collections which date back to the first millennium BC: Rigveda, Atharvarvedra, Yagurvedra, and Samavedra; and also the great Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. Later Sanskri…

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Indian National Congress - List of presidents of the Party

A broad-based political organization, founded in 1885, which spearheaded the nationalist movement for independence from Britain under the leadership of charismatic figures such as M K Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. It has been the dominant political party in India since 1947. …

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Indian Ocean - Geography, Economy, History, Major ports and harbors

area 73 426 000 km²/28 350 000 sq mi. Third largest ocean in the world, bounded W by Africa, N by Asia, E by Australia and the Malay archipelago, and S by the Southern Ocean; width c.6400 km/4000 mi at the Equator; maximum depth of 7125 m/23 375 ft in the Java Trench; linked to the Mediterranean by the Suez Canal; floor divided into E and W sections by the Mid-Oceanic Ridge; rift vall…

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Indian philosophy - Summary

Philosophical inquiry in India goes back to the late Vedic age when, with a shift in focus from ritual to knowledge, two directions emerged. One was the ritually based Mimamsa, incorporating the injunctions of the Veda and concerned with its exegesis as a system of ritual and with its language; the other was the gnostic Vedanta, with its ontology of unity. Buddhism reacted to this unity by postula…

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Indian Territory - Indian country

Land set aside in the USA as a ‘permanent’ home for native Americans removed from the area E of the Mississippi R between 1825 and 1840. Originally it included most of Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Arkansas, but by the end of the 19th-c most of it had been opened to whites. Indian Territory, also known as Indian Country, Indian territory or the Indian territories, was the land set asid…

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Indian Wars - Colonial era (1622–1774), East of the Mississippi (1775–1842)

(1622–1890) The process of invasion and conquest by which white people settled the present USA. The Europeans set out to remake the New World in the image of the old, if possible by persuasion, if necessary by force. The result was the destruction of the Indians' population, cultures, and economies. The whites' two greatest allies were disease and their own culture, as represented by artifacts a…

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Indiana - Geography, Demographics, Important cities and towns, Law and government, Transportation, Education, Professional sports teams, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 6 081 000; area 93 716 km²/36 185 sq mi. State in EC USA, S of L Michigan, divided into 92 counties; the ‘Hoosier State’; 19th state to join the Union, 1816; visited by La Salle in 1679 and 1681; occupied by the French, who ceded the state to the British in 1763; scene of many major Indian battles; capital, Indianapolis; chief towns, Fort Wayne, South Bend, Gary, Evansville;…

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indictment - In the United States

A document specifying the particulars of an offence of which a person is accused. More than one offence may be involved; these are listed as separate ‘counts’ or ‘charges’ within the one document. Indictable offences in England and Wales are generally those triable before a judge and jury in the Crown Court, such as murder. In Scotland, such offences are tried in the High Court or the Sheriff …

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indigo - Distinction between four shades of indigo, Indigo in culture

A dye obtained from a species of Indigofera, particularly anil (Indigofera anil), a tropical American shrub, and Indigo tinctoria, a shrubby perennial growing to 2·5 m/8 ft; leaves pinnate; pea-flowers red, in short clusters. It was formerly cultivated in India and Sumatra, but is now little grown, since the demand for natural indigo virtually ceased following the introduction of aniline dyes. …

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Indira (Priyadarshini) Gandhi - Early years, Rise to power, Nuclear security and the Green Revolution, Emergency

Indian stateswoman and prime minister (1966–77, 1980–4), born in Allahabad, NE India, the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. She studied at Visva-Bharati University (Bengal), and in 1942 married Feroze Gandhi (d.1960). She became president of the Indian Congress Party (1959–60), minister of information (1964), and prime minister following the death of Shastri. After her conviction for election malpr…

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indirect rule - Cases

A form of colonial rule especially characteristic of British rule in Africa during the inter-war years. In general terms it involved the use of existing political structures, leaders, and local organs of authority. Thus local political elites enjoyed considerable autonomy, although they still had to keep in accord with the interests of the colonial power. It was adopted on grounds of its cheapness…

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individualism - Political individualism, Individualism and society, Economic individualism

Any thesis which maintains that wholes of a certain type (organisms, societies) can be fully understood and explained in terms of the properties and relations of their individual parts. Methodological individualism is the thesis that the workings of societies can be explained entirely by reference to the activities of the individuals in them; the contrary thesis is holism. Individua…

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Indo-Aryan languages - History, List, Bibliography

The easternmost branch of the Indo-European languages, comprising some 500 languages spoken by 500 million people in N and C India. Its subgroupings are exemplified by Panjabi (or Punjabi, c.73 million) in the NW; Gujarati (c.43 million) and Marathi (c.65 million) in the W and SW; Hindi and Urdu (together, 240 million) in the mid-N; and Bengali and Assamese (together, c.93 million) in the E. (Figu…

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Indo-European languages - Classification, History, Sound changes

The family of languages which developed in Europe and S Asia, and which gave the modern languages of W Europe (eg the Germanic, Romance, and Celtic languages) as well as many in the Baltic states, Russia, and N India. The parent language of the family has been labelled Proto-Indo-European (PIE); there is no documentary evidence for it, but it is thought to have been spoken before 3000 BC. The form…

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Indo-Iranian languages - Subdivisions

The E branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It comprises the Iranian and Indo-Aryan subgroups. The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Indo-Aryan languages: Iranian languages: Dardic languages: Nuristani languages: …

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Indo-Pacific languages

A hypothesized group of languages, centred on Papua New Guinea, located in the middle of the geographical area of the Austronesian group, but independent of it linguistically. There seem to be about 3·5 million speakers, but little is known of the languages, and many tribes have not been contacted. The isolation of some of these tribes means that they are able to maintain independent languages wi…

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Indonesia - Etymology, History, Government and politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Ecology, Economy, Demographics, Culture

Official name Republic of Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia Republik Indonesia, formerly Netherlands Indies, Dutch East Indies, Netherlands East Indies, United States of Indonesia Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a nation of 18,110 islands in the South East Asian Archipelago, making it the world's largest archipelagic state. Indonesia is b…

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Indra - Vedic Indra, In Hinduism, In Zoroastrianism, In Buddhism and Jainism

In Hinduism, the Vedic king of the gods, to whom many of the prayers of the Rig Veda are addressed. Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the chief deity of the Rigveda, and the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. If Indra as a deity is cognate to other Indo-European gods, either thunder gods such as Thor or Perun, or heroic go…

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Indro Montanelli - Going against the current, The 1920s and 30s, The war in Abyssinia, The Spanish Civil War

Journalist and writer, born in Fucecchio, Tuscany, W Italy. He made his name as a journalist in the daily Corriere della Sera, then founded Il Giornale in 1974 and edited it until 1994. He was one of Italy's leading political commentators. He wrote a number of popular history books, such as Padri della patria (1948), Storia di Roma (1957), the Storia d'Italia series from 1966, and a number of essa…

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inductance - Properties of inductance, Coupled inductors, Vector field theory derivations, Usage

A measure of a coil's ability to produce a voltage in another coil (mutual inductance, M) or in itself (self inductance, L) via changing magnetic fields; units H (henry). It is equal to the ratio of electromotive force produced to rate of change of current. The inductance has the following relationship: where As we see here, the geometry and material properties (if m…

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induction (embryology)

The action of natural stimuli that cause unspecialized tissue to develop into specialized tissue. In the earliest embryonic stage immediately after the zygote starts dividing, the cells of the embryo are unspecialized, and have the potential to develop into any cell type. As development proceeds, certain cells (inducers) influence neighbouring cells to develop along a determined course into a part…

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induction (logic)

An inference from particular, observed instances to a general law or conclusion. The premisses of a sound induction may give good reason for believing the conclusion (‘The Sun has always risen in the past, therefore it will rise tomorrow’) but do not logically entail the conclusion, as they do in a valid deduction. Induction may refer to: In popular culture: In bio…

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induction (obstetrics)

The initiation of childbirth by artificial means. A common technique is the injection of the hormone oxytocin, which causes contractions of the uterus. Induction may refer to: In popular culture: In biology: In psychology: In philosophy, logic, and computer science: In mathematics: In physics: …

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Indus Valley Civilization - Discovery and excavation, Periodisation, Predecessors, Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, Late Harappan, Geography, Cities, Science

The earliest known S Asian civilization, flourishing c.2300–1750 BC across 1·1 million km²/½ million sq mi around the R Indus in Pakistan. Over 100 sites have been identified with important urban centres at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa (Pakistan), and Kalibangan and Lothal (W India). There were uniform principles of urban planning, with streets set out in a grid pattern and public drainage syst…

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industrial action

The activities of trade unions, or groups of workers or employers, to bring pressure on the others when negotiations and/or arbitration have failed to settle industrial disputes. Action by workers can include go-slows or ‘working to rule’, overtime bans, or strike action. Strikes may be accompanied by picketing to persuade other workers to join the strike, or to persuade other people not to make…

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industrial democracy

A situation in companies where employees have a say in determining corporate policies. Examples include works councils, and employee representatives on the board of directors. Advocates often point out that industrial democracy increases productivity and service delivery from a more fully engaged and happier workforce. In late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th centur…

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industrial design - Definition of industrial design, Industrial design in USA, Industrial design in Canada

A term used increasingly nowadays to refer to the design of anything made by machine, from Coke bottles to Volkswagens. Early industrial design included Wedgwood pottery and Sheffield plate. Industrial design has a focus on concepts, products and processes. Product design and industrial design can overlap into the fields of user interface design, information design and interacti…

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industrial espionage - Information, Other, In popular culture

The illicit acquisition of information about a company's activities. Such information may concern formulae, designs, personnel, or business plans. Methods include theft of documents, telephone tapping, and computer hacking, with or without collusion by corrupt employees. Industrial espionage and corporate espionage are phrases used to describe espionage conducted for commercial purposes ins…

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Industrial Revolution - Nomenclature, Innovations, Social effects, Intellectual paradigms, Criticism, Second Industrial Revolution, Notes and References

A term usually associated with the accelerated pace of economic change, the associated technical and mechanical innovations, and the emergence of mass markets for manufactured goods. It began in Britain in the last quarter of the 18th-c with the mechanization of the cotton and woollen industries of Lancashire, C Scotland, and the West Riding of Yorkshire. After the harnessing of steam power, cotto…

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Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) - Founding, Activity after World War II, The IWW in Australia, The IWW in the UK

US revolutionary labour organization, founded in Chicago in 1905, its members informally known as Wobblies. In the following two decades it provided a powerful voice in opposition to capitalism and in favour of worker control of industrial production. Its tactics, which involved strikes, sabotage, and violence, brought it considerable publicity, but the prosecution and conviction of several of its…

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industry - History, Industrial development, Industrial technology, Industry sectors and classification, Industry and society, Industry and environment

A group of business enterprises which produce or supply goods or services. Industries can be classified into several types. Primary industries are those based on the use of the earth for cultivation (eg agriculture, forestry, fishing) or the extraction of raw materials (eg mining, quarrying). Secondary industries (or manufacturing industries) are those which process raw materials into consumer pro…

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inertia - History and development of the concept, Interpretations

The reluctance of a massive object to change its motion. Inherent to mass, it is present in the absence of gravity. Newton's first law is sometimes called the law of inertia, and is equivalent to ascribing the property of inertia to objects. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental laws of classical physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and how it is affected by …

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infallibility - In common speech, In psychology and sociology, In philosophy, In theology

In the Roman Catholic Church, the claim that statements on matters of faith or morals, made by a pope speaking ex cathedra (Lat ‘from the throne’), or by a General Council if confirmed by the pope, are guaranteed the assistance of the Holy Spirit (ie free from error). The claim is rejected by Protestants, for whom only God and the word of God are infallible. Infallibility, from Latin orig…

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infanticide - Infanticide in history, Explanations for the practice, Infant euthanasia, Infanticide in other species

The putting to death of the newborn with the consent of the parent, family, or community. Christianity, like Islam, Judaism, and many other religions, condemns infanticide as a crime. In England and Wales, the term is also used where a mother wilfully causes the death of her child. The child must be under 1 year old, and at the time of the mother's act or omission the mother must have been disturb…

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infection - Colonization

The invasion of the body by micro-organisms that are capable of multiplying there and producing illness. Such organisms are called pathogenic. However, some pathogenic organisms can exist on the skin or in other parts of the body without causing illness; in these circumstances the individual is said to be a ‘carrier’ of the organism. An infection begins by the entry of an organism at a specific …

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inference - The accuracy of inductive and deductive inferences, Valid inferences, Automatic logical inference, Inference and uncertainty

In logic, a sequence of steps leading from a set of premisses to a conclusion. Rules of inference are rules for the construction of good and valid arguments. Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. Inference is studied within several different fields. Logic studies the laws of valid inference. The conclusion in…

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inferiority complex - In Culture

A fundamental sense of inadequacy and insecurity out of proportion to real circumstances. An example may be of short individuals who have a driven need to assert themselves in social situations to overcome their sensitivity about their height. An inferiority complex, in the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis, is a feeling that one is inferior to others in some way. Unlike a normal feel…

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infertility - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Signs, Treatment, Costs, Ethics, Psychological impact, Social impact, Sources

The inability of a couple to conceive, affecting about 10% of couples, with a wide range of causes affecting both partners. In the female, failure of ovulation is common, and ovaries may be stimulated to produce ova by giving gonadotrophic hormones or by drugs which simulate their action in the body. Infection of the cervix, obstruction of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes, and abnormalities in the ut…

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infinity - History, Mathematical infinity, In computing, Use of infinity in common speech, Physical infinity

In mathematics, a number greater than any other number. The symbol ? was first used for infinity by the English mathematician John Wallis (1616–1703). Cantor and other mathematicians in the 19th-c and 20th-c showed the complexity of the concept of infinity, arising out of their work on set theory, investigating, for example, how the cardinal number of the set of all points in an infinite straight…

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inflammation - Characteristics, Leukocytes and cytokines, Outcomes, Systemic inflammation, Inflammation examples, Other References

The body's reaction to injury, whether caused by a physical or chemical insult, an infectious agent, or an auto-immune process. In the acute stage there is an increased blood flow to the damaged part, due to chemical substances which dilate the small blood vessels. Certain types of white blood cells (neutrophil polymorphs and monocytes) are attracted to the site, and these engulf and digest damage…

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inflation - Measures of inflation, The role of inflation in the economy, Causes of inflation, Stopping inflation

An economic situation of widespread and persistent increases in prices and wages. Common measures of inflation are the Retail Price Index, which covers a wide range of consumer goods, and the gross domestic product deflator, an index of all goods prices. Inflation is believed to be bad for both equity and efficiency. If interest rates do not rise, inflation injures savers; if interest rates do ris…

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inflorescence

The arrangement of more than one flower on the stem, together with any associated structures, such as bracts. Development is triggered by changes in light duration or temperature, and is probably controlled by hormones. The vegetative growth of the plant may cease with production of the inflorescence, or may continue afterwards; this is of significance in some crop plants where yield, ripening, an…

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information processing

A psychological approach in which the performance of an organism is described in terms of the elementary operations or computations it performs on input information (the stimulus) to produce output information (the response). It is often associated with cognitive psychology. In general, information processing can be the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an obs…

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information retrieval - Performance measures, Open source information retrieval systems, Other retrieval tools, Major Information retrieval research groups

The act of tracing information contained in databases. Applicable in principle to any search for information, the term has been associated since the 1960s with the online technique of scanning and interrogating large computer files for specific data. This may take the form of bibliographic references, full-length documents, or constantly updated information (eg share prices). The use of computers …

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information technology - Industry organizations, Topics

A term commonly used to cover the range of technologies relevant to the transfer of information (knowledge, data, text, drawings, audio recordings, video sequences, etc), in particular to computers, digital electronics, and telecommunications. Technological developments during the 1970s and 1980s, such as very large scale integration, and satellite and optical-based communication methods, have bee…

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information theory - Overview, Historical background, Mathematical theory of information, Channel capacity, Applications

The mathematical theory of information, deriving from the work of the US mathematicians Claude E Shannon and Warren Weaver, in particular The Mathematical Theory of Communication (1949), and from the theory of probability. It is concerned with defining and measuring the amount of information in a message, with the encoding and decoding of information, and with the transmission capacity of a channe…

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infrared astronomy - Modern infrared astronomy, Astronomers' infrared spectrum

The study of celestial objects by their radiation in the wavelength range 1000 nm–1 mm. Absorption by water vapour in our atmosphere poses severe difficulties, some of which are overcome at high-altitude observatories such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii at 4 000 m/13 000 ft, or by using cryogenically cooled telescopes on spacecraft. Many objects emit most of their radiation in the infrared. This ty…

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infrared photography - Film cameras, Digital cameras

Photography which uses wavelengths beyond visible red light. Black-and-white film has medical and forensic application; for example, it is used for camouflage detection, since chlorophyll in green living foliage reflects infrared strongly, unlike visually matching pigments. Multilayer colour film including an infrared sensitive emulsion gives a false colour rendering in which natural vegetation ap…

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infrasound

Sound having a frequency of less than 20 Hz. Such waves cannot be heard by humans, but may be felt. Infrasonic waves are produced by explosions and by an unsteady airflow past an object. The study of infrasound is infrasonics. Infrasound is sound with a frequency too low to be detected by the human ear. Possibly the first observation of naturally-occurring infrasound was in the aftermath o…

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infrastructure

The network of factors which enables a country's economy or an industrial operation to function effectively. They include such matters as transport, power, communication systems, housing, and education. That public-policy discussion was hampered by lack of a precise definition for infrastructure. National Research Council (NRC) committee cited Senator Stafford, who commented at hearings bef…

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Inge de Bruijn

Swimmer, born in Barendrecht, W Netherlands. She won two gold medals and set a European record in the 100 m butterfly event at the European championships in 1999. In 2000 she set world records in the 50 m and 100 m freestyle and the 50 m and 100 m butterfly. She then won gold medals in the 50 m and the 100 m freestyle and the 100 m butterfly at the Sydney Olympics (2000) and set new world …

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Ingeborg Bachmann - Overview, The Ingeborg Bachmann Prize, Selected works

Writer, born in Klagenfurt, S Austria. She studied at the University of Vienna (1946–50), and in 1953 her first collection of poems Die gestundete zeit appeared in Germany. A member of Gruppe 47, she lived in Naples and Rome with the composer Hans Werner Henze, and in 1965 settled permanently in Rome. Her lyrical works are notably vivid and terse; she also wrote prose, radio plays, and libretti, …

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Ingemar Stenmark

Skier, born in Tärnaby, W Sweden, 100 mi S of the Arctic Circle. One of the greatest slalom/giant slalom racers, he won both events at the 1980 Olympics with a 8 cm/3 in metal plate in his ankle following an accident the previous year. Between 1974 and 1989 he won a record 86 World Cup races, including a record 13 in the 1979 season. Overall champion three times (1976–8), he won 15 slalom/gia…

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Ingolf Dahl

Composer, teacher, and pianist, born in Hamburg, Germany. He went to the USA in 1935, and had a distinguished teaching career at the University of Southern California. His works, in a Modernist idiom, include a saxophone concerto. Dahl emigrated to the United States in 1938, settling in Los Angeles and joining the community of expatriate musicians that included Ernst Krenek, Darius Milhaud,…

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Ingrid Bergman - Credits

Film and stage actress, born in Stockholm, Sweden. After studying at the Royal Dramatic Theatre, she made her film debut in Munkbrogreven (1934). Unaffected and vivacious, she became an immensely popular romantic star in such films as Casablanca (1942), Spellbound (1945), and Notorious (1946). In 1950 she gave birth to the illegitimate child of director Roberto Rossellini. The ensuing scandal led …

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Ingrid Kristiansen - Accomplishments

Athlete, born in Trondheim, C Norway. A former cross-country skiing champion, and then an outstanding long-distance runner, she is the only person to hold world best times for the 5000 m, 10 000 m, and marathon, which she achieved in 1985–6. In 1986 she knocked 45·68 s off the world 10 000 m record, and easily won the European title. She has won most of the world's major marathons, includi…

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Ingvar (G

Swedish statesman and prime minister (1986–91). He studied at Lund and North Western (USA) universities, and was secretary in the prime minister's office (1958–60) before entering active party politics. He became president of the youth league of the Social Democratic Labour Party in 1961, and in 1964 was elected to the Riksdag (parliament). He became deputy to Olof Palme (1982), and succeeded hi…

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inheritance tax

A UK tax started in 1986 which replaced capital transfer tax. It is levied on the value of a deceased person's ‘estate’, and includes property, land, investments, and other valuable assets. Small estates are not liable to tax. Similar taxes are imposed in several countries, and can be traced back to Roman times. In the USA, such taxes are collected by the individual states, with an estate tax be…

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Inigo Jones - Books

The first of the great English architects, born in London, UK. He studied landscape painting in Italy, and from Venice introduced the Palladian style into England. In 1606 James I employed him in arranging the masques of Ben Jonson, and he introduced the proscenium arch and movable scenery to the English stage. In 1615 he became surveyor-general of the royal buildings. He designed the Queen's Hous…

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injection moulding - Mould, Injection process

A process used in the manufacture of plastics. Raw plastic, usually in granular form, is heated until soft enough to squeeze through a nozzle into a mould of the shape of the desired article. With thermoplastics, the mould is cold. With thermosetting resins, the mould is kept hot to promote the setting reactions. This type of manufacture is highly automated. Injection Molding (United Kingdo…

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injunction - Temporary restraints, Apprehended Violence Order, Injunctions in U.S. labor law context

A court order in equity instructing a defendant to refrain from committing some act or course of action (prohibitory injunction), or, less commonly (but found for example in the USA), to carry out some act (mandatory injunction), such as an order to demolish a building that the defendant has built in breach of a covenant. The term interdict forbidding a particular act is used in Scots law. It is a…

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ink - Types of ink, History of ink, Modern Ink Applications

A substance, usually coloured, used for writing, drawing, or printing; known in China before 1100 BC. At its simplest, it is a solution of a pigment or dye in a liquid (eg soot in water). The production of the many kinds of inks required for commercial, educational, and cultural purposes has now become a sophisticated chemical–industrial process. To meet Wikipedia's style guidelines and co…

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Inkpaduta

Santee Sioux chief, born at the Watonwan R, present-day South Dakota, USA. As chief of his band (1848), he led them on a massacre of whites near Spirit Lake, Iowa (Mar 1856). He was never caught, and his violent ways were instrumental in turning many whites against the Santee Sioux. Inkpaduta (variously translated as "Red End," "Red Cap," or "Scarlet Point") (about 1797 – 1881 or 1882) wa…

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Inner Mongolia - Name, Geography, History, Administrative divisions, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 23 921 000; area 450 000 km²/173 700 sq mi. Autonomous region in N China, bordered N by Mongolia and Russia; part of S border formed by Great Wall of China; two-thirds grasslands, remainder desert; Greater Khingan range (NE) rises to over 1000 m/3000 ft; Hedao Plain, fertile area N of Yellow R; several deserts further S; capital, Hohhot; principal town, Baotou; horse breedin…

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Inns of Court - History and composition, Membership and Governance, Other Inns

Voluntary unincorporated societies having the exclusive right to confer the rank of barrister in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. For England and Wales, four sets of buildings (Inns) have existed in London since the 14th-c: the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn. The Inn of Court of Northern Ireland was established in Belfast in 1926. Each Inn is governed by its Be…

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Innsbruck - Transport, Sports, Sights, Politics, New Year’s Eve, Miscellaneous

47°17N 11°25E, pop (2000e) 119 600. Capital of Tirol state, W Austria; in the valley of the R Inn, surrounded by mountains; a mediaeval old town, with narrow and irregular streets and tall houses in late Gothic style; a great tourist attraction, noted for its mountaineering course and tobogganing, and a popular winter skiing centre; 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympic Games held here; Alpine zoo; uni…

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inorganic chemistry - Key concepts, Descriptive inorganic chemistry, Theoretical inorganic chemistry, Thermodynamics and inorganic chemistry, Mechanistic inorganic chemistry

That branch of chemistry which deals with the structures, properties, and reactions of the elements other than carbon, and their compounds. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (compounds containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects…

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inositol - Structure, Synthesis, Function, Clinical implications, Illicit uses

A component of phytic acid in cereal and other vegetable foods. Some species (eg mice) require inositol for growth; humans do not, though large amounts are present in the body, especially in the brain. Inositol, or cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, is a cyclic polyalcohol that plays an important role as a second messenger in a cell, in the form of inositol phosphates. It i…

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Inquisition - Origin of the term, Ancient origins, Inquisition tribunals and institutions, Historic Inquisition movements

A tribunal for the prosecution of heresy, originally of the mediaeval Christian Church. Pope Gregory IX (13th-c) gave special responsiblity to papal inquisitors to counter the threat to political and religious unity from heretical groups. The activities of the inquisitors were later characterized by extremes of torture and punishment, most notoriously in the case of the Spanish Inquisition, which …

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INRI - Related acronyms and concepts

The first letters of the Latin wording of the inscription placed on Jesus's cross at Pilate's command (John 19.19–20): Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum (‘Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews’). INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: "Jesus the Nazarene, the King of the Jews". Many crucifixes and other depict…

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insect - Relationship to other arthropods, Morphology and development, Behavior, Locomotion, Roles in the environment and human society

An arthropod belonging to the largest and most diverse class of living organisms, the Insecta; c.1 million recognized species, grouped into 28 orders, estimated as representing a small fraction of the total world fauna; head typically bears a pair of feelers (antennae) and a pair of compound eyes; each of three thoracic segments bears a pair of legs, the last two also typically bear a pair of wing…

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insecticide - Classes of agricultural insecticides, Classes of insecticides, a short history, Environmental effects

A substance which kills insects. Most commonly these are synthetic organic compounds, applied as sprays by farmers, but they may also be applied in granular or powder forms. There is current concern about these substances entering the food chain and having a detrimental impact on wildlife, and perhaps on humans. DDT was one of the most widely used insecticides in the post-war period; it is now ban…

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insectivore

The most primitive of placental mammals, native to Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America; small with narrow pointed snout; most are solitary, nocturnal; eats insects and other invertebrates. (Order: Insectivora, 345 species.) An insectivore is an organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures. Although individually small, insects exist in eno…

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insolation - The Projection Effect, Applications

The amount of solar radiation (both diffuse and direct) which reaches the Earth. Insolation varies with latitude and season: it is consistently high at the Equator, and high at the Poles during the polar summer, but zero in winter. The amount of solar radiation which reaches the outer limit of the Earth's atmosphere is the solar constant, and is only a small proportion of the Sun's energy. Of the …

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insomnia - Types of insomnia, Common causes of insomnia, Insomnia versus poor sleep quality, Treatment for insomnia

Unsatisfactory sleep, whether in quantity or in quality. It may be a component of a variety of physical or mental disorders. There may be difficulty in either initiating or maintaining sleep, a preoccupation about sleep, and interference with social and occupational functioning as a result of sleep disruption. Insomnia is characterized by an inability to sleep and/or to be incapable of rema…

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instinct - Overview, Evolution, Instincts in humans, Intuited and natured Instinct

An unlearned tendency to behave in a particular way. Instinctive behaviours are those actions or reactions to specific stimuli, shown in similar form by all normally developed members of a species (or sex or age-group thereof), no specific life experience being necessary for their emergence. The distinctive courtship-displays of several species are an illustration. Examples can more frequen…

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instrumentalism

In philosophy, the thesis associated with the pragmatists William James and Dewey, that propositions and theories are tools in the process of enquiry and can be regarded only as more or less effective or ineffective, not true or false. In the philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments whose worth is measured not by whether the…

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insulin

A protein of vertebrates, secreted by B-cells of the islets of Langerhans (in the pancreas) in response to increases in blood glucose concentration (eg after a meal). It has widespread effects in the body, but its main action is to lower blood glucose concentration by accelerating its uptake by most tissues (except the brain), and promoting its conversion into glycogen and fat. Insulin-like substa…

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insurance - Principles of insurance, Insurance Contract Principles, Indemnification, Gambling analogy, History of insurance, Types of insurance

A system of guarding an individual or institution against the possibility of an event occurring which will cause some harm - usually financial. The insured pays a fee (the premium) to an insurance company. The size of the premium (calculated by actuaries) depends on the size of the risk at stake, the number of premiums to be received, and the risk (or chance) of the event occurring. It is possible…

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intaglio (printing)

A technique of printmaking. The design is incised into a metal plate, ink is forced into the cut lines and wiped off the rest of the surface; damp paper is laid on top; and both plate and paper are rolled through a press. This differs from other types of printing, in which the ink lies on the raised surface of the plate or block. Intaglio may refer to: Intaglio may also be: …

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integrated circuit - Introduction, Advances in integrated circuits, Popularity of ICs, Classification, Manufacture, History, origins and generations

A single chip of semiconductor, such as silicon, in which a large number of individual electronic components are assembled. Integrated circuits are smaller, lighter, and faster than conventional circuits. They use less power, are cheaper, and last longer. The circuit is usually made from pure silicon, doped with impurities - the type of impurity determining the job of that part of the chip: transi…

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Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - ISDN Elements, Consumer and industry perspectives, Configurations, Reference points, Types of communications, Sample call

A service provided by the Posts, Telegraph and Telephones Authorities, which allows voice and data communications to be effected on the same line. This enables voice messaging to be carried out in the same way as data transmission. Facilities are available also for transmitting television pictures of medium quality. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a circuit-switched telephone …

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intelligence - Definitions of intelligence, Psychometric intelligence, One or several types of intelligence?, Controversies

The ability to respond adaptively to novel situations. Psychologists attempt to measure this ability by constructing tests which appear related to intelligence, and extensively using these tests on a target population, so enabling them to assess the mental age of any individual. (For a given score on a particular test, mental age is the average age of those members of the tested population having …

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intensive farming - Advantages, Disadvantages

Farming with relatively high input levels, especially of fertilizers, sprays, and pharmaceuticals. It produces higher yields per hectare, which may compensate for limited farm size and allow the small farmer to make an acceptable income. Intensive farming relies on the use of farm machinery (eg automatic feeders and milking machines) to do the work of labourers. It uses chemicals to control plant …

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intentionality - Modern views, Other uses of the term

In philosophy, the characteristic of being directed to or being about something, which seems fundamentally to distinguish mental phenomena from physical phenomena. Beliefs, hopes, desires, and fears all point outside themselves to some object or content. The term was coined by the scholastics in the Middle Ages, revived by Brentano in the 19th-c, and is much invoked in current discussions within c…

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Inter-American Development Bank

An international bank set up in 1959 to finance economic development projects in South and Central America. The main subscribers are the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The Inter-American Development Bank (preferred abbreviation: IDB; The IDB has four official languages. The Bank is owned by 47 member countries, the following 21 of which are lenders: …

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interactive video

A closed-circuit recorded video system in which the display responds to the instructions of the viewer. Applications range from simple press-button or touch-screen question-and-answer interactions to complex branched learning programmes. The term interactive video usually refers to a nowadays uncommon technique used to create computer games or interactive narratives. Instead of 3D computer …

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intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) - Flight phases, History, Modern ICBMs, Specific missiles, Ballistic missile submarines, Heraldry

A very large, long-range nuclear-armed missile developed by the USA and the former Soviet Union from the late 1950s onwards. ICBMs are based in silos spread out over a wide land mass. They are capable of delivering a load of independently-targeted nuclear warheads (MIRVs) on the enemy heartland some 30 minutes after launch. An intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, is a very long-rang…

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intercropping

A cropping system frequently used, particularly in the drier tropics, in which contrasting species are grown in alternating rows or blocks so that total productivity is increased. The system often involves alternating rows of cereals and leguminous crops, planned so that the atmospheric nitrogen fixed by the legume will increase the yield of the cereal. The system may also be used to provide forag…

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interest - Calculations, Market interest rates, Interest rates in macroeconomics

The amount of money charged by a person or institution that lends a sum to a borrower. The sum lent, on which interest is calculated, is known as the principal. The lender will be paid a percentage of the principal as interest on the loan, the rate of interest depending on the amount of the principal, the length of time the loan is outstanding, and the risk involved. Interest rates in general vary…

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interference - Constructive and destructive interference, General Quantum Interference

In physics, the result of two or more waves of similar frequency passing through the same point simultaneously. It is usual to consider simplified interference (superposition), in which the net result of waves overlapping is described by the simple addition of the original waves. An interference pattern is determined by the relative phases of the constituent waves. Beats and diffraction are interf…

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interior design - The Profession, Styles

The design of the interior of a building, usually concerned with decoration, furniture, and fittings rather than the permanent fabric, and carried out only after all other work has been completed. The work of the Renaissance artists such as Raphael and Michaelangelo, of the 18th-c Robert Adam, and of the 19th-c Arts and Crafts Movement might all be called interior design, but the term is usually r…

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intermezzo - Opera intermezzo, Instrumental intermezzo

An instrumental piece, especially for piano, in a lyrical style and in no prescribed form. The title has been used by Brahms and other 19th–20th-c composers. Earlier it was used for short, comic interludes performed on stage between the acts of a serious opera; Pergolesi's La serva padrona (1733) is a famous example. The intermezzo, in the 18th century, was a comic operatic interlude inser…

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internal combustion engine - Parts, Classification

An engine (such as a diesel or petrol engine) which burns its fuel/air mixture within the engine as part of its operating cycle. This cycle may be two stroke (one power stroke for every two strokes of the piston) or four stroke (one power stroke for every four strokes of the piston). The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space ca…

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internal energy - Overview, The First Law of Thermodynamics, Expressions for the internal energy

In thermodynamics, the difference between the heat supplied to a system and the work done by that system on its surroundings; symbol U, units J (joule). In general, adding heat to a system will increase its internal energy, corresponding to an increase in the system's temperature. In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denot…

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International

An abbreviation of International Working Men's Association, the name given to attempts to establish international co-operative organizations of socialist, communist, and revolutionary groups. The First International was created in London in September 1864 with Marx playing a significant role in its development. The Second International was formed in Paris in 1889, and still survives as a forum for…

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International Astronomical Union (IAU) - History, Composition, General Assemblies, Reference

The organization responsible for co-ordinating international co-operation and standardization in astronomy, founded in 1919, with its secretariat in Paris. There were sixty-seven participating countries and over 9000 individual members in 2004. The IAU is the sole internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies and their surface features. The International Astronomical Unio…

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International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - History, Structure and Function, IAEA and Iran, Works Cited

An international agency which promotes research and development into the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and oversees a system of safeguards and controls governing the misuse of nuclear materials for military purposes. Founded in 1957, and based in Vienna, by November 2004 it had 138 member countries. In 2005 the Agency shared the Nobel Peace Prize with its director general, Mohamed ElBaredei. …

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International Baccalaureate

An award taken by 18-year-old school leavers, and accepted in most countries as a qualification for entry to higher education. Particularly popular in international schools or with students whose parents have to work abroad, the examination covers a spread of subjects including languages, mathematics, science, humanities, and the arts. To meet Wikipedia's style guidelines and conform to our…

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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) - History

A bank, generally known as the World Bank, founded in 1945, to help raise standards of living in the developing countries. It is affiliated to the United Nations, and based in Washington, DC. By the early 21st-c, agriculture and rural development had become the most important lending area. Industry, water-supply, and sewage systems, as well as education, are also major lending areas. The In…

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International Brigades - Constitution of the Brigades, First Engagements: the Battle of Madrid, The Battle of Jarama

In the Spanish Civil War (1936–9), foreign volunteer forces recruited by the Comintern and by individual communist parties to assist the Spanish Republic. Almost 60 000 volunteers, mostly workers and refugees from Fascism, plus its French, British, and American opponents, fought in Spain between October 1936 and the brigades' withdrawal in October 1938. They played a particularly important role …

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International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) - Mine Ban Treaty, Basic Landmine Facts

A campaign, launched in 1991, with the aim of banning antipersonnel landmines. There are thought to be over 100 million such mines scattered over large areas on several continents, a deadly legacy of conflicts in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Angola, Iraq, Vietnam, and the former Yugoslavia. Around 20 000 people annually, many of them children, are killed or disfigured by mines. Many rural dwellers retu…

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International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) - History, Annual Survey of violations of trade union rights

An association of some 233 trade union federations from 152 countries and territories (in 2004) on all five continents, with a membership of over 158 million, located in Brussels. It was founded in 1949 after withdrawing from the World Federation of Trade Unions because of differences with the communist unions. Its aim is collaboration between free and democratic trade unions throughout the world.…

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International Court of Justice - Composition, Jurisdiction, Law applied, Criticisms

A court established by the United Nations Organization for the purpose of hearing international legal disputes; known widely as the ‘World Court’. Nation states must consent to the jurisdiction of the court with regard to contentious proceedings. The court sits at The Hague, The Netherlands, and is presided over by 15 judges. Disputes are decided in accordance with international law, customs, or…

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International Finance Corporation (IFC) - Ownership and Management, Funding of IFC's Activities, IFC Activities

An institution for lending to the private sector in developing countries, affiliated to the World Bank. The IFC was founded in 1956 to supplement the work of the World Bank or International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which lent only to the state sector or with state guarantees. It was believed that development would be faster if the private sector invested more in developing c…

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International Gothic

A style of art which flourished in W Europe c.1375–c.1425, characterized by jewel-like colour, graceful shapes, and realistically-observed details. The style was seen especially in miniature paintings, drawings, and tapestries, often representing secular themes from courtly life. …

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International Labour Organization (ILO) - International Labour Conference, Child labour, HIV/AIDS, International Training Centre, Personnel Policy

An autonomous agency associated with the League of Nations, founded in 1919, which became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946; it had 180 members in 2004. A tripartite body representing governments, employers, and workers, it is concerned with industrial relations and the pay, employment, and working conditions of workers. The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a spec…

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international law - The scope of international law, Fundamental conflicts over international law, Sources of international law

The law that governs relationships between nation states. It is based principally on custom and treaties; there is no worldwide international legislature, and thus the enforcement and interpretation of international law may pose problems. Although there is an International Court, it may only adjudicate with the consent of the parties. Alternative use of sanctions may well be unsatisfactory if the …

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International Monetary Fund (IMF) - Organization and purpose, Membership qualifications, Assistance and reforms, Past managing directors

A financial agency affiliated to the United Nations, and located in Washington, DC. It was formed in 1945 to promote international monetary co-operation, trade and exchange rate stability, foster economic growth and high levels of employment, and to give temporary financial and technical assistance to states in need. It had 184 members in 2004 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an int…

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International Olympic Committee (IOC) - Presidents, Presentation, Mission and role, Organization, IOC Members, Host city bids, Olympic marketing, Scandals

The multi-sport organizational body responsible for the summer and winter Olympics, held every four years. It was formed in 1894 by Pierre de Fredi, Baron de Coubertin. Member countries of the IOC are allowed two delegates on the organization's ruling body. In 1998–9, its international image was tarnished when it was revealed that cities bidding to host the Olympics had offered delegates incentiv…

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International Organization for Standardization - Standards and technical reports, ISO documents, Members, Products named after ISO

A non-governmental organization established in 1947 for the preparation of international standards for materials, products, and codes of practice; its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. It coordinates the activities of over 130 regional standardization organizations. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of represen…

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International Space Station (ISS) - History, Structures and design, Assembly, Legal aspects, Costs, Present status, Miscellaneous, Notes and references

A multinational space station planned to orbit Earth at an altitude of 400 km/250 mi with an inclination of 51·6º. Begun as a NASA project in the 1980s, the ISS has evolved into an international programme led by the USA and also involving Russia, Canada, Japan, Brazil, and the 11 nations of the European Space Agency. On planned completion in 2004, the ISS will have a mass of about 450 000 kg…

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International Style (architecture) - Europe, United States, Elsewhere, Architects, Examples of International Style architecture

A term first used in the USA to describe a new style of architecture developed in the 1920s, principally in Europe; also known as the Modern Movement. It is characterized by geometric shapes, an absence of decoration and historical references, white rendered walls, flat roofs, large expanses of glass, pilotis, and asymmetrical compositions. It was at first particularly concerned with low-income, s…

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International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - Leadership, Standards, Members, Meetings, World Summit on the Information Society

An agency of the United Nations, which since 1947 has promoted worldwide co-operation in all aspects of telecommunications, such as the regulation of global telecom networks and radio frequencies. The ITU organizes internal conferences and manages its own publications and databases. Originally founded in Paris in 1865, it acquired its present name in 1934, and is now headquartered in Geneva, Switz…

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International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)

An international organization which exists to promote sustainable use and conservation of natural resources. Founded in 1948, and based in Switzerland, by 2004 the members made up a global network of 1010 institutions and organizations in over 140 countries. Its Commissions consist of more than 10 000 conservation experts from over 180 countries. It publishes Red Data books which list endangered …

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Internet - Creation of the Internet, Today's Internet, Satellite Internet, Censorship, Internet access, Leisure, Complex architecture

An association of computer networks with common standards which enable messages to be sent from any host on one network to any host on any other. It developed in the 1970s in the USA as an experimental network designed to support military research, and steadily grew to include federal, regional, campus, and other users. Growth has been particularly rapid since 1990. It is now the world's largest c…

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Internet Service Provider (ISP) - ISP connection options, How ISPs connect to the Internet, Virtual ISP, Related services

An organization which offers access to the Internet to individuals who do not belong to an organization (such as a university or a large company) which is connected directly. A home PC can be linked to the ISP via a modem and the public telephone network; the ISP then provides the additional connection to the Internet. Most ISPs also offer many value-added services, such as mailboxes and Web pages…

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Interpol - History, Member countries, Interpol in popular culture

Originally the telegraphic address, adopted in 1946, of the International Criminal Police Organization (earlier, Commission), initiated by Prince Albert I of Monaco in 1914. The address became widely used as a name, and was formally incorporated into the organization's title in 1956 as ICPO–Interpol. It is an international organization which exists to promote international co-operation in law enf…

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interpolation - Definition

In mathematics, estimating an intermediate value of a variable between two known values of that variable; for example, if f(1) and f(2) are known, estimating f(1·1). Linear interpolation is the form used most frequently, which assumes that the function f(x) is linear. Then if x0 < x0 + h < x1, . If x1 ? x0 is small, this is likely to be a good approximation. Extrapolation is estimating a …

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Interregnum - Historical periods of interregnum, Pope's interregnum (or sede vacante)

In general the period between the death, abdication, or deposition of a ruler and the installation of a successor. In the Holy Roman Empire it signifed the time between the death of Konrad IV (1254) and the election of Rudolf I (1273). The Goldene Bulle of 1356 regulated the administration of the empire during an Interregnum. An interregnum is a period between monarchs, between popes of the…

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intersexuality - Overview, Biological causes of intersexuality, Chimerism, Intersex people in society

Abnormal sexual development, either because of anomalies in the normal complement of sex chromosomes (XX in the female and XY in the male) or as a result of faults in the development of gonads in the early embryo. Thus babies may be born whose sex is in doubt, while in other cases intersex or ambiguous sexual states may be suspected only at puberty. Detailed chromosomal studies, the estimation of …

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interstitial fluid - Production and Removal, Composition, Physiological Function

That part of the extracellular fluid which lies outside the vascular system and surrounds the tissue cells of animals; also known as tissue fluid and intercellular fluid. It is similar in composition to blood plasma, except for a relatively low protein content (due to the low permeability of capillaries to plasma proteins). It is one of the two components of extracellular fluid, the other b…

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intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) - Position, Effects on weather, Role in tropical cyclone formation

A discontinuous zone of low pressure around the Equator, on which the NE and SE trade winds converge. The converging air rises, lowering the atmospheric pressure, and convective clouds form, associated with heavy precipitation. The ITCZ coincides approximately with the heat equator, and shifts N and S with the seasons, through about 5° of latitude. The zone is weakly defined over the oceans, part…

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intestacy

The situation where a person dies without a valid will. In the case of a partial intestacy, the will does not provide for the disposal of the entire estate. In the USA, statute laws govern the rules of intestate succession, ie, the distribution of the deceased's property. In England and Wales, the statutory rules which govern succession on an intestacy provide that any surviving spouse is given th…

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intestine - Structure and Function, Absorption of glucose in the ileum, Diseases, Disorders

A tube of muscular membrane extending from the pyloric opening of the stomach to the anus, generally divided into the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), the large intestine (caecum, appendix, and the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon), and the rectum. Most digestion and absorption of digestive products, vitamins, and fluids (both ingested and secreted from the gastr…

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Intifada

A Palestinian uprising which erupted in December 1987 in the Gaza Strip and quickly spread to the West Bank. The uprising reflected frustrations with two decades of Israeli military occupation, the expansion of Israeli settlement in the Occupied Territories of Gaza and the West Bank, and the failure of the PLO and the Arab states to change the status quo. The tactic of rock-throwing mass demonstra…

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Intolerable Acts

(1774) The American name for laws passed by parliament to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party (1773). They were the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and a Quartering Act. The Intolerable Acts, called by the British the Coercive Acts or Punitive Acts, were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in respons…

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intra-industry trade - Examples, Explanation, Measurement, Reference

Trade where countries import and export goods produced by the same industries. Intra-industry trade is contrasted with inter-industry trade, where countries export the products of some industrial sectors and import those of different sectors. Inter-industry trade is thus trade between countries whose economic structure is different; intra-industry trade is between countries whose economic structur…

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Intracoastal Waterway - Natural bodies of water, Canals

A shipping route extending 5000 km/3100 mi along the E coast of the USA from Massachusetts to Florida (the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway) and from Apalachee Bay, Florida, to Brownsville, Texas (the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway). The waterway is composed of natural water routes, such as bays and rivers, linked by canals. It is used by both commercial and pleasure craft. The Intracoastal Wat…

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Intranet - Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages, Requirements when Creating an Intranet, Industry Examples, Further reading

The use of Internet technology to provide an organization with an internal communications network. A development of the mid-1990s, such networks can either be linked to the global Internet, or be completely isolated from it. An Intranet system which permits links to selected outside organizations is an Extranet. An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network…

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intron - Introduction, Classification of Introns, Intron evolution, Identification

A non-coding sequence that occurs within a gene, separating two parts of the coding sequence; also known as an intervening sequence. Most genes have one or more introns. The initial transcript synthesized from a gene (known as the primary transcript) is a contiguous sequence of coding (exons) and non-coding (introns) RNA. The introns are removed and the exons joined together by a process known as …

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intuitionism (ethics) - Truth and proof, History of Intuitionism, Contributors to intuitionism, Branches of intuitionistic mathematics, Further reading

The view that we apprehend moral truths directly by a special faculty analogous to sense-perception. More generally, this is supposed to be an aspect of the faculty by which we apprehend all a priori truths. In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. Inste…

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intuitionism (mathematics) - Truth and proof, History of Intuitionism, Contributors to intuitionism, Branches of intuitionistic mathematics, Further reading

The theory associated with Dutch mathematician L(uitzen) E(gbertus) J(an) Brouwer (1881–1966), equating truth with what can be proven. His approach attacked the logical foundations of mathematics, proposing instead a view of the subject as a set of mental constructs governed by self-evident laws. His work was seen as a major contribution to topology. In the philosophy of mathematics, intui…

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Invar (trademark)

An alloy containing 65% iron with 35% nickel. It has very low thermal expansion, and hence is used in surveying rods and pendulum bars. Invar, also called FeNi, is an alloy of iron (64%) and nickel (36%) with some carbon and chromium. Although Invar is today a widely used material in many industries and applications, this is a particular trademark of a French company named Imphy…

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Inverness - Geography, Buildings, History, Area committee, Parliamentary burgh and constituency, Areas of the city, Town twinning

57°27N 4°15W, pop (2000e) 43 500. Capital of Highland, NE Scotland, UK; at mouth of R Ness, 181 km/112 mi NW of Edinburgh; city status, 2000; airfield; railway; NE terminus of the Caledonian Canal; electronics, distilling, boatbuilding, textiles, tourism; Inverness museum and art gallery, castle (Victorian); battle site of Culloden Moor (1746), 8 km/5 mi E; Highland games (Jul). Inv…

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invertebrate - Phyla and common examples

A multicellular animal that lacks a vertebral column. It includes the vast majority (over 97%) of all animal species. Invertebrate is a term coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe any animal without a spinal column. Lamarck followed Linnaeus' division of these animals into two groups, the Insecta and the Vermes, but they are now classified into over 30 phyla, from simple or…

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Investiture Controversy - Origins, Investiture Controversy, The English investiture controversy of 1103–1107, The Concordat of Worms, Significance

(1075–1122) A conflict between reforming popes and lay rulers, notably the German emperor, over the leadership of Christian society. It was named after the royal practice of investing a newly appointed bishop or abbot with a ring and pastoral staff, the symbols of his spiritual office. This was condemned in 1075 by Pope Gregory VII as epitomizing secular domination of the Church. A compromise was…

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investment - Types of investment

A term used in economics in two different, though related, senses: the acquisition of financial assets with a view to income or capital gains; and the creation of productive assets, which may be ‘fixed investment’ (ie buildings and equipment) or stocks and work in progress. The two activities may be connected, as when a company issues shares and uses the money to build a new factory. They may ho…

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Io (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Inachos of Argos. She was beloved by Zeus, who turned her into a heifer to save her from Hera's jealousy. Hera kept her under the gaze of Argus; but she escaped with Hermes's help. She was then punished with a gad-fly which drove her through the world until she arrived in Egypt. There Zeus changed her back into human shape, and she gave birth to Epaphos, ancesto…

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Io - History, Tourism, Local products, Communications, Municipal districts, Sports teams, Population Data

39º39N 20º57E, pop (2001e) 62 800. Capital town of Ioánnina department, Ipiros region, W Greece; on the W side of L Ioánnina; Ali Pasha ruled here in 1788; university (1965); fortress (1619) now houses a folk museum; airfield; silver; tourism; festival of literature and art (Aug). Coordinates: 39°40′N 20°51′E Ioannina (Greek: Ιωάννινα /jo'anina/, often Γιά…

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Ioannis Metaxas - Life

General and dictator of Greece (1936–41), born in Ithaka. He fought against the Turks in 1897, studied military science in Germany, and in 1913 became chief of the general staff. On the fall of Constantine I in 1917 he fled to Italy, but returned with him in 1921. In 1935 he became deputy prime minister, and as premier in 1936 established a Fascist dictatorship. He led the resistance to the Itali…

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iodine - History, Notable inorganic iodine compounds, Stable iodine in biology

I, element 53, melting point 114°C. A violet solid, made up of diatonic molecules I2, with a sharp odour; a halogen, not found free in nature, but as an impurity in sodium nitrate deposits, and concentrated in kelp and other seaweeds. It is an essential element in biological systems, and lack of it causes goitre in humans. A dilute solution of iodine in ethanol (tincture of iodine) is a tradition…

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iodoform

CHI3, triiodomethane, melting point 119°C. A yellow solid with a peculiar odour, used as a mild antiseptic. The compound iodoform is CHI3. A pale yellow, crystalline, volatile substance, it has a penetrating odor (in older chemistry texts, the smell is sometimes referred to as the smell of hospitals) and, analogous to chloroform sweetish taste. Iodoform can be synthesized…

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ion - Common ions

An atom which has lost one or more electrons (a positive ion) or which has gained one or more electrons (a negative ion). Atoms with a net positive charge are called cations; those with a net negative charge, anions. The type and magnitude of a charge is indicated by a superscript sign; for example, the positively charged sodium ion is identified as Na+, and the negatively charged chloride ion as …

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Ion Antonescu - Early life and military career, Political power, Trial and death, Antonescu and the Holocaust

Romanian general and dictator for the Nazis in World War 2, born in Pites?i, SC Romania. He served as military attaché in Rome and London, and became chief-of-staff and minister of defence in 1937. In September 1940 he assumed dictatorial powers and forced the abdication of Carol II. He headed a Fascist government allied to Nazi Germany until 1944, when he was overthrown and executed for war crim…

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ion plating

Coating a metal surface by exposing it to ions of a metal, generated by discharge or thermionically. The ions are directed to the metal by making it the cathode in a low pressure discharge circuit. Non-conductors may also be ion-plated by siting them in a shielded region of ion transfer. The special value of the process is its ability to coat intricate and convoluted surfaces uniformly and firmly.…

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ion trap

A device for confining ions slowed by laser cooling to a region typically less than a centimetre across. It relies on a system of electric and magnetic fields. Ions may be trapped singly or in clusters, thus enabling the study of their properties, such as energy levels, lifetimes, and reactions. A Penning trap uses a fixed electric field and uniform magnetic field; a Paul trap relies on time-varyi…

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Iona - Geography, History, Iona Abbey, Iona Community, Other Information

A remote island off Mull, W Scotland, UK, the site of a monastery established in AD 563 by the Irish missionary St Columba and 12 companions to convert the inhabitants of N Britain to Christianity. The monastery flourished until the onset of Viking attacks (c.800), then declined until c.1200, when a Benedictine abbey was founded on the site. Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Sc…

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Ionia - Geography, History, Legacy

In antiquity, the C part of the W coast of Asia Minor, the birthplace of Greek philosophy and science. The name came from the extensive occupation of the area by Ionian Greeks around the beginning of the first millennium BC. Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region neare…

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Ionian Islands - History, The islands today

pop (2000e) 200 000; area 2307 km²/890 sq mi. Region and island group of W Greece, from the Albanian frontier to the Peloponnese; a chain of about 40 islands, including Corfu, Cephalonia, and Zacynthus; under British control, 1815–64; mountainous with fertile plains and valleys; wine, olives, fruit, tourism. The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionioi Nisoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι; Anc…

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Ionian Sea - Origin and myth of the eponym of the Ionian Sea, Places, Gulfs and straits, Tributaries

Part of the Mediterranean Sea, lying W of the Greek islands and S of Italy; separated from the Adriatic Sea by the Strait of Otranto; connected to the Aegean Sea by the Sea of Crete. The Ionian Sea (Albanian Deti Jon (meaning "Our sea"), Greek Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, Italian Mare Ionio) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. There are ferry routes betw…

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Ionic order

One of the five main orders of classical architecture; lighter and more elegant than the Doric, with slim, usually fluted shafts and spiral scrolls known as volutes on the capitals. It originated in Ionia in the 6th-c BC. The Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was s…

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ionosphere - Geophysics, The Ionospheric Layers, Anomalies to the Ideal Model, Ionospheric Perturbations, Radio Application, Other Applications, Measurements

The region of the Earth's upper atmosphere from c.50–500 km/30–300 mi in height where short-wave radiation from the Sun is absorbed and partly ionizes the gas molecules or atoms, removing their outer electrons and leaving them positively charged. The ionized layers reflect short-wavelength radio waves, and so make long-distance radio communication possible. The ionosphere is layered according …

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Iowa - Important cities and towns, Professional sports teams, References

pop (2000e) 2 926 300; area 145 747 km²/56 275 sq mi. State in NC USA, divided into 99 counties; the ‘Hawkeye State’; 29th state admitted to the Union, 1846; became part of USA with the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; became a state, 1846; capital moved from Iowa City to Des Moines, 1857; other chief cities, Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City; Mississippi R follows the E border; Des Moines R…

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ipecacuanha - Similar plants

A perennial (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) with roots thickened to resemble a string of beads, native to Brazil; stems sprawling; leaves oval; flowers small, white, in heads. The roots provide the drug ipecacuanha, used to induce vomiting and to treat dysentery. (Family: Rubiaceae.) Ipecacuanha (Psychotria ipecacuanha) of family Rubiaceae is a flowering plant, the root of which is most commonly us…

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Iphigeneia - Greek myth, Iphianassa, Cymon and Iphigenia, A Modern Viewpoint, Some modern sources

According to Greek legend, the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. She was about to be sacrificed at Aulis as the fleet could not sail to Troy, because the winds were against it. At the last moment she was saved by Artemis, who made her a priestess in the country of the Tauri (the Crimea). Finally her brother Orestes saved her. Iphigeneia (Eng. Artemis punished Agamemnon aft…

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Ipswich - History, Politics, Modern Ipswich, Culture, Industry, Transport infrastructure, Sport

52°04N 1°10E, pop (2001e) 117 100. Port and county town in Suffolk, E England, UK; at the head of the R Orwell estuary, 106 km/66 mi NE of London; a major wool port in the 16th-c; birthplace of Cardinal Wolsey; home of Thomas Gainsborough; railway; engineering, brewing, food processing, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, textiles, tobacco products, fertilizers, plastics; Churches …

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Iquique - History, Trivia

20°13S 70°09W, pop (2000e) 171 700. Port capital of Tarapacá region, N Chile; free port, S of Arica; founded in 16th-c; partly destroyed by earthquake, 1877; scene of naval battle in War of the Pacific (1879); airfield; railway; trade in fishmeal, fish oil, tinned fish, salt, nitrates; naval museum, Palacio Astoreca (1904); La Fiesta de Tirana (religious festival) 70 km/40 mi E (Jul). …

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Iquitos - History, Economy, Education, Tourism, Universities, Maps and aerial photos

3°51S 73°13W, pop (2000e) 314 000. Capital of Loreto department, NE Peru; fast-developing city on the W bank of the Amazon, 3700 km/2300 mi from its mouth; limit of navigation for ocean vessels; access only by air and river; university (1962); chief town of Peru's jungle region; rubber, nuts, timber; centre for oil exploration in Peruvian Amazonia. Iquitos is the largest city in the r…

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IRA

Abbreviation of Irish Republican Army, an anti-British paramilitary force established in 1919 by Irish nationalists to combat British and Protestant Irish forces in Ireland. It opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 because Ireland was a dominion and the six counties of the North of Ireland were part of the UK, but it was suppressed by the Irish government in the 1922 rising, and remained largely …

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Ira (Clarence) Eaker - World War II, Civilian career

Aviator, born in Field Creek, Texas, USA. Commissioned in 1918, he entered the Signal Corps and learned to fly. He was part of a pilots' relay that kept a Fokker monoplane aloft over Los Angeles for a record 150 hours, and in 1936 he made the first transcontinental flight using instruments only. On 17 August 1942, he led the first B-17 bombing attack on continental Europe, and went on to command t…

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Ira (Frederick) Aldridge

Stage actor, probably born in New York City, New York, USA. He began as a youth with the African Theatre, established by William Henry Brown in New York City (1821) to present all-black casts in a variety of plays. In 1824 he went to England, where for the next 25 years he became widely known throughout Britain and Ireland. In 1833 he replaced the mortally ill Edmund Kean as Othello at London's Co…

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Ira Gershwin - Biography, Legacy, Further reading

Lyricist, born in New York City, New York, USA, the brother of George Gershwin. Showing a youthful talent for writing and drawing, he wrote humorous columns while in high school, and after two years at the City College of New York he dropped out to work at odd jobs and to concentrate on his writing. He sold his first magazine piece in 1917 and became a reviewer of vaudeville shows. That same year …

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Ira Hayes - Commemoration, Movies, Books about Ira Hayes

Pima war hero, born in Sacaton, Arizona, USA. He was one of five marines photographed raising the US flag on Mt Suribachi, Iwo Jima in 1945. Unable to deal with the adulation that followed the photograph's wide publication, he returned to the reservation, where he died of alcoholism and exposure. Ira Hamilton Hayes (January 12, 1923 – January 24, 1955) was a full blood Akimel O’odham, o…

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Ira Progoff - Events

Psychologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the New School for Social Research (1951 PhD), and taught there before joining Drew University (New Jersey) (1959) as director of the Institute for Research in Depth Psychology. A humanistic psychologist, he created ‘process meditation’ and ‘intensive journaling’ as methods of spiritual growth. His books include Life-Study: Expe…

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Ira Remsen

Chemist and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. German-educated, he founded the chemistry department at Johns Hopkins (1876–1913), where he trained a generation of eminent chemists. He was founding editor of the American Chemical Journal (1879–1914) and wrote several important textbooks. As president of Johns Hopkins (1901–13), he founded the school of engineering. Ira Remsen…

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Iran - Name, History, Government and politics, Administrative divisions, Geography and climate, Economy, Demographics, Major cities, Culture, Health

Official name Islamic Republic of Iran, Farsi Jumhuri-e-Eslami-e-Iran, formerly Persia (to 1935), Iran?(help·info) (Persian: ايران‎ , Īrān), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ايران‎ , transliteration: Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān), is a country located in west Asia, once known as Persia to the Western world. Iran borders Ar…

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Iranian languages - Name, Early Iranian languages, The Middle Iranian languages, Iranian languages after the Arab conquest of Persia

A branch of the E Indo-European language family, spoken in the region of present-day Iran and Afghanistan. Old Persian, and Avestan, in which the sacred texts of the Zoroastrians was written, are recorded from the 6th-c BC. Modern Iranian languages, of which Persian (Farsi) is one of the major examples, are spoken by over 60 million people. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-Eur…

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Iranian Revolution - Causes, Precursors to the revolution, Pre-revolutionary conditions and events inside Iran, Protests

One of the great revolutions of modern history which, like the French or Russian, confronted the West with a disruptive new political order. The consequence of widespread discontent at rapid socio-economic change and the authoritarian rule of the shah, the revolution took the exiled religious scholar Ayatollah Khomeini as its figurehead. A cycle of demonstrations was initiated when six theology st…

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Iraq War - Iraqi insurgency, Casualties, Damage to Iraq's infrastructure, Financial costs, Criticism, External articles

(Mar–Apr 2003) A war between Iraq and US-led coalition forces, brought about by Iraq's apparent continued failure to comply with UN Security Council Resolution 1441 to disarm itself of weapons of mass destruction. UN weapons inspectors, headed by Hans Blix, urged that more time be given for inspections to be carried out, but US President George W Bush, supported by UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, s…

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Ireland (island) - Politics, Geography, Climate, Flora and fauna, Flags of Ireland, History, History since partition, Sport

Island on W fringe of Europe, separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea; maximum length 486 km/302 mi, maximum width 275 km/171 mi; since 1921, divided politically into the independent 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland (area 70 282 km²/27 129 sq mi; pop (2000e) 3 647 000), and Northern Ireland, part of the UK, containing six of the nine counties of the ancient province of Uls…

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Ireland (republic) - Politics, Geography, Climate, Flora and fauna, Flags of Ireland, History, History since partition, Sport

Official name Republic of Ireland Ireland (53°30′N 7°38′W; Politically it is divided into a sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland, that covers about five-sixths of the island (south, east, west and north-west), and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom, covering the northeastern sixth of the island. The population of the island is just under 6 mill…

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Irene - People named Irene, Other Uses

The second daughter of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard of The Netherlands, born in Soestdijk, WC The Netherlands. She became a Catholic and married Charles Hugo, Prince of Bourbon Parma, in 1964 without officially asking the government for permission, so that she forfeited her rights to the throne. Her conversion and marriage were unpopular in Protestant circles. The couple divorced in 1981 a…

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Irene (Byzantium) - People named Irene, Other Uses

Byzantine empress, the wife of the emperor Leo IV. After 780 she ruled as regent for her son, Constantine VI. When Constantine attempted to deprive her of power, she imprisoned and blinded him and her husband's five brothers, and ruled in her own right as emperor from 797. She was deposed and banished to Lesbos in 802. For her part in the restoration of the use of icons (forbidden in 730) at the C…

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Irene Pereira - Cultivation, Preparation as food, World production and trade, Rice Pests, Cultivars

Painter, born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, USA. She supported her family when young, then became an abstract painter on glass and parchment, depicting what she called ‘infinity’, as seen in ‘Undulating Arrangement’ (1947). Based in New York City, she moved to the coast of Spain during her last years. Rice is two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and …

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Irene Worth - The beginnings, Early Stages, Shakespeare and the West End, The RSC and the National, Broadway

Actress, born in Nebraska, USA. She studied at the University of California, Los Angeles, and became a teacher, before joining a touring company in 1942. She appeared on Broadway a year later, and in 1944 moved to London. She joined the Old Vic in 1951, and became a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1960. She won awards for several theatre roles, including Tiny Alic…

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Irgun (Zvai Leumi) - Views about Irgun, Radio station

A Jewish resistance group in Palestine, founded in 1937, whose aim was the establishment of the State of Israel by any means. Led by Menachem Begin, it was responsible for the hanging of British soldiers and the massacre of the villagers of Deir Yassin in 1948, when its members numbered about 5000. It was the nucleus for the Herut Party in Israel. Irgun was founded in 1931 by Avraham Tehomi…

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Irian Jaya

pop (2000e) 1 928 000; area 421 981 km²/162 885 sq mi. Autonomous province of Indonesia, comprising the W half of New Guinea and adjacent islands; mountainous and forested; Pegunungan Maoke range rises to 5029 m/16 499 ft at Jaya Peak; part of Indonesia, 1963; bicameral council introduced, 2002; ongoing separatist Free Papua Movement (OPM); capital, Jayapura; copra, maize, groundnuts, …

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iridology - Methods, History

The detailed study of the visible parts of the eye, especially the iris, which is used as a diagnostic aid in conjunction with many forms of therapy, including acupuncture, herbal medicine, and homeopathy. Iridologists claim that, since the nervous system comes to the body surface in the eyes, so the condition of all parts of the body is reflected in the eye's appearance. Physical and psychologica…

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iris (anatomy) - General structure, Embryology, Color, Diseases, "Red eye"

The coloured part of the vertebrate eye, an opaque diaphragm extending in front of the lens and having a circular opening (the pupil). It consists of pigmental epithelium and circularly and radially arranged smooth muscle fibres. The differential contraction of these muscle fibres (under the control of the autonomic nervous system) alters pupil size and so regulates the amount of light entering th…

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iris (botany)

A perennial, sometimes evergreen, native to N temperate regions, divisible into two groups; those with rhizomes have sword-shaped leaves in flat fans; those with bulbs have leaves narrow, channelled, or cylindrical; flowers large, showy, the parts in threes and structurally complex, often in a combination of colours with conspicuous honey guides; fruit a capsule, sometimes with brightly coloured s…

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Iris (mythology) - In myth, Representation

In Greek mythology, the goddess of the rainbow, which seems to reach from Earth to heaven. She therefore became the messenger of the gods, especially of Zeus in Homer, and of Hera in later writers. She is depicted sitting under Hera's throne. In Greek mythology, Iris is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. As the rainbow unites Earth and heaven, Iris links the gods …

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Irish

The Celtic language spoken in Ireland; also known as Irish Gaelic [gaylik] and occasionally as Erse. Designated the first official language of the Republic of Ireland, there are over a million users, but home use is less than a twentieth of this, and is falling. Most speakers of Irish as a mother-tongue come from the W fringes of the country, which have been designated as an area of protection for…

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Irish Civil War - Background, Course of the war, Cost and results

Conflict in Ireland following the Easter Rising of 1916. In 1920 the Government of Ireland Act provided for two Irish parliaments, one (Stormont) for the six counties of Ulster in the N, and one for the remaining 26 counties of Ireland. The Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921) suspended part of the 1920 Act: while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, the 26 counties gained separate dominion …

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Irish literature - Poetry, Fiction, Theatre

A literature with two distinct traditions; the native Irish Gaelic, and the Anglo-Irish. The earliest datable Irish poem is Amra Choluim Chille, a eulogy in praise of Saint Colum Cille (d.597). Irish remained oral later than any other European literature. Not only the early, short prose sagas (such as the famous Tain Bo Cuailnge (The Cattle-Raid of Cooley)) but also mediaeval lyrics and still late…

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Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) - Foundation, Armed campaign, Feuds and splits, Recent activities

The military wing of the Irish Republican Socialist Party, a small paramilitary group which committed few terrorist attacks, but was noted for the ruthless nature of those it does carry out. Probably created by former members of the Official IRA disenchanted with the 1972 ceasefire, it was responsible for the killing of the Conservative MP Airey Neave (Mar 1979). It suffered internal feuds in the …

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Irish Republican Socialist Party - Highlights in the IRSP's history

A political party formed in 1974 largely as a breakaway group from the official Sinn Féin, who disagreed with its political strategy and the 1972 ceasefire. Its most prominent member was Bernadette McAliskey. It was involved in a feud with the Official IRA in the 1970s, and subsequently moved closer to the Provisional Sinn Féin. Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) describes itself as …

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Irish Sea - Shipping, Origin, Environment, U-boat Alley, Oil and gas exploration, Proposed tunnel projects, Wind power

area 103 600 km²/39 990 sq mi. Arm of the Atlantic Ocean between Ireland and Great Britain; 210 km/130 mi long by 225 km/140 mi at its widest point; linked to the Atlantic by the North Channel, St George's Channel, and Celtic Sea. The Irish Sea (Irish: Muir Éireann) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. The Isle of Man lies in the middle of the Irish Sea. The sea is…

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Irish setter - History, "Red Setter" Controversy, Miscellaneous

A breed of dog, developed in Ireland, similar to the English setter but more slender, with a glossy red-brown coat; hair forming fringes on tail, underside, and backs of legs; also known as red setter. The Irish Setter, also known as the Red Setter, is a breed of gundog and family dog. The term Irish Setter is commonly used to encompass the Show-bred dog recognized by the AKC as well …

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Irish wolfhound - Appearance, Health, History

The tallest domestic breed of dog (shoulder height, 80 cm/30½ in); very old breed, used for hunting by the Celts; long (usually grey) coat; soft ears; similar to the deerhound, but less slender. The Irish Wolfhound is a breed of dog (a sighthound), bred to hunt. These dogs are the tallest breed, with a swift pace and good sight. However, generally breeders aim for a height av…

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Irita Van Doren - History, Industry and economy, Educational institutions, Health, Development, Twin towns, Geography, Culture and recreation, Religion

Editor, born in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. A leading light in New York literary society, she was literary editor of the New York Herald Tribune (1926–63). Married for a time to Carl Van Doren, she later was a long-time companion to Wendell Willkie. Bradford is a city in the northern English county of Yorkshire, and the major settlement in the City of Bradford Metropolitan District of West Y…

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Irkutsk - Geography and Climate, History, Economy, Transport, TV and mass media, Twin cities, Education, Science

52°18N 104°15E, pop (2000e) 635 000. Capital city of Irkutskaya oblast, S Siberian Russia; at the confluence of the Irkut and Angara Rivers; founded as a fortress, 1661; airport; on the Trans-Siberian Railway; university (1918); one of the largest economic centres of E Siberia; centre for fur-purchasing and gold transshipment; foodstuffs, ship repairing, woodworking, heavy machinery, machine t…

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Irna Phillips - Overview, Personal life, Early radio career, Radio and television success, Personality and temperment, Final years, Credits

Radio and television writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. After graduating from the University of Illinois (1923 BS), she taught speech and drama at college level. In 1930, for Chicago radio station WGN, she created and performed in Painted Dreams (1930–2), generally regarded as the first ‘soap opera’. She moved on to the National Broadcasting Company and wrote Today's Children (1932–8), th…

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iron - Production of iron from iron ore, Iron in biology, Precautions

Fe (from Lat ferrum), element 26, a metal with density of 7·8 g/cm3, melting point 1535°C. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust, not found uncombined except in some meteorites. Learning to recover (smelt) it from its ores (mainly the oxide Fe2O3) was a major step in human civilization. The first to have iron were the Hittites (13th-c BC) and the Etruscans (1000 BC). Cast ir…

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Iron Cross - Design, Early awards, Second World War, Side features of the Iron Cross and entitlements

A military decoration (an iron cross edged with silver) instituted in Prussia in 1813 and reinstated in 1870 for the Franco-Prussian War and as a German medal in 1914 and 1939 for the two World Wars. The ribbon is black, white, and gold. Sometimes erroneously called the Maltese cross, the Iron Cross (German: das Eiserne Kreuz) is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia, and later of…

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iron curtain - Political, economic, and military realities, Origins of the Iron Curtain, Reactions

A term used to describe the separation of certain E and C European countries from the rest of Europe by the political and military domination of the Soviet Union. The term was first used by Nazi propaganda minister Goebbels in 1945 and quoted in translation by the British press. It became widely known after Churchill used it in a speech in Fulton, USA, in 1946. It became redundant following the co…

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Ironbridge

A historic industrial town in the Severn R gorge, WC England, UK, 21 km/13 mi SE of Shrewsbury, Shropshire, the birthplace of England's Industrial Revolution. In 1709 Abraham Darby, a Bristol ironmaster, was the first to smelt iron, with coke replacing traditional charcoal, nearby at Coalbrookdale, and in 1778–9 Europe's first iron bridge was cast and erected here; 196 ft (59·8 m) long, its …

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irony - Etymology, Socratic irony, Roman irony, Verbal irony, Use of irony, Fiction

One of the most complex forms of literary expression, more a habit of mind than a rhetorical figure, requiring continual alertness on the part of the reader for proper interpretation. Irony is not simply saying one thing and implying the opposite; the name for this crude form is sarcasm. Irony invites the reader to consider several shades of meaning simultaneously, some of which are elided or canc…

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Iroquois - Member nations, Modern population, Haudenosaunee clans, Government

A North American Indian people concentrated in the Great Lakes area, speaking Iroquoian languages of the Hokan–Siouan family, c.80 000 (2000 census). Mostly settled in villages in longhouses, the women farmed, and the men hunted, fished, traded, and defended the communities from attack. They fought many wars with their neighbours, enslaving captives or absorbing them into the community. T…

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irredentism - Origins, "Triadic nexus" of irredenta conflict, Constitutional irredentism

A political movement whose aim is to reunite to a motherland those territories connected to it by language, history, and culture but which are part of another political entity. It enjoyed considerable support in Italy from the end of the 19th-c to the end of World War 1. It advocated the return of the regions that had remained under Austrian domination after the 3rd Independence War: Trentino, Ven…

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irrigation - Overview, Types of irrigation, How an in-ground irrigation system works, History of irrigation

The application of water to soil and crops by artificial methods, first recorded in China, 560 BC. The water used for irrigation is taken from lakes, rivers, streams, and wells. In some desert areas all the moisture requirements for plant growth may be provided through irrigation, with water being supplied via a complex canal and irrigation channel network. In other areas irrigation is used to ach…

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irritable bowel syndrome - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Epidemiology, Prognosis

A common condition involving abdominal discomfort and altered bowel habit. Not serious, it may be related to an increased spontaneous movement of the intestines, though there is almost certainly a psychological element; there are no obvious abnormal findings and it is exacerbated by emotional stress. Changes in diet, such as increased dietary fibre, may help to reduce symptoms, and measures to red…

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Irvin McDowell

US soldier, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. He trained at West Point (1838), and served in the Mexican War, on the frontier, and at army headquarters in Washington. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was given command of the Union troops assigned to defend the nation's capital (his first true command position), and political demands for a quick victory forced him to commit an unready Union army to …

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Irvine Welsh - Biographical, Fiction, Film and stage, Themes, Style, Bibliography

Writer, born in Leith, Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He left school at 16 and held various jobs before taking a business course at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh (1988–90). He became known with his controversial first novel, Trainspotting (1993; filmed 1996), and later books include Marabou Stork Nightmares (1995), Filth (1998), Porno (2002), and The Bedroom Secrets of the Master Chefs (2006).…

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Irving (John) Gill - Biography

Architect, born in Tully, New York, USA. After training with architects in Syracuse and Chicago (including Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan), he worked in San Diego and Los Angeles designing primarily houses, and educational and institutional buildings. He developed an avant-garde Cubist style that introduced and refined concrete tilt-slab construction. His unornamented, abstract designs were base…

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Irving (Robert) Kaufman

Judge, born in New York City, New York, USA. He graduated from Fordham University and Fordham Law School, worked for a private firm, and as a government attorney in the mid-1930s he prosecuted several notorious New York City cases and became known as the ‘boy prosecutor’. He was named to the federal bench for the Southern District of New York in 1949. In March 1951 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg wer…

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Irving (William) Kristol - Quotes, Books

Editor and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of Jewish immigrants, he graduated from the City College of New York in 1940, became active in left-wing political circles, and saw combat with the US Army in France (1944–5). Gradually moving to the right, he edited Encounter magazine (1953–8) and The Public Interest magazine (from 1965). He taught social sciences at New York Un…

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Irving Babbitt - Works

Critic and writer, born in Dayton, Ohio, USA. He studied at Harvard and at the Sorbonne, becoming professor of French at Harvard (1894–1933). He was a leader of the ‘new selective humanism’ which flourished in America in the 1920s. His books include Literature and the American College (1908), The New Laokoön (1910), and On Being Creative (1932). Irving Babbitt (August 2, 1865 – July 1…

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Irving Berlin - Early years, Works for the Musical stage, Berlin and Hollywood, Personal life

Composer and lyricist, born in Temun, N Russia. His father was a cantor, and the family fled pogroms and emigrated to the USA when he was a child. Living in New York, he joined a synagogue choir and at age 14 sang popular songs on street corners and in cafes. A singing waiter in 1906, he taught himself piano and began writing songs. The first was published mistakenly under ‘I. Berlin’ and from t…

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Irving Fine - Life and work

Composer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After studies at Harvard and with Nadia Boulanger in France, he taught at Harvard and Brandeis. He was admired for his cosmopolitan style marked by a delicate lyricism. Fine was born in Boston, Massachusetts, where he studied piano, and received both Bachelor's and Master's degrees from Harvard University, where he was a pupil of Walter Piston. …

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Irving Fisher - Biography and Contributions, Personal Ideals, Selected publications, Personalities of Wall Street

Economist, born in Saugerties, New York, USA. One of the most colourful economists, he is remembered for his brilliant and enduring exposition of economic theory. From 1892 until his retirement in 1935, he taught at Yale University. His contributions include crystallizing the distinctions between stocks and flows, clarifying the science of accounting at the individual level, and for explaining the…

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Irving Howe - Quotes

Literary critic and biographer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was educated at City College, joined the faculty there (1963), and was associated with the ‘New York intellectuals’ in the 1940s. His career is notable for blending Socialist activism and literary and cultural criticism. Founder and editor of Dissent (1954), his many essays and books concern most notably the American novel,…

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Irving Langmuir - Life, Education, Scientific work, Later years, Patents, External links and references

Chemist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. After teaching chemistry at the Stevens Institute of Technology (1906–9), he began work at the General Electric laboratory under Willis Whitney (1909). Langmuir's first major contribution was to show that a nitrogen-filled light bulb burned more brightly than a vacuum bulb. He went on to the study of vacuums, inventing the mercury pump (1916), which enabl…

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Irving Stone

Popular novelist and playwright, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied at the universities of California, Berkeley, and Southern California. He is sometimes credited with creating the non-fiction novel, starting with Lust for Life (1934), based on the life of Van Gogh, which became a best-seller. His other works include The Agony and the Ecstasy (1961), which fictionalizes the life of…

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Irwin Edman

Philosopher, born in New York City, New York, USA. He taught at Columbia University (1920–54) and wrote several books, including Four Ways to Philosophy (1937) and Philosopher's Holiday (1938), a collection of informal reminiscences. He frequently wrote on issues of the day for a general audience and often appeared on radio. Irwin Edman (November 28, 1896 – September 4, 1954) was an Amer…

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Irwin Rose

Biologist, born in New York City, USA. He served in the US Navy, studied at Chicago University (1952), and joined the faculty of Yale Medical School's biochemistry department (1954–63) before becoming Emeritus Professor at the Department of Physiology and Biophysics of the College of Medicine at the University of California, Irvine. In 2004 he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Avram Hersh…

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Isaac - Name, Isaac in the Hebrew Bible, Isaac in the New Testament, Isaac in Qur'an

Biblical character, the son of Abraham by Sarah, through whose line of descent God's promises to Abraham were seen to continue. He was nearly sacrificed by Abraham at God's command (Gen 22). He fathered Esau and Jacob by his wife Rebecca, but was deceived into passing his blessing on to his younger son Jacob. Three explanations for Isaac's name are given: the first is that his father Abraha…

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Isaac (Emmanuilovich) Babel - Early years, Early career, Clashes with the authorities, Arrest and death, Rehabilitation and legacy

Short-story writer, a protégé of Maxim Gorky, born in the Jewish ghetto of Odessa, S Ukraine. He worked as a journalist in St Petersburg, then served in the tsar's army and in various Bolshevik campaigns. He wrote stories of the Jews in Odessa in Odesskie rasskazy (1916, Odessa Tales), and tales of the brutality and heroism of the post-revolutionary Russian Civil War in Konarmiya (1926, Red Cava…

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Isaac (Thomas) Hecker - Biography, Sources

Religious leader, born in New York City, New York, USA. After briefly joining the Brook Farm community, he became a Catholic (1844), studied abroad, and was ordained a Redemptorist priest (1849). He conducted missions and won approval for his own congregation (1858), the Missionary Priests of St Paul the Apostle, widely known as the Paulists, devoted to communications and evangelizing among non-Ca…

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Isaac Asimov

Novelist, critic, and popular scientist, born in Petrovichi, Russia. He was brought to the USA when he was three and grew up in Brooklyn, NY. He studied chemistry at Columbia University and developed a career both as an academic biochemist and as a science fiction writer. Among his leading titles are the ‘Foundation’ novels - Foundation (1951), Foundation and Empire (1952), and Second Foundation…

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Isaac Backus

Protestant religious leader, born in Norwich, Connecticut, USA. He underwent religious conversion during the Great Awakening (1741), and a few years later founded the conservative New Light Church in Norwich, CT. He convinced himself that the Scriptures required adult baptism by immersion, and joined the Baptist sect in 1751. From 1756 until his death he was pastor of a Baptist church in Middlebor…

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Isaac Barrow - Youth, education, and description, Career and works

Mathematician and theologian, born in London, UK. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1649. He was professor of geometry at Gresham College, London (1662), and the first Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge (1663), but resigned in 1669 to make way for Isaac Newton. He founded the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became Master in 1673. …

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Isaac Bashevis Singer - Biography, Trivia, Vegetarianism, List of works

Yiddish writer, born in Radzymin, E Poland (then part of tsarist Russia). He studied in Warsaw, emigrating to the USA in 1935, where he worked as a journalist for the Jewish Daily Forward. He became a US citizen in 1943. He set his novels and short stories among the Jews of Poland, Germany, and America, combining a deep psychological insight with dramatic and visual impact. His novels include The …

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Isa - Works

Poet and writer, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. After his law studies and promotion in 1818, he started a law firm in Amsterdam. Under the influence of Bilderdijk, who was his teacher, he converted to Protestantism in 1822, after which his religious ideas became very important in his work and life. He became the leading spokesman of the religious movement Het Réveil. …

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Isaac de Benserade

Poet and playwright, born in Normandy or Paris, France. In 1634 he began visiting the salon of the Marquise de Rambouillet, the literary centre of Paris, and wrote a succession of romantic verses. His sonnet ‘Job’ (1648) was pitted against Vincent Voiture's ‘Uranie’ and unleashed the ‘querelle des sonnets’, a lively court debate over poetic style. Although Benserade was adjudged the loser, h…

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Isaac de Pinto

Dutch businessman and banker of Portuguese-Jewish extraction, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He was a director of the WIC (Dutch West India Company) and VOC (United East India Company), a friend of Stadtholder William IV, and diplomatic envoy of Stadtholder William V. He wrote a defence of the Jews against Voltaire, who had expressed anti-Semitic views in his anti-religious treatises and his …

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Isaac Deutscher - Early life, Student and communist, Trotskyist, In the UK, Biographer of Stalin and Trotsky, 1960s

Marxist historian of Russia, born in Kraków, S Poland. A journalist, he joined the Communist Party in 1926 and edited Communist periodicals until his expulsion in 1932 for leading an anti-Stalinist opposition. He went to London in 1939, and worked on the editorial staff of The Economist (1942–9) and The Observer (1942–7). His great biography of Trotsky appeared in three volumes: The Prophet Arm…

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Isaac Felix Suar

Writer, born in Vallon de l'Oriol, E France, into a Jewish family from Marseille. A Normalien and Symbolist, he published Le Bouclier du Zodiaque in 1907. He wrote c.100 works, among them autobiographical texts, Sur la Mort de mon frère (1904), essays on Tolstoy (1911), Pascal, Ibsen, Dostoïevski (1912), Péguy (1915), and Cervantes (1918), on La Nation contre la Race (1916), and Vues sur l'Euro…

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Isaac Hull

US naval officer, born in Huntington (now Shelton), Connecticut, USA. The nephew and adopted son of General William Hull, he served in the undeclared naval war with France and in the Tripolitan War. As commander of the USS Constitution (1810–12) he won an outstanding victory over the British Guerrière (1812), earning the vessel the nickname of ‘Old Ironsides’. During the next 30 years he alter…

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Isaac Israel Hayes

Physician and Arctic explorer, born in Chester Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania, then volunteered himself as a surgeon, sailing in the Kane expedition (1853–4) searching for the lost Franklin expedition of 1845. Seeking to prove that there were open seas around the North Pole, he led two more expeditions (1860, 1869). His book The Land of Desolation (1871–2) de…

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Isaac Jogues

Catholic missionary and saint, born in Orléans, France. A Jesuit priest sent to North America in 1636, he worked among the Huron Indians, journeying as far W as Sault Ste Marie (now in Michigan). He and his companions were captured by Iroquois (1642), and he was tortured, enslaved, and held captive at Ossernenon (now Auriesville, NY), where he eventually escaped, reaching New Amsterdam with aid f…

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Isaac Mayer Wise - Prayer-Book, Hebrew Union College, Rabbinical Conferences, His Works

Rabbi, born in Steingrub, Bohemia (now Czech Republic). He studied in Vienna and settled in the USA in 1846. Rabbi of Orthodox congregations in Albany, NY, and Cincinnati, he changed them into Reform synagogues, and soon became the pre-eminent leader of Reform Judaism in the USA. He organized the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (1873), and founded the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati (187…

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Isaac Nathan - Early success, Decline, Australian Resurgence, Death and Descendants, Summary, Portrait

Composer and music teacher, born in Canterbury, Kent, SE England, UK. Musical librarian to King George IV, he was a friend of the poet Byron, whose Hebrew Melodies (1815) Nathan set to music inspired by Jewish chants. He moved to Australia in 1841, where he became choirmaster of St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney. He published Australia the Wide and Free (1842), as well as the first opera to be composed …

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Isaac Newton - Biography, Religious views, Newton and the counterfeiters, Enlightenment philosophers, Newton's laws of motion

Agriculturist, born in Burlington Co, New Jersey, USA. By his mid-20s he was managing two farms in Springfield, PA so successfully that he opened a confectionery shop and sold ice-cream made from his dairy surplus. Active in the state and national Agricultural Society, he urged Congress to establish a department of agriculture, and in 1861 President Lincoln appointed him supervisor of the agricult…

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Isaac Parker - Early life, Professional Beginnings, Political career, Appointed District Judge, The Changing Court

Judge, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A goldsmith's son, he graduated from Harvard with high honours in 1786, became a school teacher, then moved to Castine, ME where he set up a law practice. He served a term in Congress (1797–9) before accepting an appointment as US marshal for Maine. Named to the Massachusetts Supreme Court (1806), he became chief justice (1814), a position he held until …

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Isaac Shelby

US soldier and public official, born in present-day Washington Co, Maryland, USA. He followed the moving frontier, relocating to Virginia (1773) and Kentucky (1783). He fought in important battles during the American Revolution and became the first governor of Kentucky (1792–6). He returned to the governor's office (1812–16) and led Kentucky volunteers in Michigan and Canada during the War of 18…

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Isaac Stern

Violinist, born in Kremenets, NC Belarus. Brought in infancy to the USA by his family, he grew up in San Francisco and took up the violin at age eight, later studying at the city's conservatory (1928–31) and debuting with the orchestra at age 11. After years of further study and growth, he achieved an outstanding success at his Carnegie Hall debut in 1943. He went on to a career in the highest ra…

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Isaac Watts - Life, Cultural impact, Other works, Memorials, List of hymns

Nonconformist hymnwriter, born in Southampton, Hampshire, S England, UK. He trained for the ministry at the Dissenting Academy in Stoke Newington, and was appointed as an Independent minister in Mark Lane, London (1702), becoming eminent as a preacher and hymn-writer. His hymns include ‘Jesus shall reign where'er the Sun’, ‘When I Survey the Wondrous Cross’, and ‘O God, Our Help in Ages Past

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Isabel Allende - Education, Adult Life, Source

Novelist, born in Lima, Peru, the niece and god-daughter of Salvador Allende, the former president of Chile. Several months after his assassination and the overthrow of Chile's coalition government in 1973, she fled Chile, seeking sanctuary in Venezuela. Her first novel, The House of the Spirits (1985), which arose directly out of her exile, became a worldwide best-seller and critical success. Her…

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Isabel Bishop

Painter, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. She studied at the Arts Students League (1920) with Max Weber. Considered a humanist, she portrayed the people and life of the streets of New York City where she lived. Many of her works have an ethereal, mysterious quality, as in ‘Men and Girls Walking’ (1970) and ‘Variations on the Theme of Walking’ (1979). Isabel Bishop (March 3, 1902 – March…

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Isabella of France

Queen consort of England, the wife of Edward II, and daughter of Philip IV of France. She married Edward in 1308 at Boulogne, but then became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, with whom she overthrew and murdered the king (1327). Her son, Edward III, had Mortimer executed in 1330, and Isabella was sent into retirement, eventually to join an order of nuns. Isabella of France (c.…

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Isabella Rossellini - Biography, Trivia, Further Reading

Film actress, born in Rome, Italy, the daughter of Roberto Rossellini and Ingrid Bergman. She worked as a translator and journalist before making her first film appearance in 1976, playing a small part in her mother's film A Matter of Time. She appeared in several European television dramas before her starring role in the Italian film Il Prato (1979, The Meadow), then concentrated on a modelling c…

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Isabella Stewart Gardner

Art collector, born in New York City, New York, USA. The daughter of David Stewart, a wealthy New York City importer and mining investor, she was schooled privately, toured Europe (1856–8), and married John Lowell Gardner (1860) with his proper Bostonian pedigree. She settled in Boston but was not accepted by its old society. When the death of her two-year-old son (1865) was followed by a miscarr…

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Isabelle (Yasmine) Adjani - Biography

Actress, born in Paris, France, to Algerian and German parents. She joined the Comédie Francaise, and went on to star in Truffaut's Histoire d'Adèle (1975). A gifted interpreter of varied roles, she appeared in Mortelle Randonnée (1983), and starred in Camille Claudel (1988, César) and in Chéreau's La Reine Margot (1994, César). Later films include Diabolique (1996) and Bon Voyage (2003). Sh…

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Isabelle Duchesnay

Franco-Canadian ice-dancer. She and her brother Paul Duchesnay (1961– ) became world champion ice-dancers in 1991. Four times French Champions, they introduced an original experimental style into their dancing. In 1992, at the Albertville Olympic games, they won the silver medal, before retiring from the sport. Isabelle Duchesnay (born December 18, 1963, Aylmer, Quebec, Canada) was an ice …

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Isabelle Huppert - Selected filmography

Actress, born in Paris, France. She first worked in the theatre, then made her mark as an actress of intelligence and versatility, notably in the films La Dentellière (1977, The Lace-maker, director C Goretta) and Violette Nozière (1978, director C Chabrol). She later starred in Les Possédés (1988, director A Wajda), Les Affinités Electives (1996, director V et P Tarian), and La Pianiste (200…

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Isadora Duncan - Personal life, Career, Later life, Isadora Duncan in culture

Dancer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. Her parents were divorced shortly after her birth and she was raised by her poor but romantic mother, who filled her children with the sounds of music and notions of unconventionality. Isadora showed an early talent for dance, and by age ten left school to teach dancing. She soon began to dance in public, and in 1896 went with her mother to New York …

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Isaiah - Biography, Critical scholarship, Prophecies of Isaiah as Viewed in Mormonism

The first in order of the major Old Testament prophets, the son of Amoz. A citizen of Jerusalem, he began to prophesy c.747 BC, and exercised his office until at least the close of the century. According to tradition, he was martyred. Isaiah or Yeshayáhu (יְשַׁעְיָהוּ "Salvation of/is the Lord", Standard Hebrew Yəšaʿyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yəšaʿăyāhû, Greek Ἠσαία

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Isaiah Bowman

Geographer, born in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. He studied at Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, MI and then at Ypsilanti's Normal College under the tutelage of Mark Jefferson. The latter sent him to Harvard to study for a doctorate with W M Davis. Bowman took up an academic post at Yale University (1905), became the Directorate of the American Geographical Society (1915), and assumed the presidency of …

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Isaiah Rogers - Selected architectural works

Architect and inventor, born in Marshfield, Massachusetts, USA. His innovative designs established American pre-eminence in hotel architecture. He held several patents for bridge designs, and was supervising architect of the Treasury Department (1863–5). Isaiah Rogers (1800—1869), born in Massachusetts, was a prominent American architect of national reputation who practiced in Mobile, Al…

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Isaiah Thomas - Early life and publishing career, The Massachusetts Spy (1770-1802), Later life, Books

Printer and publisher, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The foremost 18th-c American publisher, he learned his trade as a young apprentice, co-founded in Boston a tabloid called the Massachusetts Spy (1770) and, soon becoming sole owner, made it a pro-patriot organ. After fighting in the American Revolution, he returned to build up a prosperous printing, publishing, and retail bookselling busin…

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Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Early life, The Thames Tunnel, Bridges, The Great Western Railway, Brunel's "atmospheric caper"

Engineer, born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, S England, UK, the son of Marc Brunel. He worked in his father's office, and helped to plan the Thames Tunnel, opened in 1843. He himself planned the Clifton Suspension Bridge (1829–31, completed 1864), and the Hungerford Suspension Bridge (1841–5) over the Thames. He designed the Great Western (1837), the first steamship built to cross the Atlantic, the …

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Isamu Noguchi - Biography, Notable works by Noguchi, Gallery, Additional reading

Sculptor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. Brought up in Japan, he studied medicine at Columbia University, then moved to New York City, where he attended sculpture classes. A Guggenheim fellowship permitted him to study with Brancusi in Paris (1927–9). He returned to New York City and made stylized sculptures, but from 1940 his work moved closer to Surrealism, incorporating the interrelatio…

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Ishi - Ishi's arrowheads, Ishi and archery

Yahi tribesman, born near Mt Lassen, California, USA. The sole survivor of his tribe, he was found half dead in 1911 and taken to live at the Museum of Anthropology in Berkeley, CA. He was the subject of a book by Alfred Kroeber and renowned as the ‘last of the Stone Age people’ in North America. Ishi means man in the Yahi dialect; In 1865, Ishi and his family were victims of the Three Kn…

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