Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 35

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Horse Latitudes

Two belts of ocean calm at 30° N and S of the Equator, where conditions of high atmospheric pressure exist almost permanently; Trade Winds constantly blow from these belts towards the Doldrums. Horse latitudes or Subtropical High are subtropical latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south, characterized by light winds and hot, dry weather, caused by descending air. The b…

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horse racing - Forms of horse racing, Horse racing in North America, Horse racing in Australia

The racing of horses against one another, each ridden by a jockey. The ancient Egyptians took part in horse races c.1200 BC, and the sport was part of the Ancient Olympic Games. Racing was popularized in England in the 12th-c, and many monarchs have supported the sport, which has thereby become known as ‘the sport of kings’. The first recorded meeting at England's oldest course, Chester, was on …

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Horsens

55º53N 9º53E, pop (2002e) 49 200. Seaport in Vejle county, E Jutland, Denmark; located at the head of Horsens Fjord; originally developed around an early mediaeval stronghold; birthplace of Vitus Bering; railway; engineering; Church of Our Saviour (early 13th-c). The city is currently undergoing a positive development with new industry moving to Horsens, or expanding their activities al…

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horsepower - Measurement, History of the term "horsepower"

Unit of power; symbol hp; equal to 745·7 W (watt, SI unit); almost obsolete, but still used in engineering to describe the power of machinery; equal to 1·0139 metric horsepower. The most common definition of horsepower for engines is the one originally proposed by James Watt in 1782. Under this system, one horsepower is defined as: A common memory aid is based on the fact tha…

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horseshoe bat

A bat of the family Rhinolophidae (genus: Rhinolophus, 68 species), worldwide except for the New World; nose shaped like a horseshoe with an upward pointing flap (nose leaf). Rhinonicteris aurantius (family: Hipposideridae) is called the golden horseshoe bat. Horseshoe bats (the Rhinolophidae family) are a large family of bats including approximately 130 species grouped in 10 genera. …

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horsetail

A primitive, spore-bearing perennial related to ferns and clubmosses; creeping rhizomes; annual, distinctively jointed stem; whorl of scale-like leaves around each joint; cone-like strobilus at the tip. It is found everywhere, except for Australasia, and the only living genus of a large and formerly widespread group, the Sphenopsida, dominant during the Carboniferous period. All extant species are…

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Horst Antes

Painter, graphic artist, and plastic artist, born in Heppenheim, SWC Germany. Since the early 1960s the ‘Kopffüßler’ (cephalopod) - an imaginary being created by himself - has featured centrally as a form of signature in his works. He is one of the first representatives of the Neue Figuration. Horst Antes (born 28 October 1936 in Heppenheim, Germany) is a German artist and sculptor. …

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Horst Sindermann

German politician, born in Dresden, E Germany. During 1934–45 he was imprisoned and in a concentration camp. He became a member of the Politbüro of the Central Committee of the Sozialistiche Einheitspartei (SED) (1967–89), head of the Ministerrat of the German Democratic Republic (1973–6), and president of the Volkskammer (1976–89). He was excluded from the party in 1989. Johannes Diec…

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Horst Wessel - Early life, Nazi activist, Posthumous fame

Martyr of the Nazi Party, born in Bielefeld, NWC Germany. He joined the Nazis in 1926 and became a member of the Storm Troopers. As a student, he wrote the words to a music-hall song popular at the German front in 1914. He was killed in his home in a fight, possibly by communists. Joseph Goebbels and other Nazi propagandists renamed the song the ‘Horst Wessel Lied’, had it adopted as their anthe…

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Hortense Calisher

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. A Barnard graduate, she wrote short stories and novels, typically set among New York's upper middle class, but also dealing with a range of subjects including racial conflict. Best known for her short stories, a collected edition was published in 1975. She held visiting lectureships at many universities, and is married to the writer Curtis Harnack. …

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Hortense Powdermaker

Cultural anthropologist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The daughter of a businessman, she graduated from Goucher College (1919), worked as a union organizer, and studied at the London School of Economics. A pioneer among women archaeologists for working alone in exotic places, her Life in Lesu, based on research in a Pacific island village, appeared in 1933. She taught at Queens College…

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horticulture

The business of growing fruit, vegetables, flowers, and shrubs for pleasure or for commercial marketing; also practised widely as a hobby and an art form. It is usually associated with the intensive production of high-value crops, and often involves the use of irrigation in drier areas, and glass or polythene protection in cooler areas. Glass or polythene houses may be heated to allow all-year-rou…

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Horton Smith - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Springfield, Ohio, USA. In 1934 he won the first Masters Tournament ever held, and won it again in 1936. NYF = Tournament not yet founded NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Green background for wins. …

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Horus - Origin of name, Mythology, Mystery Religion, Horus and Jesus

An ancient Egyptian sky-god in the shape of a man with a hawk's head; also depicted as the child of Isis, when he is often called Harpocrates. He is associated with the divinity of the Pharaoh, who is the ‘living Horus’ ruling Egypt. Horus is an ancient god of the Ancient Egyptian religion, whose cult survived so long that he evolved dramatically over time and gained many names. The most …

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Hosea Ballou

Universalist clergyman and theologian, born in Richmond, New Hampshire, USA. Raised in poverty, brought up a Baptist, and self-educated, he was for many years a circuit-riding preacher in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. He settled in Boston (1817) where he helped found the Universalist Church, edited Universalist publications, and developed a liberal theology that denied original sin and the full …

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hospital - Terminology, Types, History, Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, and Other Systems

An institution in which certain kinds of illness are investigated and treated. The first documented hospital was Chinese, in 491. In the European Middle Ages the well-to-do were all treated at home, while the sick poor were cared for in a hospital attached to the local poor house. This pattern of care persisted into the 18th-c, when voluntary hospitals were built throughout the UK, and physicians …

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hosta

A perennial native to China and Japan; striking leaves up to 45 cm/18 in long, lance-shaped to broadly oval, often variegated or bluish; flowers tubular, violet, or white, in spike-like inflorescences; also known as plantain lily. (Genus: Hosta, 10 species. Family: Liliaceae.) Hosta (syn.: Funkia) is a genus of about 23–40 species of lily-like plants native to northeast Asia. Many varie…

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hot spring - Sources of heat, Flow rates, Therapeutic uses, Infections from hot springs, Hot springs parks

A spring of hot or warm groundwater which emerges at the Earth's surface and which often contains dissolved minerals and sulphurous gases. Such springs are often used as health spas. Very hot springs emerge as geysers, and may be used as sources of geothermal energy. A hot spring is a spring whose water is hot. The groundwater emerging from hot springs is heated by geothermal processes. For…

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hound

A category of domestic dog; name is applied to breeds developed for hunting, especially those which track by scent; sometimes used for any hunting dog, including those which track by sight (eg greyhounds, borzois). A hound is a type of dog that assists hunters by tracking or chasing the animal being hunted. There are three types of hound, with several breeds belonging to each ty…

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house music - Origins of the name, Musical elements, Other meanings, History, House music's influences, Musicology

Popular dance music that spread from south Chicago, USA, in the early 1980s. Its instrumentation is often no more than a synthesizer and drum machine; the music is loud and repetitive, with a heavy beat and baseline, insistent riffs, and ‘sampled’ extracts from more imaginative recordings. Perhaps the best known (and best selling) example is ‘Pump Up The Jam’ from Technotronic (real name Jo Bo…

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House of Representatives

In the USA, one of the two chambers of the bicameral legislature, in which, under the constitution, federal legislative power is vested. The 435 members of the House are elected from single member constituencies of approximately the same population size, although each state has at least one representative. All revenue bills must originate in the House. "The House of Representatives" is the …

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house sparrow - House Sparrows in Europe, House Sparrows in North America, Photo gallery, Sparrows in literature

A small, brown and grey, ground-feeding bird (Passer domesticus), native to Europe, Asia, and N Africa, and introduced worldwide; usually near habitation; eats almost anything; nests in holes; also known as the English sparrow. (Family: Ploceidae.) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World sparrow family Passeridae. Wherever people build, House S…

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hoverfly - Gallery, Identification guides

A medium to large fly often found hovering over flowers; adults resemble wasps, feeding on pollen and nectar; larvae diverse in habits, may be plant feeders, predators of aphids and insect larvae, or scavengers. (Order: Diptera. Family: Syrphidae, over 5000 species.) Flies in the Diptera family Syrphidae are commonly known as hoverflies, flower flies, or Syrphid flies. …

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Howard (Deering) Johnson

Business executive, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Uneducated beyond elementary school, he developed 28 flavours of ice-cream for his Wollaston, MA, drugstore soda fountain, and by 1929 was franchising his name and products. He won exclusive catering rights on thousands of miles of East Coast highways, and built the country's largest private food distribution corporation before retiring in 19…

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Howard (Hathaway) Aiken

Mathematician and computer engineer, born in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Wisconsin and Chicago Universities, then moved to Harvard (1939–61), where he built the Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator (ASCC), or Harvard Mark I, the world's first program-controlled calculator (completed in 1943). An early form of digital computer, it was controlled by both mechanical and electrical de…

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Howard (Melvin) Fast - Biography, Works

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a professional writer after 1932, he became a leading proponent of left-wing views. He was blacklisted for a decade for his Communist Party membership (1944–56), but in 1957 he declared his disenchantment with the Communism of Stalin in The Naked God. He wrote novels, children's books, biographies, and plays, but was best known for his historical n…

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Howard (Robard) Hughes - Birth and upbringing, Aviator and engineer, Near-fatal crash of the XF-11

Millionaire businessman, film producer, film director, and aviator, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He studied at the California Institute of Technology, inheriting his father's machine tool company in 1923. In 1926 he ventured into films, producing Hell's Angels (1930), Scarface (1932), and The Outlaw (1941). He also founded his own aircraft company, designing, building, and flying aircraft, and bro…

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Howard (Stanley) Nemerov - Life and career, Poetry, Bibliography

Poet, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Harvard, then taught at several institutions, including Bennington (1948–66) and Washington University, St. Louis (from 1967). He was named consultant in poetry (1963–4) and poet laureate by the Library of Congress (1988), and is known for his literary prose works and blank verse, as in Collected Poems (1977). Trying Conclusions: New and Selected P…

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Howard (Winchester) Hawks - Filmography (director), Books

Film director, screenwriter, and producer, born in Goshen, Indiana, USA. A plane and car racer in his teens, he worked as a prop boy in Hollywood during college vacations. He served with the Army Air Corps in World War 1 and, returning to California to work in an aircraft factory, he soon decided to try the new film industry, where he held a variety of jobs in the production field before moving on…

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Howard Barker - The Theatre of Catastrophe, Themes, Productions, Selected Plays, Other Writings

Playwright, born in London, UK. He studied history at the University of Sussex. His first play, Cheek, was produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London in 1970. He has since written over 20 plays, including Stripwell (1975), Victory (1983), The Power of the Dog (1984), and The Possibilities (1988). Later works include The Europeans (1990) and A Hard Heart (1992). Barker has coined the term…

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Howard Brenton - Plays, Screenplays, Awards

Playwright, born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, wrote for fringe theatre companies during the late 1960s, and was resident playwright at the Royal Court Theatre, London (1972–3). His plays include Weapons of Happiness (1976), The Romans in Britain (1980), The Genius (1983), Moscow Gold (1990, with Tariq Ali), and Berlin Bertie (1992). Further work with Ali inclu…

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Howard Cosell

Sports broadcaster, born in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. After a brief career as a lawyer, he became a sportscaster for ABC (1956) and was the boxing announcer throughout Muhammad Ali's career. Famous for his signature remark, ‘Telling it like it is’, his opinionated broadcasts for Monday Night Football won him fans and detractors alike. …

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Howard Dean - Early life and education, Personal life, Vermont political career, 2004 presidential candidacy

US politician and physician, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Yale University (1971), gained his MD at Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1978), and then set up in private practice with his wife, Dr Judith Steinberg Dean. Entering politics as a Democrat, he served in the Vermont House of Representatives (1982–6), becoming lieutenant governor (1986–91), and then governor (199…

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Howard Dietz - Broadway credits, London credits, Songs

Librettist and lyricist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He served in the US Navy during World War 1, then went to work in public relations for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He began to write lyrics for Jerome Kern and other composers before beginning a long collaboration in 1929 with composer Arthur Schwartz. He wrote lyrics for their successful revue The Little Show (1929) and the musical The Band …

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Howard Hanson - Discography

Composer, born in Wahoo, Nebraska, USA. He was awarded the American Prix de Rome in 1921, and after three years' study in Italy became director of the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, NY, a post he held until 1964. Under his leadership, the School became one of the most important centres of American musical life. His compositions, firmly in the tradition of 19th-c Romanticism, include an oper…

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Howard League for Penal Reform

A charity dedicated to the cause of penal reform, named after John Howard; formed by the amalgamation of the Howard Association with the Prison Reform League in 1921. Internationally, it urges the UN to promote the standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners, and campaigns for the abolition of corporal and capital punishment. The Howard League for Penal Reform is a London-based re…

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Howard M(artin) Temin

Virologist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He spent his career at the University of Wisconsin (from 1960). Working with RNA viruses (1970), he isolated the enzyme reverse transcriptase that transcribes viral RNA into the host cell's DNA. For this achievement, he shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. His later research included major contributions to studies of tumour vi…

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Howard Pyle - Robin Hood

Illustrator and teacher, born in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. He studied in Philadelphia (1869–72), illustrated historical events and characters for major publishers and periodicals, and established a studio in New York (1876–80). He returned to Wilmington (1880) and established the Brandywine School (1900), and among his pupils were Maxfield Parrish and N C Wyeth. His 1883 classic The Merr…

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Howard Stern - Early life, Satellite radio career

Radio disc jockey and television talk-show host, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Boston University, where he became involved with college radio, then took various deejay jobs, eventually basing himself in New York City (from 1982). He has built a reputation as a ‘shock jock’, developing a flamboyant style and explicit programme content, in various ‘Howard Stern’ shows on radio and te…

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Howard Taylor Ricketts

Pathologist, born in Findlay, Ohio, USA. After taking his MD from Northwestern (1897), he continued his studies in Vienna and Paris, then in 1902 joined the department of pathology at the University of Chicago. A brilliant researcher, he wrote Infection, Immunity, and Serum Therapy (1906). He discovered the vectors of both Rocky Mountain Fever (tick) and typhus (louse) as well as the culprit micro…

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Howard Zinn - Early life, Civil rights, A People's History, Criticism, Awards and other accomplishments, Theatrical works

Historian, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at New York (1951 BA) and Columbia (1952 MA; 1958 PhD) universities, then taught at Upsala College (1953–6), Spelman College (1956–63), and Boston University (1964–88; professor emeritus 1988). He received an Air Medal and battle stars for service in the US Army Air Forces (1943–5). Active in social and political affairs throughout hi…

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Howell E(dmunds) Jackson

Judge, born in Paris, Tennessee, USA. He was elected to the Tennessee state legislature (1880) and to the US Senate (Republican, Tennessee, 1880). He rose through the federal court system before his appointment to the US Supreme Court (1893–5) by President Harrison. Howell Edmunds Jackson (April 8, 1832–August 8, 1895) was an American jurist and politician. He was elected to the Tennesse…

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howitzer - Types, Examples

An artillery piece in which the shell is projected at a high angle of trajectory, typically at low muzzle velocity, to fall on to its target as plunging fire. The "pack" howitzer (such as the 25 Pounder Short Mark 1) has existed since before the First World War. The Big Bertha was a large, 42 centimeter howitzer used in the German push of 1914. The gun was based on a similar 42 …

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howler monkey

A New World monkey; thick coarse coat and naked face; long ‘beard’ covers throat, which produces a very loud call; sometimes swings from branches using only its long tail. (Genus: Alouatta, 6 species.) The howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. seniculus group Red-handed Howler, Alouatta belzebul Brown Howle…

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Howlin' Wolf - Early life, Career, Covers, Music samples

Musician, born in West Point, Mississippi, USA. A blues singer, bandleader, and larger-than-life personality, he was one of the giants of post-World War 2 electric blues whose songs were a staple of rock's early repertoire. He toured extensively (1955–75), including concert and television appearances with the Rolling Stones in 1965, the year after the release of his only pop hit, ‘Smokestack Lig…

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Hu Jintao - President, Positions

Chinese president (2003– ). He trained as an engineer, and rose to prominence as head of the Chinese Communist Party's youth league, becoming party secretary in Guizhou (1984) and Xizang (Tibet) (1988), where he pursued a hardline policy, crushing anti-Chinese demonstrations at Lhasa in 1989. A member of the Politburo standing committee in 1992, he was appointed vice-president in 1998, and succee…

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Hu Shih - Biography, Writings, Sample Work, Resources

Liberal scholar and reformer, born in Chiki, Anhwei, E China. He studied at Cornell and Columbia universities, where he became a disciple of the philosopher, John Dewey. He became professor of philosophy at Beijing University (1917–49), where he led the gradualist New Culture movement from 1919, urging the re-examination of China's culture and increased personal liberty, and opposing the increasi…

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Hu Yaobang - Early career, Reformer, Death and the Tiananmen protests, Possible rehabilitation

Chinese politician, born in Hunan province, SEC China. He took part in the Long March (1934–6), and held a number of posts under Deng Xiaoping before becoming head of the Communist Youth League (1952–67). He was purged during the Cultural Revolution (1966–9), then briefly rehabilitated (1975–6), but did not return to high office until 1978, when, through his patron Deng, he joined the Communis…

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Hua Guofeng

Chinese statesman and prime minister (1976–80), born in Jiaocheng, Shanxi province, NE China. He was vice-governor of Hunan (1958–67), but came under attack during the Cultural Revolution. A member of the Central Committee of the Party from 1969, and of the Politburo from 1973, he became deputy prime minister and minister of public security (1975–6), and in 1976 was made prime minister and chai…

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Huambo - History

12º42S 15º54E, pop (2001e) 165 700. Capital of Huambo province, WC Angola, SW Africa; 240 km/150 mi E of Lobito; on a high plateau, alt 1695 m/5560 ft; rich agricultural region; road, rail, and air transport hub serves commercial and shipping centre; stronghold of the former UNITA leader, Jonas Savimbi; railway repair shops. Huambo is the capital of Huambo province in Angola. …

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Hubble Space Telescope - Conception, design and aims, Flawed mirror, Servicing missions and new instruments, Scientific results

An orbiting observatory, a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA, launched in 1990 with a 2·4 m (94 in) aperture telescope; named after Edwin Hubble. It was expected to image objects more sharply than telescopes on Earth, and detect fainter sources. However, following the launch, a defect was discovered in the main mirror, which limited its performance. A space shuttle mission add…

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Hubert Auriol

French rally driver. He was twice winner of the Paris-Dakar Rally on a motorbike (1981, 1982), and he also won the Paris-Le Cap in 1992 in a Mitsubishi; he is the only man to have completed the course by motorbike and car. He won the Rallye des Pharaons in 1994. Hubert Auriol (born in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, June 7, 1952) is a former French racing driver and former director of the Paris-Daka…

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Hubert Howe Bancroft - Critique of production methods, Published works, Sources

Historian and publisher, born in Granville, Ohio, USA. Beginning as a bookseller in Buffalo, he founded his own lucrative publishing and mercantile house in San Francisco (1858). After collecting 60 000 source volumes, ‘The Macaulay of the West’, as he has been known, edited and published The Native Races of the Pacific States (1875), the first of his landmark History of the Pacific States of A…

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Hubert Lampo - Selected bibliography

Flemish writer, born in Antwerp, N Belgium. Before engaging in full-time writing he worked as a teacher, art critic, and inspector of public libraries. Regarded as a leading exponent of Magic Realism, a literary movement related to Surrealism, in his early psychological novels a fascination with irrational, obscure relations is already tangible. In his later novels, Terugkeer naar Atlantis (1953, …

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Hubert Robert

Landscape painter, born in Paris, France. He spent 11 years in Italy (1754–65), where he befriended and worked with Fragonard. Returning to Paris, he joined the French Royal Academy in 1766. He painted romantic Italian landscapes, Roman ruins, and views of Paris and the S of France. Appointed keeper of Louis XVI's pictures, he was also one of the first curators of the Louvre. Hubert Robert…

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Hubert Walter - Early assignments, Justiciar, End of Justiciarship

English clergyman and statesman. He became Bishop of Salisbury (1189), and accompanied Richard I on the Third Crusade (1190–3). Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1193, he played key roles in raising the ransom to secure Richard's release from captivity, and in containing the rebellion of the king's brother, John. At the end of 1193, he became justiciar of England, and was responsible for all …

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huckleberry - Environment, Trivia, Link

An evergreen or deciduous shrub which varies from mat-forming to erect, native to the New World; leaves small, oval; flowers urn- or bell-shaped; berries black, edible. In the UK, the name huckleberry is sometimes used for the bilberry. (Genus: Gaylussacia, 49 species. Family: Ericaceae.) Huckleberry is a name used in North America for several plants in two closely related genera in the fam…

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Huddersfield - History, Honours and freedoms, Institutions, Historical landmarks, Shopping and entertainment, Transport infrastructure, Development, Sport, Arts, Politics

53°39N 1°47W, urban area pop (2000e) 220 200. Town in West Yorkshire, N England, UK; on the R Colne, 17 km/10 mi S of Bradford; railway; University of Huddersfield (1992, formerly Polytechnic); woollen and worsted textiles, textile machinery, clothing, dyes, carpets; football league team, Huddersfield Town (Terriers). Huddersfield is a large town near the confluence of the River Colne…

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Huddie (William) Ledbetter - Biography, Musical legacy, Film, "Lead Belly" versus "Leadbelly", Songs, Selected discography

Musician, born near Morringsport, Louisiana, USA. A legendary singer and guitarist, he was raised near Shreveport, LA, worked on farms in Texas, and began performing in Dallas, TX as a protégé of Blind Lemon Jefferson in the 1910s. (Leadbelly got his nickname because of his deep bass voice.) In 1917 he was sentenced to prison on a murder conviction; eight years later he literally sang a plea of …

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Hudson Bay - History, Geography, Coastal communities

area c.1 232 250 km²/476 000 sq mi. Inland sea in Northwest Territories, Canada; connected to the Arctic Ocean via the Foxe Basin and Channel, and to the Atlantic Ocean by the 800 km/500 mi-long Hudson Strait; maximum length c.1600 km/1000 mi, including James Bay (S); maximum width c.1000 km/650 mi; slowly becoming shallower; generally ice-clogged (but open to navigation mid-July–Oct…

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Hudson River - Political boundaries, Tributaries, Crossings, Theodore Roosevelt's famous trip to the headwaters

River rising in the Adirondack Mts, New York State, USA; flows 560 km/350 mi S past New York City to the Atlantic Ocean; navigable for large craft as far as Albany; tidal for 240 km/150 mi; explored in 1609 by Henry Hudson. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river running mainly through New York State but partly forming the boundary between the states of New Yor…

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Hudson River School - Selected artists working in the Hudson River School style

A group of 19th-c US landscape painters, including Thomas Cole (1801–48) and Thomas Doughty (1793–1856). The Hudson R valley and Catskill Mts provided favourite subjects. The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. Their paintings depict the Hudson River Valley and the sur…

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Hudson's Bay Company - History, Luxury Designer Collections: The St. Regis Room in Toronto, Corporate governance

A London-based corporation which was granted a Royal Charter to trade (principally in furs) in most of N and W Canada (Rupert's Land) in 1670. It annexed its main competitor, the North West Company, in 1821, and developed trade in otter pelts along the coast of British Columbia. Rupert's Land was purchased by the Canadian Government in 1869. The firm still exists as a commercial company, based in …

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Hu

16°28N 107°35E, pop (2000e) 310 300. Town in Binh Tri Thien province, C Vietnam; near the mouth of R Hué, 8 km/5 mi from the South China Sea; ancient town, part of the Chinese Empire; former capital of Annam and of the Vietnamese Empire; many historical sites destroyed in Vietnam War; railway; university (1957); commerce, rice, timber, textiles. A hue refers to the gradation of color…

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Huelva - Modern Huelva, Chistopher Columbus, Places to visit, Events, Nearby

37°18N 6°57W, pop (2000e) 143 000. Port and capital of Huelva province, Andalusia, SW Spain; in the delta of the Odiel and Tinto Rivers, 632 km/393 mi SW of Madrid; suffers from silting from the alluvial soils of the Odiel; bishopric; railway; shipbuilding, fishing, canning, chemicals, oil refining, trade in ores, wine; churches of San Pedro and San Francisco; New World fiesta (Aug), patrona…

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Huesca - History, Modern Huesca, Churches of Huesca, Coffee in Huesca

42°08N 0°25W. City of N Spain, in Aragón, capital of the province and administrative area of the same name; situated between the cattle-raising mountains (N) and the agricultural plain (S); on a small elevation to the right of the Isuela; traditionally an important agricultural and cattle market; urban activities include commerce, industry (food, machinery), administration; San Pedro, Gothic ca…

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Huey P(ierce) Long

US senator, governor, and demagogue, born in Winnfield, Louisiana, USA. Admitted to the bar in 1915, he came to prominence during his 10 years with the Louisiana Railroad (later Public Service) Commission, where he gained the reputation of being a populist who worked on behalf of the rural poor. As a Democrat, he was elected governor of Louisiana (1928–32) and to the US Senate (1932–5), all the …

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Hugh (Emrys) Griffith - Selected filmography

Actor, born in Anglesey, NW Wales, UK. He began work as a bank clerk, served in the army during World War 2, then joined what is now the Royal Shakespeare Company. A colourful character actor, probably his most notable performance was as Falstaff (1964). He also received acclaim for his roles in The Waltz of the Toreadors (1956) and a New York City production of Look Homeward Angel (1957). He won …

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Hugh (John Mungo) Grant - Filmography, References and footnotes

Actor, born in London, UK. He studied English at Oxford, then began a career in the theatre. His early films include Maurice (1987) and Bitter Moon (1992), but he became internationally known following his role in Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994, Best Actor Golden Globe). Later films include Notting Hill (1999), Bridget Jones's Diary (2001), About a Boy (2002), Love Actually (2003), and American…

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Hugh (John) Lofting - Doctor Dolittle, Other Works for Children, Epic poem, Bibliography

Children's novelist, born in Maidenhead, Windsor and Maidenhead, S England, UK. He trained as a civil engineer, worked in Africa, the West Indies, and Canada, then settled in New York City to become a writer. He created the immensely successful Dr Dolittle books from letters he wrote to his children from the front lines in World War 1. Beginning with The Story of Dr Dolittle (1920), there were a d…

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Hugh (Latimer) Dryden - Bibliography

Physicist and NASA administrator, born in Pocomoke City, Maryland, USA. Known for his scientific contributions to fluid mechanics and boundary layer phenomena, he became director of research for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (1947–58). He gained wide recognition as the first deputy administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (1958–65), and was cons…

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Hugh (Marston) Hefner - Branching out, Private Life, The Political/Social Warrior, Trivia

Editor and publisher of Playboy magazine, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He grew up in a family of strict Methodists, studied at Illinois University, and had a variety of jobs. He worked in the subscriptions department of Esquire magazine until 1952, when he resigned to start a new magazine. Investing $10 000, he published Playboy in 1953, with Marilyn Monroe posing nude. Practical advice on sex…

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Hugh (Samuel) Johnson

Army officer and government official, born in Fort Scott, Kansas, USA. He trained at West Point (1903) and held several posts including superintendent of Sequoia National Park. He earned a law degree (1916), served with Pershing in Mexico (1916), and helped to draft the Selective Service Act (1917). He became a brigadier-general at age 35 (the youngest such since the Civil War), but World War 1 en…

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Hugh (Todd Naylor) Gaitskell - Legacy, Marriage, Offices held

British statesman, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became a Socialist during the 1926 General Strike. An MP in 1945, he was minister of fuel and power (1947) and of economic affairs (1950), and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1950–1). In 1955 he was elected Leader of the Opposition by a large majority over Bevan. He bitterly opposed Eden's Suez action (1956), and refused to accept a na…

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Hugh (William) Porter - Senior competition, First national track title, Olympic disappointment, First professional steps, Professional success, Professional pursuit domination

Cyclist, born in Wolverhampton, West Midlands, C England, UK. As an amateur he won a bronze medal at the 1963 world championships in the pursuit. He lost in the quarter finals at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, but won a gold medal at the 1966 Commonwealth Games. He won four professional world titles in 1968, 1970, and 1972–3. Hugh Porter (born: January 1940) was one of Britain's greatest profess…

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Hugh Clapperton

Explorer, born in Annan, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. At sea with the Royal Navy from the age of 13, he attained the rank of captain. He was sent in 1821 with Dixon Denham to discover the source of the Niger. They travelled S across the Sahara to L Chad in 1823; from there he pushed on alone to Sokoto, returning to England in 1825, the first European to have entered N Nigeria. He starte…

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Hugh Duffy

Baseball player, born in Cranston, Rhode Island, USA. During his 17-year career as an outfielder (1888–1906), mostly with the Boston Nationals, he posted a lifetime batting average of ·328, and established the major league record for the highest batting average in a season (·438) in 1894. He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1945. …

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Hugh Glass

Trapper and frontier legend, birthplace unknown. He first appeared when he joined William Henry Ashley's second Missouri R expedition (1823). Attacked and wounded by a grizzly bear, he was abandoned by his companions, Jim Bridger and a man named Fitzgerald. He recovered and crawled over 100 mi to Fort Kiowa. He caught up with his former companions and lectured them soundly, but after recovering h…

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Hugh Hammond Bennett - Conservationism, Government service

Soil conservationist, born in Wadesboro, North Carolina, USA. Raised on a 1200-acre farm whose depleted soil made farming difficult, in 1903 he joined the Bureau of Soils at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and was soon working on problems of soil erosion. As supervisor of soil surveys (1909–28), he assessed agricultural possibilities in the Panama Canal Zone, inspected the land proposed f…

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Hugh Henry Brackenridge

Writer and judge, born in Campbeltown, SWC Scotland, UK. He was brought to the USA at age five. He studied at Princeton, became a chaplain, and wrote two patriotic dramas during the American Revolution. He turned to the study and practice of law before settling in Pittsburgh. He later helped establish the first newspaper and bookstore in frontier Pittsburgh. A Pennsylvania assemblyman and Supreme …

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Hugh Kingsmill - Works, Reference

British writer, critic, and anthologist, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford and Dublin, and became a writer, publishing his first novel, The Will to Love, in 1919. He wrote several irreverent biographies, and the satirical fantasy The Return of William Shakespeare (1929). His anthologies include Invective and Abuse (1929), Johnson Without Boswell (1940), and The Worst of Love (1931), while w…

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Hugh Latimer - Reference

Protestant martyr, born in Thurcaston, Leicestershire, C England, UK. In 1510 he was elected a fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and in 1522 was appointed a university preacher, soon becoming noted for his reformed doctrines. He was made rector of West Kington in Wiltshire, and in 1535 was consecrated as Bishop of Worcester. Twice during Henry VIII's reign he was sent to the Tower, in 1532 and 1…

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Hugh MacDiarmid - Early Life and Writings, Politics, Later Writings, Places of interest, Bibliography, Further reading

Poet, born in Langholm, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. He became a pupil-teacher at Broughton Higher Grade School in Edinburgh before turning to journalism. After World War 1, he married, settled as a journalist in Montrose, and edited anthologies of contemporary Scottish writing. After publishing his outstanding early lyrical verse, Sangschaw (1925) and Penny Wheep (1926), he established…

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Hugh Owen Thomas - Early life, Professional Career, Works

Orthopaedic surgeon, born in Anglesey, NW Wales, UK. He studied medicine at London, Edinburgh, and Paris, and practised surgery in Liverpool. He pioneered orthopaedic surgery, constructing many appliances which are still used, notably Thomas' splints for the hip and the knee. Hugh Owen Thomas (1834-1891) was a British surgeon. Hugh descended from a family that had originally bee…

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HUGO - People, Fictional characters, Other

Acronym for Human Genome Organization, set up in 1989 as the first international group co-ordinating activities within the human genome project. Its role is to organize workshops, facilitate access to databases, disseminate information, and act as a broker for specialized funding. Its legal headquarters is in Geneva, while its administrative headquarters is currently in London. Among well-k…

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Hugo (David) Weisgall - Major works

Composer, born in Ivancice, Moravia, Czech Republic. American-trained, he taught at the Jewish Theological Seminary, Juilliard, and at Queens College. He is best known for his operas, including Six Characters in Search of An Author (1956). Hugo Weisgall (October 13, 1912 – March 11, 1997) was an American composer, known chiefly for opera and vocal music. Weisgall studied at th…

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Hugo (LaFayette) Black - Early years, Ku Klux Klan controversy, Senate career, Supreme Court career, Jurisprudence, Resignation and death

Judge, born in Harlan, Alabama, USA, best known for his belief in the Bill of Rights as a guarantee of civil liberties. He practised law in Alabama and became a police court judge. In 1926 he entered the US Senate, and was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1937. He held that the Fourteenth Amendment made the Bill of Rights, which was originally adopted to limit the powers of national government, e…

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Hugo (Philipp Jakob) Wolf - Biography, Music, Notable works

Composer, born in Windischgraz, N Slovenia (formerly Austria). He studied at the Vienna Conservatory, then earned a living by teaching, conducting, and music criticism. From 1888 he composed c.300 songs, settings of poems by Goethe and others, the opera Der Corregidor (1895), and other works. Having lived most of his life in poverty, he became insane in 1897, and died in the asylum at Steinhof, ne…

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Hugo Ball

Writer, born in Pirmasens, W Germany. He was a trenchant social critic, as in Zur Kritik der deutschen Intelligenz (1919), pacifist, and author of theological works. A co-founder of Dadaism, he was an influence on the Wiener Gruppe and concrete poetry. Hugo Ball (February 22, 1886 – September 14, 1927) was a German author and poet. He created the Dada Manifesto in 1916, making a political…

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Hugo Brandt Corstius - Pseudonyms, Prizes, Bibliography

Computational linguist, columnist, and writer, born in Eindhoven, S Netherlands. His various pseudonyms include Battus, Piet Grijs, Stoker, Jan Eter, and Maaike Helder. In 1957–9 he was editor of the literary magazine Propria Cures, but is best known for his columns in Vrij Nederland magazine and De Volkskrant newspaper. His columns touch upon a wide range of subjects and are uncompromising. In 1…

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Hugo Claus - Prizes, Bibliography

Flemish versatile poet, novelist, playwright, visual artist, and director, born in Bruges, NW Belgium. A prolific writer, he is regarded as one of the most influential figures in post-war literature. He began his literary career as an experimental poet associated with the Movement of Fifty. With regard to form, he is a forerunner who experiments with pastiches of traditional verse complemented wit…

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Hugo Eckener

Aeronautical engineer, born in Flensburg, N Germany. He helped develop the rigid airship, and became a director of the Zeppelin firm (1911). He piloted the ZR3 on the first Trans-Atlantic airship flight (1924), and commanded the Graf Zeppelin on the first airship flight around the world (1929). Dr. Hugo Eckener (August 10, 1868–August 14, 1954) was the old man of the Zeppelin airship comp…

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Hugo Grotius - Early Life, De Indis and Mare Liberum, The Arminian Controversy, Arrest and Exile

Jurist and humanist, born in Delft, W Netherlands. He studied at Leyden, practised in The Hague, and in 1613 was appointed pensionary (chief magistrate) of Rotterdam. In 1618 religious and political conflicts led to his imprisonment, but he escaped to Paris in 1621, where Louis XIII for a time gave him a pension. In 1625 he published De jure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace), in which h…

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Hugo Haase

German lawyer and politician, born in Allenstein, Germany (now Olsztyn, N Poland). He became a member of the Reichsrat (1897–1907, 1912–19) and from 1911–17 was chairman of Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD, jointly with Friedrich Ebert after 1913). He supported the campaign against War Credits (1915), from March 1916 led the Sozialdemokratische Arbeitergemeinschaft (USPD since 1917)…

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Hugo Junkers - Life, Reference

Aircraft designer, born in Rheydt, W Germany. He was professor of mechanical engineering at Aachen, before establishing an aircraft factory at Dessau (1910). He built the first successful all-metal monoplane, and many of his later aircraft had a corrugated sheet-metal skin. His aircraft played an important part in the Luftwaffe during World War 2. After World War 1 he founded aircraft factories at…

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Hugo van der Goes

Painter, probably born in Ghent, NW Belgium. Dean of the painters' guild at Ghent (1473–5), he painted the magnificent Portinari Altarpiece containing ‘The Adoration of the Shepherds’ (c.1475, now in the Uffizi Gallery) for the S Maria Nuova Hospital in Florence, and many other notable works. He spent the last years of his life in the monastery of Soignies, near Brussels. Hugo van der Go…

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Hugo von Hofmannsthal - Life, Selected Works

Poet and playwright, born in Vienna, Austria. He early attracted attention by his symbolic, neo-Romantic poems, then wrote several plays, notably Electra (1903), the morality play Jedermann (1912, Everyman), and the comedy, Der Schwierige (1921, The Difficult Man). He also collaborated with Richard Strauss, for whom he wrote the libretti for Der Rosenkavalier (1911) and Die Frau ohne Schatten (191…

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huia - Appearance, Diet, Decline

A bird native to forests in New Zealand (Heteralocha acutirostris); probably extinct; black with long white-tipped tail; yellow wattle on each cheek; weak flier; female with long, slender, down-curved bill; male with shorter, straighter bill; ate insects and fruit. (Family: Callaeidae.) The Huia (Heteralocha acutirostris) was a bird endemic to New Zealand. The bird had blue-blac…

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Huitzilopochtli - Genealogy, History and myth, The myth of the origin of Tenochtitlan, Art, Calendar, See Also

Aztec god of the Sun and of war; there were human sacrifices before his image. He has been identified with the Toltec Quetzalcoatl, whom he replaced after the Aztec conquest. In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli, (IPA: [wi.ʦi.lo.ˈpoʧ.tli] ("Hummingbird of the South", "He of the South", "Hummingbird on the Left (South)", or "Left-Handed Humming Bird" – …

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Hull (Canada)

45°26N 75°45W, pop (2000e) 67 900. City in SW Quebec, Canada, on the Ottawa R, across from Ottawa; founded in 1801 by settlers from the USA; railway; timber, paper milling, textiles, meat packing, cement; Federal Government offices, Canadian Museum of Civilization. A hull is: In mathematics: Several places in the world are called Hull: In the United S…

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Hull (UK)

53°45N 0°20W, pop (2001e) 243 600. Seaport and unitary authority (from 1996), NE England, UK; at the junction of the Hull and Humber Rivers, 35 km/22 mi from the North Sea and 330 km/205 mi N of London; city status granted 1897; a major UK container port; university (1954); University of Humberside (1992, formerly Polytechnic); railway; ferry service to Rotterdam, Zeebrugge; Humber Bridge,…

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Hull House - Today

A settlement house founded (1889) in Chicago by the social reformer Jane Addams and her associates. Set up primarily as a welfare agency for needy families, it also assisted immigrants to learn English and become American citizens. Originally housed in a single building (Hull Mansion), the settlement later expanded to become one of the largest institutions of its kind in the USA and was designated…

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human capital - Origin of concept, Knowledge and capital, Human capital and labor power, Debates about the concept

The knowledge and experience which make some people more productive than others. These may be acquired through formal training, either academic or provided by employers, or through on-the-job training by working in association with more experienced colleagues. Most professionals obtain their human capital through both methods. Human capital resembles physical capital in that it involves costs in t…

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Human Development Index (HDI) - Methodology, 2006 report

The United Nations (UN) Human Development Index was developed in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, and has been used since 1993 by the UN Development Programme in its annual report. The index measures poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors, and is a standard means of measuring human progress in a country. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparat…

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human genome project - International HGP, Celera Genomics HGP, Benefits, Whose genome was sequenced?

An ambitious plan launched in 1985 to determine the exact sequence of all 3 × 109 base pairs in the human genome. The project is loosely co-ordinated by a number of national and international organizations, including HUGO. There is a suggestion that it makes more sense to concentrate initially on the human genes which are transcribed into RNA or transcribed and translated into protein, and whos…

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human rights - Human rights legislation, Philosophy of human rights, Criticism of human rights, Violations of human rights

A concept deriving from the doctrine of natural rights, which holds that individuals, by virtue of their humanity, possess fundamental rights beyond those prescribed in law. First formally incorporated into the US Declaration of Independence (1776), a Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was adopted by the French National Assembly (1789). Most written constitutions contain a bill of ri…

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humanism - Aspects, History, Modern humanist philosophies, Other forms of humanism

Historically, a movement that arose with the Italian Renaissance, in the writings of Ficino, Pico, and later Erasmus and More. The humanists drew on classical literature (particularly that of Greece) and emphasized the centrality of human achievements and potential, in opposition to many of the claims of dogmatic theology and science. Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosoph…

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Humayun - Background, Personal traits, His early reign, Refuge in Persia, Kandahar and onwards, India revisited

Second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56), the son and successor of Babar. He was opposed by Sher Shah in Bihar who overran Bengal (1537), routed Humayan at Chausa (1539) and defeated him at Kanauj (1540). Humayan fled to Sind and found refuge with Shah Tahmasp of Persia (1544). After the death of Sher Shah's son, Humayan invaded India with Persian support (1555) and restored Mughal authority. He …

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Humber Bridge - Bridge Statistics, Debt, Images of the Bridge

Single-span suspension bridge, built (1973–81) across the R Humber, E England, UK; length of main span 1410 m/4626 ft; total length 2220 m/7283 ft; second-longest suspension bridge (after Akashi-Kaikyo) in the world. The Humber Bridge is the fourth-largest single-span suspension bridge in the world, near Kingston upon Hull in England. With a centre span of 1,410 metres and …

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Humberside - Formation, Abolition

pop (2000e) 904 000; area 3512 km²/1356 sq mi. Former county of NE England, UK; created in 1974 from parts of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire; replaced in 1996 by unitary authorities of East Riding of Yorkshire, Hull, North Lincolnshire, and North East Lincolnshire. Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. It was divided into s…

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Hume (Blake) Cronyn - Biography, Broadway appearances, Filmography

Stage and film actor, born in London, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied law at McGill University, and while still a student gained some success as an actor in Montreal. In 1934 he went to New York and soon earned a reputation as a character actor, first on the stage and then in films, making his screen debut in Alfred Hitchcock's Shadow of a Doubt (1943). Later films include Lifeboat (1944), The Post…

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humidity - Absolute humidity, Relative humidity, Mixing Ratio, Specific Humidity, Measuring and Regulating Humidity

The amount of water vapour in a sample of air, usually expressed as relative or absolute humidity. Absolute humidity is the total mass of water in a given volume of air, expressed in grams per cubic centimetre. A sample of air of a given temperature and pressure can hold a certain amount of water, above which point (known as the dew point) saturation occurs. Warmer air is able to hold more water v…

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hummingbird - Appearance, Aerodynamics of hummingbird flight, Metabolism, Range, Systematics and evolution, Hummingbirds and humans

A small bird restricted to the New World; often brightly coloured; possibly related to swifts; feeds on nectar from plants and small insects caught in flight; fast wing-beat and modification of wing structure allows hovering; important pollinator for some flowers. (Family: Trochilidae, 320 species.) Hummingbirds are small birds in the family Trochilidae. Hummingbirds are attract…

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humpback whale - Whale song, Population and distribution, Whaling, Whale-watching, Research, Humphrey, In popular culture, Media

A baleen whale of the rorqual family (Megaptera novaeangliae), found worldwide; dark back and pale undersurface; wide tail and very long slender flippers; jaws and flippers with many rough knobs; have complex ‘songs’ unique to each population; may ‘breach’ (leap vertically from water). The Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, is a mammal which belongs to the baleen whale suborder. Th…

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Humphrey (DeForest) Bogart - Birth and early life, Early career in the theatre, Rise to stardom, Bogart and Bacall

Film actor, born in New York City, USA. He made his film debut in Broadway's Like That (1930). Alternating between stage and screen, he was frequently cast as a vicious hoodlum, most memorably in The Petrified Forest (1936), but eventually attained stardom with his roles in High Sierra (1941), The Maltese Falcon (1941), and Casablanca (1942, with Ingrid Bergman). To Have and Have Not (1944) also m…

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Humphrey Jennings

British film documentarist. He joined the GPO Film Unit in 1934 and is remembered for his series of World War 2 films which sensitively captured the moods of the time. They include The First Days (1939), London Can Take It (1940), Listen to Britain (1941), A Diary for Timothy (1945), and Dim Little Island (1949). Humphrey Jennings, (August 19, 1907 Walberswick, Suffolk - September 24, 1950 …

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Humphrey Lyttelton - The Humphrey Lyttelton Band, Books

Jazz trumpeter and bandleader, born in Windsor, S England, UK. He formed a band in 1948, and became the leading figure in the British revival of traditional jazz. His group expanded to an octet, emulating Ellington's early ensembles, and then modernized even further, to the horror of many fans of traditional jazz. He responded with a satirical book I Play As I Please (1954). He retained his statur…

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Humphrey Searle

Composer, born in Oxford, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music, London, and in Vienna with Webern, and became musical adviser to Sadler's Wells Ballet (1951–7). He wrote Twentieth Century Counterpoint, and a study of the music of Liszt. An exponent of the ‘12-note system’, his compositions include five symphonies, two piano concertos, and three operas, including…

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Humphry Repton - Biography, Publications, List of gardens, Further reading

Landscape designer, born in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, E England, UK. The successor to Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown, he completed the change from formal gardens of the early 18th-c to the ‘picturesque’. He designed gardens at Uppark in Sussex and Sheringham Hall in Norfolk, and wrote Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1803). Repton was born in Bury St Edmunds,…

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humus

Decomposed organic matter, usually present in the topsoil layers. It improves soil structure, making cultivation easier, and gives the soil a characteristically dark colour. Humus is a word actually used for two different things, which are both related to soil and thus get used interchangeably. First, in earth sciences "humus" (see http://www.suprahumic.unina.it/) is any organic…

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Hundred Days - First Exile in Elba, Return to France, Return to Power, Discontent, War, Waterloo

(Mar–Jun 1815) The period between Napoleon I's escape from Elba and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, during which he returned to Paris and tried to reconstitute the Empire. He was finally exiled to St Helena. The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris aft…

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Hundred Years' War - Dynastic turmoil: 1314–1328, On the eve of war: 1328-1337

A series of wars between England and France dated by convention 1337–1453. They formed part of a longer contest which began when England was linked with Normandy (1066), then with Anjou and Aquitaine (1154). In the 13th-c, the Capetians redoubled their efforts to rule all France. But when Edward III claimed the French throne, from 1340 styling himself ‘King of England and France’, traditional r…

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Hungary - Geography, Demographics, Administrative divisions, Economy, Culture

Official name Republic of Hungary, Hung Magyar Köztársaság Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország listen?(help·info)), officially the Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság listen?(help·info)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia. The Kingdom of Hungary was established in 1000 by King…

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Huns - Origins and research, History, Successor nations, Historiography

An Asiatic people, probably the ‘Xiongnu’ (‘Hsiung-nu’) invaded by the Chinese Han dynasty who, forced W by the Chinese, overran the Gothic tribes of S Russia, and precipitated the great Germanic migration into the Roman Empire. (It has therefore been argued that, through the Huns, Chinese expansionism helped cause the fall of Rome.) Pastoral nomads famed for their horsemanship, they were fear…

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Hunstanton

52º57N 0º30E, pop (2000e) 4800. Resort town in Norfolk, E England, UK; it is the only west-facing resort on the E coast of Britain; famous ‘striped’ cliffs of white chalk, red chalk, and brown sandstone (carrstone); birthplace of Bill Alexander; Sandringham House nearby; lighthouse between Hunstanton and Old Hunstanton; traditional seafront promenade. Hunstanton, often pronounced by lo…

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Hunter Liggett

US soldier, born in Reading, Pennsylvania, USA. A tailor's son, he saw service on the W frontier, and in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine insurrection. Recognized for his intelligent professionalism, he served as president of the Army's War College (1912–17). In World War 1, he led a division and a corps in France through several major actions, then commanded the US First Army in the M…

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Huntingdon - History, Area, Notoriety, Transport, Leisure, Legends

52°20N 1°12W, pop (2000e) 21 300, with Godmanchester. Town in Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK; on Great Ouse R, 24 km/15 mi NW of Cambridge; birthplace of Oliver Cromwell; railway; engineering, plastics, furniture, transport equipment; 13th-c Hinchingbrooke House, 13th-c Church of St Mary the Virgin, Cromwell Museum, Buckden Palace (8 km/5 mi SW). Huntingdon is a town in the county o…

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Huntingdonshire - History, Towns and villages

Former county of EC England, UK; part of Cambridgeshire since 1974. Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is an historic county of England around the town of Huntingdon, currently administered as a local government district of Cambridgeshire. As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose the Water-violet as the county flower. The …

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Hupa - Population, Early history, Modern history, Language

Athapascan-speaking Pacific Coast Indians of NW California, USA. They lived in villages along Trinity R, and hunted, trapped, gathered, and fished. They were renowned for their basketry, but, unlike groups further N, did not make fine wood carvings. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Kroeber (1925:883) thought that the 17…

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hurdling (athletics) - Hurdle heights, Set up, Hitting hurdles, Shuttle hurdle

An athletics event which involves foot racing while clearing obstacles (hurdles) en route. Race distances are 100 m and 400 m for women, 110 m and 400 m for men. The height of a hurdle varies according to the type of race: 2¾ ft (84 cm) for the 100 m; 3 ft (91·4 cm) for the 400 m; and 3½ ft (106·7 cm) for the 110 m. Hurdles are also included in the steeplechase. The current world …

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hurdling (horse racing) - Hurdle heights, Set up, Hitting hurdles, Shuttle hurdle

A form of horse race in which the horses have to clear hurdles. It is not as testing as the steeplechase. There are two basic hurdle heights: high hurdles and intermediate hurdles. The sprint hurdle races (60 m, 100 m and 110 m) use high hurdles, which are 42 inches (1.07 m) high (39 inches, or 0.99 m, in U.S. high school competition) for men and 33 inches (.84 m) high for women. Long…

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Hurrians - People, Language, History, The Indo-Aryan connection, Culture and society, Archaeology, Connections and origin theories

An ancient, non-Semitic, non-Indo-European people first detected in the Caucasus area in the latter part of the third millennium BC. From there they migrated in great numbers to N Mesopotamia, Syria, and E Anatolia, where in the next millennium they greatly influenced the Hittites. The Hurrians or Khurrites were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas …

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husky

A domestic dog, one of several spitz breeds traditionally used in the Arctic as a beast of burden (especially to pull sledges); powerful body with thick double-layered insulating coat; also known as eskimo dog. …

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hutia

A cavy-like rodent, native to the Caribbean Is; resembles a large rat (weight, up to 7 kg/15½ lb); inhabits woodland; eats vegetation and lizards; related to the coypu. (Family: Capromyidae, 12 living species, and nearly 20 recently extinct.) Hutias are cavy-like rodents that inhabits the Caribbean Islands. …

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hyacinth

A bulb native to the Mediterranean region and Africa; leaves narrow or approximately strap-shaped; flowers bell-shaped, held horizontally or drooping in spikes. Rather variable in size and flower density, large florists' hyacinths are fragrant cultivars with a wide range of colours. (Genus: Hyacinthus, 30 species. Family: Liliaceae.) Hyacinth may refer to: Hyacinth may also refe…

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Hyacinthe Rigaud

Portrait painter, born in Perpignan, S France. He moved to Paris in 1681, received the second Prix de Rome (1682), and became the principal official painter to the French court of Louis XIV (1688). A prolific artist, he painted most of the notable people at Versailles, producing up to 35 portraits a year, with the help of a large studio of assistants. His major work is a portrait of Louis XIV (170…

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hybrid - Interspecific hybrids, Hybrid plants, Hybrids in nature, Mythological and legendary hybrids, Etymology

An individual animal or plant resulting from crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents. It is typically used for the offspring of mating between parents of different species or subspecies, such as the mule (produced by crossbreeding an ass and a horse). Hybrids are often sterile. In biology, hybrid has two meanings. Hybrids between different species within the same genus are some…

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hybrid computer

A combination of a digital and an analog computer. It was widely used in the 1960s and 1970s especially in the field of numerical control. Since then the digital computer has taken over many of the roles previously assigned to analog computers. Hybrid computers are made by combining features of analog computers and digital computers. In general, analog computers are extr…

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Hydra (astronomy)

The largest and longest constellation in the sky, extending from the celestial equator into the S hemisphere, but with no particularly bright stars. Hydra may also mean: Hydra may be a fictional name: …

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Hydra (Greece)

pop (2000e) 3960; area 50 km²/20 sq mi. Island in the Aegean Sea, Greece, off the E coast of the Peloponnese; linked by ferry to Piraeus; chief town, Hydra, pop (2000e) 2460; popular resort island. Hydra may also mean: Hydra may be a fictional name: …

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Hydra (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a many-headed monster, the child of Typhon and Echnida, which lived in a swamp at Lerna. As the heads grew again when struck off, Heracles could kill it only with the assistance of Iolaos, who cauterized the places where the heads grew. The name means ‘water-snake’. Hydra may also mean: Hydra may be a fictional name: …

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hydrangea

An evergreen or deciduous shrub, or a climber with aerial roots, native to Asia, and North/South America; leaves oval, in opposite pairs; flowers in heads, often composed of small fertile and large sterile flowers. Two forms of the shrub Hydrangea macrophylla are popular ornamentals: lacecaps have heads with large, sterile flowers surrounding the fertile ones; hortensias or mop-heads have heads co…

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hydrate

A compound containing water, usually one in which the water is present as ‘water of crystallization’, such as in gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), a hydrate of calcium sulphate. However, the water may have been incorporated into a molecule, as with chloral hydrate (CCl3CH(OH)2) from chloral (CCl3CHO). In organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water to a host molecule. The…

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hydraulic machinery - Hydraulic power, Hydraulic circuits, Pumps, Control valves, Actuators, Reservoir, Accumulators, Hydraulic fluid, Filters

Machines operated by pressure, transmitted through a pipe, by a liquid such as water or oil. Cars have hydraulic brakes in which the braking force is transmitted from the pedal to the brakes by a liquid under pressure. The hydraulic press and hydraulic ram use the same principle. Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools which use fluid power to do work. In this type of machine…

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hydraulics

The study of systems using liquids, whether stationary or moving, for the transmission of force; often, water or oil is the transmitting fluid. Any machine which uses, controls, or conserves a liquid makes use of the principles of hydraulics. The applications include such fields as irrigation, domestic water supply, hydroelectric power, and the design of dams, canals, and pipes. Most motor vehicle…

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hydride - Ionic hydrides, Covalent hydrides, Interstitial hydrides of the transitional metals, Usage

Any compound of hydrogen. Three types are usually distinguished: (1) covalent hydrides, molecular compounds formed with other non-metals, such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), water (H2O), and ammonia (NH3); (2) metallic hydrides, with properties of alloys, formed with most transition elements; and (3) saline hydrides, ionic compounds formed with alkali and alkaline earth elements, where hydrogen is pr…

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hydrobiology - Field of research interests, Organizations, Journals, Notable Researchers

The branch of biology dealing with the study of life in aquatic habitats, especially those in fresh water. Its core is formed by the study of planktonic plants and animals, and of their relationship to the major physical and chemical features of the water column. Hydrobiology is the science of life and life processes in water. One goal of current research is elucidation of the basic environ…

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hydrocephalus - Symptoms of hydrocephalus, Effects, Treatment, Types of hydrocephalus and what causes them (Aetiology), History

The abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricular system inside the brain. It arises because of an abnormal rate of fluid formation or an obstruction to its flow out of the brain, as a result of a variety of disorders including congenital defects, brain tumours, brain haemorrhage, or infections of the central nervous system (eg meningitis). It leads to distension of the brain…

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hydrochloric acid - History, Chemistry, Production, Applications, Presence in living organisms, References and notes

An aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl), a strong acid, fully dissociated into H+ and Cl? ions. It is the only common strong acid that is not an oxidizing agent, and is widely used as a general acid. Gastric juice in the human stomach is 2% hydrochloric acid. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl). Hydrochl…

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hydrofluoric acid - Production, Uses, Safety, Acidity

Hydrogen fluoride (HF), or its aqueous solution. Although extremely corrosive, it is only a moderately strong acid, partially neutralized solutions having a pH of about 3. The acid etches glass by the reaction: 4HF + SiO2 ? SiF4 + 2H2O, as the silicon fluoride formed is volatile. Hydrofluoric acid is a highly toxic and corrosive solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. Perhaps confusin…

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hydrofoil - History, Current operation

A vessel able to reduce its effective displacement by raising itself clear of the water on attaining a certain speed. Foils are fitted at a depth greater than the draft of the hull. Successful trials were first held in Italy in 1906, but 50 years elapsed before the Italians put it to commercial use. Hydrofoils are used extensively for inland water transport in Russia, and have been used for many y…

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hydrogen - Nomenclature, History, Natural occurrence, The hydrogen atom, Elemental molecular forms, Chemical and physical properties

H, element 1, the lightest of the chemical elements, the commonest isotope having only one proton and one electron in an atom. Its stable form is a gas with diatomic molecules (H2). Although it makes up more than 90% of the atoms in the universe, it is much less common on Earth, does not occur free, and mainly occurs combined with oxygen in water and with carbon in hydrocarbons. It is of great ind…

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hydrogen bond - Hydrogen bond in water, Hydrogen bonds in proteins and DNA, Symmetric hydrogen bond, Dihydrogen bond

A very strong intermolecular attraction between the electrons of one electronegative atom and the nucleus of a hydrogen atom bonded to another. The strongest hydrogen bonds involve fluorine atoms, but those involving oxygen are much more common, and are important in explaining the properties of water and ice. Hydrogen bonds may also be formed within molecules, and are the main force giving shape t…

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hydrogenation - History, The hydrogenation process, Temperatures, Hydrogenation in food industry, Health implications

The addition of hydrogen to a compound, also often called reduction. One of the most important hydrogenation reactions is that at a hydrocarbon double bond, for example the conversion of ethylene to ethane: CH2=CH2 + H2 ? CH3–CH3. This reaction is particularly important in the saturation of fats and in petroleum refining. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions in which the net …

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hydrography - Overview, History, Organisations

The science of charting the water-covered areas of the Earth, including the determination of water area, coastline, and depth, as well as the flow characteristics of rivers, lakes, and seas. It also includes the location of shoals and wrecks, and the use of navigational aids. Large scale hydrography is usually undertaken by national or international organizations that sponsor data collectio…

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hydrology - History, Hydrologic cycle, Branches of hydrology, Hydrologic measurements, Hydrologic prediction, Hydrologic transport, Applications of hydrology

The science concerned with the occurrence and distribution of water on or near the Earth's surface, in oceans and in the atmosphere, particularly in relation to the interaction of water with the environment and fresh water as a resource. It involves the study of the hydrological cycle: water from the oceans evaporates; moist air moves onto continents, condenses, and precipitates; it then eventuall…

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hydrolysis - Examples, Irreversibility of hydrolysis under physiological conditions

The splitting of a molecule by the action of water. It is applied particularly to the conversion of an ester into an alcohol and an acid (eg fats into glycerol and fatty acids), and to the reversal of condensation polymerization, converting proteins into amino acids and polysaccharides into sugars. It is also used to describe the conversion of a salt of an acid or base back into that acid or base.…

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hydroponics - History, Soilless Culture, Techniques, Nutrient Solutions, Commercial, Present and future

The growing of plants in nutrient solutions, without soil. The method is especially used in the production of high-quality tomatoes and cucumbers, under glass. There are two main methods: water culture and aggregate culture. In water culture, plants are suspended with their roots submerged in water that contains plant nutrients, and are mechanically supported from above. In aggregate culture the r…

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hydroxide - Uses of Hydroxide

The ion OH? or a compound containing it. The only metal hydroxides soluble in water are those of the alkali metals and, to a lesser extent, calcium, strontium, and barium. These are strong bases, giving solutions with a high pH. Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: It has a charge of −1. A group of bases containing hydroxide are called h…

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Hydrozoa

A class of mainly marine coelenterates in which the life-cycle involves alternation between attached polyp and planktonic medusa phases; polyps mostly in colonies, often with an external skeleton that may be calcified, as in the corals. (Phylum: Cnidaria.) Organisms of the Class Hydrozoa belong to the phylum Cnidaria. The medusa stage is typically the dominant sexually-r…

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Hydrus

An inconspicuous constellation of the S hemisphere. Hydrus (IPA: /ˈhʌɪdrəs/, Latin: Hydra, also referred to as "male Hydra" or "little Hydra") is a minor southern constellation. …

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hygrometer - Dewpoint Hygrometers, Further reading

A meteorological instrument used for measuring the relative humidity of the air. A hygrograph gives a continuous record of relative humidity. Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. A simple form of a hygrometer is specifically known as a "psychrometer" and consists of two thermometers, one of which has its bulb constantly kept wet which measures the wet-bulb temperat…

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Hyksos - Who Were the Hyksos? Who were their first leaders?, Was There a Hyksos Invasion?

The so-called ‘shepherd kings’ of ancient Egypt, who founded the XVth dynasty there c.1670 BC. Originally desert nomads from Palestine, the Egyptians themselves called them ‘the princes from foreign parts’. The Hyksos (Egyptian heqa khasewet meaning "foreign rulers," Greek Ὑκσώς) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern …

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Hymen - Hymens in animals, Types, What might damage the hymen, Historical significance

In ancient Greece and Rome, the cry of ‘O Hymen Hymenaei’ at weddings (later a marriage song) led to the invention of a being called Hymen or Hymenaeus, who was assumed to have been happily married, and therefore suitable for invocation as a god of marriage. He is depicted as a youth with a torch. The hymen has no known anatomical function. In societies which value chastity, the greatest …

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Hymenoptera - Suborder Symphyta, Suborder Apocrita

A diverse order of insects containing about 130 000 species, including the sawflies, horntails, wasps, bees, and ants; adults typically with two pairs of membranous wings; mouthparts adapted for chewing, or sucking nectar; social organization exhibited by many species; egg-laying tube (ovipositor) often modified for stinging. Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising t…

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hymn - Christian tradition, Media

A song of praise to God, usually with a non-Biblical text in verses and sung congregationally with accompaniment on the organ or other instruments. In ancient times, however, hymns were sung in honour of heroic or notable people, and the Latin hymns of the early Christian church were sung without harmony or accompaniment. A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for…

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hyperactivity - Other Causes of Hyperactivity, Does sugar make one hyperactive?, Famous People Who Displayed Outbursts of Hyperactivity

The combination of overactive, poorly controlled behaviour with inattention and lack of concentration for a particular task. This condition is most frequently seen in children, and may have its origin in organic brain injury. It has also been observed in autistic children, anxiety states, hyperthyroidism, catatonic schizophrenic patients, and following the epidemic of encephalitis which occurred s…

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hyperbola - Equations

In mathematics, the locus of a point which moves so that the difference of its distances from two fixed points (foci) is constant. A hyperbola can also be defined as a section of a double cone or as the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from a focus is proportional to its distance from a fixed line (a directrix), the constant of proportion being greater than 1. Some of the comets m…

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hyperbole - Definition, Language change through hyperbole

Exaggeration, used often for comic or rhetorical effect, as throughout the writings of Rabelais, or in the mouth of Shakespeare's Falstaff. It was common in Jacobean drama and is an essential feature of burlesque. Charles Dickens used it skilfully, as have other writers of comic fiction and satire. It is the staple of the tabloid press, and also of ordinary conversation (‘I'm dying for a drink’)…

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Hyperion (astronomy)

The seventh natural satellite of Saturn, discovered in 1848; distance from the planet 1 481 000 km/920 000 mi; diameter 400 km/250 mi; orbital period 21·277 days. Hyperion may refer to, Arts: Organizations: Other: …

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Hyperion (mythology)

In Greek mythology, a Titan, son of Uranus and Gaia, and father of Eos (the Dawn), Helios (the Sun), and Selene (the Moon); later, as in Shakespeare and Keats, identified with the Sun. In the Homer's Iliad and Odyssey the sun god is called Helios Hyperion, 'Sun High-one'. Hyperion is often considered the 'God of Observation' and is the brother of Theia the 'Goddess of Sight.' …

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hypermedia - Software

A form of document which can be held on a computer, consisting of elements of text, audio and video sequences, and computer programs, linked together in such a way that users can move from one element to another and back again. The computer programs can be activated from within the document and may modify the document. When these operations are carried out within a database consisting solely of te…

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hypertension - Definition, Etiology of Essential Hypertension, Etiology of Secondary Hypertension, Pathophysiology, Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Treatment

A condition in which both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) rise above normal levels. Malignant hypertension is a severe degree of high BP in which the diastolic pressure is above 130 mmHg, and an immediate threat to life. All levels of BP above normal damage blood vessels throughout the body; the greater the increase, the greater the damage. The vessels most vulnerable are those of the …

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hyperthermia - Progression, Signs and symptoms, First aid, Prevention, Clinical applications, Iatrogenic hyperthermia

The use of artificial fever for the treatment of disease. The fever can be induced by heat, hydrotherapy (water-treatment, in the form of steam or hot bath immersion), diathermy, and the injection of foreign protein. Since fever is one of the body's natural reactions to the presence of infection or other disease, it is reasoned that a high body temperature may have beneficial effects. The aim of t…

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hyperthyroidism

Oversecretion of thyroid hormones, leading to an increase in the body's metabolic rate. It may be due to a benign tumour (adenoma) of the thyroid gland, or to an aberrant immunoglobulin that stimulates the thyroid gland to overactivity: also known as Graves' disease after Irish physician Robert James Graves (1796–1853). The thyroid gland may appear enlarged and nodular. Patients develop a warm sk…

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hypnosis - History, Definitions, Theories, Research on Hypnosis, Hypnosis Methodologies and Effects, Hypnosis applications

A temporary trance-like state induced by suggestion, in which a variety of phenomena (eg increased suggestibility and alterations in memory) can be induced in response to verbal or other stimuli. A hypnotic trance is not in any way related to sleep, but there is a constriction of responses by the hypnotized subject. As a treatment technique it is unreliable; spectacular achievements can be obtaine…

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hypochondria - Effects, Treatment, Tips for hypochondriacs, Factors contributing to hypochondria

A preoccupation with physical health and excessive anxiety about illness. The hypochondriac interprets common physical symptoms as being due to a serious disease, for example headache is believed to be due to a brain tumour. The fear of disease can interfere with daily life, often leading to medical examinations, but persists despite medical reassurance. Hypochondria (or hypochondriasis, so…

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hypothalamus - Hormones of the hypothalamus, Boundaries, Hypothalamic nuclei, Inputs to the hypothalamus, Control of Food Intake, Projections

A region of the vertebrate brain, situated below the thalamus, which has an important regulatory role regarding the internal environment (eg the control of food intake, water balance, body temperature in mammals, and the release of hormones from the pituitary gland). It is also involved in the control of emotions by the limbic system. The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑποθαλαμος = und…

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hypothermia - Stages of Hypothermia in humans, Prevention, Medically induced

A deep body temperature of 35°C or less, measured clinically by a rectal thermometer. It occurs after immersion in cold water, exposure to low environmental temperatures, and following prolonged unconsciousness or immobilization, especially in alcohol poisoning, hypothyroidism, or after strokes or heart attacks. Infants and the elderly are particularly vulnerable. The initial response to falling …

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hypothyroidism - Signs and symptoms, Hypothyroidism in domestic dogs

Reduced function of the thyroid gland, with a fall in the secretion of thyroid hormones. It may occur from a primary failure of secretion by the thyroid gland, probably as a result of an auto-immune process, or secondarily to pituitary disease. Body metabolism falls, and patients develop an increased dislike of cold weather; physical and mental activity slows down. Hypothyroidism is the dis…

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hyrax - Historical accounts, Prehistoric hyraxes, Hyraxes today

A mammal, native to Africa and Arabia, related to the elephant and aardvark; superficially resembles a large guinea pig, with pointed muzzle and round ears; three types: rock, bush, and tree hyraxes; the only members of the order Hyracoidea; also known as daman, dassie, rock rabbit, or (in Bible) cony. (Family: Procaviidae, 11 species.) A hyrax (from Greek ‘υραξ 'shrewmouse'; Despite …

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Hyrcanus II - Intervention of the Romans, Carried Prisoner to Babylon

Jewish high priest and ruler. On the death of his father (76 BC) he was appointed high priest by his mother, Alexandra, who ruled Judaea until her death (67 BC). He then warred for power with his younger brother Aristobulus, with varying fortune until Aristobulus died from poisoning (49 BC). In 47 BC Caesar made Antipater Procurator of Judaea with supreme power, and a son of Aristobulus, with Part…

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hyssop

A small, shrubby perennial (Hyssopus officinalis) growing up to 60 cm/2 ft, native to S Europe and W Asia; leaves narrow, in opposite pairs; flowers 2-lipped, violet-blue, in whorls forming long, loose 1-sided spikes. Originally cultivated as a medicinal herb, it is sometimes found naturalized. (Family: Labiatae.) Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-w…

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hysterectomy - Technique, Indications, Alternatives, Potential risks, Alternatives

The surgical removal of the uterus. This operation is indicated in cases of malignant tumours of the uterus, in benign growths (fibroids) when these have become large, and in the event of excessive, uncontrollable vaginal bleeding, whether during menstruation or following birth. Women who have total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy surgeries lose most of their abi…

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hysteria - History, Mass hysteria

In its most general sense, a colloquial and derogatory term, used especially for histrionic behaviour. More specifically, it is used in psychiatry to describe a personality profile or a neurotic illness. It may also describe a symptom in which there is a physical manifestation without an organic cause to account for the physiological dysfunction. Hysteria is additionally used to describe a group o…

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I(sidor) I(saac) Rabi

Physicist, born in Rymanow, Poland (formeerly, Austria). Brought to the USA in infancy, he taught at City College of New York (1924–27), studied in Europe (1927–9), and then joined Columbia University (1929–67). He performed most of his pioneering research in radar and the magnetic moment associated with electron spin in the 1930s–1940s. He won the 1944 Nobel Prize for Physics for his method o…

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Iain (Menzies) Banks

Novelist, born in Fife, E Scotland, UK. He worked as a testing technician in Scotland and as a solicitor's clerk in England before attracting equal measures of fame and notoriety with his first novel, a gruesome Gothic fantasy, The Wasp Factory (1984). Later books include The Bridge (1986), Whit (1995), Inversions (1999), The Algebraist (2004), and The Steep Approach to Garbadale (2007). …

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Iain (Norman) Macleod - Offices held

British statesman, born in Skipton, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, became a Conservative MP (1950), minister of health (1952–5), minister of labour (1955–9), secretary of state for the Colonies (1959–61), and chairman of the Conservative Party (1961–3). Refusing to serve under Home, he spent two years editing the Spectator (1963–5). Highly popular, and a gifted speak…

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Iain Duncan Smith - Early life, Rise to political prominence, The downfall of Duncan Smith

British politician, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He was educated at HMS Conway, Anglesey, studied at the University of Perugia, Italy, and trained at Sandhurst Military Academy. A former member of the Scots Guards, he joined the Conservative Party in 1981 and contested the seat of Bradford West in 1987 before being elected MP for Chingford in 1992. Following boundary changes he was elected …

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iamb

A metrical foot consisting of one unstressed and one stressed syllable, as in the word ‘release’. It is the most common measure in English verse because it fits the prevailing natural pattern of English words and phrases: ‘And leaves the world to darkness, and to me’ (Gray). In Greek and Latin verse, iambs consist of one short syllable followed by one long syllable, and are found mainly in dra…

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Ian (Douglas) Smith - Family and early life, Political background, UDI and its aftermath, The end of UDI

Rhodesian politician and prime minister (1964–79), born in Selukwe, C Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia). He studied in Rhodesia and South Africa, fought in World War 2, and became an MP in 1948. In 1961 he was a founder of the Rhodesian Front, dedicated to immediate independence without African majority rule. As premier, he unilaterally declared independence (UDI, 1965), which resulted in the impositi…

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Ian (Graeme) Barbour

Physicist, born in Beijing, China. He was the son of an American mother and a Scottish father, both of whom taught at Yenching University. At age 14, the family settled in the USA, where he went on to study physics at Swarthmore College (1943), Duke University (1946), and the University of Chicago (1949). He joined the physics faculty at Kalamazoo College in Michigan, becoming department chair (19…

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Ian (Lancaster) Fleming - Biography, Selected works

Writer and journalist, born in London, UK, the brother of Peter Fleming. He studied languages at Munich and Geneva universities, worked with Reuters in Moscow (1929–33), then became a banker and stockbroker (1933–9). He served with British Naval Intelligence during World War 2, and was foreign manager of the Kemsley group of newspapers (1945–59), until settling in Jamaica. He achieved worldwide…

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Ian (Michael) Chappell

Cricketer, born in Unley, South Australia, the brother of Greg Chappell. He played 75 times for Australia (1976–80), scoring over 5000 runs and 14 Test centuries. His pugnacious, driving style of captaincy made Australia a side universally respected in the 1970s. He is now a well-known sports commentator. Ian Michael Chappell (born September 26, 1943 in Unley, South Australia) is a former …

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Ian (Russell) McEwan - Biography, Works, Bibliography, Further reading

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Aldershot, Hampshire, S England, UK. He attracted immediate attention with two collections of short stories, First Love, Last Rites (1975) and In Between The Sheets (1977), and a novella, The Cement Garden (1978). His novels include The Child in Time (1987, Whitbread), The Innocent (1990), Black Dogs (1992), Amsterdam (1998, Booker), Atonement (2001), and S…

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Ian (Terence) Botham - On the field, Off the field, Family history

Cricketer, born in Heswall, Merseyside, NW England, UK. An all-rounder, he appeared in 102 Test matches for England, 65 of them consecutively, and including 12 as captain (1980–1). He held the record number of Test wickets (383 wickets at an average of 28·40 runs) until overtaken by Richard Hadlee, and on four occasions took 10 wickets in a match. He scored 5200 runs in Tests (average 33·54), i…

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Ian Brady - Biography, References and further reading

Convicted murderer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He was found guilty of the murder of two children, John Kilbride (12) and Lesley Ann Downey (10), and a 17-year-old boy, Edward Evans, in 1966. In a case which horrified the public, it was revealed that Brady, with his lover Myra Hindley (1942–2002), from Gorton, lured young children into their home in Manchester and subjected them to torture b…

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Ian Fairweather - Life, Works

Painter, born in Bridge of Allan, Stirling, C Scotland, UK. He trained at the Slade School of Art, London. From 1924 he travelled extensively, living and working in, amongst other places, Germany, Canada, China, Japan, India, as well as Australia. In 1940 he served as a captain in the British army in India until, invalided out in 1943, he returned to Australia. In 1952 he attempted to sail from Da…

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Ian Hamilton Finlay - Printed works, Sculptures and gardens, Bibliography

Poet and artist, born in Nassau, the Bahamas, of Scottish parents and brought up in Scotland. He served in the army (1944–7), after which he studied at Glasgow College of Art. In 1960 he published The Dancers Inherit the Party, and went on to become widely known as the leading British exponent of concrete poetry during that decade. His later poetry collections included Spring Verses (1993) and Re…

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Ian Hislop - Early life, Private Eye, Have I Got News for You, Other television and radio work

British writer, editor, and broadcaster. He studied at Oxford, became a television scriptwriter for Spitting Image (1984–9), a columnist for The Listener (1985–9), and long-standing editor of the satirical magazine Private Eye (1986– ). Presenter of The Canterbury Tales series for Channel 4 (1996), he is also a team captain of the BBC's popular Have I Got News For You (1991– ), and has co-writ…

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Ian McHarg - Books

Landscape architect, born in Clydebank, W Scotland, UK. Landscape architecture drew him to the USA, first as a teenage apprentice (1936–9), then as a student at Harvard University after World War 2 (1946–50). Edinburgh's (Scotland) first landscape architect (1950–4), he returned permanently to create the University of Pennsylvania's department of landscape architecture (1954–82). In Design wit…

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Ian Rush - Records, Career honours, Personal honours

Footballer, born in St Asaph, Denbighshire, NC Wales, UK. After playing one season with Chester, he moved to Liverpool in 1981, and scored heavily (110 goals in 182 league matches). He won all the major honours in British football, and the European Cup Medal in 1984. He played for Juventus (1986–8) before returning to Liverpool, joined Leeds United in 1996, moving to Newcastle United (1997–8), t…

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Ian Thorpe - National debut, International debut, Youngest ever World Champion, 1998 Commonwealth Games, 1999: First World Records

Swimmer, born in Paddington, Sydney, Australia. A swimming phenomenon, he began swimming aged eight and won his first competition the following year. In the 1998 World Championships he became the youngest male world champion in history by winning the 400 m freestyle. At the Pan Pacific Championships in 1999 he smashed four world records in four days. He won four gold medals at the Kuala Lumpur 19…

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Ian Woosnam - Other wins, Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Oswestry, Shropshire. The son of Welsh parents, he grew up in the village of Llanymynech across the border in Powys, Wales. He began playing golf at the local club there and turned professional in 1976. His career took off after winning the Swiss Open in 1982, and in 1991 he was ranked world number 1, a position he held for almost a year. Further titles include the US Masters (1991…

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Iannis Xenakis - Biography, Selected works, Bibliography

Composer, born in Braila, E Romania. He studied engineering at Athens University, and worked as an architect for Le Corbusier in Paris. He did not turn to musical composition until 1954, when he wrote the orchestral piece Metastasis, and went on to develop a highly complex style which incorporated mathematical concepts of chance and probability (so-called stochastic music), as well as electronic t…

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Iapetus (mythology) - Iapetus and Japheth

In Greek mythology, one of the Titans, the father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, Atlas, and Menoetius; the grandfather of Deucalion. The close resemblance to Japhet may indicate borrowing from near Eastern sources. In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius …

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Ibadan - History, Ibadan Natives

7°23N 3°56E, pop (2000e) 1 578 000. Capital of Oyo state, Nigeria, 113 km/70 mi NE of Lagos; founded in the 1830s; British control, 1896; airfield; railway; regarded as the intellectual centre of the country; university (1948); metals, chemicals, brewing, vehicles, electronics, trade in cotton and cocoa; zoo. Ibadan (Èbá-Ọdàn), reputed to be the largest indigenous city in Africa…

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Iberia

The term used by Herodotos to describe the Spanish peninsula. It derives from the Latin Iberus (the river Ebro) and, strictly speaking, covers only the territory inhabited by the peoples near the mouth of the Ebro valley. …

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Iberian Peninsula - Iberian languages, Pre-Roman languages, History

area c.593 000 km²/229 000 sq mi. The region of Europe SW of the Pyrenees, including Portugal and Spain; the name is probably derived from Iberus, the Roman name for the R Ebro; Iberia is an ancient name for Spain. Political divisions of the Iberian Peninsula sorted by area: The following languages are spoken in the Iberian peninsula: The following languages we…

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Iberians - Historical references, External influences

A group of iron-age peoples inhabiting the S and E periphery of present-day Spain (Andalusia, Valencia, Aragón, and Catalonia), and extending N into present-day France as far as the Rhône valley. The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. Most scholars adhering to this theory …

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ibex

A wild goat with high sweeping curved horns; horns round in cross-section and ringed with ridges; two species: ibex (Capra ibex) from the mountains of Europe, N Africa, and S Asia; Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Pyrenees. An ibex, also called steinbock, is a type of wild mountain goat with large recurved horns that are transversely ridged in front. …

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ibis - Species

A wading bird native to tropical and warm temperate regions; related to spoonbills; long curved bill; face naked; eats small water creatures and insects. The wood-ibis (Mycteria ibis) of S Africa is a stork, not an ibis. (Family: Threskiornithidae, c.23 species.) Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. …

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Ibiza - History, Climate, Tourism, Administration, Music

pop (2000e) 71 000; area 572 km²/221 sq mi. Third largest island in the Mediterranean Balearic Is, 88 km/55 mi SW of Majorca, surrounded by islets; a major tourist island; car ferries to Alicante, Valencia, Palma de Mallorca, Barcelona, Genoa; capital, Ibiza, pop (2000e) 30 000, founded by the Carthaginians, 645 BC; other main towns are San Antonio and Santa Eulalia del Río; airport; al…

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Iblis - Etymology, Trivia

The Islamic name for the archangel Lucifer, who rebelled against God and was banished from heaven to become the Devil, the tempter. Iblīs (Arabic إبليس), is the primary devil in Islam. He appears more often in the Qur'an (Islamic holy Book) as the Shaitan, a term used to refer to all of the evil spirits assisting Iblis, but which is often used to refer to just Iblis. …

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Ibn Khaldun - Name, Biography, Education, Early years in Tunis and Granada, High political office, Last years in Egypt

Philosopher, historian, and politician, born in Tunis, Tunisia. He held various political positions in Spain, but largely abandoned politics in 1375, and in 1382 went to Cairo, where he became professor and a chief judge. His major work was a monumental history of the Arabs, Kitab al-ibar. The influential Maqaddimah (Introduction to History) outlined a cyclical theory of history by which nomadic p…

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Ibn Tufail - Works

Physician to the Almohad ruler Yusuf, born in Cádiz, SW Spain. His fame rests mainly on his revision of Avicenna's philosophical romance Hayy ibn Yaqzan (Alive, Son of Awake), a work of pantheistic mysticism which traces the hero's intellectual development, on a desert island, from ignorance to wisdom. His philosophy influenced Ramon Llull, but it is doubtful whether it was directly known to Grac…

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Ibrahim Babangida - Early career and rise to power, Years of Promotion and Rank, Studies

Nigerian soldier, politician, and president (1985–93), born in Minna, C Nigeria. He studied at military schools in Nigeria, and carried out further training in the UK and USA. He took part in the overthrow of the government of Shehu Shagari in 1983, and was made commander-in-chief of the army. In 1985 he led a coup against President Buhari and assumed the presidency himself. He stood down in Augu…

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Ibycus

Greek poet from Rhegium in Italy. He lived at the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, and wrote choral lyrics. Legend has it that he was slain by robbers near Corinth, and as he was dying he called upon a flock of cranes to avenge him. The cranes then hovered over the theatre at Corinth, and one of the murderers exclaimed, ‘Behold the avengers of Ibycus!’ This led to their conviction. The stor…

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Icaria - History, Landmarks, Climate, Municipalities, Communities and settlements

area 255 km²/98 sq mi. Greek island in the Aegean Sea, SW of Samos; named after the legendary Icarus; medicinal springs at Thermai; Ayios Kyrikos is a popular resort. Icaria, also spelled Ikaria (Greek: Ικαρία), locally Nikaria or Nicaria (Νικαριά), previous name: Doliche (Δολίχη), is a Greek island 10 nautical miles (19 km) south-west of Samos. It is one of the…

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Icarus (astronomy)

Asteroid no.1566, discovered in 1949, diameter 1·5 km/0·9 mi. It has an orbital period of 1·12 years and occasionally passes close to the Earth. Icarus (sometimes spelled Ikarus in Europe), is a proper noun with a variety of meanings, most deriving from its use in Greek mythology: …

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Icarus (mythology) - Story of Icarus, Icarus in modern culture

In Greek mythology, the son of Daedalus. His father made him wings to escape from Crete, but he flew too near the Sun; the wax holding the wings melted; and he fell into the Aegean at a point now known as the Icarian Sea. In Greek mythology, Icarus (Latin, Greek – Íkaros, Etruscan – Vicare, German – Ikarus) was son of Daedalus, famous for his death by falling into the sea when he fle…

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ice - Characteristics, Types of ice, Uses of ice, Ice at different pressures, Phases of ice

The common solid form of water, stable below 0°C. Unlike most solids, it is less dense than its liquid, this being explained by the fact that the strong hydrogen bonds formed hold the molecules in a relatively open network. An even more open network occurs when ice forms around noble gas atoms or hydrocarbon molecules. Such clathrates may be important reservoirs of natural gas. Their formation is…

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Ice Age - Origin of ice age theory, Evidence for ice ages, Major ice ages, Interglacials

A period of time in the Earth's history when ice sheets and glaciers advanced from polar regions to cover areas previously of temperate climate. Several ice ages are evident in the geological record, the most recent (‘the Ice Age’) being from c.1 million years ago and lasting until c.10 000 years ago, when the ice retreated to its present polar extent. An ice age is a period of long-term…

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ice hockey - History, Equipment, Game, Penalties, Tactics, Periods and overtime, Women's ice hockey, Sledge hockey

A sport played on ice between two teams of six players all wearing ice skates and protective clothing. It is a fast, aggressive game, played with sticks and a small, circular, rubber puck, on a rink 56–61 m/184–200 ft long and 26–30 m/85–98 ft wide. The aim is to hit the puck into the opponent's goal. Players (apart from the goalie) are often substituted during the game, and may enter and …

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ice plant

An annual lying flat on the ground (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), with broad succulent leaves and white, daisy-like flowers. The whole plant is covered with glistening papillae, resembling ice crystals. Native to S Africa, and introduced elsewhere, it was formerly a source of soda ash (commercial sodium carbonate), obtained by burning the plants. (Family: Aizoaceae.) The common name Ice P…

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ice skating - History, How it works, Sports based on ice skating

1 Figure skating, artistic dancing on ice. Competitions are held for individual, pairs, and ice dancing. The first known skating club was formed mid-18th-c in London, and the first artificial rink was opened at Baker Street in 1876. 2 Speed skating, in which one competitor races against another on an oval ice track over distances of 500–10 000 m (550–11 000 yds). Ice skating is travel…

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iceberg - Facts, History, Monitoring

A floating mass of ice, detached from ice sheets or glaciers, drifting on ocean currents for up to several years and for many hundreds of kilometres before melting. With only a fraction of their mass above water level they are a danger to shipping, particularly in the N Atlantic, where they originate in Greenland. Antarctic icebergs are characteristically huge and tabular and many tens of kilometr…

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icebreaker - History, Function of icebreakers, Recent advances, Notable icebreakers

A vessel designed to clear waterways of ice by propelling itself onto the surface of the ice, breaking it with the weight of the fore part of its hull, which is specially shaped and strengthened for this purpose. Icebreakers are commonly employed in Russia, the Baltic, and Canada. An icebreaker is a special purpose ship designed to move and navigate through ice-covered marine environments. …

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Icelandic literature - Early Icelandic Literature, Middle Icelandic literature, Modern Icelandic literature

The Icelandic sagas, for centuries transmitted orally, were written down by Christian scribes, beginning with the 11th-c skaldic poetry, and followed in the next century by the documentary Landnámabók (Book of Settlements). In the 13th-c appeared the great Icelandic sagas, masterpieces of mediaeval prose; among them Egils Saga and Njals Saga. Humanism made its mark in the 16th–17th-c, and the E…

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Iceni - The Roman Invasion, Bibliography

An ancient British tribe occupying what is now Norfolk and NW Suffolk. They rebelled in AD 47 and again in 60, when their queen, Boudicca, led them and other tribes in a major revolt that nearly brought about the collapse of the Roman administration in Britain. The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfol…

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ichneumon (entomology) - In zoology, Literary or Medieval Usage:

A slender, parasitic wasp; females often have elongate egg-laying tube; eggs typically deposited on larvae or pupae of other insects and spiders; larvae feed on these as parasites during their development. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Ichneumonidae.) The name Ichneumon can refer to different things: The ichneumon is the enemy of the dragon. When it sees a dragon, the ichneumon c…

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ichneumon (mammal) - In zoology, Literary or Medieval Usage:

The largest living mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) (length, 1 m/3¼ ft), native to Africa and the Middle East (introduced in S Europe); also known as Egyptian mongoose or Pharaoh's rat. The name Ichneumon can refer to different things: The ichneumon is the enemy of the dragon. When it sees a dragon, the ichneumon covers itself with mud, and closing its nostrils with its tail, a…

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ichthyosaur - Description, Evolutionary history, Taxonomy of species, In popular culture

An aquatic reptile with streamlined body for fast swimming; tail typically large, paddle-like; eyes large, usually surrounded by bony plates; teeth small, fed mainly on cephalopods and fish; bore live young; known mainly from the Jurassic period. (Subclass: Ichthyopterygia.) Ichthyosaurs (Greek for 'fish lizard' - ιχθυς meaning 'fish' and σαυρος meaning 'lizard') were giant marin…

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Icknield Way

A Neolithic track linking Salisbury Plain in SE England, UK to the E coast. The Romans gravelled it and used it as a secondary road. The Icknield Way is one of the oldest roads in Britain, being one of the few long-distance trackways to have existed before the Romans occupied the country. Many modern roads follow the Icknield Way, for example the main road at Dunstable that crosses Wa…

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icon (art and religion) - Icons in Christianity, Images from Constantine to Justinian, The Iconoclast period, Icon traditions in other regions

A representation of Christ, the Virgin Mary, angels, saints, or even events of sacred history, used since the 5th-c for veneration and an aid to devotion, particularly in the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches. They are typically in Byzantine style, flat, and painted in oils on wood, often with an elaborately decorated gold or silver cover. They are believed to be the channel of blessing from God…

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icon (computing) - Function or program icons, Document icons, Designing icons

In computing, a small image or symbol used in graphic user interfaces to represent an item such as a program or a disk drive. Commands can be given to the computer using a mouse to point at an icon, thereby selecting the task related to the icon that needs to be performed. A computer icon usually ranges from 16 by 16 pixels up to 128 by 128 pixels. When the graphical output device has a sma…

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iconoclasm (Europe) - Byzantine Iconoclasm, Islamic Iconoclasm, Reformation Iconoclasm

The extreme rejection of the veneration of images. The practice was justified as an interpretation of the second of the Ten Commandments (Ex 20.4), and was supported by the pope and the Roman emperor in the 8th-c, and again by certain Reformers in the 16th-c. Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. In Chris…

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Iconoclasm (Netherlands) - Byzantine Iconoclasm, Islamic Iconoclasm, Reformation Iconoclasm

A movement in the Middle Ages against religious images, known as the Beeldenstorm in the Netherlands. It had begun in Germany and Switzerland, and reached the Low Countries in 1566, starting in Flanders and moving E. Churches and other religious establishments, monasteries, and hospitals, were sacked by fanatic Protestants who thought anything approaching a graven image should be destroyed. Brusse…

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iconography - Iconography in the history of religious art, Iconography in other academic research, Iconography in other

The branch of art history which, faced with a picture, or any kind of image, takes as its central question: who or what is represented? Originally it was concerned with the identification of portraits; thus van Dyck's Iconography (1645) is a set of engraved portraits. Since the pioneer work of Mrs Anna Jameson (1794–1860) and Adolphe Didron (1806–67) in the mid-19th-c it has been extended to cov…

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Ida Lupino - Early life, Career rise, Directing, Awards, Personal life

Actress and director, born in London, UK, the daughter of popular comedian Stanley Lupino (1893–1942). She trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and made her film debut in Her First Affair (1932). She moved to Hollywood in 1933, and made several films for Warner Brothers, notably High Sierra (1941), Ladies in Retirement (1941), and The Hard Way (1942), for which she was voted best…

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Idaho - History, Transportation, Law and government, National Parks of Idaho, Education, Professional sports teams, Official State Emblems

pop (2000e) 1 294 000; area 216 422 km²/83 564 sq mi. State in NW USA, divided into 44 counties; the ‘Gem State’; first European exploration by Lewis and Clark, 1805; held jointly by Britain and the USA until 1846; discovery of gold (1860) led to an influx of settlers; Territory of Idaho established, 1863; admitted to the Union as the 43rd state, 1890; capital, Boise; other chief cities…

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ideal gas - Classical thermodynamic ideal gas, Heat capacity, Speed of sound, Ideal quantum gases

A model gas in which atoms do not interact with one another, approximated well by noble gases such as helium and neon, and other gases at low pressures; also called a perfect gas. More exactly, an ideal gas is one for which the equation of state is pV = nRT, where p is pressure, V volume, n number of moles of gas, T temperature, and R the molar gas constant having the value 8·314 J.mol?1K?1. …

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idealism - History, Other uses

In philosophy, the theory that the material world is in some sense created by the mind and does not exist independently of it; the only things which fully exist are minds and their contents. Berkeley, the first thoroughgoing idealist, maintained that ‘to be is to be perceived or a perceiver’; physical objects are collections of ideas that exist insofar as they are perceived by finite, human mind…

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ideology - Ideology in everyday society, History of the concept of ideology, Analysis of ideology, Political ideologies

A term first coined by the philosopher Destutt de Tracy (1754–1836) to refer to the study of ideas; now typically used to describe any set of beliefs that support sectional interests. The prevailing ideologies in society are likely to reflect and justify interests of the dominant (class, political, or religious) groups. The term implies that ideological beliefs are in some way exaggerations or di…

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ides

In the Roman calendar, the name given to the day in mid-month corresponding originally to the full moon. In March, May, July, and October this was the 15th, and in all other months the 13th. Ides may refer to: As an acronym, IDES (or IDEs) may mean: …

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Idi Amin (Dada) - Early life, Military career, Promotion in the military, Deposition and exile, Portrayal in the media

Ugandan soldier and dictator (1971–9), born in Koboko, NW Uganda of a peasant family. After a rudimentary education he joined the army, rising from the ranks to become a colonel in 1964. As a friend of prime minister Milton Obote, he was made commander-in-chief of the army and air force, but worsening relations between them resulted in a coup establishing a military dictatorship (1971). He procee…

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idiolect - Idiolect and language

The total linguistic system of an individual, in a given language, at any specific time. Dialects are made up of more-or-less similar idiolects. It is unlikely that any two people have identical idiolects: different preferences in usage, grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation will serve to keep them apart. An idiolect is a variety of a language unique to an individual. Every individual has …

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idiophone

Any musical instrument whose sound proceeds from the body of the instrument itself, without the action of vibrating strings, membranes, loudspeakers, or columns of air. Idiophones form one of the main categories in the standard classification of Hornbostel and Sachs (1914). An idiophone is any musical instrument which creates sound primarily by way of the instrument vibrating itself, withou…

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Idomeneus

According to Homer, the leader of the Cretans who assisted the Greeks at Troy; a descendant of Minos. Being caught in a storm at sea, he vowed to sacrifice the first thing he met on his safe return. This was his own son; and after carrying out the sacrifice he was driven into exile. In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. In the Iliad, he is found …

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Ife - Weblink

A Yoruba ceremonial and trading centre in SW Nigeria, occupied from the 11th-c AD, from which the Yoruba dispersed to found their kingdoms. It is noted for its naturalistic figures in brass and terracotta, possibly dating from the late 14th/early 15th-c. The related Benin tradition may also derive from Ife. Ifè (or Ilé-Ifẹ̀, as it is properly known) is an ancient Yoruba city in…

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Ignacio Aldecoa

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Vittoria, N Spain. Considered to be the most important writer of the Generación del 1954, after two books of poetry Todavía la vida (1947) and Libro de las algas (1949), he turned to the novel. The other two books in his trilogy, La España Inmóvil, dealt with gipsies (Con el viento solano (1956)) and bullfighting (Los pozos (written 1958)). Other novels…

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Ignacio Zuloaga - Sources

Painter, born in Eibar, N Spain. He studied painting in Rome and Paris, and won recognition abroad and then at home as a reviver of the national tradition in Spanish painting. He painted bullfighters, gipsies, beggars, and other themes of Spanish life. 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1902 1903 1904 1906…

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Ignacy (Jan) Paderewski - Biography, Medals and awards

Pianist, composer, and patriot, born in Kurylowka, SE Poland. He studied at Warsaw, becoming professor at the Conservatory in 1878. In 1884 he taught at the Strasbourg Conservatory, and became a virtuoso pianist, appearing throughout Europe and America. He became director of Warsaw Conservatory in 1909. In 1919 he served briefly as the first premier of Poland, but soon retired from politics, went …

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Ignatius Donnelly - Early life and education, Political career, Death

Social reformer, politician, and writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A lawyer with utopian aspirations, he moved to Minnesota (1856) to promote a land development scheme known as Nininger City, and when it failed he switched to farming and also to politics. Said to have been a spellbinding speaker, he joined the Republican Party because of its stand against slavery, and was elected to…

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Ignazio Buttitta - Biography

Poet, born in Bagheria, Sicily, S Italy. He wrote in Sicilian dialect and used news events and experimental language to express the social aspirations of the poor. His masterpiece is Lamento pi Turiddu Carnivali, included in the collection Il poeta in piazza (1974). His other works include Lu pani si chiama pani (1954), Pietre nere (1983), and Colapesce (1986). Ignazio Buttitta (19 Septembe…

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Ignazio Silone - Opposition to Stalinism and return to the PSI, Controversy, Works, Cinematic versions, External Links

Novelist and journalist, born in Aquilo, EC Italy. He studied in Abruzzi and Rome. Active in the struggle against Fascism, he settled in Switzerland in 1931, returning to Italy in 1944, and edited the newspaper Avanti. Fontamara (1933, but rewritten after World War 2) describes the interplay between the peasants of Abruzzi and their Fascist governors. Later novels include Pane e vino (1937, Bread …

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igneous rock - Geologic significance, Morphology and setting, Classification, Mineralogical classification, Etymology

Rocks that have formed by crystallization of magma originating within or below the Earth's crust. Two main classifications exist. In terms of chemical composition, there are acid rocks, with more than 66% total silica (SiO2); basic rocks with less than 55% total silica; and intermediate rocks. In terms of crystal size and mode of occurrence, plutonic rocks form deep in the Earth and are coarse-gra…

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Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky - Biography, Stylistic periods, Influence and innovation, Criticism, List of works, Further reading

Composer and conductor, born in Oranienbaum, near St Petersburg, Russia. The son of an admired bass in the Imperial Opera, he studied piano and composition as a boy. Although he studied law at St Petersburg University, he was far more interested in music and studied composition (1903–6) under Rimsky-Korsokov becoming a member of that composer's circle. In 1909 the Russian ballet impresario Sergei…

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Igor (Ivan) Sikorsky - Biography

Aeronautical engineer, the inventor of the helicopter, born in Kiev, Ukraine. He began experimenting with building helicopters in 1909, but shelved his work due to lack of experience and money, and turned to aircraft. He built and flew the first four-engined aeroplane in 1913. He emigrated to the USA in 1919, and became a US citizen in 1928. He founded the Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation (19…

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Igor (Vasilevich) Kurchatov

Physicist, born in Sim, W Russia. He graduated from the Crimean University in Simferopol and went to the Physico-Technical Institute, Leningrad (St Petersburg) where he became director of nuclear physics (1938). He carried out important studies of neutron reactions, and was the leading figure in the building of Russia's first atomic (1949) and thermonuclear (1953) bombs, and the world's first indu…

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iguana

A lizard, native to the New World, Madagascar, Fiji, and Tonga; active during the day; often has crest of tooth-like projections along back; tongue thick and fleshy, not long and forked. (Family: Iguanidae, 650 species.) …

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ikebana - History

The formal Japanese style of flower arrangement, which selects a few blooms or leaves and places them in a very careful relationship to one another. It was a popular pastime in W Europe in the second half of the 20th-c. Ikebana (Japanese: 生け花 or いけばな, literally "living flowers") is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō (華道)—the "way of flowers". …

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Il Guercino - Biography, Gallery

Painter of the Bolognese School, born in Cento, N Italy. His major work is the ceiling fresco ‘Aurora’ at the Villa Ludovisi in Rome for Pope Gregory XV. After 1642 he became the leading painter of Bologna, where he died. His name means ‘the squint-eyed’. Guercino was born at Cento, a village between Bologna and Ferrara. The Arcadian Shepherds (Et in Arcadia ego) was painted…

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il Sodoma - Partial anthology of works, External Links

Religious and historical painter, born in Vercelli, Duchy of Savoy. A Lombard, he painted frescoes in Monte Oliveto Maggiore near Siena, before being called to the Vatican in 1508, where he began to paint the fresco of ‘The Marriage of Alexander and Roxane’ in the Villa Farnesina. He was later superseded by Raphael. A known homosexual, his name is likely to have been started as a joke, but was a…

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Ilchester - History, Churches

51º01N 2º41W, pop (2000e) 2000. Town in Somerset, SW England, UK; on the R Yeo, NW of Yeovil; birthplace of Roger Bacon; site of a strategic Roman fort and important regional settlement; the Roman levels lie just beneath the surface in the town; two Roman cemeteries nearby; walled and gated town in Middle Ages; mediaeval bridge and 17th-c packhorse bridge span the Yeo; St Mary Major Church with…

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Ildebrando Pizzetti

Composer, born in Parma, N Italy. He studied at Parma Conservatory, and in 1908 became professor at the Instituto Musicale, Florence. He was director there from 1917 until 1924, when he became director of the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory, Milan. He composed extensively in all forms, winning a particular reputation for opera with Fedra (1912) and Debora e Jaele (1923). In 1936 he became professor at…

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Ilkeston

52º59N 1º18W, pop (2001e) 35 700. Town in Erewash district, Derbyshire, C England, UK; 11 km/18 mi W of Nottingham; former mining town; birthplace of Roland Bainton; parish church of St Mark (13th-c); Erewash Museum located in former Dalby House (18th-c); iron, engineering, clothing, needles, plastics. Ilkeston is a town in the Erewash District of Derbyshire, in the East Midlands regi…

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Illinois - Geography, History, Demographics, Economy, Energy, Transportation, Law and government, Largest cities, Education, Professional sports teams, Lists

pop (2000e) 12 419 300; area 145 928 km²/56 345 sq mi. State in NC USA, divided into 102 counties; the ‘Prairie State’; 21st state admitted to the Union, 1818; explored by Jolliet and Marquette in 1673 and settled by the French, who established Fort St Louis, 1692; included in French Louisiana, it was ceded to the British in 1763 and by the British to the USA in 1783; capital, Springfie…

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illuminance

In photometry, the incident luminous flux per unit area, ie the amount of visible light available to provide illumination per square metre; symbol E, units lx (lux); also called illumination. It decreases with the square of the distance from the source. The human eye can detect down to 10?9 lx. In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. Simi…

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illusion - Illusions in Art and Magic

A true sensory stimulus which is misinterpreted. For example, the sound of a dripping tap may be thought to be malevolent voices, or flickering shadows in a dark room might be interpreted as ferocious animals. An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. Illusions can occur with each of the human senses, …

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Illyria - Settlement of Proto-Illyrian tribes, Illyrian kingdom, Religion, Legacy

In antiquity, the E seaboard of the Adriatic and its mountainous hinterland. It was roughly the equivalent of the W half of former Yugoslavia and NW Albania; its inland boundaries were never precisely defined. Some archaeologists propose that the Proto-Illyrians settled in what would become Illyria as early as the Early Bronze Age, and presumably soon mingled with the previous non-Indo-Euro…

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ilmenite - Sources, Lunar ilmenite

A black oxide mineral, iron titanate (FeTiO3), found in basic igneous rocks and beach sand deposits. It is the major ore of titanium. Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Many mafic igneous rocks contain grains of intergrown magnetite and ilmenite, formed by the oxidation of ulvospinel. Although named …

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Ilse Aichinger - Life, Works

Writer, born in Vienna, Austria. Reality and dream flow together in her writing, which includes novels (Die größere Hoffnung, 1948), short stories (Der Gefesselte, 1953), other prose works (Kleist, Moos, Fasane, 1987), poems, and radio plays. Her eight-volume collected works were published in 1991. She was married to the writer Günther Eich. Ilse Aichinger (born 1 November 1921 in Vienna…

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Ilya Prigogine - Dissipative structures theory, Other works, Awards, Book Series

Physical chemist, born in Moscow, Russia. He moved to Belgium at the age of 12, studied chemistry at the Free University in Brussells, and became a professor there in 1951. He was also founder-director of the Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics at Texas (1967). For his contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1977. His work was …

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imagery

Figurative language; the illustration and emphasis of an idea by analogies and parallels of different kinds, to make it more concrete and objective. Images may be explicit in the form of a simile (‘As cold as any stone’) or implicit in the form of a metaphor (‘You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things’). They may be incidental, or form part of a system of imagery running through …

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Imagism - Pre-Imagism, Early publications and statements of intent, Des Imagistes, Some Imagist Poets

An early Anglo-American 20th-c poetic movement which sought to return (and confine) poetry to its essential ingredient, the image, which ‘presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time’ (Ezra Pound). Other ingredients included a preference for free verse over metric forms, a stress on economy and exactness, the use of the language of common speech, and a sophisticated, erud…

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imam - Clerical "Imams"

1 A religious leader and teacher of a Sunni Muslim community, who leads worship in the mosque. 2 A title given to the founders or great leaders of important Muslim communities or schools. 3 A charismatic leader among Shiite Muslims, who believe that in every generation there is an imam who is an infallible source of spiritual and secular guidance. The line of imams ended in the 9th-c, and since th…

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IMAX - Precursors, Technical aspects, IMAX Dome/OMNIMAX, IMAX 3D, Viewer experience, History, Content, Technical specifications

A large-screen cinematograph system, developed in Canada in 1968, using a frame 70×46 mm on 70 mm film running horizontally. This is projected on a screen typically 18–23 m/60–75 ft wide and 14–18 m/45–60 ft high, which is viewed by an audience seated comparatively close so that the picture fills their field of vision. Sound from six magnetic tracks is reproduced from speakers around th…

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Imhotep - Fringe theories, Modern cultural impact

Egyptian physician and adviser to King Zoser (3rd dynasty). He was probably the architect of the so-called Step Pyramid at Sakkara, near Cairo. In time, he came to be revered as a sage, and during the Saite period (500 BC) he was worshipped as the life-giving son of Ptah, god of Memphis. The Greeks identified him with their own god of healing, Asclepius, because of his reputed knowledge of medicin…

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Immaculate Conception - History of the doctrine, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox / Eastern Catholic Opinions, Scriptural sources

The belief that the Virgin Mary from the moment of her conception was free from sin. After many centuries' history, this was promulgated as a dogma of the Roman Catholic Church by Pope Pius IX in 1854. It was always rejected by Protestants as unbiblical, and, since 1854, has been rejected by the Orthodox Church. The Immaculate Conception is a Catholic dogma that asserts that Mary, the mothe…

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Immanuel Kant - Biography, Kant's philosophy, Influence, References and further reading

Philosopher, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He spent his entire life there, studying at the university, and becoming professor of logic and metaphysics in 1770. His early publications were in the natural sciences, particularly astronomy and geophysics, and he published prolifically on a great range of subjects throughout his life. His main work, now a philosophical classic…

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Immanuel Velikovsky - Biography, Velikovsky's theories, Criticism, Books by Velikovsky

Physician, psychoanalyst, cosmologist, and writer, born in Vitebsk, Russia. As a young man he studied in Moscow, mastering several disciplines and learning several languages. He then studied botany and zoology at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, returned to Moscow to take a medical degree, and did postgraduate medical studies in Berlin. After marrying (1923), he lived in Paris and then Pales…

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immunity (law)

A state of freedom from certain legal rules and their consequences. Diplomatic immunity is a provision of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961), an international treaty, which states that diplomatic agents will have immunity (ie, no liability for prosecution) from all criminal jurisdiction of the receiving state and immunity from certain civil jurisdiction, although they may be subj…

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immunity (medicine)

The reaction of the body to material that it perceives to be ‘not-self’. The term was originally used to describe the body's ability to resist the development of disease in the event of exposure to a disease-causing micro-organism. It now also includes the body's response to other foreign proteins such as transplants and allergens. Naturally occurring or innate immunity protects individuals from…

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immunization - History of immunization, Required immunizations upon entry to school, Passive and Active Immunization, Passive Immunization

The artificial introduction into the body of immunity against infectious micro-organisms. Passive immunization involves administering antibodies against the infectious agent, derived from the blood of another individual who has recovered from the disease. This gives rapid but short-lived protection, as the antibodies are broken down within a few weeks. It may be given to people who have already be…

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immunology - Histological examination of the immune system, Clinical immunology, Immunotherapy, Evolutionary immunology

Originally the study of the biological responses of a living organism to its invasion by living bacteria, viruses, or parasites, and its defence against these. It now also includes the study of the body's reaction to other foreign substances, particularly proteins, such as those in transplanted organs, and of how the body recognizes such proteins as being foreign. Immunology is a broad bran…

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immunosuppression

The suppression of the immune response of the body to the presence of foreign protein. It may occur as a result of diseases of the immune system, such as leukaemia and AIDS, or other chronic diseases such as diabetes. It may also be induced deliberately by drugs or radiation, either to prevent rejection of transplants, or as a side effect of the treatment of some diseases, especially cancers. Seve…

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Imogen Cunningham - Life and work, Books

Photographer, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. She studied chemistry at the University of Washington in Seattle, then went to work in the Seattle studio of Edward Curtis. After eight years assisting him, she went to Dresden in Germany to study photographic chemistry (1909–10), then returned to Seattle to set up her own commercial portraiture studio. She and her husband moved to San Francisco in 191…

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Imogene Coca - Broadway, Filmography

Television comedienne, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Doe-eyed and pixieish, she enjoyed an extensive career in vaudeville and on Broadway before teaming up with Sid Caesar for Your Show of Shows, the acclaimed National Broadcasting Company comedy-variety series that ran 1950–4. She did not sustain her popularity after the Caesar-Coca partnership dissolved. In 1958 they reunited for a s…

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impala

An African grazing antelope (Aepyceros melampus); golden brown, paler on underside; tuft of dark hairs on each heel; dark stripe each side of tail; male with lyre-shaped horns ringed with ridges; lives in groups at edge of open woodland. …

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impasto

Oil paint applied with a heavily loaded brush so that it stands up on the surface of the picture. Traditionally, artists worked with a mixture of smooth underpainting, thinly-executed shadows, and thick (impasted) lights, plus transparent glazing. Impasto is a technique used in painting where paint is laid on an area of the surface (or the entire canvas) very thickly, usually thickly enough…

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impatiens

A member of a large genus of annuals and perennials, native to Europe, Asia, most of Africa, and North America; translucent, watery stems; leaves alternate or opposite, oval, toothed; flowers hanging horizontally from a slender stalk, showy, zygomorphic and complex, appearing to have either five flat petals and a slender curved spur, or 2-lipped with a funnel-shaped tube and spur; fruit a capsule …

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impeachment - United Kingdom, United States, Republic of Ireland, Other jurisdictions

A legal process for removing undesirable persons from public office. Originating in mediaeval England, it was revived in the 17th-c during the conflict between the monarch and parliament. Normally it is the legislature that can move to impeach a public official, although there are usually simpler mechanisms (eg parliamentary votes) for removing persons from office, whatever the reason for their fa…

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imperfect competition

A model of the behaviour of firms which are neither monopolists nor perfect competitors. Imperfect competition as a concept has extremely fuzzy edges. As a firm's products become more differentiated from those of competitors, it approaches monopoly. As its products become better substitutes for those of its competitors, it approaches perfect competition. As its products become more similar to thos…

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