Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 34

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Henry Sweet - Further reading

Philologist, born in London, UK. He became reader in phonetics at Oxford, where he pioneered Anglo-Saxon studies. His works include Old and Middle English texts, primers, and dictionaries, and a historical English grammar. He was the probable source for Professor Higgins in Shaw's Pygmalion (1913). Henry Sweet (1845-1912) was a philologist, and is also considered to be an early linguist. He…

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Henry Taube

Chemist, born in Neudorf, Saskatchewan, Canada. He studied at the University of Saskatchewan (BS, MS), and went on to take his PhD in chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley (1940). He became a US citizen in 1942. While teaching at Cornell (1941–6), he worked during World War 2 at the National Defense Research Committee (1944–5), then taught at the University of Chicago (1946–61). I…

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Henry the Lion - Biography, Family

Duke of Saxony (1142–80) and Bavaria (1156–80), the head of the Guelphs. His ambitious designs roused against him a league of princes in 1166, but he retained power through an alliance with Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. After breaking with Frederick in 1176, he was deprived of most of his lands, and exiled. Ultimately he was reconciled to Frederick's successor, Henry VI. He encouraged commerce…

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Henry the Navigator

Portuguese prince, the third son of John I, King of Portugal, and Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. He set up court at Sagres, Algarve, and erected an observatory and school of scientific navigation. He sponsored many exploratory expeditions along the W African coast, and the way was prepared for the discovery of the sea route to India. Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu …

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Henry Timken - Biography

Inventor, born in Bremen, Germany. He went to the USA as a child and, disliking life on a Missouri farm, learned the wagonmaker's trade, and by 1855 had established his own carriage-making business in St Louis. Most of his patents were for carriage improvements, including the Timken spring that made his fortune. He also invented and gave his name to a tapered roller bearing. He continued in the ca…

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Henry Treece

Poet and historical novelist, born in Wednesbury, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Birmingham University, and became a schoolteacher and writer. After service in World War 2 he co-founded the New Apocalypse movement, a reactionary wave against the literary trends of the 1930s. His style appealed particularly to young readers, and notable works include collections of verse, The Black Sea…

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Henry (Emperor) V

King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, the son of Henry IV and Berta of Savoy. He forced his father to abdicate. He clashed with the pope in the ‘investiture contest’, but with the Sutri accord (1111) relinquished any rights to elect bishops. He was also promised that the properties received by the church from Charlemagne would be returned. Crowned emperor by the pope (1111), he was subsequentl…

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Henry (of England) V

King of England (1413–22), born in Monmouth, Monmouthshire, SE Wales, UK, the eldest son of Henry IV. He fought against Glendower and the Welsh rebels (1402–8), and became Constable of Dover (1409) and Captain of Calais (1410). To this time belong the exaggerated stories of his wild youth. The main effort of his reign was his claim, through his great-grandfather Edward III, to the French crown. …

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Henry Van Dyke

Protestant clergyman and writer, born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of a Presbyterian minister, he grew up in New York City, was educated at Princeton, and held pastorates in Newport, RI, and New York City. In 1899–1923 he was a professor of English at Princeton. His publications included poetry, essays, and short stories on religious and secular themes. He was American ambassador to …

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Henry Vaughan - SECULAR WORKS OF HENRY VAUGHAN, Conversion, George Herbert

Religious poet, born in Newton-by-Usk, S Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford and London, became a doctor, and settled near Brecon. His best-known works are the pious meditations Silex scintillans (1650, enlarged 1655) and the prose devotions The Mount of Olives (1652). He also published elegies, translations, and other pieces, all within the tradition of metaphysical poetry. Of these, ‘The Retreat’ …

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Henry Vaughan - SECULAR WORKS OF HENRY VAUGHAN, Conversion, George Herbert

Architect, born in Cheshire, NW England, UK. In 1881 he emigrated to Boston, where he led the ‘Boston Gothicists’, designing primarily churches and schools. His late American Gothic Revival influenced Ralph Adams Cram, among others. Vaughan was a Royalist sympathizer and is thought to have possibly served during the Civil War. This would have also suggested upon his return, Vaughan began …

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Henry (of England) VI - The child king, Coronation, Henry's marriage to Margaret of Anjou

King of England (1422–61, 1470–1), born in Windsor, S England, UK, the only child of Henry V and Catherine of Valois. During Henry's minority, his uncle John, Duke of Bedford, was Regent of France, and another uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, was Lord Protector of England. Henry was crowned King of France in Paris in 1431, two years after his coronation in England. But once the Burgundians h…

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Henry (of England) VII - Early Life, Rise to the throne, Economic and diplomatic policies, Law Enforcement and Justices of Peace

King of England (1485–1509), born at Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, UK. Henry's claim to the English throne was traced back tenuously through his father, Edmund Tudor, the younger son of Catherine of France and of her clerk to the wardrobe, the Welshman Owen Tudor. Through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, Henry claimed descent from Edward III's son, John of Gaunt, and Katherine Swynford.…

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Henry (of England) VIII - Early reign, The King's Great Matter, Religious upheaval, Birth of a Prince, Major Acts

King (1509–47), born in Greenwich, EC Greater London, UK, the second son of Henry VII. Soon after his accession he married Catherine of Aragón, his brother Arthur's widow. As a member of the Holy League, he invaded France (1512), winning the Battle of Spurs (1513); and while abroad, the Scots were defeated at Flodden. In 1521 he published a book on the Sacraments refuting Luther, receiving from …

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Henry Villard - Literature

Financier and publisher, born in Speyer, Germany. From a prominent Bavarian family, he left for the USA after political disagreements with his father. He changed his name to avoid being forced back to Germany, landed in New York (1853), and travelled to relatives in Illinois, where he read law and learned English. In 1858 he covered the Lincoln–Douglas debates for a German-language newspaper in N…

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Henry W(ay) Kendall

Physicist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then taught at Stanford (1956–61) before returning to MIT in 1961. He shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Physics with Richard Taylor (1929– ) and Jerome Friedman (1930– ) for their experiments confirming the existence of quarks. Henry Way Kendall (December 9, 1926 – February 15, 1999) w…

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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - Early life and education, First European tour and professorship at Bowdoin

Poet, born in Portland, Maine, USA. After graduation from Bowdoin College (1825), he studied languages in Europe (1826–9) and became professor and librarian at Bowdoin (1829–35). After further study in Europe, he was appointed Smith Professor of French and Spanish at Harvard (1836–54). A collection of poetry, Voices in the Night (1839), contained the poems ‘A Psalm Life’, ‘Hymn to the Night

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Henry Ward Beecher - Social and political views, Preaching style, Theology, Life, Beecher-Tilton Scandal, Death and funeral

Protestant clergyman and reformer, born in Litchfield, Connecticut, USA. One of 13 children of clergyman Lyman Beecher and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, he studied at Amherst (1834) and under his father at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, OH. In 1839 he became pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church in Indianapolis, IN where he developed a forceful, emotional preaching style. Named th…

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Henry Ware Lawton - Early life, Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War

US soldier, born near Toledo, Ohio, USA. A Civil War veteran, he commanded cavalry on the Western plains and took part in the campaign (1885–6) that ended in Geronimo's capture. He commanded a division that fought in Cuba during the Spanish-American War, and he was killed leading a division in the Philippine insurrection. Henry Ware Lawton (1843-1899) was a highly respected U.S. Army offic…

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Henry Warner Slocum - Early life and career, Civil War, Postbellum life

US soldier, lawyer, and US representative, born in Delphi, New York, USA. He trained at West Point (1852), and left the army to practise law. He returned to the service (1861) and saw action at both Bull Run battles, Antietam, and Chancellorsville. He commanded the Union right-wing corps at Gettysburg and led the Army of Georgia, a component of Sherman's army, through Georgia and the Carolinas (18…

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Henry Watterson

Journalist and politician, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. The son of a US congressman, he grew up personally familiar with many presidents and passionately interested in politics. As progressive-minded editor of the Kentucky newspaper Louisville Courier-Journal (1868–1902) and then editorial writer (until 1919), he became the most influential voice in Southern journalism. He serve…

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Henry Wells

Pioneer expressman, born in Thetford, Vermont, USA. He worked as an agent before joining with William Fargo and Daniel Dunning to found Wells & Co (1844), the first express company to operate W of Buffalo, NY. It later merged with other companies to become the American Express Co (1850). Together, Wells and Fargo then established Wells, Fargo & Co (1852). Wells also founded Wells Seminary (later, …

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Henry Wheaton - Reference

US statesman and maritime jurist, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. He studied at Rhode Island College, edited the National Advocate in New York City (1812–15), where for four years he was a justice of the Marine Court, and became a reporter for the Supreme Court (1816–27). He was chargé d'affaires at Copenhagen (1827–35), and minister at Berlin (1835–46). His major work, Elements of Int…

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Henry White

Diplomat, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The heir to a distillery fortune, he was well-received in London society. He was a secretary in the US embassy in London (1883–93, 1897–1905) and ambassador to Italy (1905–7) and France (1907–9). He was an influential member of the Peace Commission at the end of World War 1, accompanied President Wilson to the Paris Peace Conference (1919), and tried…

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Henry Williamson - Bibliography

Writer, born in Brockley, near Lewisham, S London, UK. He served in World War 1, became a journalist, then turned to farming in Norfolk. He wrote several semi-autobiographical novels, including his long series A Chronicle of Ancient Sunlight (1951–69), but is best known for his classic nature stories, such as Tarka the Otter (1927, Hawthornden Prize). Henry Williamson (December 1, 1895 - A…

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Henry Wilson

US vice-president and abolitionist, born in Farmington, New Hampshire, USA. A poor farm labourer with little formal schooling, at 21 he renamed himself and went off to Massachusetts, where he soon had a successful shoe factory. After a trip to Virginia (1836) exposed him to slavery, he devoted the rest of his life to abolishing it, frequently changing political affiliations until he found a party,…

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Henry Winstanley

English engineer and engraver. Made clerk-of-works to Charles II in 1666, he designed the first lighthouse to be fully exposed to the open sea. Having lost part of his fleet and his fortune on the notorious Eddystone Rocks off the coast of Devon, SW England, he designed (1696) a wooden tower on the rocks in which his and countless other ships had foundered. While supervising construction, he was c…

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Henry Wirz - Civil War, Trial and execution, Legacy

Physician and army officer, born in Switzerland. A Louisiana physician, he was wounded at Fair Oaks and Seven Pines (May 1862). After some time in Europe as a Confederate agent, he became superintendent of Andersonville prison in South Carolina (Jan 1864), which became notorious for its appalling conditions and high death rate. He was later convicted of conspiring to murder prisoners and hanged in…

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Henry's law

In chemistry, a law formulated by William Henry: the solubility of a gas in a liquid at any given temperature is proportional to the pressure of the gas on the liquid. This has wide application, including the production of carbonated beverages, and in ‘the bends’, a condition in deep-sea divers where nitrogen, having dissolved in the blood at high pressure, is released with sometimes fatal conse…

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Henryk (Adam Alexander Pius) Sienkiewicz - Life, Chief novels:, Note

Novelist, born in Wola Okrzejska, E Poland. He studied at Warsaw, travelled in the USA, and in the 1870s began to write articles, short stories, and novels. His major work was a war trilogy about 17th-c Poland, beginning with Ogniem i mieczem (1884, With Fire and Sword), but his most widely known book is the story of Rome under Nero, Quo Vadis? (1896), several times filmed, notably in 1951 by Merv…

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Henryk Szeryng - Awards and Recognitions

Violinist, born in Warsaw, Poland. He studied at Warsaw and Berlin, and in Paris (1934–9) worked on composition with Nadia Boulanger. During World War 2 he was an interpreter for the Polish government in exile, while giving concerts for the Allied troops. He took Mexican citizenship in 1946, and was Mexican cultural ambassador from 1960. He wrote several violin and chamber music works, and taught…

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heparin - Heparin structure, Medical use, Other uses/information

A chemical substance (a polysaccharide) found in the mast cells of the liver, lungs, and intestinal mucosa, which prevents blood clotting. Its physiological importance is controversial, but its extracted and purified form is used as an anti-coagulant drug in medicine (eg in the prevention of thrombosis). Native heparin is a polymer with a molecular weight ranging from 3 kDa to 40 kDa althou…

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Hephaestus - Family, Hephaestus' craft, External Links

In Greek mythology, a god of fire, associated with volcanic sites; then of the smithy and metalwork. Because of his marvellous creations, such as the shield of Achilles, he was worshipped as the god of craftsmen. He was the son of Hera, who was annoyed at his lameness and threw him out of heaven; he landed on Lemnos. Though his forge traditionally lay in the heart of Lemnos, Hephaestus was …

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heptane

C7H16. An alkane hydrocarbon with seven carbon atoms. There are nine structural isomers, most of which occur in the gasoline fraction of petroleum. The straight-chain compound, boiling point 98°C, n-heptane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3, is particularly bad for causing ‘knocking’ in petrol engines. The straight-chain isomer n-heptane is the zero point of the octane rating scale. Its choice for …

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heptathlon - World Record, Top 10 performers

A multi-event track-and-field competition discipline for women, consisting of seven events held over two consecutive days; (first day) 100 m hurdles, shot put, high jump, 200 m; (second day) long jump, javelin, and 800 m. It replaced the pentathlon in 1981.The world record of 7291 points was set by Jacqueline Joyner-Kersee (1962– ) of the USA, at Seoul, South Korea, in 1988. The current…

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Hera - Etymology and pre-history, Cult, Hera and children, Hera the nemesis of Heracles

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Cronus and wife of Zeus, but a most independent and powerful goddess, probably illustrating the survival of pre-Hellenic cults of the mother-goddess. She was associated with Argos and hostile to Troy. The name means ‘lady’, and is the feminine form of Hero. In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (IPA pronunciation: [ˈhiːrə]; She …

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Heracles - Origin and character, Myths of Heracles, Marriage, liaisons and death, Heracles in Rome

A Greek hero, depicted as a strong man with lion-skin and club, and often represented as a comic on stage. He undertook Twelve Labours for Eurystheus of Argos: (1) to kill the Nemean Lion, (2) to kill the Hydra of Lerna, (3) to capture the Hind of Ceryneia, (4) to capture the Boar of Erymanthus, (5) to clean the Stables of Augeas, (6) to shoot the Birds of Stymphalus, (7) to capture the Cretan Bul…

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Heraclius - Life, Legacy, Family, Note, Sources

Byzantine emperor (610–41), born in Cappadocia, the son of the Roman governor of Africa. Responding to an appeal to free Constantinople from the terror of the tyrant Phocas (ruled 602–10), his father made him leader of a force that ultimately overthrew Phocas and crowned Heraclius emperor. The empire was threatened by the Avars, and by the Persians under Chosroes II (ruled 588–627), who overran…

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Heraklion - Airport, Sporting teams, Famous Natives

35°20N 25°08E, pop (2000e) 275 000. Administrative centre and capital town of Crete region (since 1971), S Greece; on N coast of Crete I; airfield; ferries to Piraeus; commercial harbour; leather, soap, tourism, agricultural trade; Church of St Titos; Cathedral of St Minas (19th-c); old city within Venetian walls (begun 1538), archaeological museum; Navy Week (Jun–Jul). Coordinates: 35…

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heraldry - Origins and history, The rules of heraldry, National styles, Modern heraldry, Extended bibliography

The granting and designing of pictorial devices (arms) originally used on the shields of knights in armour to identify them in battle. In the early 12th-c these devices became hereditary in Europe through the male line of descent, though with occasional modifications. The science of describing such devices is blazonry. Arms are regarded as insignia of honour, and their unauthorized display is subj…

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Herat - History

34º20N 62º10E, pop (2001e) 161 700. Capital of Herat province, W Afghanistan, close to the Hari Rud; lies on the old trade route from Persia to India and caravan route from China to C Asia and Europe; birthplace of Ustad Kamal al-Din Bihzad; became part of a united Afghanistan (1881); Great Mosque (12th-c); textiles, carpets, weaving; market for dried fruits, nuts, wool. Herāt (Persian…

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herb

A plant with a distinctive smell or taste, used to enhance the flavour and aroma of food. Herbs are usually grown in temperate climates (whereas spices are usually tropical). Some are often used for their medicinal properties, hence the speciality of the herbalist. In the USA the word is usually pronounced [erb], to distinguish it from herb [herb] referring to non-woody plants in general. …

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Herb Alpert - Early life and career, The Tijuana Brass Years, Life after the Brass, Today, Discography

Musician, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. A trumpeter, and record and flm soundtrack producer, he began as a songwriter for Sam Cooke in 1958, then established and led the pop instrumental group, Tijuana Brass (1963–9). He later concentrated on executive duties at A & M Records, which he co-founded in 1962. Alpert began trumpet lessons at about the age of 8 and played at dances as a …

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Herb Elliott

Athlete, born in Perth, Western Australia. Winner of the gold medal in the 1500 m at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, his time of 3 min 35·6 s for that event was unbeaten for seven years. He was never beaten on level terms over a mile or 1500 m, and he ran the sub-4-minute mile 17 times. In 1958 he won the Comonwealth Games double at 880 yards and the mile. He was noted for the rigour and severity…

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herb Robert

An annual or biennial species of cranesbill (Geranium robertianum), growing to 50 cm/20 in; leaves with red stalks, palmately divided into deeply toothed lobes; flowers c.1 cm/0·4 in diameter, pink; fruit beaked; native to temperate Europe, Asia, and N Africa, and introduced elsewhere. (Family: Geraniaceae.) …

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herbalism

The use of herbs to prevent and cure illness; also called herbal medicine or phytotherapy. The treatment is based upon a holistic assessment of the patient, and uses whole plants, or parts of plants, rather than separating and purifying the active constituents. Plant derivatives may be highly active and concentrated in various parts of the plant. The season of the year and the time of day may affe…

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Herbert (Clark) Hoover - Family background, Mining Engineer, Humanitarian, Commerce Secretary, Election of 1928, Presidency 1929-1933, 1932 campaign

US statesman and 31st president (1929–33), born in West Branch, Iowa, USA. He studied at Stanford, then worked abroad as an engineer. During and after World War 1 he was associated with the relief of distress in Europe. In 1921 he became secretary of commerce, and in 1928 received the Republican Party's presidential nomination. As president, his opposition to direct governmental assistance for th…

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Herbert (Eugene) Bolton - Early life and education, Career, Legacy, Sources

Historian, born in Wilton, Wisconsin, USA. A leading historian of Spanish America, he taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1911–40). A prolific writer, he is best known for his explorations in the SW USA, his extensive archival research, a massive published guide to Mexican archives (1913), and the Bolton theory, a controversial hemispheric view of American history. Herbert Eu…

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Herbert (Wayne) Boyer - Reference

Biochemist, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Pittsburgh, and from 1966 worked at the University of California, San Francisco. In collaboration with Stanley Cohen (1935– ) of Stanford University, he successfully spliced a gene from a plasmid of one organism into the plasmid of another (1973). The technique they developed became the foundation of genetic engineering. Boyer is a …

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Herbert Baxter Adams - Sources

Historian and educator, born in Shutesbury, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Amherst College and Heidelberg University, and joined the newly-formed Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, as professor of history in 1876. His major publication was the Life and Writings of Jared Sparks (1893). Herbert Baxter Adams (April 16, 1850 – July 30, 1901) was an American educator and historian. …

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Herbert Bloch

Classicist, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied ancient history at the University of Rome (1935 D Lett) and taught at Harvard (1947–82), where he was Pope Professor of Latin (1973–82). He published widely in epigraphy, ancient and mediaeval history, and historiography, and was perhaps best known for his work on Ostia and Monte Cassino. Herbert Bloch (1911-2006) was professor emeritus of C…

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Herbert Blumer - Works, Further reading

Sociologist, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago (PhD), where he taught (1925–52) before joining the University of California, Berkeley (1952–75). He edited the American Journal of Sociology (1940–52). His areas of interest are indicated by his book titles, such as Movies and Conduct (1933), Movies, Delinquency, and Crime (1933), and Industrialization as an …

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Herbert Chapman - Playing career, Managerial Career

Footballer and manager, born in Kieveton Park, Yorkshire, N England, UK. As an amateur footballer, he played for 10 clubs, the last being Tottenham Hotspur. He managed Northampton Town (1907–20) and Huddersfield Town (1920–5), joined Arsenal as manager in 1925, and is credited with creating England's finest inter-war footballing side. Arsenal won the league in 1931, 1933, and 1934, and the FA Cu…

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Herbert Howells

Composer, born in Lydney, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied under Stanford at the Royal College of Music, where he became professor of composition (1920). He followed Holst as director of music at St Paul's Girls' School (1936), and became professor of music at London University (1952–62). He is best known for his choral works, especially the Hymnus paradisi, which combine an alert sen…

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Herbert Kroemer

Physicist, born in Germany. He studied theoretical physics at the University of Göttingen (1952), and after research work in Germany and the USA joined the University of California, Santa Barbara (1976). In 2000 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics for his groundbreaking work in the development of semiconductor heterostructures. Herbert Kroemer (born August 25, 1928) is a Professor of Ele…

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Herbert Marcuse - Biography and career, Major works

Marxist philosopher, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied at Berlin and Freiburg, and became an influential figure in the Frankfurt School. He fled to Geneva in 1933, and after World War 2 moved to the USA, working in intelligence. He later held posts at Columbia (1951), Harvard (1952), Brandeis (1954), and California, San Diego (1965–76). His books include Reason and Revolution (1941), Eros and C…

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Herbert Matthews

Journalist, born in New York City, New York, USA. A foreign correspondent and then editorialist for the New York Times (1922–67), he reported on the Spanish civil war of the 1930s and the Cuban revolution of the 1950s. He was often accused of a leftist bias, especially toward Fidel Castro. Herbert Lionel Matthews (1900–1977) was a reporter for the New York Times said to be the first to r…

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Herbert Putnam

Librarian, born in New York City, New York, USA. As Librarian of Congress (1899–1939), he instituted the Library of Congress classification scheme and pre-printed index cards. Herbert Putnam, Litt.D., LL.D. (September 20, 1861 – August 14, 1955) was Librarian of Congress. He was librarian at the Minneapolis Athenaeum, 1884-1887, and the Minneapolis Public Library, 1887-1891. …

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Herbert S(pencer) Jennings

Protozoologist, born in Tonica, Illinois, USA. He held several teaching and research positions before completing his higher education, then studied physics and psychology in Germany (1896–7). There he began his controversial studies on stimulus-response behaviour of unicellular organisms and lower invertebrates. He taught at Montana State Agricultural and Mechanical College (1897–8), moved to Da…

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Herbert Spencer - Biography, Influence, Primary sources, Critiques by other philosophers

Evolutionary philosopher, born in Derby, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He became a civil engineer for a railway in 1837, but engaged extensively in journalism. A firm (pre-Darwinian) believer in evolution, his main work is the nine-volume System of Synthetic Philosophy (1862–93), which brought together biology, psychology, sociology, and ethics. He was a leading advocate of ‘Social Darwinism’. …

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Herbert von Karajan - In popular culture, Media

Conductor, born in Salzburg, C Austria. He studied there and in Vienna, and conducted at the Städtisches Theater, Ulm (1928–33), at Aachen (1934–8), and at the Berlin Staatsoper (1938–42). After the war he was banned from working by the Russian occupation authorities until 1947, having been a member of the Nazi Party (1933–42), but in 1955 he was made principal conductor of the Berlin Philhar…

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Herbert Wehner

German politician, born in Dresden, E Germany. One of the most controversial and influential politicians in post-war social democracy in Germany, during the Weimar Republic he was anarchist youth officer and secretary to Erich Mühsam. He joined the Kommunistiche Partei Deutschlands (KPD) (1927–42) and became secretary of the Revolutionary Trade Union Opposition (1929) and member of the Sachsen L…

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herbicide - History, Health effects, Classification of herbicides, Organic Herbicides, Application, Major herbicides in use today

A chemical compound which kills weeds. Nonselective herbicides may be used to kill all vegetation before cultivation and planting begin. Once the crop has emerged, selective herbicides are used. These target the troublesome weeds and leave other weeds and the growing crop unharmed. Some have a residual action in the soil - allowing, for example, weed seedlings to be exposed to the chemicals as the…

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Herbie Hancock - Early life and career, Miles Davis quintet and Blue Note, Head Hunters and Death Wish

Jazz pianist and composer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. During the 1960s he worked with such stars as Phil Woods, Miles Davis, the Poynter Sisters, and Stevie Wonder, and greatly influenced pop music with his Blue Note album Takin' Off (1962), which featured the hit song ‘Water-melon Man’. Later albums include Dedication (1974), Village Life (1985), and Possibilities (2005). He also arranged …

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herbivore - External links and references

An animal that feeds on vegetation - a label used especially of the large plant-eating mammals, such as the ungulates. Its teeth are typically adapted for grinding plants, and its gut is adapted for digesting cellulose. Unlike Carnivora, which is a defined order of mammals, Herbivora is a descriptive term, encompassing many unrelated forms. An herbivore is often defined as any organism that…

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Herculaneum - Name, Myth, History, The Eruption, Excavation, Specific buildings, Issues of Conservation, Photos, Documentaries

In Roman times, a patrician resort situated near Mt Vesuvius in SW Italy. It was destroyed in the volcanic eruption of AD 79 and lay under 23 m/75 ft of rock and ash until its rediscovery in 1709. First excavated in 1738, large-scale digging began in 1927 followed by attempts in the 1930s to turn the site into a showpiece. Now a world heritage site, two thirds of it is still buried. A 10-year re…

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Hercules (astronomy) - Character, Roman Cult, Myths of Hercules, Hercules in popular culture

A constellation in the N sky, fifth-largest of all, but hard to recognize because its stars are faint. It contains the largest and brightest globular cluster in the N sky, M13. Hercules is the Latin name used in Rome for the divinity corresponding to the Greek mythological hero Heracles (or Herakles), the Roman name being a metathesis of the Greek name. In popular culture …

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hercules beetle

A dark, shiny beetle, one of the largest in the world; males up to 17 cm/7 in long, females smaller; adults nocturnal. It belongs to the rhinoceros beetle group, in which the males have a slender, recurved horn on their heads. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Scarabeidae.) The Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules) is the most famous of the rhinoceros beetles. Dynastes hercules lichyi Lachaume, 1…

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Hereford - History, Local government, Employment, Sport, Education, Miscellaneous

52°04N 2°43W, pop (2000e) 51 500. Administrative centre of Herefordshire (unitary authority from 1998), WC England, UK; on the R Wye at the centre of a rich farming region; birthplace of David Garrick, Sir John Oldcastle, Beryl Reid; railway; foodstuffs, engineering, cattle (Herefords), hops, cider; 11th-c Cathedral of St Mary and St Ethelbert, with the largest chained library in the world and…

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Hereford and Worcester - Districts

Former county (1974–98) of WC England, UK, created by the amalgamation of Herefordshire and Worcestershire; following local opposition, the separate status of the counties was restord in 1998. Hereford and Worcester was an English county created on April 1, 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972 from the area of the former administrative county of Herefordshire, most of Worcestershir…

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Herefordshire - History, Cities, Towns and villages, Agriculture, Places of interest, Transport

pop (2004e) 177 800; area 2180 km²/841 sq mi. County in WC England, UK (formerly Hereford and Worcester, 1974–98); bounded W by Monmouthshire and Powys in Wales; drained by Wye and Lugg Rivers; Malvern Hills to E; county town Hereford; chief towns include Leominster, Ledbury, Ross-On-Wye, Kington, Bromyard; rich farming and fruit growing area, famous for apple and pear orchards; hops, cider…

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heresy - Etymology, Religious heresy, Contemporary heresy

False doctrine, or the formal denial of doctrine defined as part of a particular faith. If consciously adhered to, heresy entails excommunication, and in certain countries has been punishable as a crime. Total heresy or the rejection of all faith is termed apostasy. Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a "theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in oppositio…

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Hereward - Life and legend, Tales and songs based on Hereward, The Hereward Way, Hereward's family

Anglo-Saxon thegn who returned from exile to lead the last organized Anglo-Saxon resistance against the Norman invaders. In 1070 he sacked Peterborough with the aid of a Danish fleet. He held the Isle of Ely against William the Conqueror for nearly a year (1070–1), then disappeared from history, and entered mediaeval outlaw legend as a celebrated opponent of the forces of injustice. Herewa…

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Herman Brusselmans - Partial bibliography

Flemish writer, born in Hamme, NC Belgium. He writes autobiographical stories and novels in which the main character is suffering from mesmerizing narcissism; he attempts to conquer his boredom and frustrations by means of alcohol, sex, and superficial and humorous observations. His tendency to exaggerate and use irony is also found in his literary columns and critical works, which have been colle…

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Herman Charles Bosman - Books, Plays

Short-story writer, essayist, and novelist, born in Kuils River, near Cape Town, SW South Africa. His literary reputation has been largely posthumous. He taught in a remote country district near Groot Marico, in the Transvaal. This provided the setting for his short stories about rural Afrikaners - affectionate, sardonic, wry, and moving tales. He also wrote a memorable prison memoir, Cold Stone J…

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Herman Feshbach - Background, Career, Death, Awards and honors

Physicist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He spent his career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he taught and performed research investigating intranuclear forces and statistical theories of nuclear reactions. Herman Feshbach (born in 1917 in New York City — died 22 December 2000 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American physicist. Feshbach is best known for Fe…

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Herman Gorter

Poet, born in Wormerveer, W Netherlands. He studied classics in Amsterdam and worked as a teacher, producing his first poem Mei (May) in 1889, of which the first canto was published in the magazine De nieuwe gids. The magazine's editors recognized in it the materialization of the impressionist aesthetics of the Movement of the Eighties. After Mei he began to write sensitivist poems, trying to expr…

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Herman Haupt - Early life, Civil War, Postbellum

Engineer, soldier, and inventor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Chief engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad (1853–6), he served as head of the strategically vital US military railroads during the Civil War. Author of General Theory of Bridge Construction (1851), and inventor of a pneumatic drill (1858), he worked with railroads and other companies after the Civil War. Herman Haup…

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Herman Heijermans

Playwright and journalist, born in Rotterdam, W Netherlands. As a journalist, he wrote prose sketches under the pseudonym Samuel Falkland from 1894 until 1911, and also wrote novels. His true love was drama, and after living for many years in Berlin, in 1912 he returned to the Netherlands and became director of a drama society, hoping to revive Dutch drama. A passionate socialist, his work shows h…

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Herman Hollerith - Personal life, Career, Electronic tabulation of statistical data, Tabulating Machine Company, International Business Machines

Engineer and computer inventor, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. Working as a statistician for the US census of 1880, he became aware of the need for automation in the recording and processing of vast amounts of data. Working first at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then at the US Patent Office (1884–90), he invented a tabulating machine that was fed data via electrical contacts cont…

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Herman Melville - Life, Literature, The Melville Revival, Bibliography, Further reading

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He left school at 15 and worked as a bank clerk (1834), farmhand, and schoolteacher. In 1837 he served as a cabin boy on a ship bound for Liverpool. In 1841 he set sail for the South Pacific on the whaler Acushnet. He deserted at the Marquesas Is with a friend, and lived for a short time with the Typee cannibals, then escaped to Tahiti and enjoyed an i…

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Herman Willem Daendels - Early life, Political Activity, Military career, Reference, External Links

Dutch politician and general, born in Hattem, NC Netherlands. After joining the Patriots and taking part in the defence of Amsterdam against the Prussians, he fled to France and returned as a general with the French army under Pichegru. As an ardent ‘unionist’ he served the Batavian Republic, but had to resign after being held responsible for military failings against the Anglo-Russian threat in…

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Herman Wouk - Selected works

Novelist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Columbia University, wrote radio scripts, and served in the US Navy in the South Pacific in World War 2. He drew on this experience for his classic war novel, The Caine Mutiny (1951, Pulitzer), which became a successful play and film. Other books include Marjorie Morningstar (1955), Youngblood Hawke (1962), Inside, Outside (1985), and The Glory (…

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Hermann (G - Biography, Mathematician, Linguist

Mathematician and philologist, born in Szczecin, Poland (formerly Stettin, Germany). He studied at Berlin, and spent most of his life as a teacher there and in Stettin. His book Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre (1844, The Theory of Linear Extension) developed a general calculus for vectors. It made little impact during his life, and it is only since his death that its importance has gradually been rec…

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Hermann (Joseph) Muller - Former graduate students, Former post-doctoral fellows, Worked in lab as undergraduates

Geneticist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was one of Thomas H Morgan's graduate students at Columbia University, then taught at the Rice Institute (1915–18), where he used the fruit fly Drosophila to discover that X-rays can produce mutations. He returned to Columbia (1918–20), where he theorized that self-replicating genes can control the function of all other cellular components, th…

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Hermann (Julius) Oberth - Early life, Early career, Rocketry and space flight, Retirement, Tributes

Astrophysicist, born in Sibiu, Hungary. He studied in Munich, and abandoned a medical career for mathematics and astronomy. His first book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenrämen (1923, The Rocket into Interplanetary Space), established his reputation, and in 1928 he was elected president of the German Society for Space Travel. In World War 2 he worked at the experimental rocket centre at Peenemünde, a…

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Hermann Bahr - Selected Fiction, Selected Nonfiction

Playwright, novelist, and critic, born in Linz, N Austria. He studied in Vienna and Berlin, and took a leading part in the Naturalism and Expressionism of the Habsburg empire period. He published social novels and comedies, and was appointed manager of the Deutsches Theater, Berlin (1903), and of the Burgtheater, Vienna (1918). Hermann Bahr (July 19, 1863 - January 15, 1934) was an Austrian…

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Hermann Broch - Life, Work, Bibliography

Novelist and essayist, born in Vienna, Austria. He spent his early adult life working in his father's textile business, and was over 40 when he began to study philosophy and mathematics at Vienna University. When the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938 he was imprisoned, but influential friends obtained his release and facilitated his emigration to America in 1940. Major works include Der Tod des Vergil…

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Hermann Cohen - Life

Philosopher, born in Coswig, E Germany. Professor of philosophy at Marburg (1876–1912), he founded the Marburg School of neo-Kantianism, which applied Kantian methods to the presuppositions of science. He later taught at the Rabbinic seminary in Berlin, and propounded a synthesis of Judaism and idealism which had a deep influence on such early 20th-c Jewish thinkers as Martin Buber and Franz Rose…

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Hermann Ebbinghaus

Experimental psychologist, born in Barmen, W Germany. He taught at Berlin, and became professor at Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia) (1894–1905), then at Halle. He is best remembered for Über das Gedächtnis (1885, On Memory), which first applied experimental methods to memory research, and which introduced the nonsense syllable as a standard stimulus for such work. Hermann Ebbi…

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Hermann Franz Moritz Kopp

Chemist, born in Hanau, WC Germany. Professor of chemistry at Giessen (1843–63) and Heidelberg (1863–90), his studies of the relationship of physical properties to the chemical structure of compounds formed the basis of modern physical organic chemistry. He is also noted for his Geschichte der Chemie (1843–7, History of Chemistry). Hermann Franz Moritz Kopp (October 30, 1817 - February 2…

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Hermann Hesse - Life, Works, Awards

Novelist and poet, born in Calw, SW Germany. He was a bookseller and antiquarian in Basel (1895–1902), and published his first novel in 1904. His works include Rosshalde (1914), Siddhartha (1922), Steppenwolf (1927), and Das Glasperlenspiel (1945, The Glass Bead Game). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. From 1911 he lived in Switzerland. His psychological and mystical concerns…

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Hermann Kurz

Writer and librarian, born in Reutlingen, SW Germany. Influenced by the late Romantics Schwab, Kerner, Lenau, and especially Mörike, he published together with the neo-Romantic Heyse the collection Deutscher Novellenschatz (1871 pp.). He also wrote novels, including Schillers Heimatjahre (1843) and Der Sonnenwirt (1854), but was particularly popular with his contemporaries for his lively literary…

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Hermann Maier - Besides skiing

Skier, born in Flachau, Salzburg, Austria. His parents ran a skiing school, and he took part in his first skiing races at the age of five. His achievements include the European Cup (1996) and World Cup (1998, 2000, 2001, 2004), and in March 2001 he equalled the World Cup season record of 13 wins. Later that year, a motorcycle accident badly damaged his right leg, and kept him out of competition un…

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Hermann Minkowski - Early life and education, Work and research, Death and honours

Mathematician, born near Kaunas, C Lithuania. He was professor at Königsberg (1895), Zürich (1896), where he taught Einstein, and Göttingen (1902). He discovered a new branch of number theory, the geometry of numbers, and gave a precise mathematical description of space-time as it appears in Einstein's relativity theory. Hermann Minkowski (June 22, 1864 – January 12, 1909) was a mathem…

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Hermann Prey

Baritone, born in Berlin, Germany. Equally distinguished as an interpreter of lieder and in stage roles, he sang at the Hamburg Opera (1953–60) and made his debut in Tannhäuser at Bayreuth (1956), and the New York Metropolitan (1960). He excelled in the Mozart repertoire, and was accomplished in 20th-c German composers from Berg to Henze. His autobiography is called First Night Fever (1986). …

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Hermann Staudinger - Staudinger’s early work: organic synthesis, The Staudinger reaction, The birth of polymer chemistry

Chemist, born in Worms, SWC Germany. He studied at Halle, and became professor at Freiburg (1926–40), then research director (1940–51). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1953 for his research in macro-molecular chemistry, which contributed to the development of plastics. German chemist Hermann Staudinger (March 23, 1881 to September 8, 1965) discovered a chemical reaction kn…

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Hermann Sudermann

Writer, born in Matziken, East Prussia. He was a reporter for the Deutsches Reichsblatt before becoming a freelance writer. His naturalistic plays were effective but sentimental, owed much to the French ‘conversation plays’ of Sardou, and inveighed against the lack of morals among the middle classes, notably in Die Ehre (1890) and Heimat (1893). He wrote novels and short stories set in E Prussia…

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Hermann von Fehling

Chemist, born in Lübeck, N Germany. Professor of chemistry at Stuttgart, he introduced the solution, an important oxidizing agent, which bears his name. Hermann von Fehling (9 June 1812 - 1 July 1885) was a German chemist, famous as the developer of Fehling's solution used for estimation of sugar. He was born at Lübeck; In 1839, on Liebig's recommendation he was appointed to t…

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Hermann von Helmholtz - Early life, Conservation of energy, Sensory physiology, Electromagnetism, Students and associates

Physiologist and physicist, born in Potsdam, EC Germany. He was successively professor of physiology at Königsberg (1849), Bonn (1855), and Heidelberg (1858), and in 1871 became professor of physics in Berlin. He was equally distinguished in physiology, mathematics, and experimental and mathematical physics. His physiological works are principally connected with the eye, the ear, and the nervous …

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Hermann Weyl - Biography, Contributions, Quotes, Topics named after Hermann Weyl

Mathematician, born in Elmshorn, N Germany. He studied at Göttingen under David Hilbert, and became professor at Zürich (1913) and Göttingen (1930). Refusing to stay in Nazi Germany, he went to Princeton in 1933. He made important contributions to the theory of Riemann surfaces, the representation theory of Lie groups, the mathematical foundations of relativity and quantum mechanics, and the ph…

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hermaphrodite - In animals, In plants, Etymology, Further reading

An animal or plant having both male and female reproductive organs. The male organs may mature before the female (protandrous), after the female (protogynous), or simultaneously (synchronous). Species in which both sets of organs mature simultaneously often have mechanisms that prevent self-fertilization. In zoology and botany, a hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and fem…

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Hermaphroditus - Mythology, In literature, In art

In Greek mythology, a minor god with bisexual characteristics, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. The nymph Salmacis, unloved by him, prayed to be united with him; this was granted by combining them in one body. In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus or Hermaphroditos was the child of Aphrodite and Hermes, born a remarkably handsome boy but was transformed into a hermaphrodite by union with …

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hermeneutics (philosophy) - Etymology, Scriptural hermeneutics, History of Western hermeneutics, Themes in hermeneutics, Applications of hermeneutics, Hermeneutics and semiotics

The theory of the interpretation and understanding of texts. Though its origins lie in ancient Greek philosophy, hermeneutics received fresh impetus in 18th-c discussions of the problems of biblical interpretation posed by the development of historical-critical method. Schleiermacher shifted attention from the formulation of rules of interpretation to the question of how it is possible to understa…

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hermeneutics (psychology) - Etymology, Scriptural hermeneutics, History of Western hermeneutics, Themes in hermeneutics, Applications of hermeneutics, Hermeneutics and semiotics

A term applied to psychological methods which go beyond mere experimentation in an attempt to understand the reason behind human actions. Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. In contemporary usage, hermeneutics often refers to study of the interpretation of Biblical texts. However, it is more broadly u…

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Hermes (astronomy) - Etymology, Epithets of Hermes, Cult, Birth, Hermes' offspring, Hermes in the myths, Hermes Trismegistus

An asteroid which came within 760 000 km/475 000 mi of Earth in 1937, at that time a record. It was only a few km in diameter, and was lost to view within a few days. Hermes, as an inventor of fire, is a parallel of the Titan, Prometheus. Hermes also served as a psychopomp, or an escort for the dead to help them find their way to the afterlife (the Underworld in the Greek my…

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Hermes (mythology) - Etymology, Epithets of Hermes, Cult, Birth, Hermes' offspring, Hermes in the myths, Hermes Trismegistus

In Greek mythology, the ambassador of the gods, the son of Zeus and Maia; depicted with herald's staff (the caduceus), and winged sandals. He is variously associated with stones, commerce, roads, cookery, and thieving; also arts such as oratory. He was the inventor of the lyre, and, as Hermes Psychopompos, the guide of souls. Hermes, as an inventor of fire, is a parallel of the Titan, Prome…

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hermetic

A term used to describe obscure and difficult poetry, as of the Symbolist school. The allusion is to the mythical Hermes Trismegistus (the Egyptian god Thoth), the supposed author of mystic doctrines actually composed in the Neoplatonic tradition c.3rd-c AD. Hermeticism was influential in the Renaissance, after the translation of these texts by Marsilio Ficino (1433–99). More broadly, the term de…

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hermit crab - Some notable species, Hermit crabs as pets

A crab-like crustacean which uses an empty snail shell as a portable refuge covering its soft abdomen; body typically asymmetrical to fit inside spiral shells; it changes shells as it grows; common in shallow coastal waters. (Class: Malacostraca. Order: Decapoda.) Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the superfamily Paguroidea?, not closely related to true crabs. A hermit crab with a she…

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Hermitage

A major art gallery in St Petersburg, Russia, built in the 18th–19th-c to house the art collection of the tsars, and opened to the public in 1852. The complex now includes the Winter Palace, built for Tsarina Elizabeth Petrovna by Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1754–62). After the deposition of the tsar, this became the headquarters of Kerensky's provisional government, but was stormed by the Bolsheviks …

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Hern

The conqueror of Mexico, born in Medellín, W Spain. He studied at Salamanca, then accompanied Velázquez in his expedition to Cuba (1511). In 1519 he commanded an expedition against Mexico, fighting his first battle at Tabasco. He founded Vera Cruz, marched to Tlaxcala, and made allies of the natives. He then marched on the Aztec capital, capturing the king, Montezuma; but the Mexicans rose, and …

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hernia - Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, Characteristics, Treatment, Individual hernias, Hernias in pop culture

The protrusion of tissue from its natural site through an adjacent orifice or tissue space. Examples are inguinal, femoral, and umbilical herniae, in which abdominal contents such as intestines push through weak sites in the abdominal wall; the herniae emerge as externally protruding masses in the groin, over the upper thigh, and at the navel, respectively. Umbilical herniae are common in babies, …

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Hero and Leander - The myth in later literature, arts and architecture

A Greek legend first found in the Roman poet, Ovid. Two lovers lived on opposite sides of the Hellespont; Hero was the priestess of Aphrodite at Sestos, and Leander, who lived at Abydos, swam across each night guided by her light. When this was extinguished in a storm, he was drowned, and Hero committed suicide by throwing herself into the sea. Succumbing to Leander's soft words, and to his…

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Hero of Alexandria - Projects, Bibliography

Greek mathematician and inventor. He devised many machines, among them a fire engine, a water organ, coin-operated devices, and the aeolipile, the earliest known steam engine. He showed that the angle of incidence in optics is equal to the angle of reflection, and devised the formula for expressing the area of a triangle in terms of its sides. It is almost certain that Hero taught at the Mu…

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Herod

King of Judea, the younger son of the Idumaean chieftain, Antipater. He owed his initial appointment as Governor of Galilee (47 BC) to Julius Caesar, his elevation to the kingship of Judea (40 BC) to Marcus Antonius, and his retention in that post after Actium (31 BC) to Octavian, later Augustus. Judea was annexed by Rome in 6 BC. Besides being a loyal and efficient Roman client king, who ruthless…

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Herod Antipas

The son of Herod the Great and ruler (tetrarch) of Galilee and Peraea (4–39), after Herod's death. An able client of the Romans, he enjoyed an especially good relationship with the Emperor Tiberius, but fell foul of his successor, Caligula, largely through the machinations of his nephew, Herod Agrippa. In the Christian tradition he looms large as the capricious murderer of John the Baptist. …

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Herodian

Historian, born in Syria. He lived in Rome, and wrote in Greek a history of the Roman emperors in eight books, from the death of Marcus Aurelius (180) to the accession of Gordian III (238). His history extends over the period from the death of M. Aurelius (AD 180) to the commencement of the reign of Gordianus III. (AD 238), and bears the title: "History of the Empire From the Death of…

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heroic couplet

A pair of rhymed 10-syllable lines, usually in iambic pentameter. First found in Old French, then Chaucer, it was used by Spenser, Shakespeare, Jonson, Donne, Walker, Denham, and Oldham. Thereafter it became the staple of Augustan satiric poetry (Dryden and Pope), and is often revived on account of its pointedness and economy: ‘A fop her passion, but her prize a sot;/ Alive, ridiculous, and dead,…

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heron

A wading bird related to the bittern; worldwide (mainly tropical); flies with neck retracted, not extended; some feathers (‘powder-down’) break down to form a powder used in preening. There are three main groups: day herons or ‘typical herons’ (including egrets), night herons, and tiger herons. (Family: Ardeidae, 64 species.) …

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herpes simplex

A viral infection which causes a rash, followed by the appearance of small blisters containing fluid, which ulcerate and may become infected. There are two types of the virus. Type 1 affects the lips and mouth. Type 2 affects the genital region, and is sexually transmitted. Recurrent attacks are common, between which the virus lies dormant. …

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herring - Ecology, Economy

Surface-living, marine fish (Clupea harengus) abundant in the N Atlantic and Arctic, ranging S to Portugal (E) and Cape Hatteras (W); body length up to 40 cm/16 in; colour deep blue on back, underside silvery white; feeds on plankton, especially crustaceans; prey to many larger fish, seabirds, and marine mammals; supports important commercial fisheries, being sold fresh, smoked as kippers or blo…

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herring gull

A large gull common in the N hemisphere (Larus argentatus); legs usually pink (sometimes yellow); head white; bill yellow with red spot below tip; considered a pest and controlled in some areas. (Family: Laridae.) The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America, Europe and Asia. …

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Hertford - Historical Buildings, Trivia, Nearby places, Town twinning

51°48N 0°05W, pop (2000e) 23 500. County town in Hertfordshire, SE England, UK; on R Lea, 32 km/20 mi N of London; railway; plastics, brewing, engineering, printing; Hertford Castle (12th-c); Waltham Abbey (20 km/12 mi SE). The rivers Rib, Beane and Mimram join the River Lea at Hertford to flow south toward the Thames. Hertford serves as a commuter town for London, with …

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Hertfordshire - Geography, History, Economy, Geology, Urban areas, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 1 034 000; area 1634 km²/631 sq mi. County of SE England, UK; N of Greater London; drained by the Colne and Lea Rivers and the Grand Union Canal; county town, Hertford; chief towns include St Albans, Harpenden, Welwyn Garden City; wheat, cattle, horticulture, brewing, paper, printing, electronics, pharmaceuticals, aerospace. Hertfordshire (modern pronunciation "Hartfordsh…

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hertz - SI multiples, Applications

SI unit of frequency; symbol Hz; named after Heinrich Hertz; defined as the number of complete cycles per second; applicable to all wave and periodic phenomena. Electromagnetic radiation is often described by its frequency — the number of oscillations of the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields per second — expressed in hertz. …

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Hesiod - Works

Poet, born in Ascra, Greece, at the foot of Mt Helicon. One of the earliest known Greek poets, he is best known for two works. Works and Days exalts honest labour and denounces corrupt and unjust judges. Theogony contains advice as to the days, lucky or unlucky, for the farmer's work. His poetry is didactic. Works and Days gives an invaluable picture of the Greek village community in the 8th-c BC,…

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Hesketh (Gibbons) Pearson - Works

Biographer, born in Hawford, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. He worked in a shipping office before beginning a successful stage career as an actor and director (1911). In 1931 he started to write popular and racy biographies, including Gilbert and Sullivan (1935), Oscar Wilde (1946), Dizzy (Disraeli, 1951), and Charles II (1960). He was a close friend and collaborator of Hugh Kingsmill and …

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Hesperides - The evening, The Garden of the Hesperides, The Eleventh Labour of Heracles, Origin

In Greek mythology, the daughters of the evening star (Hesper), who guard the Golden Apples together with the dragon, Ladon. They sing as they circle the tree, which was given by Gaia to Hera as a wedding-present. When Heracles had to fetch the apples, he either killed the dragon, or sent it to sleep, or, more usually, persuaded Atlas to get them for him while he took over Atlas's function of hold…

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Hesse - History, List of Hesse's prime ministers, February 2, 2003 state election, National anthem

pop (2000e) 5 891 000; area 21 114 km²/8151 sq mi. A state formed in 1945 from the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau; wine produced along Rhine valley; capital, Wiesbaden; chief towns, Frankfurt (am Main), Kassel, Darmstadt. Hesse (German: Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. Hessen is divided into 21 dis…

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Hestia

Greek goddess of the hearth, the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. She has two functions: looking after the family fire, and the public cult of the communal hearth. …

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Heswall - Location, History, Open spaces, Notable people from Heswall

53º20N 3º06W, pop (2002e) 31 400. Town in Wirral borough, Merseyside, NW England, UK; located near to the R Dee, on the Wirral peninsula, 7 km/4 mi SE of West Kirby; bounded south by Cheshire; railway; birthplace of Ian Botham and John Peel. Heswall is a town on the Wirral Peninsula, Merseyside, England. Before Local Government reorganisation in 1974, it was part of the county of Ches…

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heterochromatin - Function, Constitutive heterochromatin, Facultative heterochromatin, Yeast Heterochromatin

Originally identified as those parts of the chromosome showing an excessive degree of condensation and compaction and heavier staining properties during the process of nuclear division, as distinct from euchromatin, which shows lower condensation and lighter staining. This is especially evident during chromosome condensation in cell division. Heterochromatin is particularly abundant around the cen…

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Heteroptera - Classification, Selected families of Heteroptera, Water bugs

A large order of insects comprising the true bugs; body typically depressed, forewings usually leathery at base and membranous at tip; mouthparts modified for piercing and sucking; feeding on plants, fungi, or as predators; life-cycle without pupal stage; c.35 000 species, including many crop pests and disease carriers. (Class: Insecta.) Heteroptera is a group of about 40,000 species of in…

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heterosexism - Sources

A belief which regards attraction to the opposite sex as the only legitimate form of sexual expression. That such a term has appeared indicates the strength of the debate over what is to be regarded as ‘normal’ or ‘acceptable’ sexuality. Heterosexism is a predisposition towards heterosexual people, which some see as biased against lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, transgender or intersexed…

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Hetty Green - Birth and early years, Marriage, Miser, Death, Further reading, Personalities of Wall Street

Financier and eccentric, born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. She attended a Quaker school and inherited approximately $10 million from her father and aunt. She married Edward Green, a silk trader, and they had two children, but the couple kept their finances entirely separate. Independent of her husband, she became a noted operator on the New York Stock Exchange and invested heavily in real e…

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heuristic - Psychology, Philosophy, Law, Computer science, Further reading

Any set of rules whose application to a complex problem will tend to yield satisfactory if not optimal results (in contrast to an algorithm). ‘Control the centre of the board’ is a heuristic for playing chess. A heuristic is a replicable method or approach for directing one's attention in learning, discovery, or problem-solving. The study of heuristics is sometimes called heur…

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Hewlett Johnson - Citations on USSR, Bibliography

Clergyman, born in Macclesfield, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. He studied at the universities of Manchester and Oxford, became an engineering apprentice, and did welfare work in the Manchester slums. He joined the Independent Labour Party, entered the Church, and was ordained in 1905. He became Dean of Manchester (1924) and Dean of Canterbury (1931–63). In 1938 he visited Russia, and became an untir…

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hexachlorophene

C13H6Cl6O2. A white powder with antiseptic properties, widely used in toilet preparations. Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is an antiseptic agent. In medicine, hexachlorophene is very useful as a topical anti-infective, anti-bacterial agent, often used in soaps. Two companies had over the counter brands available. During the 1960s, a commercial preparation of t…

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hexane - Production, Toxicity, Reference

C6H14. An alkane hydrocarbon with six carbon atoms. There are five structural isomers. The straight-chain compound, n-hexane, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3, has boiling point 69°C. Hexane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)4CH3. Hexane isomers are largely unreactive, and are frequently used as an inert solvent in organic reactions because they are very non-polar. Hexane …

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Hexham - History, Governance, Local media, Transportation, Awards, Industry, Twin towns, List of People from Hexham

54º58N 2º06W, pop (2000e) 11 300. Market town in Northumberland, NE England, UK; on the R Tyne; birthplace of Ailred of Rievaulx; Hadrian's Wall nearby to the N; abbey (founded in 674, rebuilt 12th-c), Moot Hall (14th-c), Border History Museum located in the old gaol (built 1330); racecourse; tourism; Hexham Abbey festival (summer). There are many smaller towns and villages that surroun…

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Heywood (Campbell) Broun

Journalist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. Amiable in person and beset with phobias, he was fiery and fearless in print, and was ousted as a New York World columnist in a storm over his criticism of the Sacco-Vanzetti verdict (1928). He showed his concern for social issues as a columnist for the Telegram (1928–39). He was a co-founder and first president of the American Newspaper Guild. …

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Hezekiah - Life, Seals, Religious reforms, Resources

Biblical character, King of Judah in the late 8th-c BC (precise dating much disputed), renowned for his religious reforms, including the re-establishment of Temple worship in Jerusalem (2 Chron 29–32), and for his political attempts to obtain independence from Assyrian domination (2 Kings 18–20; Isa 36–9). Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, "God has strengthened")…

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Hezekiah Niles

Journalist, born in Jefferis's Ford, Pennsylvania, USA. After editing the Baltimore Evening Post (1805–11), he founded Niles' Weekly Register, an influential paper especially in economic policy, editing it until 1836. Hezekiah Niles, (October 10, 1777–April 2, 1839) was an American editor and publisher of the Baltimore-based national weekly news magazine, Niles' Weekly Register, also kno…

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hiatus hernia - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Types, Complications, Epidemiology

A protrusion of the upper part of the stomach into the chest through the hole in the diaphragm that allows the oesophagus to pass into the abdomen. It is a common condition, and most individuals affected are untroubled. However, it predisposes to a reflux of acid from the stomach into the oesophagus, which lacks a protective lining and becomes inflamed. The result is heartburn, felt as a burning p…

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Hiawatha - The Song of Hiawatha

Legendary Mohawk leader, born in present-day New York State, USA. Although he is known only through Iroquois mythology and legend, it is now generally accepted that he was a real person who was influential in founding the Five Nations League, or Long House - an alliance of five (later six) Iroquois tribes that ended inter-tribal feuding from c.1550, or earlier, to 1775. Longfellow used Hiawatha's …

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hibernation

A strategy for passing the cold winter period in a torpid or resting state, found in mammals and some other animals. Metabolism is reduced, and the animal enters a deep sleep, surviving on food reserves stored in its body during a favourable summer period. The similar strategy for surviving a hot, dry summer is known as aestivation. Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depress…

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hibiscus

An annual, perennial, or shrub native to warm regions; flowers often very large and showy, 5-petalled, the stamens united into a central column. It is best known as a decorative plant with many species grown as ornamentals, but some also provide useful fibres and edible fruits. (Genus: Hibiscus, species 300. Family: Malvaceae.) …

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hickory

A tall deciduous tree, sometimes with shaggy bark, native to E Asia and E North America; leaves pinnately divided into finely toothed leaflets; flowers small, green, lacking petals; males in catkins, females in clusters; nut 4-valved, edible. (Genus: Carya, 25 species. Family: Juglandaceae.) Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately comp…

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hidden curriculum

A term developed by sociologists of education to describe the unwritten, informal code of conduct to which children are expected to conform in the classroom. Children are said to be rewarded not only for learning their subject curriculum but appearing to do so with enthusiasm, alertness, and deference to and respect for authority. In this way education imparts not only formal knowledge but an unde…

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Hideki Tojo - Biography, Military service, Postwar legacy

Japanese general, statesman, and prime minister (1941–4), born in Tokyo, Japan. He attended military college, became military attaché in Germany (1919), served in Manchuria as chief-of-staff (1937–40), and during World War 2 was minister of war (1940–1) and premier. Convinced Japan must fight the USA, he planned the war strategy originating with the attack on Pearl Harbor, seeing Japan as a li…

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Hideki Yukawa - List of books available in English

Physicist, born in Tokyo, Japan. He studied at Kyoto University, where he became a lecturer (1929–33), before moving to Osaka (1933–9). Professor of physics at Kyoto University (1939–50) and director of Kyoto Research Institute (1953–70), he was visiting professor at Princeton and Columbia universities (1948–53). He predicted (1935) the existence of the meson, a particle hundreds of times hea…

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Hideo Sasaki - Biography, Style of Design, Major Projects, Awards and Achievements

Landscape architect and professor, born in Reedley, California, USA. Professor of landscape design at Harvard University (1950–70), he promoted and developed regional planning, using civil engineers and urban planners to design Boston's Waterfront Park. Hideo Sasaki (1919 Reedley, CA - 2000) Influential Japanese American landscape architect. Hideo Sasaki was born in Reedley, Ca…

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Hidetoshi Nakata - Clubs, Honors, Fashion

Footballer, born in Yamanashi, Japan. By age 14 he was playing for the Japanese Youth team, and he began playing professionally for Shonan Bellmare after leaving school in 1995. He gained his first international cap in 1997 at age 20, and his scoring ability was instrumental in Japan's place in the finals of the FIFA World Cup (France, 1998). After a spell with AC Perugia, he signed for AS Roma fo…

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Hideyo Noguchi - Sources

Bacteriologist and immunologist, born in Inawashiro, Japan. From a poor family, he served as an apprentice to a surgeon and graduated from Tokyo Medical College (1897). He emigrated to the USA (1899) and worked with Simon Flexner at the University of Pennsylvania, where his exhaustive research made him the authority on the action of snake venom. He went to the Rockefeller Institute (1904–28), whe…

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Hieronymus Bosch - Style and works, List of works, Trivia, Bibliography

Painter, named after the town in which he was born, 's-Hertogenbosch in N Brabant, The Netherlands, and in which he seems to have spent the whole of his life. He is noted for his allegorical pictures displaying macabre devils, freaks, and monsters. Among his best-known works are ‘The Garden of Earthly Delights’ (Prado) and ‘The Temptation of St Anthony’ (Lisbon). He had considerable influence …

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Hieronymus Fabricius

Anatomist, born in Acquapendente, C Italy. He studied under Fallopius at Padua, becoming his successor as professor of anatomy there in 1562. He made the first detailed description of the valves of the veins, the placenta, and the larynx. William Harvey was one of his pupils. Hieronymus Fabricius is the Latin name by which the Italian anatomist Girolamo Fabrici (1537-1619) is better known. …

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High Commissioner - The Commonwealth, Domestic High Commissioners

In the UK, a person carrying out the same duties and possessing the same rank as an ambassador, representing one Commonwealth country in another Commonwealth country. The High Commission is the Commissioner's residence and houses the administrative organization. In the Commonwealth of Nations, a High Commissioner is the senior diplomat (generally ranking as Ambassador, above an Envoy) in ch…

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High Court (of Justice)

A court in England and Wales established by the Judicature Acts (1873–5), and principally a trial court for civil cases. It hears appeals on points of law from magistrates' courts in both civil and criminal cases, and also undertakes judicial review. The court has three divisions: Queens Bench Division, Chancery Division, and Family Division. In Scotland, the High Court of Justiciary is the supre…

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high jump - Top performers

An athletics field event in which competitors attempt to leap over a bar set at a predetermined height without knocking the bar over. The height of the bar is gradually increased, and competitors are allowed three attempts to clear each new height; they are eliminated if they fail. The person clearing the greatest height, or (if two or more tie) the person with the fewest misses at the lower heigh…

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high school - Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Republic of Korea (South Korea)

The common form of secondary school in the USA for 15–19-year-olds, following the junior high school phase for 11–15-year-olds. The schools are non-selective, and the successful completion of this phase of education results in graduation, with the award of the high-school diploma. High school or secondary school is the name used for the last segment of compulsory secondary education in Au…

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high-definition television (HDTV) - Notation, Comparison to SDTV, Format considerations, Technical details

Any television system using substantially more scanning lines than the 500–600 of established broadcast standards, with improved picture quality in a wide-screen format. In the 1980s, the Japanese NHK proposed a completely new system, Hi-Vision, as a worldwide standard, using 1125 lines at 60 fields per second (60 Hz). However, the need to provide transmissions having some compatibility with exi…

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Highland Games - History, Events

Athletic meetings held in Scotland; the first Games were organized by the St Fillans (Perthshire) Highland Society in 1819. A range of athletic events takes place, in addition to specifically Scottish events, such as tossing the caber. There may also be highland dancing and bagpipe-playing competitions. The most famous meeting is the Braemar Gathering. Highland games are festivals held thro…

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Highland pony - Breed Characteristics, History of the Highland Pony

A Scottish breed of horse; two types: Western Isles (two divisions: height 12·2–13·2 hands/1·2–1·3 m/4 ft–4 ft 4 in, and height 13·2–14·2 hands/1·3–1·4 m/4 ft 4 in–4 ft 8 in), and the more powerful garron or Mainland (height, 14·2 hands/1·5 m/4 ft 10 in); formerly used for stalking deer. The garron has Arab blood, and is the largest of British pony breeds. The Hi…

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Hijra

The migration of the Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to Medina in 622. The departure marks the beginning of the Muslim era. Hejira may refer to: Hegira may refer to: Hijra may also mean: …

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Hilary (Ann) Swank - Awards

Actress, born in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. As a child she attended a local theatre group, and in 1990 moved to Los Angeles where she began acting professionally, gaining her breakthrough into films with The Next Karate Kid (1994). A number of film and television roles followed and she received a Best Actress Oscar for Boys Don't Cry (1999) and Million Dollar Baby (2004, Golden Globe). Later films in…

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Hilary Putnam - Biography, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of mathematics, Mathematics and computer science, Epistemology

Philosopher, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He held teaching positions at Northwestern University and Princeton, and became professor of the philosophy of science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1961–5) and professor of philosophy at Harvard in 1965. He argues strongly for a conception of philosophy that makes it essential to a responsible view of the real world and our place in it…

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Hildesheim - Districts, Incorporations, Population history, List of mayors of Hildesheim, Twinnings, Main sights

52°09N 9°55E, pop (2000e) 108 000. Port in Hanover district, NC Germany; 29 km/18 mi SE of Hanover; founded, 1300; railway; linked to the Mittelland Canal; iron, machinery, hardware, carpets, electronics; St Michael's Church (11th-c) and Romanesque cathedral (1054–79), world heritage sites. Coordinates: 52°9′N 9°57′E Hildesheim?(help·info) is a city in Lower Saxony…

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Hillary (Rodham) Clinton - First Lady of the United States, Marriage with Bill Clinton, The 2000 Senate race

Lawyer and US first lady (1993–2000), born in Park Ridge, Illinois, USA. The daughter of a prosperous fabric store owner, she graduated from Wellesley College (1969) and Yale University Law School (1973). In 1975 she married Bill Clinton, a fellow Yale Law School graduate. She practised law while he became attorney general and then governor of Arkansas, and during this time, through her publicati…

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Hillel

One of the most respected Jewish teachers of his time, probably born in Babylonia. He immigrated to Palestine at about age 40. He founded a school of followers bearing his name, which was frequently in debate with (and often presented more tolerant attitudes than) the contemporary followers of Shammai. Noted for his use of seven rules in expounding Scripture, his views were influential for later r…

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Hillsborough - Hillsborough, Hillsboro

Football stadium in Sheffield, England, the scene of the worst disaster in British sporting history, when 95 Liverpool fans died and 400 people were injured at the FA Cup semi-final match between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest (15 Apr 1989). The tragedy occurred when police opened a main gate into the terraced area to relieve pressures caused by a build-up of people at the entrance allocated to L…

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Hillsborough - Hillsborough, Hillsboro

36º04N 79º06W, pop (2000e) 5400. Historic town in Orange Co, North Carolina, USA; located on the R Eno, 20 km/12 mi W of Durham and 10 mi N of Chapel Hill; the Third Provincial Congress (1775) and the Constitutional Convention (1788) held here; General Joseph Johnston met General Sherman here (1865) to negotiate the surrender of his army to end the Civil War; Hillsborough Historic District h…

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Hilton Kramer - External Links

Art critic, born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Syracuse (1950 BA), the New School of Social Research (1950), Columbia University (1950–1), Harvard (1951), and Indiana University (1951–2). He was an art critic and editor for many periodicals, including Arts Magazine (1955–8) and the New York Times (1965–82), and he was the founder-editor of New Criterion (1982). Considered an…

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Hilversum - The town of Hilversum, Local government, Railway connections, Notable people born in Hilversum

52°14N 5°10E, pop (2000e) 89 000. City in SE North Holland province, W Netherlands; famous for its radio and television stations; fashionable residential and commuter district of Amsterdam; railway; textiles, leatherwork, printing, electrical engineering, pharmaceuticals. Coordinates: 52.23°?N 5.18°?E Hilversum?(help·info) is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, …

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Himalayas - Geography, Ecology, Origins and growth, Glaciers and river systems, Lakes, Impact on climate, Mountain passes

Gigantic wall of mountains in C Asia, N of the Indus and Brahmaputra Rivers; a series of parallel ranges, generally rising towards the N; length over 2400 km/1500 mi, from the Pamirs (NW) to the borders of Assam and China (E); three main ranges, the Outer, Middle, and Inner Himalayas, which become five ranges in Kashmir - the Lesser and the Great Himalayas, the Z?sk?r Range, the Lad?kh Range, an…

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Hindu Kush - Nomenclature, Mountains

Mountain range in C Asia, an extension of the Himalayan system, covering c.800 km/500 mi; world's second highest range; runs SW, rising to 7690 m/25 229 ft in Tirich Mir; four subsidiary ridges; peaks permanently snow-covered, little vegetation; crossed by several passes; the Salang Tunnel is the main break in the system, allowing Kabul to be linked to the N area and Tajikistan; Alexander the…

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Hinduism - Core concepts, God the soul, Hindu scriptures, The goal of life (jīvan-lakshya)

The Western term for a religious tradition developed during the first millennium and intertwined with the history and social system of India. Hinduism does not trace its origins to a particular founder, has no prophets, no set creed, and no particular institutional structure. It emphasizes the right way of living (dharma) rather than a set of doctrines, and thus embraces diverse religious beliefs …

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Hipparcos

A satellite launched in 1989 by the European Space Agency to measure positions, brightness, distances, and motions of the stars far more accurately than possible through telescopes on Earth, where the unsteadiness of the atmosphere interferes with observations. The Hipparcos catalogue, containing data for over 100 000 stars, was published in 1997. Hipparcos (for High Precision Parallax Col…

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Hippocrates - Biography, Hippocratic philosophy, Hippocratic therapy, Professionalism, The Hippocratic Corpus, Legacy, Bibliography, Further reading

Physician, known as ‘the father of medicine’, and associated with the medical profession's Hippocratic oath, born on the island of Cos, Greece. The most celebrated physician of antiquity, he gathered together all that was sound in the previous history of medicine. A collection of 70 works, the Hippocratic corpus, has been ascribed to him, but very few were written by him, it being more likely th…

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Hippocratic oath - The Hippocratic Oath, Modern relevance, Modern versions and alternatives, Primum non nocere

An ethical code attributed to Hippocrates. Parts of it are still used in medical schools throughout the world to encourage young graduates to aspire to conduct that befits those who care for sick people. An extract is as follows: ‘Whatsoever house I enter, there will I go for the benefit of the sick, refraining from all wrongdoing... Whatsoever things I see or hear in my attendance on the sick wh…

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Hippolyte (Adolphe) Taine - Influence, Early years, Middle years, Later years, Achievements, Writings

Critic, historian, and positivist philosopher, born in Vouziers, NE France. He studied at Paris, turned to writing, and made a reputation with his critical works, followed by several philosophical studies in which he attempted to explain moral qualities and artistic excellence in purely descriptive, quasi-scientific terms. His greatest work, Les Origines de la France contemporaine (1875–94, The O…

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hippopotamus - Characteristics, Range, Behaviour, Extinction, Conservation status and research

A mammal of family Hippopotamidae; an artiodactyl, found in two species: hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) of tropical African rivers; body large, barrel-shaped; naked skin dehydrates easily; spends day in water, emerges at night; skin exudes red droplets which protect from sunburn (and possibly infection); large oblong head; nostrils, ears, and eyes level with water surface when swimming; fou…

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Hiram Bingham

Explorer and senator, born in Honolulu, Hawaii, the son of an American missionary. He studied South American history, then taught at Yale (1907–24). He explored Latin America during the early 1920s, and is noted for discovering the Inca ruins of Machu Picchu (1911). He was chief of the Air Personnel Division of the Air Service in Washington during World War 1, serving in the same position for the…

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Hiram Powers

Sculptor, born in Woodstock, Vermont, USA. He settled with his family in Cincinnati, OH, and at age 17 began work in a clock and organ factory. In 1829 he went to work for the Western Museum to install mechanisms in the displays for their ‘chamber of horrors’ but discovered he had a talent for sculpting the wax figures, and this led him to do portrait busts of Cincinnati worthies. He moved to Wa…

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Hiroshima - Wards, Demographics, Industry, Business, Sister cities, Further reading

34°23N 132°27E, pop (2000e) 1 094 000. Capital of Hiroshima prefecture, S Honshu I, Japan; on the S coast, on R Ota delta; founded as a castle, 1594; military headquarters in the Sino–Japanese War (1894–5) and the Russo–Japanese War (1904–5); atomic bomb dropped here (6 Aug 1945), c.150 000 killed or wounded, 75% of the buildings destroyed or severely damaged; town rapidly rebuilt; airpo…

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Hispaniola - Geography

Second largest island of the Greater Antilles, E Caribbean; between Cuba (W) and Puerto Rico (E); W third occupied by Haiti, remainder by the Dominican Republic; predominantly mountainous, traversed NW–SE by several forested ranges, notably the Cordillera Central, where the highest peak in the West Indies rises to 3175 m/10 416 ft at Pico Duarte; named by Columbus La Isla Española in 1492. …

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histamine - Synthesis and metabolism, Storage and release, Mechanism of action, Sleep regulation, Histamine disorder effects

A local hormone derived from the amino acid histidine, found in virtually all mammalian tissues, and particularly abundant in the skin, lungs, and gut, in association with mast cells. It is released by antigen–antibody reactions, and after skin damage by heat, venom, or toxins. Its actions include the dilation and increased leakiness of blood vessels, and the stimulation of gastric acid secretion…

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histology - Source of tissue, Technical procedure, Histological classification of animal tissues, Related sciences, Histological artifacts

The microscopic study of the tissues of living organisms. Particular use is made of staining techniques to differentiate between cell types and between parts of cells. Histology (from the Greek ἱστός) is the study of tissue sectioned as a thin slice, using a microtome. Histopathology, the microscopic study of diseased tissue, is an important tool of anatomical pathology si…

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histopathology - Collection of tissues, Preparation for histology, Interpretation

The microscopic examination of diseased tissues to determine the nature of the condition. Small pieces of tissue taken at autopsy or by biopsy are placed in a fixative solution, cut into thin slices, and then stained with chemicals that colour the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, rendering them more easily visible. Characteristic changes are found in the presence of cell death (necrosis), in…

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historical materialism - Key ideas, Marx's materialism, Historical Materialism and the future, Marxist beliefs about history

The perception of history informed by Marxist theories, concentrating on material factors as the primary agents of change. In most guises, such explanations stress the crucial importance of economic factors. Orthodox Marxist histories are rooted in studies of interaction, identified by Marx, between the ‘economic base’ and the ‘political superstructure’. In recent years, uniform interpretation…

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historicism - Variants of historicism

Either of two rather different theories about historical understanding. (1) The view that ideas and systems of thought can be understood only from within the historical contexts that produced them. (2) The view that there are general laws of historical development which permit long-term social forecasts. Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical de…

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historiography - Defining historiography, Basic issues studied in historiography, The History of Written History

The study of the writing and interpretation of historical events and conditions, and their effect on human societies. New standards of research based on primary evidence subjected to critical evalution were pioneered by the German historians Barthold Georg Niebuhr and Leopold von Ranke (1795–1886). This ‘scientific history’ led to a systematic collection and cataloguing of sources (eg Monumenta…

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history - Classifications, History and prehistory, Historiography, Historical methods

The study of the past. The subject is traditionally divided into ancient, mediaeval, and modern periods, and often classified according to countries or regions (eg British, European, African). There is also a dimension of classification according to subject-matter, recognizing such domains as political, ecclesiastical, social, and economic history, and overlapping with the interests of other acade…

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Hittites - Archaeological discovery, Geography, History, Mythology, Biblical Hittites, Literature

A people of uncertain origin who became prominent in C Asia Minor in the first part of the second millennium BC, probably related to their possession of iron; they spoke an Indo-European language known as Hittite. At their zenith (1450–1200 BC), their Empire covered most of Anatolia and parts of N Syria (eg Carchemish). It was destroyed by marauding invaders, known as the Sea Peoples, around 1200…

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HIV - Origin and discovery, Transmission, Structure and genome, Tropism, Replication cycle, Genetic variability

Abbreviation of human immunodeficiency virus; a retrovirus that can cause the breakdown of the human immune system, known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. …

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Hjalmar (Fredrik Elg - Works

Novelist, poet, and playwright, born in Örebro, SC Sweden. His plays include Maria, Jesu moder (1905) and the comedy Swedenhielms (The Swedenhielm Family, 1925). His novels, including the broadly comical Markurells i Wadköping (1919, trans God's Orchid), were often popular satires on his native Örebro. Hjalmar Fredrik Elgérus Bergman (November 19, 1883 - January 1, 1931) was a Swedish w…

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Ho Chi Minh City - Origin of the name, History, Geography and climate, Political and Administrative System, Demographics, Economy, Education

10°46N 106°43E, pop (2000e) 4 568 900. Largest city in Vietnam; on R Saigon, 54 km/34 mi from the South China Sea; former capital of French Indochina, 1887–1902; former capital of South Vietnam; occupied by the USA in Vietnam War; jointly administered with Cholon city; airport; chief industrial centre of Vietnam; shipbuilding, metalwork, textiles, rubber products, soap, brewing, food proce…

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Hoagy Carmichael - Biography

Composer and performer, born in Bloomington, Indiana, USA. During his law studies, he learned ragtime piano and played in small bands, and after briefly practising law he left to work as a bandleader and musical arranger. In 1927 he composed the melody that later became ‘Star Dust’ after lyrics were added, which became one of the most widely performed and recorded popular songs of all time. In 1…

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Hobart - Geography, Economy, Distinctive Features, Culture, Education

42°54S 147°18E, pop (2000e) 200 600. Seaport and state capital in SE Tasmania, Australia; on the Derwent R at the foot of Mt Wellington; fine natural harbour; founded as a penal colony, 1804; state capital, 1812; city status, 1842; airport; railway; University of Tasmania (1890); textiles, zinc, paper, food processing; Hobart Theatre Royal. Hobart is the state capital and most populous …

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hobby - Origin of term, Development of hobbies into other ventures, Collecting, Cooking, Games, Gardening, Outdoor recreation

A small falcon native to the Old World; usually hunts at dusk; eats insects or birds caught in flight. (Genus: Falco, 4 species. Family: Falconidae.) A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. In the Middle Ages, falconry was a very popular pastime (what today might be called a hobby), and of all the different birds used for it, the Eurasian Hobby was perhaps the most popular…

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Hobey Baker - Biography

Player of American football and hockey, born in Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a football and hockey legend at Princeton University (1911–14). A hockey pioneer in the USA, the college hockey Player of the Year award is named in his honour. He was killed in an air crash in World War 1. Hobey Baker (January 15, 1892 - December 21, 1918), more fully Hobart Amory Hare Baker, was a note…

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Hochdorf

An exceptional prehistoric chariot-burial of c.550–500 BC near Ludwigsburg, SW Germany, intact when excavated in 1978–9. Beneath a 60 m/200 ft diameter barrow lay a timber-lined tomb 5 m/16 ft square, containing a decorated 2·75 m/9 ft-long bronze couch, a cauldron (both imports from Italy), drinking horns, dishes, textiles, weapons, gold jewellery and clothing decorations, a chariot, and…

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hockey - Ice hockey, Roller Hockey (Inline), Roller hockey (Quad), Other forms of hockey

A stick-and-ball game played by two teams, each of 11 players; also known as field hockey, especially in the USA. The object is to move the ball around the field with the stick until a player is in a position to strike the ball into the opposing side's goal. The playing area is 100 yd (91 m) long and 60 yd (54 m) wide. A game lasts 70 minutes, split into two 35-minute halves. A similar game to…

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Hogmanay - Origins, Customs, Presbyterian Influence, Ne'erday, Handsel Day, Etymology

The name in Scotland for New Year's Eve, the last day of the year. One custom associated with Hogmanay, although it does not take place until after midnight, is first-footing, the first-foot being the first person to enter a house on New Year's Day. Traditionally the first-foot should be tall, dark-haired, and male, and should carry gifts of food, drink, and fuel. Hogmanay (pronounced [ˌh

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hogweed - Reference

A very variable robust biennial (Heracleum sphondylium), growing to 3 m/10 ft, native to N temperate regions; leaves up to 30 cm/12 in, divided into oval or lance-shaped segments, often lobed or toothed; flowers white or pinkish in umbels 5–15 cm/2–6 in across; fruit flattened, broadly winged; also called keck or cow parsnip. The closely related giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) is …

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Hohenstaufen - Ruling in Germany, Members of the Hohenstaufen family

A German dynasty named after the castle of Staufen in Swabia. Dukes of Swabia from 1079, they ruled as German kings or king-emperors (1138–1254), and as kings of Sicily (1194–1266). The greatest member of the family was Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swa…

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Hohes Mittelalter - Historical events and politics, Religion, Trade and commerce, Technology, Culture, Timeline

In German literature, the years between 1170–c.1300, which saw the high point of courtly literature under the patronage of the Hohenstaufen emperors and other lords. Centring on the figure of the Ritter (‘knight’), it was written for and largely by the nobility, although other trends were continued and developed: the Nibelungenlied (c.1200) grew out of the popular ‘Heldenepos’ tradition (base…

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Hohokam - Overview, Hohokam archaeological sequence, Cultural divisions, Sites

The prehistoric inhabitants of the S Arizona desert c.300 BC–AD 1400, ancestors of the modern Pima and Papago Indians. From AD c.500, they adopted maize cultivation, the Mesoamerican ballgame, and the ceremonial use of platform mounds, under Mayan influence. From c.1000, sophisticated irrigation engineering and intensive agriculture allowed a population spread over c.26 000 km²/10 000 sq mi…

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Hokan languages - Family outline, Bibliography

A group of about 30 North American Indian languages, spoken by small numbers, but forming a bridge between the indigenous languages of North and South America. The only language with more than 20 000 speakers is Tlapanek. The Hokan language family is a hypothetical grouping of a dozen small language families spoken in California and Mexico. The name Hokan is loosely based on th…

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Holbeach - History, Multiple Holbeaches, Education, Royal Air Force, Sport, Local economy

52º49N 0º01E, pop (1998e) 9000. Market town in S Lincolnshire, EC England, UK; located in the Fens, 11 km/7 mi E of Spalding; birthplace of Norman Angell and Susannah Centlivre; centre of bulb-growing district; brewing. The town's market charter was awarded in 1252 to Thomas de Moulton, a local baron. The land drainage programmes of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries moved the coa…

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Holden - History of the firm, Australia's own car, Model-sharing under the Button Plan

The brand name of the first mass-produced car designed and built for Australian conditions; previously, most motor vehicles had been imported. Holdens were first produced in 1948 by General Motors-Holden Ltd, which was the leading Australian car manufacturer until 1982. Holden is an Australian car manufacturer based in Melbourne, Victoria, originally independent but now a subsidiary of Gene…

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holding company

A company which effectively controls another by owning at least half of the nominal value of its ordinary share capital or controlling the composition of its board of directors. The owned company is thereby a subsidiary of the holding company. A holding company or parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or…

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Holger Cahill

Art expert and writer, born in Snaefellsnessysla, Iceland. A childhood emigrant to Canada, he moved to New York City as a teenager determined to become a writer. He studied at New York University, Columbia University, and the New School for Social Research. At the Newark Art Museum (1922–31) he became an authority on American art and wrote the seminal American Folk Art (1932). His outstanding lea…

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Holi - Significance

A Hindu spring festival of obscure origin, occurring in February or March (Phalguna S 15), characterized by boisterous revelry, including the throwing of coloured water over people. Sikhs also celebrate Holi, with sports competitions. Holi (Hindi: होली) or Phagwah (Bhojpuri), is an annual and popular Hindu spring festival. On the first day, a bonfire is lit at night to s…

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holism - History, Holism in science, Holism in philosophy, Holism in medicine, Holism in sociology

A thesis which maintains that some wholes are more than the sum of their parts; the wholes could be biological organisms, societies, art works, or networks of scientific theories. Methodological holism claims that there are large-scale laws of societal behaviour which do not reduce to laws of individual behaviour. Holism (from ὅλος holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the…

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holly

An evergreen tree or shrub (Ilex aquifolia) growing to 10 m/30 ft, native to Europe; bark silvery-grey; leaves leathery, glossy above with wavy, spiny margins; flowers 4-petalled, white, followed by red berries, males and females on separate trees. It is widely cultivated for ornament, especially at Christmas time; many cultivars have variegated leaves or yellow berries. (Family: Aquifoliaceae.)…

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hollyhock

A biennial or perennial (Althaea rosea), native to China, and a popular garden plant; stem growing to 3 m/10 ft in second year; leaves 30 cm/12 in across, rounded and shallowly-lobed; flowers 6–7 cm/2½–2¾ in diameter in a wide range of colours, forming a long spike. (Family: Malvaceae.) …

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HOLMES - B, C, D, E, F, G, J, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, V, W

Abbreviation for Home Office Large Major Enquiry System, a computer system introduced for crime detection in the UK in the 1980s, as a result of the problems experienced by the police in the Yorkshire Ripper enquiry. It gives the police immediate access to large databases containing information about crimes, thus saving time and reducing the risk of human error in carrying out investigations. …

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holography - Technical description, Real-time holography, Digital holography, Holography in art, Holographic data storage, References

A method of lensless photography which gives true 3-dimensional images; invented by Dennis Gabor in 1948. Modern holograms are made using laser light. The light beam is divided into two parts: one falls directly onto photographic film; the other is reflected onto the film via the object. An interference pattern forms, which is recorded on the film; there is no actual picture in the usual sense. Th…

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Holy Roman Empire - Character, Nomenclature, Structure and institutions, History, Analysis, Successive German Empires

The revived mediaeval title of the Roman Empire, dating from the 9th-c, when the papacy granted the title to Charlemagne, King of the Franks. It was later bestowed upon German princely families, including the Hohenstaufens, Luxemburgs, and Habsburgs. After Charlemagne, imperial power was greatest under the Hohenstaufens in the 12th–13th-c: the full title ‘Holy Roman Empire’ (sacrum Romanum impe…

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Holy Spirit - The Holy Spirit in the New Testament, Christian views on the Holy Spirit

A term used to denote the presence or power of God, often imbued with personal or quasi-personal characteristics; in Christian thought considered the third person of the Trinity, alongside the Father and the Son. Doctrinal differences exist, though, between Western churches which regard the Spirit as ‘proceeding from’ both the Father and the Son, and Eastern Christianity which accepts procession…

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Holy Week - Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Holy Week Activities, Holy Week throughout the world

In the Christian Church, the week before Easter, beginning on Palm Sunday. It includes Maundy Thursday and Good Friday. Holy Week is the Christian week from Palm Sunday (also called Passion Sunday) through Holy Saturday. Each of the days of Holy Week has its own traditions of services in the West. Believers are encouraged to follow in their prayers with readings from the Gospel …

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Holyhead - Famous People, Sport

53°19N 4°38W, pop (2000e) 12 900. Port and largest town on the island of Anglesey, NW Wales, UK; on N coast of Holy I; railway; ferry to Dun Laoghaire and Dublin, Ireland; aluminium, marine engineering, light industry, tourism, yachting; Holyhead Mountain (Mynydd Twr), 216 m/710 ft; breakwater (1845–73), 2·4 km/1½ mi long; St Cybi's Church (founded 6th-c) within 3rd-c Roman walls; Uchel…

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home counties - Scope

Those counties which border London, UK, and into which the city has expanded. These are Essex, Kent, Surrey, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, and the former counties of Middlesex and Berkshire. "Home Counties" is a phrase used to designate the group of English counties which border or surround London. With time the expression has lost its legal connotation, and now refers primarily to …

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homeobox

In genetics, a sequence of c.180 nucleotides which codes for a 60-amino-acid region in proteins involved in the regulation of transcription. Originally discovered in Drosophila, homeoboxes have now been found in the genes of all higher eucaryotic species. They appear to provide the type of positional information necessary for orderly development in the embryo. There is evidence that the positionin…

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homeopathy - The principle of medical similars, Preparation of similars, Miasms as a cause of disease, History

A practice of medicine devised by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in the early 19th-c with the principles of (1) like cures like; and (2) drug activity is enhanced by dilution. Thus a drug which in large doses would induce particular symptoms in a healthy individual is used after a series of dilutions to treat a sick individual suffering similar symptoms. There is no scientific evidence that the…

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Homer - Identity and authorship, Ancient accounts of Homer, Homeric studies, Homeric dialect, Homeric style

Greek poet, to whom are attributed the great epics, the Iliad, the story of the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey, the tale of Ulysses's wanderings. The place of his birth is doubtful, probably a Greek colony on the coast of Asia Minor, and his date, once put as far back as 1200 BC, from the style of the poems attributed to him, is now thought to be much later. Arguments have long raged over whether …

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Homer (Armstrong) Thompson

Archaeologist, born in Devlin, Ontario, Canada. He studied at the University of Michigan (1929 PhD) and became a naturalized US citizen. He was simultaneously professor of classical archaeology at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (1947–77), and field director of the Athenian agora (1947–67). An expert on the history and monuments of Athens, his Guide to the Athenian Agora (1976) was…

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Homer (Dodge) Martin

Painter, born in Albany, New York, USA. He moved to New York City (1862), travelled in England (1876) and France (1881–6), and settled in St Paul, MN. He is known for his impressionistic landscapes, such as ‘Honfleur Light’ (1892). Homer Dodge Martin (October 28, 1836 - February 2, 1897) was an American artist, particularly known for his landscapes. Martin was born at Albany, New York. H…

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Homer (Still

US attorney general and writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Known as an incisive, dramatic trial lawyer, as well as an astute and loyal supporter of Democratic candidates, he was named attorney general by President Franklin Roosevelt. During his tenure (1933–9), one of the longest in that office, he established uniform rules of practice and procedure in federal courts. He and Roosevelt backed…

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Homestead Act - The Reason for the Homestead Act, History, Fraud and corporate use, International derivations

(1862) A US law allowing a grant of 160 acres of public land to settlers, conditional on their staying five years, the making of improvements to the property, and the payment of fees. Homesteaders had to be US citizens or intending citizens, and either heads of families or over 21, but could be of either sex. The Homestead Act of 1862 was a United States federal law that gave one quarter of…

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homicide

The unlawful killing of one human being by another. The term varies in its application among different jurisdictions. In England and Wales, for example, unlawful homicide includes the crimes of murder, manslaughter, and infanticide. The victim must be an independent human being (and not, for example, a fetus which is not viable). In certain circumstances homicide may be lawful, such as in self-def…

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hominid

A member of the primate family Hominidae, containing humans, their immediate ancestors, and close extinct relatives. Two genera are usually recognized: Australopithecus and Homo. Hominid defining features include truncal erectness, bipedality, and rotary chewing; brain expansion and face and jaw reduction were later developments. Anatomical and molecular evidence indicate that the hominid and Afri…

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homosexuality - Academic study, Homosexuality and society, Same-sex love in pre-modern times

A form of sexuality in which the sexual attraction is between members of the same sex. There are both clinical (eg Freudian psycho-medical) and sociological theories to account for homosexuality. Most sociological theories see any form of sexuality as a social construction rather than as displaying any specific, pre-given biological process. Homosexuality has been a subject of considerable politic…

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Honduras - History, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Environment, Folklore, Football, Miscellaneous topics, Trivia

Official name Republic of Honduras, Span República de Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, often formerly known as Spanish Honduras, is a country in Central America, bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras and the Caribbean Sea, with…

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honesty - Western views on honesty, The studies of Confucius about honesty, A Buddhist teaching on honesty

A roughly hairy biennial (Lunaria annua) 30–100 cm/12–40 in, native to SE Europe; leaves heart-shaped; flowers cross-shaped, reddish-purple, rarely white; capsules 3–4·5 cm/1¼–1¾ in, flat, oval, with a persistent, silvery, central dividing wall (septum). It is often grown in gardens, especially for the old fruiting stems with persistent septa, and is used in dried decorations. (Family: …

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honey - Honey formation, Composition of honey, Types of honey, Use of honey, Honey in culture and folklore

A substance prepared by bees from nectar found in blossoms. Because of its palatability and its relative rarity, honey has always been a highly prized food. Its intimate association with nature (meadows and bees, milk and honey) has led to claims of specific health effects for honey, which are not justified. Nectar is sucrose, and this disaccharide is broken down by the bee to yield an equal quant…

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honey fungus - Honey mushrooms, Honey fungus as a plant disease (white rot root disease), Preventing infections

A mushroom-shaped fungus (Armillaria mellea) which produces creamy white spores on gills on underside of cap; destructive parasite of trees, shrubs, and other plants. (Order: Agaricales.) Honey fungus or Armillaria is a genus of parasitic fungi that live on trees and woody shrubs. The fruiting bodies of the fungus are mushrooms that grow on wood, typically in cestipose c…

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honey locust

A deciduous tree (Gleditsia triacanthos) growing to 45 m/150 ft, a native of North America; trunk and branches covered with stout, often branched spines; leaves divided into oblong leaflets; flowers fragrant, greenish, and inconspicuous, arranged in catkin-like inflorescences; pods up to 4·5 cm/1¾ in long, dark brown, twisted. It is sometimes planted for hedging, and as an ornamental or stre…

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honeycreeper

A name used for two distinct groups of birds inhabiting woodland and eating insects, fruit, and nectar: the Hawaiian honeycreeper (Family: Drepanididae, c.17 living species), and some tanagers (Family: Thraupidae, 16 species) native to Central and South America. …

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honeyeater - Species of Meliphagidae (Part of the Meliphagoidea superfamily)

An Australasian bird specialized to eat nectar; tongue long with brush-like tip; also eats fruit and insects; inhabits trees and bushes; lives in small groups; shows great variation in bill shape and lifestyle. (Family: Meliphagidae, 167 species.) The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized birds most common in Australia and New Guinea, but also found in New Zeal…

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honeyguide - Species

A small brownish bird native to Africa and S or SE Asia; inhabits evergreen forest; eats insects (especially bees) and beeswax; some said to lead animals to bees' nests; lays eggs in nests of other birds. (Family: Indicatoridae, c.13 species.) Honeyguides, (family Indicatoridae), are near passerine bird species of the order Piciformes. Seventeen species in four genera compose th…

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honeysuckle

A member of a large genus mainly comprising shrubs, with a few well-known species of woody climbers with twining stems, deciduous or evergreen; native to the N hemisphere, and widely grown as ornamentals; leaves opposite, members of a pair often joined around the stem; flowers tubular, 2-lipped, often fragrant, in the axils of leaves; berries red, blue, or black. The common honeysuckle or woodbine…

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Honfleur - Famous Honfleurais, Cultural News, Administration

49º25N 0º14E, pop (2001e) 9000. Resort and fishing port in Normandy, NW France; located on the tidal estuary of the R Seine; birthplace of Alphonse Allais and Eugène Boudin; picturesque old dock area (Vieux Bassin); the 15th–16th-c Church of St Catherine is the largest wooden church in France and houses a museum of religious art; Le Manoir du Désert manor house (15th–16th-c); shrimp feast (…

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Hong Kong - History, Politics and government, Legal system and judiciary, Geography, Climate, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, Education, Culture

(Special administrative region of China) Hong Kong is on the eastern side of the Pearl River Delta on the southeastern coast of the People's Republic of China, facing the South China Sea in the south, and bordering Guangdong Province in the north. Because Hong Kong has one of the world's most liberal economies and is a major international centre of finance and trade, it is China's ric…

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Hong Kong Island - History

area 75 km²/29 sq mi. Island within Hong Kong region, bounded on all sides by the South China Sea; contains the city of Hong Kong; highest point, Victoria Peak (554 m/1818 ft). Members of the council currently representing this constituency are: The constituency was set up in 1998 election when the largest remainder method (with Hare quota) of the proportional representati…

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Hongi Hika - Birth, Early campaigns, 1806-1814

Maori war leader, born near Kaikohe, New Zealand. He protected the first missionaries who arrived in New Zealand in 1814. In 1820 he visited England and Australia and acquired muskets. He then waged war on other Maori tribes, thereby severely disrupting traditional political arrangements. This has had an enduring influence on Maori affairs to the present time. Hongi Hika (1772?–1828) was …

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Honiara

9°28S 159°57E, pop (2000e) 46 000. Port and capital town of the Solomon Is, SW Pacific, on R Mataniko, NW coast of Guadalcanal I; airport; developed after World War 2 around the site of US military headquarters; coconuts, fishing, timber. Honiara, population 49,107 (1999), is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town. …

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Honus Wagner - Early life, Career, Coaching and Death, Memorial, T206 Baseball card, References

Baseball player, born in Carnegie, Pennsylvania, USA. An all-round player, he had a 21-year career as an infielder (1897–1917), mostly with the Pittsburgh Pirates. An outstanding right-handed hitter with exceptional speed, he holds the National League record for the most consecutive seasons batting ·300 or more (17). After his retirement, he served as coach for the Pirates for 19 years (1933–51…

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hooded seal - Offspring

A true seal, native to the N Atlantic and adjoining seas (Cystophora cristata); grey with irregular black patches; adult male with enlarged nasal cavity which inflates, forming enormous bulbous ‘hood’ on top of head; lives around drifting ice; young called bluebacks. The Hooded Seal (Cystophora christata or Cystophora cristata) is an arctic seal found only in the central and western North…

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Hooke's law

In physics, a law expressing the proportionality of strain to the stress causing it; stated by Robert Hooke. It is valid for small stresses only. When applied to springs, a small extension x of the spring exerts a proportional restoring force, F = ?kx, where k is a constant, a measure of the spring's stiffness. In physics, Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the…

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Hoorn - Population centres, History, Local government, Railway connections

52º38N 5º04E, pop (2001e) 64 300. City and municipality in E Noord Holland province, W Netherlands; on inlet of the Ijsselmeer; founded as a fishing and trading settlement (14th-c); gained charter, 1356; expanded in 16th–17th-c with East Indies trade, then declined when harbour silted up (18th-c); birthplace of Bart Bok and Willem Schouten; railway; 17th-c town hall; fine gabled 17th-c houses…

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Hoover Dam - History, Use for road transport, Powerlines leaving the power plant, Power distribution, Statistics, The naming controversy

36°01N 114°45W. One of the world's major dams, on the Colorado R, Arizona, USA, impounding L Mead; built 1931–6; height 221 m/726 ft; length 379 m/1244 ft; can generate 1345 megawatts of hydroelectricity; named after President Hoover. Hoover Dam (36°0′56″N, 114°44′16″W), also known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete gravity-arch dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on …

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hop

A perennial climber (Humulus lupulus) native to Europe and W Asia; stems 3–6 m/10–20 ft, twining clockwise with small hooks to aid support; male and female flowers on separate plants; males tiny, 5-petalled; females forming papery cones in fruit. It was used in brewing from the 13th-c (hops), but not cultivated on a large scale until the 16th-c. Only the fruiting heads are used to flavour and …

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Hopewell

The native American culture of C USA c.100 BC–AD 400, its focus the Scioto R valley of S Ohio. Though socially and agriculturally unsophisticated, it is notable for its geometric ceremonial earthworks - at Newark, Ohio, covering 6·4 km²/2·5 sq mi - and richly furnished burial mounds averaging 30 m/100 ft in diameter and 12 m/40 ft in height. The enclosure at Hopewell itself, excavated i…

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Hopi - Name

A Shoshonean-speaking Pueblo Indian group living in Arizona, USA, c.15 000 (2000 census). They farmed corn and other crops and became famous for their basketry and pottery. Peaceful (Hopi means ‘peaceful ones’) and democratic, they lived in houses of stone and adobe. Today many work in cities, but several features of their traditional life survive. The Hopi are a Native American nation w…

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Horace - Life, Works, In later culture

Latin poet and satirist, born near Venusia, Italy. The son of a freed slave, he was educated in Rome and Athens. While in Athens he joined Brutus, and fought at Philippi. Back in Italy, he joined the civil service, but had to write verses to avoid poverty. His earliest works were chiefly satires and lampoons, and through the influence of Virgil he came under the patronage of Maecenas, a minister o…

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Horace (Austin Warner) Tabor - External links and references

Prospector and merchant, born in Holland, Vermont, USA. He moved to Colorado, made a fortune from a silver mine (1878), and built a hotel and two opera houses in Colorado. He filled an unexpired term in the US Senate (Republican, Colorado, 1883). He lost his fortune and was penniless by 1893, and was made postmaster of Denver to spare him the humiliation of total destitution. His second wife was B…

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Horace (Victor) Gregory

Poet and writer, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. He studied at the University of Wisconsin (1923 BA), became a free-lance writer in London and New York (1923–34), and taught at Sarah Lawrence College (1934–60). In addition to his own elegant poems, he is known for his translations of Catullus and Ovid and his critical studies of poets, writers, and painters. He was married to Marya Zaturenska…

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Horace (Ward Martin Tavares) Silver - Selected compositions, Quotations

Jazz musician, born in Norwalk, Connecticut, USA. An influential pianist and composer, he helped to develop and popularize the hard-bop style in the mid-1950s. He performed with Stan Getz and Coleman Hawkins in 1950–3, was a co-founder of the Jazz Messengers (1954), and led his own groups after that. Horace Ward Martin Tavares Silva (born September 2, 1928 in Norwalk, Connecticut) is an Am…

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Horace Binney

Lawyer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. For nearly 30 years he was leader of the Pennsylvania bar and held several offices, including a term in the US House of Representatives (Whig, Pennsylvania, 1833–5). His two great cases were Lyle v. Richards (1823) on real property, and Vidal v. Philadelphia (1844) on the Girard trust, argued against Daniel Webster. He later wrote legal and histori…

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Horace Bushnell - Career, Civic interests, Books

Congregational minister and theologian, born in Bantam, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale (1827), and was teaching and reading for the bar when (1831) he felt called to the ministry and entered Yale's Divinity School. The rationalistic ‘new divinity’ of Calvinism then in vogue offended his more intuitive spirit, but he accepted ordination in 1833, and although not truly a popular preacher, ga…

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Horace Fletcher - Bibliography

Writer and lecturer, born in Lawrence, Massachusetts, USA. A San Francisco-based businessman, he cured himself of overweight and chronic dyspepsia, and after 1895 became an advocate for his own nutritional system. The most important element of his common-sense regimen prescribed chewing food until it was thoroughly mashed, a process once widely known as fletcherism. Horace Fletcher (1849–…

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Horace Gray

Judge, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He was active in Massachusetts politics as an organizer of the Free-Soil and then Republican parties. He served on the Massachusetts Supreme Court (1864–81) and was named by President Chester Arthur to the US Supreme Court (1882–1902). Horace Gray (March 24, 1828-September 15, 1902) was an American jurist. Gray was born in Boston, Mas…

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Horace Greeley - Early Years, Whig: New York Tribune, Republican: New York Tribune, Trivia

Journalist and politician, born in Amherst, New Hampshire, USA. After working as a job-printer and typesetter in New York, he started a literary and news journal and then edited two weekly Whig publications. He founded the New York Tribune (1841) and, aided by a fine staff, built it into a highly regarded, prosperous paper, but also a mouthpiece for his broadly liberal views, often expressed in si…

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Horace Harmon Lurton

Judge, born in Newport, Kentucky, USA. He taught law at Vanderbilt University (1898–1910) and spent many years as a judge, including seventeen years in the US court of appeals, sixth circuit. President Taft named him to the US Supreme Court (1910–14). Horace Harmon Lurton (February 26, 1844 – July 12, 1914) was an American jurist who served as a Justice on the Supreme Court of the Unite…

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Horace Mann - Education and early career, Educationist work, National political career, Later years

Educator and public official, born in Franklin, Massachusetts, USA. He overcame limited educational opportunities, attended Brown University, and practised law in Dedham and Boston, MA (1821–37). As Massachusetts state representative, senator, and senate president (1827–37), he worked to establish the first state hospital for the mentally ill, and a state board of education. As head of the new b…

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Horace Wells

Dentist and anaesthetist, born in Hartford, Vermont, USA. He was a dentist in Hartford, CT, when c.1840 he became interested in the possibility of using nitrous oxide - ‘laughing gas’ - as a painkiller while extracting teeth. In 1841 he formed a partnerhip with a Boston dentist, William T G Morton, who was looking into ether as an anaesthetic. In December 1844, Wells had one of his own teeth ext…

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Horae - First generation, Second generation, The Hours

In Greek mythology, ‘the seasons’, implying the right or fitting time for something to happen. They are therefore given various names either connected with fertility or (as in Hesiod) justice, being called Eunomia ‘good government’, Dike ‘right’, and Irene ‘peace’. In Greek mythology, the Horae were three goddesses controlling orderly life. earlier writers recognized the first gener…

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Horatio (William) Parker

Composer and teacher, born in Auburndale, Massachusetts, USA. After studies in the USA and Germany, he joined the Yale faculty (1894–1919). Primarily an organist, drawing on the conservative European traditions, he composed many works with a generalized religious element, such as Hora Novissima(1893). Horatio Parker (September 15, 1863–December 18, 1919) was an American composer and teac…

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Horatio Gates - Early career, Revolutionary War, Gallery

US soldier, born in Maldon, Essex, SE England, UK. He entered the British army as a boy, and saw action in America during the French and Indian War. After 10 years back in England, he settled in W Virginia in 1772. Appointed brigadier-general in the Continental Army (1775), he proved himself a capable administrator and played a major role in the American victory at Saratoga (1777). He had a tenden…

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Horatio Greenough

Sculptor and writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After two years at Harvard he moved to Italy in 1825, where he became a leading member of the American artistic colony there. His principal work is a colossal statue in Classical style of George Washington as Zeus, commissioned for the Capitol rotunda but now in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. His advanced views on functionalism…

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Horatio Seymour

US governor, born in Pompey Hill, New York, USA, the brother-in-law of Roscoe Conkling. A protégé of William Marcy and an ‘Albany Regency’ Democrat, he served in the New York Assembly (1842, 1844–5) and gained a reputation for compromise and moderation. As Democratic governor (1853–5), he improved the prison system and opposed prohibition. He worked in business but remained a respected figur…

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horizon - Appearance and usage, Distance to the horizon, Curvature of the horizon

The plane lying 90° from the observer's zenith. The plane of the horizon intersects the celestial sphere in a great circle termed the astronomical horizon. The horizon (from Greek orizein, to limit) is the line that separates earth from sky. When on a ship at sea, the true horizon is strikingly apparent. Historically, the distance to the visible horizon has been extremely impor…

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horizontal integration - Media terms

A business situation where a company achieves growth by buying up, or merging with, other companies in the same line of business. This has the effect of reducing competition, and can lead to economies of scale. A monopoly created through horizontal integration is called a horizontal monopoly. retail clothing corporation is a good example of a business that practices horizontal integration. …

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hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - HRT with bioidentical human hormones distinguished from animal and chemical analogues

The use of synthetic oestrogen and progesterone, taken orally in combination, to replace natural female hormones when the body has stopped producing them, usually after the menopause. It is commonly taken to relieve symptoms of the menopause such as hot flushes, night sweats, poor sleep, and vaginal dryness; it also has the beneficial effect of reducing osteoporosis. Potential side effects include…

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horn

A musical instrument made from metal (usually brass) tubing, with a conical bore, coiled and twisted several times and ending in a wide bell; the narrow end is fitted with a small, funnel-shaped mouthpiece. It was traditionally associated with hunting. Until the 19th-c the orchestral horn (or French horn) was largely restricted to the notes of the harmonic series, the fundamental pitch of which co…

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hornbeam

A deciduous tree (Carpinus betulus) growing to 30 m/100 ft, native to Europe and Asia Minor; leaves ovoid, double-toothed; flowers tiny in pendulous male and female catkins; nutlets each with a 3-lobed wing-like bract which aids dispersal. It is often the dominant tree in coppices. (Family: Corylaceae.) The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood trees, placed in the…

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hornbill

A large bird native to tropical Africa, S Asia, and Australasian islands; bill large, often brightly coloured, topped with large ornamental outgrowth; plumage black, brown, and white; inhabits forest or savannah; eats fruit or small animals. (Family: Bucerotidae, 45 species.) Hornbills (family Bucerotidae) are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, som…

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hornblende

A common variety of the amphibole group of ferromagnesian silicate minerals; a hydrated calcium magnesium iron aluminosilicate that is dark green or black in colour. It is widely found in granite and other igneous rocks. Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. Hornblende is not a recognized mineral, in its own right but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer t…

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horned lizard

An iguana native to North and Central America; body covered with sharp spines, especially around the neck; usually inhabits dry sandy areas; as a defence may squirt blood from its eyes; not known to shed tail; also called horned toad or horny toad. (Genus: Phrynosoma, 14 species.) …

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hornet - European hornet (a temperate species), Relationship with humans, Hornets and other Vespidae

The largest social wasp; a fierce predator, up to 35 mm/1½ in long; yellow and black coloration; nests often built in old trees, containing several horizontal combs; colonies with up to 4000 individuals. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Vespidae.) Hornets are the largest eusocial wasps, reaching up to 45 millimetres (1.8 inches) in length. The true hornets make up the genus Vespa, and are di…

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hornpipe - Folk hornpipes, Baroque hornpipe

An energetic dance of British origin, popular in the 16th–19th-c. Although the best-known example is the ‘Sailors' Hornpipe’, the dance was not associated particularly with the navy. Originally performed in triple time, a simple duple time form of the dance was later developed. In Irish ceilidhs the hornpipe continues to be danced to the accompaniment of fiddles, pipes, or flutes. As a solo dan…

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horntail

A large woodwasp; body typically long, cylindrical, without distinct waist; coloured black, banded with yellow or red; egg-laying tube large, used for wood boring; eggs laid in wood, larvae burrow deep into tree timber. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Siricidae.) Horntail or wood wasp is the common name for any of the 100 non-social species of the family Siricidae, of the order Hymenoptera, a …

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hornwort (Anthoceros) - Description, Life cycle, Classification of Hornworts

A plant (a bryophyte) belonging to the class Anthoceratae, resembling and related to thallose liverworts, but with a long-lived, green sporophyte capable of surviving after the gametophyte dies. Hornworts are a group of bryophytes, or non-vascular plants, comprising the division Anthocerotophyta. Hornworts may be found world-wide, though they tend to grow only in places …

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hornwort (Ceratophyllum) - Description, Life cycle, Classification of Hornworts

A submerged aquatic perennial without roots; stems growing to 1 m/3¼ ft; leaves regularly forked, in whorls, the old ones translucent, stiff and horn-like; one flower at each node, tiny, unisexual, lacking petals; fruits warty and sometimes spiny; very widespread in fresh water. (Genus: Ceratophyllum, 10 species. Family: Ceratophyllaceae.) Hornworts are a group of bryophytes, or …

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Horologium

A faint S constellation contrived in the 1750s by French astronomer Nicolas Lacaille. …

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horse - Biology of the horse, Evolution of the horse, Domestication of the horse and surviving wild species

A hoofed mammal with many domestic breeds. Modern breeds are thought to have developed from three wild ancestral types: the heavy forest type, and the lighter steppe and plateau types. Modern breeds may be classed as coldbloods (strong heavy horses suitable for work, supposedly descended from forest types), hotbloods (fast athletic horses such as the Arab, supposedly descended from steppe and plat…

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