Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 33

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Hawaiian goose

A rare goose, native to the uplands of Hawaii (Branta sandvicensis); wings short; feet with reduced webbing; eats fruit and herbs; also known as nene. There were less than 50 individuals in 1950, but captive breeding has increased this number to more than 2000. (Family: Anatidae.) The Hawaiian Goose or Nēnē, Branta sandvicensis, is a species of goose endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. …

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Hawick

55º25N 2º47W. Town in Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK; on the R Teviot, 63 km/39 mi SSE of Edinburgh and 59 km/37 mi N of Carlisle; birthplace of Dame Isobel Baillie, Francis Scott, and James Lee; a centre of reiving (cattle rustling) in the Middle Ages; granted charter, 1537; St Mary's Church (1214, rebuilt 1763), Hawick Motte (12th-c); Kielder Reservoir nearby; famous for its locally pro…

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hawk (ornithology)

A bird of prey of the family Accipitridae, the name being used especially for smaller members of the family (but not for Old World vultures, which also belong to this family). It includes sparrowhawks, harriers, kites, and buzzards. Larger members are called eagles. In the USA, the name is also used for some falcons (Family: Falconidae). The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three…

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Hawking radiation - Overview, Emission process, Black hole evaporation

A type of radiation predicted in 1974 by Stephen Hawking to emerge continuously from black holes. Of pairs of particles produced by quantum effects in space near a black hole, one is absorbed by the black hole while the other is radiated. The theory predicts that black holes slowly evaporate into photons and other particles, finally expiring in a huge burst of gamma rays. In physics, Hawkin…

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hawksbill turtle

A sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), native to tropical oceans; narrow head with hooked ‘beak’; back with saw-tooth outline due to overlapping plates of shell; produces the finest quality tortoiseshell; endangered due to overhunting. (Family: Chelonidae.) The Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a sea turtle that is distinguished by the following characteristics. …

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hawkweed

A widely distributed perennial, mostly occurring in the N hemisphere; leaves entire to deeply toothed, arranged spirally around the stem or often in a basal rosette; flower-heads solitary or in loose clusters, florets usually yellow. Many hawkweeds reproduce from fruits formed without fertilization having occurred, resulting in vast numbers of distinct populations or microspecies, perhaps as many …

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Hawley Harvey Crippen - Murder, The Montrose, Captain Kendall, Trial and execution, Question of doubt, Further reading

Murderer, born in Michigan, USA. He studied medicine and dentistry, eventually settling in London, UK (1900) with his second wife, Cora Turner. Having transferred his affections to his secretary, Ethel le Neve, he poisoned his wife, dissected the body, and interred the remains in the cellar. He and his mistress attempted to escape to Canada on board the SS Montrose as Mr and Master Robinson. The s…

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hawthorn

A spiny, deciduous shrub or tree (Crataegus monogyna), growing to 18 m/60 ft, native to Europe; leaves oval to rhomboidal, deeply 3–7-lobed; flowers white, in clusters; berries (haws) red to maroon, flesh thin over a large stone; also called quickthorn and may. It is very common and much planted, forming dense stock-proof hedges and attractive park or street trees. (Family: Rosaceae.) Ha…

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hay fever - Causes, Symptoms, Signs and tests, Prevention, Treatment, Expectations

An allergic reaction affecting the eyes and nasal passages, resulting in watering of the eyes, nasal congestion, and sneezing. It is usually provoked by exposure to the pollen of grasses in the air, which are present in highest concentrations in late spring or early summer, but the reaction is not confined to any season or to a single stimulus. Other allergens are house dust, spores of fungi, and …

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Haydn Wood - Life, Works

Composer and violinist, born in Slaithwaite, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music, London, and worked for a time in music halls. He wrote prolifically for orchestra, brass band, chamber music groups, and voices. Of his ballads, the best known is ‘Roses of Picardy’. Haydn Wood (March 25, 1882–March 11, 1959) was a 20th century English composer and a res…

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Hayley Mills - Filmography

Film actress, born in London, UK. From an acting family, she made her film debut in Tiger Bay (1959) with her father, John Mills. She won a special Oscar for her part in Pollyanna (1960), and went on to star in such films as The Parent Trap (1961), Whistle Down The Wind (1961), Endless Night (1971), and Appointment With Death (1988). Television work includes Parent Trap II (1986) and its two seque…

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Haymarket

Theatre in SW London, UK. Originally built in 1720, it was re-built in 1821 by John Nash. It became the Royal Shakespeare Company's London base during 2002. Haymarket may refer to: Haymarket may also refer to one of the following places: …

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hazard

A card game for four players in pairs. It is similar to solo, but all cards with a face value of 2 to 8 are discarded, and the joker is added, to make 25 cards. Hazard may mean: A hazard is a source of potential harm. it is too late to prevent the conseqences of the hazard) …

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hazel

A deciduous shrub or small tree (Corylus avellana), native to Europe and Asia Minor; leaves broadly oval, toothed; male catkins long, pendulous; females short, bud-like with prominent red stigmas; edible nut partially enclosed in a ragged green leafy cup. It is cultivated on a small scale, but is common in hedgerows, and is often coppiced. (Family: Corylaceae.) The hazels are a genus of abo…

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Hazor - Locations in ancient Israel, Locations in modern-day Israel

Ancient city located c.16 km/10 mi N of the Sea of Galilee, on the W side of the R Jordan in Upper Galilee. The tel is a raised mound which has the layered remains of ancient cities. In the 9th-c BC it was an important strategic and regional centre under Ahab who built an elaborate underground water system to supply the city. Finally destroyed by the Assyrians (723 BC), the site was discovered i…

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Head Start - History, Programs, Services

A national project begun in the USA in the early 1960s to help pre-school children from a disadvantaged background prepare for schooling. The main emphasis was on language and social development, but attention was also paid to health care and parent education. Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that focuses on assisting children from birth t…

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headache - Types, Diagnosis, Treatment

An aching sensation over the vault of the skull, temples, or back of the head, usually diffuse and poorly localized. In the majority of instances, the complaint is trivial and responds to simple analgesics, such as aspirin. Very occasionally, headaches herald serious intracranial disease such as haemorrhage, meningitis, or tumour. The brain itself is insensitive to touch, and headaches arise from …

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healing - Healing by regeneration, Healing by repair, Specific examples of healing

Any method by which an illness or injury is cured; specifically, the use of a technique which is not recognized within orthodox medicine and involves no form of physical therapy or manipulation. Techniques such as the ‘laying on of hands’ are seen as involving the transmission of energy from, or channelling through, a healer and into the sick person. Sometimes prayer, visualization, meditation, …

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Health and Safety at Work Act

A UK Act of Parliament passed in 1974 to foster health and safety at work. This aims to prevent industrial injuries and diseases, and to avoid accidents by regulating matters such as the heating, lighting, and ventilation of workplaces, the provision and use of protective clothing, the fencing of machinery, training in safety procedures, and the safe holding and disposal of toxic, inflammable, exp…

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health insurance - Private health insurance, Publicly funded health insurance, Health insurance in the United States

A way of offsetting the cost of medical treatment. The individual pays an annual fee (premium) to a health insurance company, and when treatment is needed the company pays the bills. This is common practice in the USA, and in the UK before 1948, when the National Health Service was introduced. Today, private health insurance is re-emerging as a major factor in British health care. At the same time…

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hearing aid - Types of hearing aids, Hearing Aid Technology, Adjustment to Hearing Aids, Hearing aid sales

A device for amplifying sound, used by persons with defective hearing. The earliest type was the ear-trumpet - a conical apparatus collecting sound at the wide end and delivering it to the ear-drum at the small end. Modern aids are electronic, consisting of a microphone, amplifier, and earphone, usually compressed into a very small container to fit directly on to the ear. Transmission may be to th…

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heart - Early development, Structure, Other physiological functions, First aid, The hearts of other animals, Food use

A hollow muscular organ, divided into chambers (right and left atria, right and left ventricles) and enclosed within a fibrous sac (the pericardium) found within the thorax. It lies directly under the sternum, being protected by it and the adjacent ribs. It is the first organ to develop in the embryo (in humans by three weeks). In mammals it is separated into right and left halves concerned with p…

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heart disease

Disease of the heart and the associated blood vessels; a major cause of death in all countries, though the pattern of individual disorders varies in different parts of the world and in different age groups. For example, coronary heart disease is common in the UK, the USA, and the West as a whole, but less common in Japan or Hong Kong. Rheumatic heart disease is now rare in the UK, but common in ma…

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heartburn - Pathophysiology, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

A burning sensation usually felt intermittently within the chest over the lower part of the breastbone. It results from regurgitation of the contents of the stomach into the lower part of the oesophagus, inducing a spasm. In some cases this is due to part of the stomach rising into the opening where the oesophagus passes through the diaphragm (hiatus hernia). Heartburn or pyrosis is a painf…

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heartsease

A species of violet (Viola tricolor), also called wild pansy, native to Europe. The flowers are blue, yellow, white, or a combination of these colours. (Family: Violaceae.) The Heartsease (Viola tricolor) is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. Long before cultivated pansies were developed, the heartsease was associated with thought in th…

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heartworm - History of the disease, The parasite, Course of infestation, Symptoms of infestation, Epidemiology, Testing, Treatment, Prevention

A parasite (Dirofilaria immitis) which inhabits the heart chambers and major blood vessels, mainly affecting dogs, with some cases occurring in cats. Individuals with heartworm can develop severe chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, and heart changes. Heavy infestation can lead to an early death. The life cycle of the parasite is dependent upon a mosquito. It is usually restricted to hot humid areas suc…

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heat - History of Heat, Notation, Thermodynamics

The transfer of energy from one object to another, due solely to their difference in temperatures; symbol Q, units J (joule). The quantity of heat sometimes ascribed to an object or process is the total amount of energy transferred in this way. The first to have put forward a semblance of a theory on heat was the Greek philosopher Heraclitus who lived around 500 BC in the city of Ephesus in…

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heat capacity - Definition, Heat capacity of compressible bodies, Specific heat capacity, Dimensionless heat capacity

The quantity of heat needed to produce a temperature rise of one kelvin (or 1°C) in some material. Loosely, it measures the ability of a substance to get hot while absorbing energy. Specific heat capacity c (also called specific heat), units J/(kg.K), is the heat capacity per kilogram of material. For water, c = 4180 J/(kg.K). Heat capacity (usually denoted by a capital C, often with su…

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heat engine - Everyday examples, Efficiency, Other criteria of heat engine performance, Heat engine enhancements, Heat engine processes

The name given to a device that transforms disordered heat energy into ordered, useful, mechanical work. This is achieved by taking a working fluid at high temperature and high heat energy, and subjecting it to a thermodynamic cycle involving compression and expansion, during which time heat is expelled at a lower temperature. The differences in heat energy of the working fluid between input and o…

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heat pump - Efficiency

A device designed to produce effective heating or cooling by moving heat from one place to another. If heating is needed in a building, a refrigerant such as Freon is pumped through a coil which is outside the building. Since the refrigerant is cold, it absorbs heat from the surroundings, such as the ground or the outside air. It then passes through a compressor which increases its temperature and…

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heat treatment - Heat Treatment of Metals and Alloys, Quenching, Surface Hardening, Heat treatment of swords and knives

Subjecting a metal component to a cycle of heating and cooling so as to modify its internal crystalline structure and therefore promote desirable physical and mechanical properties. The form and rate of the cycle is important: for example, the rapid quenching of a heated alloy may preserve at the low temperature the crystalline structure or chemical composition characteristic of the high temperatu…

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heath - Places, People

A low evergreen shrub or small tree, native to Europe, Asia, N Africa, and especially S Africa; leaves small, narrow to needle-shaped with inrolled margins, in whorls of three or more; flowers often numerous, bell- or urn-shaped, pink, purple, or white. It is often dominant on poor, acid soils of moors and heathland, but some grow on alkaline soils. Many species are grown for ornament. They are al…

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Heather McKay

Squash player, born in Queanbeyan, New South Wales, SE Australia. During her career she completely dominated the game, from 1962 to 1979 winning every competition she entered. She won the British squash championship for 16 consecutive years (1962–77), and also regularly won the Australian championship (1960–73). She moved to Canada in 1975, and later became a successful racketball competitor. …

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heaven - Location, Getting into Heaven, In the Bahá'í Faith, In Christianity, In Hinduism, In Islam

Generally, the dwelling-place of God and the angels, and in traditional Christianity the ultimate eternal destiny of the redeemed, there to reign with Christ in glory. In the Bible, it is usually conceived as high above the Earth. In modern theology, the emphasis is more on the quality, transformation, or fulfilment of life, the fully-revealed presence of God, and the perfection of the divine–hum…

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heavy metal music - Characteristics, History, Cultural impact, Related styles, Heavy metal movements

A form of rock music developed from electrified blues music, with heavily amplified guitars, bass guitars, and drums, and often strident vocals. Early pioneers were Jimi Hendrix and the band Cream with Eric Clapton; classic exponents of the genre included US bands Grand Funk (Railroad), Vanilla Fudge, and Mountain, and the British Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, and Black Sabbath. These were succeeded …

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Hebrew literature

The classical period was from the 10th-c to the 4th-c BC, the time of the composition of the Pentateuch (the five books of Moses) and much more of the Bible, though some of the later books are in Aramaic. The Hebrew Mishna and the Aramaic Gemara form the Talmud, the basis of Jewish law and scholarship. After AD c.220 Hebrew became a literary language only. The centre of Jewish culture moved from N…

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Hebrides - The Hebrides under Norwegian control

Over 500 islands off the W coast of Scotland, UK; divided into the Inner Hebrides (notably Skye, Rhum, Eigg, Coll, Mull, Iona, Staffa, Islay, Jura) and Outer Hebrides (notably Lewis with Harris, the Uists, Barra), separated by the Minch; farming, fishing, Harris tweed, tourism. The Hebrides as a whole are sometimes referred to as the Western Isles, but this term is more accurately applied j…

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Hebron - History, Demographics thoroughout history, Jewish settlement after 1967, Cultural, historical and sporting landmarks

31°32N 35°06E, pop (2000e) 135 000. Capital city of Hebron governorate (Jordan), Israeli-occupied West Bank, W Jordan; 29 km/18 mi SW of Jerusalem; one of the oldest cities in the world, built 1730 BC; a religious centre of Islam; the home of Abraham; shrine of Haram al-Khalil over the Cave of Machpelah. The name "Hebron" derives from the Hebrew name for the city, which ultimately com…

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Hecate - Representations, Relations in the Greek Pantheon, Other names and epithets, Emblems, Festivals, Cross-cultural parallels

In Greek mythology, the goddess associated with witchcraft, spooks, and magic. Not in Homer, she appears in Hesiod, and seems to represent the powerful mother-goddess of Asia Minor. She is worshipped with offerings at places where three roads cross, and so given three bodies in sculpture. Hecate, Hekate (Hekátē), or Hekat was originally a goddess of the wilderness and childbirth originati…

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Hector - Later treatments

According to Greek legend, the bravest Trojan, who led out their army to battle; the son of Priam, and married to Andromache. Achilles killed him and dragged his body behind his chariot all around the walls of Troy; Priam ransomed the corpse at the end of the Iliad. In Greek mythology, Hector ( Ἑκτωρ, "holding fast"), or Hektor, was a Trojan prince and one of the greatest fighters in …

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Hector (Germain) Guimard - Years of study, A flashing glory, Oblivion, The rediscovery, Timeline

Architect, born in Lyon, SC France. He studied at the École des Arts Decoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts, and was influenced by Viollet-le-Duc and Victor Horta. He became the most important Art Nouveau architect active in Paris between 1890 and World War 1. For his outstanding architectural scheme, the Castel Béranger apartment block (1890), he designed every aspect of the building and its …

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Hecuba - Hecuba in arts and literature

In Greek legend, the wife of Priam, King of Troy, and mother of 18 children, including Hector and Cassandra. After the Greeks took Troy, she saw her sons and her husband killed, and was sent into slavery. Hecuba (also Hekuba or Hekabe) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy. With the god Apollo, Hecuba had a son named Troilius. Polydorus, Pria…

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hedgehog - Physical description, Behavior/Predators, Diet, Domesticated hedgehogs, Pest control, Hedgehog diseases, Human influence

An insectivorous mammal native to Europe, Africa, and Asia; body covered with spines; tail short; many species dig burrows; young born with spines hidden beneath the skin; adults coat spines with saliva. In heraldry, the hedgehog is called a herisson. (Family: Erinaceidae, 12 species.) A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Insectivora. There…

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hedonism (ethics) - Basic concepts, Predecessors, Hedonism and Egoism

An ethical doctrine which maintains that the only intrinsic good is pleasure, and the only intrinsic evil is pain. Different philosophical schools, such as the Cyrenaics, Epicureans, and utilitarians, have gone on to interpret ‘pleasure’ or ‘happiness’ in very different ways. Hedonism (Greek: hēdonē (ᾑδονή from Ancient Greek) "pleasure" + –ism) The hedonistic view focuses on i…

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hedonism (psychology) - Basic concepts, Predecessors, Hedonism and Egoism

A psychological thesis, often enlisted in aid of ethical hedonism, which claims that people are as a matter of fact always motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Hedonism (Greek: hēdonē (ᾑδονή from Ancient Greek) "pleasure" + –ism) The hedonistic view focuses on increasing pleasure . The basic idea behind hedonistic thought is that all actions can be measured on th…

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Hedwig Courths-Mahler - Literary works, Films

Novelist, born in Nebra, Thuringia, EC Germany. At the age of 17 she began to write light romantic literature that proved instantly and lastingly popular, and at her death had 207 novels to her credit. A favourite theme was that of the virtuous heroine - impoverished perhaps through World War 1 and the resulting inflation - who marries for love, but thereby also improves her lot. Together with the…

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Heerlen - Education, Health Care, Notable Heerlenaren, Mines, Pictures of Heerlen

50º55N 6º00E, pop (2002e) 96 200. Industrial city in Limburg province, S Netherlands; located 22 km/14 mi NE of Maastricht; birthplace of Thomas Bernhard and Jozef Ritzen; railway; coal mining region. Coordinates: 50°54′N 5°59′E Heerlen (pronunciation (help·info)) is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands and the second biggest city in the provinc…

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Heian period - History, Developments in Buddhism, Heian period literature, Heian period economics, The Fujiwara Regency

(794–1185) A phase of Japanese history beginning with the establishment of the Imperial capital at Heian (modern Kyoto) in 794. The supremacy established by the Fujiwara nobility during the preceding Nara period continued until 1068, and intermarriage occurred between the Fujiwara and the royal family. The period is notable for architecture, bronze statuary, and literature. Heian remained Japan's…

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Heidelberg - Heidelberg City Districts, Around Heidelberg, Events, International friendship, Gallery

49°23N 8°41E, pop (2000e) 141 000. Industrial city in Karlsruhe district, SWC Germany; 18 km/11 mi SE of Mannheim; centre of German Calvinism during the 16th-c; railway; oldest university in Germany (1386); printing presses, pens, machinery, adhesives, scientific apparatus, cement, plaster, publishing, tourism; castle (1583–1610), Holy Ghost Church (15th-c), town hall (18th-c). Coord…

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Heimito von Doderer - Life and work, Bibliography

Writer, born in Weidlingen, Lower Austria. He served in both World Wars and was imprisoned in Siberia (1916–20). His poetry collections Gassen und Landschaft (1923) and Die Bresche (1924) place him in the Expressionist tradition. A master of a whole range of linguistic skills, his major works are the novels Die Strudelhofstiege (1951) and Die Dämonen (1956), with their depiction of Viennese life…

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Heinrich (Friedrich Emil) Lenz

Physicist, born in Tartu (formerly Dorpat), E Estonia. He first studied theology, then chemistry and physics at Dorpat. He became professor of physics at St Petersburg Academy of Science (1836), and later, dean of mathematics and physics. He was the first to state the law governing induced current (Lenz's law), and is also credited with discovering the dependence of electrical resistance on temper…

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Heinrich (Rudolf) Hertz - Biography

Physicist, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He studied under Kirchhoff and Helmholtz in Berlin, and became professor at Bonn in 1889. His main work was on electromagnetic waves (1887), and he was the first to broadcast and receive radio waves. The unit of frequency is named after him. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom th…

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Heinrich Albert

Composer, born in Lobenstein, EC Germany. After studying at Leipzig, he became organist in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) in 1631. He did much to develop Lieder, and composed many airs, songs, chorales, and hymn tunes. Heinrich Friedrich Albert was a German lawyer who served as commercial attaché to German Ambassador to the United States Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff during World War I. …

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Heinrich Barth

Explorer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. After studying archaeology at Berlin, in 1849 he was appointed by the British government to a mission to C Africa to suppress slavery. He continued his explorations on his own, travelling nearly 12 000 mi. Afterwards he was appointed professor of geography at Berlin University. Heinrich Barth (1821-1865), German explorer, was born at Hamburg on Februa…

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Heinrich Bullinger - Life, Works, External references

Religious reformer, born in Bremgarten, N Switzerland. In 1529 he married a former nun, and became a disciple of Zwingli, whom he succeeded in 1531 as leader of the reformed party in Switzerland. He drew up the Helvetic Confessions of 1536 and 1566. Heinrich Bullinger (July 18, 1504 - September 17, 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church an…

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Heinrich Gustav Magnus

German physicist. As professor of chemistry at Berlin University he made important discoveries in the fields of acids and gases, and in 1853 he described the Magnus effect - the sideways force experienced by a spinning ball which is responsible for the swerving of golf or tennis balls when hit with a slice. Heinrich Gustav Magnus (May 2, 1802 – April 4, 1870) was a German chemist and phys…

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Heinrich Himmler

German Nazi leader and chief of police, born in Munich, SE Germany. He began life as a poultry farmer, joined the Nazi Party in 1925, and in 1929 was made head of the SS (Schutzstaffel, protective force), which he developed from Hitler's personal bodyguard into a powerful Party weapon. With the help of Heydrich, he founded the SD (security service) in 1932. In 1936 he became chief of all the polic…

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Heinrich Karl Brugsch

Egyptologist, born in Berlin, Germany. He was director of the School of Egyptology in Cairo (1870–90), helped to decipher demotic script, and published a hieroglyphic–demotic dictionary (1867–82). Heinrich Karl Brugsch (also Brugsch-Pasha) (18 February 1827 – 9 September 1894) was a German Egyptologist, born in Berlin. Brugsch was the son of a Prussian cavalry officer, and …

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Heinrich Laube

Writer and journalist, born in Sprottau, Silesia. A leading figure in the radical literary movement ‘Junges Deutschland7rsquo;, his socio-critical articles as editor (1832) of the Leipzig Zeitung für die elegante Welt earned him sanctions in the 1830s, ranging from detention of two-and-a-half years to a ban on his writings. Officially recognized once again, the 1840s saw him as a theatre critic …

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Heinrich Mann - Life and work, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Lübeck, N Germany, the brother of Thomas Mann. After the death of his wealthy father, he became financially independent and settled in Berlin and France. He is best known for the macabre novel, Professor Unrat (1904), describing the moral degradation of an outwardly respectable schoolmaster, which was translated and filmed as The Blue Angel (1930). Other works include Die kleine…

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Heinrich Raspe

Landgraf of Thuringia and anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire from 1246 at the pope's instigation. He was banished from the court by his nephew Hermann II and his mother Elisabeth. He was nominated regent for the minor Konrad IV, whom he conquered at the battle of the Nidda on 5 August 1246. In Thuringia, Heinrich initially was regent for his under-age nephew Hermann II, but he managed to ex…

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Heinrich Rickert

Philosopher, born in Gda?sk, N Poland (formerly Danzig, Germany). He was a pupil of Wilhelm Windelband (1848–1915), and founded with him the Baden school of neo-Kantianism. He became professor at Freiburg (1894) and Heidelberg (1916), and argued for a Kulturwissenschaft (‘science of culture’) which could be an objective science of those universal concepts (such as religion, art, and law) that e…

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Heinrich Schliemann - Childhood, Career as a businessman, Life as a Treasure Hunter/Pseudo-Archaeologist

Archaeologist, born in Neubukow, N Germany. After a successful business career, he retired early to realize his ambition of finding the site of the Homeric poems by excavating the tell at Hisarlik in Asia Minor, the traditional site of Troy. From 1871 he discovered nine superimposed city sites, one containing a considerable treasure (found 1873) which he over-hastily identified as Priam's. He also…

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Heinrich Seuse - Overview, Life, Writings, Bibliography, External linls and references

Writer, born near Konstanz (Lake Constance), Swabia. Of noble birth, he entered the Dominican order at the age of 13, and in the mid-1320s was a pupil of Meister Eckhart in Cologne, going on to undertake academic and pastoral duties in Switzerland and the upper Rhine. A mystic writer in the tradition of Eckhart, his works, couched in delicate but vivid lyricism, include Das Büchlein der Wahrheit …

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Heinrich von Treitschke - References

Historian and political journalist, born in Dresden, E Germany. He became professor of political science in Freiburg im Breisgau (1863), and professor of history in Kiel (1866), in Heidelberg (1867), and in Berlin (1874). In 1886 he was nominated ‘Historiograph des preußischen Staates’. In 1871–84 he was a member of the Reichstag (initially national-liberal, later independent). As a proponent …

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Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg

Playwright and poet, born in Tondern, Silesia. After military posts in the service of Denmark, he became Danish consul in Lübeck (1775–83). Early anacreontic poems such as Tändeleyen (1756) were followed by the tragic drama Ugolino (1768), which marked the start of the Shakespeare-influenced movement "Sturm und Drang', a cult of turbulent emotion and genius. Other works in this genre include Kr…

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Heinz (Wilhelm) Guderian - Early career, World War II, Life after the war, Books by Heinz Guderian

German soldier, born in Kulm, SEC Germany. A leading tank expert and exponent of the Blitzkrieg theory, he created the panzer armies which overran Poland in 1939 and France in 1940. He commanded the 2nd Panzer Group in Army Group Centre under Bock in the attack on the USSR in June 1941. Recalled after the failure to take Moscow, he was chief of general staff in 1944, and after the anti-Hitler plot…

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Heinz Hartmann

Psychoanalyst, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied with Sigmund Freud and expanded upon many of his theories. With Anna Freud and Ernst Kris, he founded the annual publication Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. He served as president of the International Psycho-Analytical Association (1951–7), and was honoured by the American Psychoanalytical Association when he received its Charles Frederick Men…

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Heinz Hopf

Mathematician, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). After war service he studied at Berlin and Göttingen universities, where he met the Russian topologist Pavel Alexandrov with whom he wrote the influential Topologie (1935). In 1931 he became professor at Zürich. One of Europe's leading topologists, he worked on many aspects of combinatorial topology, including homotopy theory…

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Heinz Sielmann

Naturalist and nature filmmaker, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He began to make films in 1938, and won the German Oscar for documentary films three years running (1953–5). He evolved techniques enabling him to film the inside of animal lairs and birds' nests, which revolutionized the study of animal behaviour. In Germany he became known through his popular television sho…

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Heitor Villa-Lobos - Biography, Music

Composer and conductor, born in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. He studied at Rio and travelled widely in Brazil, collecting material on folk music. His many compositions include 12 symphonies, as well as operas, large-scale symphonic poems, concerti, and ballets. He is also known for the nine suites Bachianas Brasileiras (1930–45), in which he treats Brazilian style melodies in the manner of Bach. In…

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Helen - Life of Helen, Timeline, Media

In Greek legend, the wife of Menelaus of Sparta, famous for her beauty; her abduction by Paris the Trojan caused the Trojan War. She was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, in mythical accounts. According to Stesichoros, however, Helen stayed in Egypt, while a phantom accompanied Paris to Troy. In Greek mythology, Helen (Greek: Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Troy, was the daughte…

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Helen (Adams) Keller - Biography, Portrayals of Helen Keller

Writer and lecturer, born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, USA. She became blind and deaf at 19 months, and in a breakthrough made famous by subsequent popular dramatizations, was taught to speak, read, and write when she was seven years old by Anne Mansfield Sullivan (later Mrs Macy), known as ‘Teacher’ to Keller and ‘the Miracle Worker’ among the general public. Sullivan remained Keller's interpreter …

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Helen (Brooke) Taussig - People with the given name Brooke

Physician, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Specializing in congenital malformations of the heart, she is best known as co-developer of the famous ‘blue-baby’ operation (1944) along with the late Dr Alfred Blalock. The Blalock and Taussig procedure helped pave the way for open heart surgery using the heart-lung machine, accounting for major progress in cardiac surgery. She was also instrum…

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Helen (Elizabeth) Clark - Early life, Involvement in the Labour Party, Member of Parliament, Prime Minister, Achievements, Controversies, Honours

New Zealand politician and prime minister (1999– ), born in Hamilton, New Zealand. A former lecturer in political studies at Auckland University, she became an MP in 1981, and served in Labour administrations in the 1980s. She became deputy prime minister (1989), leader of the party (1993), and New Zealand's first elected woman prime minister (1999), winning a second term in 2002. She secured a n…

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Helen (Hennessy) Vendler - Life and career

Literary critic and educator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A professor at Boston University (1966–85) and Harvard (1981– ), she became poetry critic of the New Yorker in 1978. Through her numerous reviews there and in the New York Review of Books she exerted a powerful influence over the reputations and publications of contemporary poets. Vendler has written books on W. Richards: E…

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Helen (Maria) Hunt Jackson - Biography, Jackson and American Indian policy, Books by Helen Hunt Jackson online

Writer, born in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. She turned to writing after the deaths of her first husband and two sons, remarried (1875), and settled in Colorado. A campaigner for American Indian rights, she highlighted the injustices of government policy in her book A Century of Dishonor (1881). She was appointed to a Federal Commission to investigate the Indian question, and the experience provid…

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Helen (Newington) Wills Moody - Grand Slam singles finals, Grand Slam singles tournament timeline

Tennis player, born in Centerville, California, USA. She studied at the University of California (1927) and from then until her retirement (1939) she dominated women's tennis. She won her first US women's singles title in 1923, then went on to win it six more times by 1931. She also won the Wimbledon singles championship eight times, the French singles four times, various doubles championships, an…

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Helen (Patricia) Sharman - Project Juno astronaut, Trivia

Britain's first astronaut, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. She studied chemistry at Sheffield University, then worked in electrical engineering and confectionery research. In 1989 she responded to an advertisement asking for trainee astronauts, and was eventually selected from over 13–000 applicants to be the British member of the Russian scientific space mission, Project Juno …

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Helen Dunmore

Poet and novelist, born in Yorkshire, England, UK. She studied at the University of York and began writing poetry, her collections including The Apple Fall (1983), The Raw Garden (1988), and Secrets (1994). Her children's books include Going to Egypt (1992), Fatal Error (1996), and The Lilac Tree (2004), and among her novels for adults are Zennor in Darkness (1993), Talking to the Dead (1996), and…

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Helen Fielding - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Morley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. She studied at Oxford University, then worked in newspaper and television journalism, producing documentaries in Africa for Comic Relief. This provided her with the inspiration for her first work of fiction, Cause Celeb (1994). However, it was her comic novel Bridget Jones's Diary (1996, filmed 2001) - originally a weekly newspaper column ab…

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Helen Frankenthaler - Style and technique, Influences

Abstract painter, born in New York City, USA. She studied under the Mexican painter Rufino Tamayo and at Bennington College, Vermont. She developed a technique of applying very thin paint to unprimed canvas, allowing it to soak in and create atmospheric stains and blots on the surface. Her best-known picture is ‘Mountains and Sea’ (1952). Helen Frankenthaler (born December 12, 1928) is an…

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Helen Gurley Brown - Awards, Works, Quotes

Editor and writer, born in Green Forest, Arkansas, USA. Propelled to fame by her best-seller Sex and the Single Girl (1962), she became editor of the floundering Cosmopolitan magazine in 1965 and transformed the struggling magazine into an international journal with 14 overseas editions. Helen Gurley Brown (b. Brown's father died in an accident when she was young, and her sister…

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Helen Hayes - Stage appearances, Filmography, Television Work

Stage and film actress, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. Best known in roles that combined apparent pliability with inner steel, she made her debut at the age of five. In the 1920s she seemed type-cast as a flapper, but she soon graduated to more substantial roles such as Cleopatra in Caesar and Cleopatra (1925). In 1928 she married playwright Charles MacArthur. She won an Academy Aw…

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Helen Levitt

Photographer, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at New York's Art Students' League while working as a free-lance photographer (from 1939) and making some short films. Her primary subject was New York street life and her work was exhibited at galleries and museums including New York's Museum of Modern Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Yale University. Among her publications a…

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Helen Merrill - Youth and early career in the United States, Success abroad, Late career

Jazz singer, born in New York City, USA. She sang with the Earl Hines Sextet in 1952, and made a wide range of recordings during the following decade. Her albums include The Complete Helen Merrill on Mercury (1959), and The Artistry of Helen Merrill (1968). Merrill's recording career has spanned six decades and she is popular with fans of jazz in Japan and Italy (where she lived for many ye…

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Helen Suzman

South African politician, born in Germiston, Transvaal, NE South Africa. She studied at Witwatersrand University, then became a lecturer there (1944–52). Deeply concerned about the apartheid system erected by the National Party under Daniel Malan, she joined the Opposition, and was elected to parliament in 1953. She gradually gained the respect of the black community and, for years the sole MP of…

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Helen Traubel

Soprano, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. She made her debut in St Louis in 1923, and sang at the New York Metropolitan in 1937. She was the leading Wagnerian soprano at the Met from 1941, resigning after a dispute over her nightclub appearances (1953). She also worked in film and television, and wrote detective novels. Helen Traubel (June 16, 1899-July 28, 1972), was an American operatic s…

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Helena Petrovna Blavatsky - Places, Persons, Fictional People, Ships

Theosophist, born in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk), SC Ukraine. She had a brief marriage in her teens to a Russian general, but left him and travelled widely in the East. She moved to the USA in 1873, and in 1875, with Henry Steel Olcott, founded the Theosophical Society in New York City, later carrying on her work in India. Her psychic powers were widely acclaimed by her large following tha…

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Helena Rubinstein

Beautician and business executive, born in Kraków, S Poland. She attended medical school in Kraków, then moved in the 1890s to Australia, where she opened the country's first beauty salon in Melbourne (1902). Her face cream, formulated according to a family recipe, made her fortune. She studied with European dermatologists, and opened salons in London (1908) and Paris (1912). In 1915 she emigrat…

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Helene Weigel

Actress-manager, born in Vienna, Austria. She married Bertolt Brecht in 1929, and became a leading exponent of his work, particularly in Die Mutter (1932, The Mother) and Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (1949, Mother Courage and her Children). She took control of the Berliner Ensemble after Brecht's death in 1956, and was instrumental in furthering his influence through the international tours she …

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Helensburgh - History, The town today

56º01N 4º44W, pop (2000e) 17 000. Town in Argyll and Bute, W Scotland, UK; on the N shore of the Firth of Clyde, 12 km/7 mi NW of Dumbarton; created a royal burgh, 1802; birthplace of John Logie Baird and Deborah Kerr; electric railway; former popular coastal resort for Glasgow area; Hill House (1902–3) designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Helensburgh was founded in 1776 when Sir I…

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Helga Dernesch - Life and Career, Recordings

Operatic soprano, born in Vienna, Austria. She studied at the Vienna Conservatory, made her debut in Bern (1961), and sang at Covent Garden in 1970. She has sung throughout Europe and the USA, and is specially noted for her portrayals of Wagner, Strauss, and the modern German repertory. Since 1979 she has sung mezzo-soprano roles. Dernesch studied at the Conservatory in Vienna, before makin…

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helical scan - Azimuth recording

A system of magnetic tape recording in which the tape is wrapped in a partial helix around a drum carrying two or more rotating heads which trace a series of tracks diagonally across its width. The relative head-to-tape velocity, the ‘writing speed’, is much higher than the rate at which the tape itself advances, so that very high frequencies can be recorded economically. The technique was origi…

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Helicon

The largest mountain in Boeotia. In Greek mythology, it was the sacred hill of the Muses, whose temple was to be found there, together with the fountains of Aganippe and Hippocrene. Helicon is the name of a mountain in the region of Thespiai in Boeotia, Greece (Kerenyi 1951 p 172), made famous in Greek mythology because two springs sacred to the Muses were located here: the Aganippe a…

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helicopter - Generating lift, Controlling flight, Stability, Limitations, Landing, Hazards of helicopter flight, Helicopter models and identification

A vertical take-off and landing aircraft whose lift is provided by means of a horizontal, large-diameter set of powered blades which force the air downwards and by reaction create a lifting force upwards. Forward flight is achieved by tilting the plane of the blades in the direction of flight, varying their angle to the horizontal as they rotate. A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted …

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Heligoland - Geography, Climate, Geology, Flag, History

54°09N 7°52E, pop (2000e) 3640. Rocky North Sea island of the North Frisian Is, in Heligoland Bay, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, 64 km/40 mi NW of Cuxhaven; area 2·1 km²/0·8 sq mi; captured from Denmark by the UK, 1807; ceded to Germany in exchange for Zanzibar, 1890; German naval base in both World Wars; tourism; centre for the study of birds. Formerly a Danish and British posses…

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Heliodorus

Greek romance writer and Sophist, born in Emesa in W Syria. One of the earliest Greek novelists, he was the author of Aethiopica, which narrates in poetic prose the loves of Theagenes and Chariclea. Several persons named Heliodorus are known to us from ancient times, the best known of which is Heliodorus of Emesa, author of the novel Aethiopica. Possibly the same Heliodorus as t…

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Helios - Greek mythology, Helios and Apollo, Cult of Helios

In Greek mythology, the Sun-god, represented as a charioteer with four horses. In early times Helios was not worshipped, except at Rhodes; in the late classical period, there was an Imperial cult of the Sun, Sol Invictus. In Greek mythology the sun was personified as Helios or Helius (Greek Ἥλιος / ἥλιος). Helios was imagined as a handsome god crowned with the shinin…

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heliotrope

A small evergreen shrub (Heliotropium peruvianum) 0·5–2 m/1½–6½ ft, a native of Peru; leaves lance-shaped to oblong, hairy, puckered; flowers small, tubular, with spreading lobes, white to lilac or violet, in terminal clusters. It is cultivated for its fragrant flowers. (Family: Boraginaceae.) Heliotrope may mean: …

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helium - Notable characteristics, Applications, Occurrence and production, Isotopes, Precautions

He, element 2, the most inert of the chemical elements, forming no stable compounds; the lightest of the noble or inert gases. It condenses to a liquid only at ?269°C (4 K). Formed by radioactive decay of the heaviest elements, it is obtained mainly as a small fraction of natural gas. Because of its inertness and low density (less than 15% of the density of air), it is used to fill balloons. Liq…

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hell - Hell in mystic accounts, Hell in Literature, Hell in entertainment and other popular culture

In traditional Christian thought, the eternal abode and place of torment of the damned. It developed out of Hebrew sheol and Greek hades as the place of the dead. Much contemporary Christian thought rejects the idea of vindictive punishment as incompatible with belief in a loving God. The emphasis acccordingly shifts from hell as a place of retribution to a state of being without God. In po…

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Hella Haasse - Incomplete bibliography

Novelist and essayist, born in Jakarta, Indonesia. She spent most of her childhood in the former Netherlands East Indies, and wrote her first collection of poems, Stroomversnelling (Rapid), in 1945. She became popular with her novel Oeroeg (1948), which describes the tragic friendship between a Dutch boy and an Indonesian boy. She showed her historical interest in a number of novels such as Het wo…

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hellebore - Species and subspecies, Garden use, Folklore

A perennial with glossy divided leaves and large flowers, native to Europe and W Asia; flowers with five green, white, or pinkish-purple petaloid sepals, and up to 20 prominent 2-lipped nectar-secreting glands; highly poisonous, with a burning taste because of the presence of alkaloids. (Genus: Helleborus, 20 species. Family: Ranunculaceae.) Helleborus is a genus of approximately 20 species…

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Hellen

In ancient Greek genealogies, the eldest son of Deucalion, and father of Doros, Xuthos, and Aiolos, who were the progenitors of the Dorian, Ionian, and Aeolic branches of the Greek race. The Greeks (or Hellenes) were named after him. Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy, or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. Hellen (Classical Greek Ἕλλην, Héllēn) is the…

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Helmut (Heinrich Waldemar) Schmidt - Political career

West German statesman and chancellor (1974–82), born in Hamburg, N Germany. After service in World War 2, he studied at Hamburg, joined the Social Democratic Party in 1946, and became a member of the Bundestag in 1953. He was minister of defence (1969–72), and of finance (1972–4), in which role he created a firm basis for Germany's continued economic growth. He succeeded Brandt as chancellor, d…

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Helmut Baierl - Work

Writer, born in Rumburk, Czech Republic. After Slavonic studies at university, he attended the literary institute in Leipzig and was engaged until 1967 as literary manager at the Berliner Ensemble in East Berlin. His plays, strongly reminiscent of Brecht's, portray everyday life in the German Democratic Republic, and include Frau Flinz (1961), Johanna von Döbeln (1969), Schlag 13 (1971), Die Lach…

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Helmut Jahn - Completed projects, Awards

Architect, born in Nuremberg, Germany. He emigrated in 1966 and joined C F Murphy Associates, Chicago (1967–81) (which became Murphy and Jahn in 1981), designing primarily Midwestern commercial buildings, making extensive use of glass sheathing. Despite starting off with a rocky start when the roof of his first major project Kemper Arena in Kansas City, Missouri collapsed in 1979, Jahn est…

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Helmut Kohl - Life, Political Views, Public perception

German statesman and chancellor (1982–98), born in Ludwigshafen-am-Rhein, SW Germany. He studied at Frankfurt and Heidelberg, became a lawyer, and joined the Christian Democrats. In 1976 he moved to Bonn as a member of the Federal Parliament, became Leader of the Opposition, and his party's candidate for the chancellorship. After the collapse of the Schmidt coalition in 1982, Kohl was installed a…

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Helmut Thielicke - Biography, Andere Zeiten, Selected English Translations of Works by Thielicke

Lutheran theologian and preacher, born in Barmen, W Germany. He was dismissed from his post at Heidelberg for criticizing the Nazis, and in 1944 contributed to a draft declaration on Church–State relations for a revolutionary government to follow a successful plot against Hitler. He was appointed professor of theology at Hamburg after World War 2, becoming dean of theology (1954), and university …

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Helmuth Plessner - Literary works

Philosopher and social theorist, born in Wiesbaden, WC Germany. He studied zoology, medicine, and philosophy at Freiburg, Heidelberg, and Berlin. He was professor at Cologne (1926–34), then moved to Groningen in Holland to escape the Nazis, but was expelled from there in 1942. He returned to Groningen in 1946, and moved to Göttingen in 1951. He helped found the new discipline of ‘philosophical …

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Helsingborg - Notable natives, Sights

56°03N 12°43E, pop (2000e) 115 000. Seaport and commercial town on W coast of Malmöhus county, SW Sweden; on The Sound opposite Helsingør, Denmark; railway; ferry services to Denmark; shipbuilding, textiles, machinery, copper refining, fertilizers, trade in chemicals, timber, paper; town hall (1897), St Mary's Church (13th-c). …

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Helsinki - Introduction, Names and etymology, Economy, Services, Politics, Geography, Architecture, Culture, Tourism, Notable natives, Sports

60°08N 25°00E, pop (2000e) 507 000. Seaport, capital of Finland and Uudenmaa province, S Finland; on the Gulf of Finland, on a peninsula surrounded by islands; founded by Gustavus Vasa in 1550; capital, 1812; heavily bombed in World War 2; airport; railway; university (transferred from Turku, 1828); technical university (1908); shipbuilding, textiles, engineering, porcelain, metals, paper, exp…

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Helvellyn - Topography, History, Picture gallery

54°32N 3°02W. Mountain in the Lake District of Cumbria, NW England, UK; rises to 950 m/3117 ft between Ullswater and Thirlmere; Striding Edge descends to the E. Helvellyn is a mountain in the English Lake District. The peak of Helvellyn is the highest on the north-south ridge situated between the Thirlmere valley to the west, and Patterdale to the east. Helvellyn…

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Helvetii

Celtic people forced S by Germanic tribesmen in the 2nd-c BC into modern Switzerland. In 58 BC, when renewed Germanic pressure prompted Helvetian migration into Gaul, Julius Caesar drove them back to their Swiss lands. They became allies then subjects of Rome, until c.400. The official names for Switzerland derive from this source: Helvetia and Confederatio Helvetica. The Helvetii (in Latin…

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Hemiptera

A group of insects comprising two orders, the Homoptera and the Heteroptera. Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. …

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hemlock (conifer)

Evergreen conifer native to North America and E Asia; branches drooping; leaves short, narrow, in two ranks; cones ripen after one year, but do not shed seeds until the second year. It yields timber, Canada pitch, and tanning bark. (Genus: Tsuga, 15 species. Family: Pinaceae.) The word Hemlock can refer to a number of things: As a plant: As a place name: …

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hemlock (flowering plant)

A biennial (Conium maculatum) growing to 2·5 m/8 ft, native to Europe and temperate Asia, and widely introduced; stem hollow, furrowed, spotted with purple; leaves divided with oblong toothed segments; flowers white, lacking sepals, in umbels 2–5 cm/¾–2 in across; fruit ovoid; a fetid smell. All parts are very poisonous because of the presence of the alkaloid coniine, used as a poison sinc…

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henbane

An annual or biennial (Hyoscyamus niger), sticky-haired and fetid, native to Europe, W Asia, and N Africa; leaves large, soft, coarsely toothed; flowers 2–3 cm/¾–1¼ in across, borne in a curved inflorescence; calyx tubular; corolla 5-lobed, lurid yellow and purple. It is poisonous, containing various aklaloids, principally hyoscyamnine and scopalomine. Its extracts are still used in modern m…

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Henderson

37º50N 87º35W, pop (2002e) 27 400. County seat of Henderson Co, Kentucky, USA; located on the Ohio R; town prospered during the 19th-c tobacco industry; birthplace of John J Becker and Husband Edward Kimmel; airport; riverboats in operation; John James Audubon State Park and Museum; many 19th-c buildings; racecourse. Henderson is a common surname: Henderson may refer to plac…

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Hendrik (Frensch) Verwoerd - Youth, Architect of apartheid, A republic, Assassination

South African statesman and prime minister (1958–66), born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He studied at Stellenbosch, where he became professor of applied psychology (1927) and sociology (1933), and edited the nationalist Die Transvaler (1938–48). Elected senator in 1948, he became minister of native affairs (1950), and introduced most of the apartheid legislation with the support of the premier…

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Hendrik Casimir - Biography, Publications

Physicist, born in The Hague, The Netherlands. He studied physics at Leyden, Copenhagen, and Zürich, and became director of the Philips Research Laboratories in 1946. In 1934 he helped to devise a general theory of superconductivity; the later theory by Bardeen and others both includes and extends Casimir's work. The Casimir effect is a weak attractive force between conducting plates in a vacuum,…

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Hendrik Conscience

Novelist, born in Antwerp, N Belgium. From 1866 he was director of the Wiertz Museum. His Phantazy (1837), a collection of tales, and his most popular romance, De leeuw van Vlaanderen (1838, The Lion of Flanders), earned him a place as ‘the father of the Flemish novel’. His series of pictures of Flemish life carried his name over Europe. Hendrik Conscience (born December 3, 1812 in Antwer…

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Hendrik Marsman

Poet and novelist, born in Zeist, WC Netherlands. He studied law in Utrecht, became a lawyer, and worked for several newspapers and magazines, including the Forum. His early work was expressionist, virile, passionate, and powerful, and his poems express a passion for life which is a transformed fear of, or hatred for, death. In his last work this motive changes into an acceptance of the end of lif…

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Hendrik Willem van Loon - Bibliography, Books about Van Loon

Popular historian, born in Rotterdam, W Netherlands. He emigrated to the USA in 1903 as a journalist and history teacher, and in 1922 published the best-selling illustrated Story of Mankind, followed by several other popular histories. His important historical studies include The Fall of the Dutch Republic (1913) and The Rise of the Dutch Kingdom (1915). Hendrik Willem van Loon (January 14,…

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Hendrikus Colijn

Dutch soldier, politician, and prime minister (1925–6, 1933–9), born in Haarlemmermeer, W Netherlands. He fought with the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army in Lombok with distinction, and served in Aceh (1895–1904) when he was adjutant to the governor-general. He left the service in 1907 and on return to Holland entered politics, joining the Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (ARP), and becoming party…

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Henley Royal Regatta - History, Spectators, Qualifying, Events

Rowing races which take place annually on the R Thames at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, England, UK, inaugurated in 1839. The Diamond Sculls (first contested 1884) and the Grand Challenge Cup are the most coveted events. The course has varied over the years, but is now approximately 2 km 112 m/1 mi 550 yd. It is as much an elegant social occasion for the public as a sporting one. Henle…

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henna

An evergreen shrub (Lawsonia inermis) growing to 3 m/10 ft, native to the Old World tropics; leaves opposite, oval to lance-shaped; flowers 4-petalled, white, pink, or red; fruit a 3-chambered capsule. The powdered leaves produce a red dye, used as a cosmetic for skin and hair since ancient times. (Family: Lythraceae.) …

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Henning Christophersen

Danish statesman and banker, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. A member of the Danish parliament (1971–84), he became leader of the Danish Liberal Party in 1978. He was minister of foreign affairs (1978–9) and minister of finance and deputy prime minister (1982–4). He became a member of the European Commission in 1984, and was a vice-president in charge of economic and monetary co-operation during 1…

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Henning Larsen - Buildings

Architect, born in Opsund, near Videbæk, Jutland, Denmark. He studied at the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, the Architectural Association in London, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1968 became professor of architecture at the Royal Danish Academy. His buildings include the University of Trondheim, the foreign ministry building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the 1100-seat Comp…

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Henri (Emile Beno - Biography, Partial list of works

Painter, born in Le Cateau, N France. He studied law in Paris, then worked as a lawyer's clerk. An interest in art came unexpectedly in his 20s, and in 1892 he took classes in Paris, first at the Académie Julian, then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. From 1904 he was the leader of the Fauves (Fr ‘wild beasts’, the name given by a hostile critic), and although he painted several pictures influenced …

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Henri (L - Lebesgue's theory of integration, Lebesgue's other achievements

Mathematician, born in Beauvais, N France. He studied at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, and taught at Rennes, Poitiers, the Sorbonne, and the Collège de France. Following the work of Emile Borel and René Baire (1874–1932), he developed the theory of measure and integration which bears his name, and applied it to many problems of analysis, in particular to the theory of Fourier series. Le…

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Henri (Louis) Bergson - Biography, Criticisms

Philosopher, born in Paris, France. He became professor at the Collège de France (1900–21), a highly original thinker who became something of a cult figure. He contrasted the fundamental reality of the dynamic flux of consciousness with the inert physical world of discrete objects, which was a convenient fiction for the mechanistic descriptions of science. The élan vital, or ‘creative impulse

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Henri (Marie Raymond) de Toulouse-Lautrec (-Monfa) - Biography

Painter and lithographer, born in Albi, S France. Physically frail, at the age of 14 he broke both his legs, which then ceased to grow. From 1882 he studied in Paris, and in 1884 settled in Montmartre, where he painted and drew the cabaret stars, prostitutes, barmaids, clowns, and actors of that society, as in ‘The Bar’ (1898, Zürich) and ‘At the Moulin Rouge’ (1892, Chicago). He also depicte…

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Henri Barbusse

Journalist and novelist, born in Asnières, NC France. He began as a neo-Symbolist poet with Pleureuses (1895), becoming known with his novel L'Enfer (1908). A volunteer in World War 1, he was twice cited for gallantry and was discharged wounded in 1917. He gained fame with Le Feu (1916), an account of life in the trenches, for which he was awarded the Prix Goncourt. His purpose was to mingle war …

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Henri Bosco - Bibliography

Novelist and poet, born in Avignon, SE France. He was haunted by the memory of the landscapes of his childhood, between the Rhône and the Durance, the connection between humanity and the earth. In L'Ane Culotte (1937), the animal has a symbolic significance, and he was awarded the Prix Renaudot for Le Mas Théotima (1945). Other works include Malicroix (1948) and L'Enfant et la Rivière (1933), w…

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Henri Cartier-Bresson - Biography, Technique, Works, Notable portrait subjects, Awards

Photographer, born in Chanteloup, Paris, France. He studied painting under André Lhote, then spent a year in Cambridge to learn English before taking up photography after a trip to The Ivory Coast, Africa (1930). His first exhibitions were in 1933 in Madrid and New York, where he worked on films with Paul Strand. He returned to Europe at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, recording events on …

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Henri Cochet - Grand Slam record

French tennis player. He was a member of the six-times winning Davies Cup team les Mousquetaires (1927–32). He also gained singles titles at Roland-Garros (1922, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1932), Wimbledon (1927, 1929), and Forest Hills (1928). French Championships Wimbledon Championships U.S. Championships …

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Henri de Lubac - Early life, Second Vatican Council, Spirituality and theological viewpoint, Late years

Jesuit theologian, born in Cambrai, N France. Professor at the Catholic University of Lyon, he became a cardinal in 1983 and served on the theological commission of the Vatican Council. His many works stress the importance of the supernatural, and deal with humanism and mystical theology, such as Méditation sur l'Eglise (1953). Cardinal Henri de Lubac (February 20, 1896 - September 4, 1991…

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Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville

Chemist, born in St Thomas, West Indies. He studied medicine in Paris but was soon attracted to chemistry. By 1851 he had become professor of chemistry at the Ecole Normale in Paris, and shortly afterwards professor at the Sorbonne. It was he who first produced aluminium (1855) and platinum in commercial quantities, by reduction of chlorides with sodium metal. His interest in high temperature reac…

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Henri Giffard

Engineer and inventor, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Collège Bourbon and the Ecole Centrale. In 1852 he built a light 3 hp steam engine, fitted it with an 3·3 m/11 ft propeller, and succeeded in piloting a coal-gas balloon, steered by a rudder, over a distance of 17 mi. This can be considered as the first powered and controlled flight ever achieved, in a craft which was a primitiv…

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Henri Harpignies

Landscape painter, born in Valenciennes, N France. After a stay in Italy, he returned to France where he became closely associated with the Barbizon School, and Corot in particular. His works include Ilex trees at Ville Franche. Henri Harpignies (June 28, 1819 - August 28, 1916), French landscape painter, was born at Valenciennes. On his return, he scored his first great success…

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Henri Labrouste - Biography, Stay in Rome

Architect, born in Paris, France. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, where he was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome in 1824, and went on to study at the Académie in Rome (1824–30). He developed a theory of romantic rationalism, and his buildings reflect both society's rationalism and technology and its beliefs. His most famous buildings are the Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève, Paris (1843) and t…

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Henri Laurens

Sculptor and graphic artist, born in Paris, France. He worked as an illustrator, stonemason, and interior decorator before he became involved in sculpting, becoming one of the most inventive Cubist sculptors after 1911, when he became associated with Picasso, Braque, and Léger. His works were in stone, improvised materials, and bronze. He was a leading exponent of three-dimensional Cubism, and mo…

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Henri Pescarolo

Outstanding French racing driver. He won the 24 hours Le Mans four times, and gained 17 victories in sport-prototype, including the 24-hours race at Daytona in 1991. He also raced in 57 Grand Prix between 1968 and 1976. Henri Pescarolo is also a keen helicopter pilot. (key) …

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Henri Pirenne

Historian of Belgium and mediaeval Europe, born in Verviers, E Belgium. He studied mediaeval history at the universities of Liège, Leipzig, Berlin, and Paris, and became professor of mediaeval and Belgian history at Ghent (1886–1930). His Economic and Social History of Mediaeval Europe (1936) summarizes his life's work, and his seven-volume Histoire de Belgique (1900–32) is a classic exposition…

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Henri Salvador

French comic singer, born in Cayenne, French Guiana. One of the first French rock-and roll-singers, he sang ‘Rock 'n' Roll Mops’, and also performed comic songs. He was successful in Brazil where he had followed Ray Ventura's ‘Collégiens’ group during the war, and he performed Michel Legrand and Boris Vian who wrote under pseudonyms after the liberation. His songs include ‘Maladie d'Amour’ …

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Henri Troyat - Bibliography

French novelist, born in Moscow, Russia. He came to France at six years of age, and began his literary career with Faux Jour (1935) and L'Araigne (Prix Goncourt, 1938). He published a series of romantic novels with a background of contemporary Russian history, including Tant que la Lumière durera (1947–50), La Lumière des Justes (1959–63), Le Pain de l'Etranger (1984), and Les Héritiers de l'…

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Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau - Early life, Career, Books

Technologist, born in Paris, France. He proved the distinction between potassium and sodium salts, showed that soda can be made from rock-salt, and improved the making of starch, soap, and brass. He also reviewed agricultural practice and introduced Tull's methods into France. Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau (1700-1782), was a French naval engineer and botanist. He was involved in the founda…

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Henrietta Swan Leavitt - Awards and honors

Astronomer, born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at Radcliffe College, and became a volunteer research assistant at Harvard College Observatory. By 1902 she was head of the department of photographic photometry, where her major work was the discovery of the period–luminosity relationship of Cepheid variable stars (1912). This work proved invaluable in establishing the distance scale…

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Henrietta Szold

Educator, reformer, and Zionist leader, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, the daughter of Benjamin Szold. Raised by her father to speak several languages, she graduated from a Baltimore high school and then taught for almost 15 years at a private academy for girls in that city, while also teaching in her father's synagogue. She became active in assisting the integration of Jewish immigrants into t…

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Henrik (Johan) Ibsen - Family and youth, Life and writings, Miscellaneous, List of works, Poetry

Playwright and poet, born in Skien, S Norway. He worked at theatres in Bergen and Christiania (Oslo), and wrote several conventional dramas before his first major play, Kongsemnerne (1857, The Pretenders). His theatre having gone bankrupt, and angry at Norway's aloofness in the struggle of Denmark with Germany, he went into voluntary exile to Rome, Dresden, and Munich (1864–92). His international…

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Henrik Larsson - Biography, International career, Honours

Footballer, born in Helsingborg, Sweden. He joined a local football club at age five and made his league debut with third-division Hogaborg at 17. After four years (1993–7) with Dutch team Feyenoord, he joined Scottish side Glasgow Celtic, scoring 16 goals in his first season. In 1999 a calf injury threatened to end his career, but he made a successful comeback some months later with the goals th…

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Henrik Shipstead

US senator, born in Burbank, Minnesota, USA. A dentist, he was elected to the US Senate (Farmer-Labour Party, later Republican, Minnesota, 1923–47). A supporter of La Follette and of the New Deal, he was also an isolationist. As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he opposed US membership in the United Nations. Henrik Shipstead (January 8, 1881 – June 26, 1960) was an Ame…

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Henry - Places, People and Fictional Characters

Prince of Wales, the eldest son of James I (of England) and Anne of Denmark. Notable for the strict morality of his way of life, in marked contrast to his father, and known to support a vigorously Protestant and anti-Spanish foreign policy, he became the focus for the hopes of those at court with Puritan sympathies. His death, loudly rumoured to be a result of poison, brought nationwide regret, wh…

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henry - Places, People and Fictional Characters

SI unit of inductance; symbol H; named after Joseph Henry; defined as the inductance of a closed circuit in which a current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per second produces an electromotive force (emf) of 1 volt. …

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Henry (Alfred) Kissinger - Personal background, Foreign policy, Personality and public perception, Accusations of war crimes and legal difficulties

Political scientist and public official, born in Fuerth, Germany. He fled the Nazis to New York City with his parents in 1938. Even before he became professor of government at Harvard (1962–71), his book Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (1957) had gained him national attention, and he served occasionally as adviser to presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. As special national security adv…

1 minute read

Henry (Brooks) Adams - Early life, Civil War years, Journalist and reformer

Historian, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He was the grandson of John Quincy Adams, son of Charles Francis Adams, and brother of Brooks Adams. After graduating from Harvard, he studied law in Germany, and served as secretary to his father during the latter's term as ambassador to England (1861–8). On returning to the USA he went to Washington, DC, but became disillusioned by the new governme…

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Henry (Clay) Frick - Early years, Frick and Andrew Carnegie, Homestead strike, Assassination attempt, Later career, Private life

Industrialist, born in West Overton, Pennsylvania, USA. He had little education, but grasped at post-Civil-War expansion by forming a company to supply the Pittsburgh steel mills with coke, and was a millionaire at 30. He became chairman of the Carnegie Steel Co in 1889, reorganizing it to become the largest steel manufacturer in the world. A hard and ruthless employer, he was shot and stabbed dur…

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Henry (Clemens) van de Velde - External links

Architect, designer, and teacher, one of the originators of the Art Nouveau style, born in Antwerp, N Belgium. He started as a painter before pioneering the modern functional style of architecture. A disciple of William Morris and John Ruskin in the Arts and Crafts movement, he founded (with his pupil Walter Gropius) the Deutscher Werkbund movement in Germany in 1906, and was a director of the Wei…

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Henry (David) Thoreau - Early Years: 1817-1844, Walden Years: 1845–1847, Late Years: 1851-1858

Writer and poet, born in Concord, Massachusetts, USA. After graduating from Harvard (1837), where he began his lifelong habit of keeping journals, he taught briefly in Concord but resigned to protest the disciplinary whipping of students. He helped in his father's pencil factory, and then, with his brother John Thoreau, opened a private school in Concord (1838), based on Transcendentalism, the lit…

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Henry (Dixon) Cowell - Prime of career, Imprisonment, Late career, Selected discography

Composer, born in Menlo Park, California, USA. He studied in New York City and Berlin, and earned his living as a pianist, lecturer, and writer. As a composer he was noted for his experimental techniques, including note-clusters produced on the piano by using the fist or forearm. He founded The New Musical Quarterly in 1927. His works include two ballets, an unfinished opera, and 20 symphonies. …

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Henry (Dreyfus) Brant

Composer, born in Montreal, Canada. A student of Copland and Antheil, he was a leading avant-garde composer of the 1920s and 1930s and became increasingly interested in music for multiple ensembles separated spatially. He also taught at colleges including Columbia University, Juilliard, and Bennington College. Henry Brant (born September 15, 1913 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is a California…

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Henry (Gabriel) Cisneros - Background, Public life, Independent Counsel's investigation, After leaving public office

Mayor and cabinet official, born in San Antonio, Texas, USA. As mayor of his native city (1982–90) he gained a national reptutation for being a progressive. He wrote several books, including Target '90: Goals and Decisions for San Antonio's Future. In 1992, President Clinton named him secretary of housing and urban affairs, a post he left in 1996 to head Univision Communications, the US's dominan…

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Henry (Jay) Heimlich

Physician, born in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. While a New York City thoracic surgeon (1950–69), he developed a procedure to reconstruct the oesophagus, followed by the Heimlich valve to help chest drainage. Moving to Cincinnati, OH, he devised the anti-choking Heimlich manoeuvre (1974) and wrote Dr Heimlich's Home Guide to Emergency Medical Situations (1981). Heimlich was born in Wilmingto…

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Henry (Jaynes) Fonda - Life and career, Filmography, Awards

Film and stage actor, born in Grand Island, Nebraska, USA. The father of actors Jane Fonda and Peter Fonda, his involvement with the Omaha Community Playhouse led to Broadway and a film career in which his self-effacing manner and dry, flat tones projected honesty and decency. His film debut in The Farmer Takes a Wife (1935) led to more than 100 screen appearances, culminating with his Oscar-winni…

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Henry (John Stephen) Smith

Mathematician, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford, where he became a fellow, and in 1860 professor of geometry. The greatest authority of his day on the theory of numbers, he also wrote on elliptic functions and modern geometry. Henry Smith may be: …

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Henry (Kipwambok) Rono - Biography

Athlete, born in Nandi Hills, Kenya. In 1978 he won gold medals in the 3000 m and 5000 m at the Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, Canada, and the steeplechase and 10 000 m at the African Games. In the same year he also set three world records: 13:08·4 s in the 5000 m steeplechase, 8:05·4 s in the 3000 m steeplechase, and 27:22·4 s in the 10 000 m. He improved his 5000 m record to 13:0…

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Henry (Rossiter) Worthington

Hydraulic engineer and inventor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He trained as a hydraulic engineer. Among his early inventions was a feeding pump for steam boilers, and he later designed a direct steam pump that was widely used in water supply systems and for pumping oil through pipelines. He was a founder of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Henry Rossiter Worthington (D…

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Henry (Smith) Lane

US representative and senator, born in Sharpsburg, Kentucky, USA. A Whig appointee from Indiana, he served in Congress (1840–3), then left to fight in the Mexican-American war. Joining the Republican Party in support of its anti-slavery policy, he championed the candidacy of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. He was a one-term senator (1861–7) who returned to being a banker and Republican Party activist i…

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Henry (Smith) Pritchett - Biography, Obituary

Foundation executive, born in Fayette, Missouri, USA. He was a German-trained astronomy professor who became president of the new Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (1905–30), where he established the principle of pensions for college teachers, set standards for secondary schools and colleges, and sponsored important studies on professional education, college athletics, and testi…

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Henry (Spencer) Moore - Sculpture, Biography, Selected works from America, Permanent exhibitions

Sculptor, born in Castleford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Art, London, where he taught sculpture (1924–31), moving to the Chelsea School of Art (1931–9). Recognized as one of the most original and powerful modern sculptors, his style is based on the organic forms and undulations found in landscape and natural rocks, and influenced by primitive African and Me…

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Henry (Valentine) Miller - Biography, Works

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Of German-American parentage (he mainly spoke German until he began school), he briefly attended City College of New York (1909), then worked at a variety of jobs, including at Western Union (1920–4). He had married in 1917 (and had a daughter in 1919) but was divorced in 1924, immediately marrying his second wife, June Smith, a dancer. He had long as…

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Henry (Wager) Halleck - Early life, Civil War, Postbellum career, Selected works, Further reading

US soldier, born in Westernville, New York, USA. He trained at West Point (1839), and established a reputation as an authority on military defence before serving in California (1847–53). He resigned to study law (1854) and wrote two once-important books on mining law. Highly successful in both law and business, he accepted a commission as a major-general when the Civil War broke out (1861). He wa…

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Henry Armstrong - Record, Career, Trivia

Boxer, born in Columbus, Mississippi, USA. He is the only man to have held three world titles at different weights simultaneously. His first title was at featherweight, which he won in 1937, and the following year he added both the welterweight and lightweight crowns. He lost the featherweight and lightweight titles in 1939, but he successfully defended his welterweight title a record 20 times. He…

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Henry Arthur Jones - Further reading

Playwright, born in Grandborough, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He was in business until 1878, when Only Round the Corner was produced at Exeter. His first great hit was a melodrama, The Silver King (1882), which he followed with more melodramatic successes. He also wrote and lectured about the theatre, as in The Renaissance of the English Drama, 1883–94 (1895). His next serious piece w…

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Henry Atkinson - Reference

American soldier, born in North Carolina, USA. He entered the army in 1808 and became a colonel after the War of 1812. He led the Yellowstone expedition (1819) and an expedition to the upper Missouri River (1825), and was in general command during the Black Hawk War (1832). Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. Atkinson was a native of North Carolina. …

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Henry Bacon

Architect, born in New York City, USA. He studied briefly at the University of Illinois (1884), then trained as a draughtsman. He is best remembered for his last work, the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC. Henry Bacon (November 28, 1866 – February 17, 1924) an American Beaux-Arts architect, is best remembered for his severe Greek Doric Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Bo…

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Henry Baker Tristram

Clergyman, naturalist, and traveller, born in Eglingham, Northumberland, NE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became an Anglican clergyman. Tuberculosis forced him to go abroad for his health. His main interest was in the flora and fauna of Palestine, and he was the author of the first ornithological surveys of the region, including The Land of Israel (1865), Natural History of the Bible (186…

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Henry Balnaves

Reformer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, E Scotland, UK. In 1543 he was appointed secretary of state by the regent, James Hamilton. Shortly after, however, he was imprisoned with John Knox in Blackness Castle for his Protestantism. When the castle was captured by the French (1547), Balnaves, with Knox and others, was sent to Rouen. While in prison there, he wrote a treatise on justification, published i…

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Henry Barnard

Educator, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. Raised by his prosperous farmer-father, he went to Yale (1830 BA) where he came to feel strongly about the need for education for all classes of Americans. He taught at an academy for one year, then read law and was admitted to the bar (1835). During 1835–6 he travelled in Europe, where he met many prominent individuals. Serving in the Connecticut leg…

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Henry Benjamin Whipple

Episcopal bishop and Indian advocate, born in Adams, New York, USA. Ordained in 1850 after a brief career as a merchant, he held rectorships in New York, Florida, and Illinois before becoming Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota (1859). He established missions among the Indians, who called him Straight Tongue, and spoke out for more civilized treatment of the tribes. After the 1862 uprising of the Minnes…

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Henry Bergh - Early life and education, Career

Animal protection pioneer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Manager of his father's shipyard (1837–43), he travelled overseas after his father's death and spent one year in St Petersburg, Russia (1863–4), as secretary of the US legation. Resigning because of his wife's ill health, and becoming increasingly concerned with the inhumane treatment of animals, he returned to the USA and founded …

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Henry Billings Brown

Judge, born in South Lee, Massachusetts, USA. He practised law privately and served as a federal judge in Michigan (1875–90) before President Benjamin Harrison named him to the US Supreme Court (1890–1906). He was known for his knowledge of maritime law. Henry Billings Brown (born South Lee, Massachusetts, March 2, 1836; died Bronxville, New York, September 4, 1913) was an associate justi…

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Henry Blake Fuller

Writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He was educated at local Chicago schools before beginning his travels in Europe, but after his father's death (1885) he returned to Chicago. Influenced by the contrast between European and American cultures, he wrote romantic novels, such as The Chevalier of Pensieri-Vani (1890), and also realistic works, such as The Cliff-Dwellers: A Novel (1893), a scathin…

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Henry Bradley - Reference

British philologist and lexicographer. In 1886 he became joint editor of the Oxford English Dictionary with Sir James Murray, and senior editor in 1915. He wrote The Making of English (1904) and English Place-Names (1910). Henry Bradley (1845-1923) was a Victorian philologist and lexicographer who succeeded James Murray as senior editor of the Oxford English Dictionary. Bradley …

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Henry Cabot Lodge - Trivia, Sources

US representative, senator, and historian, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After obtaining his PhD in political science from Harvard (1876), he joined the faculty and published several historical studies, including Alexander Hamilton (1882) and George Washington (1888). Active as a Republican in Massachusetts, including a term in the Massachusetts legislature, he served in the US House of Repr…

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Henry Cantwell Wallace

Journalist and cabinet member, born in Rock Island, Illinois, USA. A farmer and professor of dairying at Iowa State Agricultural College, with his family he published Wallace's Farmer (1894–1924). His political and scientific writings influenced farm organizations. Secretary of agriculture (1921–4), he emphasized matching farm production to consumption, championed agricultural education, and ins…

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Henry Cavendish - Discovery of hydrogen, The density of the Earth, Work on electricity, Other work, Personal life

Physicist and chemist, born in Nice, SE France. He studied at Cambridge, but left to devote himself to science after being bequeathed a fortune. In 1760 he studied the ‘inflammable air’, now known as hydrogen gas, and later ascertained that water resulted from the union of two gases. The Cavendish experiment was an ingenious means of estimating the density of the Earth. Henry Cavendish (O…

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Henry Chadwick

Sportswriter and baseball executive, born in Exeter, Devon, SW England, UK. After emigrating to the USA at an early age, he became a sportswriter for the New York Times (1856) and wrote some of the earliest articles about baseball, which included his modern version of a baseball box score. For the next fifty years, he wrote prolifically about the game, served on rules committees, compiled official…

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Henry Chandler Cowles

Botanist and ecologist, born in Kensington, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Oberlin College and took his PhD at the University of Chicago (1894). He then taught at Gates College, Nebraska (1894–5), spent the summer of 1895 as a field assistant to the US Geological Survey, and joined the faculty of the University of Chicago (1898–1934). His work emphasized the relations between vegetation and geo…

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Henry Chapman Mercer

Archaeologist, antiquarian, and tile maker, born in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA. After training as a lawyer, he shifted his interest to the archaeology of the earliest Native American remains in the E USA, especially in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania. In 1894 he became curator of the Museum of American Prehistoric Archaeology at the University of Pennsylvania, but he retired in 1897 to have…

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Henry Charles Carey - Early years, Contribution of economics, Legacy, Reference

Economist and publisher, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He did not attend college but began working in business, and by age 24 was a partner in his father's Baltimore publishing business, learning by reading manuscripts submitted for publication. At age 42 he sold the company in order to devote his time to economics, publishing Essay on the Rate of Wages in 1935. He espoused laissez-fair…

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Henry Charles Lea

Historian and publisher, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He took an active role in his father's publishing house (1843–80) until he retired to devote himself to his scholarly interests. A specialist in mediaeval and Church subjects, his History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (1888) became important (in its French translation) during the Dreyfus trial. As an advocate of reforming c…

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Henry Chettle - Bibliography, List of plays

Playwright and pamphleteer, born in London, UK. A printer by trade, he turned to writing when his printing-house failed. He wrote a picaresque romance, Piers Plainnes Seven Yeres Prentiship (1595), and from 1598 wrote plays for Philip Henslowe's Rose Theatre in Bankside, especially The Tragedy of Hoffman (1602), collaborating on many others. The son of Robert Chettle, a London dyer, he was …

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Henry Chichele - Early career, Entry into royal service: elevation to Canterbury, The archbishop as statesman

English clergyman and diplomat. Envoy to the Vatican in 1405 and 1407, in 1408 he became Bishop of St David's, and in 1414 Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the founder of two colleges at Oxford in 1437: St John's and All Souls. Henry Chicheley (also Checheley or Chichele) (c. 1364 – April 12, 1443), English archbishop, founder of All Souls College, Oxford, was born at Higham Ferrers, …

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Henry Churchill King - Books by Henry Churchill King

Theologian and educator, born in Hillsdale, Michigan, USA. He graduated from Oberlin College (1879) and then Oberlin Theological Seminary (1882). He studied in Berlin (1983–94) where he became influenced by German philosophy, and taught theology at Oberlin and was president of the college (1903–27). As such, he worked for the development of the ‘whole man’, and Oberlin came to emphasize music,…

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Henry Clay - Early years, Early political career, Speaker of the House, The American System, The Nullification Crisis

US representative and senator, born in Hanover Co, Virginia, USA. With little formal education, he studied law, was admitted to the bar (1797), and moved to Kentucky to practise law. Elected to the state legislature (1803–6), he was then chosen to fill unexpired terms in the US Senate (1806–7, 1810–11). In 1810 he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the US House of Representatives, where …

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Henry Clay Folger - Early life, Career, Family, The Folger Shakespeare Library, Other, Death, Writings, External References

Lawyer and businessman, born in New York City, USA. He attended Amherst College and studied law at Columbia University (1881). He became director of the Standard Oil Company of New York (1908), then its president (1911) and chairman (1923). His lifelong interest in Shakespeare culminated in plans to build a Shakespearean library, situated on Capitol Hill, Washington, DC. The completed building (19…

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Henry Clay Work - Songs

Printer and composer, born in Middletown, Connecticut, USA. In the 1860s he became an editor and composer for the periodical, Song Messenger of the Northwest. He became nationally known, both for his temperance song, ‘Come Home, Father’ (1864), and then for his stirring Civil War songs, including the still-sung ‘Marching Through Georgia’ (1865). After the war his writing declined, but in the m…

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Henry Clifton Sorby

Geologist and metallurgist, born in Woodbourne, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He was the first to study rocks in thin sections under the microscope (1849), and he adapted the technique to study metals. He also wrote on biology, architecture, and Egyptian hieroglyphics. Henry Clifton Sorby (May 10, 1826 – March 9, 1908), English microscopist and geologist, was born at Woodbourne near She…

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Henry Compton

Anglican bishop, born in Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire, C England, UK. He entered the Church in 1662, and became Bishop of Oxford (1674) and of London (1675). He cordially welcomed William of Orange, and crowned him William III, with his wife Mary. Henry Compton (1632 – July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. He was edu…

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Henry Cort - Early Life, Commerce, Innovation, and Ruin

Ironmaster, born in Lancaster, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He became a navy agent in London, then in 1775 bought an ironworks near Plymouth, inventing the ‘puddling’ process for converting pig iron into wrought iron (1784), as well as a system of grooved rollers for the production of iron bars. Ruined by a prosecution for debt, he was ultimately pensioned. The son of a builder, Cort was b…

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Henry Crabb Robinson

Journalist and diarist, born in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, E England, UK. He was articled to an attorney (1790–5), then travelled in Germany and studied at Jena University. He joined The Times in 1807 as a foreign correspondent, and covered the Peninsular War as a war correspondent, the first of his kind (1808–9). His valuable diaries (first published 1869) describe life with the major figures of…

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Henry Dearborn - Sidelights

US soldier, born in Hampton, New Hampshire, USA. A Revolutionary War veteran, he served as secretary of war during Jefferson's two terms (1801–9). Assigned command of the critical NE theatre at the outbreak of the War of 1812, he managed affairs so incompetently that he was removed in July 1813. Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, statesman and ve…

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Henry Dodge

US representative, pioneer, and soldier, born at Post Vincennes, Indiana, USA. He moved to Spanish Louisiana (1796), to Illinois, and eventually to present-day Wisconsin. He served in the War of 1812 and the Black Hawk War. He was governor of the Territory of Wisconsin (1836–41, 1845–8) and served in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Wisconsin, 1841–5) and the US Senate (Democrat, Wisc…

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Henry Draper

Pioneer of astronomical photography, born in Prince Edward Co, Virginia, USA. He taught natural science and later physiology at the City of New York University (1860–82), but retired in order to devote himself to astronomical research. With a 71 cm (28 in) reflecting telescope he showed photographic methods to be an important means of studying the heavens. An important catalogue of stellar spec…

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Henry Dreyfuss

Designer and writer on design, born in New York City, USA. After an early career in stage design, in 1928 he opened his own design office. An important aspect of his work was his pioneering research into anthropometry, as seen in Designing for People (1955) and The Measure of Man (1959). Among the products which he designed were telephones, vacuum cleaners, televisions, agricultural machinery, and…

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Henry Drummond

Banker, politician, and religious leader, born near Alresford, Hampshire, S England, UK. He was MP for Plumpton Earls (1810–13) and West Surrey (1847–60). He founded a chair of economics at Oxford (1825), and became the founder and chief prophet of the Catholic Apostolic (or Irvingite) Church, based on the messianic creed of Edward Irving. Henry Drummond (August 17, 1851 - March 11, 1897)…

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Henry Fairfield Osborn - Biography

Palaeontologist and educator, born in Fairfield, Connecticut, USA. He taught natural sciences at Princeton (1881–91) and biology at Columbia University (1891–1907). In 1891 he organized the department of mammalian palaeontology at the American Museum of Natural History. As the museum's president (1908–35), he developed it into the world's largest natural history museum. His bibliography include…

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Henry Fielding - Partial list of works

Playwright and novelist, born at Sharpham Park, Glastonbury, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied at Leyden, and began to write theatrical comedies, becoming author/manager of the Little Theatre in the Haymarket (1736). However, the sharpness of his burlesques led to the Licensing Act (1737), which closed his theatre, and resulted in strict control and censorship of the London Theatre. In search o…

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Henry Flood - Irish Parliament, British Parliament, Reference

Irish statesman. He studied at Dublin and Oxford, and was leader of the Popular Party in the Irish parliament after his election in 1759. In 1775 he became vice-treasurer of Ireland, but was removed in 1781 as a strong nationalist. In 1783 he was returned for Winchester, and in 1785 for Seaford, but he failed to make a great mark at Westminster. Henry Flood (1732 – December 2, 1791), Iris…

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Henry Ford - Early life, Detroit Automobile Company and The Henry Ford Company, Ford Motor Company, Ford Airplane Company

Industrialist and innovator, born near Dearborn, Michigan, USA. The son of a farmer, he left school at age 15 and worked at a series of jobs where he enlarged his mechanical skills and knowledge of engines. By 1892 he had built his own ‘gasoline buggy’ and by 1896 was driving an improved model in public. In 1899 he left a secure post as engineer of the Edison Illuminating Co in Detroit to start …

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Henry Fuseli

Painter and art critic, born in Zürich, N Switzerland. He went to England in 1763, where he worked as a translator, then studied painting in Italy (1770–8). His 200 paintings include ‘The Nightmare’ (1781, Detroit) and two series to illustrate Shakespeare's and Milton's works, by which he is chiefly known. He became professor of painting at the Royal Academy in 1799. Henry Fuseli (in Ge…

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Henry Geldzahler

Museum curator, born in Antwerp, Belgium. He emigrated to the USA and studied at Yale and Harvard. Beginning in 1960 he was on the staff of New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art and became somewhat controversial for his acquisitions of contemporary American art. He was commissioner of cultural affairs, New York City (1978–82), and wrote books on contemporary art. Henry Geldzahler (193…

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Henry George - Biographical Summary, Policy proposals, Death and subsequent influence, George's theory of interest

Social reformer and economist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He was probably the most influential 19th-c US social analyst, renowned for his fervent writing and magnetic speaking style. Primarily self-taught, his formal schooling ended at age 14, and he worked as a sailor, journalist, and printer before embarking on Progress and Poverty (1879), which he wrote while working as a state ga…

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Henry Grattan - Early life, In the Irish Parliament, "Grattan's Parliament", Rebellion and Union

Irish statesman, born in Dublin, Ireland. In 1772 he was called to the Irish bar, and in 1775 entered the Irish parliament, where his oratory made him the leading spokesman for the patriotic party. He secured Irish free trade in 1779, and legislative independence in 1782. He was returned for Dublin in 1790, and in 1805 was elected to the House of Commons, where he fought for Catholic Emancipation.…

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Henry Green - Bibliography, Books

Writer and industrialist, born in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became managing director in his father's engineering company in Birmingham, but pursued a parallel career as a writer, publishing his first book, Blindness (1926), while still an undergraduate. Other titles include Party Going (1939), Loving (1945), and Doting (1952), and an autobiographical w…

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Henry Handel Richardson - Bibliography, Biography, Film

Novelist, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. She travelled and studied in Europe, and after her marriage to John George Robertson (1895) lived in Strasbourg and then England (1904). She attained distinction with the third part of her trilogy, published as The Fortunes of Richard Mahony (1929), which traces the career of a gold-rush migrant. Henry Handel Richardson, the nom de plume …

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Henry Harland

Writer and editor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He posed as a Russian-Jewish immigrant schooled in Europe and Harvard. The only truth to his story was that he attended the Harvard Divinity School for a brief period (c.1882). He studied at City College (1877–80) and using his pen name wrote novels about Jewish immigrants, such as The Yoke of the Thorah (1887). He moved to Paris (1889), wr…

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Henry Hastings Sibley - Early life, Political career, Military career

Public official, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He promoted the organizing of the Minnesota Territory (1849) and was the first governor of Minnesota state (1858–60). He commanded expeditions against the Sioux (1862–4) and acted as a peace commissioner (1865–6), then moved to St Paul and engaged in private business. Henry Hastings Sibley, first governor of Minnesota, was born in Detroit,…

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Henry Horner

US governor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A Chicago lawyer, he served as Cook County probate judge (1914–32), demanding fair fees from undertakers and probate lawyers. As Democratic governor of Illinois (1932–40), he rescued the state from bankruptcy and improved schools and roads. He rejected the machine Democrats' bill, which led to bitter primary battles weakening his health. Henry …

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Henry Hudson - Explorations, Reports of Hudson's voyages, Trivia

English navigator, who explored the NE coast of North America, making claims for both the English and the Dutch. Nothing is known about his early life. He sailed in search of a passage across the Pole (1607), reached Novaya Zemlya (1608), entered the river which was named after him (1609), and (1610) travelled through the strait and bay which now bear his name. He resolved to winter there, but foo…

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Henry Hugh Armstead

Sculptor, born in London, UK. His best-known works are reliefs and bronze statues for the Albert Memorial, the fountain at King's College, Cambridge, and the reredos at Westminster Abbey. Henry Hugh Armstead (June 18, 1828 - December 4, 1905), English sculptor and illustrator, was born in London, son of a heraldic chaser. Armstead was first trained as a silversmith, and achieved…

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Henry (of England) I

King of England (1100–35) and Duke of Normandy (1106–35), the youngest son of William the Conqueror. Under Henry, the Norman empire attained the height of its power. He conquered Normandy from his brother, Robert Curthose, at the Battle of Tinchebrai (1106), maintained his position on the European mainland, and exercised varying degrees of authority over the King of Scots, the Welsh princes, the…

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Henry (of Castile) II

King of Castile (1369–79), and founder of the house of Trastámara, which continued until 1504. The illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, he rebelled against his younger half-brother, Peter I (known as Peter the Cruel), and with French help was crowned king at Burgos. Peter sought aid from the English, and Henry was routed at Najera (1367) by Edward the Black Prince. Henry later captured and…

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Henry (of England) II

King of England (1154–89), born in Le Mans, NW France, the son of Empress Matilda, Henry I's daughter and acknowledged heir, by her second husband, Geoffrey of Anjou. Already established as Duke of Normandy (1150) and Count of Anjou (1151), and as Duke of Aquitaine by marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine (1152), he invaded England in 1153, and was recognized as the lawful successor of the usurper, St…

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Henry (of France) II

King of France (1547–59), born near Paris, the second son of Francis I. In 1533 he married Catherine de' Medici. Soon after his accession, he began to oppress his Protestant subjects. Through the influence of the Guises he formed an alliance with Scotland, and declared war against England, which ended in 1558 with the taking of Calais. He continued the long-standing war against the Emperor Charle…

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Henry (of England) III

King of England (1216–72), the elder son and successor, at the age of nine, of John. He declared an end to his minority in 1227, and in 1232 stripped the justiciar, Hubert de Burgh, of power. His arbitrary assertion of royal rights conflicted with the principles of Magna Carta, and antagonized many nobles. Although he failed to recover Poitou (N Aquitaine) in 1242, he accepted for his son Edmund …

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Henry (of France) III

King of France (1574–89), born in Fontainebleau, C France, the third son of Henry II. In 1569 he gained victories over the Huguenots, and took an active share in the massacre of St Bartholomew (1572). In 1573 he was elected to the crown of Poland, but two years later succeeded his brother, Charles IX, on the French throne. His reign was a period of almost incessant civil war between Huguenots and…

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Henry Ireton - Early life, English Civil War, Political views and debates over the future of the monarchy

English soldier, born in Attenborough, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and in the Civil War fought for parliament, serving at Edgehill, Naseby, and the siege of Bristol. Cromwell's son-in-law from 1646, he was one of the most implacable enemies of the king, and signed the warrant for his execution. He accompanied Cromwell to Ireland, and in 1650 became lord deputy. He died…

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Henry (of England) IV - Shakespeare

King of England (1399–1413), the first king of the House of Lancaster, the son of John of Gaunt. He was surnamed Bolingbroke from his birthplace in Lincolnshire. In 1397 he supported Richard II against the Duke of Gloucester, and was created Duke of Hereford, but was banished in 1398. After landing at Ravenspur, Yorkshire, Henry induced Richard, now deserted, to abdicate in his favour. During his…

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Henry (of France) IV

The first Bourbon king of France (1589–1610), born in Pau, SW France, the third son of Antoine de Bourbon. Brought up a Calvinist, he led the Huguenot army at the Battle of Jarnac (1569), and became leader of the Protestant Party. He married Marguerite de Valois in 1572. After the massacre of St Bartholomew (1572), he was spared by professing himself a Catholic, and spent three years virtually a …

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Henry James - Life, Style and themes, Major novels, Shorter narratives, Nonfiction, Criticism, biographies and fictional treatments, Legacy

Writer and critic, born in New York City, New York, USA, the brother of Alice and William James. The son of the wealthy amateur philosopher, Henry James Sr, he was educated by private tutors until 1855. The family spent some years travelling in Europe (1855–60), where Henry continued his education, then settled in Newport, RI (1860–2), where he apparently suffered an unspecified injury in a stab…

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Henry Jarvis Raymond - Political career, Journalistic career, Publications

Journalist and politician, born in Lima, New York, USA. He rose to prominence as Horace Greeley's chief assistant on the New York Tribune (1841–3) and in 1851 he co-founded the paper that became the rival New York Times. He edited the Times for the rest of his life, building its reputation for objectivity and fairness in an age noted for more personal journalism. He was also a Speaker of the New …

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Henry Jones

Physician and writer, born in London, UK. He studied at King's College and St Bartholomew's Hospital, practised as a surgeon (1852–69), and began writing about whist, publishing Principles of Whist (1862), and became whist editor of The Field magazine (1862). He wrote manuals on many other games, and helped found the All-England Croquet Club (1870). His pseudonym derives from the name of the firs…

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Henry Justin Allen

Publisher and US governor, born in Pittsfield, Pennsylvania, USA. Starting as a reporter in Kansas, he bought his first newspaper in 1895, later publishing the Wichita Beacon (1907–28), exposing local corruption. He worked for the American Red Cross in France (1917–18), returning as Republican governor of Kansas (1919–23). Although he generally supported fairly liberal and reform legislation, h…

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Henry Kaufman

Economist and banker, born in Wennigsen, WC Germany. He moved to the USA in 1937. He was assistant chief economist in the research department of the Federal Reserve Bank, New York City (1957–61), then joined Salomon Brothers, becoming a partner in 1967 and managing director in 1981. Chief economist in charge of (among other interests) bond market research and bond portfolio analysis, he wrote Int…

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Henry Kirke Brown

Sculptor, born in Leyden, Massachusetts, USA. He worked in Boston (1832–6), moved to Cincinnati, OH (1836), studied in Italy (1842–6), lived in New York City (1846), then settled in Newburgh, NY (1861). He is known for his bronze works, such as ‘Aboriginal Hunter’ (1846). He began to paint portraits while still a boy, studied painting in Boston under Chester Harding, learned a little ab…

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Henry Knox - Early life and marriage, Military career, Secretary of War, Later life

American soldier and bookseller, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. One of 10 sons of a shipmaster who died when Henry was 12, he worked as a bookseller. Having joined the Boston Grenadier Corps (1772), he became knowledgeable about military tactics and artillery, and he volunteered for the Revolutionary forces at the outbreak of war with England. He soon became a trusted friend and adviser to Ge…

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Henry L(ee) Higginson - Related Web Sites

Banker and philanthropist, born in New York City, New York, USA, the cousin of Thomas W Higginson. In 1837 the family moved to Boston, where his father was a commission merchant, and during a tour through Europe (1852) Henry became enthralled by music. He returned to work in a merchant office, but an inheritance from his uncle (1856) allowed him to return to Europe to take up music (piano and comp…

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Henry Laurens - Personal life, Political career, Later events, Additional reading

Merchant and Revolutionary politician, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. A wealthy businessman, he entered the second Continental Congress (1777) and served as its second president (1777–8). In 1780 he was captured by the British while on his way to the Netherlands on a diplomatic mission. He was imprisoned and finally exchanged for General Charles Cornwallis (1782), and immediately went o…

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Henry Lawes

Composer, born in Dinton, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied with John Coperaria (c.1570–1626), becoming a gentleman of the Chapel Royal (1626) and royal musician for lutes and voices (1631). He set Milton's Comus to music, and also Robert Herrick's verses. He was highly regarded by Milton, who sang his praises in a sonnet. Lawes's name has become known beyond musical circles because of …

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Henry Lawson - Collections of Poetry and Prose, Popular Poems, Short Stories and Sketches, Recurring Characters

Poet, born in Grenfell, New South Wales, SE Australia, the son of Louisa Lawson. After his parents' separation, he moved to Sydney with his mother and began writing verse, including such bush ballads as ‘Andy's Gone with the Cattle’ and ‘Roaring Days’, and his stories, published by The Bulletin from 1888, were immensely popular. In 1895 his collection of prose While the Billy Boils was publish…

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Henry Leavenworth - Early life and education, Military career, Marriages, Death

US soldier, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. A lawyer by training, he became a colonel during the War of 1812. While on almost continual frontier duty (1819–34), he built forts Leavenworth and Snelling. He died of bilious fever while trying to negotiate peace among the warring Indian tribes of the SW frontier. Henry Leavenworth (December 10, 1783–July 21, 1834) was an American soldie…

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Henry Lee - Early life and career, Military career, Marriages, family, Politics, Death, Reference

American soldier and public official, born in Prince William Co, Virgiania, USA. Known as ‘Light Horse Harry’, he led a mixed force of Continental cavalry and infantry in the storming of Paulus Hook, NJ (1779), and fought with distinction in the Southern theatre under Nathanael Greene. Lee composed the famous eulogy of his friend George Washington, whom he called ‘First in war, first in peace a…

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Henry M(orrison) Flagler - Childhood, education, Florida: resort hotels and railroads, Death, heritage

Capitalist and philanthropist, born in Hopewell, New York, USA. He met John D Rockefeller in Ohio (1844) before he made his own modest fortune in the grain business. He then went to Michigan, where he engaged in a failed venture to manufacture salt. Returning to Ohio, he took up the grain business, but when Rockefeller came to him with plans for developing the new oil business, he formed the firm …

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Henry Mackenzie - Works

Writer, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University, became a crown attorney in the Scottish Court of Exchequer (1765), and in 1804 was made comptroller of taxes. His sentimental novel The Man of Feeling, which was published in 1771, secured his standing in Scottish literary circles, and was followed by more than 100 other novels, plays, and biographies, notably on Burns…

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Henry Mancini - Awards, Discography (non-soundtracks, incomplete), Soundtrack Albums (incomplete, CD and LP)

Composer, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. His studies at the Juilliard School of Music, New York City, were interrupted by World War 2, but while in service he met Glenn Miller, later joining his band as an arranger and pianist. His Oscar-winning compositions include the songs ‘Moon River’ (1961) and ‘Days of Wine and Roses’ (1962), and the film scores for Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961) and Victo…

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Henry Margenau - Early life, World War II, Philosophy and history of science, Christian activism, Post-war Yale

Physicist, born in Bielefeld, Germany. He went to the USA as a graduate student, taught at the University of Nebraska (1926–7), then spent his career at Yale (1929–69). He made advances in spectroscopy and studies of intramolecular and intranuclear forces, wrote extensively on the philosophy of science, and was a consultant for the Time-Life science series. Born Bielefeld, Germany, Margen…

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Henry Marie Brackenridge

Lawyer and writer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of Hugh Henry Brackenridge, he was raised by his unusual father, who nurtured his frontier roots with his own legal and literary interests. By age seven he had made a voyage down the Ohio River to a village where he learned French, and by age 20 he was admitted to the bar in Pittsburgh. His knowledge of natural history informed the …

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Henry Martyn Robert

Military engineer, born in Robertville, South Carolina, USA. He trained at West Point (1857), and in 1858 participated in operations against Indians in the Northwest. During the Civil War he served with the Union army and constructed defences for Washington, DC. During the next 36 years he served with the Corps of Engineers, constructing many river and harbour improvements as well as fortification…

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Henry Maudslay - Bibliography

Engineer, and inventor of improvements for the metal lathe, born in Woolwich, Kent, SE England, UK. He learned his job as apprentice to Joseph Bramah, set up on his own in 1797, and invented various types of machinery, including a screw-cutting lathe. He also invented the slide rest, and a method of desalinating sea water. With Joshua Field (1757–1863), he began producing marine engines, and star…

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Henry Maudsley

Psychiatrist, born in Giggleswick, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He was physician to the Manchester Asylum, and professor of medical jurisprudence at University College (1869–79). The Maudsley Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, is named after him. Henry Maudsley (1835–1918) was a pioneering English psychiatrist. Born near Giggleswick in North Yorkshire and educated at Universi…

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Henry Mayhew

Writer, born in London, UK. He ran away from Westminster School, and collaborated with his brother Augustus (1826–75) in writing numerous successful novels, such as The Good Genius that Turns Everything to Gold (1847) and Whom to Marry (1848). He wrote on many subjects, his best-known work being the classic social survey, London Labour and the London Poor (4 vols, 1851–62). Another brother, Hora…

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Henry Moore Teller

US senator, born in Granger, New York, USA. He went out to the Colorado Territory during its gold rush period and practised law in Central City (where the main hotel is named for him). Elected as one of the new state's first two senators (Republican, Colorado, 1877–82), he resigned to serve as secretary of the interior under President Chester Arthur (1882–5). He returned to the US Senate (1885–…

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Henry More - Biography, Sources and reference

Philosopher and theologian, born in Grantham, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he remained all his life, and became a leading figure in the circle of ‘Cambridge Platonists’ which included Whichcote and Cudworth. He devoted himself entirely to study, despite the turbulent political times in which he lived, and developed a particular affinity for Plato, Plotinus, and De…

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Henry Norris Russell - Honors

Astronomer, born in Oyster Bay, New York, USA. After five years of research at Cambridge University, England (1900–5), he returned to Princeton, his alma mater, to teach astronomy and study cosmogeny and stellar evolution. He directed the Princeton Observatory (1912–47) and then worked as a research associate at the Harvard Observatory (1947–52). In 1913 the so-called Hertzsprung–Russell diagr…

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Henry of Huntingdon - Sources

English chronicler, archdeacon of Huntingdon from 1109. In 1139 he visited Rome. He compiled a Historia Anglorum down to 1154. It was first printed in Scriptores post Bedam (1596) Most well known for his Historia Anglorum (History of the English) covering the period from the Roman invasion in 43 BC to the accession of Henry II in 1154. It is 'original' for the years 1126–1154, some …

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Henry Ossawa Tanner - Life and career, Painting style

Painter, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. A major 19th-c black painter of religious and genre scenes, he studied with Thomas Eakins (1880–2). Tormented by racial persecution, he settled in Paris, France (1891) and only briefly returned to America (1902–4). His early atmospheric genre works, such as ‘The Banjo Lesson’ (c.1893), have been recently rediscovered and praised by the art world.…

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Henry Ossian Flipper

US soldier and engineer, born in Thomasville, Georgia, USA. The son of slave parents, he endured four years of harassment to become (1877) the first African-American graduate of West Point. Dismissed in 1882 after a court martial on trumped-up charges involving commissariat funds, he campaigned the rest of his life for reinstatement. He pursued a long and successful civilian career as an engineer.…

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Henry Parry Liddon - Lewis Carroll, Famous Quotes

Theologian, born in North Stoneham, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was ordained in 1852, and became vice-principal of Cuddesdon Theological College (1854–9), a prebendary of Salisbury (1864), a canon of St Paul's (1870), and professor of exegesis at Oxford until 1882. He strongly opposed the Church Discipline Act of 1874, supported Gladstone's crusade against the Bulgarian atroci…

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Henry Peach Robinson

Photographer, born in Ludlow, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He opened a studio at Leamington Spa in 1857, but tired of formal portraiture and moved to ‘high art photography’, creating literary and narrative genre scenes in the mid-Victorian style, often by composites of several separate images of costumed models and painted settings. Although criticized for artificiality, he exercised considerable…

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Henry Pelham

Engraver, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He was the son of Peter Pelham and half-brother of John Singleton Copley. A Loyalist, he studied engraving and painting, and joined John Singleton Copley in London (1776). He worked as an engineer and estate agent in Ireland, and is known for his historical line engraving, ‘The Boston Massacre’ (1770). Henry Pelham (25 September 1694 – 6 Mar…

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Henry Pelham

British statesman and prime minister (1743–54), born in London, UK, the younger brother of Thomas Pelham. He took an active part in suppressing the Jacobite Rising of 1715, became secretary for war in 1724, and was a zealous supporter of Walpole. Events during his ministry (reconstructed in 1744 as the ‘broad-bottom administration’) were the Austrian Succession War, the Jacobite Rising of 1745,…

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Henry Plummer

Bandit, place of birth unknown. Nothing is known of his early years. In 1856 he became the marshal of Nevada City, CA but turned to banditry after he murdered a man there. He organized a bandit group that terrorized the Washington Territory and S Montana (1862–4), and masqueraded as the sheriff of Bannack, MT before being apprehended and hanged by a group of vigilantes. Henry Plummer (1832…

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Henry Purcell - Biography, Media

Composer, born in London, UK. He was a Chapel Royal chorister, and held posts as organist there and at Westminster Abbey, as well as becoming keeper of the king's instruments (1683). Though his harpsichord pieces and his trio-sonatas for violins and continuo have retained their popularity, he is best known for his vocal and choral works. In his official capacity he produced a number of pieces in c…

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Henry Roth

Writer, born in Tysmenytsya, Ukraine (formerly, Austria-Hungary). His family moved to New York City when he was an infant, and after graduating from the City College of New York (1928 BS) he began writing while holding a variety of jobs in New York. In 1934 he published Call It Sleep, his semi-autobiographical novel about an immigrant Jewish boy. The book went relatively unnoticed at the time and …

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Henry Sacheverell

Political preacher, born in Marlborough, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and began to preach sermons attacking Whigs, moderate Tories, and dissenters. In 1709 he delivered a sermon at St Paul's, attacking the Whig minister, Godolphin, with such rancour that Sacheverell was impeached before the House of Lords (1710), found guilty, and suspended from preaching for three years. The Go…

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Henry Seidel Canby - Other works, Reference

Editor and writer, born in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. A teacher of English at Yale University for over 20 years, he helped found the Saturday Review of Literature, and as its first editor (1924–36) made it into a top literary magazine. He also wrote literary biographies and criticism, and a three-volume autobiography. Following a four year stint as the editor of the Literary Review of the …

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Henry Shrapnel

British artillery officer, who retired from active service as a lieutenant-general in 1825. In c.1793 he invented the shrapnel shell, an anti-personnel device which exploded while in flight, scattering lethal lead shot and other material. Henry Shrapnel (June 3, 1761 - March 13, 1842) was a British Army officer and inventor, most famously of the "shrapnel shell". Henry Shrapnel …

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Henry Sidgwick - Biography, Bibliography

Philosopher, born in Skipton, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he became a fellow of Trinity College (1859) and professor of moral philosophy (1883). His best-known work, Methods of Ethics (1874), develops the utilitarian theories of John Stuart Mill. He was also active in promoting higher education for women, notably in the founding of Newnham College, Cambridge, in …

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Henry Sloane Coffin

Protestant clergyman and educator, born in New York City, USA. He graduated from Yale in 1897, and studied abroad for two years before taking a divinity degree at Union Theological Seminary in 1900. An evangelical liberal, he held a number of Presbyterian pastorates, and as president of the union seminary (1926–45) promoted open inquiry into theological issues. He retired in 1945, but remained ac…

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Henry Steel Olcott

Theosophist, born in Orange, New Jersey, USA. A lawyer by training, he studied theosophy under Madame Blavatsky, and was founder president of the Theosophical Society in 1875. He travelled to India and Ceylon with her (1879–84), but they fell out in 1885. He opened schools for untouchables in India, and became an associate of Annie Besant. Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), founder an…

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Henry Steele Commager - Obituary in Amherst Student Newspaper

Historian, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago (1928 PhD) and the universities of Copenhagen, Cambridge, and Oxford. He taught at New York University (1926–38), Columbia University (1939–56), and Amherst College (1956). His best-known book, The Growth of the American Republic (1931), co-written with Samuel Eliot Morison, remains a standard undergraduate…

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