Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 32

Cambridge Encyclopedia

gyre - Uses in literature

A large semi-enclosed ocean circulation cell made up of surface currents. As these circulate around the oceans, the currents which make up their limbs receive, store, and give up heat to the atmosphere and adjacent ocean currents, resulting in temperature changes in the surface water. In many cases the heat transported by gyres strongly influences the weather and climate of surrounding land areas.…

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gyrocompass

A form of gyroscope which is set to maintain a N-seeking orientation as an aid to navigation. A gyrocompass is a compass which finds North by using an (electrically powered) fast spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth. the direction of Earth's rotational axis, as opposed to magnetic north, they are not affected by metal in a ship's hull. …

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gyroscope - Description and diagram, History, Properties, Gyrostat, U.S. Patents, External articles and further readings

An instrument consisting of a rapidly spinning wheel so mounted as to use the tendency of such a wheel to maintain a fixed position in space, and to resist any force which tries to change it. The way it will move if a twisting force is applied depends on the extent and orientation of the force and the way the gyroscope is mounted. A free vertically spinning gyroscope (in gimbals, two semicircular …

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H(ans) C(arl) Artmann

Writer, born in Vienna, Austria. A leading figure of the avant-garde Wiener Gruppe, he first attracted attention with his Austrian dialect poems Med ana schwoazzn dintn (1958). A prolific writer, he also produced prose works and plays which utilize elements from the Baroque, nursery rhymes, and translations, including Villon, Goldoni, Shakespeare, Molière, and Lear. His works include Hosn rosn ba…

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H(ans) V(on) Kaltenborn

Radio commentator, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. After working as a journalist, specifically for the Brooklyn Eagle (1902–5), he took time off to attend Harvard, then returned to the Brooklyn Eagle (1909–30). Known for his analyses of foreign affairs, he was hired by CBS (1930) and became widely known as the first American radio news analyst. He broadcast from a haystack during the Spanish …

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H(arry) H(ammond) Hess - Education, Teaching Career, Military Career, Scientific Discoveries, Death

Geophysicist, born in New York City, New York, USA. While serving with the US Navy in the Pacific during World War 2, he not only located submarines with sounding gear, but was the first to report the existence of the truncated seamounts known as guyots. He led Project Mohole, the first expedition to drill through the earth's oceanic crust to the mantle beneath (1961–6). His long-term interest in…

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H(ector) H(ugh) Munro - Biography, Controversy, Short stories, Quotations, Books

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Akyab, W Myanmar (formerly Burma). Educated in England at Bedford Grammar School, he returned to Burma and joined the police force in 1893. He went to London in 1896, took up writing for the Westminster Gazette, and from 1902 was the Balkans correspondent for the Morning Post. He is best known for his short stories, humorous, satiric, supernatural, and maca…

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H(enry) H(obson) Richardson - Images

Architect, born in Priestley Plantation, Louisiana, USA. He graduated from Harvard (1859) and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He returned to open his practice in New York in 1866, and formed an early partnership (1867–78) with Charles Dexter Gambrill, designing chiefly churches. His design for Trinity Church, Boston (1872–7) won him national recognition. Practising independently afte…

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H(enry) V(ollam) Morton - Private life, Journalism, Travel writing, Honours, Bibliography

Travel writer, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He began his career on the staff of the Birmingham Gazette in 1910, becoming assistant editor in 1912. After the success of The Heart of London (1925) and In Search of England (1927), he devoted himself to travel writing, becoming known for his ‘In Search of ...’ titles. He travelled extensively, writing about the British Isles as …

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H(enry) W(alter) Bates - Works

Naturalist and traveller, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He explored the valley of the Amazon (1848–59), accompanied by his friend Alfred Russel Wallace for the first four years, returning with 8000 species of hitherto unknown insects. In 1861 he published his distinctive contribution to the theory of natural selection in a paper explaining the phenomenon of mimicry in animals …

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H(enry) W(atson) Fowler

Lexicographer, born in Tonbridge, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became a schoolmaster at Sedbergh (1882–99), then went to London as a freelance journalist. In 1903 he joined his tomato-growing brother F(rank) G(eorge) Fowler (1871–1918) in Guernsey, and their literary partnership began. Their joint reputation rests on The King's English (1906) and the Concise Oxford Dictionary (191…

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habeas corpus - Habeas corpus ad subjiciendum

An ancient and fundamental common-law right that (in the form developed in England and Wales since the 15th-c) requires a person who detains another to appear in court and justify that detention. If there is no good reason for the detention, release is ordered. The writ can be obtained whether the detainee is held by the state or privately. A habeas corpus writ is a means of testing whether a pers…

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Habib (ibn Ali) Bourguiba

Tunisian politician, prime minister (1956–7), and president (1957–87), born in Monastir, NE Tunisia. He studied law in Paris and became a radical Tunisian nationalist in 1934. Over the next 20 years he served three prison sentences imposed by the French authorities. In 1956, however, his moderation led to his being accepted as Tunisia's first prime minister, becoming president in 1957. His autho…

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habituation

The weakening or disappearance of an individual's initial spontaneous reaction to a stimulus (eg alertness, defence, attack) as a result of the stimulus occurring repeatedly without any interesting consequences. Changes in the form or consequences of the stimulus may cause the habituated response to reappear. In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which ther…

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Hablot Knight Browne

Illustrator, born in London, UK. He was apprenticed to a line engraver, but soon took to etching and watercolour painting, and gained a medal from the Society of Arts for an etching of ‘John Gilpin’ (1833). In 1836 he became illustrator of The Pickwick Papers, and maintained his reputation by his designs for other works by Dickens. Hablot Knight Browne (June 11, 1815 - July 8, 1882), Engl…

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Hack Wilson

Baseball player, born in Elwood City, Pennsylvania, USA. During his 12-year career as an outfielder (1923–34), mostly with the Chicago Cubs, he hit 56 home runs and batted in the major league record 190 runs in 1930. Small for a hitter (5 ft 6 in), he led his league in home runs four times. He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1979. Lewis Robert "Hack" Wilson (April 26, 1900 – …

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hacker - Categories of hacker, Hacker stereotypes, Recognized hackers

A computer user who communicates with other remote computers, usually via the telephone network or the Internet. In recent years, the term has acquired a pejorative sense, referring to those who access remote computers without permission, often obtaining access to confidential information of a personal or business nature. Malicious hacking is now illegal within several countries. Computer systems …

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haddock - Fisheries, Cuisine

Bottom-living fish (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) widespread in cold N waters of the Atlantic; length up to c.80 cm/32 in; body dark greenish-brown on back, sides silvery grey with dark patch above pectoral fins, underside white, lateral line black; feeds mainly on molluscs, worms, and echinoderms; important food fish, exploited commercially throughout the N Atlantic. Exceptionally high stock in the…

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Hades - Hades, abode of the dead, Hades, lord of the Underworld, Epithets and other names

In Greek mythology, the king of the Underworld, terrible but just; he was responsible for the seizure of Persephone. To the Greeks, Hades was always a person, never a place, but by transference the Underworld - ‘the house of Hades’ - became known by that name (which means ‘the unseen’). It is located below the Earth or in the far West; there the shades or feeble spirits of the dead continue to…

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Hadewijch

Poet and writer from the S part of the Low Countries (Brabant). She wrote mystical poems and prose of great sensitivity and religiosity, although her work is difficult to understand for those without theological knowledge. She is considered one of the greatest mediaeval poets in the Low Countries. Hadewijch was a 13th century poet and mystic, probably living in the Duchy of Brabant. …

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Hadith - Overview, History, Use, Science of hadith, Views, Criticism

Sayings attributed to the Prophet Mohammed, prefaced by a chain of authorities through whom the tradition is said to have been transmitted. One of the chief sources of Islamic law, it is second in authority only to the Qur'an. A hadith was originally an oral tradition relevant to the actions and customs of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Starting the first Fitna of the 7th century, those rece…

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Hadrian - Early life, Securing power, Hadrian and the military, Cultural pursuits and patronage, Hadrian's travels

Roman emperor (117–38), ward, protégé, and successor of the Emperor Trajan, a fellow-Spaniard and relation by marriage. Coming to power in ambiguous circumstances, Hadrian was always unpopular in Rome, and even the object of a serious conspiracy there (118). He spent little of his reign in Rome, but toured the empire, consolidating the frontiers (as in Britain, where he initiated the building o…

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Hadrian's Wall - Dimensions, Route, Hadrian, Roman-period names, Garrison, After Hadrian, In fiction

The principal N frontier of the Roman province of Britain. Built AD 122–8 on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian (117–138) and possibly inspired by travellers' accounts of the Great Wall of China, it runs 117 km/73 mi from the Solway Firth to the R Tyne, the wall itself 4·5 m/15 ft high (probably with a 2 m/6 ft timber parapet), its forward defensive ditch c.8·5 m/28 ft wide and 3 m/10

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hadron - References and external links

In particle physics, a collective term for all composite particles which experience strong interactions. All baryons and mesons are hadrons (eg protons and pions). In particle physics, a hadron is a subatomic particle which experiences the strong nuclear force. These are not fundamental particles but are composed of fermions, called quarks and antiquarks, and of bosons, called gluons.…

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Haganah - World War II participation, After the war

The Jewish underground militia in Palestine, founded during the period of the British Mandate in the 1920s. After the declaration of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haganah became the official Israeli army, fielding some 100 000 troops during the war of that year. The Haganah (Hebrew: "The Defense", ההגנה) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate fo…

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Hagen - Twinning, Personalities

51°22N 7°27E, pop (2000e) 222 000. Industrial city in Freiburg district, W Germany; 48 km/30 mi ENE of Düsseldorf; at junction of important traffic routes; birthplace of Karl Adam; railway; household goods, ironworking, accumulators, foodstuffs, textiles, paper; Westphalian Open-Air Museum of Technology. Coordinates: 51°22′N 7°29′E Hagen is the 37th largest city in …

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hagfish

Primitive marine fish lacking true jaws, vertebrae, paired fins, and scales; includes Myxina glutinosa, widespread in the N Atlantic and Arctic; body eel-like, covered in copious slime, length up to 60 cm/2 ft; mouth slit-like surrounded by stout barbels; burrows in soft mud, feeding off invertebrates and fish. (Family: Myxinidae, 3 genera.) This article is about the hagfish. For the Punk…

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haggis - History and popularity, Modern usage, Odd facts and pop culture, Entertainment, Similar dishes

A traditional Scottish dish comprising the minced heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep, as well as suet, oatmeal, and various seasonings. The ingredients are cooked in a bag made from the rumen or forestomach of a sheep. Haggis is traditionally served with "neeps and tatties" (Scots: turnip and potatoes), each of these being mashed, separately. Along a different line, it may derive from Old F…

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Hagia Sophia - Description, Construction, History, 20th Century restoration, Restoration controversies, Gallery

A masterpiece of Byzantine architecture built (532–7) at Constantinople (now Istanbul). The lavishly-decorated, domed basilica was commissioned by Emperor Justinian I and designed by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus. The Ottoman Turks, who took Constantinople in 1453, converted it into a mosque. Since 1935 it has been a museum. The name comes from the Greek name Ἁγία Σοφ…

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Haida - Tribal/Band Government, Books

A Pacific Northwest Coast American Indian group in Queen Charlotte I, British Columbia, famous for their wood carvings, totem poles, and canoes. They traditionally lived by fishing and hunting, and held potlatch ceremonies, distributing ceremonial goods. The Haida are an indigenous people of the west coast of North America. The Haida Nation claimed territories comprise an archipelago called…

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Haidar Ali

Muslim ruler of Mysore, born in Budikote, S India. Having conquered Calicut and fought the Marathas, he waged two wars against the British, in the first of which (1767–9) he won several gains. In 1779 he and his son, Tippoo, again attacked the British, initially with great success; but in 1781–2 he was defeated. Hyder Ali or Haidar 'Ali (c. Hyder Ali was a Muslim soldier-adven…

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haiku - Examples, Origin and evolution, Modern haiku, Haiku in the West, Contemporary English-language haiku

A Japanese poetic miniature, consisting of three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. (The classic tanka has two further lines of 7 syllables.) This highly concentrated form, best exemplified by the 17th-c work of Matsuo Basho, has proved very popular outside Japan, and influenced among others the Imagists. Haiku (俳句, ) is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka …

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hail - Hail formation, Ideal conditions for hail formation, Costly or deadly hailstorms

A form of precipitation comprising small balls or pieces of ice, which may reach up to 50 mm/2 in diameter. It is generally associated with rapidly rising convection currents in low latitudes, or the passage of a cold front in temperate latitudes. Hail storms can cause considerable damage to crops and property. Hail is a form of precipitation Hail forms on condensation nuclei …

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Hail Mary - The words of the Hail Mary, Musical settings

A prayer to the Virgin Mary, also known as the Angelic Salutation, used devotionally since the 11th-c in the Roman Catholic Church, and finally officially recognized in 1568. The first two parts are quotations from scripture (Luke 1.28, 2), the third part being added later. In its Latin form, it is often sung in Roman Catholic ceremonies, and has received many famous musical settings. Hail …

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Haile Gebrselassie - Middle career, Honors, Personal bests

Athlete, born in Arssi, Ethiopia. The dominant long-distance runner of the 1990s, he was four times world champion (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999) and twice Olympic champion (1996, 2000) at 10 000 m. He broke his first world record in 1994, reducing the 5000 m record to 12 min 56·96 and had set a total of 15 world records by 2000. Undefeated outdoors at distances between 1500 m and 1000 m in 1997 …

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Haiphong

20°50N 106°41E, pop (2000e) 1 730 300. Seaport in N Vietnam; in the Red R delta, 88 km/55 mi SE of Hanoi; founded, 1874; badly bombed in Vietnam War; third largest city in Vietnam; rail link to Kunming, China; plastics, textiles, phosphates, rice. Haiphong pronunciation?(help·info) (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. …

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hair - Human hair, Cultural attitudes, Animal hair

A thread-like structure consisting of dead keratinized cells produced by the epidermis in mammalian skin. The root of the hair below the skin surface is contained in a hair follicle, which is responsible for producing the hair. The covering of hair in mammals helps to maintain constant body temperature by insulating the body. Some hairs, such as whiskers, have a specialized sensory function. …

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Haiti - History, Politics, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture

Official name Republic of Haiti, Fr République d'Haiti Haiti (Haïti in French; The uninhabited island of Navasse is claimed both by Haiti and the United States. Haiti shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. The total area of Haiti is 27,750?km² (10,714?sq mi) and its capital is Port-au-Prince. A former French colony, Haiti was to become the first in…

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Hajj - Preparations, Performing the Hajj, Types of Hajj, Effects of the Hajj, Incidents during the Hajj

Annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca during the Islamic lunar month of Dhu-ul-Hijja. It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The Hajj (حج translit: Ḥajj), (Turkish:Hac), (Malay:Haji) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. The government of Saudi Arabia issues special visas to foreigners for the purpose of the pilgrimage, which takes place during the Islamic month of Dhu…

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hake

Commercially important, edible, cod-like fish widely distributed in offshore continental shelf waters of temperate seas; includes the European Merluccius merluccius, length up to c.1 m/3¼ ft, head and jaws large, teeth strong; blue-grey on back, underside silvery white; feeds mainly on fish and squid. (Genus: Merluccius. Family: Merlucciidae.) The term hake refers to fish in either of: …

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Hakka - Social and cultural influences, Hakkas in China, Hakkas in Taiwan, Hakkas in Hong Kong, Hakkas worldwide

A people from N China who settled in S China in the 12th–13th-c, but remained unassimilated. During the 18th–19th-c they were involved in feuds over land. Hakka impoverishment contributed to the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64). Many migrated to other areas, including Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The Hakka are Han Chinese people whose ancestors are said to have origi…

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Hal David - Work on Broadway

Lyricist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He teamed up with composer Burt Bacharach in 1957 and among their many successful songs are ‘24 Hours From Tulsa’ (1964), ‘Walk On By’ (1964), ‘What's New Pussycat?’ (1965), ‘What the World Needs Now is Love’ (1965), ‘The Look of Love’ (1968), and ‘Close To You’ (1970). His work for films includes ‘Alfie’ (1966, Oscar nomination), and he rec…

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Hal Prince - Stage credits, Additional Tony Awards, Film credits, Books

Stage director and producer, born in New York City, USA. A stage manager on Broadway, he became a successful producer and director of stage musicals. His first production was The Pajama Game (1954), and other memorable shows include West Side Story (1957), Fiddler on the Roof (1964), and Cabaret (1968). He has maintained a long association with Stephen Sondheim, producing and directing many of the…

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Hal Roach - Biography, Hal Roach Studios

Film-maker, born in Elmira, New York, USA. After an adventurous life as a mule-skinner and gold prospector in Alaska, he entered the film industry as a stuntman and extra in 1911. He began producing short comedy films, becoming an expert in the mechanics of slapstick, and helped to foster the careers of Laurel and Hardy. He also devised the series of Our Gang films, and won Oscars for The Music Bo…

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Haldan (Keffer) Hartline

Physiologist, born in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Johns Hopkins University, then taught at Cornell (1931–49) and Johns Hopkins (1949–53), and became professor of physiology at the Rockefeller University, New York City (1954–74). By the use of very small electrodes applied to cells in the eyes of frogs and crabs, he was able to show how an eye distinguishes shapes. He shared the…

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half-life

In radioactivity, the time taken for a group of atoms to decay to half their original number; symbol T½, units s (second), also minutes and years. It varies from seconds to thousands of years, depending on the atomic species. The half-life of plutonium-239 is 24 400 years; for helium-6 it is 0·8 seconds. The term also applies to the decay of excited atoms by the emission of light. The ha…

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halibut - Physical characteristics, Diet, Halibut fishery, Species commonly known as "halibut", Cultural references

Largest of the Atlantic flatfishes (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), found on sandy and stony bottoms (100–1500 m/300–5000 ft) in cold N waters; length up to 2·5 m/8 ft; eyes on right side, mouth and teeth large; brown to greenish-brown with white underside; edible, commercially important, and prized by sea anglers. (Family: Pleuronectidae.) The halibut is the largest of all flatfish; Atl…

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Halicarnassus - Early History: Founding, Persian Rule, Macedonian Influence, Archeological Notes Restorations

A Greek city-state founded by the Dorians on the coast of SW Asia Minor; modern Bodrum, Turkey. It was the birth-place of Herodotos, and the site of the Tomb of Mausolus. Halicarnassus (Ἀλικαρνᾱσσεύς; modern Bodrum), an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Asia Minor, on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Cos, Gulf of Gökova). …

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Halifax

44°38N 63°35W, pop (2000e) 127 700. Seaport, provincial capital of Nova Scotia, Canada; major transatlantic port and rail terminus; joined to Dartmouth by two suspension bridges; founded in 1749 as a British military and naval base, used in the American Revolution and the War of 1812; naval base and convoy terminal in both World Wars; scene of harbour disasters, 1917, 1945; victims of the Tita…

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halite

The mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl); also known as rock salt. Halite is the mineral form of sodium chloride, NaCl, commonly known as rock salt. …

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hall church

A form of church with nave and aisles of approximately equal height, and without transepts or a distinct chancel. It first developed in 11th-c Germany. A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof. In contrast to a traditional basilica, which lets in light through a clerestory in the upper part of the…

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Hall effect - Explanation, Applications, The Corbino effect

The deflection of the carriers of charge in a conductor, caused by an externally applied magnetic field; described in 1879 by US physicist Edwin Hall (1855–1938). A potential difference forms at right angles to both current and field. It may be used to demonstrate the difference in the nature of the charge carriers in metals and semiconductors. The Hall effect refers to the potential diffe…

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Halle Berry - Biography, Film Awards, Racial self-indentification, Controversy

Actress, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. She began modelling at age 16 and, after coming runner-up in the 1986 Miss USA pageant, decided on a career in acting. She joined the Second City comedy theatre in Chicago before moving to New York City, where she gained a part in the TV series Living Dolls (1989). Her first feature film was Jungle Fever (1991), and later films include The Flintstones (1994),…

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Hallie (Mae Ferguson) Flanagan

Theatre organizer, teacher, and playwright, born in Redfield, South Dakota, USA. She took her BA from Grinnell College in Iowa (1911), and within about 18 months she was married. Her husband died in 1919, leaving her with two children to support. She had done some teaching and play-directing previously, and submitted her own play in a local competition and won. She was then accepted into George Pi…

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Hallstatt - History

47°34N 13°39E, pop (2000e) 1200. Small market town in the Salzkammergut of Oberösterreich state, N Austria; on the SW shore of Hallstätter See, 50 km/30 mi SE of Salzburg; known for the Hallstatt period, the first phase of the European Iron Age (8th–4th-c BC), characterized by goods from burial tombs nearby; Hallstatt–Dachstein Salzkammergut cultural landscape, a world heritage site; salt…

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hallucination - Prevalence and types of hallucinatory experience, Scientific explanations, Visual Hallucination Subtypes, Paranormal theories

A sensory perception occurring without any stimulation of the sense organ. In its true form the individual is fully awake and the perception is located out of the body. Hallucinations indicate a loss of contact with reality, but they can be a normal phenomenon, such as during grief. This term was introduced in its current form by the French physician Jean Etienne Esquirol (1772–1840). Stud…

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Halmahera - History, Mining on Halmahera

area 17 936 km²/6923 sq mi, pop (2000e) 129 000. Largest island in the Moluccas, Indonesia, on the Equator SW of the Philippines; forested mountain chains, including active volcanoes; taken by the Dutch in 1683; independence, 1949; hunting, fishing, rice, coconuts. Halmahera (also Jilolo or Gilolo) is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. Halmahera has a land area of …

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Halston - References in popular culture

Fashion designer, born in Des Moines, Iowa, USA. He showed his first collection in 1969, creating the vogue for easy-to-wear clothes, and his understated designs earned four Coty Awards. In 1973 he diversified into luggage and cosmetics. Roy Halston Frowick, also known as Halston (April 23, 1932–March 26, 1990) was a clothing designer. Halston was diagnosed with AIDS in 1988. …

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Ham - National regulation of ham production, Religious prohibitions

Biblical character, one of Noah's three sons, the brother of Shem and Japheth, and father of Canaan. He is described as helping Noah to build the ark, but after the Flood his son Canaan is cursed by God for Ham's apparent sin of having seen ‘the nakedness of his father’ Noah (Gen 9.22). This curse may be an attempt to explain the later subjugation of the Canaanites to Israel as resulting from Ca…

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HAMAS - Beliefs, Activities, Military Activity and Terrorism, Legal action against Hamas, Notes and references

An Islamic resistance movement founded in Gaza in 1987 from a faction of the Muslim Brotherhood. Its aims are to carry on a jihad (struggle) against the Israeli ‘occupation’ of Palestine, largely through suicide bombings and attacks. It refused to recognize peace with Israel and did not join the government of the Palestine National Authority (PNA). The movement appeals to many dispossessed Pales…

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Hamburg - Politics and Administration, History, Economy, Transport, Buildings, Culture, Demographics, Religion, Language, Education, Tourism, Twin cities

53°33N 10°00E, pop (2000e) 1 703 000; area 755 km²/291 sq mi (including islands of Neuwerk and Scharhörn). Industrial port, cultural city, and province of Germany; on the R Elbe, 109 km/68 mi from its mouth; largest German port; second largest city of Germany; founded by Charlemagne in the 9th-c; formed alliance with Lübeck in the 12th-c, which led to the Hanseatic League; badly bombe…

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Hamid Karzai - Biography

Afghan interim prime minister (2001–2) and head of state (2002– ), born in Kandahar, Afghanistan. A Pashtun, and son of a powerful chief of the Popolzai tribe, he studied politics at the University of Simla, India. In 1983 during the war with the Soviet Union he channelled money, weapons, and supplies to the Mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan. When the Soviets left, he served as deputy foreign m…

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Hamilcar

Carthaginian statesman and general at the time of the First Punic War, the father of Hannibal. Following Carthage's defeat in 241 BC, and the loss of her empire in Sicily and Sardinia to Rome, he set about founding a new Carthaginian empire in Spain. Between 237 BC and his death, he conquered most of the S and E of the peninsula. Punic-Phoenician bdmlqrt (Servant of Melqart), the most commo…

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Hamilton (Bermuda) - Education, Companies, Miscellaneous

32°18N 64°48W, pop (2000e) 1180. Port, resort, and capital of Bermuda, on Great Bermuda; deep harbour approached by a long intricate channel through Two Rock Passage; modern berthing and container facilities; founded 1612; capital since 1815; tourism; cathedral, Bermuda College. …

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Hamilton (Canada) - Education, Companies, Miscellaneous

43°15N 79°50W, pop (2000e) 356 600. City in SE Ontario, Canada, at head (W) of L Ontario, 58 km/36 mi SW of Toronto; founded, 1813; site of Battle of Stoney Creek (1813); railway; McMaster University (1887); football team, Hamilton Tiger-Cats; industrial and commercial centre; textiles, iron and steel, vehicles, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment; scene of 1930 British Empire Games…

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Hamilton (New Zealand) - Education, Companies, Miscellaneous

37°46S 175°18E, pop (2000e) 162 000. City in North Island, New Zealand, on R Waikato; New Zealand's largest inland city; airfield; railway; university (1964); noted for horse breeding and agricultural research; dairy farming, market gardening, forest products; Waikato Art Museum; regatta at Turangawaewae Marae (home of the Maori Queen) to the N (Mar). …

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Hamilton Fish - Biography, Other involvements, Notable relatives, Sources

Politician, born in New York City, USA. As secretary of state under Grant (1869–77) he signed the Washington Treaty of 1871, and acted as arbitrator between the USA and Great Britain during the ‘Alabama’ crisis, helping to bring about a satisfactory settlement. See Hamilton Fish (disambiguation) for others with the same name Hamilton Fish (August 3, 1808 – September…

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hamiltonian

The total energy of a mechanical system; symbol H, units J (joule); after Irish mathematician William Hamilton (1805–65). It is equal to the sum of kinetic energy K and potential energy V; H = K+V. Mechanics can be formulated using H in a way complementary to that based on lagrangians. Hamiltonian may refer to In mathematics: In physics: In Chemistry O…

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Hamish Hamilton

Publisher, the founder of the London publishing house of Hamish Hamilton Ltd, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. He spent his childhood in Scotland, studied at Cambridge, and joined Harper & Brothers, the New York publishers, as London manager in 1926. In 1931 he founded his own firm, with the support of Harpers, who helped him build up a particularly strong list of US writers. In 1965 he sold hi…

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hammer throw

An athletics field event using a metal sphere weighing 16 lb (7·6 kg), thrown from within the confines of a 7 ft (2·13 m) circle. The ball is attached to a chain at the end of which is a triangular frame gripped by the contestant. In competition, six throws are allowed, the object being to attain a greater distance than anyone else. Because of the dangers, the throwing circle is protected by…

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hammerhead shark - Reproduction, Species

Large, active shark of inshore tropical and temperate waters, characterized by a flattened head with broad lateral lobes which are thought to aid manoeuvrability; eyes and nostrils widely spaced; includes the great hammerhead of tropical Atlantic waters (Sphyrna mokarran), length up to 6 m/20 ft. (Genus: Sphyrna. Family: Sphyrnidae.) Hammerhead sharks of the genus Sphyrna are members of t…

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Hammurabi - Biography, Legacy and depictions

Amorite king of Babylon (c.1792–1750 BC), best known for his Code of Laws. He is also famous for his military conquests that made Babylon the greatest power in Mesopotamia. As with any dates from the early 2nd millennium BC, the dates of Hammurabi's life are highly uncertain and subject to wide disagreement among various sources, However, according to the middle chronology, Hammurabi…

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Hampi - Geography, Important sites at and near Hampi, Temples, Pictures

The site of the former Hindu capital of Vijayanagar, near the SW Indian village of Hampi. The city was founded in the 14th-c, and remained the centre of a vast and powerful Hindu empire until 1565, when it was sacked. It remains an important religious and tourist centre, and is a world heritage site. Hampi (ಹ೦ಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka, on the banks of …

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Hampshire - Physical geography, History, Economy, Demographics, Politics, Cities, towns, and villages

pop (2001e) 1 240 000; area 3777 km²/1458 sq mi. County of S England, UK; bounded S by the Isle of Wight and English Channel; crossed by the North Downs in the NW and W; drained by Test and Itchen Rivers; W of Southampton is the New Forest; county town, Winchester; chief towns, Portsmouth, Southampton (new unitary authorities from 1997); agriculture, livestock, shipbuilding, oil refining, c…

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hamster - Species of hamsters, Hamsters as pets, Classification of hamsters, Similar animals, Hamsters in popular culture

A small rodent of the sub family Cricetinae (24 species); short tail, large ears; food can be stored in internal cheek pouches; lives in burrows; communicates using very high frequency sound. One species, the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), is a popular pet. It is thought that all domestic golden hamsters are descended from a family of 13 (mother plus 12 young), dug from their burrow in 193…

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Han dynasty - Sovereigns of Han Dynasty

Major Chinese dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), commonly divided into Early or Western Han (206 BC–AD 8), which had its capital at Changan (modern Xian), and Later or Eastern Han (25–220), with its capital at Luoyang. The dynasty was founded by Liu Bang (r.206–195 BC). A dynastic territorial expansion occurred in the reigns of Wudi (141–86 BC) and Han Yuan (48–33 BC), including the conquest of what i…

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Han Suyin - Works

Novelist and doctor, born in Beijing, China. She studied medicine at Beijing, Brussels, and London, and practised in Hong Kong until 1964. Her many novels include Destination Chungking (1942), A Many-splendoured Thing (1952, film 1955), and Four Faces (1963). She also wrote a semi-autobiographical and historical trilogy, The Crippled Tree (1965), A Mortal Flower (1966), and Birdless Summer (1968),…

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hand - What constitutes a hand?, Uses of the hand, Anatomy of the human hand, Articulation

The terminal part of the upper limb, used to manipulate (motor function) or assess (sensory function) the environment. It is a highly mobile organ, capable of fine discriminative function and manipulation, both of which require a copious blood supply. It is richly endowed with sensory nerve endings, and consists of a number of bony elements (the carpels, metacarpals, and phalanges) whose size and …

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Handsome Lake

Seneca political and religious leader, half-brother of Cornplanter, born near present-day Avon, New York, USA. After experiencing a series of visions (1799), he began preaching the traditional values of sobriety, family, and community. His gaiwiio or Old Religion blended Christian and Indian themes, and was a response to Indian defeat during the American Revolution. Elected a tribal leader in 1801…

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Hanif Mohammad

Cricketer, born in Junagadh, W India. One of five Test-playing brothers, he made his first-class debut for Karachi at the age of 16. Noted for his dour play, he took 970 minutes to amass 337 runs against the West Indies in 1957–8, still the slowest innings in Tests, and established a world record score of 499 against Bahawalpur in 1959. He made his Test debut at the age of 17, and played in 55 Te…

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Hank Greenberg - Early life, Minor League career, Early Major League career, WWII Service, Return to baseball, Fielding

Baseball player, born in New York City, New York, USA. During his 13-year career as a first baseman for the Detroit Tigers and Pittsburgh Pirates (1930–47), he hit 331 home runs and twice won the league Most Valuable Player award (1935, 1940). In 1938 his 58 home runs almost eclipsed Babe Ruth's single season record of 60. As one of the first major league players to enlist in the military during …

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Hanna Gray - Photos

Educator, born in Heidelberg, Germany. Emigrating from Germany in 1934, she received her doctorate in Renaissance history from Harvard (1957). A professor at Northwestern (1960–72), she became dean of arts and sciences there (1972–4). The first woman provost at Yale (1974–7), she became the first woman to head a major research university when she served as president of the University of Chicago…

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Hannah Adams

Compiler of historical data, born in Medford, Massachusetts, USA. Privately educated and in frail health from childhood, she was encouraged by a boarder in her family home to research comparative religions. Her Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects (1784) was well received and went into several editions in the USA and Britain. Her other compilations include A Summary History of New England …

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Hannah Arendt - Biography, Works, Selected works

Historian and political philosopher, born in Hanover, NC Germany. Of Jewish ancestry, she studied philosophy at Heidelberg (1929 PhD), and fled Hitler's Germany for France (1933) and the USA (1940), where she was naturalized in 1951. Her reputation as a scholar and writer was firmly established with the publication of The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), which linked Nazism and Communism to 19th…

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Hannah More

Playwright and religious writer, born in Fishponds, Bristol, SW England, UK. Educated at a boarding school run by her sisters, she was jilted by her fiancé, then went to London in 1774, where she joined the ‘Blue Stocking’ coterie of Elizabeth Montagu and her friends. She wrote two tragedies for David Garrick: Percy (1777), and The Fatal Secret (1779). Her religious views caused her to withdraw…

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Hannah Van Buren

The wife of Martin Van Buren, born in Kinderhook, New York, USA. She died in 1819, long before her husband's presidency. Van Buren's daughter-in-law, Abigail Singleton Van Buren, served as White House hostess. Hannah Van Buren (nee Hoes) (8 March 1783 - February 5, 1819) was the wife of the 8th United States President Martin Van Buren from 1807 until her death. Because she died …

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Hanne Karin Blarke Bayer Karina - Career, Filmography, as actress, includes

French actress and film-maker of Danish origin. After dancing school and modelling she went to Paris and appeared in J-L Godard's Le Petit Soldat (1960). She was married to Godard for six years, and starred in his films Une femme est une femme (1961), Vivre sa vie (1962), Bande à part (1964), Alphaville (1965), Pierrot le fou (1965), and Made in the USA (1967). She also appeared in Jacques Rivet…

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Hanni Wenzel

Alpine skier, born in Staubirnen, Germany. At the 1980 Olympics she won the gold medal in the slalom and giant slalom, and the silver in the downhill. Her total of four Olympic medals (including a bronze in 1976) is a record for any skier. She was combined world champion and overall World Cup winner in 1980. Hanni Wenzel (born in Straubing, Germany on December 14, 1956) is a former alpine s…

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Hannibal Hamlin - Sources

US statesman and vice-president (1861–5), born in Paris Hill, Maine, USA. He practised law (1833–48), was speaker of the Maine House of Representatives, and was returned to Congress in 1842 and 1844. He sat in the US Senate as a Democrat (1848–57), but separated from his Party over his anti-slavery opinions, and was elected Republican Governor of Maine. He returned to the Senate in 1857, and in…

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Hannie Schaft - Early life and education, Resistance work

A resistance worker during the German occupation of The Netherlands, born in Haarlem, The Netherlands. She studied law at Amsterdam until 1943, when she joined the resistance in Haarlem as a courier and executioner of collaborators. She was captured by the Germans in 1945 and shot. As a heroine of the resistance she has been the subject of a novel by Theun de Vries, Het meisje met het rode haar (T…

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Hanno

Carthaginian navigator. He undertook a voyage of exploration along the W coast of Africa, and led a fleet of 60 vessels with 30 000 settlers to found Thymaterion (now Kénitra, Morocco). He founded other colonies, and reached Cape Nun or the Bight of Benin. An account of his voyages known as Periplus of Hanno survives in a Greek translation. Hanno is a name that can refer to the following …

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Hanns Eisler - Biography

Composer, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. He studied under Schoenberg at the Vienna Conservatory (1919–23). A committed Marxist, he wrote political songs, choruses, and theatre music, often in collaboration with Brecht. From 1933 he worked in Paris, London, and Copenhagen, and moved to Hollywood in 1938, teaching and writing film music. Denounced in the McCarthy anti-Communist trials, he returned to…

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Hanns Johst

Writer, born in Seerhausen near Riesa, E Germany. He began as an Expressionist, as in his play Der junge Mensch (1916), and went on to become the most important poet of the Nazi Party. He was president of the Reichsschrifttumskammer (1935–45) and a member of the SS, and in Schlageter (1933) he declared his support for Nazi ideology. He was banned from writing for several years after the War. …

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Hanoi - History, Climate, Education, Places of interest, Population, Transportation, Economy, Health care and other facilities

21°01N 105°52E, pop (2000e) 2 398 900. Capital of Vietnam; on Red R, 88 km/55 mi NW of Haiphong; former capital of Vietnamese Empire, 11th–17th-c; capital of French Indo-China, 1887–1946; occupied by the Japanese in World War 2; severely damaged by bombing in Vietnam War; university (1956); centre of industry and transport; textiles, tanning, brewing, engineering, rice milling, coal, food…

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Hanover (Germany) - Towns named after Hanover, Twinning, Transportation, Municipalities, Miscellaneous

52°23N 9°44E, pop (2000e) 530 000. Commercial and industrial capital city of Lower Saxony province, NC Germany; on R Leine, 56 km/35 mi NW of Brunswick; chartered, 1241; home of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later electors of Hanover) in the early 17th-c; Elector George Louis became George I of Great Britain, 1714; badly bombed in World War 2; railway; on the Mittelland Canal; three univ…

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Hanover (USA) - Towns named after Hanover, Twinning, Transportation, Municipalities, Miscellaneous

43º42N 72º17W, pop (2000e) 10 900. Town in Grafton Co, W New Hampshire, USA; located in the scenic upper Connecticut R valley that forms the border between Vermont and New Hampshire; chartered, 1761; first permanent settlers arrived from Connecticut in 1765; birthplace of George Henry Bissell, Laura Bridgman, James Freeman Clarke, Thomas Kincaid; Dartmouth College (1769). Coordinates: 5…

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Hans (Albrecht) Bethe - Biography, Manhattan Project, Hydrogen bomb, Political stances, Awards and legacy, Honors

Physicist, born in Strasbourg, NE France (formerly Germany). He studied at the universities of Frankfurt and Munich (1926), and taught in Germany until 1933. He lost his job, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, and moved to England, teaching first at Manchester and then gaining a fellowship at Bristol University. In early 1935 he went to the USA, where he held the chair of physics at Cornell…

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Hans (Erich) Pfitzner

Composer, born in Moscow, Russia. He taught in various German conservatories, and conducted in Berlin, Munich, and Strasbourg. He composed Palestrina (1917) and other operas, as well as choral, orchestral, and chamber music. Hans (Erich) Pfitzner (May 5, 1869 - May 22, 1949) was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist. Born in Moscow, Pfitzner spent most of his life …

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Hans (Henricus Antonius Franciscus Maria Oliva) van Mierlo

Dutch politician, lawyer, and journalist, born in Breda, S Netherlands. He was a founder of Democraten '66 (D66), which he led in parliament in 1967. He resigned as leader in 1973 but remained in parliament until 1977. In 1982–3 he was minister of defence, then in the Upper House until 1986, when he was again leader of D66. He became deputy prime minister and foreign minister in 1994. Henr…

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Hans (Hugo Bruno) Selye - Works, Other media

Physician, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied in Prague, Paris, and Rome before emigrating to North America in the 1930s. After a decade at McGill University in Montreal (1933–45), he became director of the Institute for Experimental Medicine and Surgery at the French-language University of Montreal (1945). He was best known for his ‘stress-general adaptation syndrome’, an attempt to link stre…

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Hans (Jurgen) Eysenck - Life and work, Works

Psychologist, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied in France and at London University, and was professor of psychology at London University (1955–83). Much of his work was psychometric research into the normal variations of human personality and intelligence, and he was an outspoken critic of claims made without adequate empirical evidence. He frequently championed the view that genetic factors pl…

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Hans Berger - Publications

Psychiatrist, born in Neuses bei Coburg, SC Germany. He studied medicine at Jena University, where he stayed for the rest of his career, becoming professor of psychiatry in 1919. He is known for his invention of the electroencephalograph (1929). Hans Berger (May 21, 1873 – June 1, 1941) was born in Neuses near Coburg, Thuringia, Germany. There, he joined two famous scientists and physicia…

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Hans Blix - Early career, Head of the International Atomic Energy Agency (1981-1997)

Diplomat, born in Uppsala, Sweden. He studied at Uppsala, Columbia, and Cambridge universities, qualified as a lawyer at Stockholm University (1959), and in 1960 was appointed Associate Professor in International Law. He was head of department in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1963–76), becoming under-secretary of state then minister (1978), and served as director-general of the International …

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Hans Carossa - Works

Writer, born in Bad Tölz, S Germany. He served as a doctor during World War 1, and became president of the Europäische Schriftsteller Vereinigung founded by Goebbels in 1941. His earlier work was influenced by Rilke, the later by Goethe and Stifter. Much of his writing is autobiographical and contains strong elements of Christian humanism, such as Der Tag des jungen Arztes (1955). Some works, su…

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Hans Christian Andersen - Personal life, Sexuality, Life as an author, Fairy tales, Naming conventions, Miscellaneous trivia

Writer, one of the world's great story-tellers, born in Odense, SC Denmark. The son of a poor shoemaker, after his father's death he worked in a factory, but soon displayed a talent for poetry. He became better known by his Walk to Amager, a literary satire in the form of a humorous narrative. In 1830 he published the first collected volume of his Poems, and in 1831 a second, under the title of Fa…

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Hans Coper

Studio potter, born in Chemnitz, E Germany. He went to live in England in 1939, joined the Studio of Lucie Rie in 1947, and established his own workshop in 1958. Originally a painter and sculptor, his thrown vases are more sculptural than domestic, and he is remembered as one of the most influential of British studio potters. Hans Coper (1920–1981), was an influential British studio potte…

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Hans Denck - Theology, Further reading

Anabaptist theologian, born in Habach, SE Germany. He became rector of the Sebaldusschule in Nuremberg in 1523. From 1524 he preached a doctrine resembling Evangelical Quakerism in various parts of Germany, was expelled from the school (1525), and became a leader of the Anabaptists in Augsburg. Denck was born in 1495 in Habach, Germany. For Denck the living, inner word of God wa…

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Hans Egede

Missionary, born in Norway. He was a pastor in the Lofoten Is (1707–17), and in 1721 founded the first mission in Greenland. He then returned to Copenhagen, where he founded a seminary for training missionaries to Greenland and was appointed bishop (1740). He published the first book written in the Eskimo language (1742). Egede landed on the west coast of Greenland on July 3. He was sent t…

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Hans Fallada - Works

A writer, born in Greifswald, NE Germany. An editor and freelance writer, he spent the Third Reich living as a recluse on his farm in Mecklenburg. His socially critical novels include Bauern, Bonzen und Bomben (1931), Kleiner Mann, was nun? (1932), and Wer einmal aus dem Blechnapf frißt (1932). He also wrote widely-read autobiographies, including Damals bei uns daheim (1941), Heute bei uns zu Hau…

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Hans Filbinger - Professional and family life, Filbinger and the Nazi Party, Filbinger during the war

German politician and lawyer, born in Mannheim, SWC Germany. A member of the Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands (CDU), he became Innenminister (1960–6), then Ministerpräsident in Baden-Württemberg (from 1966), and resigned in 1978 because of his activity as a navy judge under the NS-Regime. In 1971–9 he was CDU-Landesvorstand in Baden-Württemberg. Filbinger studied law and nat…

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Hans Fischer

Chemist, born in Höchst, WC Germany. He studied at Marburg and at Munich, where he became professor of chemistry (1921). He investigated the biological pigments that occur in animal and vegetable life, discovered the stucture of haemin, the red non-protein part of haemoglobin, and synthesized it in 1929. His studies of chlorophylls showed that they are porphyrins related in structure to haemin. H…

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Hans Folz - Works

Poet and playwright, born in Worms, SWC Germany. Originally an itinerant barber-surgeon, he went on to settle in Nuremberg and became a notable and innovative Meistersinger, influencing Sachs, and in the 1480s began publishing his own works, mostly with theological themes. While concerned to combat bawdiness in the Meistersang, his rhymes and carnival farces often themselves depicted patrician soc…

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Hans Frank - Pre-war career, Wartime career, Quotation, Fiction and film

Nazi politician, born in Karlsruhe, SW Germany. He studied at Munich, Vienna, and Kiel universities, was minister of justice in Bavaria (1933), president of the German Law Academy (1934), and in 1939 became Governor-General of Poland, where he established concentration camps and conducted a policy of persecution and extermination. He was condemned as a war criminal and hanged. Frank was bor…

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Hans G(eorg) Dehmelt

Physicist, born in Görlitz, E Germany. He moved to the USA to perform research at Duke University (1952–5), then went to the University of Washington. As a graduate student he co-discovered nuclear quadruple resonance, in which certain nuclei placed in an electric field absorb radio-frequency energy. Experience gained there and in subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance research led to work with i…

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Hans Hartung - Life

Artist, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. He studied in Basel, Leipzig, Dresden, and Munich. Although in his earlier years he was influenced by the German Impressionists and Expressionists, from 1928 onwards he produced mainly abstract work. During World War 2 he served in the Foreign Legion, and gained French citizenship in 1945. His later paintings, which have made him one of the most famous French a…

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Hans Hofmann

Painter and teacher, born in Weissenberg, SEC Germany. He studied painting in Munich, then lived in Paris, where he was influenced by Matisse. He returned to Germany in 1914, opening an art school in Munich. In 1930 he emigrated to the USA, taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1930–1) then began his own school in New York (1934), influencing such artists as Burgoyne Diller and Louise…

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Hans Hotter

Baritone, born in Offenbach-am-Main, WC Germany. He studied in Munich and, after working as an organist and choirmaster, made his debut as an opera singer in 1930. In 1940 he settled in Munich, but sang frequently in Vienna and Bayreuth, becoming one of the leading Wagnerian baritones of his day. He retired from opera in 1972, but continued to do recital work until 1991. Hans Hotter (Januar…

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Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen

Writer, born in Gelnhausen, WC Germany. He served on the imperial side in the Thirty Years' War, led a wandering life, then settled in Renchen, near Kehl. In later life he wrote a series of novels, the best of them on the model of the Spanish picaresque romances, such as the Simplicissimus series (1669–72). Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen (1621 – August 17, 1676) was a German a…

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Hans Keller - Bibliography

Musicologist, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to England in 1938, and followed a career in musical journalism and analytical criticism. He co-founded the magazine Music Survey, wrote for many other journals, served on the BBC staff from 1959, and broadcast frequently. He was influentially erudite upon contemporary music, chamber music, and football. Hans Keller (1919-1985) was a music…

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Hans Kelsen - Biography, Legal theory, Footnote

Jurist and legal theorist, born in Prague, Czech Republic. Professor at Vienna, Cologne, Geneva, Prague, Harvard, and Berkeley, he is best known as the creator of the ‘pure theory of law’ (Reine Rechtslehre, 1934), in which the science of law is required to be exclusively normative and pure, not practical. His work was extremely influential in the 20th-c. Kelsen was born in Prague. In 191…

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Hans Luther - Hans Luther's First Cabinet, January - December 1925

German politician, born in Berlin, Germany. Politically independent, he became minister of food in the Weimar Republic (Ernährungsminister) (1922–3), and as finance minister (1923–5) was involved closely with the Dawes Plan to combat inflation. As chancellor (1925–6) he signed the Treaty of Locarno (16 Oct 1925) together with President Stresemann, guaranteeing the safety of the West German bor…

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Hans Modrow

German politician and prime minister (1989–91), born in Jasenitz bei Stettin, Poland (formerly Prussia). An economist, he joined the Sozialistiche Einheitspartei (SED) in 1949, served on its Central Committee (1971–89), and became secretary of the SED Dresden area. In 1989 he began a dialogue with opposition groups, and as prime minister attempted a revival of the German Democratic Republic by m…

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Hans Mommsen - Work

Historian, born in Marburg, WC Germany, the great-grandson of Theodor Mommsen. Professor at Bochum since 1968, he is a specialist on the workers' movement in the Nazi period. He has been a member of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) since 1960. Hans Mommsen (born November 5, 1930) is a "left-wing" German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. He was born in Marburg,…

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Hans Oster

German general and resistance fighter, born in Dresden, E Germany. A member of the military defence (Abwehr), he became a leading force in the anti-Hitler resistance together with Wilhelm Canaris and Ludwig Beck, passing on the dates of the German invasion of the Netherlands and Norway (1939–40) to their respective governments. Transferred to the Führerreserve (1943) and later dismissed (1944), …

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Hans Poelzig - Work, Resources

Expressionist architect, born in Berlin, Germany. He joined the Prussian ministry of works in 1899, becoming professor of architecture at the Academy of Arts in Breslau in 1900 (subsequently director). Between 1916 and 1920 he served as city architect of Dresden. Later works include the fine Expressionistic remodelling of the Grosses Schauspielhaus, Berlin (1919). Hans Poelzig (30 April 186…

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Hans Reichenbach - Life and work, Selected publications

Philosopher of science, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He studied in Berlin, Munich, Göttingen, and Erlangen, then became professor of philosophy at Berlin (1926–33), Istanbul (1933–8) and Los Angeles (from 1938). He was an early associate of the Vienna School of logical positivists, and with Rudolph Carnap founded the journal Erkenntnis in 1930 (which reappeared in 1975 in the USA). He made an im…

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Hans Rothfels

Historian, born in Kassel, C Germany. Professor in Königsberg, Prussia (1926–34) he was dismissed for racial reasons and emigrated in 1938. He became a research fellow in Oxford (1939–40), and a professor in Providence, Rhode Island (1940–5) and in Chicago (1945). In 1951 he returned to Germany and took a professorship in Tübingen. He specialist subjects were Bismarck, the nationality questio…

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Hans Sachs - Biography, Historical significance, Works about him, Works (overview)

Poet, playwright, and composer, born in Nuremberg, SC Germany. He was trained as a shoemaker, and travelled through Germany (1511–16) practising his craft and frequenting the schools of the Meistersinger (‘mastersingers’, professional songwriters). He wrote over 6300 pieces, some celebrating the Reformation, others dealing with common life and manners in a vigorous, humorous style. His life and…

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Hans Scholl

German resistance fighter, born in Ingersheim, Germany. With his sister, Sophie Scholl (1921–43), born in Forchtenberg, Germany, and under the influence of Catholic opponents to the NS-Regime, they distanced themselves from the Hitler state and were arrested in 1938 for youth activities. After Hans returned from the front in France (1940) and from the USSR (1942), where he had worked as an orderl…

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Hans Sebald Beham - Life, Work

Painter and engraver, born in Nuremberg, SC Germany. He was one of Albrecht Dürer's seven followers known as the ‘Little Masters’. Working in Frankfurt, he produced hundreds of woodcuts and copper engravings as illustrations for books. Hans Sebald Beham ( 1500 - 1550) was a German printmaker who did his best work as an engraver,and was also a designer of woodcuts and a painter and miniat…

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Hans Speidel - Biography

German soldier, born in Metzingen, SW Germany. He served in World War 1, and by 1939 was senior staff officer. As Rommel's chief-of-staff during the Allied invasion of Europe (1944), he was imprisoned after the anti-Hitler bomb plot. In 1951 he became military adviser to the West German government. His NATO appointment as commander-in-chief of land forces, C Europe (1957–63), aroused wide controv…

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Hans Urs von Balthasar - His Life and Significance, His Writings and Contributions, Link with Quotation

Catholic theologian, born in Lucerne, C Switzerland. The author of some 60 books on theology, philosophy, and spirituality, he drew considerable inspiration for his theology from the religious experiences of the mystic Adrienne von Speyr (1902–67), with whom he formed a secular institute after leaving the Jesuits. His chief work is Herrlichkeit (1961–9, trans The Glory of the Lord: a Theological…

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Hans van den Broek

Dutch politician, born in Paris, France. Employed in 1969–76 by ENKA-Glanzstoff, he entered politics (Katholieke Volkspartij) in 1976, becoming secretary of state for European Affairs under Van Agt, and foreign minister (1982) under Lubbers. In 1993 he succeeded Frans Andriessen as a member of the European Commission with the foreign affairs portfolio. Hans van den Broek listen?(help·info…

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Hans von Dohnanyi - Early life, Career, Resistance, Proceedings after the war, Literature

A leading member of the German resistance movement after the attempt on Hitler's life in 1939. He was imprisoned in 1943 and executed in 1945. Hans von Dohnanyi (born 1 January 1902 in Vienna; Hans von Dohnanyi was born to the Hungarian composer Ernő Dohnányi and his wife the pianist Elisabeth Kunwald, he was partly Jewish. With his wife he had three children, Klaus von Dohnan…

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Hans Werner Henze - Life and works, Style, Works

Composer, born in Gütersloh, WC Germany. He studied at Heidelberg and Paris, and was influenced by Schoenberg, exploring beyond the more conventional uses of the 12-tone system. His more recent works, which include operas, ballets, symphonies, and chamber music, often reflect his left-wing political views. He settled in Italy in 1953, and has taken master classes in composition at the Salzburg Mo…

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Hans Werner Richter

Writer, born in Bansin-Usedom, N Germany. He was a US prisoner-of-war until 1946, when he became editor of the Socialist periodical Der Ruf with Alfred Andersch, and co-founder of the Gruppe 47 in 1947. A committed pacifist, he wrote realistic novels on the theme of war, including Die Geschlagenen (1949) and Sie fielen aus Gottes Hand about 12 people in a concentration camp, and also ironic portra…

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Hans Wiegel - Biography, Miscellaneous facts

Dutch politician, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He studied political science at Amsterdam University, and was MP in 1967 for the Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD), becoming party leader in 1971. His leadership achieved a strong position for his party, particularly in the S. He was leader of the opposition until 1977, when he became vice-premier and minister of internal affairs in…

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Hans Wijers

Dutch politician, born in Oostburg, SW Netherlands. He worked in the departments of social and economic affairs before joining industry (1984–9). A member of Democraten '66 (D66), he became minister of economic affairs in the Kok cabinet (1994), surviving the closure of the Fokker aeroplane company and the mass redundancies following it. He was responsible for the relaxation of the Shop Hours Act…

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Hans-Dietrich Genscher

German statesman, born in Reideburg, EC Germany. He trained as a lawyer, studying at Halle and Leipzig before coming to the West in 1952. He became secretary-general of the Free Democratic Party (FDP) in 1959, and was elected to the Bundestag in 1965. He was minister of the interior (1969–74) before becoming vice-chancellor and foreign minister (1974–92). In 1974 , he became Chairman of the FDP,…

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Hans-Georg Gadamer - Life, Work, Quotes

Philosopher, born in Marburg, WC Germany. A pupil of Heidegger at Freiberg, he became rector at Leipzig and held chairs at Frankfurt (1947) and Heidelberg (1949–68). His major work is Wahrheit und Methode (1960, trans Truth and Method). He was known particularly for his theory of hermeneutics, on the nature of understanding and interpretation. Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – Marc…

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Hans-Jochen Vogel

German politician, born in Göttingen, C Germany. He was successor to Schmidt as leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), and the Party's nominee for the chancellorship of West Germany in 1983. A former minister of housing and town planning (1972–4) and minister of justice (1974–81), he also served briefly as governing Mayor of West Berlin (1981). He replaced Brandt to become SPD chairman (1…

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Hansard - Characteristics, Canadian Hansard and machine translation

The name given to the official verbatim records of the proceedings and debates of the British Houses of Parliament and its standing committees, and to those of some of the Commonwealth parliaments. Named after the Hansard family of printers, the House of Commons Journals and Parliamentary Debates were published by the family firm from 1774 until 1889 and by different contractors until 1909, when t…

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Hanseatic League - History, Lists of former Hansa cities, Fictional references

A late mediaeval association of 150 N German towns, including Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck. Formed in 1241 as a trading alliance, it dominated trade from the Atlantic to the Baltic, and fought successful wars against neighbours between 1350 and 1450. The Hansa, as it was also known, declined because of internal divisions, English and Dutch competition, and the growth of princely power. The …

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Hanuman - Birth, Childhood, Education and Curse, Hanuman in the Ramayana War, Hanumad Ramayana

The monkey-god of the Ramayana epic, who is the courageous and loyal supporter of Rama. A popular Hindu deity, he is represented as half-human and half-monkey. Hanuman is the epitome of wisdom, brahmacharya, bhakti (devotion/faith), valour, righteousness and strength. However, it is believed that these pale when compared to the greatest boon one can receive from Hanuman — the uplift…

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Hanya Holm

Dancer, choreographer, and teacher, born in Worms, SWC Germany. A pupil of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze, starting in 1921 she worked as both teacher and dancer with Mary Wigman, who in 1931 sent her to New York City to establish the US branch of her school. In 1936 she founded her own studio, and became a key figure in the field of modern dance. She is best known for her choreography for Broadway musica…

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happening - History

A modern art ‘event’, or performance; often planned but sometimes ‘spontaneous’. Happenings (so-called since c.1960) need not take place in a gallery but may occur in the street, or anywhere, and usually involve spectator participation. The event itself, rather than any finished, saleable product, is regarded as the work of art. The genre originated in the USA with artist and art theorist Alla…

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Happy Chandler - Early life, Political career, Baseball Commissioner, Later career, Legacy

Public official and baseball commissioner, born in Corydon, Kentucky, USA. He served as Governor of Kentucky (1935–9) and a Democratic US senator (1939–45) before being named as baseball's second commissioner (1945–51). He presided over the game during the breaking of baseball's colour line by Jackie Robinson in 1947. He was known as a ‘players' commissioner’ because he took an interest in al…

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Har Gobind Khorana - Khorana's synthetic RNA approach, Trivia

Molecular biologist, born in Raipur, India (now Pakistan). He was a research fellow at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (1948–9) and Cambridge University (1950–2) before moving to the University of British Columbia (Vancouver) (1952–9). There he received international recognition for improving the method of synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A, necessary for cellular metabolism. At the Unive…

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Harappa

A prehistoric city on the dried-up course of the R Ravi in the Pakistani Punjab, c.800 km/500 mi S of Islamabad, occupied c.2300–1750 BC. Its 20 m/65 ft high mound with a circuit of 5 km/3 mi was discovered in 1826, and excavated from 1921. To the W is a massive, walled citadel of moulded mudbrick; to the E a residential lower city with a rectangular street grid. Its houses were provided wi…

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Harare - Sister Cities, Image Gallery, External Links

17°43S 31°05E, pop (2000e) 980 700. Capital and largest city of Zimbabwe, 370 km/230 mi NE of Bulawayo; altitude, 1473 m/4833 ft; founded in 1890, and named after Lord Salisbury; airport; railway; university (1970); administration, commerce, packaging, polythene, paints, adhesives, timber, textiles, tobacco; international conference centre; horse-racing and trotting tracks; motor-racing ci…

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Harbin - Subdivisions, History, Architecture, Russian influence, Winter culture and activities, Sister cities, Media, Colleges and universities

45°54N 126°41E, pop (2000e) 3 334 000, administrative region 4 523 000. Capital of Heilongjiang province, NE China; industrial centre on Songhua R; founded, 12th-c; developed as major rail junction; c.500 000 White Russians fled here in 1917; airfield; food processing, machinery, linen, sugar refining, paper; Stalin Park, Harbin Zoo (1954); Harbin Summer Music Festival (Jul). Harbin…

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hard copy

Computer output which is, for example, printed on paper and can therefore be directly read and understood by the user. The contrast is with soft copy, which refers to information stored in ways which can be understood only by a machine, such as on a floppy disk or in a computer memory. In computer graphics and telecommunications, a hard copy is a permanent reproduction, on any media suitabl…

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hard disk - Technology, Capacity, History, Hard disk characteristics, Integrity, Access and interfaces, Manufacturers

A rigid magnetic storage disk for computer data, such as the Winchester disk. It is generally capable of storing much more data than a similar-sized floppy disk. On larger computers, stacks of removable hard disks are often used, and give very large data storage potential. A hard disk drive (HDD, also commonly shortened to hard drive and formerly known as a fixed disk) is a digitally encode…

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Hardie Gramatky

Writer and illustrator, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He worked as a logger, bank clerk, and deckhand before taking up study at the Chouinard Art School, Los Angeles (1928–30). He became head animator for Walt Disney productions, Hollywood (1930–6), moved to New York City to work for Fortune magazine (1937–9), and settled in Westport, CT. He is remembered for his tugboat series for children, nota…

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hardness - Scratch hardness, Indentation hardness, Rebound hardness

A measure of a material's resistance to denting, scratching, and abrasion, related to the yield stress and tensile strength of the material. It is determined using indentation tests, which measure the size of a hole formed by a hard indenter driven into the material, as in the Vickers and Brinell tests. It is sometimes classified using the Mohs test of mineral hardness (devised by German mineralog…

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hare - Classification, Folklore and Mythology

A mammal of the genus Lepus (11 species); also known as jackrabbit. There are several differences from the closely related rabbit: hares give birth to young (leverets) with fur, are larger, have black tips to the ears, are more solitary, and do not burrow. (Family: Leporidae. Order: Lagomorpha.) Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. The hare in African…

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harebell

A slender perennial (Campanula rotundifolia) with creeping underground stolons, native to N temperate regions; stems horizontal at base, becoming erect, growing to 40 cm/15 in; lowest leaves heart-shaped, toothed, becoming narrower and entire up the stem; flowers 5-lobed bells c.1·5 cm/0·6 in, blue, rarely white, 1–several, drooping on slender stalks. In Scotland it is known as the bluebell…

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Harlan (Fiske) Stone - Trivia

Lawyer and judge, born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, USA. He studied at Columbia, practised law, and served as dean of the Columbia Law School (1910–23) before being appointed Federal attorney general. He was appointed an Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court in 1925 and Chief Justice in 1941. He upheld the view that in matters of constitutionality, except where questions of individual libe…

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Harlan Sanders

Food franchiser, born in Henryville, Indiana, USA. When he was 12, his mother remarried and his stepfather sent the children away, and Harlan became a farmhand in Greenwood, IN. With a sixth-grade education, he began 25 years of odd jobs which included service as a US Army soldier in Cuba. In 1929 he opened a petrol station and small restaurant in Corbin, KY, and his cooking grew so popular that h…

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Harlem (The Netherlands) - Location and boundaries, History, Culture and politics, Harlem landmarks, People from Harlem, Movies in Harlem

52°23N 4°38E, pop (2000e) 157 000. Capital city of North Holland province, W Netherlands; 7 km/4 mi from the North Sea coast, on the R Spaarne; part of the Randstad conurbation; founded, 10th-c; charter, 1245; sacked by the Spaniards (1573); railway; centre for tulip, hyacinth, and crocus bulbs; chemicals, publishing and printing, shipyards, railway works, machines, food processing; town hal…

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Harlem (USA) - Location and boundaries, History, Culture and politics, Harlem landmarks, People from Harlem, Movies in Harlem

District in New York City, USA, largely in N Manhattan Island, centred on 125th St; named (1658) after Haarlem, The Netherlands; a chiefly black residential area, known for its poverty and racial tension; area to the E contains a large Puerto Rican community (Spanish Harlem), and several other minority groups also live in the district; centre of a literary movement in the 1920s (the Harlem Renaiss…

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Harlem Globetrotters - History, Modern era, Winning streaks, Honorary Globetrotters, Media, Video Games

An American professional touring basketball team, usually all-black, formed in January 1927 by London-born immigrant Abraham Saperstein (1903–66). They developed a comedy routine to add to their skills, and now tour worldwide, giving exhibitions. Their signature tune is ‘Sweet Georgia Brown’. The team was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2002. The Harlem Globetrotters are a b…

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Harlequin - Origin, Dramatic Function, Other uses

Columbine's young lover in the English harlequinade, with a costume of multi-coloured diamond-shaped patches, whose cunning and ingenuity has had a long and varied theatrical history. He originated as Arlecchino, a servant and clown, one of the stock masks of the commedia dell'arte. Harlequin (Arlecchino in Italian, Arlequin in French, Harlekin in German) is the most popular of the zanni or…

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harlequin duck

A small duck, native to N areas of N hemisphere (Histrionicus histrionicus); dark with white stripes and spots; inhabits fast-flowing streams in summer, rough coasts in winter; dives for small animals which it pulls from rocks. (Family: Anatidae.) The Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) is a small sea duck. …

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harlequinade - History of the Harlequinade, Other theatrical credits, Other media

An English theatrical entertainment developed in the 18th-c by the actor John Rich, who specialized in the acrobatic and pantomimic portrayal of Harlequin. Scenes of this character's comic courtship of the servant girl Columbine interspersed the performance of a serious play, which they served to satirize. By the beginning of the 19th-c, these largely silent harlequinades had become a separate for…

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Harley Granville-Barker

Actor, playwright, and producer, born in London, UK. After a career in acting, he entered theatre management at the Court Theatre (1904) and the Savoy (1907). He wrote several plays himself, such as The Voysey Inheritance (1905), collaborated in translations, and wrote a famous series of prefaces to Shakespeare's plays (1927–45). Harley Granville-Barker (November 25, 1877 – August 31, 19…

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Harlow Shapley - Honors

Astrophysicist, born in Nashville, Missouri, USA. In order to leave the family farm, he took a business course and at age 16 became a reporter for the Daily Sun in Chanute, KS. With only a fifth-grade education, he attended the Presbyterian Carthage Collegiate Institute, graduated in two semesters, and went on to the University of Missouri, Columbia (1907). The journalism school, his choice, was n…

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Harmen Jansen Knickerbocker

Colonist, from Friesland, one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam (New York). He went to New Amsterdam in 1674 and settled near Albany (1682). A descendant, Johannes (1749–1827), was a friend of Washington Irving, who immortalized the name through his History of New York by ‘Diedrich Knickerbocker’ (1809). …

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harmonic

A pitch sounded by a string or column of air vibrating at a half, a third, a quarter, etc of its length. The timbre of a voice or instrument depends on the prominence or otherwise of these harmonics (or upper partials) when the fundamental note is sounded. Harmonics may be sounded independently of the fundamental note, on brass instruments by means of the player's embouchure (tightening or slacken…

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harmonica - Parts of the harmonica, Harmonica types, Harmonica Techniques, History, Related instruments, Competition, Harmonica manufacturers

A musical instrument, popularly known as the mouth organ, in which metal ‘reeds’ arranged in a row are made to vibrate by the inhalation and exhalation of the player's breath. The standard diatonic model is tuned to a ‘gapped’ scale (ie one with some notes missing) and is suitable only for simple, unsophisticated melodies. In the chromatic model a slide mechanism brings into play a second set …

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harmonium - Harmonium or Reed Organ?, History, Construction, The harmonium in India, Repertoire

A type of reed organ patented in 1842 by French instrument maker A F Debain (1809–77). The name has been widely used for reed organs in general. In North America, the most common pedal-pumped free reed keyboard instrument is known as the American Reed Organ, (or parlor organ, pump organ, cabinet organ, cottage organ, etc.) and along with the earlier melodeon, is operated by a suction…

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harmony - Historical rules of harmony, Types of harmony, Further reading

The combining of musical notes into chords, and then into sequences of chords, with emphasis on the ‘vertical’ component of the music rather than on the ‘horizontal’ fitting together of melodic strands (counterpoint). Harmony is thus generally thought of as accompanying, or ‘clothing’, one or more lines of melody. It may be diatonic (using wholly or mainly the notes of a particular key), chr…

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harness racing - The Breed, Races, Racing, Important Races, Great Horses

A horse race in which the rider is seated in a small two-wheeled cart, known as a sulky. The horses either trot or pace, and must not gallop. Races are run on an oval dirt track measuring 400–1500 m/½–1 mi in circumference. It was first introduced in Holland in 1554, but popularized in the USA in the mid-19th-c. Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a spe…

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Harold (Clayton) Lloyd - Early life, Entry into films, 'Talkies' and semi-successful transition, Marriage and home

Film comedian, born in Burchard, Nebraska, USA. Stagestruck from an early age, he started as a film extra in 1913, and subsequently made hundreds of short, silent comedies, adopting from 1917 his character of the unassuming ‘nice guy’ in horn-rimmed glasses and straw hat. He became one of America's most popular daredevil comedians in films such as High and Dizzy (1920) and, most famously, Safety…

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Harold (Clayton) Urey - Biography

Chemist, born in Walkerton, Indiana, USA. With great persistence he managed to get a college education, and then, after working for a chemical company during World War 1, he finally obtained his PhD in physical chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley (1923). He worked on the theory of atomic structure with Niels Bohr in Copenhagen before joining the faculty at Columbia University (19…

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Harold (Edgar) Clurman

Theatre director and critic, born in New York City, USA. He was play reader for the Theater Guild (1929–31), co-founder of the Group Theater (1931–40), and one of its directors. His book The Fervent Years (1946) is a history of the Group. He later worked as a director in Hollywood and on Broadway. An influential drama critic, his writings include Lies Like Truths (1958) and The Divine Pastime (1…

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Harold (Edward) Holt - Early career, Prime Minister, Disappearance, Literature

Australian politician and prime minister (1966–7), born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied law at Melbourne University, joined the United Australia Party, which was to be replaced by the Liberal Party of Australia, and entered the House of Representatives in 1935. He became deputy leader of his Party in 1956, and leader and prime minister when Robert Menzies retired in 1966. Dur…

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Harold (Edward) Stassen

US governor, born in Dakota City, Minnesota, USA. After putting himself through college and law school, he practised law in St Paul, MN, serving as county attorney (1930–8). After taking the lead in reforming the Republican Party in Minnesota, he served as governor (1939–43) and reformed the state civil service. After serving in World War 2 as an aide to Admiral Halsey (1943–5), he was a delega…

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Harold (Frederick) Shipman - Early life, Detection, Trial and imprisonment, Suicide, Aftermath, In popular culture

Doctor and serial murderer, born in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, UK. He studied at Leeds University (1965–70), worked at Pontefract General Infirmary, then became a GP in Todmorden. Fined for making out drug prescriptions to himself (to feed a pethidine addiction), he received treatment, and became a GP again in Hyde, Greater Manchester. After falling out with his partners, he set up his…

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Harold (Hitz) Burton

US senator, mayor, and judge, born in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, USA. Active in Republican politics, he served three terms as mayor of Cleveland, OH (1935–40) before he was elected to the US Senate (Republican, Ohio, 1940) and then named by President Truman to the US Supreme Court (1945–58). Harold Hitz Burton (June 22, 1888 – October 28, 1964) served as the 45th mayor of Cleveland, …

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Harold (Lincoln) Gray

Cartoonist, born in Kankakee, Illinois, USA. After serving as an assistant on Sidney Smith's newspaper comic strip, The Gumps (1921–4), he created his own strip in 1924, called Little Orphan Annie. For the next 45 years, he worked ceaselessly on his widely syndicated strip. Little Orphan Annie was adapted to a hit Broadway musical, Annie (1977), and a film based on the musical was released in 198…

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Harold (Maurice) Abrahams - Biography

Athlete, born in Bedford, SC England, UK, the 1924 Olympic 100 m gold medalist whose feat was immortalized in the film Chariots of Fire (1981). During 1923–4 he set four British records at the long jump from 7·19 m to 7·38 m, a record that remained intact for 30 years. He set a record with eight individual event wins for Cambridge University in the annual match against Oxford, 100 yd (1920

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Harold (Roy) Brodkey - Bibliography

Novelist and short story writer, born in Staunton, Illinois, USA. He studied at Harvard University, and joined the New Yorker in 1987. The short stories he wrote for the magazine were collected in First Love and Other Sorrows (1957). An adolescent prodigy, he went on to develop a reputation as an outstanding writer, ranked by some alongside Milton and Wordsworth. His long-awaited autobiographical …

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Harold (Sydney) Geneen - Career, Books

Communications executive, born in Bournemouth, S England, UK. He emigrated to the USA with his parents in infancy. He studied accountancy at New York University, and then worked for various accounting and manufacturing companies (1934–56). As a Raytheon executive (1956–9) he developed the management structure for which he was later famous, which featured semi-autonomous divisions subject to stro…

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Harold (Wallace) Ross - Bibliography

Newspaper editor, born in Aspen, Colorado, USA. He left high school at 13 to become a reporter for the Salt Lake City Tribune, and in 1910 was with the Marysville Appeal in California. He worked for a variety of newspapers until 1917, when he enlisted in the Railway Engineer Corps of the US army, becoming editor of Stars and Stripes. From 1925 he was founder-editor of the New Yorker. Harold…

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Harold Bell Wright - Published works

Writer, born in Rome, New York, USA. His family settled in Sennett, NY, where he was educated. His mother died in 1883, and he became an itinerant worker before studying for the ministry (1894–6). Although he was not ordained, he preached at a variety of churches, and settled on a farm near Escondido, CA. He wrote popular melodramatic religious novels, such as The Shepherd of the Hills (1907). …

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Harold Blair - Bibliography

Tenor, born near Cherbourg, Queensland, NE Australia, of an Aboriginal mother and an Italian father. After winning a talent competition on radio, he was accepted by the Melbourne Conservatory. He became the first Aborigine to gain a Diploma in Music (1949), and left to tour the USA. Returning to Australia in 1951, he joined the ABC Jubilee Tour to all capital cities. His latent interest in politic…

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Harold Bloom - Early life, Early career, Later career, Shakespeare, Bloom's influence, Books about Harold Bloom, Awards

Literary critic and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Yale (PhD), where he joined the faculty in 1955. He overturned the humanistic view of literary tradition in The Anxiety of Influence (1973). Consistently arguing against deconstruction and most other recent schools of criticism, he developed the theory of ‘antithetical criticism’, which claims that literature itsel…

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Harold E(ugene) Edgerton

Engineer, born in Fremont, Nebraska, USA. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where in 1934 he became professor of electrical engineering. A specialist in stroboscopes and high-speed photography, he produced a krypton-xenon gas arc which was employed in photographing the capillaries in the white of the eye without hurting the patient. Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton, Sc.D.…

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Harold Garfinkel

Sociologist, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He studied (BA) at the University College, Newark (part of Rutgers) and at the University of North Carolina (1942 MA). After serving with the US Army in World War 2, he took his PhD from Harvard (1952). He taught at several universities but spent most of his career at the University of California, Los Angeles (1954–87), and was affiliated with the US …

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Harold Hotelling - Works

Economist, born in Fulda, Minnesota, USA. He was a pioneering economic and statistical theorist who taught at Stanford (1924–31) and Columbia University (1931–46) before establishing a department of mathematical statistics at the University of North Carolina in 1946. His reputation was based on relatively few published articles, but they launched many ideas regarding the economics of location an…

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Harold I - Assumes the throne, Alfred and Edward's invasion

King of England (1037–40), the younger son of Canute and Ælfgifu of Northampton. Canute had intended that Hardicanute, his only son by Emma of Normandy, should succeed him in both Denmark and England. But in view of Hardicanute's absence in Denmark, Harold was accepted in England, first as regent (1035–6), and from 1037 as king. Harold Harefoot, also Harold I, (c. Upon Canute…

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Harold Knutson

US representative, born in Skien, Norway. Emigrating at age six, he grew up on a Minnesota dairy farm, which he left to become a newspaperman and publisher of the Pioneer Journal. An isolationist congressman (Republican, Minnesota, 1917–49), he opposed the New Deal and launched personal attacks on President Franklin Roosevelt. A member of the National Committee to Keep America Out of War in the 1…

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Harold Larwood

Cricketer, born in Nuncargate, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He played for Nottinghamshire, where he was known for the speed of his opening attack. He bowled ‘bodyline’ in the 1932–3 tour of Australia when several of the home batsmen were seriously hurt, and diplomatic relations between the two countries were imperilled. Afterwards, feeling that he had not been supported in official quarters,…

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Harold Pinter - Biography, Career (1957- ), Political activism, Honors, Miscellaneous, Works, Further Resources

Playwright and director, born in London, UK. He became a repertory actor, first writing poetry, then turning to drama with The Room (1957). His first major play, The Birthday Party (1957), was badly received, but was revived after the success of The Caretaker (1960, film 1963), and has been televised twice (1960, 1987) and filmed (1968). Other plays include The Homecoming (1965), Old Times (1971),…

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Harold Robbins - Selected bibliography

Writer, born in New York City, USA. At 15 he dropped out of George Washington High School, left his foster parents, and eventually became an inventory clerk in a grocery store. During the Depression he showed entrepreneurial flair by buying up crops and selling options to canning companies, and the canning contracts to wholesale grocers. He was a millionaire by the time he was 20, but speculation …

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Harold S(tirling) Vanderbilt - Background, Professional Life, Sailing Career and the America's Cup, Vanderbilt University, Bridge, Postscript

Industrialist, born in Oakdale, New York. USA. He developed the current scoring system for contract bridge while playing aboard the SS Finland in 1925, on a journey from Los Angeles to Havana. He also invented the first unified bidding system and presented the Vanderbilt Cup. Harold Stirling Vanderbilt (July 6, 1884 – July 4, 1970) was a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt fa…

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Harold Washington - Background and early career, Mayor of Chicago (1983–1987)

US representative and mayor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A decorated air-force veteran of World War 2, he was a member of the Illinois legislature (1966–76), the state senate (1978–80), and the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Illinois, 1981–3). Running for mayor of Chicago as a Democrat, but largely without party backing, he defeated Bernard Epton to become the city's first African-A…

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harp - Origins of the harp, Types of harps, harp-playing and harp-building

A musical instrument of great antiquity existing in a wide variety of forms and sizes, its distinguishing characteristic being that its strings run in a plane perpendicular to the resonator. Early types had a single row of strings tuned diatonically; later, one or (as in the Welsh triple harp of the 17th-c) two further rows were added, enabling chromatic notes to be played. The modern concert harp…

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harpsichord - History, Action, Variants, Harpsichordists, Music for the harpsichord, Further reading

A keyboard instrument known in China from at least the 8th-c, in use in the West from the 15th-c to the early 19th-c, and revived in recent times mainly for performing early music. The keys, when depressed, cause wooden jacks, fitted with plectrums of leather or quill (or, in some modern instruments, plastic), to pluck the strings, which extend away from the keyboard and are dampened when the jack…

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Harri Holkeri - Party politics, Personality, Prime minister, Media relations, Domestic offices, Legacy

Finnish politician and prime minister (1987–91), born in Oripaa, SW Finland. He became politically active as a young man, and was secretary of the Youth League of the centrist National Coalition Party in 1959. He then served as the Party's information secretary (1962–4), research secretary (1964–5) and national secretary (1965–71). He was elected to Helsinki City Council in 1969, and to parlia…

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Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher Stowe - Life, Writing "Uncle Tom's Cabin", The end of her life, Quotations

Writer, born in Litchfield, Connecticut, USA, the daughter of Lyman Beecher. Raised by her severe Calvinist father, she was educated and then taught at the Hartford Female Seminary (founded by her sister Catherine Beecher). Moving to Cincinnati with her father (1832), she began to write sketches and short fiction, and after her marriage (1836) persevered in her writing while raising seven children…

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Harriet (Mary) Walter - Stage — notable performances, TV, Film, Autobiography

British actress. After training at the London Academy of Music and Drama she gained early experience with the Joint Stock touring theatre company, Paine's Plough (touring), and the Duke's Playhouse, Lancaster. She has worked many times throughout her career with the Royal Shakespeare Company, in productions including Nicholas Nickleby (1980), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1981), All's Well That Ends …

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Harriet Ann Jacobs - Reference

Escaped slave and writer, born in Edenton, North Carolina, USA. Born into slavery, she was threatened by the sexual advances of her owner, Dr James Norcom; later she had two children by a white man. She escaped from slavery and hid for seven years in her grandmother's attic, then made her way to New York City and worked there as a domestic servant. Under the pen name Linda Brent, she wrote the sto…

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Harriet Eaton Blatch

Women's rights activist, born in Seneca Falls, New York, USA. The daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she studied at Vassar College (1878), then collaborated with her mother and Susan B Anthony on compiling their History of Woman Suffrage (6 vols, 1881–1922). Upon marrying an Englishman, she lived in England (1882–92), where she became involved in women's suffrage and other progressive causes an…

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Harriet Goodhue Hosmer - Selected works, Reference

Sculptor, born in Watertown, Massachusetts, USA. Raised as a tomboy by her father, she attended school in Lenox, MA where she made lifelong friends who encouraged her to study sculpture and anatomy. She lived and worked in Italy and England (1852–1900), creating sentimental works, such as ‘Puck’ (1856) and ‘Zenobia’ (1862). She kept a large studio of stonecutters busy with commissions from Am…

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Harriet Harman - Early career, Ministerial positions in government, Publications

British stateswoman, born in London, England, UK. She was educated at York University, became a solicitor, and was legal officer for the National Council of Civil Liberties (1978–82). She became a Labour MP in 1982, held shadow ministerial posts for social services (1984, 1985–7), health (1987–92, 1995–6), the Treasury (1992–4), employment (1994–5), and social security (1996–7), and became …

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Harriet Martineau - Early life, London and the United States, Ambleside, Mesmerism, Auguste Comte and Sociology, Verdict on herself

Writer, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. She suffered from ill-health and deafness throughout her life. An ardent advocate of social reform, in 1821 she began writing articles and short stories then, when obliged her to earn her living, she became a successful social, economic, and historical writer, with titles including Illustrations of Political Economy (25 vols, 1832–4) and Poor Laws …

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Harriet Monroe

Poet and critic, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. From an influential family, she was educated at the Visitation Convent, Washington, DC, then worked as an art and drama critic. In 1912 she founded the highly respected magazine Poetry, which was influential in publicizing the work of Lindsay, Eliot, Pound, and Frost, among others. She wrote the ‘Columbian Ode’ for the Chicago World's Columbian Ex…

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Harriet Mulford Lothrop

Writer, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. She attended private school in New Haven, married Daniel Lothrop, founder of the Lothrop publishing company (1881), and settled in the former home of Louisa May Alcott and Nathaniel Hawthorne in Concord, MA. She is remembered, among many other works, for the Five Little Peppers and How They Grew (1881) series for children. Stoned redirects here. …

less than 1 minute read

Harriet Tubman - Early life, Escape and abolitionist career, Methods, Post-war life

Abolitionist, born in Bucktown, Maryland, USA. Reared in slavery, she married a free black, John Tubman, in 1844. He opposed her plans to flee N, so she escaped alone via the Underground Railroad (1849), and over the next decade she led nearly 300 Maryland slaves to safety, including several siblings and her elderly parents. Known as ‘the Moses of her people’, she was devoutly religious and a be…

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Harris - North Harris, South Harris, Trivia

S part of the Lewis with Harris island district, Western Isles, NW Scotland, UK; area c.500 km²/200 sq mi; ferry links between Tarbert and Uig (Skye) and Lochmaddy (N Uist); tweed manufacture. Harris (Na Hearadh in Scottish Gaelic) is the southern part of the largest island of the Western Isles of Scotland or Outer Hebrides (Na h-Eileanan Siar). Lewis is, in general, the lower lyi…

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Harrison Ford - Early life, Career, Personal life, Politics, Aircraft, Selected filmography, Salary history

Actor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He served a long apprenticeship in film and television, interspersed with employment as a carpenter, before achieving stardom in Star Wars (1977) and its two sequels. Cast as a resourceful, swashbuckling hero, he found great popularity as the archaeologist adventurer ‘Indiana Jones’ in a series of films beginning with Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981). He enha…

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Harrison Gray Otis

US representative and senator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A prominent Boston lawyer, he made a fortune in land speculation. He served in the US House of Representatives (Federalist, Massachusetts, 1797–1801) and then in the US Senate (Federalist, later Whig, 1817–22). During the furor caused by the Embargo Act of 1807, he became the leader of the states' rights movement in Boston and wa…

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Harrison Salisbury

Journalist, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Joining the New York Times in 1949, he won a Pulitzer Prize (1955) for articles written as a Moscow correspondent. He reported from Hanoi during the Vietnam War and was a top-ranking Times editor before his 1973 retirement. Harrison Evans Salisbury (November 14, 1908 – July 5, 1993), an American journalist, was the first regular New York Ti…

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Harrow

51º35N 0º20W, pop (2001e) 207 400. Borough of NW Greater London, UK; it is thought that there was once a temple on top of Harrow on the Hill, and during the Middle Ages 12 individual settlements sprang up around it that now make up the borough; birthplace of Roger Bannister, David Gascoyne, Colin Turnbull, Sylvia Townsend Warner; railway; tube station; Harrow School (1572); church of St Mary (…

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Harry (Alfred Renton) Bridges - Early life on the docks, The Albion Hall group, The Big Strike, Growth and independence

Labour leader, born in Kensington, Australia. He went to sea at age 16 and entered the USA after jumping ship in 1920. He did occasional work in the Mexican oil fields, returned to sea, then settled down as a longshoreman and waterfront labour organizer in San Francisco. He founded the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (1933) and led a major dock strike the next year. During th…

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Harry (Edmund) Martinson - Life, Bibliography

Poet and novelist, born in Jämshög, S Sweden. After a harsh childhood as parish orphan, he went to sea as a stoker in 1919 and travelled worldwide, before making his name as a poet. His autobiographical novels include Nässlorna blomma (1935, Flowering Nettle), and Vägen ut (1936, The Way Out). His poetic space epic, Aniara (1956), was set to music as an opera by Karl-Birger Blomdahl. He was el…

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Harry (Edwin) Heilmann - Career statistics

Baseball player, born in San Francisco, California, USA. During his 17-year career as an outfielder for the Detroit Tigers and Cincinnati Reds (1914–32), he posted a lifetime batting average of ·342. One of the first players to become a broadcaster after retiring from the game, he was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1952. Harry Edwin Heilmann (August 3, 1894 – July 9, 1951) was an…

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Harry (Frederick) Harlow - Surrogate mother experiment, Scientific motivations, Earlier research, Later research

Ethologist and primate researcher, born in Fairfield, Iowa, USA. He studied at Stanford University, then taught at Wisconsin University (1930–74) and directed its Regional Primate Center (1961–71). His experiments in animal behaviour led to his discovery of the process whereby an animal ‘learns to learn’, which provides a valid index to its intelligence. His work with infant monkeys and their …

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Harry (Frederick) Oppenheimer - Family origins, Education and marriage, Chairman of Anglo American Corporation and De Beers, Politics

Industrialist, born in Kimberley, C South Africa, the son of Sir Ernest Oppenheimer. He studied at Oxford, and succeeded his father as chairman of Anglo-American (1957–83). As an MP (from 1947) he was a critic of the South African government's policy of apartheid. His son, Nicholas Frederick (1945– ), born in Johannesburg and educated at Oxford, was chairman of de Beers (1984–5). The son…

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Harry (Lane) Englebright

US representative, born in Nevada City, California, USA. A mining engineer with the California Conservation Commission, he served in the US House of Representatives (Republican, California, 1926–43), and as minority whip (1933–43). Englebright was elected to the United States House of Representatives in a special election in 1926, following the death of congressman John E. …

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Harry (Lloyd) Hopkins - Social work, New Deal, World War II

Social worker and public official, born in Sioux City, Iowa, USA. He held administrative positions in welfare organizations (1913–32), including the Red Cross and the New York Tuberculosis Association. In 1931 Governor Franklin D Roosevelt appointed him director of New York's Temporary Emergency Relief Administration. When Roosevelt became president, Hopkins became federal emergency relief admini…

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Harry (Philmore) Langdon - Selected filmography

Comedian, born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, USA. As a child he appeared in amateur shows, and joined Dr Belcher's Kickapoo Indian Medicine Show in 1897. He made his film debut in the serial The Master Mystery (1918), and was signed by Mack Sennett for a series of short comedies. He moved on to features and the very popular trio of Tramp Tramp Tramp (1926), The Strong Man (1926), and Long Pants (1927).…

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Harry (Salvatore) Warren

Composer, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. Of Italian-American descent, he was completely self-taught as a musician, and as a young man supported himself playing the piano in dance halls and film houses. After writing songs in the 1920s for Broadway revues, he moved to Hollywood, where (1932–57) he worked with such lyricists as Al Dubin and Mack Gordon on over 75 films, including Forty-Second Str…

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Harry (Tuchman) Levin - Works

Scholar and literary critic, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Precocious as an undergraduate at Harvard, he never bothered with a PhD but stayed on as professor of comparative literature (1939–83). Noted for his somewhat mannered style, he wrote perceptively on Elizabethan drama, the modern novel, and French literature. He was also famous for his highly composed lectures: on one occasion, as …

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Harry Bertoia

Sculptor and designer, born in San Lorenzo, NW Italy. He emigrated to the USA in 1930, where he studied and taught painting and metal crafts at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI. He worked for the Evans Products Co, Venice, CA (1943–6), then established his own workshop in Bally, PA. Although he regarded himself primarily as a sculptor, he was known for his early Cubist-influence…

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Harry Callahan

Photographer and teacher, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. A pioneer in colour photography (1944–64), he shot 8× 10 pictures, supporting himself with grants until gaining a teaching post at the Rhode Island School of Design (1961–77). Harry Morey Callahan (October 22, 1912– March 15, 1999), an American photographer, who is considered one of the great innovators of modern American photog…

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Harry Cohn

Motion-picture executive, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a youth he took on odd jobs, including a short-lived vaudeville act with composer Harry Ruby, then became the personal secretary to Carl Laemmle, founder of Universal Pictures. In 1920, Cohn and his brother Jack Cohn (1889–1956) together with Joseph Brandt, started their own company, which in 1924 became Columbia Pictures. Regarde…

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Harry Crosby - Reference

Publisher and poet, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. An eccentric, flamboyant figure, he was prominent, along with his wife, Caresse Crosby, in Parisian literary and artistic circles during the 1920s until his suicide. He published works of distinguished contemporaries, as well as his own verse and that of his wife. His diaries were published posthumously. Harry Crosby (June 4, 1898 – …

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Harry Dean Stanton - Filmography

Film actor, born in West Irvine, Kentucky, USA. After serving in the navy, he studied at the University of Kentucky and the Pasadena Playhouse. A solid supporting actor, he appeared in numerous feature films, many of them Westerns, before starring in Paris, Texas (1984). Later films include The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), Hostages (1992), The Green Mile (1999), The Straight Story (1999), and…

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Harry Emerson Fosdick

Protestant religious leader, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. He studied at Colgate University (1900) and the Union Theological Seminary and was ordained in 1903. As a professor at Union he opposed credal restrictions; he later helped lead liberal Protestant forces during the conflict with Fundamentalism in the 1920s. As pastor of the interdenominational Riverside Church in New York City (1925–46)…

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Harry Enfield

British comedian, actor, and writer. He studied at the University of York, where he began acting, then toured a fringe show, and after appearing on Channel 4's Saturday Night Live became known for his character-based comedy shows. Sir Norbert Smith - a Life? (1989) won the Silver Rose at Montreux, as did The End of an Era (1994). He achieved national recognition after his own BBC television series…

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Harry Fielding Reid

Seismologist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He was professor of dynamic geology and geography at Johns Hopkins University (1911–30). He was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson to the National Academy of Sciences in 1915 to investigate the possible control of earthslides in the Panama Canal, and then was sent to work with British and French scientists in 1917 on a map-making survey of change…

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Harry George Armstrong - Biography, Awards and decorations, Published works

Physician and airman, born in DeSmet, South Dakota, USA. After serving a US Marine Corps enlistment, he attended college and medical school, obtained a medical degree, and practised industrial medicine in Minneapolis for several years. Commissioned in the Medical Reserve Corps (1929), he opted to specialize in the new field of aviation medicine. He was air surgeon, US 8th Air Force, in England dur…

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Harry Golombek

Chess master and writer on chess, born in London, UK. He studied at London University, and became editor of British Chess (1938–67). Several times British chess champion, he was classed as a master (1948) and a grandmaster (1985), and published numerous books on chess, including The Encyclopedia of Chess (1977). Harry Golombek (March 1, 1911–January 7, 1995), was a British chess player a…

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Harry Gordon Selfridge - Brief biography, Writings, Selfridges today

Businessman, born in Ripon, Wisconsin, USA. Educated privately, he joined a trading firm in Chicago and brought new ideas and great organizing ability into the business, being made a junior partner in 1892. While visiting London in 1906 he bought a site in Oxford St, and built upon it the large store which now bears his name (opened 1909). He became a British citizen in 1937. Harry Gordon S…

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Harry Hopman - Tournament Record, Sources

Tennis player, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. Despite being a talented singles player, he specialized almost exclusively in doubles. He is, however, best known for his captaincy of the Australian Davis Cup side. He was briefly in charge before World War 2, and his return to the post in 1950 saw Australia dominate world men's tennis. Willing to take a chance with young players, he o…

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Harry Houdini

Magician and escape artist, born in Budapest, Hungary. His family emigrated to the USA while he was still a child, where he became a trapeze performer, then gained an international reputation as an escape artist. He took his name from Jean Eugène Robert Houdin, a great French magician of the 19th-c. He could escape from any kind of bonds or container, from prison cells to padlocked underwater box…

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Harry James

Jazz trumpeter, born in Albany, Georgia, USA. As a boy he worked in a circus act: his father was in the band and his mother was a trapeze artist, and as a teenager he took up the trumpet and led the circus band. He played with Ben Pollack for a year before joining Benny Goodman's band (1937), where he soon became known for his virtuoso playing. He ranks as one of the first of the great modern trum…

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Harry Mulisch - Biography, Themes in his work, Trivia

Writer of Jewish descent, born in Haarlem, W Netherlands. Together with Reve and Hermans, he is regarded as one of the most influential writers in Dutch post-war literature. In his work, which includes best-sellers like Twee vrouwen (1975, Two Women) and De aanslag (1982, The Assault), both Modernist and post-Modernist elements can be found. The consistent factor in his work is the magic-mythical …

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Harry Nelson Pillsbury - Sensation at Hastings, Lifetime records

Chess player, born in Somerville, Massachusetts, USA. The best American since Paul Morphy, he beat an unprecedented field including the world champion, the ex-champion, and the champions of six countries, in Hastings, UK (1895), and twice beat Jackson Showalter for the US title (1897, 1898). He died of a stroke. The Brooklyn chess club sponsored his journey to Europe to play in the Hastings…

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Harry Partch - Biography, Harry Partch's instruments, Discography, Bibliography

Composer, born in Oakland, California, USA. Mostly self-taught, he worked out his ideas partly during years of wandering as a hobo. His music involves microtonal scales of his own invention, played on instruments that he designed and built. Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer. He was one of the first twentieth-century composers to work extensively and…

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Harry Pollitt - Early Career, Stalinist Policies, Post-Stalin career, Soviet Coded Radio Transmission Revelations

Communist politician, born in Droylesden, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He worked in a cotton mill at 12 and joined the Independent Labour Party at 16. He was secretary of the National Minority Movement (1924–9), secretary of the Communist Party of Great Britain (1929–56), and its chairman thereafter. A stormy demagogue, he was imprisoned for seditious libel in 1925, and deported from Belfast in 1…

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Harry Reasoner

Radio and television correspondent, born in Dakota City, Iowa, USA. Originally a newspaper writer, he worked on local television news in Minneapolis in the 1950s, joining CBS News as a reporter in 1956. A founding co-editor of 60 Minutes (1968), he left to present the ABC evening news (1970–8). Returning to 60 Minutes (1978–91), he published Before the Colors Fade (1981). Harry Reasoner (…

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Harry Seidler - Controversy, Buildings, Gallery of Work

Architect, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at the Vasa Institute in Vienna, and later at Harvard, under Gropius. He worked in New York, and later with Oscar Niemeyer in Brazil, before setting up a practice in Sydney, Australia (1948). His first design, for a private house, won the Sulman Medal in 1951 and he went on to win many awards for public and private buildings. He worked in Mexico and H…

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Harry Stack Sullivan - Writings, Works

Psychiatrist, born in Norwich, New York, USA. In 1922 he began working at Saint Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, DC, a major centre for psychiatry. While there he became aware of the therapeutic effects of psychiatric interviews. He moved to Baltimore and worked and taught at Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital (1923–31), coming under the influence of Adolph Meyer at Johns Hopkins. In 1932 he mo…

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Harry Vardon - Vardon Grip, Media Depictions

Golfer, born in Grouville, Jersey. He won the British Open championship six times, in 1896, 1898, 1899, 1903, 1911, and 1914. He also won the US Open in 1900, and the German Open in 1911. He turned professional in 1903, and is remembered for the fluency of his swing, and his overlapping grip which is still known as the Vardon grip. Harry Vardon was born in Grouville, Jersey, Channel Islands…

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Harry Wright - Career Statistics

Baseball manager, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He emigrated to the USA with his family while an infant, and played cricket throughout his youth. In 1858 he joined the Knickerbocker Club of New York City, one of baseball's first organized teams. He became manager of the famed Cincinnati Red Stockings (1869), baseball's first admittedly professional club, which featured his bro…

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hartebeest

An ox-antelope closely related to the topi; pale brown; two species: the hartebeest or kongoni (Alcelaphus buselaphus, 12 subspecies), and Lichtenstein's hartebeest (Alcelaphus lichtensteini). …

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Hartford Convention - Policies of Jefferson and Madison: cut off trade, New England anger, Delegations, Convention report

(1814–15) A gathering at Hartford, Connecticut, of delegates from the New England states to oppose the War of 1812 and to propose changes in the US Constitution. The Treaty of Ghent, ending the war, and US victory at New Orleans discredited both the Convention and the Federalist Party, with which it was associated. The Hartford Convention was an event in 1814 in the United States during th…

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Hartmann von Aue

Poet, born in Swabia, Germany. He was probably in the service of the Herren (Lords) von Aue; an influential patron (presumed to be Berthold V of Burgundy) died in 1195. Some years before or after that date, Hartmann took part in the Crusades, which inspired his Kreuzlieder, which contain a renunciation of his amorous ‘Minnelieder’ of the 1180s (cf. his Büchlein of c.1180, a dispute between body…

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Harun al-Rashid - Life, Timeline, Popular culture and references, References and further reading

Fifth Abbasid caliph, known to posterity from the Arabian Nights. He came to the throne on the death of his brother, al-Hadi, with the help of the influential Barmakid family, which he permitted to dominate his early reign, but gradually removed from power. He was a great patron of the arts, enthusiastic in waging war against the Byzantines, but less interested in the detail of central government.…

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harvest moon - See Also

The full Moon closest to the autumnal equinox. It rises at almost the same time on successive evenings, seemingly providing light to help the farmers of old get in the harvest. The Harvest Moon is the full moon nearest to the autumnal equinox, which occurs (in the northern hemisphere) on or about 23 September, and in the southern hemisphere on or about 21 March. Its physical chacteris…

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Harvester judgment

A landmark decision for the Australian industrial relations system, which introduced the concept of the ‘basic wage’ that remained a central feature of the national system until 1967, and of the State system until 1967–70. The case was brought by a manufacturer of agricultural harvesters in 1907. Ex parte HV McKay (The Harvester Judgment) (1907) 2 CAR 1 was delivered in the Australian Co…

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Harvey - People, Works of art, Other

41º36N 87º50W, pop (2000e) 30 000. Town in Cook Co, NE Illinois, USA; 29 km/18 mi S of Chicago; first settled, 1855; incorporated, 1891; birthplace of Ivan Albright; railway. …

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Harvey (Kline) Littleton

Glass-maker, born in Corning, New York, USA. Following service in World War 2, he received an MFA in ceramics from Cranbrook Academy, where he studied with Maija Grotell (1951), then taught ceramics at the University of Wisconsin (1951–77). In 1962 he, together with Dominick Labino, pioneered the studio glass movement in Toledo, OH. He continued to create free-form glass sculptures in his studio …

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Harvey (Samuel) Firestone - Biography

Manufacturer, born in Columbiana, Ohio, USA. In 1896 he left his uncle's Detroit buggy company and moved to Chicago to open his own business selling rubber tyres for buggies. In 1900 he moved to Akron, OH and founded the Firestone Tire and Rubber Co to make rubber tyres for all kinds of horse-drawn vehicles, but by 1903 he shifted to making rubber tyres for the burgeoning automobile market. Firest…

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Harvey (Williams) Cushing - Life, Achievements, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library

Neurosurgeon, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The fourth generation in his family to become a physician, he showed great promise at Harvard Medical School and in his residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital (1896–1900), where he learned cerebral surgery under William S Halsted. After studying for a year in Europe, on his return he introduced the blood pressure sphygmomanometer to the USA. He began a sur…

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Harvey Kurtzman - Departure from Mad, Awards and honors, Audio, Trivia

Strip cartoonist and scriptwriter, born in New York City, USA. He studied art at Cooper Union, and entered comic books drawing Magno (1943). He created Silver Linings for the Herald-Tribune, then Hey Look one-pagers for Marvel comics. He became editor of Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales, and in 1952 created Mad as a parody of comic books and characters, later converting it to magazine format.…

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Harvey Leibenstein - Important Works

Economist, born in Yanishpol, Ukraine (formerly, USSR). Emigrating as a child to Canada, he went to the USA to attend Northwestern University. After teaching positions at Illinois Institute of Technology, Princeton, and the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the faculty of Harvard (1967), taking emeritus status in 1989. He also served in many other capacities including a visiting schola…

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Harvey Milk - Biography, Academy Award Winning Documentary, Musical and Dramatic Portrayals of Milk's Life

Public official, born in New York City, New York, USA. He moved to San Francisco in 1969 and at first operated a camera store. But as an experienced financial analyst, he was elected to San Francisco's Board of Supervisors in 1977. Instrumental in passing the city's gay rights ordinance, he was the first acknowledged homosexual official in the city. He was shot to death by a former city supervisor…

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Harwich - Architecture

51°57N 1°17E, pop (2000e) 20 000. Port in Essex, SE England, UK; on the North Sea coast, 26 km/16 mi E of Colchester; railway; container freight terminal; ferries to Denmark, Germany, Holland; engineering. Harwich is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. Its position on the estuaries of the Stour and Orwell rivers and its usefulness…

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Hasdai Crescas - Biography, His works, Works, Important studies

Chief Rabbi of Aragón, born in Barcelona, NE Spain. A philosopher, he contributed to the growth of the Renaissance and the overthrow of the Aristotelian system of Ibn Rushd (or Averroes). His major work is Or Adonai (Ferrara, 1555), in the tradition of the school of Nissim Girondí of Barcelona. He also wrote a history of the Aragonese pogrom of 1391, and taught Joseph Albó. Hasdai ben Ab…

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Hasdrubal

Carthaginian general, the son of Hamilcar and brother of Hannibal. He was left in command of the Carthaginian army in 218 BC when Hannibal invaded Italy at the start of the 2nd Punic War. He fought successfully against the Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio and his son Gnaeus Scipio Africanus (218–208 BC). In 207 BC he marched across the Alps to Italy to bring help to his brother, but was int…

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Haskell Wexler - Early life, Film career, Selected filmography, Frequent collaborators

Cinematographer and film director, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. After making industrial and educational films for some 10 years, he broke into feature films as cameraman for the semi-documentary The Savage Eye (1959). He went on to photograph a number of notable films, culminating in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), for which he won an Academy Award. He also branched out into writing, di…

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Hassan Gouled Aptidon

President of Djibouti (1977–99), born in Djibouti city. He was a representative of French Somaliland in France while becoming increasingly active in the independence movement. He joined the African People's League for Independence (LPAI) in 1967 and, when independence was achieved, became the country's first president. Later LPAI was amalgamated with other parties to become the People's Progress …

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Hassanal Bolkiah - Political role as Sultan, Early years and education, Personal wealth, Family feud

Sultan of Brunei, the son of Sultan Sir Omar Ali Saifuddin. He was educated in Malaysia, and at Sandhurst Military Academy. Appointed crown prince in 1961, he became sultan in 1967 on his father's abdication. On independence (1984) he also became prime minister and defence minister. As head of an oil- and gas-rich microstate, he is reputed to be the richest individual in the world, with an estimat…

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Hassler Whitney - Career, Work, Family

Mathematician, born in New York City, New York, USA. Noted for his work in topology analysis, he joined the Princeton faculty (1933) and became a professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study (1977). A member of the National Academy of Sciences, awarded the National Medal of Science (1976), he specialized in manifolds, integration theory, and analytic varieties. Hassler Whitney (23…

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Hastings (Kamuzu) Banda - Early life, Life abroad (1925 - 58), Return to his homeland, Dictator of Malawi

Malawi statesman, prime minister (1963–6) and first president (1966–94), born in Kasungu, WC Malawi. He studied medicine in the USA and in Britain. His opposition to the Central African Federation caused him to give up his successful London practice (1955) and return via Ghana to Nyasaland (1958). Leader of the Malawi African Congress, he was jailed in 1959, became minister of national resources…

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hatching - Technique

In art, the technique of shading a drawing with close-set parallel lines. When this is crossed at right angles by another series of lines, the technique is called cross-hatching. Hatching (hachure in French) and cross-hatching are artistic techniques used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing) closely spaced parallel lines. The main concept…

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Hatfield - Persons, Other

51°46N 0°13W, pop (2000e) 33 900. Town in Hertfordshire, SE England, UK; 30 km/19 mi N of London; designated a ‘new town’ in 1948; railway; University of Hertfordshire (1992, formerly Hatfield Polytechnic); aircraft, engineering. …

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Hathor - Goddess of Motherhood, Musician, Bloodthirsty warrior, Wife of Thoth, Later years

The ancient Egyptian goddess of love, together with joyful music and dancing. She is represented by a cow, or has cow-like features, and is often associated with the papyrus plant. She was identified by the Greeks with Aphrodite. In Egyptian mythology, Hathor (Egyptian for house of Horus) was originally a personification of the Milky Way, which was seen as the milk that flowed from the udde…

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Hatra

An ancient Parthian fortress city located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in N Iraq; a world heritage site. Founded in the 1st-c BC, it flourished as a trading and religious centre for four centuries before being razed by the Persian Sassanids. Coordinates: 35°34′0″N, 42°42′0″E Hatra (Arabic: الحضر‎ al-Ḥaḍr) is an ancient ruined city in the al-Jazira…

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Hatshepsut - Family and early life, Dates and length of reign, Burial complex, Names

Queen of Egypt of the XVIIIth dynasty, the daughter of Thutmose I. She was married to Thutmose II, on whose accession (1516 BC) she became the real ruler. On his death (1503 BC) she acted as regent for his son, Thuthmose III, then had herself crowned as Pharaoh. Maintaining the fiction that she was male, she was represented with the regular pharaonic attributes, including a beard. Maatkare …

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Hattie Carnegie

Fashion designer, born in Vienna, Austria. A childhood immigrant to New York City, she appropriated Andrew Carnegie's surname for her first hat shop (1909). Creating a major fashion house, she reinterpreted French haute couture for Americans, popularizing the ‘little Carnegie suit’ and the simple black cocktail dress. She married John Zanft in 1927 but did not use his name in her public or profe…

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Hattie Jacques - Radio performances, Television, Selected films

Comic actress, born in Sandgate, Kent, SE England, UK. A factory worker and nurse during World War 2, she made her stage debut in 1944, toured with the Young Vic, and made her first film appearance in 1946. Frequently called upon to play sturdy matrons and bossy figures of authority, she appeared in 14 Carry On films, and became a foil to top comedians, performing on radio in ITMA (1948–50) and E…

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haustorium

A sucker-like organ inserted by a parasite into the cells of the host, through which food is withdrawn. It is found in fungi and parasitic flowering plants, such as dodder. In botany, a haustorium (plural haustoria) is the hyphal tip of a parasitic fungus or of the root of a parasitic plant (such as in the broomrape family), that penetrates the host's tissue, but stays outside the hos…

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Havana - History, General, Old Havana, Landmarks in the city, Sister Cities (Twin Cities), Sports, Other images

23°07N 82°25W, pop (2000e) 2 263 000. Capital city and province of Cuba, on N coast; founded on this site, 1519; airport; railway; country's chief port on fine natural harbour; university (1721); trade in sugar, cotton, tobacco; cathedral (1704), presidential palace (1920); several old fortresses including La Fuerza (1538), oldest building in Cuba; old city centre a world heritage site; castl…

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Hawaii (island) - History, Geology and geography, Economy, Tourist information, Cities and towns, Colleges and universities, Sources

pop (2000e) 132 000; area 10 488 km²/4048 sq mi. Largest island and county of the US state of Hawaii; the ‘orchid isle’; chief town, Hilo; Volcanoes National Park; tourism; Hula Festival (Apr). The Island of Hawaiʻi (called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi proper) is one of eight main islands that make up the U.S. State of Hawaiʻi. It is said to have been named after Hawa…

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Hawaii (state) - Geography, Demographics, Education, Economy, Law and government, Transportation, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 1 211 500; area 16 759 km²/6471 sq mi. Pacific state of the USA, a group of eight major islands (Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, Oahu) and numerous islets in the C Pacific Ocean; the ‘Aloha State’, divided into five counties; reached by the Polynesians over 1000 years ago; discovered by Captain Cook in 1778, and named the Sandwich Is; King Kamehameha I…

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