Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 31

Cambridge Encyclopedia

gout - Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Stages of gout, Treatment, Diet, Suggestions for pain relief, Additional observations

A disorder arising from a raised concentration of uric acid in the blood, which is deposited in the joints and soft tissues leading to recurrent acute attacks of arthritis, classically affecting the big toe, and accumulations of uric acid in the fingers, ear lobes, and kidneys. The cause is unknown, but affected individuals are typically overweight males. Gout (also called metabolic arthrit…

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Gouverneur Morris - Political career, Personal life and legacy, Sources

US statesman and diplomat, born in Morrisania (now part of New York City), New York, USA. Fundamentally conservative, he nevertheless served as a New York delegate to the Continental Congress (1777–9) and supported the move for independence. Failing to be re-elected, he moved to Philadelphia where he became assistant superintendent of finances under Robert Morris (no relation) and helped plan the…

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Gozo - Geography, Connection to the Maltese 'Mainland', History, Ecclesiastical history, Sources and external links

36°00N 14°13E; pop (2000e) 28 000 (with Comino); area 67 km²/26 sq mi. Island in the Maltese group, often called ‘the Isle of Calypso’; 6 km/4 mi NW of the main island of Malta; coastline, 43 km/27 mi; chief town, Victoria (Rabat); largely given over to agriculture; prehistoric temples, Ta' Pinu church a centre of pilgrimage to the Virgin Mary. Gozo is an island of the Maltese…

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grace - Religion, Title, Names, Music, Other

In Christianity, the free and unmerited assistance or favour or energy or saving presence of God in his dealings with humankind through Jesus Christ. The term has been understood in various ways, eg as prevenient (leading to sanctification), or actual (prompting good actions). Sacraments are recognized as a ‘means of grace’, but the manner of their operation and the extent to which humans co-ope…

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Grace (Anna) Coolidge - Reference

US first lady (1923–9), born in Burlington, Vermont, USA. She taught at a school for deaf children before she married Calvin Coolidge in 1903. Socially active and a lively personality, she was a great asset to her taciturn husband. She was a popular first lady but suffered personally from the tragedy of the death of her younger son from blood poisoning. Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge (January…

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Grace (Patricia) Kelly - Early life, Career, Life as Princess, Filmography, Trivia

Film actress and princess, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After studying at the American Academy of Dramatic Art, she acted in television and on Broadway, and made her film debut in 1951. Her short but highly successful film career as a coolly elegant beauty included such classics as the Western High Noon (1952), Rear Window (1954), The Country Girl (1954, Oscar), To Catch a Thief (1955)…

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Grace Abbott

Social worker and activist, born in Grand Island, Nebraska, USA. She studied at the universities of Nebraska and Chicago, and in 1908 went to live at Chicago's Hull House to head the Immigrants' Protective League. A writer of forceful articles exposing the exploitation of immigrants, she also campaigned for child labour laws, and as director of the federal Children's Bureau (from 1919) she adminis…

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Grace Darling - Further Reading

Heroine, born in Bamburgh, Northumberland, NE England, UK. She lived with her father, William (1795–1860), the lighthouse keeper on one of the Farne Islands. On 7 September 1838, she braved raging seas in an open rowing boat to rescue the survivors of the Forfarshire steamboat, which was stranded on one of the other islands in the group. Grace Darling (November 24, 1815–October 20, 1842)…

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Grace Hartigan - Bibliography

Painter, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Based in New York City until 1960, she then settled in Baltimore, MD. She was an abstract painter who focused on the human figure, as in ‘River Bathers’ (1953), and also depicted urban landscapes, as seen in ‘City Life’ (1956). …

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Grace Moore - External Links

Soprano, born in Jellico, Tennessee, USA. After vocal studies in Maryland, she appeared in musical comedy in New York during the 1920s, then pursued further studies in France before making her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1928. She went on to a celebrated international career and appeared in several films. She died in a plane crash near Copenhagen. Mary Willie Grace Moore (December 5, 1898

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Grace Paley - Early life, The Little Disturbances of Man, Political activism

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Hunter College (1938–9) and New York University, then taught at Columbia and Syracuse universities during the 1960s, and became a teacher at Sarah Lawrence College. Early in her career she was a poet, but she is most noted for her mastery of the short-story form, as in Enormous Changes at the Last Minute (1974) and Later the Same Day (1…

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gradient - Interpretations of the gradient, Formal definition, Linear approximation to a function, The gradient on manifolds

A measure of the inclination of a straight line to a fixed straight line. In mathematical terms, the gradient of a straight line, in a rectangular co-ordinate system, is the tangent of the angle made by the straight line and the positive x-axis. The gradient of a curve at a point P is the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point P. In vector calculus, the gradient of a scalar field…

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Graeme Le Saux

Footballer, born in Jersey, Channel Is. A left back defender, he played in Jersey, then joined Chelsea, later moving to Blackburn Rovers, and returning to Chelsea in 1997. He joined England in 1995, and though hampered by injuries, he won 36 international caps. He transferred to Southampton (2003–5), then retired and became a television football pundit. Graeme Pierre Le Saux (born October …

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Graeme Murphy

Ballet dancer, choreographer, and ballet director, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He trained at the Australian Ballet School in New York City, and at Sadler's Wells in London, then worked as a freelance choreographer before rejoining the Australian Ballet Company as dancer and resident choreographer. Appointed director of the Sydney Dance Company in 1976, he gained international stardo…

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graft (botany)

The portion of a woody plant inserted into a slot cut in the stem or rootstock of another plant, so that the vascular tissues combine and growth continues. Successful only between closely related species, grafting is widely used in horticulture to combine desirable but weak-growing varieties with vigorous or disease-resistant ones. Sometimes the rootstock donor breaks out, producing suckers bearin…

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graft (medicine)

A tissue or organ that can be used for transplantation. An allograft (homograft) is taken from a member of the same species but one that is genetically dissimilar. An autograft is taken from the animal's or the patient's own body or a genetically identical individual (eg an identical twin). A xenograft (heterograft) is taken from a species different to that of the host. Graft may refer to: …

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Graham (Alan) Gooch

Cricketer, born in Leytonstone, E Greater London, UK. He began his career playing for Essex. His Test Match cricket debut in Australia (1975) was a failure, and prompted him to participate in an unofficial tour of South Africa (1982), resulting in his ban from international cricket for three years. A change of fortune brought him the England captaincy (1988–93) and a notable victory over the West…

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Graham (Vivian) Sutherland

Artist, born in London, UK. He studied at London, worked mainly as an etcher until 1930, then made his reputation as a painter of Romantic, mainly abstract landscapes. He was an official war artist (1941–5), and later produced several memorable portraits, including ‘Maugham’ (1949), and ‘Beaverbrook’ (1951). His ‘Churchill’ (1955) did not find favour with Lady Churchill and was never seen b…

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Graham McNamee

Broadcaster, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. A pioneer radio sportscaster, he covered the World Series as early as 1923, and in 1927 he was the announcer for the first coast-to-coast broadcast of the Rose Bowl. He also covered the Republican national convention (1924), the first national political convention ever broadcast. Graham McNamee (July 10, 1888 - May 9, 1942) was a p…

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Graian Alps - Passes

N division of the W Alps in SE France and NW Italy, on French–Italian border; extending in an arc from the Alpes Cottiennes at Mont Cenis to the St Bernard Pass and Dora Baltea valley; highest peak, Gran Paradiso/Grand Paradis (4061 m/13 323 ft). The main passes of the Graian Alps are shown in the table below. …

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grammar - Grammatical devices, Grammatical terms

The study of the structure of words (also known as morphology), phrases, clauses, and sentences (also known as syntax). At word level, the grammarian is concerned with the changes in form that signal such features as case and number (eg mouse/mice, cat/cats); at phrase level, with the structure of such units as the very tall building (‘noun phrases’) and may have been running (‘verb phrases’);…

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grammar school - Origins, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, United Kingdom, United States

In the UK, a selective school choosing usually the most able 15–25% of 11-year-olds on the basis of the eleven-plus examination. The oldest schools date back to mediaeval times, and were originally established to teach Latin. During the 1960s and 1970s many were reorganized, along with local secondary modern schools, and became comprehensive schools. The term is also used in the USA, but referrin…

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grampus

A toothed whale; correctly the grey grampus or Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), a widespread temperate and tropical deep-water species of short-nosed dolphin which eats squid. The name was formerly used for other species, especially the killer whale. (Family: Delphinidae.) …

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Gran Canaria

28°00N 15°35W; area 1532 km²/591 sq mi. Volcanic Atlantic island in the Canary Is; highest point, Pozo de las Nieves (1980 m/6496 ft); steep cliffs in N and W; wide beaches in S, with tourist facilities; chief town, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria; sugar cane, distilling, tobacco, chemicals, light engineering; airport on the E coast. Gran Canaria, rarely Grand Canary (archaic), is the th…

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Gran Chaco - Provinces/departments in the Gran Chaco, Indigenous peoples of the Gran Chaco

Lowland plain covering part of N Argentina, W Paraguay, and S Bolivia; consists of Chaco Boreal in the N (250 000 km²/100 000 sq mi), Chaco Central (130 000 km²/50 000 sq mi), and Chaco Austral in the S (250 000 km²/100 000 sq mi); drained chiefly by Paraná, Paraguay, and Pilcomayo rivers; scrub forest and grassland, with a tropical savannah climate and sparse population; cattle…

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Granada - History, After the fall of Granada, Architecture

37°10N 3°35W, pop (2000e) 257 000. Capital of Granada province, Andalusia, S Spain; on R Genil, 434 km/270 mi S of Madrid; average altitude 720 m/2360 ft; founded by the Moors, 8th-c; capital of the Kingdom of Granada, 1238; last Moorish stronghold in Spain, captured in 1492; archbishopric; airport; railway; university (1531); textiles, paper, soap, tourism; cathedral (16th-c), with tombs …

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Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) - History, Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War

An organization of veterans of the Union side in the American Civil War. Established in 1866, the GAR became an important force in post-war politics. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War. The successor organization is the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW). …

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Grand Bahama

pop (2000e) 47 400; area 1372 km²/530 sq mi. Island in the NW Bahamas; fourth largest island in the group; length 120 km/75 mi; chief town Freeport-Lucaya; popular tourist resort; home of the Underwater Explorers' Club; International Bazaar; oil transshipment at South Riding Point. Grand Bahama is one of the northernmost of the islands of the Bahamas, and the closest major island to…

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Grand Banks

A major fishing ground in the N Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, formed by an extensive submarine plateau on the continental shelf. The plankton-rich shallow waters are an important breeding area for fish. The Grand Banks are a group of underwater plateaus southeast of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. The mixing of these waters and the …

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Grand Canyon - Geography, Geology, Human history, Recent history, Activities, Grand Canyon Visitors, Grand Canyon Fatalities

Enormous gorge in NW Arizona, USA; 349 km/217 mi long; 8–25 km/5–15 mi wide from rim to rim; maximum depth c.1900 m/6250 ft; the result of large-scale erosion by the Colorado R, exposing hundreds of millions of years of geological formations; parts of the side walls have formed isolated towers (‘temples’) due to stream erosion (best known are Vishnu Temple, Shiva Temple, Wotan's Throne);…

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Grand Coulee - Geological history, Modern Uses

Valley in Douglas County, NE Washington, USA; the Grand Coulee Dam is a major gravity dam on the Columbia R, impounding L Franklin D Roosevelt; built 1933–42; height 168 m/550 ft; length 1272 m/4173 ft; can generate 6180 megawatts of hydroelectricity. The Grand Coulee is an ancient river bed in the U.S. state of Washington. The Grand Coulee is part of the Columbia River Pla…

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Grand Guignol

Short sensational shows, in vogue in Paris in the late 19th-c, which depict violent crimes in a style designed to shock and titillate. Guignol was originally a puppet in the French marionette theatre, the French eqivalent of the British Punch and the German Hanswurst or Kasperle. Performances may still be seen in the small theatres of Montmartre. The Grand Guignol (Grahn Geen-YOL) was a the…

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Grand National

The most famous steeplechase in the world, first held at Maghull near Liverpool in 1836. The race moved to its present course at Aintree in 1839. Racing over 4 mi/855 yd (7·2 km), the competitors have to negotiate 30 difficult fences, including the hazardous Becher's Brook. There is also a greyhound Grand National. …

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Grand Ole Opry - History, Impact and economics, Grand Ole Opry Members

Country-music radio show broadcast from the Grand Ole Opry House theatre in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Begun in 1925, it is the nation's longest continuously running radio show and the last survivor of the big country music shows of radio's ‘golden age’. The Grand Ole Opry is a weekly Saturday night country music radio program broadcast live on WSM radio in Nashville, Tennessee, and telev…

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Grand Remonstrance

The statement of Charles I of England's abuses, and of reforms made by the Long Parliament in 1640–1; passed by 11 votes in the House of Commons (22 Nov 1641), and thereafter published as an appeal for support. The close vote reflected the formation of roughly equal parties of ‘royalists’ and ‘parliamentarians’. The Grand Remonstrance was a list of grievances presented to King Charles …

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Grandma Moses

Artist, born in Greenwich, New York, USA. She grew up on a farm, married farmer Thomas Salmon Moses in 1887 and had 10 children, five of whom died in infancy. Afflicted with arthritis in her 70s, she was forced to give up sewing and began to paint colourful childhood country scenes in a primitive style, such as ‘Catching the Thanksgiving Turkey’ (c.1938), ‘Over the River to Grandma's House’ (c…

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granite - Mineralogy, Occurrence, Origin, Uses

A coarse-grained, acid (high in silica) igneous rock containing orthoclase feldspar, quartz, and mica (and/or hornblende); pale pink or grey in colour, its durability makes it an important building stone. Granite (IPA: /ˈgranɪt/) is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granites are usually a white, black or buff color and are medium to coarse …

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Grant Johannesen

Pianist, born in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. One of the leading American pianists of his time, he made his New York debut in 1944 and thereafter performed internationally, particularly with the New York Philharmonic and the Cleveland Orchestra. He taught at the Cleveland Institute of Music from 1974 to 1985. Grant Johannesen (July 30, 1921 – March 27, 2005) was an American concert pianist.…

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Grant Tinker

Television producer, born in Stamford, Connecticut, USA. After working in advertising, he became a National Broadcasting Company (NBC) programmer (1961–7), moving to Universal Studios to be near his then wife, Mary Tyler Moore. Together they formed MTM productions in the 1970s, producing comedy shows. As NBC chairman (1981–6), he pulled the network from last to first place. After resigning, he f…

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Grant Wood

Painter, born in Anamosa, Iowa, USA. After working as a farmer, silversmith, and designer, he made four trips to Europe in the 1920s, where he was exposed to the late mediaeval primitive painting style that would later influence his work. He settled back in Cedar Rapids, IA, becoming a painter who captured the idiosyncratic aspects of the people and landscape there, thus becoming a founder of the …

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grant-maintained school

A school, established by the 1988 Education Act, which is independent of the local education authority and receives its annual grant directly from the government. In order to ‘opt out’ of local authority control a majority of parents must vote in favour by secret ballot. In England and Wales, a grant-maintained school is a state school that opted out under local control as allowed for by …

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Granville (France) - Earls of Granville, People called Granville, Locations named Granville, Rail and metro stations, Brands

48º50N 1º35W, pop (2001e) 14 000. Seaport in Manche department, Normandy, W France; on the Golfe de San Malo; picturesque fortified town; health spa resort; birthplace of Christian Dior and Christophe Auguin; railway; regional water sports centre; Musée de Christian Dior; wax museum; church of Notre-Dame (originally 15th-c); Grand Pardon de la Mer religious festival (Jul); regular ferry servi…

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Granville (USA) - Earls of Granville, People called Granville, Locations named Granville, Rail and metro stations, Brands

40º07N 82º50W, pop (2000e) 3200. Town in Licking Co, Ohio, USA; located 40 km/25 mi E of Columbus, near R Licking and L Buckeye; founded (1805) by settlers from Granville, MA and Connecticut; incorporated, 1832; adopted municipal charter (1964) for council-manager form of government in use today; birthplace of Hubert Howe Bancroft; Denison University (1831); Avery-Downer House (1842) houses t…

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grape hyacinth

A bulb native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; leaves grass-like, semi-cylindrical; flowers in a dense spike-like inflorescence, drooping, urn-shaped with six small lobes; the blue upper flowers often sterile, brighter-coloured, acting as an extra attractant. It is cultivated for ornament. (Genus: Muscari, 60 species. Family: Liliaceae.) …

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grapefruit - Colors and flavors, Medicinal effects

A citrus fruit (Citrus paradisi) 10–15 cm/4–6 in diameter; usually globose with thick, pale, yellow rind; some varieties may be slightly pear-shaped or have thin or pinkish rind. (Family: Rutaceae.) The grapefruit is a sub-tropical citrus tree grown for its fruit which was originally named the "forbidden fruit" of Barbados. Grapefruit comes in many varieties, determinable by…

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grapevine

A deciduous woody climber (Vitis vinifera), entering cracks and swelling to form a sticky mass which provides support; leaves palmately 3–5-lobed, toothed; flowers numerous, in drooping inflorescences, tiny, green; ripe fruits sweet, yellowish or purple, often with a waxy, white bloom; tendrils negatively phototropic. Probably native to E Asia, many varieties are now cultivated in most temperate …

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graph

A diagram illustrating the relationship between two sets of numbers, such as the relationship between the height of a plant in centimetres and the time in days since germination. The sets of numbers may be purely algebraic; for example, described by the equation y = x ? 1. Although the scales on the axes are usually constant, that is not necessary. Logarithmic graph paper is so calibrated that…

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graph theory - History, Drawing graphs, Graph-theoretic data structures, Problems in graph theory, Applications

The study of networks - systems of points joined by lines. A famous unsolved problem is the travelling salesman problem: given a number of towns and the roads between them, what is the shortest route that enables a salesman to visit every one? This exemplifies the way problems in graph theory are not amenable to the calculus, and defy even the largest computers when the number of possible routes b…

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graphic design - Principles and elements of design, Graphic design theory, Graphic design history

A set of skills and techniques employed in the design of all printed matter. The major skills include typography, photography, illustration, and printmaking. These disciplines, formerly taught and practised more or less in isolation, have been successfully brought together through the dominance of offset lithography as the most popular printing method and the development of allied photographic tec…

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graphics tablet - History and background, Uses, Manufacturers, Similar devices

A device by which the movements of a pen over a special surface can be translated into digital input for a computer. This provides a means of converting two-dimensional information, such as maps and drawings, into computer-readable form. It is very widely used in engineering and design applications. A graphics tablet is a computer input device that allows one to hand-draw images and graphic…

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graphite

A mineral form of carbon, found in metamorphic rocks; black, soft, and greasy to the touch. It is a very good electrical conductor and dry lubricant. Mixed with clay, it is used in pencil ‘leads’. Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: "to draw/write", for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. The bond betwee…

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graphology (linguistics) - Basic tenets, Vocabulary, Validity, Legal considerations, Applications of graphology, Forensic document examination, Graphology in court testimony

The study of the writing system of a language; also the writing system itself. The system is analysed into a set of graphemes, most of which have a more-or-less systematic relationship with its sounds (as with those in dog). Other types of grapheme include those which indicate punctuation conventions (?, “, !, etc) and those which refer to whole words (eg &, +, ?). Graphology is the study …

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graphology (psychology) - Basic tenets, Vocabulary, Validity, Legal considerations, Applications of graphology, Forensic document examination, Graphology in court testimony

The analysis of handwriting as a guide to the character and personality of the writer. It was introduced during the late 19th-c by the French abbot, Jean Hippolyte Michon (1806–81). Graphologists study such factors as the size, angle and connection of letters, line direction, shading of strokes, and layout, and interpret these with reference to a wide range of psychological and physiological stat…

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graptolite - Taxonomy, Graptolites as zone fossils, Morphology, Preservation

An extinct marine animal (a hemichordate), mostly found in surface plankton, living in colonies; known from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous periods; individual polyps of colony lived in chitinous tubes arranged in single or double rows along the main axes. (Class: Graptolithina.) Graptolites (Graptolithina) are fossil colonial animals known chiefly from the Upper Cambrian through the Miss…

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grass - Plants called grass, Work with grass, Grass and society

A member of one of the largest flowering plant families, with over 9000 species distributed worldwide, including the Arctic and the Antarctic, where they are the only flowering plants to survive. They are monocotyledons, ranging from tiny annuals to perennials over 30 m/100 ft high. Most are herbaceous; a few are woody shrub- or tree-like in form; but all show great uniformity of structure. A ty…

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grass snake

A harmless snake native to the Old World from Europe to SE Asia, and to North America; lives near water; swims well; eats mainly frogs; anal gland emits foul-smelling secretion when alarmed; often called water snake in the USA - a name also used for snakes of other groups. (Genus: Natrix, many species. Family: Colubridae.) The Grass Snake, sometimes called the Ringed Snake or Water Snake (N…

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grasshopper - Characteristics, Families, Biology, Other information, Source, Gallery

A medium to large, terrestrial insect with hindlimbs adapted for jumping; forewings leathery; hindwings forming membranous fan, or reduced; feeds mostly on plants; many produce sound by rubbing together forewings or hindlimbs, or rubbing forewings against hindlimbs; antennae may be long (as in the family Tettigoniidae) or short (as in the family Acrididae). (Order: Orthoptera.) Grasshoppers…

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Gratian - Life

Roman emperor from 375, the son of Valentinian I, born in Sirmium, Italy. In 367 his father made him Augustus in Gaul, and on Valentinian's death he became emperor of the West, which he shared with his brother Valentinian II. He appointed Theodosius emperor in the East on the death of his uncle Valens (378). He was much influenced by St Ambrose, and dropped the phrase Pontifex Maximus (‘Supreme P…

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Gratian - Life

Italian jurist and Carmaldulensian monk of Bologna. Between 1139 and 1150 he compiled the collection of canon law known as the Decretum Gratiani, which became the basic text for all studies of canon law, and remained the first part of the traditional body of canon law in the Roman Catholic Church until 1917. Flavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359-August 25, 383), known as Gratian,…

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gravel - Types of gravel

Unconsolidated deposits of rock in the form of pebbles (2–60 mm/0·08–2·5 in in size) laid down by rivers or along seashores. It may be mined for alluvial mineral deposits, but is most commonly used as an aggregate in concrete. Gravel is an important commercial product, used in many applications. Some important types of gravel include: In Britain, gravel always refers to sm…

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gravitation - History of gravitational theory, Specifics, Applications, Alternative theories

The mutually attractive force between two objects due to their masses; expressed by Newton's law of gravitation F = Gm1m2/r2, where F is the force between objects of mass m1 and m2 separated by distance r, and G is the gravitational constant. The direction of force is along a line joining the two bodies. It is the weakest of all forces, important only on a large scale. The form of Newton's law w…

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gravitational collapse - Catastrophic gravitational collapse toward a black hole

A phenomenon which occurs when the supply of nuclear energy in the core of a star runs out, and the star cools and contracts; a prediction of general relativity. This disturbs the precise balance inside the star between the inward pull of gravity and the star's gas pressure. Once the star radius is less than a critical value (Schwarzschild radius, R = 2MG/c², value 3 km/2 mi for the Sun), the…

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gravitational lens - Description, History, Cosmological applications, Astronomical applications

A phenomenon resulting from Einstein's general theory of relativity. The theory showed that light follows a curved path when it passes close to massive objects, and thus presented the possibility that galaxies can focus the light of more distant objects along the same line of sight. This lensing effect has been observed around certain massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies. A gravitation…

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gravitational radiation - Introduction, The effects of a passing gravitational wave, Sources of gravitational waves, Gravitational wave detectors

Very weak gravity waves produced when a massive body is disturbed or accelerated. The phenomenon is predicted by the general theory of relativity, but not yet observed with certainty. In physics, a gravitational wave is a fluctuation in the curvature of spacetime which propagates as a wave. Gravitational radiation results when gravitational waves are emitted from some moving object or…

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gravitational redshift - Definition, History, Important things to stress, Initial verification, Application, Exact Solutions

A frequency shifting of light to lower frequencies for sources emitting light in a relatively strong gravitational field; also called the Einstein shift. It means that light travelling away from a massive body appears at a lower frequency (redshifted) than expected. The redshift of light travelling away from Earth was first measured in 1961 by Robert Pound and Glen Rebka using the Mössbauer effec…

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graviton - Gravitons and models of quantum gravity, Gravitons and experiments

A hypothetical quantum of gravitation whose role is the mediation of gravitational force between masses; mass 0, spin 2, charge 0. Gravitons are the quanta of gravitational waves, as photons are the quanta of electromagnetic waves; but, unlike photons, gravitons will interact with one another, one reason why quantum gravity is hard to formulate. In physics, the graviton is a hypothetical el…

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gray

In radioactivity, the unit of absorbed dose, ie the energy deposited in an object by radiation, divided by the mass of the object; SI unit; symbol Gy; 1 Gy defined as 1 J/kg. Two colors are called complementary colors if grey is produced when two colors are combined. Consequently, grey remains grey when its color spectrum is inverted, and therefore has no opposite, or alternately is…

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Graz - History, Transportation

47°05N 15°22E, pop (2000e) 242 200. Capital of Steiermark state, SE Austria; on the R Mur, at the foot of the Schlossberg (473 m/1552 ft); second largest city in Austria; airport; railway; two universities (1585, 1811); outskirts heavily industrialized; iron, steel, coal, paper, textiles, chemicals, vehicles; opera house, Renaissance Landhaus (1557–65), Landeszeughaus (Provincial Arsenal), …

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Grazia Deledda - Fundamentals of her work, Main works

Writer, born in Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy. She had no formal education, and took inspiration from Sardinian life for her novels and short stories, including Elias Portolu (1903), Cenere (1904), L'edera (1906), Canne al vento (1913), and Marianna Sirca (1915). They combine elements from both the verismo and decadents movements and from popular literature to create an ambience infused with strong passi…

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Great Australian Bight

Area of the Southern Ocean off the S coast of Australia between Cape Pasley (W) and Port Lincoln (E) (1450 km/900 mi); depth 70 m/230 ft over the continental shelf to c.5600 m/18 400 ft over the Great Bight abyssal plain. The Great Australian Bight is a large bight, or open bay, encompassing an area of the Southern Ocean located off the central and western portions of the southern co…

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Great Awakening - Patterns defining a Great Awakening, American Great Awakenings

A widespread 18th-c Christian revival movement in North America, which reached its high point in the 1740s in New England. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were among its leaders. The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. There are four generally accepted Great Awakenings in American history: …

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Great Barrier Reef - Geology and Geography, Species of the Great Barrier Reef, Human use of the Great Barrier Reef

Coral reef in the Coral Sea off the NE coast of Australia, part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory; 50–150 km/30–90 mi offshore and 2000 km/1200 mi long; the largest accumulation of coral known, yielding trepang, pearl-shell, and sponges to divers; the surf is violent and dangerous, but the intervening channel, clustered with atolls, forms a safe, shallow passage connected by several navigab…

less than 1 minute read

Great Basin - Geology, Flora and Fauna, History, Present Habitation

Vast interior region in W USA, between (W) the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range and (E) the Wasatch Range and Colorado Plateau; area c.500 000 km²/200 000 sq mi; covers parts of Oregon and Idaho, most of Nevada, W Utah, and part of SE California; rugged N–S mountain ranges; semi-arid climate; the few streams (largest are the Humboldt and Carson Rivers) drain into saline lakes or sinks; b…

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Great Bear Lake - Climate, Note

Lake in Northwest Territories, NW Canada, on the Arctic Circle; 320 km/200 mi long; 40–177 km/25–110 mi wide; maximum depth 413 m/1356 ft; area 31 153 km²/12 025 sq mi; drained SW by the Great Bear R; navigable for only four months each year because of ice. Between 1950 and 1974, this climatic data was collected at Port Radium: …

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great circle - Resources

A circle described on the surface of a sphere with its plane passing through the centre of the sphere. The shortest distance between any two points on a sphere lies along a great circle. On the Earth, lines of longitude lie on great circles. A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same circumference as the sphere, dividing the sphere into two equal hemispheres. Eq…

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great crested grebe

A large water bird (Podiceps cristatus) native to Europe, Asia, Africa S of the Sahara, Australia, and New Zealand; long slender neck and long sharp bill; both sexes with head crest; catches fish by diving from surface. (Family: Podicipedidae.) …

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Great Dane - History, Appearance, Temperament, Health, Miscellaneous

One of the largest breeds of dog (height, 0·75 m/2½ ft), perfected in Germany from a mastiff-like ancestor; used for hunting; long powerful legs; square head with deep muzzle and pendulous ears; coat short, pale brown with dark flecks. The Great Dane is a breed of dog known for its large size and gentle personality. Some sources state that dogs similar to Great Danes were kn…

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Great Depression - Suggested causes of the depression, Effects, Responses in the United States, Keynesian models, Gold standard

The worldwide slump in output and prices, and the greatly increased levels of unemployment, which developed between 1929 and 1934. It was precipitated by the collapse of the US stock market (the Wall Street crash) in October 1929. This ended American loans to Europe and greatly reduced business confidence worldwide. A major Austrian bank also collapsed, producing destabilization in much of C and E…

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Great Dividing Range

Mountain range in Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, Australia; extends 3600 km/2200 mi from Cape York Peninsula to the Victoria–South Australia border; includes the McPherson and New England Ranges, the Australian Alps, the Blue Mts and the Grampians; rises to 2228 m/7310 ft at Mt Kosciuszko. The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most su…

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Great Lakes - Lakes, Geologic pre-history, Economy, Political issues, Important cities along the lakes

The largest group of freshwater lakes in the world, in C North America, on the Canada–USA border; drained by the St Lawrence R; consists of Lakes Superior, Michigan (the only one entirely in the USA), Huron, Erie, Ontario; sometimes L St Clair is included; water surface c.245 300 km²/94 700 sq mi, c.87 270 km²/33 700 sq mi in Canada; connected by navigable straits and canals (St Mary'…

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Great Leap Forward - Historical background, The Great Leap Forward, Climate conditions and famine, Consequences

A movement in China, initiated by Mao Zedong in 1958, which aimed at accelerating industrial expansion through mass participation in industrial activities such as iron smelting. Simultaneously, agricultural production was to increase following socialistic reorganization into communes. Both initiatives seriously impaired China's economic well-being. The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese…

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Great Northern War - Swedish victories, Russian victories, The Fall of Stralsund, Conclusion

(1700–21) A war between Russia and Sweden for the mastery of the Baltic coastal region. Charles XII of Sweden defeated Peter I of Russia's army at Narva in 1700, but failed to pursue his advantage. Peter introduced sweeping military reforms, and later defeated Sweden at the battle of Poltava (1709). The war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystadt. The Great Northern War was the war …

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Great Plains - Subdivisions, History

Region of C North America; a sloping plateau, generally 650 km/400 mi wide, bordering the E base of the Rocky Mts from Alberta (Canada) to the Llano Estacado in New Mexico and Texas; includes parts of Alberta and Saskatchewan, the E parts of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, and the W parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas; limited rainfall, short gr…

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Great Red Spot - Convergence

The largest, best-known, and probably longest-lived ‘storm’ feature of Jupiter's atmosphere; a reddish oval feature in the S hemisphere, about 30 000 km/19 000 mi across, first noted 300 years ago. It was observed in detail by Voyager spacecraft cameras for many days, and determined to be a region high in atmosphere exhibiting a counter-clockwise rotation lasting about six days. Similar but …

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Great Salt Lake - Origin, Geography, Ecosystem, Commerce, Miscellanea

Large inland salt lake in NW Utah, USA, NW of Salt Lake City; length 120 km/75 mi; width 80 km/50 mi; maximum depth 11 m/36 ft; average depth 4 m/13 ft; fed by the Jordan, Weber, and Bear Rivers; has no outlet and fluctuates greatly in size; includes Antelope I and Fremont I; its water is 20–27% saline; commercial salt extraction; crossed by a railway (completed 1903); a remnant of the en…

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Great Salt Lake Desert

Arid region in NW Utah, USA, to the W of the Great Salt L; extends 177 km/110 mi S from the Goose Creek Mts; c.10 000 km²/4000 sq mi; Bonneville Salt Flats near the Nevada border, where world speed car records were established in the 1930s. The Great Salt Lake Desert is a large playa in northern Utah, located west of the Great Salt Lake. It is an arid region extending west from the G…

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Great Sandy Desert

N belt of the Western Australian Desert; consists mostly of sand dune, scrub and salt marsh; area c.450 000 km²/175 000 sq mi; extends W as far as the Indian Ocean. The Great Sandy Desert is a 360,000 km² (223,700 mi²) expanse in northwestern Australia. The Great Sandy Desert is a flat area between the rocky ranges of the Pilbara and the Kimberley. To the southeast is the Gibs…

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Great Slave Lake - General Information

Lake in W Northwest Territories, C Canada; 480 km/300 mi long; 50–225 km/30–140 mi wide; maximum depth over 600 m/2000 ft; area 28 570 km²/11 030 sq mi; contains numerous islands; drained W by the Mackenzie R; town of Yellowknife on N shore. Great Slave Lake (French: Grand lac des Esclaves) is the second largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada (behind Great Bear La…

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Great Smoky Mountains - Name, Peaks, Flora and fauna, Water, Culture and tourism

Mountain range, part of the Appalachians, on the Tennessee–North Carolina state frontier, USA; a national park, protecting the largest tract of red spruce and hardwood in the USA; rises to 2025 m/6644 ft at Clingmans Dome. The Great Smoky Mountains are a major mountain range in the southern part of the Appalachian Mountains, the second ridge line forming a north-south running mountain ch…

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Great Society - Economics and social conditions, Ann Arbor Speech, The 1965 legislative program and presidential task forces

An American political term for the domestic programme of President Johnson (in office 1963–9). It was characterized by strong government programmes intended to secure social justice. The Great Society was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination …

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Great Trek - Further reading

The movement of parties of Boers (Voortrekkers) which made them the masters of large tracts of the interior of S Africa. They began to leave Cape Colony in 1836 in separate trekking groups. Two parties were wiped out by African resistance and malaria when they headed for Delagoa Bay in Mozambique. Some settled in the Transvaal, where they were threatened by the Ndebele. A party in Natal was massac…

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Great Wall of China - Characteristics of the Wall, Condition, Watchtowers and barracks, Recognition, From outer space, Further reading, Gallery

The defensive and symbolic frontier stretching 4100 km/2550 mi across N China from the Yellow Sea to the C Asian desert; a world heritage site. Under Qin Shihuangdi, using 300 000 troops, the earliest connected wall was built from 221 BC to repel attacks from the Jung and Ti nomads to the N. It was improved during later dynasties, notably during the Han (202 BC–AD 220), by extension to Yumen i…

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Great Zimbabwe - Name, Description, Image gallery

A group of drystone enclosures near Fort Victoria, SE Zimbabwe, capital of a powerful African chiefdom in the 14th–15th-c, its prosperity based on cattle-herding, gold production, and trade; a world heritage site. The largest valley enclosure, internally subdivided, is 244 m/800 ft long, up to 5 m/16 ft thick and 10 m/33 ft high; it contains c.5150 cu m/6750 cu yd of stonework, and inco…

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Grebbelinie - Early history, World War II

A defensive line in the Gelder valley, which was swampy. It proved useful in 1582–90, 1629, 1672, and 1701 to protect Holland and Utrecht from the E, although it started only as an earth dyke and was often in an unfinished state. It was strengthened in 1742 by built defences and planned inundations, and again in the 20th-c by tank traps and concrete blockhouses, but in 1940 the Germans broke thro…

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grebe - Species in taxonomic order

An aquatic bird, native to temperate regions or high tropical lakes worldwide; swims underwater using feet; toes lobed and slightly webbed; inhabits fresh or shallow coastal waters. Some species are small and eat invertebrates; others are large and eat fish; fish eaters eat large numbers of their own feathers. (Family: Podicipedidae, 22 species.) Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes o…

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Greece - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Science and technology, Demography, Education, Culture, Photo Gallery, Further reading

Official name The Hellenic Republic, Gr Elliniki Dimokratia Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα [eˈlaða] or Ελλάς [eˈlas]), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία [eliniˈci ðimokraˈtia]), is a country in south-eastern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan peninsula. Greece lies at the juncture of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Re…

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Greek art - Modern Period

The art associated with classical Greece, which can usefully be divided into four periods: Geometric (11th–8th-c BC), known mainly through painted pottery; Archaic (late 8th-c–480BC), when oriental influences were absorbed, and the human figure emerged as a central theme; Classical (480–323BC), the zenith of ancient civilization, when architecture, sculpture, and painting achieved an ideal beau…

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Greek language

An Indo-European language, spoken by c.11·5 million people in Greece and nearby areas, in the Greek part of Cyprus, and as an immigrant language in several other countries. The language is known from around the 14th-c BC in the Cretan inscriptions called Linear B. Mycenaean Greek of this period is distinguished from later Classical or Ancient Greek of the 8th-c BC and after, when texts came to be…

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Greek literature - Ancient Greek literature (before AD 300), Byzantine literature (AD 300-1453)

The earliest works belong to the oral tradition; the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer come down from c.8th-c BC. Lyric poetry was written from the 6th-c BC (elegiac by Archilochus, erotic by Sappho), and reached perfection with Pindar. The great moment of Greek drama came in the 5th-c BC, with the verse tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the comedies of Aristophanes. Most of these pla…

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Greek Orthodox Church

The self-governing (autocephalous) Orthodox Church of Greece. After the schism of 1054, the Orthodox Church in Greece remained under the patriarch of Constantinople, but was declared independent in 1833. The governing body is the Holy Synod, which comprises 67 metropolitan bishops, presided over by the archbishop of all Greece in the head see of Athens. In doctrine, it shares the beliefs of Orthdo…

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Greek philosophy - Pre-Socratic philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, Schools of thought in the Hellenistic period

Western philosophy began with the Greeks, though ‘philosophy’ originally embraced much of natural science too. Four main periods span over 1000 years. The Presocratics (c.600–400 BC) speculated (often very imaginatively) about the natural world - its origins, dynamics, and ultimate constituents. The 5th-c and 4th-c are dominated by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who continue to be hugely influ…

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green algae

A large and diverse group of alga-like plants characterized by the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls a and b, which give them their green colour; typically storing food as starch in chloroplasts; found predominantly in fresh water; many have motile stages (zoospores) that swim using flagella. (Class: Chlorophyceae.) The Green algae (singular: Green Alga) are the large group of algae fro…

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green belt - Notable Greenbelts

In the UK, a planning measure in which areas are designated free from development to prevent urban sprawl encroaching into the countryside, and the merging of neighbouring towns. It surrounds existing major urban areas, not necessarily continuously. It provides open land for recreation, and protects agricultural land. The concept is incorporated into garden cities and new towns. A Green Bel…

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green manure - Green manure crops, Green manures in organic farming

A crop which is ploughed into the soil when green to improve its humus content and water-retaining capacity. Mustard and grass can be used in this way, as can shrubs, herbs, and the branches of certain trees. Historically, the practice of green manuring can be traced back to the fallow cycle of crop rotation, which was used to allow soils to recover. Organic farming relies on so…

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Green Mountain Boys

In the American Revolution, an insurrectional group of settlers, led by Ethan Allen, which created the state of Vermont from territory disputed between New York and New Hampshire. Of many rural insurrections in early America, the Green Mountain Boys was the only one that succeeded. They helped capture the British fort at Ticonderoga, on L Champlain (1775). The cannon taken were important in the su…

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Green Revolution - History, Agricultural production and food security, Social changes, Ecological change, Legacy of the Green Revolution

A description for the phenomenal increase in cereal output and cash returns which occurred in some developing countries during the 1960s and 70s. This was made possible by Borlaug's plant breeding research in Mexico, which produced high-yielding dwarf wheat varieties, and by work at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, which did the same for rice varieties. Success with th…

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greenhouse effect - Runaway greenhouse, Anthropogenic greenhouse effect, Real greenhouses

A planetary atmosphere warming phenomenon, resulting from the absorption of infrared radiation by atmospheric constituents. Radiant energy arrives at the planetary surface mainly as visible light from the Sun, which is then re-emitted by the surface at infrared wavelengths as heat. Carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere absorb this infrared radiation and behave as a blanket, with the ne…

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Greenland - History, Sovereignty, Politics, Geography, Natural history, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Sport

Local names Kalaalit Nunaat (Greenlandic), Grønland (Danish), Kalâtdlit-Nunât (Inuit) Greenland (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat, meaning "Land of the Kalaallit (Greenlanders)"; Danish: Grønland, meaning "Greenland") is a self-governed Danish territory. Greenland was home to a number of Paleo-Eskimo cultures in prehistory, the latest of which — the Early Dorset culture — d…

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Greenpeace - Early history, Greenpeace Ships, Activities, Criticisms

An international environmental pressure group which began in Canada and the USA in 1971, and was set up in the UK in 1976. It campaigns by direct action (non-violent, passive resistance) against commercial whaling and seal culling, the dumping of toxic and radioactive waste at sea, and the testing of nuclear weapons. Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vanco…

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Greens

A label applied to members of political parties and social movements which espouse ideologies having as a central tenet a concern over the damaging effect human activity is having on the environment. The first green party (the Values Party) was formed in New Zealand in 1972, to be followed in the UK in 1974 by People. Since then, almost all advanced industrial countries have seen the formation of …

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Greenwich - Geography, Sites of interest, Famous residents, Transport

51°28N 0°00, pop (2001e) 214 500. Borough of EC Greater London, UK; S of R Thames; site of the original Royal Greenwich Observatory; meridians of longitude reckoned from this point; also the source of world time standard, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT); birthplace of Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, and Mary I; railway; Greenwich Hospital (1694), Royal Naval College, National Maritime Museum, including Ini…

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Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) - Time zone, Anomalies

The basis for world time zones, set by the local time at Greenwich, near London. This is located on the Greenwich Meridian, longitude 0°, from which other time zones are calculated. It was originally established within the UK to regularize railway timetables nationally, and later adopted internationally. It is now known as co-ordinated universal time. "Greenwich Mean Time" (GMT) is a term …

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Greenwich Village - Location, Layout, History, Present day, In fiction

A district of Manhattan, New York City, USA, which became famous during the 20th-c as the quarter of writers, intellectuals, and bohemians. It has recently developed into a more fashionable residential area. Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: [ˌgrɛnɪtʃ 'vɪlɪdʒ]), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New …

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Greet Hofmans

A faith healer consulted by Queen Juliana for the eye problems of Princess Marijke (later Christina) c.1948. It was alleged that she exerted political influence on the Queen and there was alarm in some NATO circles that she was a pacifist. Some people clamoured for abdication. The Queen and Prince Bernhard appointed a three-man commission (Beel, Gerbrandy, and Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer) t…

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Greg Rusedski - Grand Slam singles finals, Masters Series singles finals, Singles Record

Tennis player, born in Montreal, Quebec, SE Canada. A prominent junior player in Canada, winning six junior titles (1985–90), he then turned professional, winning tournaments at Newport (1993), Seoul (1995), and Beijing (1996). He became a British subject in 1995, and the first British player to finish in the world's top 50 since John Lloyd in 1985. A left-handed player, known for his very fast s…

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Gregor (Johann) Mendel - Biography, Rediscovery of Mendel's work, Mendel, Darwin and Galton, Trivia

Biologist and botanist, born in Heinzendorf, N Austria. Entering an Augustinian cloister in 1843, he was ordained a priest in 1847. After studying science at Vienna (1851–3), he became abbot at Brno (1868). He researched the inheritance characters in plants, especially edible peas, and his experiments in hybridity in plants led to the formulation of his laws of segregation and independent assortm…

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Gregor Piatigorsky

Cellist, born in Dnepropetrovsk (formerly Yekaterinoslav), EC Ukraine. He gave concerts throughout Russia at the age of nine, and studied at the Moscow Conservatory. He was principal cellist of the Moscow Imperial Opera (1919–21), first cellist with the Warsaw (1921–3) and Berlin (1924–8) Philharmonic Orchestras, then embarked on a solo career. After touring internationally, he made his US debu…

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Gregor Strasser - Life

German politician, born in Geisenfeld bei Manching, SE Germany. A member of the Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) (1921–32), he participated in the Hitler-Putsch of 1923. He expanded the party organization after the reorganization of the NSDAP (1925) in N Germany and particularly in Prussia, and became Reichspropagandaleiter (1926–7) and Reichsorganisationsleiter (1928–32). …

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Gregorian calendar - Proleptic Gregorian calendar, Difference between Gregorian and Julian calendar dates, Months of the year, Accuracy

A calendar instituted in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII, and now used in most of the world. Its distinguishing feature is that a century year is a leap year if, and only if, divisible by 400. This gives a year of 365·2425 days when averaged over 400 years, very close to the actual value 365·2422 days. When introduced, a discrepancy of 10 days had built up, which was eliminated by jumping straight fro…

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Gregorian chant - History, Musical form, Performance, Liturgical functions, Influence

The monophonic and (in its purest form) unaccompanied chant of the Roman Catholic liturgy. The earliest musical sources date from the late 9th-c and 10th-c, but the compilation of the repertory has been credited to Pope Gregory the Great. Its rhythmic interpretation has been the subject of much controversy, since the sources do not indicate note lengths. Gregorian chants are organized into …

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Gregory (Goodwin) Pincus

Endocrinologist, born in Woodbine, New Jersey, USA. He taught at four Massachusetts universities, Harvard (1931–8), Clark (1938–45), Tufts (1946–50), and Boston (1950–67). In 1944 he co-founded the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, one of the first laboratories set up expressly to channel scientific discoveries directly into commercial development. He concentrated on studying horm…

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Gregory (Nunzio) Corso - Life, Poetry, Quotes, Bibliography

Poet, born in New York City, USA. He spent three years in prison as a juvenile, then worked as a manual labourer, reporter, and merchant seaman (1950–3). Based in New York City, he was a central member of the Beat poetry movement (1960s), as seen in The Happy Birthday of Death (1960). Important volumes include Elegiac Feelings American (1970), dedicated to Jack Kerouac, and among later works are …

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Gregory Bateson - Biography, Epigrams coined by or referred to by Bateson, Terms used by Bateson

Anthropologist, born in Grantchester, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK, the son of biologist William Bateson. He studied physical anthropology at Cambridge, but made his career in the USA. With Margaret Mead he was involved with the culture-and-personality movement, publishing Balinese Character in 1942. Influenced by cybernetics, he went on to study problems of communication and learning among aqua…

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Gregory Breit

Physicist, born in Nikolaev, the Ukraine. He went to the USA in 1915, joined the Carnegie Institution (1924–9), then taught at several American universities before moving to the State University of New York, Buffalo (1968–76). A major contributor to the fields of nuclear physics and quantum electrodynamics, he theorized that the hydrogen bomb would not engender an uncontrolled chain reaction res…

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Grenoble - Geography, Transport, Main sights, Education and research in the city, Sources and External links

45°12N 5°42E, pop (2000e) 157 000. Ancient fortified city and capital of Isère department, E France; at confluence of rivers Isère and Drac, in a striking Alpine setting; Mont Blanc to the NE; prospered during French colonial period; railway; bishopric; university (1339); electro-metallurgy, chemicals, plastic products, electrical engineering, nuclear research, glove manufacturing, walnuts; …

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Greta Garbo - Becoming an actress, Life in Hollywood, Later career, Personal life, Secluded retirement, Trivia, Filmography, Further reading

Film actress, born in Stockholm, Sweden. A shop-girl who won a bathing beauty contest at age 16, she made some publicity short films and studied acting before gaining international recognition in Mauritz Stiller's Swedish film, The Story of Gosta Berling (1924). She went to Hollywood (1924) with Stiller, her mentor and companion, and they worked together on The Torrent (1926), but he soon returned…

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Grete Waitz - Background, Career, After Retirement, Legacy

Athlete, born in Oslo, Norway. Formerly a track champion at 3000 m, at which she set world records in 1975 and 1976, she was later one of the world's leading female road athletes. The world marathon champion in 1983, and the Olympic silver medallist in 1984, she four times set world best times for the marathon. She won the London Marathon in 1983 and 1986, and the New York marathon a record nine …

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greyhound - Temperament, History, Welfare, Veterinary Care, Miscellaneous

A breed of dog, now raced for sport, but used thousands of years ago for hunting hares, foxes, and deer; thin with short coat; long legs, tail, and muzzle; the Italian greyhound is a miniature breed developed in Italy. Greyhound racing takes place on an enclosed circular or oval track, round which dogs are lured to run by a mechanical hare. The first regular track was at Emeryville, CA, in 1919. B…

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greywacke

A type of impure sandstone, composed of angular grains in a matrix of clay. It is deposited in areas of rapid fluid flow, specifically turbidity currents formed in tectonically active, mountain-building regions. Greywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly-sorted, angular grains of …

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gribble

A small wood-boring crustacean that burrows into boat hulls and other submerged timber, causing extensive damage. (Class: Malacostraca. Order: Isopoda.) A gribble is any of about 56 species of marine isopod from the family Limnoriidae. There are three genera, Paralimnoria (two species wood boring), Limnoria (about 28 species wood boring, 20 species algal boring, and 3 species seagrass…

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grid reference

A unique set of numbers locating any place on a map onto which a grid of numbered squares has been imposed. References in the UK are based on the National Grid. The distance eastwards (easting) is always given before the distance northwards (northing) when giving a National Grid reference. Grid systems vary, but the most common is a square grid originating at the bottom left of the map. The…

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Gridley J(ames) F(ox) Bryant

Architect, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The son of railroad pioneer Gridley Bryant, his Boston practice prefigured the large architectural firm and designed primarily commercial and public buildings. He rebuilt 110 of his 152 buildings destroyed in the 1872 Boston fire. Gridley James Fox Bryant (August 29, 1816 – June 8, 1899) was a famous 19th century Boston architect and builder.…

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Grimoald

King of the Lombards, born in Friuli, NE Italy. The son of Gisulf, Duke of Friuli, he became Duke of Benevento in 647. He took advantage of discord between Aripert's heirs to take possession of the Lombard crown (663–71). He managed to repel the attempts by the Byzantines to reconquer Benevento and the Franks, and suppressed a revolt in Friuli with the help of the Avars. He also added a number of…

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Grimsby - History, Economy, Places of interest and landmarks, Shopping facilities, Transport, Redevelopment and regeneration, Media, Notable connections

53°35N 0°05W, pop (2000e) 90 900. Port town in North East Lincolnshire, NE England, UK; on the S side of the R Humber estuary; railway; largest fishing port in England; fertilizers, chemicals, engineering; trade in fish, coal, grain, timber; football league team, Grimsby Town (Mariners). Grimsby, or Great Grimsby, is a seaport on the river Humber in Lincolnshire in the north of England,…

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Grinling Gibbons

Sculptor and woodcarver, born in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. He moved to England, UK, where he was appointed by Charles II to the Board of Works, and employed in the chapel at Windsor and in St Paul's London. At Chatsworth, Burghley, and other mansions he executed an immense quantity of carved fruit and flowers, cherubs' heads, and other typical Baroque embellishment. Master wood carver Gri…

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grip

The member of a camera crew in film or TV production who moves equipment and mountings. A key grip may also take part in associated set construction. Grip may refer to: …

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Griqua - Griqualand

People of mixed race who spoke Dutch and established stock-raising, hunting, and trading communities under patriarchal leadership on the frontier of Cape Colony in the late 18th-c and early 19th-c. Their peoples are now integrated into the Cape Coloured community. The Griqua (Afrikaans Griekwa) are a subgroup of South Africa's heterogeneous and multiracial Coloured people. The G…

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grisaille - In Enamel and Stained Glass

A painting executed entirely in shades of grey. This may be done for its own sake, or to look like sculpture as part of a decorative scheme. A reduced grisaille copy of a painting was often made for an engraver to work from. Many Renaissance painters began their pictures with a grisaille underpainting. Mediaeval stained-glass windows, normally richly-coloured, were sometimes executed in grisaille …

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Gro Harlem Brundtland

Norwegian stateswoman and first woman prime minister of Norway (1981, 1986–9, 1990–6), born in Bærum, SE Norway. She studied medicine at Oslo and Harvard, qualifying as a physician. In 1960 she married a leader of the Opposition Conservative Party, Arne (Olav) Brundtland, and they have four children. She joined the Labour Party and entered politics (1969), after working in public medicine servi…

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Grock

Clown, world-famous for his virtuosity in both circus and theatre, born in Reconvilier, NW Switzerland. He was particularly known for his clowning with musical instruments, especially using the violin and piano, in which he managed to ‘fail’ in everything he attempted (though in fact he could play 24 instruments expertly). He wrote several books, including his autobiography, Die Memoiren des Kö…

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Groningen

53°13N 6°35E, pop (2000e) 177 000. Capital of Groningen province, N Netherlands; at the confluence of the Drentse Aa (Hoornse Diep) and Winschoter Diep; bishopric; most important city in N Netherlands; connected to its outer port, Delfzijl, by the Eems Canal; airport; railway; university (1614); large market, dealing in cattle, vegetables, fruit, and flowers; headquarters of the Dutch Grain Ex…

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grosbeak

A name applied to birds of several unrelated groups, all with a large, stout bill: the finch family Fringillidae (12–32 species); the weaver family Ploceidae (1 species); and the cardinal grosbeaks of the family Emberizidae (14 species). The following is a list of grosbeak species - note that the groups of species are not each other's closest relatives - they share the name grosbeak purely…

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gross domestic product (GDP) - Measurement, Cross-border comparison, GDP and standard of living, Criticisms and limitations

A measure of national income, calculated in any of three ways. The output method is the total of selling prices less the cost of bought-in materials. The income method is the total of wages, rents, dividends, interest, and profits. The expenditure method is the national expenditure on goods and services (known as ‘GDP at factor cost’). The last method is the one most used by economists in foreca…

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Grote Reber - Honors

Radio astronomer, born in Wheaton, Illinois, USA. An amateur ham radio operator, he was so intrigued by reports of Karl Jansky's ‘cosmic static’ that he built a parabolic dish, the first radio telescope, in his yard in Wheaton (1937). As the world's first radio astronomer, he published a radio map of the sky in 1944. He moved to Tasmania (1954), where he presided over a field of dipoles (antenna…

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grotesque - In art history, In typography, In literature, In architecture, In chess, On the Internet, Etymology

In art, a form of decoration derived from antiquity and revived during the Renaissance. Human and animal forms are mixed fancifully with plants and abstract shapes to create a bizarre kind of decorative pattern. When commonly used in conversation, grotesque means strange, fantastic, ugly or bizarre, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween masks …

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Groton

41º22N 72º05W, pop (2000e) 39 900. Town in New London Co, SE Connecticut, USA; on the R Thames near Fishers Island Sound, across the river from New London; incorporated, 1705; birthplace of Mother Bailey; regional centre for commerce and industry; shoreline location and historic sites attract tourists; US Naval Submarine School; Mystic Seaport living museum. Groton is the name of severa…

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ground beetle

An active, terrestrial beetle; adults mostly predatory, found in litter or vegetation; larvae external parasites or predatory, feeding on predigested prey. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Carabidae, c.30 000 species.) …

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Ground Zero - Hiroshima and Nagasaki, The Pentagon, World Trade Center, Hurricane Katrina

The name given to the site of the former World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, New York City, USA, where rescue teams worked to clear the wreckage and debris left after the terrorist attack on 11 September 2001. The term was originally used with reference to the part of the ground situated immediately under an exploding bomb (especially an atomic bomb). The term may also be used to describ…

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Groundhog Day - Famous prognosticating groundhogs, Past predictions, In fiction

A day (2 Feb) recognized in US popular tradition when the groundhog (or woodchuck), an American marmot, is supposed to appear from hibernation; it is said that if the groundhog sees its shadow, it goes back into hibernation for six more weeks, thereby indicating six weeks of winter weather to come. The tradition derives from similar beliefs in England concerning the weather at Candelmas. Th…

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groundsel

A very variable annual (Senecio vulgaris) growing to 45 cm/18 in, native to Europe, Asia, and N Africa, and widely introduced elsewhere; leaves slightly succulent, oblong with irregular toothed lobes; flower-heads numerous, cylindrical, surrounded by narrow black-tipped bracts; florets yellow; fruit with a parachute of hairs. Flowering all year round, it is a common and often problematic weed of…

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groundwater - Aquifers, Groundwater in the water cycle, Problems

Water which is present in porous rocks such as sandstones and limestones. It may originate from percolated surface waters (meteoric water), from water present when the sedimentary rock was originally deposited (connate water), or from igneous intrusions (juvenile water). The water table is the level below which the rocks are saturated, and springs develop where this reaches the Earth's surface. …

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group (mathematics) - History, Definitions, Basic concepts in group theory, Notation for groups, Examples of Groups

In mathematics, a set of elements S under an operation *, if (1) S is closed under *; (2) the operation * is associative over S, ie a*(b*c) = (a*b)*c for all a,b,c in S; (3) there is an identity element e in S, ie an element e such that a*e = e*a = a for all a in S; and (4) every element a in S has an inverse, a?1 in S, where a*a?1 = a?1*a = e. If in addition the operation * is commutati…

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group therapy - Current Trends in Group Therapy

The interaction of several individuals on a cognitive and emotional level, as part of a therapeutic programme. It incorporates the sharing of personal experiences and feelings, with the purpose of increasing self-understanding and the treatment of psychological problems. This form of treatment is attributed to US physician Joseph Hersey Pratt (1872–1942). It came into widespread use after World W…

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grouper

Large, heavy-bodied fish with mottled cryptic coloration, common around reefs, rocks, and wrecks but also found in open water; prized as a sport fish and food fish; Indo-Pacific grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, may reach 3·7 m/12 ft, weight 270 kg/600 lb. (Family: Serranidae.) Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in th…

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grouse

A plump, ground-dwelling bird of the family Tetraonidae (19 species); inhabits high latitudes of the N hemisphere; camouflaged coloration; short curved bill; nostrils covered by feathers; legs feathered; eats vegetation and insects. Many (possibly millions) are killed annually by hunters. The name is also used for the sandgrouse of the family Pteroclididae. Grouse are from the order Gallifo…

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Grove (Karl) Gilbert

Geologist, born in Rochester, New York, USA. He became chief geologist of the US geological survey (1889), and formulated many of the laws of geological processes. His report on the Henry Mts became the foundation of many modern theories of denudation and river-development. He also published a history of the Niagara R, and introduced such technical terms as laccolith and hanging valley. Gro…

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Grover (Cleveland) Alexander - Legacy

Baseball player, born in Elba, Nebraska, USA. One of baseball's great (righthanded) pitchers, he won 373 games and pitched 90 shutouts during his Hall of Fame career with the Philadelphia Phillies (1911–17, 1930), Chicago Cubs (1918–26), and St Louis Cardinals (1926–9). His 373 wins was a National League record (shared with Christy Mathewson). An epileptic and admitted alcoholic, his life was p…

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Grover (Michael Aloysius) Whalen

Promoter, merchant, and public official, born in New York City, New York, USA. His long business career included positions at John Wanamaker (1914–34), Schenley, and Coty. As the city's official greeter (1919–53), he originated ticker-tape parades in staging welcoming ceremonies for, among others, Charles Lindbergh, the Prince of Wales, and returning soldiers from both World Wars. He was a membe…

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Grover Loening

Aircraft designer, born in Bremen, Germany (where his father was US consul). He held three degrees from Columbia University, including the first ever awarded in aeronautics. As owner of two different companies, he made a variety of contributions to aviation, such as the creation of the rigid strut bracing system and the retractable undercarriage. Asked how to say his name, he told The Liter…

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growth hormone (GH) - Terminology, Structure and gene of the human GH molecule, Secretion of GH, Functions of GH

A hormone (a polypeptide), secreted by the front lobe of the pituitary gland in vertebrates with jaws, which stimulates body growth through its effects on protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism; also known as somatotrophin or somatotrophic hormone. It is species-specific in its actions. Its abnormal secretion may result in dwarfism, gigantism, or acromegaly (the abnormal enlargement of the fa…

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Grozny - Name, History, Features

43°21N 45°42E, pop (2003e) 80–160 000 (estimates affected by refugee and militia movements). Capital city of Chechnya, SE European Russia; on a tributary of the R Terek, in the N foothills of the Greater Caucasus; founded as a fortress, 1818; airfield; railway; university (1972); major damage and disruption during war with Russia, 1995; virtually totally destroyed in renewed fighting, 1999–2…

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grunion

Slender-bodied fish (Leuresthes tenuis) confined to inshore waters of the Californian coast; length up to 18 cm/7 in; body with silvery side-stripe. Communal spawning occurs intertidally on the spring tide, the eggs being buried in moist sand near the high-water mark. (Family: Atherinidae.) For the submarine, see USS Grunion (SS-216). …

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grunt

Any of the family Haemulidae (formerly Pomadasyidae, 5 genera) of mainly tropical fishes common in shallow coastal waters and around coral reefs. They are so called because they produce audible sounds by grinding their pharyngeal teeth. The term grunt is slang for an infantryman in the U.S. military and some of the other armed forces of the English speaking world, and both Army and Marine i…

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Guadalcanal - Overview, History

pop (2000e) 76 000; area 5302 km²/2047 sq mi. Largest of the Solomon Is, SW Pacific; length, 144 km/89 mi; maximum width, 56 km/35 mi; rises to 2477 m/8126 ft at Mt Makarakomburu; capital, Honiara; airport; copra, rubber, rice, oil palms, gold; scene of the first World War 2 Allied Pacific invasion northward (1942). Guadalcanal is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the P…

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Guadeloupe

pop (2000e) 425 000; area 1779 km²/687 sq mi. Overseas department of France, a group of seven islands in the C Lesser Antilles, E Caribbean; capital, Basse-Terre; largest town, Pointe-à-Pitre; timezone GMT ?4; 90% black or mulatto population, with several minorities; chief religion, Roman Catholicism; official language, French; unit of currency, the euro; main islands of Grand-Terre and Bas…

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Guadix - Description, History, Ecclesiastical history, Sources and references

37º18N 3º08W. Large town in Granada province, Andalusia, S Spain; originally a Roman colony, it became an episcopal see under the Visigoths; many inhabitants live in ‘modernized’ caves in the S part of town; birthplace of Pedro Antonio de Alarcón; cathedral (1594); ruins of Moorish citadel; Cave Museum; pottery. Guadix, a city of southern Spain, in the province of Granada; on the left …

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Guam - Geography, Government and politics, Administrative divisions, Economy, Education

(USA Formal Dependencies) Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån), officially the U.S. Territory of Guam, is an island in the Western Pacific Ocean and is an organized unincorporated territory of the United States. Most early Chamorros take on the likeness of peoples from this origin, however, more and more, the people of Guam are becoming racially-mixed. Guam's economy is mainly supported by touri…

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Guanajuato

21º00N 101º16W, pop (2001e) 73 400. Capital of Guanajuato state, SC Mexico; in the Sierra Madre Occidental; 355 km/221 mi NW of Mexico City; officially founded, 1570; received charter from King Philip V in 1741; historic town with cobblestone streets and alleys; former silver mining region; birthplace of Lucas Alamán and Diego Rivera; railway; university (1732); Church of Our Lady of Guanaj…

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Guangzhou - History, Education, Twin cities

23°08N 113°20E, pop (2000e) 4 387 000, administrative region 6 299 989. Capital of Guangdong province, S China, on Pearl R delta; founded in 200 BC; forcibly opened to foreign trade after Opium War, 1842; revolutionary centre, 1910–11; rival capital to Beijing, 1917–20, 1921–8; power centre of Sun Yixian; seat of first national Guomindang conference, 1924; occupied by Japan, 1938–45; ra…

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guanine - Basic principles, Syntheses, Other uses

C5H5N5O. One of the purine bases in DNA, normally paired with cytosine. Guanine, along with adenine and cytosine, is present in both DNA and RNA, whereas thymine is usually seen only in DNA and uracil only in RNA. Guanine has two tautomeric forms, the keto form and enol form. Guanine has a group at C-6 that acts as the hydrogen acceptor, while the group at N-1 and the amino group at C…

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guano

An accumulation of animal droppings, typically of birds but also of mammals such as bats. Guano deposits build up beneath breeding colonies, and are a rich source of phosphates and nitrates. They are often used as a fertilizer. The ideal type of guano is found where there is little rainfall and exceptionally dry climates, as the rainwater drains the guano of nitrates. Guano is harvested on …

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guarana - Uses, Composition, External resources

A woody liane (Paullinia cupana) with coiled tendrils, fern-like leaves and clusters of small, 5-petalled flowers; native to tropical America, cultivated in Brazil. The seeds are rich in caffeine, and it is used like cacao to produce a drink called guarana. (Family: Sapindaceae.) Guarana or Guaraná (IPA: [gu̯a.ra.'na], [gu̯a.ɾa.'na] or [gu̯a.ɹa.'na]), Paullinia cupana (syn. …

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guardian

A person who by right or appointment acts on behalf of another, taking care of that person's interests in full (or some cases to a limited or specified degree) as a result of the other's inability, either due to youth or (in some jurisdictions) mental incapacity. In the case of a child, the parents are normally the guardians, having full parental rights and duties. The parents may arrange for the …

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Guarnieri

Celebrated violin maker from Cremona, N Italy. His byname came from his practice of signing IHS (Jesu hominum salvator) after his name on his labels. His instruments are noted for their tonal qualities. He was the nephew of Andrea Guarnieri (fl.1628–98) who, with his two sons Giuseppe Guarnieri (fl.1690–1730) and Pietro Guarnieri (fl.1690–1725), also made quality instruments. Bartolomeo …

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Guatemala - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Language, Religion, Education, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

official name Republic of Guatemala, Span República de Guatemala Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: República de Guatemala, IPA: [re'puβlika ðe ɰwate'mala]), is a country in Central America, in the south part of North America, bordering Mexico to the northwest, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize and the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, and Honduras a…

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Guayaquil - History, Safety, Religious Structures, Universities, Sights, Sister cities

2°13S 79°54W, pop (2000e) 1 861 000. Capital of Guayas province, W Ecuador; largest city, major seaport and commercial city, on W bank of R Guayas; founded, 1537; birthplace of Frederick Ashton; airport; railway; four universities (1867, 1958, 1962, 1966); banana trade (world's chief exporter), mining (sand, clay), food processing, textiles, engineering, pharmaceuticals, iron and steel, oil r…

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Gudrun - Norse Mythology

In Norse mythology, the wife of Sigurd the Volsung. After his death she married Atli (the legendary Attila) who put her brothers to death; in revenge she served up his sons in a dish, and then destroyed him by fire. In the similar German story she is known as Kriemhild. In Norse mythology, Gudrun, who is called Kriemhild in the Nibelungenlied, was the sister of Gunnar. Later, when he was so…

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guenon

An Old World monkey native to Africa S of the Sahara; round head with beard, and ‘whiskers’ at side of face; slender, with long hind legs and tail; some species with colourful coats. The name red guenon is used for the patas monkey; pygmy guenon for the talapoin. (Genus: Cercopithecus, c.17 species.) …

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Guernsey - History, Politics, Geography, Economy, Education, Culture, Sport in Guernsey, Famous Guernsey people

pop (2000e) 66 200; area 63 km²/24 sq mi. Second largest of the Channel Is, NW of Jersey and W of Normandy; rises to c.90 m/300 ft; airport; ferries to the UK and France; forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey with Alderney, Sark, and some smaller islands; chief town, St Peter Port; horticulture, dairy farming (Guernsey cattle), tourism. The Bailiwick of Guernsey (French: Bailliage de Guer…

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Guglielmo Marconi

Physicist and inventor, born in Bologna, N Italy. He studied at the Technical Institute of Livorno, and started experimenting with a device to convert electromagnetic waves into electricity. His first successful experiments in wireless telegraphy were made at Bologna in 1895, and in 1899 he erected a wireless station at La Spezia, and formed the Marconi Telegraph Co in London. In 1899 he transmitt…

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Guglielmo Oberdan

Italian patriot, born in Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, NE Italy. An irredentist, he went into exile in Rome in 1878. In 1882 he was captured while attempting to re-enter Trieste with a friend to make an attempt on Emperor Francis Joseph's life, and was hanged soon after. Guglielmo Oberdan (this name is an italinization of the original name Wilhelm Oberdank) (1858 - 1882), an Italian natio…

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Guglielmo Pepe - Biography, Works

Italian patriot, born in Squillace, Campania, S Italy. He fought for the Parthenopean Republic (1799) with brother Florestano and cousin Gabriele. After its fall he went with them to France and returned with Napoleon in 1800. He took part in the 1820–1 risings in Naples, and went abroad after defeat at Rieti. In 1848 he returned to Naples and led the Neapolitan troops in the 1st Italian Independe…

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guide dog - History, Breeds, Guide dog training, Guide dog accessibility

A dog trained to assist the blind in finding their way, notably in urban traffic and crowded areas. The dogs are selectively bred, and include labradors, often crossed with golden retrievers, and German shepherd dogs. Guide dogs are assistance dogs trained to lead blind or visually impaired people around obstacles. The name of one of the more popular training schools for such dogs, Seeing E…

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guided missile - Basic roles, Guidance systems

A weapon system (ranging in size from a small portable antitank missile to an intercontinental ballistic missile) which has the ability to fly towards its target under its own power. Its progress is directed either by an external source of command or by an internal computer which sends electronic guidance instructions to the missile's control surfaces. The first missiles to be used operatio…

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Guido Calabresi - Works

Legal scholar, born in Milan, Italy. He studied in the USA and England, then joined the faculty of Yale University Law School (1959), serving as dean from 1985. He was an expert in liability law, including medical malpractice and property, and his publications include The Costs of Accidents (1970), Tragic Choices (1978), and Ideals, Beliefs, Attitudes and the Law (1985). Calabresi joined th…

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Guido Cavalcanti - Poetry

Poet, born in Florence, NC Italy. A friend of Dante, he came from an influential family, and was the leader of the ‘white’ Guelph faction. In 1300 he married the daughter of Farinata degli Uberti, the leader of the rival, Imperial Party (the Ghibellines), and was banished to Sarzana, returning to Florence only shortly before his death. A leading exponent of the dolce stil novo (‘new style’), h…

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Guido Gezelle - Works

Flemish poet, born in Bruges, NW Belgium. He became a priest in 1854, took up teaching, and from 1865 contributed to several local newspapers and magazines. His poetry was ahead of its time and is seen as one of the inspirations of the Movement of the Eighties (Beweging van Tachtig). He wrote impressionist poetry, showing a remarkable sensitivity to nature, which was religious at heart. He was a g…

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Guido Guinizelli

Poet, born in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He was a judge and Castelfranco's podestà, but was forced into exile by the defeat (1274) of the Ghibelline faction he supported. All that remains of his work is 20 sonnets and canzones, among them the famous Al cor gentil rempaira sempre Amore. He is considered a forerunner of the dolce stil novo, whose main motifs - the woman-angel and references …

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Guido Pontecorvo

Geneticist, born in Pisa, W Italy. He studied at the universities of Pisa, Edinburgh, and Leicester. At the Institute of Animal Genetics in Edinburgh (from 1938), he co-discovered the parasexual cycle in fungi (1950), which allows genetic analysis of asexual fungi. Soon afterwards he proposed that the gene is the unit of function in genetics. He was appointed to the first chair of genetics at Glas…

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Guido Reni - Biography, Partial anthology of works

Baroque painter, born near Bologna, N Italy. He studied in Bologna, and worked both there and in Rome. The fresco painted for the Borghese garden house, ‘Aurora and the Hours’ (1613–14) is usually regarded as his masterpiece, but some critics rank higher the unfinished ‘Nativity’ in San Martino, Naples. He later settled again in Bologna. He was born in Bologna into a family of musician…

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Guildford - History, Town, Politics, Leisure and Sport, Transport, Notable residents (past and present), Emergency Services

51°14N 0°35W, pop (2001e) 129 700. Town in Surrey, SE England, UK; on the R Wey, 45 km/28 mi SW of London; originally a ford over the R Wey; University of Surrey (1966); burial place of Lewis Carroll; railway; vehicles, engineering, plastics, pharmaceuticals; Royal King Edward VI Grammar School (1557), cathedral (completed in 1964), Archbishop Abbot's Hospital, Women's Royal Army Corps museu…

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Guildford Four - Background, Further evidence and a final appeal, After the appeals

Three men and a woman who were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment in England in 1975 for the bombing of two Guildford public houses in which seven people died, as well as for a bombing in Woolwich. The four were freed in 1989 after the Court of Appeal quashed their convictions. Three of the policemen involved in the original case were subsequently prosecuted for conspiracy to pervert the…

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Guillaume Amontons - Life, Work, Honours

Physicist, born in Paris, France. He improved the design of various scientific instruments, including the hygrometer, the barometer, and the constant-volume air thermometer. His chief discovery (though disregarded at the time) was that equal changes in the temperature of a fixed volume of air result in equal variations in pressure. Guillaume Amontons (August 31, 1663 - October 11, 1705) was…

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Guillaume Apollinaire - Life, Works, Bibliography, Selected references

Poet and art critic, born in Rome, Italy. He settled in Paris in 1900, and became a leader of the movement rejecting poetic traditions in outlook, rhythm, and language. His work, bizarre, Symbolist and fantastic, is expressed chiefly in L'Enchanteur pourissant (1909, The Decaying Enchanter), Le Bestiaire (1911, The Bestiary), Les Alcools (1913, The Spirits) and Calligrammes (1918). Wounded in Worl…

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Guillaume Bri

Prelate, born in Paris, France. Influenced by his teacher Jacques Lefèvre and the ideas of Erasmus, after becoming bishop of Meaux (1516–34) he set up the ‘cénacle de Meaux’, composed of theologians and humanists, in order to reform the Catholic Church in France. Guillaume Briçonnet (c 1472 - 24 January 1534) was the Bishop of Meaux from 1516 until his death in 1534. Briç…

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Guillaume de Machaut - Life, Poetry, Music, References and further reading

Poet and musician, born possibly in Reims, NE France. He worked successively under the patronage of John of Luxemburg and John II of France. One of the creators of the harmonic art, he wrote a Mass, motets, songs, ballads, and organ music. His poetry greatly influenced Chaucer. Guillaume de Machaut, sometimes spelled Machault, (born about 1300 – died 1377), was an important Medieval Frenc…

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Guillaume du Vair - Reference

Writer and thinker, born in Paris, France. A lawyer, he held important positions under Henry IV and was famed for his oratorical skills. In his important work De la constance et consolation ès calamités publiques (1593) he proposed a fusion of Christianity and Stoicism which was very appealing in those troubled times. His doctrines were adopted by François de Malherbe and others. Guillau…

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Guillaume Dubois

French statesman, cardinal, and prime minister (1722), born in Brives-la-Gaillarde, SC France. He was first tutor and then secretary to the Duc de Chartres (1674–1723); and when the latter (as Duke of Orléans) became regent in 1715, Dubois was virtually all powerful. He was appointed foreign minister, Archbishop of Cambrai (both in 1720), and a cardinal (1721), before becoming prime minister. …

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Guillaume Dufay - Life, Music and influence, Trivia, Sound samples

Composer, probably born in Cambrai, N France. By 1420 he was in Italy and sang in the papal choir (1428–33, 1435–7). He was later a canon at Cambrai (1439–50, 1458–74), and also employed for lengthy periods at the courts of Ferrara and Savoy. During a year spent in Florence he wrote one of his most famous motets Nuper rosarum flores, for the dedication of the dome of Florence Cathedral (1436).…

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Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer - Overview, Publications, Thoughts

Dutch politician and historian, born in Voorburg, W Netherlands. He studied law and classics at Leiden University. In 1827 he was employed in the King's cabinet, and as secretary from 1829, but resigned in 1833 because of increasing doubts about government policy. In 1828 while in Brussels he had been persuaded to join the Protestant revival movement ‘Réveil’. He entered parliament in 1840 and …

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guillemot - Systematics

An auk with a long pointed bill, also known as tystie or (in the USA) murre; eats larger fish than other auks; nests in colonies on cliffs. (Genera: Uria, 2 species, or Cepphus, 4 species. Family: Alcidae.) The Guillemots comprise two genera of auks: Uria and Cepphus. The former are relatives of the Razorbill, Dovekie and the extinct Great Auk and together make up the tribe Alcini, wh…

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Guillermo Cabrera Infante - Life, Works, Critical Bibliography

Writer, born in Gibara, SE Cuba. He studied at Havana University, and emigrated to England, UK in 1966, later taking British citizenship. Film critic, journalist, and translator of Joyce's Dubliners (1972), he is known chiefly for his fiction, particularly Tres tristes tigres (1967, Three Trapped Tigers), an evocation of seedy nightlife in pre-revolutionary Havana. He returned to the same themes a…

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guillotine - Development, The guillotine in France, The guillotine outside of France, Living heads

In the UK, a parliamentary device whereby debate on particularly contentious items of government business can be limited by fixing the times at which various parts must be voted on, so that those opposing the business cannot instigate tactics designed to filibuster. It is used by all governments, usually on major pieces of legislation, and its imposition is itself subject to debate in the House of…

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Guinea - Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Language, Notables

Official name Republic of Guinea, Fr République de Guinée Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (French: République de Guinée), is a nation in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea. Guinea is divided into seven administrative regions and subdivided into thirty-three prefectures. The highest point in Guinea is Mont Nimba at 5,748?feet (1,752?m). …

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Guinea-Bissau - Politics, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Reference

Official name Republic of Guinea-Bissau, Port Republica da Guiné-Bissau, formerly Portuguese Guinea (to 1974) Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (pr. An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) gradually consolidated its hold on the country. Guinea-Bissau has a multi-party Natio…

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Guinevere - Guinevere's character, The abduction of Guinevere, In current pop culture

King Arthur's queen; originally Guanhamara in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History, and there are other spellings. In later romances, much is made of her affair with Sir Lancelot (an example of courtly love). In Malory's epic poem she survives Arthur's death and enters a nunnery. Guinevere was the queen consort of King Arthur. The name Guinevere may be an epithet—the Welsh form Gwenhwyfar can b…

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Guise

French ducal house of Lorraine, named after the town of Guise, whose members were prominent as staunch leaders of the Catholic Party during the 16th-c civil wars, through their relationship with the Stuart and Valois royal houses. The first duke was Claude de Lorraine (1496–1550), who served under Francis I in Italy and was given the ducal title in 1528. Henry, the third duke, instigated the murd…

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guitar - History, Types of guitar, Parts of the guitar, Tuning, Guitar terminology, Further reading

In its modern form, a musical instrument with a wooden, ‘waisted’ body, flat back, fretted neck, and six strings which are plucked (usually by fingers or fingernails) or strummed. Before the late 18th-c, most guitars had four or five courses (a ‘course’ being one or more strings tuned to a single pitch). Since its earliest days the guitar has been associated with folk and popular music, especi…

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Gujarat - History, Geography, Economy, Government and politics, Education, Tourism

pop (2001e) 50 597 000; area 195 984 km²/75 650 sq mi. State in W India, bounded N by Pakistan, SW, S and SE by the Arabian Sea; independent sultanate, 1401; part of Mongol Empire, 1572; retained its own princely rulers under British control; part of Bombay state, 1947; created in 1960 from the N and W Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay state; capital, Gandhinagar; governed by a 182-member…

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Gujranwala - Economy

32°06N 74°11E, pop (2000e) 1 069 000. City in NE Punjab province, Pakistan, 67 km/42 mi NW of Lahore; Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh born there, 1780; former Sikh capital; railway; copper and brass handicrafts, grain trade, textiles, ceramics. Gujranwala (Urdu: گجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a population of more than 4 million. The city contains a number of important…

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Gujrat - Location, History, Political Importance, Gates of Gujrat, Sites of interest, Economy, Culture, Education, Transport

32°35N 74°06E, pop (2000e) 209 000. City in Punjab province, E Pakistan; 109 km/68 mi N of Lahore, between the Jhelum and Chenab Rivers; founded, 16th-c; railway; gold and silver crafts, trade in wheat, millet, cotton, rice. Gujrat (Urdu/Punjabi: گجرات) is a city in Pakistan located in Gujrat District in the Punjab Province. Gujrat is situated 120 km north of Lahore. …

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gulag - Terminology, Variety, History, Conditions, Geography, Influence, Latest developments, Wikisource

Acronym for Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-Trudovykh Lagerey (Main Administration of Corrective Labour Camps), the Soviet Union's secret police department which administered the system of forced labour for those found guilty of crimes against the state. Forced labour was the ‘punishment’ of many Soviet dissidents. Gulag (pronunciation?(help·info), Russian: ГУЛАГ) is an acronym fo…

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Gulf Stream - Normal behaviour of the Gulf Stream, Localised effects, The effect of global warming

Ocean current named after the Gulf of Mexico; flows past Florida and along the E coast of the USA until deflected near Newfoundland NE across the Atlantic Ocean (the N Atlantic Drift); its warm water has an important moderating effect on the climate of NW Europe. The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean cu…

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Gulf War (Jan - Naming the conflict, Causes, Pre-war Iraqi-American relations, Diplomacy/Operation Desert Shield

A war caused by the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq (Aug 1990). Iraq failed to comply with a UN resolution calling on it to withdraw, which resulted in the formation of a 29-member coalition, led by the USA, launching an air attack against Iraq (Operation Desert Storm) on 16 January 1991, followed by a ground war (Operation Desert Sabre) on 24 February. Kuwait was liberated two days later, and hostilit…

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gull - Reference

A medium or large bird, found worldwide, usually near water; feet webbed; plumage white, grey, and black; wings long and slender; bill long, stout; omnivorous, often scavenging; related to terns and skuas. (Family: Laridae, 44 species.) Gulls are birds in the family Laridae. Two terms are in common usage among gull enthusiasts for subgroupings of the gulls: Hybridisa…

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gum arabic - Terrorist rumors, Witchcraft, Effect on surface tension in liquids

A resin which exudes from the branches of several species of Acacia, particularly Acacia senegal, a shrub or small tree native to dry areas of Africa, from Senegal to Nigeria. It provides the gum arabic of commerce. The gum is harvested during the dry season, and is used as an adhesive, and in ink and confectionery manufacture. (Family: Leguminosae.) Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gu…

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Gunnar Gunnarsson - Biography, Gunnarsson Institute, Nobel Prize nomination, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Valthjófsstadur, E Iceland. He went to Denmark in 1907 and wrote Af Borgslægtens Historie (1912–14, From the Annals of the House of Borg), which became a best-seller, and was the first Icelandic work to be turned into a feature film. A prolific writer, his acknowledged masterpiece was the autobiographical novel, Kirken paa Bjerget (5 vols, 1923–8, The Church on the Mountain, …

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gunpowder - History and origins, Composition, Characteristics and use

The oldest known explosive, a mixture of sulphur, charcoal and saltpetre (nitre, potassium nitrate). Invented in China in the 9th-c, the Chinese had guns by 900, rockets and grenades by 1042, and cannon by 1259. Gunpowder was first used in Europe in 1325. Gunpowder mixtures have a range of properties, depending on formulation and granulation. It was the principal military explosive until late in t…

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Gunpowder Plot - Origins, Planning, Discovery, Interrogation and torture, Trial and executions, Historical Impact, Commemoration, Conspiracy theories

A conspiracy by Catholic gentry, led by Robert Catesby, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament. It failed when Guy Fawkes, who placed the explosives, was arrested (5 Nov 1605). The plot failed because one conspirator, Francis Tresham, warned his brother-in-law, Lord Monteagle, not to attend the parliamentary sitting; and Monteagle reported the matter to the government. The scheme reflected Ca…

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Gunther Schuller - Awards and recognition

Composer, French hornist, educator, and jazz scholar, born in New York City, New York, USA. He became first chair of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra at age 19. He left that post to pursue composition and teach at Yale (1964–6), and was president of the New England Conservatory (1966–77). Meanwhile, he taught at Tanglewood in the summer and directed the music school there (1974–84). A prolific …

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guppy - Taxonomy, Ecology and behaviour, Reproduction

Small, freshwater fish (Poecilia reticulata) native to South and Central America but now widespread through the aquarium trade; feeds on invertebrates and algae; length up to 3 cm/1¼ in; males with metallic blue-green coloration. Captive breeding has produced a considerable variety of forms and colours. (Family: Poecilidae.) The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also commonly known as guppie …

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Gupta Empire - Origins, The Guptas ascendant, Main Gupta rulers, Military organization, Huna invasions and the end of empire

(320–540) A decentralized state system covering most of N India, with provinces (desa) and districts (pradesa). It was materially prosperous, especially in urban areas, and is known as India's ‘Classical’ or ‘Golden’ Age, when norms of Indian literature, art, architecture, and philosophy were established, and Hinduism underwent revival. The Gupta Empire was one of the largest and stron…

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gurdwara - Visiting a Gurdwara

A Sikh temple, or any place where the scripture is installed. In addition to a worship area housing the scripture, it should include a hostel and a place for serving meals. A Gurdwara (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, gurdu'ārā or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ, gurdvārā), meaning "the doorway to the Guru", is the Sikh place of worship and may be referred to as a Sikh temple. In the e…

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guru - Guru in Buddhism, Guru in Sikhism

In Hinduism, a spiritual teacher or guide who gives instruction to a disciple or pupil, who in return is required to render reverence and obedience. In Sikhism, it is identified with the inner voice of God, of which the 10 Gurus were the human vehicles. The term has developed a more general sense in recent years, referring to anyone who comes to be recognized as leader or originator of a cult or i…

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Gus Hall - Background, The 'Little Steel' Strike, Indictment during the 'Red Scare', Later years

Communist Party leader, born in Iron, Minnesota, USA. His parents were Finnish immigrants and charter members of the Communist Party, USA. He worked as a lumberjack and steelworker, then went to Russia and studied at the Lenin Institute (1931–3). In 1934 he joined the Communist Party, USA, later serving in the US Navy (1942–6). During 1951–7 he went to federal prison for conspiring to teach and…

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Gussie Busch

Brewer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He joined the family business, Anheuser-Busch, as a young man, and as president (1946–75) he built this small company into the world's largest brewer through massive national advertising. Among his showiest promotional ploys were his introduction of the Budweiser Clydesdale horse team and his acquisition of the St Louis Cardinals baseball team (1953). …

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Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt - Career, Diplomacy, Military service, In Russian service, View of Armfelt, Family

Swedish soldier and statesman, born near Turku, SW Finland. In the service of Gustav III, he fought in the war against Russia (1788–90) and negotiated the peace. He became Gustav IV's ambassador to Vienna (1802–4) and his army commander in Pomerania against Napoleon (1805–7). After the deposition of Gustav in 1809 he was expelled from Sweden, and entered the service of Tsar Alexander I. …

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Gustav (Ludwig) Hertz

Physicist, born in Hamburg, N Germany, the nephew of Heinrich Hertz. He studied at Göttingen, Munich, and Berlin, then taught physics at Berlin (1913–25), where he worked with James Franck on experiments supporting quantum theory, and they shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1925. After World War 2 he went to the USSR to become head of a research laboratory (1945–54), and returned to East Ger…

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Gustav (Robert) Kirchhoff

Physicist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). After lecturing at Berlin (1847), he became professor of physics at Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia) (1850)) and Heidelberg (1854), and of mathematical physics at Berlin (1875). He formulated the laws involved in the mathematical analysis of an electrical network (Kirchhoff's laws, 1845). He also investigated heat, and w…

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Gustav (Theodor) Fechner - Works, Modern discussions

Physicist, philosopher, anthropologist, and psychologist, born in Gross Särchen, E Germany. His interest in mind-body relationships led to his book Elemente der Psychophysik (1860, Elements of Psychophysics), in which he developed the ideas of Ernst Heinrich Weber on the measurement of sensory thresholds, and laid the foundations for psychophysics. He was also the founder of experimental aestheti…

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Gustav (Theodore) Holst - Life, Media, Selected Works

Composer, born of Swedish origin in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music, London, but neuritis in his hand prevented him from becoming a concert pianist. From 1905 he taught music at St Paul's School, Hammersmith, and from 1907 at Morley College. He emerged as a major composer with the seven-movement suite The Planets (1914–16), and gave up most o…

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Gustav Bauer - Cabinet June 1919 - March 1920

German politician and trade union leader, born in Darkehmen, Germany (now Osyorsk, Kaliningrad, Russia). A member of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), he briefly served as premier (Jun–Aug 1919), after which he immediately became chancellor (until Mar 1920), in which capacity he signed the Treaty of Versailles. Gustav Adolf Bauer (6 January 1870 – 16 September 1944) was a German …

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Gustav Frenssen

Writer, born in Barlt, N Germany. A Protestant priest until 1902, he became one of the most popular novelists at the turn of the century with his descriptions of the people and landscapes of rural N Germany. His novels include Die Sandgräfin (1896), Jörn Uhl (1901), which depicts a farmer's efforts to save his farm, and Hilligenlei (1905). His essay Der Glaube der Nordmark (1936) is an expressio…

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Gustav Freytag - Biography, Works

Writer and historian, born in Kreuzburg, Silesia. After teaching philology he devoted himself to literature in the broadest sense, and made his mark not just as a Realist writer but as a formative force in bourgeois culture. Besides significantly influencing dramatic theory through Die Technik des Dramas (1863), he also founded a new type of contemporary comedy with plays such as Die Journalisten …

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Gustav Heinemann

West German statesman and president (1969–74), born in Schwelm, W Germany. He studied at Marburg and Münster, practised as an advocate from 1926, and lectured on law at Cologne (1933–9). After the war he was a founder of the Christian Democratic Union, and was minister of the interior in Adenauer's government (1949–50), resigning over a fundamental difference over defence policy. Heinemann, a …

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Gustav Klimt - Life and art, Selected works, Sources

Painter, born in Vienna, Austria. The leading master of the Vienna Sezession, he began with a firm of decorators, painting nondescript murals for museums and theatres, but in 1900–3 he painted some murals for the University of Vienna in a new and shocking Symbolist style which caused great controversy. His portraits combine realistically painted heads with flat abstract backgrounds. Gustav…

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Gustav Mahler - Biography, Music, Legacy, Works

Composer, born in Kališt?, C Czech Republic (formerly Bohemia, Austrian Empire). He studied at the Vienna Conservatory, and worked as a conductor, becoming artistic director of the Vienna Court Opera in 1897. He resigned after 12 years to devote himself to composition and the concert platform. His mature works consist entirely of songs and nine large-scale symphonies, with a 10th left unfinished.…

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Gustav Meyrink - Childhood, Prague, Early works, Fame, Death, Bibliography

Writer, born in Vienna, Austria. He translated Dickens and wrote satirical novels with a strong element of the fantastic and grotesque. Among the best known are Der Golem (1915) and Walpurgisnacht (1917). Gustav Meyrink (January 19, 1868 – December 4, 1932) was an Austrian author, storyteller, dramatist, translator, banker and Buddhist, most famous for his novel The Golem. Gus…

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Gustav Noske

German politician and journalist, born in Brandenburg/Havel, E Germany. He joined the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) and was a member of the Reichsrat (1906–18). As governor of Kiel he suppressed the sailors' revolt (Matrosenaufstand) in December 1918 in the name of the Reichsregierung and, as Reichswehrminister, a number of other rebellions/uprisings in early 1919 elsewhere within…

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Gustav Radbruch - Life, Work

German politician and legal scientist, born in Lübeck, N Germany. Professor in Heidelberg, Königsberg, and Kiel, he became Reichsjustizminister (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) (1921–2, 1923). He was the first German professor to be dismissed from office (1933) and spent the years 1933–45 with scientific and literary work, after which he was again professor at Heidelberg (1945–8). Th…

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Gustav Ritter von Kahr

Bavarian politician, born in Weißenburg, Bavaria. He became president of Upper Bavaria and Bavarian prime minister (1917–24). In his capacity as Generalstaatskommissar, he initially participated in the abortive Hitler Putsch (8 Nov 1923) and ordered it to be quashed the following day by police and army. In 1924–7 he was president of the Bavarian Court of Administrative Justice. He was murdered …

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Gustav Schwab - Works

Writer and scholar, born in Stuttgart, SW Germany. In 1833–8 he worked with Chamisso on the Deutsche Musenalmanach, before taking up clerical and academic posts, including that of Oberstudienrat. His retellings of legends in Sagen des klassischen Altertums (1838–40) and Deutsche Volksbücher (c.1836) are still read today, and he was popular for his folk and student songs, romances and ballads, n…

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Gustav Stickley

Furniture craftsman, designer, and editor, born in Osceola, Wisconsin, USA. The son of a stonemason, he learned and practised the trade until c.1875, when he went to work in an uncle's chair factory in Brandt, PA. By 1880 he had taken over the firm, and with his younger brothers, Charles Stickley and Albert Stickley, formed Stickley Brothers, a furniture manufacturing firm, which they moved to Bin…

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Gustav Stresemann - Biography, In the Weimar Republic, First Cabinet, August - October 1923

German statesman and chancellor (1923), born in Berlin, Germany. Entering the Reichstag in 1907 as a National Liberal, he became leader of the Party, and later founded and led its successor, the German People's Party. He was briefly chancellor of the new German (Weimar) Republic, then minister of foreign affairs (1923–9). He pursued a policy of conciliation, helped to negotiate the Locarno Pact (…

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Gustave Caillebotte - Biography, Caillebotte's Collection, Works by Caillebotte, Bibliography

Painter, born in Paris, France. He trained as an engineer and attended the École des Beaux-Arts. A gifted painter, he was also wealthy and gave generous support to the Impressionists, many of whom were his friends. He helped to organize the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874 and exhibited in the later shows. He painted some 500 works, mainly of contemporary urban life, which were characterize…

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Gustave Charpentier - Opera

Composer, born in Dieuze, NE France. He studied at the Lille Conservatory, and the Paris Conservatoire under Massenet. He founded a free school of music for the poor, the Conservatoire Populaire de Mimi Pinson, wrote dramatic and choral works, and composed both the music and libretti for the operas Louise (1900) and Julien (1913). Gustave Charpentier (June 25, 1860 - February 18, 1956) was …

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Gustave Courbet - Realism, Burial at Ornans, Notoriety, Sources

Painter, born in Ornans, E France. He was sent to Paris to study law, but turned to painting. The founder of Realism, in 1844 he began exhibiting pictures in which everyday scenes were portrayed with complete sincerity and absence of idealism, such as ‘Burial at Ornans’ (1849, Musée d'Orsay, Paris). His best-known work is the large ‘Studio of the Painter: an Allegory of Realism’ (1855, Musée…

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Gustave Flaubert - Life, Work and legacy, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Rouen, NW France. He studied law at Paris, then turned to writing. His masterpiece was Madame Bovary (1857), a portrait of a young woman who cannot come to terms with the limitations of provincial life, which was condemned as immoral and its author (unsuccessfully) prosecuted. His other works include Salammbô (1862), and La Tentation de St Antoine (1874, The Temptation of St Ant…

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Gustave Kahn - Principal works

Poet, literary theorist, and self-proclaimed inventor of ‘vers libre’, born in Metz, NE France. Returning to Paris after four years in North Africa, he collaborated on a number of literary reviews. He advocated abandoning the alexandrine line and making rhythm match the poets' thought movements. His poems include Les Palais nomades (1887), Domaine de fée (1895), and Premiers poèmes (1897). He …

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Gustave Moreau

Painter, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he was appointed professor of painting in 1892. He was an eccentric Symbolist who painted colourful but usually rather sinister scenes from ancient mythology and the Bible, as in ‘Salome’ (1876). Gustave Moreau (April 6, 1826 – April 18, 1898) was a French Symbolist painter. Moreau's main focus was…

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Gustavus Franklin Swift - Early life, Chicago and the birth of the meat-packing industry

Meat packer, born near Sandwich, Massachusetts, USA. He worked in the butcher trade from age 14 in his brother's shop. By 1859 he was purchasing, slaughtering, dressing, and peddling his own steer to Cape Cod residents. His reputation as a shrewd judge of beef grew, and he became partners with a renowned Boston meat dealer (1872). As a buyer, he followed the cattle market, moving steadily W until …

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Guy (Alcide) Mollet - Mollet's Ministry, 1 February 1956 - 13 June 1957

French politician and prime minister (1956–7), born in Flers-de-l'Orne, NW France. An English teacher, he was a member of the resistance in World War 2. In 1946 he became Mayor of Arras, an MP, secretary-general of the Socialist Party, and a cabinet minister in the Léon Blum government. In 1949 he became a delegate to the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe, and its president in 1955.…

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Guy (Francis de Moncy) Burgess - Biography, Chronology

British traitor, born in Devonport, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied at Eton, Dartmouth, and Cambridge, where he became a communist. Recruited as a Soviet agent in the 1930s, he worked with the BBC (1936–-9), wrote war propaganda (1939–41), and again joined the BBC (1941–4) while working for MI5. Thereafter, he was a member of the Foreign Office, and second secretary under Philby in Washington…

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Guy (Penrose) Gibson - Early life and career, Operation Chastise, Victoria Cross, After the Dams Raid, Return to Operations, Other

British airman, born in Simla, NE India. As a wing-commander in the RAF he led the famous ‘dambusters’ raid on the Möhne and Eder dams in 1943, an exploit for which he received the VC. He was killed during a later operation. Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson VC DSO and bar DFC and bar RAF (12 August 1918 – 19 September 1944), was the first CO of the RAF's 617 Squadron, which he led in …

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Guy Fawkes - Early life, Gunpowder Plot, Literature, Popular culture

Conspirator and soldier, born in York, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. Of Protestant parentage, he became a Catholic at an early age. He was serving with the Spanish army in The Netherlands (1593–1604), and had no share in originating the Gunpowder Plot (1605). He crossed to England at Catesby's invitation and was deputed to fire the gunpowder under the Houses of Parliament. Discovered and arrest…

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Guy Forget - Career

French tennis player, born in Casablanca, Morocco. He became world junior champion in 1982 and world doubles champion in 1986. His achievements include 11 singles victories, Davies Cup winner (1989, 1996), and winner of Roland-Garros in the 1996 doubles event with Hasek. In 1991 he was ranked fourth in the world. He became captain of the French team in the Davis Cup and had a memorable success ove…

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Guy Laroche - Citations, Reference

Fashion designer, born in La Rochelle, W France. He worked in millinery, first in Paris, then in New York City, before returning to Paris. In 1957 he started his own business and showed a small collection. By 1961 he was producing both couture and ready-to-wear clothes, achieving a reputation for skilful cutting. From 1966 his designs included menswear. Guy Laroche, French haute couture des…

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Guy Lombardo - Other pursuits, Tributes

Bandleader, born in London, Ontario, Canada. His band began performing in the USA in 1923, and as Guy Lombardo and the Royal Canadians, they went to New York (1929) and were featured at the Roosevelt Grill for 33 years. In addition to touring extensively and making many successful recordings, the band appeared on radio, television, and in films and appeared live on television every New Year's Eve …

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Guy of Dampierre - Family and Children

Count of Flanders from 1278. On the death of his elder brother he became co-regent of Flanders with his mother, Margaret of Constantinople, in 1251. He became count in 1278, acquired Bethune and Dendermonde by his first marriage, and bought Namur in 1265. He quarrelled with his feudal suzerain Philip IV (the Fair) of France, and appealed for support to Edward I, betrothing his daughter to Edward's…

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Guy Verhofstadt - Early career, Verhofstadt I, Verhofstadt II

Belgian prime minister (1999– ), born in Termonde, Belgium. Educated at Gand, he practised law before serving in a variety of roles within the PVV (Partji voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang), including the party presidency twice (1982, 1989). He was elected first as deputy, and served as minister of the budget and deputy prime minister (1985–8), then as a senator, where he became the vice-president of…

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Guyana - Biodiversity, Military, Human Rights

Official name Co-operative Republic of Guyana, formerly (to 1966) British Guiana Politics of Guyana takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Guyana is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly of Guyana. Guy…

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Guyenne or Guienne

A mediaeval duchy, including Gascony, in SW France, bounded W by the Bay of Biscay. The rump of Aquitaine, it remained a possession of the English crown after Normandy and other French territories were lost in 1204–5. The claim of the kings of England to be independent rulers of Guyenne was one of the causes of the Hundred Years' War. It was finally conquered by the French in 1453. The area is no…

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Gwalior - Figures, The Old Town, Lashkar, Morar, Schools, Colleges and universities

26°12N 78°09E, pop (2000e) 814 000. City and former princely state in Madhya Pradesh, C India; founded, 8th-c; famous cultural centre, 15th-c; Mughal city, 15th–16th-c; taken by the British, 1780; railway; commercial centre; fort on Gwalior Rock, with several palaces, temples, and shrines. Gwalior pronunciation?(help·info) is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. Gwalior occu…

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Gwen Harwood - Bibliography

Poet, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. She started writing in her late 30s, publishing Poems (1963), Selected Poems (1975), The Lion's Bride (1981), and Bone Scan (1990). She wrote under a wide range of pseudonyms, but wrote librettos for Larry Sitsky's operas under her own name. She spent much of her adult life in Tasmania, and many of her poems are set there. Her work, which was influ…

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Gwen Verdon - Filmography

Dancer and stage actress, born in Culver City, California, USA. Remembered for singing and dancing ‘Whatever Lola Wants (Lola Gets)’ in Damn Yankees (1955), she also starred in a number of other Broadway musicals. After her dancing career ended, she turned to acting in television and motion pictures, including the two Cocoon films (1985, 1988) and Alice (1990). She was married to Bob Fosse (1960…

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Gwendolyn (Elizabeth) Brooks - Legacy, Works

Poet, born in Topeka, Kansas, USA. Based in Chicago, she graduated from Wilson Junior College there (1936) and was publicity director for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Chicago (1930s). She taught at many institutions, and succeeded Carl Sandburg as poet laureate of Illinois (1968). Her verse narrative, Annie Allen (1949), won the first Pulitzer Prize awarded to …

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Gweru - Railway, Road

19°25S 29°50E, pop (2000e) 115 500. Capital of Midlands province, Zimbabwe, 155 km/96 mi NE of Bulawayo; airfield; railway; important communications and administrative centre; shoes, glassware, metal alloys, dairy products, batteries. Gweru (formerly Gwelo) is a city near the centre of Zimbabwe at 19°25′S 29°50′E. It is also home to Thornhill Air Base, an army garris…

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Gwynedd - History

pop (2001e) 116 800; area 3869 km²/1494 sq mi. County in NW Wales, UK, bounded NW by the Menai Strait and Anglesey, N and W by the Irish Sea; created in 1996; formerly (1974–96) a wider area, including Anglesey, now consists only of Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire; rises to 1085 m/3560 ft at Snowdon in Snowdonia National Park; drained by the R Conwy; bilingual language policy; administ…

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Gwyneth Paltrow - Career, Filmography

Film actress, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. Brought up in a show business family, she abandoned her art history studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara, to pursue an acting career. Her films include Hook (1991), Malice (1993), and Seven (1995). It was her 1996 performance in the title role of Emma Woodhouse, adapted from the novel by Jane Austen, that led to her being offere…

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Gyles (Daubeney) Brandreth - Career, Personal life, Trivia

British writer, broadcaster, and politician. He studied at Oxford, where he became president of the Oxford Union, and editor of Isis. He worked as a freelance journalist from 1968, and as a columnist for several magazines, including the TV Times. He founded the National Scrabble Championships in 1971, and has on three occasions held the world record for length of after-dinner speech. Long interest…

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gymkhana

A mixed sports meeting in a public place, especially one involving a range of horse-riding skills for young riders. Gymkhanas originated in India in 1860, where horse and pony races were introduced for British soldiers' entertainment. Over the years athletic events and other competitions (eg model aeroplane flying) have been introduced. In the USA, the term is often used for an obstacle competitio…

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gymnastics - Disciplines

A series of physical exercises now used primarily for sporting contests. The ancient Greeks and Romans performed such exercises for health purposes. Modern techniques were developed in Germany towards the end of the 18th-c. In competition, gymnasts perform exercises which are subsequently marked out of a score of 10 by a series of judges. Men compete on the parallel bars, pommel horse, horizontal …

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gypsum - Chemical structure, Uses

A mineral of calcium sulphate (CaSO4.2H2O) found in evaporite deposits as crystals (selenite) or fine-grained masses (alabaster). When partly dehydrated, it forms plaster of Paris, a fine, quick-setting, white powder. Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) pa…

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gypsy moth - North American Introduction, Hosts, Effects of defoliation on trees, Factors that affect gypsy moth populations

A medium-sized tussock moth; rare in Britain but a pest of fruit trees in North America; wings whitish with dark zigzag markings; caterpillar greyish with tufts of brown hair; pupates in a loose cocoon. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Lymantridae.) The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. The egg is the overwintering stage. Gypsy mo…

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Gypsy Rose Lee - Rose Louise, The Advent of Gypsy, Love, Marriage, and Goodbye, Mother, Filmography, Television

Stripper, actress, and writer, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. Starting as a four-year-old in vaudeville with her sister, she became the best-known stripper of the 1930s. She made some films (at first as Louise Hovick), and wrote two mystery stories as well as an autobiography that was the basis of the musical, Gypsy. Stylish and witty, she was briefly (1966) a talk-show host. Gypsy Rose …

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