Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 30

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Early life and work

Baroque sculptor, architect, and painter, born in Naples, SW Italy, the son of a sculptor, Pietro Bernini (1562–1629). He went to Rome at an early age and was introduced to the papal court. He completed the bronze baldacchino in St Peter's (1633), and the fountain of the four river gods in the Piazza Navona (1647). In 1656 he decorated the apse of St Peter's with the so-called Cathedra Petri, des…

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Gianfranco Fini - Early years, Coalition, Controversies

Italian politician, born in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He became leader of the neo-Fascist MSI or Movimento sociale italiano (Italian Social Movement) (1987–90, 1991–5). In 1994, to rid the party of its connection with Fascism, he helped establish AN (Alleanza Nazionale). In 1995 the MSI joined with AN and he was elected president. Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952) is an Itali…

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Gianfranco Zola - Early days in Italy, Chelsea career, Return to Italy and retirement, International career, Honours and awards

Footballer, born in Oliena, Sardinia, Italy. He played for Parma, then joined Chelsea in 1996. He was also a member of the Italy national team in the Euro ’96 championships, and of the Italy World Cup squad in 2002. He joined Sardinian club Cagliari in 2003 and announced his retirement from football in 2005. Gianfranco Zola, OBE, born July 5, 1966 in Oliena, Sardinia, is a former Italian f…

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Gianni (Giovanni Luigi) Brera - Biography

Journalist and writer, born in San Zenone Po, Lombardy, N Italy. In the post-war years he started writing for the sports daily La Gazzetta dello Sport, then worked for other major papers. He succeeded in inventing a new language for sports journalism (Addio bicicletta, 1964; Storia critica del calcio italiano, 1975). He also wrote novels set in the Po valley, characterized by ripe, full-bodied lan…

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Gianni Rodari - Biography, Works

Writer and journalist, born in Omegna, Piedmont, N Italy. He wrote mainly children's books, and re-invented the traditional fairy-tale, showing its connection with everyday reality, as in Il libro delle filastrocche (1950), Le avventure di Cipollino (1951), Il libro degli errori (1964), Parole per giocare (1979), and Grammatica della fantasia (1973). Gianni Rodari (October 23, 1920 - April …

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Gianni Versace - Early life, Life and career, Death, Filmography, Awards

Fashion designer, born in Reggio di Calabria, S Italy. He moved to Milan, and in 1973 began freelance designing for the Italian labels Genny, Callaghan, and Complice, before launching his own ready-to-wear collection in 1978. He became known for his glamorous styles, producing a range of siren dresses that became his trademark, and often using innovative materials and techniques, such as his use o…

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Giant's Causeway - Legend, History, Similar structures, Notable features, flora and fauna

55°14N 6°30W. Volcanic basalt formation on the N coast of Co Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK, 11 km/7 mi NE of Portrush; a world heritage site; a natural ‘pavement’ of columnar basalt projecting into the North Channel, formed by the tops of thousands of small basaltic columns (usually hexagonal, diameter 38–50 cm/15–20 in), which resulted from the cooling of a volcanic flow; according to le…

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giardiasis

The infestation of the intestinal tract of vertebrates with the tiny, single-celled parasite Giardia lamblia, which can cause severe diarrhoea. The main symptoms are abdominal swelling, diarrhoea, and intestinal gas. Unless treated, it may stunt growth in children and cause loss of weight in adults. Giarditis usually persists if the condition is untreated, resulting in severe anaemia and a reduced…

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gibbon - Classification, Reference

An ape native to rainforests of SE Asia; acrobatic; slender with small head; thumb small; fingers long; arms as long as body and legs together; arms folded above head when walking; also known as lesser ape. (Genus: Hylobates, 6 species.) Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. The dental formula is: Gibbons are social animals. Gibbon species includ…

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Gibeah

Ancient town of the Israelite tribe of Benjamin, located just N of Jerusalem. A fortress was built here in the Middle Bronze Age (c.2000 BC–1550 BC) and was reconstructed in the 12th-c BC–11th-c BC. During the time of King Saul (10th-c BC) it was replaced by an important citadel which fell into decline and was later destroyed (AD 70). The severely eroded site was twice partly excavated by Willia…

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Gibraltar

36°09N 5°21W; pop (2002e) 27 000; area 6·5 km²/2·5 sq mi. Narrow rocky peninsula rising steeply from the low-lying coast of SW Spain at the E end of the Strait of Gibraltar; length, c.5 km/3 mi; width 1·2 km/¾ mi, narrowing to the S; gateway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea; important strategic point of control for the W Mediterranean; British Crown Colony, play…

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Gibson Desert - Climate, Environment and wildlife, Leisure and tourism, Geography

Central belt of the Western Australian Desert; area c.220 000 km²/85 000 sq mi; consists of sand dunes, scrub, and salt marshes; includes the salt lakes L Disappointment and L Auld; contains Rudall R national park. The Gibson Desert is a Western Australian desert made up of sandhills and dry grass. The desert is about 155,000 square kilometres (60,000 square miles) in size. …

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Gideon

Greatest of the judges of Israel, the son of Joash. He suppressed Baal-worship, and put an end to the seven years' domination of the Midianites by routing them near Mt Gilboa. Gideon may refer to: …

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Gideon (Johnson) Pillow - Early life, Civil War, Postbellum

US soldier, born in Williamson Co, Tennessee, USA. A criminal lawyer, he was the law partner of James K Polk who, when president, appointed him to commands in the Mexican War, much to the annoyance of General Winfield Scott and other American military men. A Democrat, he hoped to avoid secession by compromise, but once the war began he went with the Confederacy. He fought at Belmont and in Februar…

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Gideon Welles

US politician, secretary of the navy, and journalist, born in Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA. As part owner and editor of the Hartford Times (1826–36), he endorsed Jacksonian democracy. Although he failed in his efforts to become a representative, senator, and governor, he held several state political offices (1826–44) until becoming chief of the US Navy's Bureau of Provisions and Clothing (1846

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Gideons International - Popular culture references

An international organization, which began in Wisconsin in 1898, with the aim of spreading the Christian faith by the free distribution of copies of the Bible to public places, including hotel rooms, hospitals, and military bases. It is named after the Biblical judge, Gideon, who led Israel against the Midianites. Gideons International is an evangelical Christian organization dedicated to d…

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Gifford Pinchot - Education and early life, Forestry policy and institutions, Ballinger-Pinchot controversy, Governor of Pennsylvania

Forester, conservationist, and public official, born in Simsbury, Connecticut, USA. The son of a well-to-do merchant, he was raised in a cosmopolitan atmosphere and studied forestry in France after graduating from Yale (1889). In 1896, as a member of the National Forest Commission, he helped prepare a conservation plan for government woodlands. Two years later he became chief of the US Agriculture…

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gift economy - Characteristics, Traditional gift economies, The mixing of gift and commodity-based economies

A system in which goods of equivalent value are exchanged as tokens of social relationships. The use value of the goods may be minimal, and gifts may consist of specialized items, such as personal ornaments or items of display. Sometimes, as in the North American potlatch, the exchanges become competitive, in a quest for higher status. A gift economy is an economic system in which the preva…

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gift tax

A tax formerly levied in the UK on gifts having a substantial value. Capital transfer tax was in part a gift tax, the aim being to stop the practice of transferring property during a person's lifetime, thus avoiding death duties. In the USA, the tax is levied on the value of the property given away (payable by the donor). A gift tax is a transfer tax imposed on the value of certain gifts. …

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Gigantes

In Greek mythology, the sons of Earth and Tartaros, with snake-like legs; their name means ‘the giants’. They made war on the Olympian gods, were defeated, and are buried under various volcanic islands. The Gigantomachy (‘war of the giants’) was the subject of large-scale sculpture, as at Pergamum. A sub-group, the Aloadae, piled Mt Pelion upon Mt Ossa. In Greek mythology, the Gigantes …

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GIL (Giovent

A Fascist youth organization established in 1937. It operated in the sports, recreational, and paramilitary fields. Children up to eight years of age were ‘she-wolf's children’; after that boys were (depending on age) ‘balilla’, avanguardisti, and ‘young Fascists’; girls became ‘little Italians’, ‘young Italians’, and ‘young Fascists’. The organization was disbanded in 1943. Gil…

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Gil Evans - Biography, Discography

Jazz pianist, composer, and arranger, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. He was principal arranger for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra (1944–8), which led to a collaboration with trumpeter Miles Davis that lasted until 1960. He was one of the first modern jazz arrangers to use electronics and rock influences successfully in combination with the swing and bebop idioms. Gil Evans (13 May 19…

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Gil Vicente - Life, Historical context: Portuguese theatre before Gil Vicente, Works, Legacy, Morality plays, Farsas (Farces)

Portuguese playwright and poet. He accompanied the court, writing many plays and entertainments in both Spanish and Portuguese. He wrote on religious, national, and social themes, as well as farces, and pastoral and romantic plays, all with great lyricism and a predominantly comical spirit. Among his best-known works are Inferno, Purgatório, and Glória, and the farces Inês Pereira and Juiz da B…

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Gilbert (Charles) Stuart

Painter, born in North Kingston, Rhode Island, USA. Showing an early talent for drawing, he followed the Scottish painter Cosmos Alexander to Edinburgh (1772). Returning to Rhode Island (1773), he was unable to advance with his painting, so he went to London (1775), where he studied (1775–82) with Benjamin West. His ‘Portrait of a Gentleman Skating’ (1782) gained such praise that he was soon bu…

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Gilbert (Hovey) Grosvenor

Editor, naturalist, and geographer, born in Constantinople, Turkey. The son of an American professor of history, he returned to the USA as a teenager. After graduating from Amherst College, he became an editorial assistant (1899) at the National Geographic magazine, rising to editor (1903–54), and also served as president of the National Geographic Society (1920–54), the parent organization of t…

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Gilbert Amy - Sources

Composer and conductor, born in Paris, France. He studied philosophy, then attended the Conservatoire de Paris (1956–60) under Messiaen, Milhaud, and Boulez. In 1967 he succeeded Boulez as director of the Domaine Musical, and was chief founder of the Nouvel Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio-France. He became professor of analysis at Yale, USA and Director of the Conservatoire de Lyon. His works i…

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Gilbert and George - Early life, Performance artists, Photo-montages, Awards, Trivia

Avant-garde artists: Gilbert Proesch (1943– ) and George Passmore (1944– ), born in St. Martin in Thurn, Italy, and Plymouth, Devon, respectively. Gilbert studied at the Academy of Art in Munich, George at Dartington Hall and at the Oxford School of Art. They made their name in the late 1960s as performance artists (the ‘singing sculptures’), with faces and hands painted gold, holding their po…

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Gilbert Cesbron

Writer, born in Paris, France. He produced around 50 popular volumes, including Notre Prison est un royaume (1948), which recalls his memories of Parisian school life at Condorcet and at Sciences-Po. He evoked moral problems of the contemporary world: Les Saints vont en enfer (1952) deals with working priests, and Il est plus tard que tu ne penses (1958) discusses euthanasia. Other works include C…

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Gilbert Frankau - Works

Novelist, born in London, UK. His early works were great successes, and he continued to write best sellers, for he had a flair for anticipating popular taste. His books include One of Us (1912), Peter Jackson, Cigar Merchant (1919), Men, Maids and Mustard-Pots (1923), and World Without End (1943). Gilbert Frankau (April 21, 1884- 4 November 1952) was a popular British novelist. He was known…

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Gilbert Highet

Classicist, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He taught at Oxford (1932–7), where he took a double first (1932), before going to Columbia University (1937), where he was an exceptionally popular teacher until his retirement (1972). Books such as The Classical Tradition (1949) and The Art of Teaching (1950), as well as his posts as chief literary critic for Harper's Magazine (1952–4), judge of the…

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Gilbert Islands - World War II, 1944 -

pop (2000e) 82 000; area 264 km²/102 sq mi. Main island group of Kiribati, C Pacific Ocean; chain of 17 coral atolls spread over c.680 km/420 mi; mainly 200–300 m/700–1000 ft wide, but 15–100 km/10–60 mi long; most have central lagoons; part of the British colony of Gilbert and Ellice Is until 1977; capital, Tarawa; fishing, farming, copra, phosphate. The Gilbert Islands are…

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Gilbert Ryle - The Concept of Mind, Legacy and influence

Philosopher, born in Brighton, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He studied at Brighton and Oxford, where he was a tutor, served in World War 2, then became professor of metaphysical philosophy at Oxford (1945–68) and editor of Mind (1947–71). He was an influential defender of linguistic or ‘ordinary language’ philosophy, and is best known for his book The Concept of Mind (1949), which argued again…

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Gilbert Sheldon

Clergyman, born in Stanton, Staffordshire, C England, UK. Chaplain to Charles I, and warden of All Souls, Oxford (1626–48), he was ejected by the Parliamentarians. At the Restoration in 1660 he was appointed Bishop of London, and in 1663 became Archbishop of Canterbury. He built the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford (1669). Gilbert Sheldon (1598-1677), Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Stan…

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Gilbert Tennent

Protestant evangelist, born in Co Armagh, Northern Ireland. He emigrated to America with his father c.1718 and entered the ministry in 1725. A fiery, persuasive preacher, he helped foment the religious revival known as the Great Awakening, during which he travelled through the N colonies with English evangelist George Whitefield. His dismissive views on the pastorate and on the Church as an instit…

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Gilbert White

Clergyman and naturalist, born in Selborne, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became a fellow of Oriel College. He was ordained in 1751, and from 1755 lived uneventfully as curate in Selborne, where he kept a journal containing observations made in his garden. His letters on the subject, written over a period of 20 years, were published as The Natural History and Antiquities…

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Gilda Radner - Biography, After Death

Entertainer, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. After working with the Second City comedy troupe, she appeared on the National Lampoon Radio Hour in 1974. On National Broadcasting Company's Saturday Night Live (1975–80), she created zany characters whom she brought to Broadway in Gilda Radner Live from New York (1979). In 1989 she wrote It's Always Something about the ovarian cancer that ended her l…

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gilding

The ancient craft of sticking gold (or other metallic) leaf on to a surface, usually wood. Gilding flourished in the Middle Ages in manuscript illumination and panel painting, and later for picture-frames and furniture. Gilding is the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical or by chemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose of ornament. The art of gilding was k…

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Gilgamesh - Cuneiform references

A Babylonian epic poem, partially preserved in different versions, named after its hero, the Sumerian king Gilgamesh (3rd millennium BC). It describes Gilgamesh's legendary adventures, and narrates a story of the Flood that has striking parallels with the Biblical account. Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), …

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Gilles Li Muisis

Poet and chronicler, born in Tournai, France. In 1331 he became abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Martin in Tournai where he had been a monk since 1289. He wrote two chronicles in Latin, Chronicon majus and Chronicon minus, which provide important evidence for French history through his use of eye-witness accounts and his critical view of history. His poems, in the local dialect, are more va…

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Gillian (May) Armstrong - Films by Armstrong

Film director, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. A student of theatre design and later of film, she won a scholarship to the Film and Television School in Sydney. Early works include the drama The Singer and the Dancer (1976), which won the Australian Film Institute (AFI) Award for Best Short. Several of her films focus attention on the difficulties facing independent women, such as My Br…

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Gillian Anderson - Biography, Trivia, List of stage appearances

Actress, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Brought up in London, her family returned to the USA, where she became involved in community theatre, and studied at DePaul University. She then found theatre parts in New York City, eventually moving to Los Angeles, where she was offered the part of Dana Scully in the television series The X-Files (1993–2002, Golden Globe, Emmy), which has since become a …

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Gillian Clarke - Bibliography

Poet, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. She studied at University College, Cardiff, and went on to publish several collections of poetry, such as Letting in the Rumour (1989) and The King of Britain's Daughter (1993). She was editor of The Anglo-Welsh Review (1976–84), and became chair of the Welsh Academy in 1987. Gillian Clarke (born 8 June 1937) is a Welsh poet writing in English. After gra…

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Gillingham

51º24N 0º33E, pop (2001e) 96 500. Naval town and local government district in Kent, SE England, UK; on the R Medway; adjoining Chatham; 48 km/30 mi E of London; birthplace of Will Adams and David Harvey; railway; engineering, foodstuffs. Gillingham is the name of several places in the United Kingdom and the USA: …

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Gillo Pontecorvo - Life and work, Filmography as director

Film-maker, born in Pisa, W Italy. Born into an affluent Jewish family, he studied chemistry at Pisa University but was forced to flee to Paris, where he found work as a journalist. In 1941 he joined the Italian Communist Party and returned to Italy to fight with the partisans. After the war he took up first acting and then directing, and went on to produce a number of documentary films. His most …

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gin - Common mixers for gin, Cocktails with gin, Brands of gin

A spirit distilled from grain or malt, and flavoured with juniper berries; the name derives from Dutch jenever ‘juniper’. Gin was once the true drink of the masses, often referred to as ‘mothers' ruin’ and associated with ‘gin palaces’, but its image changed considerably in the 20th-c. Dutch gin is drunk neat with beer, while London or dry gin is usually mixed with tonic. The most com…

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Ginger Rogers - Biography, Portrayals of Ginger Rogers, Quotations about Rogers, Filmography, Television Work, Notes and references

Film actress, born in Independence, Missouri, USA. She made her professional debut at age 14 with Eddie Foy's vaudeville troupe, and by 1928 she was appearing with her first husband, Jack Pepper, as a vaudeville song-and-dance team. She sang with a band, appeared in short films and in Broadway musicals, and made her screen debut in Young Man in Manhattan (1930). She and Fred Astaire were not given…

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gingivitis - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment, Complications

Inflammation of the gums, which become swollen and red, and are prone to bleeding. It is caused by excessive deposits on the teeth of plaque, consisting of food debris, mucus, and bacteria. Plaque irritates the gums, which become prone to infection. The infection can spread to the tissues and bone that support the teeth, ultimately resulting in their loss. Prevention is by good oral hygiene …

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ginkgo - Characteristics, Name, Prehistory, Cultivation and uses

A deciduous gymnosperm (Ginkgo biloba) originally from SW China, but probably no longer existing in the wild; leaves fan-shaped; seed with a fleshy aril covering the edible kernel; also called maidenhair tree. It is the sole living survivor of a formerly large and widespread family. (Family: Ginkgoaceae.) The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), frequently misspelled as "Gingko", and sometimes known as …

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ginseng - Modern science and ginseng, Common classification

Either of two species of thick-rooted perennials (Panax pseudoginseng, Panax quinquefolium), native to North America and Asia; rhizomatous; palmate leaves; 5-petalled, yellowish-green flowers; round, red fruits. The powdered roots are said to have aphrodisiac as well as medicinal and rejuvenative properties. It is popular as a tonic and dietary supplement, and has been recommended for the treatmen…

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Gioacchino (Antonio) Rossini - Biography, Works of Rossini, Media

Composer, born in Pesaro, E Italy. He studied in Bologna, and began to write comic operas. Among his early successes were Tancredi (1813) and L'Italiana in Algeri (1813, The Italian Girl in Algiers), and in 1816 he produced his masterpiece, Il Barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville). As director of the Italian Theatre in Paris (1823), he adapted several of his works to French taste, and wrote…

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Giordano Bruno - Early life, Travel years, Trial and death, The cosmology of Bruno's time

Renaissance philosopher, born in Nola, S Italy. At first a Dominican, his unorthodox interests in hermeticism caused him to leave the order, and he travelled widely throughout Europe. His philosophy was an extreme pantheism, and he was sympathetic to Copernicus's theory of the universe. This led to his arrest by the Inquisition and, after a 7-year trial, he was burned in Rome. He published dialogu…

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Giorgio Almirante

Leader of Italy's neo-Fascist Party, born near Parma, N Italy. He helped to found the neo-Fascist movement after the war, becoming national secretary of the Party in 1969. He retired in 1987 because of ill health. Giorgio Almirante (June 27, 1914 - May 22, 1988) was an Italian politician, the founder and leader of the Italian Social Movement until his retirement in 1987. Almiran…

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Giorgio Amendola

Italian politician, born in Rome, Italy, the son of Giovanni Amendola. He joined the Italian Communist Party in 1929, was jailed by the Fascist regime, then helped organize the Resistenza. He was a member of the Constituent Assembly after the war ended, and from 1948 was a parliamentary deputy. Giorgio Amendola (21 November 1907 - 5 June 1980) was an Italian writer and politician. …

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Giorgio Armani - Biography, In the news, Branding

Fashion designer, born in Piacenza, N Italy. He studied medicine for a time in Milan, and after military service worked as a window dresser and menswear buyer in a department store until he became a designer for Nino Cerruti (1930– ) in 1961. He set up his own company in 1975, designing first for men, then women, including loose-fitting blazers and jackets. He was appointed a United Nations goodw…

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Giorgio Bassani - Biography

Novelist and poet, born in Bologna, N Italy. He contributed to various magazines, and in his work recreated Ferrara's Jewish society during the Fascist years and the horror of the persecutions. His first major success was Cinque storie ferraresi (1956, Five Stories of Ferrara), most of them composed in the aftermath of World War 2. A sensitive chronicler of Italian Jews and their suffering under F…

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Giorgio de Chirico - Life and work, Legacy, Trivia, Selected works

Artist, born in Volos, Greece. He studied at Athens and Munich, working later in Paris, and with Carrà in Italy. About 1910 he began to produce a series of dreamlike pictures of deserted squares, which had considerable influence on the Surrealists. His whole style after 1915 is often called ‘metaphysical painting’, including semi-abstract geometric figures and stylized horses. In the 1930s he r…

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Giorgio La Pira

Italian politician, born in Pozzallo, Sicily, S Italy. He was a leading member of the left wing of the DC (Christian Democracy) and a deputy, and was critical of the government's economic policy. He was twice mayor of Florence (1951–7, 1961–6), and was a leading member of the international peace movement. Giorgio La Pira (Jan. 4, 1904-Nov. 5, 1977) was a distinguished Italian politician w…

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Giorgio Manganelli - Works, Awards

Writer, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. He was a member of the Group 63 and wrote many essays on various subjects, including literature, such as La letteratura come menzogna (1967), Nuovo commento (1969), Sconclusione (1976), Discorso dell'ombra e dello stemma (1982), and Rumori o voci (1987). They are characterized by a view of reality which is both ironic and disturbing. Giorgio Mangane…

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Giorgio Morandi - Further reading

Painter, born in Bologna, N Italy. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Bologna, where he later taught (1930–56). Although influenced by the Italian Metaphysical painters (c.1918–19), he concentrated on landscapes, portraits, and above all still-life. His arrangements of everyday objects on a tabletop were painted in subdued tones, and with a simplicity of form reminiscent of Cézanne. He won…

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Giorgio Strehler - Famous opera productions, Famous theatre productions

Theatre director, born in Trieste, NE Italy. A pioneer and figurehead in post-World War 2 theatre, he became artistic director of Milan's Piccolo Teatro, which he established with Paolo Grassi in 1947, and a leading force in the Theatre de l'Europe (a united European venture). Notable among more than 200 productions are his revisions of plays by Goldoni and Shakespeare, and his ‘dialectical’ ren…

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Giorgio Vasari - Biography, The Vite, Copies of Vasari’s Lives of the Artists Online

Art historian, born in Arezzo, NC Italy. He studied under Andrea del Sarto, and lived mostly at Florence and Rome. He was an architect and painter, best known for his design of the Uffizi in Florence, but today his fame rests on The Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors (1550, trans title), which remains the major source of information on its subject. Giorgio…

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Giorgione - Life, Works, Assessment, Some works attributed to Giorgione

Painter, born in Castelfranco Veneto, NE Italy. He studied under Giovanni Bellini in Venice, where he painted frescoes, though few have survived. A great innovator, he created the small, intimate easel picture and a new treatment of figures in landscape, ‘the landscape of mood’. Among the paintings reliably attributed to him are ‘The Tempest’ (c.1505, Venice) and ‘The Sleeping Venus’ (c.1510…

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Giotto (di Bondone)

Painter and architect, the founder of the Florentine School of painting, born in the village of Vespignano, near Florence, NC Italy. His major work was the fresco cycle, ‘The Lives of Christ and the Virgin’, in the Arena Chapel, Padua (1305–8). In 1330–3 he was employed by King Robert in Naples, and in 1334 was appointed Master of Works of the cathedral and city of Florence, where amongst othe…

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Giovanni (Virginio) Schiaparelli - Honors and Awards for Giovanni Schiaparelli

Astronomer, born in Savigliano, NW Italy. He studied at Berlin and at Pulkova, Russia, and became director of Brera Observatory, Milan. He discovered the link between meteor showers and comets, observed double stars, discovered the asteroid Hesperia, and termed vague linear features on Mars as ‘canali’ (1877). Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (March 14, 1835 – July 4, 1910) was an Italian…

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Giovanni Amendola

Italian politician, born in Salerno, Campania, SW Italy. He became a deputy in 1919 and was opposed to right-wing nationalism. Colonial-office minister in the Facta cabinet in 1922, he led the parliamentary opposition. Following Giacomo Matteotti's murder in 1924, he initiated the ‘Aventine secession’, when the opposition parties suspended parliamentary activity in protest. He died after being a…

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Giovanni Animuccia

Composer, born in Florence, NC Italy. In 1555 he became choirmaster at St Peter's in the Vatican. He was influenced by St Philip Neri, for whose oratory he composed the Laudi - semi-dramatic religious pieces in popular style from which oratorio developed. In 1555 Animuccia was appointed maestro di capella at St. Peter's, an office which he held until his death in 1571. His chief published w…

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Giovanni Battista Amici

Optician, astronomer, and natural philosopher, born in Modena, N Italy. He constructed optical instruments, perfecting his own alloy for telescope mirrors, and in 1827 produced the dioptric, achromatic microscope that bears his name. He became director of the Florence observatory in 1835. Giovanni Battista Amici (March 25, 1786 - April 10, 1863) was an Italian astronomer and microscopist. …

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Giovanni Battista Belzoni - Reference

Explorer and antiquity-hunter, born in Padua, NE Italy. In 1815 he went to Egypt, and there was commissioned by Mehemet Ali to construct hydraulic machinery for irrigation purposes. He devoted himself thereafter to tomb robbing and the exploration of Egyptian antiquities, including the removal from Thebes of the colossal bust of Rameses II, which he sent to the British Museum. Giovanni Batt…

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Giovanni Battista Casti

Scholar and writer, born in Acquapendente, Latium, Italy. An abbot, he exercized his versatile talents in Florence, Vienna, Paris, and St Petersburg, satirizing the latter in his Poema tartaro (1797). He wrote light melodramas, such as Novelle galanti (1778–1802), and mocked contemporary politics in the poem Gli animali parlanti (1794–1801). Giovanni Battista Casti (29 August 1724 - 5 Feb…

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Giovanni Battista de Rossi - Major works

Archaeologist, born in Rome, Italy. He is known for his research on the Christian catacombs of St Callistus in Rome, and has been called ‘the founder of Christian archaeology’. Giovanni Battista de Rossi (Rome, February 23, 1822–Castel Gandolfo 20 September 1894) was an Italian archaeologist, famous outside his field for his rediscovery of early Christian catacombs. He applied the…

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Giovanni Battista Morgagni - Education, Professional, Legacy, Reference

Physician, born in Forli, NEC Italy. He studied at Bologna, worked as an anatomical demonstrator, and became professor of medicine at Padua in 1711. In his writings, he correlated pathological lesions with symptoms in over 700 cases, and is traditionally considered to be the founder of the science of pathological anatomy, ‘the father of morbid anatomy’. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (Februar…

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Giovanni Battista Moroni - Notes and References

Portraitist, born in Albino, N Italy. His work was almost always confined to portraiture, making him unique among the artists of the Italian Renaissance. His well-known work in oils, ‘The Tailor’, is in the National Gallery, London. Giovanni Battista Moroni (Born c1520 – February 5, 1578) was an Italian mannerist painter, son of an architect, Andrea Moroni, born in Albino near Bergamo. …

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Giovanni Battista Pergolesi - Biography

Composer, born in Jesi, EC Italy. He attended the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo at Naples, became a violinist, and in 1732 was appointed maestro di cappella to the Prince of Naples. His comic intermezzo La serva padrona (1732) was highly popular, and influenced the development of opera buffa. He wrote much church music, and in 1736 left Naples for a Capuchin monastery at Pozzuoli, where…

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Giovanni Battista Tiepolo - Biography, Critical assessment and legacy

Artist, born in Venice, NE Italy. The last of the great Venetian painters, he became renowned as a decorator of buildings throughout Europe. Examples of his work can be found in the ceiling paintings of the Würzburg and Madrid palaces, where his imaginary skies are filled with floating, gesticulating, Baroque figures, apparently unbounded by the structure of the buildings. Giovanni Battist…

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Giovanni Battista Venturi

Physicist, born near Reggio, Reggio nell'Emilia, N Italy. Ordained a priest (1769), he was appointed professor of geometry and philosophy at the University of Modena (1773), and later became professor of physics. His research concentrated on the flow of fluids, and he kept in close touch with the work of Bernoulli and Euler in fluid mechanics. He is remembered for his discovery of the Venturi effe…

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Giovanni Bellini - Early career, Maturity, High Renaissance, Assessment

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy, the son of Jacopo Bellini and brother of Gentile Bellini. One of his chief contributions to Italian art was his successful integration of figures with landscape background. Another is his naturalistic treatment of light. Almost all his pictures are religious, although he painted the occasional pagan allegory. He is perhaps best known for a long series of Madonnas…

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Giovanni Boccaccio - Bibliography

Poet and scholar, born in Tuscany or Paris. He abandoned a career in commerce, and at Naples (1328) turned to story-writing in verse and prose. He mingled in courtly society, and fell in love with the noble lady whom he made famous under the name of Fiammetta. Until 1350 he lived alternately in Florence and Naples, producing prose tales, pastorals, and poems. The Teseide was partly translated by C…

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Giovanni Bottesini - Biography, Partial list of works, The Paganini of the Double Bass

Musician, a master of the double bass, born in Crema, N Italy. He was also successful as a conductor and composer, and his works include symphonies, overtures, and several operas, including Cristoforo Colombo (1847) and Ali Babà (1871). Giovanni Bottesini (December 22, 1821 - July 7, 1889) was an Italian composer of classical music, a conductor, and a virtuoso of the double bass. …

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Giovanni Comisso - Works

Writer and journalist, born in Treviso, Veneto, NE Italy. He wrote for the literary review Solaria and was special correspondent for a number of Italian newspapers. His short stories and novels, where sensuality and disappointment seem to co-exist, include Al vento dell'Adriatico (1928), Giorni di guerra (1930), Un gatto attraversa la strada (1955), and Diario 1951–1964 (1969). Giovanni Co…

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Giovanni da Bologna - Biography

Sculptor and architect, born in Douai, N France. He went to Italy in 1551 and executed much sculptural work in Florence for the Medici, including the ‘Flying Mercury’ (1564) and various fountains in the Boboli gardens, the ‘Rape of the Sabines’ (1580), and ‘Hercules and the Centaur’ (1599). His bronzes can be seen in the Wallace Collection and elsewhere. Giambologna, born as Jean Boul…

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Giovanni da Udine

Painter, decorative artist, and architect, born in Udine, NE Italy. He entered the workshop of Raphael in Rome, and became a specialist in a style of decoration called ‘grotesque’, influenced by the graceful ornamental schemes being discovered in the excavations of ancient Rome. He later moved back to Udine and, by 1552, was in charge of all public building there. His decorative style rapidly sp…

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Giovanni dalle Bande Nere - Biography

Condottiere, born in Forlì, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. The son of Giovanni de' Medici and Caterina Riario Sforza, he joined the army at a young age and served first Urbino and then Pope Leo X. He fought with the French in 1522 and he led the Italian forces in the League of Cognac war. Giovanni de' Medici, also known as Giovanni dalle Bande Nere (April 5, 1498 - November 30, 1526) was an Ital…

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Giovanni Della Casa

Scholar, born in Mugello, Tuscany, Italy. He was apostolic delegate to Venice (1544–9) and then Paul IV's home secretary. Among his works are the Capitoli del forno (1544), and the poems Rime (1558) in the Petrarca style, with an added melancholic sophistication. His fame rests on the treatise Il Galateo (1551–5, published in 1558), named after cardinal Galeazzo Florimonte. Intended to instruct …

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Giovanni Domenico Cassini - Astronomy and astrology, Engineering, Named after Cassini

Astronomer, born in Perinaldo, NW Italy. In 1650 he became professor of astronomy at Bologna, and in 1669 the first director of the observatory at Paris. He greatly extended knowledge of the Sun's parallax, the periods of Jupiter, Mars, and Venus, and was the first to record observations of zodiacal light. In 1684 he discovered two natural satellites of Saturn, Dione and Tethys. Cassini's division…

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Giovanni Falcone - Bibliography

Magistrate, born in Palermo, Sicily, S Italy. In 1978 he was appointed to Palermo where he began a campaign against the Mafia, leading to the successful prosecution of 338 top members in 1987. He became director-general of the criminal affairs division in the Justice Ministry in Rome, and several attempts were made on his life. He was killed, along with his wife and escort, when a one-ton bomb exp…

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Giovanni Gabrieli - Life, Music and style, References and further reading

Composer, nephew, and pupil of Andrea Gabrieli, born in Venice, NE Italy. He composed choral and instrumental works in which he exploited the acoustics of St Mark's in Venice with brilliant antiphonal and echo effects, using double choirs, double ensembles of wind instruments, and other devices, as in his well-known Sonata pian' e forte. He published much of his uncle's music, and became a renowne…

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Giovanni Gentile

Italian politician and philosopher, born in Castelvetrano, Sicily, S Italy. He was professor of philosophy successively at Naples (1898–1906), Palmero (1906–14), Pisa (1914–17), and Rome (1917–44). He became with Croce the leading exponent of 20th-c Italian idealism and collaborated with him in editing the periodical La Critica (1903–22), but later quarrelled with his complex distinctions bet…

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Giovanni Giolitti

Italian statesman and prime minister (1892–3, 1903–5, 1906–9, 1911–14, 1920–1), born in Mondovi, NW Italy. He studied law at the University of Turin, and entered the civil service in 1860. He became a deputy in the Italian parliament (1882), and was five times prime minister. The ‘eta giolittiana’ (Giolitti's era, 1903–13) saw unprecedented economic and social development. He concluded an …

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Giovanni Gronchi - Early life and political career, After the Second World War, President of the Republic, Assessment, Trivia

Italian politician and president (1955–62), born in Pontedera, W Italy. He was one of the founders of the Partito Popolare (Popular Party) and the Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy), and represented the latter in the CLN (National Freedom Committee). He held a number of ministerial posts (1944–8), became president of the chamber of deputies, and president of the Italian Republic. …

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Giovanni Lanfranco - Biography, Independent Work, Legacy and Critical Assessment, Partial Anthology

Religious painter, born in Parma, N Italy. He was one of the first interpreters of Baroque illusionism, widely influencing and copied by later painters. The best of his work can be seen on the dome of San Andrea della Valle in Rome, and in his paintings for the cathedral at Naples, where he worked from 1633 to 1646. Lanfranco was born in Parma, and there he began his career as an apprentice…

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Giovanni Lanza

Italian politician and prime minister (1869–73), born in Casale Monferrato, Piedmont, N Italy. He took part in the 1st Independence War, and became minister for education (1855) and finance (1858) in Piedmont. A leading member of the ‘historic right’, he became interior minister under La Marmora (1864–5). His tenure as prime minister (1869–73) saw the annexation of Rome, the ‘guaranty law’ …

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Giovanni Leone

Italian politician, prime minister (1963, 1968), and president (1971–8), born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. A lawyer, he joined the DC (Democrazia Cristiana) in 1944 and was a deputy in the Constituent Assembly and president to the chamber of deputies (1955–63). He was twice briefly prime minister, and became president of the republic in 1971. He resigned in 1978 following a number of accusatio…

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Giovanni Martinelli - Recordings

Tenor, born in Montagnana, NE Italy. He played in a regimental band before making his debut as a singer in Rossini's Stabat Mater (1910) in Milan. He was engaged by Puccini to sing in the European premiere of La Fanciulla del West (1911), and became a member of the New York Metropolitan Opera (1913–46). Giovanni Martinelli (born Montagnana 22 October 1885 - died New York, 2 February 1969) …

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Giovanni Morelli

Art critic, born in Verona, N Italy. He studied natural philosophy and medicine at Munich University. Active in the Italian liberation movement, in 1861 he became a deputy for Bergamo in the first free Italian parliament, and later a senator (1873). From that year he began writing art criticism and, in 1880, published in German Italian Masters in German Galleries (trans 1883). This was followed by…

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Giovanni Nicotera - Biography, Ships

Italian politician, born in Sambiase, Calabria, S Italy. He participated in the 1848 revolutionary risings in Naples and Caserta, and in the defence of the Roman Republic in 1849. He planned the Sapri expedition with Carlo Pisacane (1857) and was taken prisoner. He became a deputy of the left in the new Italian parliament but then moved considerably to the right. As interior minister with Agostino…

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Giovanni Papini - Early life, Before and during World War I, Fascism and later years

Writer, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. He began his career as an iconoclast anarchist and interventist, and was one of the leading lights of Futurism. He founded the review Leonardo with Giuseppe Prezzolini (1903) and Lacerba with Ardengo Soffici (1913). Of this period are Il crepuscolo dei filosofi (1907), the autobiographical Un uomo finito (1913), and the poems Cento pagine di poesia (191…

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Giovanni Pascoli - Works

Poet, born in San Mauro di Romagna, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. At a very young age he suffered a series of bereavements which marked him forever. He was a student of Carducci at Bologna University and flirted with socialism, but later adopted nationalistic positions. He taught Greek and Latin (1902–5) and in 1906 succeeded Carducci to the chair of Italian literature at Bologna, which he held until …

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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina - Life, Music and reputation, Sources and further reading

Composer, born in Palestrina, WC Italy. At Rome he learned composition and organ playing, and became organist and maestro di canto at the cathedral of St Agapit, Palestrina (1544). In 1551 he became master of the Julian choir at St Peter's, the first of several appointments in Rome. The most distinguished composer of the Renaissance, he composed over 100 Masses, motets, hymns, and other church pie…

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Giovanni Pisano

Sculptor and architect, born in Pisa, W Italy, the son of Nicola Pisano. He worked with his father on the pulpit in Siena, the fountain in Perugia, and the facade of Siena Cathedral (1284–6) on which were positioned a number of expressive life-size statues. He also sculpted figures for the entrance to the Baptistery at Pisa (now in the Museo Nazionale), and made a number of free-standing Madonnas…

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Giovanni Prati

Poet, born in Campomaggiore, Trentino, N Italy. He was active in Milan's patriotic circles and was a supporter of the Savoys. A deputy of the Italian parliament in 1862 and a senator in 1876, he was a very popular leading exponent of late Romanticism. Patriotic and love themes were dealt with in highly rhethoric tones in Edmenegarda (1840), Canti per il popolo e ballate (1843), Canti politici (185…

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Giovanni Sgambati

Composer and pianist, born in Rome, Italy. A student of Liszt, he formed an orchestra in Rome, where he conducted performances of the works of Beethoven and Liszt, the first in Italy. In 1876 he helped to found the first public music school in Rome. His compositions include two symphonies, a requiem Mass, chamber music, and piano music. Giovanni Sgambati (May 28, 1841 - December 14, 1914), …

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Giovanni Spadolini

Italian politician, prime minister (1981–2), and historian, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. He edited the Resto del Carlino (1955–68) and Corriere della Sera (1968–72) newspapers, and became a Republican Party senator (1972) and party leader (1979–87). He held various ministerial posts, was prime minister, and then became president of the senate (1987–94). As a historian he was an expert…

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Giovanni Verga - Links

Writer, born in Catania, Sicily, S Italy. A member of the Italian verismo (‘realist’) school of novelists, he wrote numerous violent short stories describing the miserable life of Sicilian peasantry, including Vita dei campi (1880, Life in the Fields) and Cavalleria rusticana (1884), which was made into an opera by Mascagni. The same Zolaesque theme prevails in his novels, I malavoglia (1881), M…

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Gippsland - Geography, Climate, Natural resources

District of SE Victoria, Australia; mountains in the N drop down to fertile plains in the S; lignite, dairy products, cereals, hops. For the electoral district in the Australian House of Representatives, see Division of Gippsland. Gippsland is a large rural region in Victoria, Australia. It begins immediately east of the suburbs of Melbourne and stretches to the New South Wales …

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Giralda - Gallery

A bell tower adjacent to Seville Cathedral, in SW Spain. Built (1163–84) as an Islamic minaret, it was converted in the 16th-c after the mosque it served had been displaced by the present cathedral. The tower is 93 m/305 ft high, and takes its name from the giraldillo or weathervane which surmounts it. The Giralda is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Seville in Seville, Spain, one of th…

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Giraldus Cambrensis - Works of Gerald of Wales, Bibliography

Historian and clergyman, born in Manorbier Castle, Carmarthenshire, SW Wales, UK, the son of Nesta, a Welsh princess. He was elected Bishop of St David's in 1176, but when Henry II refused to confirm his election, he withdrew to lecture at Paris. Later appointed a royal chaplain, in 1185 he accompanied Prince John to Ireland. He wrote an account of Ireland's natural history and inhabitants, follow…

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giro - History and concept, UK usage, Electronic bill payment

A state-operated low-cost banking system which commenced in the UK in 1968. Now called Girobank PLC, it is operated by the Post Office Corporation through its 20 000 post offices, carrying out the normal range of banking services. Similar systems have been operated by post offices in many European countries. Commercial banks have operated a giro system in the UK since 1961, referred to as a credi…

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Girolamo Fracastoro - Works

Scholar and physician, born in Verona, N Italy. In 1502 he became professor of philosophy at Padua, but also practised successfully as a physician at Verona. He excelled as geographer, astronomer, and mathematician, and wrote on the theory of music. His works De contagione et contagiosis morbis (1564, On Contagion and Contagious Diseases) contained the first scientifically correct germ theory of d…

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Girolamo Frescobaldi - Biography

Composer, born in Rome, Italy. He studied the organ at Ferrara Cathedral, became organist at S Maria in Trastevere, Rome, and travelled much in the Low Countries. From 1608 until his death he was organist at St Peter's in Rome. He composed chiefly organ works and madrigals. Girolamo Frescobaldi (September, 1583 – March 1, 1643) was an Italian musician, one of the most important composers …

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Girolamo Savonarola - Biography, Further reading, Fictionalizations

Religious and political reformer, born in Ferrara, NE Italy. He became a Dominican at Bologna in 1474, and after an initial failure, came to be recognized as an inspiring preacher. He was vicar-general of the Dominicans in Tuscany (1493), and his preaching began to point towards a political revolution as the means of restoring religion and morality. When a republic was established in Florence (149…

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Girona - Ecclesiastical history, Sources and external links

41°59N 2°49E, pop (2000e) 70 000. City in NE Spain, in Catalunya, capital of the province and administrative area of the same name; on the border of the France–Spain communication route, between the pre-littoral depression and Empordà, at the confluence of the Ter; old city built on a hill, on the right bank of the Onyar, preserving mediaeval and modern buildings; connected to the new city (…

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Gisbertus (Gijsbert Voet) Voetius

Dutch theologian, born in Heusden, SC Netherlands. A Protestant minister of religion and a member of the Synod of Dordrecht, he was a strong opponent of the Remonstrants. In 1634 as professor of theology at Utrecht he tried to formulate the reformed doctrine academically, and came into conflict with Réné Descartes on method, and with Coccejus, another Protestant theologian, on doctrine. This spa…

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Gisela (Marie Augusta) Richter - Books by Gisela Richter

Art historian, born in London, UK. Educated in England, she emigrated to the USA in 1905 and was naturalized in 1917. An influential curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City (1906–48), her books include Roman Portraits (1948), Archaic Greek Art (1949), Three Critical Periods in Greek Sculpture (1951), and A Handbook of Greek Art (1959), for many years the standard introduction t…

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Giulio Alberoni - Early years, Middle years, Later years, Death and afterwards, Bibliography

Spanish statesman and cardinal, born in Firenzuola, NC Italy. He became prime minister of Spain and was made a cardinal in 1717. His domestic policies were liberal and wise, but in foreign affairs his decisions were often impetuous and irresponsible. He violated the Treaty of Utrecht by invading Sardinia, and was subsequently confronted by the Quadruple Alliance of England, France, Austria, and Ho…

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Giulio Andreotti - Quotes, Popular culture

Italian politician and prime minister (1972–3, 1976–8, 1978–9, 1989–92), born in Rome, Italy. He was president of FUCI (Federation of Catholic University Students) during the war, and a member of the Constituent Assembly and a deputy of the Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy Party). He played an increasingly important part in post-war Italian politics, and was successively minister of t…

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Giulio Caccini - Life, Music and influence, Works

Composer and singer, born in Rome, Italy. With Jacopo Peri he paved the way for opera by setting to music the drama Euridice (1602). Particularly significant was his Nuove musiche (1602), a collection of canzonets and madrigals. Giulio Caccini (October 8, 1551 – December 10, 1618) was an Italian composer, teacher, singer, instrumentalist and writer of the very late Renaissance and early B…

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Giulio Campi - Biography

Architect and painter, born in Cremona, N Italy. He was influenced by Giulio Romano, and founded the Cremonese school of painting, to which his brothers Vincenzo Campi (1539–91) and Antonio Campi (1536–c.1591) also belonged. His work includes a fine altarpiece at Cremona. Giulio Campi (1500 - 1572) was an Italian painter and architect. His brothers Vicenzo Campi and Antonio Campi were als…

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Giulio Douhet - History, Aerial Strategy, Critical Reception, Further reading

Italian general, born in Caserta, S Italy. In 1909 he foresaw the importance of air supremacy, and became commander of Italy's first military aviation unit (1912–15). He was head of the Italian Army Aviation Service in 1918, and promoted to general in 1921. His writings on strategic bombing and the future devastation of major cities by mass bomber raids influenced attitudes to civil defence prior…

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Giulio Natta

Chemist, born in Imperia, NW Italy. Professor at Pavia, Rome, and Turin, from 1939 he held the chair of industrial chemistry at the Milan Institute of Technology. Making use of catalysts developed by Karl Ziegler, he carried out research on polymers which led to important commercial developments in plastics and other industrial chemicals. He and Ziegler shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1963…

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Giulio Romano - Biography, Selected works

Painter and architect, born in Rome, Italy. He assisted Raphael in the execution of several of his later works, and in 1524 went to Mantua, where he drained the marshes and protected the city from floods. He also restored and adorned the Palazzo del Te, the cathedral, and a ducal palace. Giulio Romano was born in Rome. In his native city, as a young assistant in Raphael's studio, he worked …

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Giuseppe (Fortunino Francesco) Verdi - Biography, Verdi's role in the Risorgimento, Style, Verdi's operas, Media, Eponyms, Trivia

Composer of dramatic opera, born in Le Roncole, N Italy. Of humble, rural origin, his early musical education was subsidized by locals who admired his talent. He studied at La Scala, Milan, and began to write operas, achieving his first major success with Nabucco (1842). Rigoletto (1851), Il Trovatore (1853), and La Traviata (1853) established him as the leading operatic composer of the day. His s…

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Giuseppe Bottai - Fascism, Opposition to Mussolini, Works

Italian politician, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. A founder of the Fascist movement, he became under-secretary, and in 1927 drew up the blueprint of the corporative system for the Labour Chart. He served as corporations minister (1929–32) and minister of national education (1936–43). He voted against Mussolini during the Gran Consiglio meeting in 1943, and was sentenced to death at the Verona tri…

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Giuseppe Cesare Abba - Works

Writer, born in Cairo Montenotte, Liguria, NW Italy. A volunteer in Garibaldi's army, he wrote poetry and prose inspired by his war experiences. He is best known for his idealized diary of the Expedition of the Thousand, Da Quarto al Volturno. Noterelle di uno dei Mille (1891). This work was his magnum opus, and also the best work that has ever been written on the experiences of i Mille in …

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Giuseppe Cesari - Biography, Selected works, Sources

Painter, born in Arpino, SC Italy. Honoured by five popes, he is best known for the frescoes in the Capitol at Rome. Giuseppe Cesari (c. Cesari's father had been a native of Arpino, but Giuseppe himself was born in Rome. indeed, another of the nicknames of Cesari is "Il Marino de Pittori" (the pictorial Marino). There was spirit in Cesari's heads of men and horses, a…

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Giuseppe di Vittorio - Opposition to Fascism, Later years

Italian politician and trade unionist, born in Cerignola, Puglia, SE Italy. He became a trade union organizer (1911), a socialist deputy (1921), and a communist (1924). Sentenced to 12 years by a Fascist tribunal, he escaped to France. He then organized the International Brigades in Spain and was extradited to Italy and jailed. He became secretary-general of CGIL (Confedrazione Generale Italiana d…

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Giuseppe Dossetti - The Priest, Books by Giuseppe Dossetti (in Italian), Books about Giuseppe Dossetti

Italian politician and priest, born in Genova, Liguria, NW Italy. A member and organizer of Catholic anti-Fascist movements, he joined the Christina Democrats in 1945. He became a deputy in 1948 and then the leader of the party's left. He abandoned politics in 1956 and took Holy Orders in 1959. Giuseppe Dossetti (Genoa, February 13, 1913 - December 15, 1996) was an Italian jurist, a politic…

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Giuseppe Ferrari

Italian politician and philosopher, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. He returned to Italy in 1848 after voluntary exile in France. At first he was in favour of democratic republican federalism but then moved to a position of radical socialism much influenced by Proudhom. Giuseppe Ferrari (7 March 1812 - 2 July 1876) was an Italian philosopher, historian and politician. 1835) and Giovan Bat…

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Giuseppe Garibaldi - Early activity, Return to Italy, Campaign of 1860, Aftermath, Expedition against Rome

Italian patriot, born in Nice, SE France. In 1834 he joined Mazzini's ‘Young Italy’ movement, and was condemned to death for participating in the attempt to seize Genoa, but escaped to South America. Returning to Europe, in 1849 he joined the revolutionary government of Rome, but was again forced to leave Italy. After working in New York, he returned to Italy in 1854 and took up the life of a fa…

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Giuseppe Giacosa

Writer and playwright, born in Colleretto Parella, Piedmont, N Italy. He trained as a lawyer but soon turned to writing successful plays which depicted the life of the middle classes, such as Tristi amori (1887) and Come le foglie (1900), and is considered the leading Italian playwright of the latter 19th-c. He also wrote, together with Luigi Illica, librettos for Puccini's operas La Bohème (1896…

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Giuseppe Gioacchino Belli - Biography, Work

Poet, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. He was a civil servant in the Papal States' government, and one of the founders of the Accademia Tiberina (Academy of the Tiber). His 2279 Sonetti in Roman dialect (1830–47) are written from the point of view of the Roman populace, whose everyday life they describe in a tone at times ironic, at times bitter and sarcastic, and are a satirical indictment of Roman …

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Giuseppe Giusti

Poet and writer, born in Monsummano, Tuscany, NWC Italy. A republican turned moderate, he was against the 1848 democratic government and carried on the controversy in his later work. He wrote many poems, collected in Versi editi ed inediti (1852), in which he playfully satirizes the social habits of his Florentine contemporaries, the most famous of which is Sant'Ambrogio. Other works include Racco…

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Giuseppe Mazzini - Biography, Other Topics, Publications

Patriot and republican, born in Genoa, NW Italy. He was trained as a lawyer, and became an ardent liberal, founding the Young Italy Association (1833). Expelled from France, he travelled Europe advocating republicanism and insurrection. In 1848 he became involved in the Lombard revolt, and collaborated with Garibaldi in attempting to keep the patriotic struggle alive in the Alps. In 1849 he became…

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Giuseppe Montanelli - Biography, Works

Italian politician and intellectual, born in Fucecchio, Tuscany, W Italy. He contributed to Vieusseux's review Antologia, and was wounded in the 1st Italian Independence War , where he fought as a volunteer. With Guerrazzi and Mazzoni, he was one of the three members of the temporary Tuscan government (1849) established after the grand-duke escaped. After Leopoldo II's restoration, he was sentence…

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Giuseppe Parini

Writer, born in Bosisio, Lombardy, N Italy. From a poor family, he entered the priesthood at an early age and from 1754 worked as a tutor for two rich Milanese families, while being in contact with the city's Illuminist circles. His first poems, Alcune poesie di Ripano Eupilino (1752), are still influenced by the Arcadia movement, but his shift towards the Enlightenment is shown in the essays Dial…

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Giuseppe Peano - Biography, Milestones and honors received, Bibliography

Mathematician, born in Cuneo, NW Italy. He taught at the University of Turin, and was known for his work on mathematical logic. The symbolism he invented was the basis of that used by Bertrand Russell and Alfred Whitehead in Principia mathematica. He also promoted Interlingua, a universal language based on uninflected Latin. Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) was the leadin…

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Giuseppe Piazzi

Astronomer, born in Ponte di Valtellina, N Italy. He became a Theatine monk, professor of theology in Rome (1779), and professor of mathematics at the Academy of Palermo (1780). He set up an observatory at Palermo in 1789, published a catalogue of the stars (1803, 1814), and discovered and named the first minor planet, Ceres. Giuseppe Piazzi (July 7, 1746 - July 22, 1826) was an Theatine mo…

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Giuseppe Prina

Italian politician, born in Novara, Piedmont, N Italy. He served as finance minister of the states established by Napoleon in N Italy between 1802 and 1814. Faced with a serious public deficit, he tried to solve it by implementing a number of new taxes. When the regime collapsed, he was lynched by an angry mob. Giuseppe Prina (20 July 1766 in Novara - 20 April 1814) was an Italian statesman…

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Giuseppe Saracco

Italian politician and prime minister (1900–1), born in Bistagno, Piedmont, NW Italy. A leftist liberal deputy (1851– 65), he then became a senator and public works minister (1887–9, 1893–6). As prime minister, he was faced with the serious crisis spanned by the murder of King Umberto I in Monza that same year. He reacted to the social unrest by using reactionary methods, and resigned in 1901.…

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Giuseppe Saragat

Italian politician and president (1964–71), born in Turin, Piedmont, NW Italy. He was a member of the Socialist Party from 1922, and went to Austria in 1926, where he encountered their reformist brand of Marxism. Back in Italy, he was arrested but escaped (1944), became ambassador to France (1945–6), and was president of the Constituent Assembly (1946–7). In 1947 he caused a split in the Social…

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Giuseppe Tartini - Biography, Works

Violinist and composer, born in Piran, SW Slovenia (formerly Pirano, Italy). He studied law and divinity at Padua, and was an accomplished fencer. He secretly married a protegée of the Archbishop of Padua, for which he was arrested. He fled to Assisi but, after attracting the archbishop's attention by his violin playing, he was invited back to his wife. Perhaps one of the greatest violinists of a…

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Giuseppe Ungaretti

Poet, born in Alexandria, N Egypt. He studied at Paris, and fought in the Italian army in World War 1, where he began to write poetry, first published as Il porto sepolto (1916, The Buried Port). He became professor of Italian literature at São Paulo, Brazil (1936–42) and at Rome (1942–58). His poems, characterized by symbolism, compressed imagery, and modern verse structure, became the foundat…

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Giuseppe Zanardelli

Italian politician, prime minister (1901–3), and jurist, born in Brescia, Lombardy, N Italy. He was one of the instigators of the anti-Austrian rising of 1848 in Brescia, and fought in the first Italian Independence War as a volunteer. He became a deputy in the new Italian parliament (1860) and was public works minister (1876–7). Three times justice minister (1878, 1881–3, 1887–91), in 1890 he…

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Giza - History, International access, Fictional references

30°36N 32°15E, pop (2000e) 2 667 000. Capital of El Giza governorate, N Egypt; on W bank of R Nile, 5 km/3 mi SW of Cairo; railway; cotton, footwear, brewing, cinema industry; Sphinx, and pyramids of Khufu (Cheops), Khafra, and Mankara, 8 km/5 mi SW. Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, incl…

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Gjon Mili

Photographer, born in Kerce, Albania. He emigrated to the USA in 1923 and studied electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (1927 BS). He carried out research in lighting at Westinghouse Electric in Cambridge (1928–38) and worked on experiments in high-speed photography with Harold E Edgerton at MIT. He would become best known for introducing the results of such ad…

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glaciation - What glaciation means, Named glacial periods, Newer means of detecting glaciations

The coverage of the surface of the Earth by glaciers, as well as the erosive action produced by the movement of ice over the land surface. The most extensive period of recent glaciation was in the Pleistocene epoch, when polar ice caps repeatedly advanced and retreated, covering up to 30% of the Earth's surface. Glaciation produces erosional landforms resulting from abrasion and deposition. Perigl…

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glacier - Types of glaciers, Formation of glaciers, Anatomy of a glacier, Glacial motion, Glacial erosion, Isostatic rebound

A body of ice originating from recrystallized snow in cirques in mountain areas and flowing slowly downslope by creep under its own weight (alpine glaciers). Huge glaciers on continental plateaux are termed ice sheets. Glaciers flow until the rate of ice loss at the snout equals the rate of accumulation at the source. A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land an…

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glaciology - Overview, Types, Zones of glaciers

The scientific study of ice in all its forms, including its crystal structure and physical properties, as well as glaciers and ice sheets in a geological and meteorological context. Glaciology is the study of glaciers, or more generally the study of ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. The word glacier is derived from the Latin glaciees, meaning ice or frost. The impact of glac…

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gladiators - Series and shows, The Gladiators, The Games, Injuries, The role of 'The Wolfman'

In ancient Rome, heavily armed fighting men who fought duels, often to the death, in public. An import from Etruria, originally their contests were connected with funerary rites. Under the empire, they performed for public entertainment only. They were usually slaves, prisoners of war, or condemned criminals. Gladiators was a game show produced by LWT for ITV in the United Kingdom from 10 O…

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gladiolus

A perennial with a large fibrous corm, native to Europe, Asia, and Africa; leaves sword-shaped, in flat fans; flower slightly zygomorphic with a short tube and six spreading or hooded perianth-segments in a variety of colours, in one-sided spikes. There are numerous large-flowered cultivars. (Genus: Gladiolus, 300 species. Family: Iridaceae.) …

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Gladys (Rowena) Dick - Places, People and Fictional Characters

Microbiologist and physician, born in Pawnee City, Nebraska, USA. After taking her BS from the University of Nebraska (1900), she overcame her mother's objections and attended Johns Hopkins Medical School. Turning to biomedical research, specifically into blood chemistry, she went to the University of Chicago (1911), where she met her future husband, George Frederick Dick, who was working on the e…

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Gladys Aylward

Missionary in China, born in London, UK. In 1930, she spent her entire savings on a railway ticket to Tientsin in N China. With a Scottish missionary, Mrs Jeannie Lawson, the pair founded an inn, the famous Inn of the Sixth Happiness, in an outpost at Yangcheng. From there, in 1938, she trekked across the mountains leading over 100 children to safety when the war with Japan brought fighting to the…

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gland - Types of gland, Formation

A single cell or group of cells secreting specific substances (eg hormones) for use elsewhere in the body. In mammals, most glands are exocrine: their secretions are discharged via duct systems into the cavity of a hollow organ (eg the salivary glands), or open directly onto an outer epidermal surface (eg the sweat glands of mammals). Vertebrates and some invertebrates also possess endocrine gland…

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Glasgow - Heraldry, Geography and climate, Demographics, History, Districts, Architecture, Sport, Politics, Dialect, Education, Economy, Media, Transport

55°53N 4°15W, pop (2000e) 678 700. City and local council (as City of Glasgow), W Scotland, UK; on R Clyde, 66 km/41 mi W of Edinburgh; largest city in Scotland; expansion in 17th-c, with trade from the Americas; airport; railway; underground; University of Glasgow (1451); Strathclyde University (1964); Glasgow Caledonian University (1992, formerly Glasgow Polytechnic); shipyards, engineerin…

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glasnost - Objectives, Areas of concern

A term describing the changes in attitude on the part of leaders of the former Soviet Union after 1985 under Gorbachev, which brought about a greater degree of openness both within Soviet society and in its relations with foreign powers. Glasnost (pronunciation?(help·info), Russian: гл́асность IPA: [ˈglasnəsʲtʲ]) was one of Mikhail Gorbachev's policies introduced to the Sovie…

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glass (chemistry) - Properties and uses, Glass ingredients, Calculation of Glass Properties, History of glass, Glass artifacts, Glass art

A non-crystalline solid, typically hard and brittle, in which there is no orderly arrangement of atoms. It is usually formed by the rapid cooling of a viscous liquid, such that the atoms have insufficient time to align into a crystal structure. Glass is sometimes termed a liquid having a viscosity greater than 1013 poise. It is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and may gradually change into crysta…

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glass (product) - Properties and uses, Glass ingredients, Calculation of Glass Properties, History of glass, Glass artifacts, Glass art

The transparent or translucent product of the fusion of lime (calcium oxide), soda (sodium carbonate), and silica (silicon(IV) dioxide). There may be other constituents, yielding a great variety of properties. Boron gives the borosilicate glass (Pyrex®) which is stronger and more heat-resistant than common soda glass. Flint glass contains lead, and is particularly suitable for decoration by cutti…

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glasswort - Species, Culinary

An annual herb growing along coasts and in salt marshes more or less everywhere; fleshy, leafless jointed stems resemble spineless miniature cacti with flowers sunk into stems; also called marsh samphire. It was burnt to provide soda for early glass-making, and was (to a limited extent still is) pickled and eaten as a vegetable. (Genus: Salicornia, 35 species. Family: Chenopodiaceae.) The g…

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glaucoma - Types, Symptoms, Risk factors and diagnosis, Treatment, Major studies, Classification of glaucoma

A rise in the pressure of the aqueous fluid within the eye. High pressures can damage the optic nerve leading to blindness. Acute (angle closure) glaucoma arises when drainage of this fluid is blocked because of infection or cataract rupture. There is sudden pain in the affected eye and variable interference with vision, which may develop rapidly into blindness. In other patients the onset is insi…

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Glen (Warren) Bowersock - Selected Bibliography

Classicist and historian, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. After graduating summa cum laude in classics from Harvard (1957), he went as a Rhodes Scholar (1957–61) to Oxford (1962 DPhil ancient history) and then returned to teach at Harvard (1962–80) before becoming professor at the School of Historical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (1980). In works such as Greek Soph…

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Glen Gray - Listen to

Bandleader, born in Roanoke, Illinois, USA. He played saxophone in the Orange Blossom Band in Toronto (1928), and in New York City (1929) the band became the Casa Loma Orchestra with Gray as leader. The band's singer, Kenny Sargent, was a top romantic vocalist of the 1930s and 1940s, and arrangements by guitarist-arranger Gene Gifford helped usher in the swing era. In 1956 Gray initiated a series …

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Glenda Jackson

Actress and politician, born in Birkenhead, Merseyside, NW England, UK. She trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, and became a leading member of the Royal Shakespeare Company before appearing in films in 1967, winning Oscars for Women in Love (1969) and A Touch of Class (1973). She continued to portray complex characterizations on stage and screen, such as the poet Stevie Smith, …

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Glenn (Hammond) Curtiss - Birth and early career, Wright brothers, The other Pulitzer prize, Death, Timeline

Aviator and inventor, born in Hammondsport, New York, USA. Starting with a youthful interest in racing and improving bicycles, he moved on to motorcycles, opening his own motorcycle factory (1902). In 1905 he set a world speed record of 137 mph on a self-designed motorcycle, and that same year he helped to build the first dirigible for the US Army. In 1908, in his June Bug, he was the first Ameri…

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Glenn (Herbert) Gould - Life, Gould as a musician, Recordings, Eccentricities, Health, Awards and recognitions, Media

Pianist, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied at the Royal Conservatory of Music, Toronto, before making his debut as a soloist with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra. He then performed extensively in the USA and Europe, but left the concert stage after only 10 years, in 1964. He became a renowned recording artist, particularly of works by Bach and Beethoven, and was known for his innovati…

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Glenn (Scobey) Warner

Coach of American football, born in Springville, New York, USA. He studied law at Cornell, embarking in 1895 on a coaching career which lasted 44 years. His most successful tenures were at Carlisle Indian School (1899–1903, 1907–14), the University of Pittsburgh (1915–23), and Stanford University (1924–32), where he developed three Rose Bowl teams. When he retired, his 312 victories exceeded t…

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Glenn (Woodward) Davis

Player of American football, born in Burbank, California, USA. An exceptionally fast halfback, he and fullback ‘Doc’ Blanchard led the Army to undefeated seasons (1944–5). He was a three-time All-American and won the Heisman Trophy in 1946. His career average of 8.26 yd per carry remains a collegiate record. Glenn Woodward Davis (December 26, 1924, Claremont, California - March 9, 2005)…

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Glenn Close - Off-Broadway, Filmography, Television Work

Actress, born in Greenwich, Connecticut, USA. A student of anthropology and acting, she made her Broadway debut in Love for Love (1974). Her subsequent theatre work includes The Singular Life of Albert Nobbs (1982, Obie), The Real Thing (1984–5, Tony), and Sunset Boulevard (1995, Tony). She received an Emmy nomination for Something About Amelia (1984). Her role as the psychotic mistress in Fatal …

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Glenn Ford - Military service, Postwar career, Awards, Personal life, Facts and Figures

Actor, born in Quebec, Canada. Raised in Portneuf, Quebec, at age seven he moved with his family to Santa Monica, CA. After high school he began working with small theatre groups and won his first film part in Heaven With a Barbed Wire Fence in 1939. After military service in World War 2 he returned to acting, and went on to establish his reputation in lead roles in westerns, dramas, and romantic …

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Glenn Hoddle - Playing career, Managerial career, Quotes

Football manager and player, born in Hayes, NW Greater London, UK. He made his professional debut with Tottenham Hotspur (1976), moved to AS Monaco (1986), and returned to England as player/manager of Swindon Town (1991–3), continuing this dual role at Chelsea (1993–6). He replaced Terry Venables as England's manager in 1996, but after a controversial newspaper interview in 1999 that offended th…

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Glenrothes - Background, The Rothes Pit, Developments since 1960, Town Centre and Shopping, Parks and Sports, Employment

56°12N 3°11W, pop (2000e) 36 200. Administrative centre of Fife, E Scotland, UK, designated a new town in 1948; airfield; centre for electronic research; timber; plastics, electronics, machinery, paper, food processing. Glenrothes (Gleann Rathais in Gaelic) is the UK's most northern post war new town. Originally the new town was going to be centred on Markinch, however the village's …

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glider - Terminology, History, Launch methods, Staying aloft without an engine, Moving forward, Glider design, Classes of glider

An aircraft that flies without the aid of mechanical propulsion. The wings may be fixed or flexible, and if the latter, the machine is known as a hang glider. Gliders usually remain aloft by finding rising currents of hot air (thermals), and remaining in them. The first piloted glider was designed in 1853 by aviator and inventor Sir George Cayley (1773–1857). Gliders are heavier-than-air a…

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Gliwice - Education, Sports, Famous people, Politics, Buildings, Sister cities, Literature

50º20N 18º40E, pop (2002e) 207 400. City in Katowice voivodship, S Poland; located W of Katowice on the Gliwice Canal which connects with the R Oder to form a 700 km/435 mi long waterway to Szczecin; surrounded by parkland and coal fields; birthplace of Horst Bienek and Eugen Goldstein; Silesian technical university (1945); the first coke-burning smelting furnace in Europe was opened here in…

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Global Positioning System (GPS) - Applications, Technical description, Accuracy, Techniques to improve accuracy, Selective availability, Satellites, Receivers, Relativity, Awards, GPS tracking

A means of determining an exact position on the Earth using a GPS receiver and a system of satellites. Twenty-four satellites make up the American NAVSTAR system, orbiting about 20 000 km above the Earth. Each satellite makes a complete orbit of the Earth every 12 hours. Their positions are carefully calculated so that, from any point on the Earth, four or more of the satellites will be in direc…

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globe artichoke

A robust perennial (Cynara scolymus) growing to 2 m/6½ ft; leaves up to 80 cm/30 in, deeply divided; flower-heads blue, very large, surrounded by distinctive leathery, oval bracts. It is unknown in the wild, but has a long history of cultivation, especially in S Europe. The soft receptacle of the young flower-heads and the fleshy bases to the bracts are eaten as a vegetable, and it is also gr…

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Globe Theatre - The original Globe, Layout of the Globe, The modern Globe, Literature

A theatre completed in 1599 by the Burbage brothers, Cuthbert and Richard, on Bankside in London, UK. It was the largest and most famous Elizabethan theatre and the most closely associated with Shakespeare. Nearly all of Shakespeare's greatest works were performed there. An association between the owner of the land, Sir Nicholas Brend, and the Chamberlain's Men, of which Shakespeare and Richard Bu…

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globular cluster - Observation history, Composition, Morphology, Tidal encounters

A swarm of old stars arranged characteristically as a compact sphere. It contains tens of thousands to millions of stars, formed at the same time, early in the history of our Galaxy. Over 100 are known in our Galaxy. A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters, which are found in the halo of a galaxy, contain considerab…

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glockenspiel

A musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars arranged in two rows like a piano keyboard, and played with small hammers held in each hand (in some models an actual keyboard is fitted). Most have a compass of 2½ octaves. The Glockenspiel (German, "play of bells", also known as orchestra bells and, in its portable form, bell lyra or bell lyre) is a musical instrument in the percu…

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glomerulonephritis - Acute glomerulonephritis, Chronic glomerulonephritis

An inflammation of the glomeruli (part of the kidneys responsible for the initial blood-filtering process) caused by foreign antigens invading the body, and stimulating the production of antibodies; the antigens combine with the antibodies to form protein complexes which circulate in the blood stream and settle in tissues. Those complexes trapped by the capillaries of the glomeruli set up an aller…

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Gloria Hunniford - Biography, Personal life

British broadcaster, born in Portadown, Co Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK. She started singing at the age of nine, releasing four records, and during the 1960s became involved in several shows on radio and television, including a weekly broadcast to British forces in Germany (1969–81). She became widely known with her daily radio programme for BBC's Radio 2 (1982–95), while participating in a wide…

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Gloria Steinem - Early life, Education and early career, Political awakening and activism, Later life, List of works

Writer, feminist, and social reformer, born in Toledo, Ohio, USA. After graduating from Smith College (1956), she went to India on a scholarship and stayed on to write newspaper articles and a guidebook. Determined to be a journalist, she returned to the USA and worked (1958–60) for the Independent Research Service (later revealed as secretly subsidized by the CIA). She went to New York City and …

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Gloria Swanson - Silent films, Comeback in Sunset Boulevard, Television, Academy Award nominations, Trivia, Filmography, Further reading

Film actress, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Of Swedish-Italian descent, she was hired as an extra in a Chicago film studio (1915), and there she met film actor Wallace Beery, whom she married (1916) and accompanied to Hollywood. She made many short romantic films for Mack Sennett, and then a series of sentimental dramas for Triangle Productions, before being hired by Cecil B De Mille. By the mid…

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Gloria Vanderbilt - Early life and heiress status, Marriages, relationships and children, Professional career and later life

Artist and socialite, born in New York City, USA. As an heiress she was involved in a widely publicized ‘poor little rich girl’ custody suit at age 10. She achieved notoriety for her four marriages, but considerable respect for her work as a painter, stage and film actress, author, and (after the late 1960s) designer of housewares and fashion. Gloria Laura Vanderbilt (born February 20, 19…

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Glorious Revolution - Brief History, Legacy

The name given to the events (Dec 1688–Feb 1689) during which William landed at Torbay with an army and advanced on London. James II, deserted by John Churchill, later Duke of Malborough, fled from England, effectively abdicating the throne, and William III and Mary II were established by parliament as joint monarchs. The title, coined by Whigs who in the long term benefited most from it, celebra…

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glosa - Alphabet and phonology, Sample Words

In Spanish literature, either a marginal or interlinear note in a mediaeval manuscript, clarifying a possible difficulty (commonly a vernacular rendering of a Latin word or expression); or a kind of poetic composition in which a line or lines occurring earlier, usually taken from some well-known poem, recur at the end of each stanza. Golden Age poets who wrote glosas include Fernando de Herrera, A…

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glossolalia - "Speaking in tongues" in Christian traditions, Glossolalia in other religions, Scientific perspectives

The practice of ‘speaking in tongues’ - uttering sounds whose meaning is unknown to the speaker, who is undergoing a religious experience. The phenomenon is related to xenoglossia, using a language that the speaker has never known or heard, a power ascribed to the Apostles during the first days of Christianity, as recounted in the Acts of the Apostles. No scientifically attested case of xenoglos…

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Gloucester (UK) - Places of interest, History, "Gloster", Twin cities

51°53N 2°14W, district pop (2001e) 109 900. County town of Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK; NE of Bristol; connected to R Severn by canal; founded by Romans 1st-c AD; railway; airfield; boatbuilding, trade in timber and grain, engineering; cathedral (13th-c); Bishop Hooper's Lodging; Three Choirs Festival in rotation with Hereford and Worcester (Sep). Gloucester (pronounced [ˈglɒstə…

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Gloucester (USA) - Places of interest, History, "Gloster", Twin cities

42º37N 70º40W, pop (2000e) 30 300. Resort town in Essex Co, NE Massachusetts, USA; port on the S coast of Cape Ann, 43 km/27 mi NE of Boston; founded, 1623; incorporated, 1873; birthplace of Roger Babson and Hilton Kramer; railway; fishing, fish processing, boat building; tourism; St Peter's fiesta (Jun). Gloucester (pronounced [ˈglɒstə]) is a city and district in south-west Englan…

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Gloucestershire - History, Economy, Towns and villages, Official Teaching Award

pop (2001e) 564 600; area 2643 km²/1020 sq mi. County in SWC England, UK; bounded W by Monmouthshire in Wales; features include the Cotswold Hills, Forest of Dean; drained by the R Severn; county town, Gloucester; chief towns include Cheltenham, Cirencester; agriculture, fruit, dairy farming, light engineering; South Gloucestershire became a unitary authority in 1996. The county town …

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glucagon - History, Physiology, Pathology, Uses, Media

A hormone (a polypeptide) found in vertebrates, synthesized in the pancreas by A-cells of the islets of Langerhans. It is secreted in response to low blood glucose concentrations. Its main action is to raise blood glucose levels by promoting the conversion of liver glycogen into glucose. It also stimulates the secretion of insulin, pancreatic somatostatin, and growth hormone. Its primary st…

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glucose - Structure, Production, Function, Sources and absorption

C6H12O6, also called dextrose. By far the most common of the six-carbon sugars, the primary product of plant photosynthesis. Starch and cellulose are both condensation polymers of glucose. Maltose, lactose, and sucrose contain at least one glucose residue, and glucose may be obtained from them by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is one…

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gluon - Properties, Numerology of gluons, Confinement, Experimental observations

A fundamental particle that carries the strong nuclear force between quarks, and binds them together into other subatomic particles; symbol g; mass 0, charge 0, spin 1. There are eight species of gluon distinguished by the colour combinations they carry. Gluons interact with one another; they are never observed directly. In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks …

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gluten - Extraction, Usage, Occurrence

The main protein of wheat, subdivided into two other proteins, gliadin and glutenin. When mixed with water and kneaded, these proteins become aligned along one plane, imparting an elastic property to the dough. Gas bubbles of carbon dioxide produced by yeast fermentation allow the dough to rise because of entrapment of the gas by gluten. Maize, barley, and oats do not contain gluten and so cannot …

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glycerol - Purification

OHCH2–CH(OH)–CH2OH, IUPAC 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, also known as glycerine, boiling point 290°C. A colourless, viscous, and sweet-tasting liquid, obtained from all vegetable and animal fats and oils by hydrolysis, and thus a by-product of soap manufacture. It is used in many medical and cosmetic preparations, and reacts with nitric acid to form nitroglycerine. Glycerol is produced from d…

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glycine - Presence in the Interstellar Medium

NH2–CH2–COOH, IUPAC aminoethanoic acid, melting point 260°C. A colourless solid, freely soluble in water. It is the simplest of the amino acids, found in almost all proteins, and obtainable from them by acid hydrolysis. It exists in solution as a zwitterion: +NH3–CH2–COO?, a hydrogen ion having been shifted from the carboxyl group to the amino group. Glycine (Gly, G) is a nonpolar amin…

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glycogen - Structure and biochemistry, Function and regulation of liver glycogen, Glycogen in muscle and other cells

(C6H10O5)n. A polysaccharide found in both plant and animal tissue (eg the liver) as an energy store. It is essentially a condensation polymer of glucose, and very similar to starch. Glycogen (commonly known as animal starch although this name is inaccurate) is a polysaccharide that is the principal storage form of glucose (Glc) in animal and human cells. Glycogen is a highly br…

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Glyn (Edmund) Daniel

Archaeologist, born in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, S Wales, UK. He studied at Cardiff and at Cambridge, where he lectured (1945–74) and became professor of archaeology (1974–81). His career was devoted less to excavation and research than to stimulating popular interest in archaeology through writing, editing, and broadcasting. He was a pioneer historian of archaeology and an energetic editor, bot…

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Gnaeus Julius Agricola - Early life, Political career, Governor of Britain, Later years

Roman statesman and soldier, born in Fréjus (formerly Forum Julii). Having served with distinction in Britain, Asia, and Aquitania, he was elected consul in 77, and returned to Britain (78–84) becoming Rome's longest-serving and most successful governor there. In 80 and 81 he extended Roman occupation N into Scotland, defeated Calcagus at Mons Graupius (84), and actively encouraged the developme…

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Gnaeus Naevius

Poet and playwright, probably born in Campania. He served in the first Punic War (264–241 BC), and started producing his own plays in 235. A plebeian, for 30 years he satirized the Roman nobles in his plays, and was compelled to leave Rome, ultimately retiring to Utica in Africa. Fragments of an epic, De bello Punico, are extant. Gnaeus Naevius (c. 264 – 201 BC), was a Roman epic poet an…

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gnat

A swarming gnat; a type of small, delicate fly. The males fly in dancing swarms low over water or in woodland clearings. Most are predatory, feeding on other insects. (Order: Diptera. Family: Epididae.) For German Naval Acoustic Torpedo see G7es torpedo, for the light jet aircraft see Folland Gnat and for the UAV see GNAT-750. Other families include the Tipulidae (crane flies), Bibion…

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gnatcatcher

A name used for many small birds often classified with Old World warblers; native to the New World from Argentina to New England; inhabits broken woodland; eats insects and spiders; builds nests using cobwebs. (Family: Polioptilidae, 10 species.) The 15 species of small passerine birds in the gnatcatcher family occur in North and South America. …

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gneiss

A coarse, high-grade metamorphic rock with a banded appearance due to the segregation of light- and dark-coloured minerals. Gneiss (IPA: /ˈnʌɪs/) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or the…

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Gnosticism - Nature and structure of Gnosticism, Major Gnostic movements and their texts, Important terms and concepts, History

A system of belief which became prominent within 2nd-c Christianity, but which may have had earlier, non-Christian roots. Gnostics believed that they were an elect group, saved through acquiring secret revealed knowledge about cosmic origins and the true destiny of the spirit within people; in later forms, this knowledge was imparted by a heavenly redeemer figure. Gnosticism was considered a heres…

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Goa - History, Geography and climate, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Government and politics, Media and Communication

pop (2001e) 1 344 000; area 3496 km²/1363 sq mi. State in W India; capital, Panaji; conquered by Muslims, 1312; taken by Portugal, 1510; island of Diu taken, 1534; Daman area N Mumbai ceded to Portugal, 1539; Old Goa a prosperous port city in 16th-c; occupied by India, 1961; part of Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu until 1987; churches and convents are world heritage monuments; burial …

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Gobi Desert - Geography and the area, Climate (as of 1911), Conservation, ecology, economy

Desert in C Asia; area c.1 295 000 km²/500 000 sq mi, extends c.1600 km/1000 mi E–W across SE Mongolia and N China; on a plateau, altitude 900–1500 m/3000–5000 ft; series of shallow, alkaline basins; completely sandy in W; some nomadic Mongolian tribes on grassy margins; many fossil finds, including dinosaur eggs, and prehistoric implements. The downfold of skin across the inner corn…

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goby - Symbiosis, In aquaria

Any of a large family of mostly small, elongate fishes with stout head, fleshy lips, and large eyes, abundant in coastal waters of tropical to temperate seas; length up to 25 cm/10 in, many less than 5 cm/2 in; pelvic fins joined to form single sucker-like fin; 19 genera, including European black goby (Gobius niger) and painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus). (Family: Gobiidae.) The gobie…

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God - Etymology and usage, Names of God, Theological approaches, Existence question, Scientific perspective, Popular culture

A supernatural being or power, the object of worship. In some world religions (eg Christianity, Judaism, Islam) there is one God only (monotheism), who is transcendent, all-powerful, and related to the cosmos as creator. In other religions (eg Hinduism, Classical Greek and Roman religions, and primitive religions) many gods may be recognized (polytheism), with individual gods having particular pro…

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Godfrey of Bouillon - Early life, First Crusade, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Death, Godfrey in history and legend

Duke of Lower Lorraine (1089–95), and leader of the First Crusade, born in Baisy, SC Belgium. He served under Emperor Henry IV against Rudolph of Swabia, and in 1084 in the expedition against Rome. He was elected one of the principal commanders of the First Crusade, and later became its chief leader. After the capture of Jerusalem (1099) he was proclaimed king, but he refused the crown, accepting…

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Godfrey Weitzel - Early life and career, Civil War, Postbellum career

US soldier, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He trained at West Point (1855), and then taught engineering there and constructed harbour defences. As a Union officer, he was in charge of various fortifications, including those at Cincinnati and Washington, DC. He served as chief engineer of the Union force that occupied New Orleans (Apr 1862), then commanded a division in Louisiana and a corps in the…

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Godwin

Anglo-Saxon nobleman and warrior, probably son of the South Saxon Wulfnoth, and the father of Harold Godwinsson. He became a favourite of Canute, who made him Earl of Wessex in 1018. In 1042 he helped to raise Edward the Confessor to the throne, and married him to his daughter Edith. He led the struggle against the king's foreign favourites, and Edward revenged himself by confining Edith in a mona…

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godwit

A large sandpiper, native to the N hemisphere but may winter in the S; bill long, very slightly upcurved; probes into sediments for small animals. (Genus: Limosa, 4 species.) …

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Goffredo Mameli - Biography

Poet and patriot, born in Genova, Liguria, NE Italy. A follower of Mazzini, he took part in Milan's Five Day insurrection in 1848 and died during the defence of Rome the next year. He wrote well-known poems, but his fame rests on the Inno militare (1848) which was set to music by Verdi, and Fratelli d'Italia (1847) by Novaro, which in 1946 became the official Italian national anthem. Goffre…

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Gog and Magog - The Biblical Gog and Magog, Beyond the Biblical tradition, Gog and Magog in Islam

Biblical names, applied in different ways to depict future foes of the people of God. Ezek 38.2–6 predicted that a ruler (Gog) of the land or people from ‘the north’ (Magog) would battle against Israel in the days before her restoration. Rev 20.8 and rabbinic literature treat Gog and Magog as paired figures representing Satan in the final conflict against God's people. In British folklore, the …

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Gokstad ship - The ship, The grave goods

A Viking oak-built sailing ship found in 1881 beneath a burial mound at Gokstad, 80 km/50 mi SE of Oslo, Norway. Spectacularly preserved by the surrounding clay, and complete with mast, spars, ropes, blocks, gangplank, and 16 pairs of oars, it measured 23·3 m/76 ft 6 in long, with a 5·2-m/17 ft beam, and was probably 50 years old when buried in the late 9th-c AD. A replica successfully cro…

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gold - Notable characteristics, Applications, Occurrence, Production, Price, Compounds, Medicine

Au, element 79, melting point 1064°C. A soft yellow metal of high density (19 g/cm3), known from ancient times. It is rare and found uncombined in nature. Much of its value is due to its lack of reactivity, its main uses being for decoration and for monetary reserves. It is also used sparingly for electrical contacts. It will react with very strong oxidizing agents, giving compounds showing oxid…

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Gold Coast (Australia) - Colonization, Hydrology, Literature, Sports, Transportation, Geography, Other

27°59S 153°22E, pop (2000e) 174 500. Urban area in Queensland, Australia, S of Brisbane, partly overlapping New South Wales; airfield; railway; Bond University, private (1987); largest resort region in Australia, with restaurants and beaches stretching for 32 km/20 mi; includes Southport, Surfers' Paradise, Broadbeach, Mermaid Beach, Burleigh Heads, Coolangatta; Dreamworld, Sea World, bird s…

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gold rush - Life cycle of a gold rush, Notable gold rushes

A burst of enthusiasm for sudden wealth among people from all kinds of professions, following the discovery of gold deposits. Major rushes in the USA included California (1849), Colorado (1858–9), Idaho (1861–4), Montana (1863), South Dakota (1875), and Alaska (1896). A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of…

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gold standard - History of the modern gold standard, Theory, Advocates of a renewed gold standard

A system in which the price of gold is fixed in each country's currency. This pegs exchange rates within the very narrow band set by the cost of international gold shipments. In theory countries on the gold standard could actually use gold coins as money, but historically the gold exchange standard meant that national banks issued paper currency, with holders exchanging this for gold at fixed pric…

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Golda Meir - Birth and early life, Emigration to the United States, 1906, Emigration to Palestine, 1921

Israeli stateswoman and prime minister (1969–74), born in Kiev, Ukraine. Brought up in Milwaukee, WI, from 1906, she became a teacher and an active Zionist, After her marriage to Morris Myerson (1917), she emigrated to a kibbutz in Palestine in 1921, and became a leading figure in the Labour movement. She was Israeli ambassador to the Soviet Union (1948–9), minister of labour (1949–56), then He…

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Goldbach's conjecture - Origins, Heuristic justification, Rigorous results, Attempted proofs

A mathematical conclusion which states that every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two prime numbers; for example, 14 = 3 + 11. This conjecture was first made by Christian Goldbach (1690–1764) in a letter to Leonhard Euler in 1742. On 7 June 1742, the Prussian mathematician Christian Goldbach wrote a letter to Leonhard Euler (letter XLIII) in which he proposed…

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goldcrest

A small woodland bird (Regulus regulus), native to Europe and Asia; head with orange or yellow stripe; eats insects; also known as the golden-crested wren. Many die during hard winters. (Family: Regulidae, sometimes placed in family Silviidae.) …

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Golden Age - History, Greek and Roman antiquity, East, Christianity, Fantasy

The title ascribed to the 17th-c in the Northern Netherlands, a period of prosperity and flowering of the arts and sciences, together with expansion overseas. It was particularly noticeable because the rest of Europe was relatively stagnant, and it was helped by the influx of Protestant refugees from the Southern Netherlands and France. Around 1670 the Dutch fleet was the largest in Europe; with 1…

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Golden Bull

Any document whose importance was stressed by authentication with a golden seal (Lat bulla). Specifically, the term is used for the edict promulgated in Italy by Emperor Charles IV in 1356 to define the German constitution and to eliminate papal interference in the election of emperors. It formally affirmed that election of an emperor was by a college of seven princes, and recognized them as virtu…

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golden calf - Summary of the Biblical tale, Interpretation, Trivia

An idolatrous image of worship, fashioned by Aaron and the Israelites at Sinai (Ex 32), and destroyed by Moses. Two such figures were apparently set up later under Jeroboam I, first king of the N kingdom of Israel, in competition with the worship of God in Jerusalem (1 Kings 12). In the Hebrew Bible, the golden calf (עגל הזהב) was an idol (a cult image) made by Aaron for the Israelit…

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Golden Fleece - Sources, Modern Connections

In Greek mythology, the object of the voyage of the Argo. Hermes saved Phrixus from sacrifice by placing him upon a golden ram, which bore him through the air to Colchis, where a dragon guarded the Fleece in a sacred grove. Jason obtained the fleece with Medea's help. The legend may be based on the gold of Colchis. Athamas, king of the city of Orchomenus in Boeotia (a region of southeastern…

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Golden Gate Bridge - Aesthetics, Paintwork, Suicides, In fiction and film, Photos

A major steel suspension bridge across the Golden Gate, a channel in California, USA, connecting San Francisco Bay with the Pacific; completed in 1937; length of main span 1280 m/4200 ft. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening into the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. The Golden Gate Bridge was the largest suspension bridge…

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Golden Horde - Name, Mongol origins, Golden Age, Political evolution, Disintegration and fall

A feudal state organized in the 13th-c as part of the Mongol Empire, occupying most of C and S Russia and W Siberia. Its capital was at Sarai on the R Volga. The Russian princes were vassals of the Khan of the Golden Horde, and paid regular tribute. It was finally overthrown by the Grand Princes of Moscow in the late 15th-c and early 16th-c. The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Tur…

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golden mole

An African insectivore, resembling the golden hamster, but with eyes and ears hidden under shiny fur; nose with leathery pad; front feet with claws for digging; digs burrows or, in desert areas, ‘swims’ through sand just beneath the surface, leaving a visible ridge. (Family: Chrysochloridae, 18 species.) Golden moles are small, insectivorous burrowing mammals native to southern Africa. …

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golden ratio - Calculation, History, Aesthetics, Nature, Mathematics, Pyramids, Disputed sightings of the golden ratio

In mathematics, a proportion obtained if a point P divides a straight line AB in such manner that AP : PB = AB : AP; also known as the golden section. It is often denoted by . It was applied to architecture by Vitruvius, and much discussed during the Renaissance. Pietro della Francesca's ‘Baptism of Christ’ (National Gallery, London) is just one example of a composition set up according to…

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golden retriever - Appearance, History, Health, Rescue efforts, Famous Golden Retrievers, Gallery

A breed of dog, developed in Britain in the late 19th-c; large with long golden or cream coat; solid body, strong legs, long muzzle; calm temperament; popular choice as a guide-dog for blind people. The Golden Retriever is a very popular breed of dog. Golden Retrievers are usually compatible with people and other dogs. Golden Retrievers are particularly valued for their high level of …

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goldeneye - Plot, Development, Production, Cast, Release and critical reaction, Name, Overview

Either of two species of diving duck, native to the N hemisphere: the goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica). They inhabit coastal waters, but breed inland. (Family: Anatidae.) GoldenEye is the 17th James Bond film and the first to star Pierce Brosnan as Ian Fleming's British secret service agent, James Bond. Broccoli presents"), it was the second …

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goldenrod

The name applied to several species of Solidago. The plant commonly grown in gardens is Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), a late-flowering perennial growing to 1·5 m/5 ft, native to North America; leaves lance-shaped, long pointed; flower-heads numerous, tiny, golden-yellow, arranged on more or less horizontally spreading branches in a dense pyramidal panicle. European goldenrod (Solida…

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goldfish - Varieties of domesticated goldfish, Goldfish in ponds, In the aquarium, Feeding, Behavior, Native environment, Breeding

Colourful, carp-like, freshwater fish (Carassius auratus), native to weedy rivers and lakes of Eurasia, but now very widely distributed as popular ornamental fish; body length up to 30 cm/1 ft, young fish brownish, becoming golden as they mature; mouth lacking barbels; immense variety of forms have been produced through captive breeding. (Family: Cyprinidae.) The goldfish, Carassius aurat…

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Goldie (Jeanne) Hawn - Selected filmography, References

Actress, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. She became known through her comedy roles in Rowan and Martin's TV review Laugh In (1968–70), then won a Best Supporting Actress award for her first film role in Cactus Flower (1969). Later films include There's A Girl in My Soup (1970), Private Benjamin (1980), which she also produced, Death Becomes Her (1992), The First Wives Club (1996), …

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golf - Anatomy of a golf course, Play of the game, Handicap systems, Golf rules and other regulations

A popular pastime and competitive sport, played on a course usually consisting of 18 holes, although some have only 9, 12, or 15. A standard course is usually between 5000 and 7000 yards (c.4500–6500 m). A hole consists of three primary areas: the flat starting point where the player hits the ball (the tee), a long stretch of mown grass (the fairway), and a putting green of smooth grass where th…

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gonad

The organ responsible for the production of reproductive cells (germ cells or gametes): in males the gonads (testes) produce spermatozoa, in females the gonads (ovaries) produce ova. In vertebrates the gonads also synthesize and secrete sex hormones (androgens, oestrogens, and progestagens): androgens are most abundant in males; oestrogens and progestagens in females. In males, the male gon…

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gong - Types of gong, Traditional suspended gongs, Modern orchestral gongs, Other uses, Gongs - general, Signal gongs

A percussion instrument: a circular bronze plaque, usually with a turned-down rim, commonly suspended from a frame or bar and struck with a soft beater. The orchestral gong (or tam-tam) is of indefinite pitch; other, usually smaller, gongs are tuned to precise pitches. Gongs are broadly of three types. Gongs are made mainly from bronze or brass but there are many other alloys in use. …

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Gonzalo de Berceo

The earliest known Castilian poet, born in Berceo, N Spain. He became a deacon and wrote more than 13 000 verses on devotional subjects, of which the best is a Life of St Oria. His poems were not discovered and published until the late 18th-c. Gonzalo de Berceo (ca. 1190– before 1264) was a Spanish poet born in the Riojan village of Berceo, close to the major Benedictine monastery of San…

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Gonzalo Pizarro - Expeditions with Francisco de Orellana, Last years

Spanish conquistador, born in Trujillo, WC Spain, the half-brother of Francisco Pizarro. He accompanied him in the conquest of Peru (1531–3), and was made Governor of Quito. In 1539 he undertook an expedition to the E of Quito, and endured fearful hardships and starvation, only 90 out of 350 Spaniards returning with him in 1542. In 1544 the new viceroy, Vela, arrived in Peru to enforce the new la…

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Good Friday - Jesus' possible death date, In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches

In the Christian Church, the Friday before Easter, commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ; in many Christian denominations a day of mourning and penance. Good Friday is a holy day celebrated by most Christians on the Friday before Easter or Pascha. In Latin America and Portugal the day is called the "Holy Friday" and in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Faroe Islands and …

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Google - History, Production, Acquistions and partnerships, Corporate culture, Salaries, Further reading

A multilingual Internet search engine that indexes and caches pages on the World Wide Web; derived from googol (1 followed by 100 zeroes). It was founded in 1998 by Stanford graduates Sergey Brin (born in Moscow, 1973– ) and Larry Page (born in East Lansing, MI, 1972– ), following their success in 1996 with the prototype BackRub. By the end of 1999 Google employed 39 people and was answering 3 m…

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goose - True geese, Other species called "geese", Etymology

A term not applied precisely, but used for large birds with more terrestrial habits than the ‘swans’ or ‘ducks’ comprising the rest of the family. The 14 N hemisphere species comprising the grey geese (Genus: Anser) and black geese (Genus: Branta) are sometimes called true geese. (Family: Anatidae.) Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, bel…

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Goose Green

51°52S 59°00W, pop (2000e) 100. Settlement on East Falkland, Falkland Is; at the head of Choiseul Sound, on the narrow isthmus that joins the N half of East Falkland to Lafonia in the S; second largest settlement in the Falkland Is. Goose Green is a settlement on East Falkland in the Falkland Islands. The settlement grew after it became the base for the Falkland Islands Compa…

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gooseberry

A deciduous shrub (Ribes uva-crispa) growing to c.1 m/3¼ ft, native to Europe and N Africa; stems and branches spiny; leaves 3–5-lobed; flowers greenish, tinged purple, in ones or twos on drooping axillary stalks; edible berry oval, up to 4 cm/1½ in long, green or reddish, bristly or smooth. It is cultivated for its fruit. (Family: Grossulariaceae.) …

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gopher

A name used in North America for many animals which burrow (eg pocket gophers, some sousliks, a burrowing tortoise, a burrowing snake, and some salamanders); said to be from the French word gaufre, ‘honeycomb’ - a reference to the burrows. …

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Gorakhpur - Population, Origin of name, History, Cultural and historical importance, The city, College, Ground transportation, Air transportation

26º45N 83º23E, pop (2001e) 668 800. City in Uttar Pradesh, NE India; on the R Rapti, a tributary of the Ghaghara R; founded in 1400 and named after a Hindu saint; a conglomeration of farm villages in a densely populated agricultural region producing chiefly rice, cotton, and cereals; birthplace of L S Amery; university; airfield; linked E to Lucknow by rail; damaged by earthquake in 1934. …

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The Gorbals - History

A district of Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. Originally a village on the S bank of the R Clyde, it developed into a fashionable suburb, but by the end of the 19th-c had become infamous as an area of overcrowding and deprivation. Redevelopment, involving the rehousing of the community in high-rise flats or in new towns, started in 1950, and most of the old buildings were demolished in the next 20 years. …

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Gordian knot - The legend

In Phrygia, a complicated knot with which the legendary King Gordius had tied up his wagon. An oracle said that whoever succeeded in untying it would rule Asia. Alexander the Great cut it with his sword. The Gordian Knot is a legend associated with Alexander the Great. According to a Phrygian tradition, an oracle at Telmissus, the ancient capital of Phrygia, decreed to the Phryg…

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Gordon (Willard) Allport - Visit with Freud, Allport's Trait Theory, Functional Autonomy, Prejudice, Psychology of Religion, Literature

Psychologist, born in Montezuma, Indiana, USA. He studied at Harvard (1922 PhD), then went to Europe on a fellowship (1922–4). He was instructor of social ethics at Harvard (1924–6) and assistant professor of psychology at Dartmouth (1926–30). He returned to Harvard's psychology faculty in 1930, where he became Cabot Professor of Social Ethics in 1966. His most influential work was Personality:…

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Gordon Banks

Footballer, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He started his career as a goalkeeper with Chesterfield (1955–9), moving to Leicester City (1959–67), and finally Stoke City (1967–72). Hailed as the world's best goalkeeper in his day, he gave an outstanding performance for England when they beat Germany (4–2) in the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final at Wembley. At the 1970 World Cup Fina…

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Gordon Bottomley - Works

Poet and playwright, born in Keighley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He is best remembered for his Poems of Thirty Years (1925) and his collections of plays, including King Lear's Wife and Other Plays (1920). His poetry anticipated Imagism. Gordon Bottomley (1874 – 1948) was an English poet, known particularly for his verse dramas. He first edited the poetry of Isaac Rosenber…

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Gordon Bunshaft - Buildings

Architect, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. He studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and joined Skidmore and Owings in 1937. His public and corporate buildings are characterized by inventive design, and especially influential were his skyscraper towers set back in plazas, notably Lever House, New York City (1952). Other projects include suburban offices in landscaped par…

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Gordon Gould - Early life, Invention of the laser, Patent battles, Eventual successes, Later life

Physicist, inventor, and manufacturer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Union College, New York (1941 BS), and did graduate work in physics at Yale, leaving to work on the atomic bomb for the Manhattan Project during World War 2 (1943–5). In the postwar years he worked for various private engineering firms while teaching at different institutions, including City College of New …

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Gordon Riots

Anti-Catholic riots in London which caused a breakdown of law and order in parts of the capital for several days in early June 1780. They occurred after Lord George Gordon (1751–93), leader of the Protestant Association (an association formed to secure the repeal of the Catholic Relief Act of 1778), had failed in his attempt to have clauses in the Act (removing restrictions on the activities of p…

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Gordon setter - Appearance

A breed of dog developed in Britain, slightly larger than the English setter; coat black with small brown patches on underside. Gordon Setters are a medium sized breed of dog, a member of the setter family that also includes the more common Irish Setters and English Setters and the less-common Irish Red and White Setter. Gordon setters are coal-black with tan features, in …

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Gorgias - Introduction, Biography, Rhetorical Works, Critics

Greek sophist, sceptical philosopher, and rhetorician, born in Leontini, Sicily. He went to Athens as ambassador in 427 BC and, settling in Greece, won wealth and fame as a teacher of eloquence. In his work On Nature he argued that nothing exists; even if something did exist, it could not be known; and even if it could be known it could not be communicated; we live in a world of opinion, manipulat…

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Gorgon - Classical tradition, Perseus and Medusa, Protective and healing powers, Origins, Gorgons in Geography

A terrible monster of Greek mythology. There were three Gorgons, who had snakes in their hair, ugly faces, and huge wings; their staring eyes could turn people to stone. Perseus killed Medusa (the only mortal one), and cut off her head; this was used to rescue Andromeda, and eventually found a place on Athena's aegis. It is the detached head which is frightening; this occurs in art before the Gorg…

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gorilla - Name, Physical characteristics, Classification, Endangerment, Behavior, Studies, Intelligence, Gorillas in pop culture

An ape (Gorilla gorilla) native to the rainforests of WC Africa; the largest primate (height, up to 1·8 m/6 ft); massive muscular body; usually walks on all fours (resting on the knuckles of its hands); ears small; adult male with marked crest; black, except in old males (silverbacks), which have a silvery grey torso; two races: the lowland gorilla and the shaggier mountain gorilla. The …

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Gorizia - Main sights

45º57N 13º37E, pop (2001e) 37 100. Capital of Gorizia province, Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, NE Italy; on the Yugoslav border, 35 km/22 mi NNW of Trieste; birthplace of Graziadio Isaia Ascoli and Carlo Rubbia; archbishopric; railway; cathedral (14th-c); old castle of the counts of Gorizia; agricultural market, fruit, wine; textile machinery. Originally a watchtower or a prehistoric c…

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gorse

A spiny shrub (Ulex europaeus) growing to 2 m/6½ ft, from Europe and NW Africa; green-stemmed; leaves reduced to rigid needle-like spines, or small scales in mature plants; pea-flowers yellow, fragrant; pod 2-valved, exploding to release the seeds; also called furze and whin. (Family: Leguminosae.) Gorse (Ulex) comprises a genus of about 20 species of evergreen shrubs in the subfamily Fa…

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Gorsedd

A society of Welsh bards, founded in 1792 by Iolo Morganwg, that takes a major part in the organization of the National Eisteddfod, in particular the bardic ceremony. A gorsedd (IPA /'gɔrsɛð/), occasionally spelled gorseth, plural gorseddau, is a community of bards. When the term is used without qualification, it usually means the national gorsedd of Wales, Gorsedd Beirdd Yny…

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goshawk

A smallish hawk with short rounded wings and a long tail (20 species). The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is found in much of the N hemisphere; other species are native to Africa, S and SE Asia, and Australia; inhabits woodland; eats vertebrates or insects. (Family: Accipitridae.) The Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis; …

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Gospel (music) - Canonical Gospels, Non-canonical gospels, List of non-canonical ("apocryphal") Gospels

Music developed in black churches of the US South from a secular musical style in the early decades of the 20th-c. It was practised both by soloists and choirs, often with instrumental accompaniment, and became known for its infectious rhythms, close harmonies, and lively presentation. Noted solo performers include Sister Rosetta Tharpe and Mahalia Jackson. The style later had a major influence on…

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Gosplan - Heads of Gosplan

The name of the State Planning Commission in the former USSR. Established in 1921 as an advisory council to the government, it supervised various aspects of planning, translating the general economic objectives of the state into specific plans. It assumed a central role in 1928, when the first Five-Year Plan, which called for rapid industrialization and a drastic reduction of the private sector of…

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Gothenburg - Name, History, Geography, Transport, Demographics, Economy, Education, Sister cities, Culture, Notes and references

57°45N 12°00E, pop (2000e) 450 000. Seaport and capital city of Göteborg och Bohus county, SW Sweden; at the mouth of the R Göta on the Kattegat; second largest city in Sweden; founded, 1619; free port, 1921; railway; ferry services to UK, Denmark, Germany; university (1891), technical university (1829); linked to the Baltic by the Göta Canal; shipbuilding, vehicles, chemicals, ball-bearing…

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Gothic architecture - The Term "Gothic", Brick Gothic, Sequence of Gothic Styles: France

A form of architecture, usually religious, prevalent in W Europe from the 12th-c to the late 15th-c. It is characterized by a structural system comprising the pointed arch, rib vault, flying buttress, and a propensity for lofty interiors and maximum window area, with sophisticated stained glass. Various styles were developed. Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly asso…

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Gothic art - Overview, Gothic sculpture, Gothic painting, Gothic artists

A term first used by Renaissance artists to mean ‘barbaric’, referring to the non-classical styles of the Middle Ages. Since the 19th-c, it has been in standard use to mean European art roughly of the period 12th–15th-c. Gothic art told a narrative story through pictures, both Christian and secular. The earliest Gothic art was Christian sculpture, born on the walls of Cathedr…

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Gothic line - Background, Allies' Plan of Attack, The Battle of Gemmano, The Battle for Rimini

A defensive line established by the German army in Italy in the Autumn of 1944. It stretched from the Massa, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, to Rimini, on the Adriatic, across the Apennines. It was intended to withstand the Allied troops' advance, but was swept away in early 1945. The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last line of defence along the sum…

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Gottfried Benn - Works

Poet and physician, born in Mansfeld, EC Germany. He embraced the philosophy of Nihilism as a young man, and later became one of the few intellectuals to favour Nazi doctrines. Trained in medicine as a venereologist, he began writing Expressionist verse dealing with the uglier aspects of his profession, such as Morgue (1912). After 1945 his poetry became more versatile though still pessimistic, as…

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Gottfried Keller

Writer, born in Zürich, N Switzerland, the leading exponent of bourgeois realism. His experiences as an impoverished art student in Munich (1841–2) inspired Der grüne Heinrich (1854–5, 2nd edn 1879–80), developing the Bildungsroman tradition of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister: vividly descriptive in style, its mood ranges from comic to melancholic and tragic. His broad narrative palette is revealed …

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Gottfried von Einem - Selected operas

Composer, born in Bern, Switzerland. His most successful works have been for the stage, including several ballets and the operas Dantons Tod (1947, Danton's Death) and Der Besuch der alten Dame (1971, The Visit of the Old Woman). He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber music, concertos, and many songs. Gottfried von Einem (January 24, 1918 – July 12, 1996) was an Austrian composer. …

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Gotthold (Ephraim) Lessing - Life, Work, Selected bibliography

Playwright and man of letters, born in Kamenz, E Germany. After studying theology at Leipzig University, he worked as a translator, then continued his studies at Wittenberg (1751). The first German playwright of lasting importance, he introduced blank verse to German drama, producing his classic tragedy Miss Sara Sampson in 1755. While secretary to the Governor of Breslau, he wrote his famous Laok…

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Gottlieb (Wilhelm) Daimler - Early life (1834 to 1852), Career beginnings and Maybach

Engineer, born in Schorndorf, SW Germany. He worked from 1872 on improving the gas engine, and in 1885 patented a high-speed internal combustion engine. With Maybach he produced an engine-driven bicycle (1885, perhaps the first motorcycle), converted a horse-drawn carriage into a petrol-engined vehicle (1886), and designed one of the earliest roadworthy motor cars (1889). In 1890, he founded the D…

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gouache - History, Application

A type of opaque watercolour paint, also known as ‘body colour’, or ‘poster paint’ - familiar to most people from school art lessons. It was used in ancient Egypt, and widely in the Middle Ages, especially in illuminated manuscripts. During the Renaissance, Dürer used a type of gouache for his landscape sketches and studies of animals. Gouache is adaptable, and may be combined with pencil, wa…

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Gouda - "Twin Towns", Natives of Gouda

52º01N 4º43E, pop (2001e) 72 800. City in Zuid Holland province, W Netherlands; 23 km/14 mi NE of Rotterdam; at the confluence of the Gouwe and Ijssel rivers; chartered, 1272; birthplace of Hiëronymus van Alphen and Leo Vroman; railway; Gothic town hall (1449–59), the Weighouse (1668), Grote Kerk (rebuilt 1552); ceramics, candles, clay pipes, dairy products; famous cheese market. Go…

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gourami

Deep-bodied freshwater fish (Osphronemus goramy) native to rivers and swamps of SE Asia, but now more widespread from India to China through aquaculture; length up to 60 cm/2 ft, with large median fins and very long pelvic fin ray; valuable food fish that survives well out of water. (Family: Osphronemidae.) …

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gourd - See also

Any of several members of the cucumber family, with hard, woody-rinded fruits of various shapes and colours. All are trailing or climbing vines with tendrils, palmately-lobed leaves, funnel-shaped flowers, and round pear- or bottle-shaped fruits. The best known are ornamental gourds (Cucurbita pepo variety ovifera), flowers yellow, native to America, and the bottle-gourd or calabash. (Family: Cucu…

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