Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 3

Cambridge Encyclopedia

adipic acid

HOOC–(CH2)4–COOH, IUPAC hexanedioic acid, melting point 153°C. It is one of the monomers for nylon, the other being 1,6-diaminohexane. …

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Adirondack Mountains - The land, Geology, Spelling, Tourism and Recreation, History, Sources

Mountain range largely in NE New York State, USA; rises to 1629 m/5344 ft at Mt Marcy; named after an American Indian tribe; source of the Hudson and Ausable Rivers; locations such as L Placid are noted winter resorts; largest state park in USA. The Adirondack mountain range is a group of mountains in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Ha…

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adjutant - Warrant Officer rank

A stork native to tropical SE Asia. There are two species: the greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius), and the lesser, haircrested, or Javan adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus); grey and white; head nearly naked; eats carrion, frogs or fish; related to the marabou. In the US Army, the Adjutant will generally also be a member of the branch or regiment of the parent unit (i.e. in an i…

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Admetus - Mythology

In Greek mythology, the son of Pheres, king of Pherae in Thessaly. In order to gain the hand of the beautiful Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, king of Iolcos, Admetus was required to harness a lion and a boar to a chariot. He succeeded by enlisting the help of the god Apollo, who served him. Apollo discovered that Admetus was soon to die so persuaded the Fates to prolong his life on the condition tha…

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administrative law - Administrative law in common law countries, Administrative law in civil law countries

The body of law relating to administrative powers exercised principally by central and local government, including town and country planning, the control of many trades and professions, police powers, and environmental issues. The exercise of such powers can be the subject of scrutiny by the courts or tribunals on legal (but not normally on policy) grounds. In several countries, administrative law…

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Admiral's Men - Repertory

A theatre company founded in England c.1576–9 and managed by Philip Henslowe. It was known first as Lord Howard's Men after patron Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, who became lord high admiral of England in 1585. Edward Alleyn was chief actor and the company became closely associated with Christopher Marlowe and performed several of his works. Following Alleyn's retirement (1603) the compa…

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Admiralty Court - Admiralty Courts in Wales and England, Admiralty Court of Scotland, Role in the American Revolution

An English court which is part of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court. Its work deals with maritime claims in civil law, such as salvage and collisions at sea. The commercial court deals with other types of cases, such as those involving marine insurance. In the USA, the federal district courts exercise jurisdiction over maritime actions. In Scotland, the Court of Session and the Sheriff …

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Admiralty Islands - Climate and Ecology

pop (2000e) 39 000; area 2000 km²/800 sq mi. Island group in N Papua New Guinea, part of the Bismarck Archipelago; c.40 islands, main island, Manus; chief town, Lorengau; German protectorate, 1884; under Australian mandate, 1920; fishing, copra, pearls. The Admiralty Islands are a group of 18 islands in the Bismarck Archipelago. These are also sometimes called the Manus Islands, named…

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Adnan Menderes

Turkish statesman and prime minister (1950–60), born near Aydin, W Turkey. Though educated for the law, he became a farmer, and entered politics in 1932. In 1945 he became one of the leaders of the new Democratic Party, and was made prime minister when it came to power in 1950. Re-elected in 1954 and 1957, in May 1960 he was deposed and superseded after an army coup. He appeared as defendant with…

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adolescence - Puberty, Preteens, Teenagers, Emerging adulthood, Psychology of adolescents, Social and cultural, Legal issues

That period of personal development marked by the onset of puberty and continuing through the early teenage years. While it is associated with the process of physical maturation, normally occurring more quickly in girls than in boys, the actual age-range and behavioural patterns involved can vary considerably from one society to another. Adolescence in the Third World, for example, is more likely …

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Adolf (Karl Gustav) von Harnack - Biography, Bibliography

Protestant Church historian and theologian, born in Tartu (formerly Dorpat), E Estonia. He was professor at Leipzig (1876), Giessen (1879), Marburg (1886), and Berlin (1889), where he also became keeper of the Royal (later State) Library (1904–21). His major writings include works on the history of dogma, on early Gospel traditions, and on a reconstruction of the essence of Jesus's teachings. …

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Adolf Bastian - Works and ideas, Sources and further reading

Ethnologist, born in Bremen, NW Germany. He studied at Berlin, Heidelberg, Prague, Jena, and Würzburg, and travelled widely, collecting material for his ethnological studies in most continents. He is best known for his theory that variations in folk cultures could be traced back to the effects of local geographical conditions on a basic set of elementary ideas (Elementargedanken) common to mankin…

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Adolf Busch

Violinist, born in Siegen, WC Germany. In 1919 he formed the Busch Quartet and Busch Trio, with his brother Hermann (1897–1975) as cellist and his son-in-law Rudolf Serkin as pianist. He emigrated to America in 1939. Another brother, Fritz (1890–1951), was an eminent conductor and noted Mozartian. Busch was born in Siegen in Westphalia. In 1912, Busch founded the Vienna Konzer…

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Adolf Hitler - Early years, Hitler's religious beliefs, Medical health and sexuality, Hitler's family

German dictator, born in Braunau, Upper Austria, the son of a minor customs official, originally called Schicklgruber. One of history's most brutal leaders, he converted Germany, a defeated nation, into a fully remilitarized society, and launched World War 2. With anti-Semitism and racism the cornerstone of his ideology and policies, he conquered and dominated most of Europe over five years, and o…

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Adolf Loos - Major works, "Ornament and Crime"

Architect and writer on design, born in Brno, S Czech Republic. After studying architecture in Dresden, and visiting America (1893–6), he settled in Vienna in 1896. One of the major architects of the ‘Modern Movement’, he is particularly remembered for articulating the view that ornament is decadent; his essay Ornament and Crime (1908) attacks both revivalist and more recent Art Nouveau ornamen…

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Adolf Muschg - His life, Awards, Works, voice recordings, Weblinks

Writer and literary critic, born in Zollikon, N Switzerland. He became professor of German literature in Zurich in 1970. His widely read novels are characterized by their black humour and ironic wit as well as the expert manner in which they are constructed. His works include Im Sommer des Hasen (1965), Gegenzauber (1967), and Leib und Leben (1982). Among other works are radio and television plays…

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Adolf Reichwein - Works (selection), Literature

German politician and teacher, born in Bad Ems, W Germany. He was a religious socialist and member of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD). Professor in Halle (1930–3), he thereafter became a primary school teacher. As a member of the Kreisauer Kreis he was arrested in 1944 and executed at Berlin-Plötzensee later that year. Adolf Reichwein (born 3 October 1898 in Bad Ems; die…

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Adolf Stoecker

German politician, born in Halberstadt, C Germany. Protestant court preacher in Berlin (1874–90), he was appointed head of Berlin's Town Mission (1877) with the special task of winning over the proletariat for the Church. He founded the Christlich-Soziale Arbeiterparteien (1878) which, due to its monarchist nationalistic tendencies, drew no response from the working class. Because of his anti-Sem…

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Adolph (Francis Alphonse) Bandelier

Explorer, archaeologist, and writer, born in Bern, Switzerland. Brought by his family to Illinois in 1848, he returned to Switzerland to study geology at the University of Bern, then went back to Illinois and worked in a bank. He continued to study on his own, and after a visit to Mexico (1877) published several works on the Aztecs (late 1870s). These gained him the sponsorship of the Archaelogica…

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Adolph (Frederick) Rupp - Early life, Coaching, Death, Legacy

Basketball coach, born in Halstead, Kansas, USA. During his 42-year career at the University of Kentucky (1930–72), he coached his teams to a record 874 victories, 27 Southeast Conference titles, and four National Collegiate Athletic Association championships. He also coached the US team to a gold medal in the 1948 Olympic games. Adolph Friedrich Rupp (September 2, 1901 – December 10, 19…

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Adolph Alexander Weinman

Sculptor, born in Karlsruhe, Germany. He and his widowed mother emigrated to New York City (1880), where he was apprenticed to a wood and ivory carver (1885) before studying at Cooper Union (1886) and with Augustus Saint-Gaudens at the Art Students League. He opened a studio (1904) and became known for his coin designs, such as the Mercury dime and the Liberty half-dollar, as well as for his archi…

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Adolph Coors - Golden Brewery, Death by suicide

Brewer, born in Barmen, Prussia. He went to the USA in 1868, and after working in a Denver brewery, he founded Adolph Coors Brewing Co in Golden, CO (1873). He was president of the company after its incorporation (1914), steering it successfully through most of the Prohibition period. He left the firm to his sons, who developed it on a national scale into one of the most successful American brewer…

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Adolph Gottlieb

Painter, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the Art Students League with Robert Henri (1919–21) and John Sloan (1923–4) and was a co-founder of the New York City-based avant-garde group, the Ten (1935–40). By 1941 he was painting compartmentalized canvases containing symbolic animal and plant forms, called pictographs, as seen in ‘Dream’ (1948). His later work favoured cosmic…

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Adolph Sutro - Sources of Historical Materials Relating to Adolph Sutro, Sources

US businessman, born in Aachen, W Germany. In 1850 he arrived in New York City, the next year moving to San Francisco, where he established a trading business. In 1859 he founded a metallurgical works in Nevada, building the Sutro Tunnel for the draining and ventilation of mines in the Comstock Lode. In 1879 he returned to San Francisco, where he became a major landowner, and mayor (1894–6). His …

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Adolphe (Charles) Adam - Main works

Composer, born in Paris, France. The son of the pianist Louis Adam (1758–1848), he wrote some successful operas, such as Le Postillon de Longjumeau (1835), but is chiefly remembered for the ballet Giselle (1841). Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. He is best known today for his ballets Giselle (1844) and Le Corsaire (1856, his …

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Adolphe Appia

Scene designer and theatrical producer, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. He was one of the first to introduce simple planes instead of rich stage settings, and pioneered the symbolic use of lighting, particularly in the presentation of opera. Adolphe Appia was a Swiss theorist and pioneer of modern stage design. Appia rejected painted two dimensional sets for three-dimensional ‘living’ s…

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Adolphus Busch - Legacy

Brewer, born in Mainz, Germany. In 1857 he moved to St Louis, Missouri and opened a brewing supply store with his brother. In 1861 the two brothers married the daughters of customer Eberhard Anheuser, and soon after Adolphus became a partner in his father-in-law's brewery (and in 1867 a naturalized citizen). When Anheuser died (1879), Busch renamed the brewery the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Associatio…

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Adoniram Judson - Early life, Career, Published works, Legacy

Protestant missionary, born in Malden, Massachusetts, USA. He graduated from Brown (1807), taught for a year, studied at Andover Theological Seminary, was ordained (1812), and went to Burma in that year as a Baptist missionary. He was married three times, in each case to women who were missionaries in their own right. Imprisoned as a spy during the Anglo-Burmese War (1824–6), he translated the Bi…

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Adonis - Origin of the cult, Life of Adonis, Modern metaphorical use of the name

In Greek mythology, a beautiful young man who was loved by Aphrodite. He insisted on going hunting and was killed by a boar, but Persephone saved him on condition that he spent part of the year with her in the Underworld. There was a yearly commemoration of the event, with wailing and singing. There is a clear connection with the growth and death of vegetation, and similar Eastern ceremonies. …

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adoption - Reasons for adoption, Adoption by same-sex couples, Cost of adoption, Adoption numbers

A legal procedure in which a civil court makes an order giving parental rights and duties over a child to someone other than the natural parents. On adoption, the child becomes the legal child of his or her adoptive parents, and the same as any natural child. Natural parents often lose all rights in the child and in his or her property. In England and Wales, since the Children Act of 1989, a court…

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adoptionism

In early Christianity, the understanding of Jesus as a human being of sinless life adopted by God as son, usually thought to be at the time of his baptism by John in the R Jordan. Such teaching was declared heretical, in that it implied that Jesus could not have had a fully divine nature. Associated with Arianism, it figured in 4th-c controversies over the person of Christ, in Spain in the 8th-c, …

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Adriaen van Ostade - External link and reference

Painter and engraver, born in Haarlem, The Netherlands. He was a pupil of Frans Hals, and his use of chiaroscuro shows the influence of Rembrandt. His subjects are taken mostly from everyday life, for example tavern scenes, farmyards, markets, and village greens. His ‘Alchemist’ is in the National Gallery. His brother Isaak (1621–49) treated similar subjects, but excelled at winter scenes and l…

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Adrian (David) Moorhouse - Rivalry with Victor Davis, Later career and retirement

Swimmer, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He made his international debut in 1980 and went on to win many major titles in a long career at breaststroke. He won Commonwealth Games gold medals in the 100 m in 1982, the 200 m in 1986, and the 100 m in 1990 in which he set a world record of 1:01·49 s. At the Olympic Games in 1988 he took the gold medal in the 200 m. Adrian…

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Adrian (Gilbert)

Fashion designer, born in Naugatuck, Connecticut, USA. Discovered as a student in Paris by Irving Berlin, he designed costumes for many Broadway shows and Hollywood films (1920s–1930s). Under his own Beverly Hills label (1941–53), he designed women's couture and quality ready-to-wear garments. His trademarks included padded shoulders and dolman sleeves. Popes: Other notable pe…

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Adrian Constantine Anson - Early baseball career, After retirement, Popular culture

Baseball player and manager, born in Marshalltown, Iowa, USA. During his 22-year career as a first baseman for the Chicago White Stockings (1876–97), he compiled a lifetime batting average of ·334 and amassed 3041 total hits. He served as player-manager for Chicago for 19 years (1879–97) and managed the New York Giants (1898). As prestigious and popular as any player until Babe Ruth, he is gene…

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Adrian IV - Early life, Securing power, Hadrian and the military, Cultural pursuits and patronage, Hadrian's travels

The first and only Englishman to become pope (1154–9), born in Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He studied at Merton Priory and Avignon, became a monk in the monastery of St Rufus, near Avignon, and in 1137 was elected its abbot. Complaints about his strictness led to a summons to Rome, where the pope recognized his qualities and appointed him Cardinal-Bishop of Albano in 1146. In 1…

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Adrian Willaert - Life, Musical style and influence, References and further reading

Composer, probably born in Bruges, NW Belgium. He is thought to have studied in Paris, changing from law to music. He was appointed maestro di capella of St Mark's, Venice (1527), and made Venice the centre of European music. He gained a great reputation as a composer and teacher, and among his pupils was Andrea Gabrieli. He composed works in most of the many contemporary genres of sacred music, a…

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Adriano Olivetti

Manufacturer, born in Ivrea, NW Italy. After a period in the USA where he was sent to assimilate the methods of mass production, he returned to transform the manufacturing methods of the typewriter firm founded by his father Camillo Olivetti (1868–1943). He increased production, and established a strong design policy which embraced products, graphics, and the architecture of the company's buildin…

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Adriatic Sea - Extent and Bathymetry, Coasts and islands, Miscellaneous

Arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the E coast of Italy and the Balkan Peninsula; Gulf of Venice at its head (NW); separated from the Ionian Sea (S) by the Strait of Otranto; length 800 km/500 mi; width 93–225 km/58–140 mi; maximum depth 1250 m/4100 ft; highly saline; lobster, sardines, tuna; chief ports, Venice, Rijeka, Ancona, Bari, Brindisi; flat, sandy Italian coast; rugged, irregul…

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Adrien-Marie Legendre

Mathematician, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Collège Mazarin, became professor of mathematics at the Ecole Militaire (1775–80), a member of the Académie des Sciences (1783), and professor at the Ecole Normale (1795). He made major contributions to number theory and elliptical functions, but due to the jealousy of his colleague Laplace, he received little recognition or reward for his…

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Adrienne (Cecile) Rich - Career, Bibliography

Poet, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. She studied at Radcliffe College, lived briefly in The Netherlands, then taught at several institutions, notably at Cornell from 1981. Based in New York City, she won many awards, and became known for her highly personal poetry, as in Diving into the Wreck: Poems 1971–2 (1973). Later works include An Atlas of the Difficult World: Poems 1988–1991 (1991) and…

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adsorption - Adsorption isotherms, Adsorbents, Examples of adsorption, Adsorption in viruses

The extraction of a component from one phase into another phase, usually by chemical interaction (chemisorption) between the material adsorbed (the adsorbate) and the surface of the adsorbing material (the adsorbent). Sometimes, the adsorbate is incorporated into the structure of the adsorbent; an example is the adsorption of hydrogen gas by palladium, which can adsorb several hundred times its ow…

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adult education

The provision of further or continuing educational opportunities for people over the minimum school-leaving age; also known as continuing education. Frequently this takes place in institutions specially set up to cater for mature learners, but it is also common for schools and colleges and other centres of learning to be used. A wide network of providers exists. In addition to the formal opportuni…

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Advent - Tradition, Marking the passing of Advent

In the Christian Church, a period of penitence and preparation for the celebration of the first coming of Christ at Christmas, and for his promised second coming to judge the world. It begins on Advent Sunday, the fourth Sunday before Christmas (in effect, the Sunday nearest 30 November). Advent (from the Latin Adventus, sc. The theme of readings and teachings during advent is o…

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adverse possession

The creation of an ownership right in real property through hostile, open, and continuous possession for a period of time, such as when a squatter seizes possession, or a tenant refuses to pay rent. The period required was traditionally 20 years, but is now 12 years in England and Wales (with exceptions for crown land or land owned by charitable institutions), and is fixed by statute from 5 to 20 …

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advertising - History, Type, Regulation, Future

The practice of informing and influencing others not personally known to the communicator through paid messages in the media; also the advertisements themselves. From humble origins (eg tradesmen's signs), advertising has developed in parallel with modern industrial society and the mass media. News-sheets in the 17th-c carried brief statements (eg announcing the sale of patent medicines), but it w…

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advocate - Scotland, Advocates in the Channel Islands, Advocates in England and Wales

A term frequently applied to lawyers practising in the courts as professional representatives of those who bring or defend a case. Although in the magistrates' courts and county courts both barristers and solicitors have the right to appear, in most higher courts in England and Wales barristers have sole rights to appear for clients. However, the Courts and Legal Services Act 1990 permits solicito…

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aechmea

A member of a genus of plants (epiphytes) native to tropical America; rosettes of succulent leaves forming a water-filled cup in the centre, inflorescence produced on a stout, well-developed stalk. Many species are grown as house plants. (Genus: Aechmea, 172 species. Family: Bromeliaceae.) …

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Aedes

The yellow-fever mosquito, found in coastal and riverside habitats throughout the tropics and subtropics; eggs laid in stagnant water; aquatic larvae colourless except for black respiratory siphon. The adult females feed on blood, transmitting diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. (Order: Diptera. Family: Culicidae.) …

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Aegean civilization - Periodization, Commerce, Evidence of Aegean civilization, The discovery of Aegean civilization

The Bronze Age cultures which flourished in the third and second millennia BC on the islands of the Aegean Sea and around its coasts. Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. Crete is associated with the Minoan civilization from the Early Bronze Age, while the Cyclades and the mainland have distinct cultures. 1450 (Late Helladic,…

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Aegean Sea - History, Geography, Port towns

Arm of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded W and N by Greece, NE and E by Turkey, S by islands of Crete and Rhodes; dotted with islands on which the Aegean civilization of 3000–1000 BC flourished; length (N–S) 645 km/400 mi; width 320 km/200 mi; greatest depth, 2013 m/6604 ft; sardines, sponges; natural gas off NE coast of Greece; tourism. In ancient times the sea was the birthplace of t…

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Aegina - Attractions, Geography, Economy and Climate, History, Famous Aeginetans, Communities and villages, Historical population

pop (2000e) 12 000; area 83 km²/32 sq mi. One of the largest of the Saronic Islands, Greece, SW of Athens; chief town Aiyna; a popular resort; Doric Temple of Aphaia (c.5th-cBC). Coordinates: 37°45′N 23°26′E Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. Tradition derives the name from A…

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aegis - In Greek mythology, In Egyptian mythology, In Norse mythology, In modern culture

Originally a goatskin, and then, in Greek mythology, a fringed piece of armour or a shield. Zeus shakes his aegis, which may possibly be the thunder-cloud; Athene's is equipped with the Gorgon's head. The concept of doing something "under someone's ægis" means doing something under protection from a more powerful, knowledgeable, or benevolent source. The ægis (Greek Αιγίς…

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Aegisthus

In Greek legend, the son of Thyestes; while Agamemnon was absent at Troy he became the lover of Clytemnestra. Together they killed Agamemnon on his return to Argos. Aegisthus was later killed by Orestes. In Greek mythology, Aegisthus ("goat strength" — also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and of his daughter, Pelopia. The advice was to father a son…

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Aelian - De Natura Animalium (Περι Ζωων Ιδιοτητος), Varia Historia (Ποικιλη Ιστορια)

Greek rhetorician, born in Praeneste (modern Palestrina), near Rome, Italy. He taught rhetoric in Rome c.220, and wrote numerous works, including Varia historia (Historical Miscellanies) and De natura animalium (On the Characteristics of Animals). Claudius Aelianus (c. His two chief works are valuable for the numerous quotations from the works of earlier authors, which are other…

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Aelius Donatus

Latin grammarian and rhetorician, who taught in Rome AD c.360. His treatises on Latin grammar were in the Middle Ages the only textbooks used in schools, so that Donat in W Europe came to mean a ‘grammar book’. He also wrote commentaries on Terence and Virgil. He was the author of a number of professional works, of which several are still extant: Aelius Donatus should not be c…

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Aeneas - Mythology, Family and legendary descendants

In Roman legend, the ancestor of the Romans. He was a Trojan hero, the son of Anchises and Venus, who escaped after the fall of Troy, bearing his father on his shoulders. After wandering through the Mediterranean, he reached Italy at Cumae and visited the Underworld, where the destiny of Rome was made clear to him. He married the daughter of the King of Latium, and allied himself to the Latins in …

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aeolian harp - History, Description, Sound, Operation, Aeolian harps in literature and music

A wooden soundbox fitted with strings (usually about a dozen) of various thicknesses, but tuned to a single pitch, which are made to vibrate freely by the surrounding air, producing an ethereal, ‘disembodied’ sound. It takes its name from Aeolus, god of the winds. An aeolian harp (or æolian harp or wind harp) is a musical instrument that is "played" by the wind. Aeolian harps…

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Aeolus - Æolus (son of Hellen), Æolus (son of Poseidon), Æolus (son of Hippotes)

In Greek mythology, the god of the winds. In the Odyssey Aeolus lived on an island, and gave Odysseus the winds tied in a bag so that his ship would not be blown off course. The ship had nearly reached Ithaca when Odysseus' men opened the bag, thinking it contained treasure. As a result, the ship was blown far away. This Æolus was son of Hellen and the nymph Orseis, and a brother of Dorus,…

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aerial photography - Aerial Photography Challenges

Photography of the ground surface from an aerial viewpoint such as a balloon or aircraft, with application to archaeology, ecology, geology, and wartime reconnaissance. In aerial survey mapping, the aircraft flies at a constant height along specified paths, taking pictures at regular intervals to build up a mosaic of overlapping images; ground contour and building heights are measured by viewing p…

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aerobatics - Overview

Any sequence of turning, looping and rolling movements of an aircraft flown to display the skill of the pilot and the manoeuvrability of the aircraft. Competitive aerobatics are flown in aircraft specially designed to withstand the stresses incurred during the manoeuvres. While performing a set of allowed figures the pilot must keep the aircraft within the lateral and vertical limits of the design…

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aerobics - Aerobic and Health

A system of physical training that exercises large muscle groups for long periods. The muscles use oxygen, and the heart and respiratory rates are increased. Regular aerobic exercise improves the performance of the heart, lungs, and muscles, and these improvements can be measured on charts appropriate to different age groups. It includes exercises such as walking, running, swimming, and cycling. I…

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aerocapture - In Fiction

A proposed technique for placing a spacecraft in orbit around a planet, without the expenditure of chemical propellants, by taking advantage of planetary atmosphere. The spacecraft would be equipped with an aerobrake similar to the heat shields on space capsules like Apollo, and would be navigated into the planet's upper atmosphere, where friction would slow it down. The technique offers the prosp…

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aerodynamics - Aerodynamics in other fields, Conservation laws, Boundary layer, Subsonic aerodynamics, Transonic aerodynamics, Supersonic aerodynamics

The study of the flow of air and the behaviour of objects moving relative to air; a subject which is applicable to other gases, and is part of the larger subject of fluid mechanics. Aerodynamic principles explain flight. The shape and orientation of an aircraft wing (curved upper surface, wing tilted down) mean that the air above the wing travels further than the air beneath. Air above the wing th…

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aeronautics - Early aeronautics, Modern aeronautics, Aeronautical engineering

The broad body of scientifically based knowledge describing aeroplanes as objects subject to the laws of physics. The term is usually taken to mean knowledge which focuses upon the vehicle itself, rather than upon the associated commercial or operational usage, although in practice such a definition is not rigidly adhered to. Thus, aeronautics is taken to cover such topics as the generation of lif…

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aerophone

Any musical instrument in which air is the main vibrating agent. Aerophones form one of the main categories of instruments in the standard classification of Hornbostel and Sachs (1914). They are subdivided into types according to (a) the main material they are made of, and (b) how the air is set in motion (via a mouthpiece, a reed, or neither). An aerophone is any musical instrument which p…

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Aeschines - Ancient Authorities

Orator, born in Athens, Greece. Prominent in Athenian politics between 348 and 330 BC, he advocated appeasement of Philip II of Macedon, and was a member of a Greek embassy that negotiated peace with Philip in 346. Demosthenes tried to have him indicted for treason in 343, and in 330 Aeschines tried to prevent Demosthenes from being awarded a golden crown for his services to Athens. Defeated, Aesc…

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Aeschylus - Works

Playwright, known as ‘the founder of Greek tragedy’, born in Eleusis, near Athens, Greece. He served in the Athenian army in the Persian Wars, and was wounded at Marathon (490). The first and gravest of the great dramatists (winning the victory in 485 BC), he increased the number of characters in the action and introduced new staging. He won 13 first prizes in tragic competitions, before being d…

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Aesop - Life, Aesop's Fables

Legendary Greek fabulist. He is supposed to have been a native of Phrygia and a slave who, after being set free, travelled to Greece. The fables attributed to him are anecdotes which use animals to make a moral point and are, in all probability, a compilation of tales from many sources. The stories were popularized by the Roman poet Phaedrus in the 1st-cAD, and rewritten in sophisticated verse by …

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Aestheticism

The French 19th-c literary doctrine of beauty as an end in itself, with no moral or political purpose. It was elaborated by Théophile Gautier in 1835 under the slogan ‘l'art pour l'art’ from Horace's ‘ars gratia artis’. The doctrine was adopted by Charles Baudelaire and Gustave Flaubert. The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-cent…

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affenpinscher - Appearance

A breed of dog; small with long dark wiry coat; usually black; face like a monkey, with short muzzle and large black eyes; very old breed, originally from Germany, now rare. The Affenpinscher is a terrier-like toy breed of dog. Weighing 7 to 8 pounds (3-4 kg) and not exceeding 11 inches (24-28 cm) in height at the withers, the Affenpinscher has harsh rough coat and a monkey-like…

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affinity

A relationship by marriage. Countries generally have rules prohibiting marriage between certain people where there is an affinity - for example between parents and their step-children (subject to certain unusual exceptions, eg when the step-child was not brought up in the same household as the step-parent). Such prohibitions also apply where there is consanguinity (a blood relationship). Af…

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affirmative action - Purpose, Controversy, International human rights law, Implementation worldwide, Notes and references

Policies requiring institutions to act ‘affirmatively’ in employment or other recruitment practices to avoid discrimination on grounds of race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, or sexual orientation; usually found in the USA. Executive Order 10925 issued by President Kennedy contained the first use of the term. Affirmative action policies can range from encouraging the employment of minorities…

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affix - Lexical affixes

A grammatical element which cannot occur on its own, but must always attach to the root or stem of a word. Every language has a limited or closed set of affixes. In English, they may precede the stem (prefixes), as in impossible, or follow it (suffixes), as in formal. Some other languages have infixes, which are attached within the word. 1 English tmeses, as in this example, are by some con…

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Afghan hound - Temperament, Health, History

A breed of dog; large, slender, with a bouncing step; hair very long, silky (short-haired forms also exist); long thin muzzle; originated in Middle East; was used for hunting in N Afghanistan; hunts by sight. The Afghan Hound is a very old sighthound dog breed. The temperament of the typical Afghan Hound can be aloof and dignified, but happy and clownish when playing. The Afghan…

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Afghanistan - Name, History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, People, Education, Communication and technology, Views of Afghanistan

Official name Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Persian Dowlat-e-Islami-ye-Afghanestan Afghānistān, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Persian: جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان), is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Asia and the Middle East. Afghanistan is a mosaic of ethnic groups …

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aflatoxin - Contamination conditions, Pathology, Detection of aflatoxin in humans, Major types of aflatoxins and their metabolites

A toxin produced by the mould Aspergillus flavus (from Aspergillus flavus toxin) commonly found in groundnuts (peanuts), cottonseed, soybeans, wheat, barley, sorghum, and nuts such as pistachios, almonds, and cacao, where the climate favours its growth. The major epidemic of ‘Turkey-X disease’ in turkeys in the USA in 1960 was caused by feeding with contaminated groundnuts. Symptoms of poisoning…

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Africa - Geography, History, Politics, Economy, Demographics, Languages

area c.30·97 million km²/11·6 million sq mi. Second largest continent, extending S from the Mediterranean Sea; bounded W by the Atlantic Ocean and E by the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea; bisected by the Equator; maximum length, 8000 km/5000 mi; maximum width, 7200 km/4500 mi; highest point, Mt Kilimanjaro (5895 m/19 340 ft); major rivers include the Congo, Niger, Nile, Zambezi. …

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African art - Area of influence, History, Influence on Western art, Traditional art, Contemporary art, By country

Visual art forms of the Continent of Africa, originally rock painting and drawings, in open shelters rather than caves. Scratched or incised drawings occur more abundantly throughout the Sahara than anywhere else in the world, and extend chronologically from ancient times almost to the present day. Early representations of wild animals, some now extinct, attest to a hunting culture that flourished…

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African dance - Cultural functions of African dances, Examples of African dances

The most common form of dance within the sub-Saharan tradition, performed either in a closed circle or in a linear formation controlled by a team leader. Dance teams may include a soloist, or encourage each team member to leave the circle in turn and improvise freely in the centre. African dances are percussive, employing hand and foot movements and posture to express the rhythmic pulses of their …

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African horse sickness - Epidemiology, Host, Transmission, Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

A disease of horses caused by a virus of the Orbivirus group. It affects all Equidae, but asses, mules, and zebra are more resistant than horses. The organism is transmitted by a mosquito and is highly infectious. It causes mainly respiratory signs, often with swelling of the head and neck. There is a high mortality rate, and the disease is notifiable in the UK. A vaccine is available which protec…

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African languages - Language families, Language in Africa, Linguistic features

The languages of the continent of Africa; c.1300, spoken by c.400 million people. They are difficult to classify, because relatively few have been systematically described, and it is not always clear whether two varieties are separate languages or dialects of the same language. Few had written form before the Christian missionary activities of the 19th-c. Many of these languages do not have offici…

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African literature - Precolonial African literature, Colonial African literature, Postcolonial African literature, Major African novels, Major African poets

The literature of the continent of Africa. Much still belongs to the oral tradition, closely linked to both secular occupation and religious ritual. Throughout the many language groups, there is a wealth of dirges, laments, love songs, chants, celebrations, invectives, and poems inciting warriors to battle, with musical accompaniment. Literature is written in both African and the post-colonial lan…

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African Methodist Episcopal Church - Church name, History, Beliefs, Church mission, Colleges, seminaries and universities, Structure, Bishops

A Church formed at a national meeting of Black Methodists in 1816 in the USA, the culmination of a movement begun in 1787. It expanded rapidly after the Civil War, and today has c.1·2 million members. In 1841 it established the first African-American publishing house in the USA. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the "AME Church", is a Christian denomination founded by …

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African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church - Structure, The Church Today

An African-American Methodist Church in the USA, dating from 1821, which emerged when a group reacted against the discrimination they experienced as members of a New York City Methodist foundation. The Church grew rapidly after the American Civil War, and in 2004 its membership was c.1·5 million. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, or AME Zion Church, was officially formed in 1821…

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African National Congress (ANC) - History, Coming to power, Key personalities within the ANC, Criticism

The most important of the Black South African organizations opposed to the white regime. It began life in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, and under the influence of Gandhi organized passive resistance to white power. Banned by the South African government in 1961, it began a campaign of industrial and economic sabotage through its military wing, and in the 1980s started attacki…

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African Union - Overview, History of the African Union, Summits, Organization, Economy, Languages, Geography, Foreign relations, Symbols

An organization of African nations, founded in 1963 as the Organization of African Unity. By seeking to perpetuate the territorial integrity of African states, it accepted the often artificial boundaries created by the Partition of Africa. It played some part in pressing forward the process of decolonization, particularly through the United Nations Special Committee, but then became less active. O…

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Afrika Bambaataa - Discography, Music sample

Record producer, arranger, and disc jockey, born in New York City, USA. He worked in high schools and public parks during the 1970s, and developed the style of music known as ‘rap’. His record Planet Rock (1982) was a major influence on dance records on both sides of the Atlantic. Afrika Bambaataa (born Kevin Donovan on April 17 or October 4, 1957 or 1960) is a DJ and community leader fro…

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Afrika Korps - Organization, Afrika Korps marching songs

A German expeditionary force of two divisions under the command of Rommel, sent to N Africa (Mar 1941) to reinforce Italian troops there. It had been given special desert training in Germany, and proved highly effective in desert warfare between 1941 and 1944. The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK listen?(help·info)) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the Ge…

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Afrikaans - Grammar, Orthography, Comparison with Dutch, German and English, Sociolinguistics

South African or Cape Dutch, the language of Dutch colonization, and a variety of West Germanic, but with many loan words from Bantu and other languages. It became a written language in the late 19th-c. In the Namaland region of SW Africa, there is an Afrikaans-based pidgin used in communication between tribesmen and Afrikaners. It was originally the dialect that developed among the Afrikan…

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Afro-Asiatic languages

The major language family in N Africa, the E horn of Africa, and SW Asia. It comprises more than 200 languages, spoken by 200 million people. The major subgroup is the Semitic family, consisting principally of Arabic, Hebrew, Tigrinya, and Amharic. Egyptian is now extinct. Amongst other subgroups are Cushitic, Berber, and Chadic. The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with …

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Aga Khan - History, Incumbent, Philanthropy, List of those who have held the title of Aga Khan

Title of the hereditary head of the Ismailian sect of Muslims, who trace their origins to the mediaeval Assassins. The title has been held by four men: Hasan Ali Shah (r.1818–81); Ali Shah (r.1881–5); Mohammed Shah (r.1885–1957), and Karim, 49th imam of the line (r.1957– ). In the 20th-c the Aga Khans played prominent roles as world statesmen; Aga Khan III served as president of the League of …

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Aga Khan I

Imam of the Nizari Ismailite sect of the Shiite Muslims. He claimed to be descended from Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed. Appointed governor of the Iranian province of Kerman, he was granted the title of Aga Khan in 1818 by the Shah of Iran. In 1838 he rose in revolt against Mohammed Shah but was defeated and fled to India. He helped the British in the first Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42)…

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Aga Khan III - Birth and education, Career, Race horse owner, Marriages and children, Death and succession

Imam of the Ismaili sect of Muslims, born in Karachi, SE Pakistan, the son of Aga Khan II. He succeeded to the title in 1885, and in 1910 founded Aligarh University. He worked for the British cause in both World Wars, and in 1937 was president of the League of Nations Assembly. A keen racecourse enthusiast, he owned several Derby winners. Aga Khan III (Arabic: آغا خان الثالث), P…

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Agadir - History, Museums, Education, Economy, Christian Community of Agadir, Jewish Community of Agadir, Beaches, Parks and Gardens

30°30N 9°40W, pop (2000e) 160 000. Seaport in Sud province, W Morocco; on the Atlantic coast, 8 km/5 mi N of the mouth of the R Sous; named Santa Cruz by the Portuguese, 1505–41; taken by the French in 1913; extensive rebuilding after earthquake in 1960; airport; fishing, tourism; 16th-c kasbah fortress; African People's Arts Festival (Jul). It is served by the Al Massira Airport.(Ag…

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Agamemnon - Early life, The Trojan War, Return to Greece, Other stories, Agamemnon in fiction

King of Argos and commander of the Greek army in the Trojan War. In the Iliad, Homer calls him ‘king of men’. On his return home he was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra. Agamemnon (Greek: Ἀγαμέμνων) ("very resolute") is one of the most distinguished heroes of Greek mythology. Agamemnon's father Atreus was murdered by Aegisthus, who took possession of the throne of M…

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agar - Uses in microbiology, Uses in molecular biology, Uses in cooking, Uses in plant biology

A jelly-like compound produced from seaweed. It is used, after sterilization and the addition of suitable nutrients, for culture of fungi or bacteria for medicinal or research purposes. Agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae or seaweed. It is also known as kanten or agal-agal (Ceylon agar). Chemically, agar is a polymer made up o…

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agate - Formation and characteristics, Types of agate, Agate beliefs, Uses in industry

A form of chalcedony, a fine-grained variety of the mineral quartz. It is formed in cavities, and characterized by fine colour-banding of successive growth layers. Colour variations result in semi-precious stones such as onyx (white/grey), carnelian (red), and chrysoprase (apple-green). Agate is a term applied not to a distinct mineral species, but to an aggregate of various forms of silica…

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Agathocles

Ruler of Syracuse, born at Terme, Sicily. After seizing power in 317 BC, he clashed with the Carthaginians and was defeated at Ecnomo (310 BC). When the Carthaginians besieged Syracuse, Agathocles brought the war to Africa. After achieving peace, he was left in control of all Sicily apart from Agrigento. At his death, he bequeathed his possessions to the people of Syracuse. Agathocles (361-…

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agave - Agave americana, Species

An evergreen perennial native to S USA, Central America, and N South America; stems very short, tough; leaves sword-shaped, often spiny on margins, thick, fleshy, and waxy, forming a rosette. The plant grows for many years, adding a few leaves and building up reserves each year, finally producing a huge branched inflorescence up to 7 m/23 ft high, with many flowers, after which it dies. Many spe…

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agenda setting

The presumed power of interest groups, politicians, and the mass media to determine the public's perception of the salience and relative importance of issues. The term was coined in 1972 and has subsequently come to apply to a body of work in the field of mass communications. The agenda-setting hypothesis posits a cognitive correspondence on the part of the media, the public, and politicians (or o…

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Agent Orange - Description, Use in South East Asia (1961-1971), Effects of the program, Lawsuits, Miscellaneous

(2,4,5-T or 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) A herbicide used as a defoliant in jungle warfare, for example by the British in Malaya and the USA in Vietnam. Its name derives from the orange rings painted around the containers used in Vietnam. It is toxic to humans because it contains traces of dioxin, which produces severe skin eruptions (chloracne), and also birth abnormalities and cancer in l…

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aggiornamento

The process of making the life, doctrine, and worship of the Roman Catholic Church effective in the modern world. This was initiated by Pope John XXIII at the Second Vatican Council (1962–5). Aggiornamento, literally meaning "bringing up to date," was one of the key words used during the Second Vatican Council both by bishops and clergy attending the sessions, and by the media and Va…

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agglomerate

Coarse volcanic rock that consists of a mixture of fragments of various sizes and shapes. It is usually deposited as part of a volcanic cone and derived from the rocks through which the volcanic magma has travelled on its way to the surface. Agglomerates (from the Latin 'agglomerare' meaning 'to form into a ball') are accumulations of large blocks of volcanic material often found around ven…

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Agilulf

King of the Lombards (590–616). As Duke of Turin, he married Autari's widow, Theodolinda, and succeeded him to the throne. He asserted his authority on rebel dukes, conquered Padua (601), and forced the Byzantine exarch to pay him a tribute. Although an Arian, under the influence of the Catholic Theodolinda he promoted the spread of Catholicism among his people and sustained a policy of conciliat…

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Agitprop

An abbreviation for the Department of Agitation and Propaganda, established in 1920 as a section of the Central Committee Secretariat of the Soviet Communist Party. Its role was to ensure the compatibility of activities within society with Communist Party ideology. The term later came to be widely used in an artistic or literary context for works or cultural activities which adopted an ideological…

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Agnes (George) De Mille

Choreographer, born in New York City, New York, USA. The daughter of the playwright William C de Mille and niece of film producer Cecil B De Mille, she made her dancing debut in 1928. During the 1930s she worked in America and Europe as a dancer and actress. In 1936 she had her first commission as a choreographer, creating the dance sequences for an English film version of Romeo and Juliet. This l…

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Agnes Arber - People, Things, Companies

Botanist and philosopher, born in London, UK. Her works include Herbals, Their Origin and Evolution (1912), Water Plants (1920), and several later philosophical books, such as The Manifold and the One (1957). …

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Agnes Chase - Geography, History, Sovereign Princes/Princesses of Meara, Pretenders of Meara, Sources

Botanist and agrostologist, born in Iroquois Co, Illinois, USA. She had little formal education and, after her one-year marriage ended with her husband's untimely death (1889), she worked at various jobs to pay his debts. She began cataloging her own collection of wild flowers in 1897 and worked at the Field Museum of Natural History (1901–3), the US Department of Agriculture (1903–39), and the …

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Agnes Maclehose

Scots literary figure, the daughter of an Edinburgh surgeon. She met Robert Burns at a party in Edinburgh in 1787, and subsequently carried on the well-known correspondence with him under the name of Clarinda. Their correspondence was published in 1843, two years after her death. A number of Burns's poems and songs were dedicated to her. In geography: In fiction: In …

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Agnes Macphail

Suffragette and politician, Canada's first woman MP, born in Grey Co, Ontario, SE Canada. A schoolteacher, she became involved with the women's suffrage movement, and was elected MP for the United Farmers of Ontario (1921–40). She was a leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation of Canada, and represented Canada in the Assembly of the League of Nations. Agnes Campbell Macphail (Mar…

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Agnes Nestor

Labour leader, born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. A gloveworker in Chicago, she led her sister gloveworkers in a drive for a union shop (1898), became president of the all-female local (1902), and rose through the ranks to become president of the International Gloveworkers Union (1913–15). She was also active in the National Women's Trade Union League (1913–48). Beyond her varied labour union …

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Agnes Smedley - Life, Works

Journalist and social activist, born in Osgood, Missouri, USA. After an early life of deprivation and self-education, she took up revolutionary and pacifist causes, first being jailed in India (1918) for working for liberation from Britain. She went to China for a German newspaper (1928) and lived there until 1941, openly identifying with the Chinese Communist movement in her reporting and in her …

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Agni - Depictions, Agni in the Vedas, Agni God as witness, Agni in other faiths and religions

The Hindu god of fire, especially important to the priesthood, because in the fire-cult he takes offerings and sacrifices to the gods. More hymns are addressed to him than to any other god. His chariot is drawn by red horses, and clears a way through the jungle by burning: but he is welcome in every home as a principle of life and because he drives away demons. Agni is a Hindu and Vedic dei…

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Agnolo Firenzuola - Biography

Writer, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. A monk, he was released from his vows and became a lawyer. His scholarly Ragionamenti d'amore, a collection of bawdy, Boccaccio-style short stories (1523–4) combined cultured language and a popular subject. He also wrote a remake of Apuleius' The Golden Ass. Other works include Discorsi delle bellezze delle donne (1540) after the Cortegiano, and the tr…

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agnosia - Types

A condition found in some brain-damaged individuals, whereby they are unable to recognize objects despite adequate basic visual and intellectual abilities. It is often specific to a particular sensory modality; for example a patient might be able to recognize by touch but not by sight. Agnosia (a-gnosis, "non-knowledge", or loss of knowledge) is a loss of ability to recognize objects, perso…

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agnosticism - Qualifying agnosticism, Philosophical opinions

Strictly, the view that God's existence cannot be known (theism) nor denied (atheism). The term was derived from the ‘unknown’ God in Acts 17.23, and first used (by T H Huxley) in 1869: agnostics were contrasted with gnostics, or metaphysicians. It was later extended to include the view that knowledge must be restricted to what is available to the senses, and that anything not so available (incl…

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Agostino (di Duccio)

Sculptor, born in Florence, NC Italy. His best and most original work is the relief decoration for the Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini, a church designed by Alberti. Agostino di Duccio (1418 - 1481) was an Italian early Renaissance sculptor. Born in Florence, he worked in Prato with Donatello and Michelozzo, who influenced him greatly. In 1446, he studied late Gothic s…

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Agostino Depretis

Italian politician, born in Mezzana Corti, Piedmont, N Italy. He became a deputy for the Stradella constituency in the Piedmont parliament in 1848 and was an important member of the left. He held a number of ministerial posts in public works and finance before returning to the opposition. In 1875 he outlined his political programme in the famous Stradella speech, and assembled his first cabinet in…

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Agostino Magliani

Italian politician, born in Laurino, Campania, SW Italy. An able finance minister (1877–88), he succeeded in abolishing unpopular measures such as the grist-tax (1880) and forced currency (1881), although his methods were open to criticism. Agostino Magliani (1824 - February 22, 1891), Italian financier, was a native of Lanzino, near Salerno. He studied at Naples, and a book on…

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Agra - Geography, Demographics, History, Places of Interest

27°17N 77°58E, pop (2000e) 1 055 000. City in Uttar Pradesh, NE India, 190 km/118 mi SE of Delhi; founded, 1566; Mughal capital until 1659; taken by the British, 1803; seat of the government of North-West Provinces, 1835–62; airfield; railway; university (1927); commerce, glass and leather crafts, carpets; Taj Mahal (1632–54), Pearl Mosque of Shah Jahan (1662), Mirror Palace (Shish Mahal)…

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agranulocytosis

A clinical condition in which granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) disappear from the blood, leaving the patient vulnerable to infection. It has many causes, including certain drugs and diseases that damage the bone marrow. Agranulocytosis (literally meaning a lack of granulocytes) is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (reduction in the number of white blood…

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agribusiness

The combined businesses of: farmers, who produce commodities; input industries, which supply them with equipment, chemicals, and finance; and merchants, processors, and distributors, who convert commodities into foodstuffs, ready for sale to consumers. In many countries the agribusiness sector employs more labour and generates more income than any other sector of the economy. In agriculture…

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Agricultural Revolution

The name popularly given to a series of changes in farming practice occurring first in England and later throughout W Europe. Some historians date these as far back as the end of the 16th-c, but the term usually covers the period 1700–1850. The main changes included: greater intensity of productive land use; the reduction of fallow land and waste lands; the introduction of crop rotation; the deve…

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agriculture - Overview, History, Crops, Environmental problems, Policy

The cultivation of crops and the keeping of domesticated animals for food, fibre, or power. Settled agriculture enabled primitive people, who depended on hunting, fishing, and gathering, to live in communities, which could then grow as their agricultural productivity grew. This was aided by the development of such implements as ploughs, hoes, and sickles, and in drier countries by the construction…

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agrimony

An erect perennial (Agrimonia eupatoria) growing to 60 cm/2 ft, native to Europe, W Asia, and N Africa; leaves hairy, pinnate with pairs of small leaflets alternating with large ones; flowers 5–8 mm/0·2–0·3 in diameter, 5-petalled, yellow, in a long terminal spike. The fruit is a burr with hooked spines around the top. (Family: Rosaceae.) …

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Agrippina

Roman noblewoman, the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and granddaughter of Emperor Augustus. She married Germanicus Caesar (15 BC–AD 19), and was the mother of Caligula and Agrippina the Younger. Regarded as a model of heroic womanhood, she accompanied her husband on his campaigns. Her popularity incurred the anger of the Emperor Tiberius, who banished her in 29 to the island of Pandateria, …

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Agrippina

Roman noblewoman, the daughter of Agrippina (the Elder) and Germanicus. She first married Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, by whom she had a son, the future Emperor Nero. Her third husband was Emperor Claudius, though her own uncle. She persuaded Claudius to adopt Nero as his successor, then proceeded to poison all Nero's rivals and enemies, and finally (allegedly) the emperor himself. Her ascendancy …

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agroforestry - Alley cropping, Energy and Ethanol Production

The cultivation of tree or bush crops (such as coffee, oil palm, rubber, or tea), sometimes alternating with annual food crops, to give a sustainable and economically viable agricultural cropping system. Such systems are frequently used in place of the climax forest vegetation of the humid or sub-humid tropics. The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) made this definition in 1993: "Agroforestr…

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agronomy - Selective Breeding, Agronomy and Soil, Soil Preservation, Theoretical modelling, Employment of Agronomists

The theory and practice of field-crop production and soil management. The subject embraces several disciplines, including plant breeding, plant physiology, plant pathology, and soil conservation. Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. Agronomists work to develop methods that will improve the use of soil and inc…

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Agust

Footballer, born in Ibarra, Ecuador. He began his career with Espoli as a defender, but developed as a striker after his move to Barcelona de Guayaquil. He transferred to Mexican club Necaxa, where his talented play and goal scoring at the FIFA World Club Championships brought international recognition. At the end of 2001 he joined Southampton FC, becoming the first player from Ecuador to play in …

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Ahab

King of Israel (c.873–c.852 BC), the son of Omri. He was a warrior king and builder on a heroic scale, extending his capital city of Samaria and refortifying Megiddo and Hazor. He married Jezebel, daughter of the king of Tyre and Sidon, who introduced the worship of the Phoenician god, Baal, in opposition to Yahweh (the God of Israelite religion), and thus aroused the hostility of the prophet Eli…

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Ahaggar Mountains

Mountain range in S Algeria, N Africa; rises to 2918 m/9573 ft at Mt Tahat, the highest point in Algeria; peaks rise from a plateau with a mean elevation of c.2000 m/6500 ft; includes the ‘mountain of goblins’, Garet el Djenoun (2327 m/7634 ft), according to legend a holy mountain. The Ahaggar Mountains are essentially constituted of volcanic rocks. However, since the climate is les…

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Ahimsa - Hinduism, Jainism, Gandhi

The principle of respect for all life and the practice of non-injury to living things, found in certain Hindu sects, Buddhism, and especially Jainism. It is based on the belief that violence has harmful effects on those who commit it, including an unfavourable future rebirth. The rule of non-violence was applied by Mahatma Gandhi in the political sphere during India's struggle for independence. …

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Ahmad Jamal

Jazz pianist, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He began playing the piano at three and joined the musicians' union at 14. In 1952 he became the house pianist at the Lounge of the Pershing Hotel in Chicago with a guitarist and bassist, and his distinctive style, characterized by melodic understatement, harmonic inventiveness, and rhythmic lightness, attracted a small but fervent audience, amo…

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Ahmadou Ahidjo

Cameroonian statesman and president (1960–82), born in Garoua, N Cameroon. He became prime minister in 1958, and led his country to independence in 1960. He was elected the first president of the new Republic of Cameroon, a post which he held until his retirement. He then went into exile in France. Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (24 August 1924 - 30 November 1989) was the president of Cameroon f…

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Ahmose I - Dates and length of reign, Campaigns, Art and monumental constructions, Mummy, Succession

Egyptian pharoah (ruled c.1570–1546 BC), who founded the 18th dynasty. He freed Egypt from the alien Shepherd Kings (Hyksos), and established control over Nubia. Ahmose I (sometimes read as Amosis I and meaning The Moon is Born) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometim…

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Ahura Mazda - Perceived origin, In Zoroaster's revelation, In Zurvanite Zoroastrianism, In present-day Zoroastrianism

The name for God used by Zoroaster and his followers. The world is the arena for the battle between Ahura Mazda and Ahriman, the spirit of evil - a battle in which Ahura Mazda will finally prevail and become fully omnipotent. Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be…

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Ai Qing

Poet, born in Jinhua Co, E China. He studied painting in France (1928–31), but returned to China and began to write socially and politically conscious poetry. In 1949 he became associate editor of the People's Literature journal. He was an active propagandist for Communist-controlled literature, but in 1957 was accused of revisionism. In 1959 he was exiled to Zinjiang for 17 years. He began to pu…

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AIDS - Infection by HIV, Diagnosis, Notes and references

Acronym for acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, the result of infection with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). The virus is transmitted sexually, or by inoculation with contaminated blood, and can also be passed from mother to baby at birth. In the West, the groups most at risk are homosexual or bisexual men, people with multiple sexual partners, intravenous drug abusers, and people who ha…

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aikido - Spirit of Aikido, History, Technique, Ranking, Clothing, Ki, Body, Mind, Styles, Aikidoka, Aikido Organisations

An ancient Japanese art of self-defence, with ethical and philosophical undertones - a combination of karate and judo deriving from ancient jujitsu. There are two main systems, tomiki and uyeshiba. Aikido is a modern Japanese budō, developed by Morihei Ueshiba between the 1920s and the 1960s primarily from Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu. Aikido is known for emphasizing the spiritual and p…

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Aim - Early life, Evangelism and Foursquare Gospel, "Kidnapping", Later career, Landmarks, Film

Pentecostal evangelist and healer, born near Ingersoll, Ontario, SE Canada. Widowed shortly after her first marriage, she became hugely successful as an evangelist. In 1918 she founded the Foursquare Gospel Movement in Los Angeles, and for nearly two decades conducted a flamboyant preaching and healing ministry in the Angelus Temple, which cost her followers $1·5 million to construct. She had her…

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Ainsworth Rand Spofford

Librarian, born in Gilmanton, New Hampshire, USA. During his tenure as Librarian of Congress (1865–97), he initiated legislation and transformed the Library of Congress from the library of the legislature to the nation's library. Ainsworth Rand Spofford (September 12, 1825 – August 11, 1908) was the sixth United States Librarian of Congress, serving from 1864 to 1897. Spoffor…

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air conditioning - History, Air conditioning applications, Humidity control, Vapor-compression refrigeration cycle

A system which improves the quality of air by purifying it (removing particles of dust, smoke, or pollen) and controlling its temperature and humidity (the amount of water in the air). Improved air quality helps people sleep at night and remain alert during the day. It also helps sufferers of allergies such as hay fever and asthma. Most offices, shops, and public buildings and many means of transp…

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air force - Organization

The branch of the armed forces which operates aircraft and missiles. The first air forces were founded 1911–14. During World War 1 these fledgling air arms became major military organizations engaged in prosecuting war in the air. Air forces proved decisive to the outcome of World War 2, whether they fought in a tactical role (fighters and short-range ground-attack aircraft), strategically (long-…

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air miles - AIRMILES - UK, Air Miles - Canada

A consumer incentive scheme which offers the chance of free air travel in return for credits earned by frequent flyers who have joined the scheme. Credits may also be obtained through other means, such as authorized retail transactions, and flights of greater distance become possible as credits accumulate. An ‘air mile’ is a nautical mile as used by aircraft. The Air Miles Reward Program …

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Air Traffic Control (ATC) - Terminal Control, En-route, Center, or Area Control, Problems, Technology

The guidance of an aircraft from one airport to another - a procedure which goes on day and night and in almost all weather conditions. From loading ramp to runway threshold, the pilot is directed by a ground controller. At busy airports this controller may use ground radar to make sure that aircraft, maintenance vans, luggage ferries, and other moving vehicles avoid each other. Take-off is direct…

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Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS)

An aircraft-mounted radar system able to detect and track hostile intruders at long range and direct friendly fighters to intercept them. The US Air Force operates the Boeing E-3 Sentry AWACS. The Sentry is also flown by a joint European NATO unit, has been supplied to Saudi Arabia, and is used by the British and French air forces. Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is a radar-base…

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airbrush - History, Design, Types, Spray guns, Technique, Street artists

A miniature spray-gun used to create smoother tonal transitions and more delicate colour effects than are possible with a conventional brush. The technique is mainly used by commercial illustrators. An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media including ink and dye, but most often paint by a process of atomization. Spray guns developed from the airbrush and are …

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aircraft - Categories and classification

Any vehicle designed to operate within the Earth's atmosphere, supporting itself by means of lift generated by wings or other methods. Aircraft fall into two broad categories: Heavier than air aircraft, or aerodynes, include autogyros, helicopters and gyrocopters, and conventional fixed-wing aircraft (aeroplanes). Fixed-wing aircraft generally use an internal-combustion en…

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aircraft carrier - Flight deck, Common types, History and milestones, Post-war developments

A naval vessel on which aircraft can take off and land, developed during World War 1. The first carrier, HMS Furious (1918), was a battle-cruiser with forward and after flight-decks. The alighting aircraft had to fly alongside and sideslip onto the deck, forward of the bridge. Furious was reconstructed in 1925 and fitted with an island bridge layout on the starboard side of a continuous flight-dec…

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Airedale terrier - Temperament, Health, History

The largest breed of terrier; black and tan, thick wiry coat, stiff erect tail, small ears, short beard on chin; developed in Airedale valley (England) by crossing large hunting terriers (now extinct) and otterhounds. The Airedale Terrier (often shortened to "Airedale") is a large and versatile terrier dog breed originating from Airedale in Yorkshire, England, in the UK. Strippi…

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airship - Terminology, Types, Lifting gas, History, Continued use, Present-day research, Noteworthy historic prototypes and experiments

A self-propelled steerable aircraft whose lift is generated by using lighter-than-air gases to provide buoyancy. The main body is cigar-shaped, with engines and gondolas (cabins) being suspended from it. There are three types of airship construction: rigid, semi-rigid, and non-rigid. In the first type, the body shape is maintained by a rigid frame, with the lift being provided by individual gas ce…

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Aix-en-Provence - History, Main sights, Education, Festival d'Aix-en-Provence, Museums, Economy

43°31N 5°27E, pop (2000e) 130 000. Ancient city in Bouches-du-Rhône department, SE France; 30 km/19 mi N of Marseille in a fertile plain surrounded by mountains; founded as Aquae Sextiae in 123 BC; important centre for Provençal literature since the 15th-c; airport; railway; university (1409); olive oil, fruit, almond processing; many fountains; archbishopric; 11th–16th-c St Saver Cathedr…

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Ajaccio

41°55N 8°40E, pop (2000e) 62 700. Seaport and capital of the Island of Corsica, France; on the W coast, at the head of Golfe de Ajaccio; founded by the Genoese, 1492; made capital by Napoleon, 1811; Corsica's second largest port; airport; railway; car ferries to Marseille, Toulon, Nice; fishing, timber trade, tourism; casino; Maison Bonaparte (birthplace of Napoleon), now a museum. …

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Ajax - Mythology and literature, Vehicles, Fiction, Music, Sport, Places, Other uses

The name of two legendary Greek heroes during the Trojan War; the Latin form of Greek Aias. 1 The son of Telamon, King of Salamis, therefore known as Telamonian Ajax. He was proverbial for his size and strength; in all the worst situations he ‘stood like a tower’. When the armour of the dead Achilles was not given to him, he went mad and killed himself. 2 The son of Oileus, King of Locris. When …

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Akan

A cluster of Twi (Kwa)-speaking peoples mostly in Ghana, and in the Côte d'Ivoire and Togo, comprising several kingdoms. The best known and largest is the Asante (Ashanti). All recognize matrilineal descent, and have a long urban and trading tradition. Population c.5 million. Akan may be: …

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Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge

Suspension bridge across the Akashi Straits between Honshu and Shikoku, Japan, begun in 1988 and opened in 1998. With a main span of 1991 m/6532 ft (overall length 3911 m/12 831 ft) it is now the longest suspension bridge in the world. It also has the tallest towers of any bridge: 294 m/965 ft. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge (明石海峡大橋, Akashi Kaikyō Ō-hashi), (34.6095N, 135.014…

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Akihito

Emperor of Japan (1989– ), born in Tokyo, Japan, the son of Hirohito. He studied among commoners at the elite Gakushuin school, and in 1959 married Michiko Shoda (1934– ), the daughter of a flour company president, who thus became the first non-aristocrat to enter the imperial family. They have three children: Crown Prince Naruhito (1960– ), Prince Akishino (1963– ), and Princess Sayako (1969

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Akio Morita - Further reading

Manufacturer, born in Nagoya, EC Japan. With Masaru Ibuka he founded, after World War 2, the electronics firm which since 1958 has been known as Sony. Like many Japanese companies, Sony has been at the forefront of technological developments and has had a strong design policy. Among its most important products have been early tape recorders for the domestic market (c.1950), advanced television equ…

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Akira Kurosawa - Early career, Directorial approach, Influences, His influence, Collaboration, Later films, Trivia, Awards, Filmography, Further reading

Film director, born in Tokyo, Japan. He began as a painter, and joined a cinema studio in 1936, making his first feature film (Sanshiro Sugata) in 1943. He was renowned for his adaptation of the techniques of the Noh theatre to film-making, in such films as Rashomon (1950), which won the Venice Film Festival Prize, and Shichinin No Samurai (1954, The Seven Samurai). Also characteristic were his li…

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Akron - Other uses

41°05N 81°31W, pop (2000e) 217 100. Seat of Summit Co, NE Ohio, USA, on the Little Cuyahoga R; laid out, 1825; city status, 1865; airfield; railway; university (1913); centre of US rubber industry; metal products, tyres, machinery; polymer research centre; Goodyear World of Rubber Museum, E J Thomas Performing Arts Hall, Blossom Music Centre. Akron is the name of several places in the U…

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Akutagawa Prize

Literary prize awarded biannually (January and June) for the best serious work of fiction by a promising new Japanese writer published in a magazine or journal. Judged by the Society for the Promotion of Japanese Literature (Nihon Bungaku Shinkokai), the winning work is published in the magazine Bungei Shunju. It was created in 1935 in memory of writer Akutagawa Ry?nosuke (1892–1927). Occa…

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Al Capp - Early life, Li'l Abner, Trivia

Strip cartoonist, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Designers Art School, Boston (1929), and entered strips as assistant to Bud Fisher on Mutt and Jeff (1930). Joining Associated Press, he took on a daily joke, Mr Gilfeather (1932), then became assistant to Ham Fisher on Joe Palooka (1933), introducing hill-billy characters, and developed L'il Abner (1934). Capp's chunky artwork c…

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Al Held

Painter, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the Art Students' League in New York and in Paris, then returned to New York, and during the 1950s painted in the abstract expressionist manner. From 1960 he adopted a more geometric style, painting complex cube-like structures with heavy impasto paint. In the 1980s he turned to acrylic paints, rendering precise and brightly coloured geometric for…

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Al Jolson - Early life and career, The Jolson Story, Death, Stage work, Select recordings

Actor and singer, born in Srednike (now Seredzius), Lithuania. In 1894 he emigrated with his family to Washington, DC, to join his father, a rabbi and cantor. He began singing on street corners, then went to New York City and made his debut as an extra in Children of the Ghetto (1899). By age 15 he was touring in vaudeville and minstrel shows as a boy soprano and whistler, and by 1906 he was in Sa…

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Al Unser

Motor-racing driver, born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. He won the Indianapolis 500 four times (1970–1, 1978, 1987), beating his brother, Bobby (1934– ), who won the race in 1968, 1975, and 1981. His son, Al Unser, Jr (1962– ), also became a champion auto racer and was twice winner of the Indianapolis 500 (1992, 1994). 2 championships, 4 victories. …

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al-Sabah - Current events, Al-Sabah Dynasty, Other notable members of al-Sabah, Sources and references

The ruling dynasty of Kuwait. Dating their authority in Kuwait to the mid-18th-c, the al-Sabah sheikhs attempted to maintain their independence among the competing rivalries of European, Ottoman, and local powers. Mubarak the Great (r.1896–1915) sought British protection to forestall Ottoman intervention into Kuwaiti affairs. Since independence in 1961, al-Sabah rule has twice been challenged by …

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Alabama - Law and government, Education, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 4 447 100; area 133 911 km²/51 705 sq mi. State in SE USA, divided into 67 counties; the ‘Heart of Dixie’, the ‘Camellia State’, or ‘Yellowhammer’; first permanent settlement by the French at Mobile, 1711; N Alabama became part of the USA in 1783, the remainder being acquired by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; the 22nd state to be admitted to the Union, 1819; seceded, 18…

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alabaster - Types

A fine-grained banded variety of the mineral gypsum; pale and translucent. It is soft enough to be carved and polished by hand for ornamental use. Alabaster (sometimes called satin spar) is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals: gypsum (a hydrous sulfate of calcium) and the calcite (a carbonate of calcium). The former is the alabaster of the present day; the lat…

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Alain

A family of French organists: Albert (1880–1971), organist at St Germain-en-Laye (1924), wrote motets and numerous pieces for the organ. Jehan (1911–40) his son, born in St Germain, was a brilliant organist and composer, and a pupil of Dupré at the Conservatoire de Paris. He wrote 93 organ pieces and chamber music, including a quintet for strings. He favoured mystery over charm. Olivier (1918–…

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Alain Chartier

Poet and political writer, born in Bayeux, NW France. He studied at the University of Paris and became first a secretary to Charles VI and then to the dauphin (later Charles VII). His work covers many subjects and forms, but is characterized by its exemplary elegance and Latinate style, such as Livre des quatre dames (1415) and Quadrilogue invectif (1422). His poems, mainly allegories, include La …

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Alain Decaux

Writer, born in Lille, N France. He published numerous articles and popular works on history, such as Dossiers secrets de l'Histoire (1966) and Les grands Mystères du Passé (1964). He was appointed minister of French speaking communities, and elected to the Académie Française. 1952 La Conspiration du général Malet (Librairie académique Perrin) 1952 La Médaille militaire …

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Alain Delon - Filmography

Film actor, born in Paris, France. He became known following his success as one of the lead roles in a thriller adapted from a Patricia Highsmith novel, Purple Moon (1960). Later films include The Leopard (1962), The Assassination of Trotsky (1972), Swann in Love (1984), The Day and the Night (1997), Half a Chance (1998), and Le Lion (2003, TV). …

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Alain Enthoven

Economist, systems analyst, and health-care reformer, born in Seattle, Oregon, USA. The son of an English father and French mother, the family settled in Seattle. He studied economics at Stanford, was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, then took a PhD in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1956). He worked with the Rand Corp (1956–61), where he pioneered the multi-disciplinary approa…

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Alain Prost - Complete Formula One results, Further reading

Motor-racing driver and team owner, born in St Chamond, SW France. He was the first Frenchman to win the world title. He won in 1985–6 (both for McLaren–Porsche), was runner-up in 1983–4 and 1988, and won again in 1989 (for Maclaren–Honda) and 1993, when he announced his retirement. During his Formula 1 career he won 51races from 199 starts, and his 798·5 championship points is a world record…

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Alain Resnais - Career, Collaborators, Awards, Trivia, Filmography, Further reading

Film director, born in Vannes, NW France. He studied in Paris, and made a series of prize-winning short documentaries, such as Van Gogh (1948, Oscar) and Guernica (1950). His first feature film was Hiroshima mon amour (1959, Hiroshima, My Love), and this was followed by the controversial L'Année dernière à Marienbad (1961, Last Year at Marienbad), hailed as a Surrealistic and dreamlike masterpi…

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Alain Tanner - Filmography

Film-maker, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. His work deals with escapism, and he focuses on the social and political situation in his country. His films include La Salamandre (1971), Dans la ville blanche (1983), Fourbi (1996), and Paul s'en va (2004). Alain Tanner (born 6 December 1929 in Geneva) is a Swiss film director. He found work at the British Film Institute in 1955, sub…

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Alamo

A battle fought during the 1836 Texan War of Independence against Mexico, when 180 Texans and US citizens held the old mission/fort of Alamo against a large number of Mexican troops. In an epic of resistance they held out for 13 days (23 Feb–6 Mar) until the last survivors were overwhelmed. Alamo may mean: Bold textRemember the Alamo Places: Films: …

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Alan (Cochevelou) Stivell - History, Discography

French musician. His family settled in Brittany, where his father made a Celtic harp for him. He learned Breton, admired Celtic themes, and invented pop-Celtic music. In 1966 he produced himself at the Centre Américain in the boulevard Raspail in Paris, and became well known in France and England with his album Renaissance de la harpe celtique, which provoked a renewal of folk music. He has also …

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Alan (Cyril) Walker

Physical anthropologist, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He lived and worked in Africa before going to the USA (1973) where he taught at Harvard (1973–8) and Johns Hopkins (1978). His extensive field research on the evolutionary implications of Kenyan fossils includes his discoveries of a 1·6-million-year-old Homo erectus (1984) and a 2·5-million-year-old ‘hyper-robust’ Aust…

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Alan (Donald) Whicker - Trivia

British broadcaster and journalist, born in Cairo, Egypt. He served with the Army Film Unit in World War 2, and was a war correspondent in Korea before joining the BBC (1957–68). He worked on the Tonight programme (1957–65) and began his Whicker's World documentary series in 1958. Television's most travelled man, he has allowed viewers to eavesdrop on the lives of the rich and famous as well as …

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Alan (Dudley) Bush

Composer and pianist, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music (1918–22), where he was a notable composition teacher (1925–78), and also at Berlin University (1929–31). In 1924 he became active in the British working-class movement and founded the Workers' Music Association (1936), becoming its president in 1941. His works include four operas, four symphonies, concertos for …

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Alan (Fraser) Truscott

Bridge player and writer, born in London, UK. He won several Oxford University chess titles and was European bridge champion (1961). Named bridge editor of the New York Times in 1964, he became the only US newspaper columnist to regularly cover events as well as provide instruction. He also wrote 13 books and edited the first three editions of the Encyclopedia of Bridge. He became famous for his i…

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Alan (Fred) Titchmarsh - Early Career, Journalism, Broadcasting, Novelist, Personal Life

Gardener, broadcaster, and writer, born in Ilkley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He became an apprentice gardener, joined the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (1972–4), and began presenting gardening programmes for the BBC. He hosted the popular radio series, Gardener's World, and for television presented Ground Force (1997–2003) and British Isles: A Natural History (2004). He has written almost fo…

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Alan (Kenneth McKenzie) Clark - Early life, Career, Quotes, Books

British politician, military historian, and diarist. He studied at Oxford and was called to the bar in 1955. He was elected Conservative MP for Plymouth Sutton (1974–92) and brought into government by Mrs Thatcher where he held posts at employment (1983–6), trade (1986–9), and defence (1989–92). He was involved in the arms sales to Iraq affair, contravening a UN embargo, during the Iran-Iraq w…

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Alan (MacGregor) Cranston - Public office, Retirement and death

US senator, born in Palo Alto, California, USA. Elected to the US Senate (Democrat, California, 1968–92), he ran unsuccessfully for the presidential nomination in 1984. He supported disarmament and liberal domestic policies. Alan MacGregor Cranston (born June 19, 1914, in Palo Alto, California; The following year he wrote a second book, The Killing of the Peace, a synopsis of t…

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Alan (Mathison) Turing - Childhood and youth, University and his work on computability, Cryptanalysis, Early computers and the Turing Test

Mathematician, born in London, UK. He was educated at Cambridge, and Princeton where he studied under Alonzo Church, worked in cryptography during World War 2, then joined the National Physical Laboratory (1945) and the computing laboratory at Manchester (1948). He provided a precise mathematical characterization of computability, and introduced the theoretical notion of an idealized computer (sin…

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Alan (Philip Eric) Knott - Career, Trivia

Cricketer, born in Belvedere, NW Greater London, UK. One of a great trio of Kent wicket-keepers (with Leslie Ames and Godfrey Evans), he played in 95 Test matches, and his 269 dismissals are exceeded only by Rodney Marsh of Australia. He was a genuine wicket-keeper–batsman, whose 4389 runs included five centuries. He kept wicket for England in 65 consecutive Test matches. Alan Philip Eric …

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Alan (Stewart) Paton

Writer and educator, born in Pietermaritzburg, E South Africa. He studied at the University of Natal, began work as a teacher, and became principal of the Diepkloof Reformatory for young offenders (1935), where he was known for the success of his enlightened methods. From his deep concern with the racial problem in South Africa sprang several novels, notably Cry, the Beloved Country (1948), Too La…

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Alan (Tower) Waterman

Physicist and scientific administrator, born in Cornwall, New York, USA. Working in the Office of Scientific Research and Development (1942–6), he expanded radar's military applications and assigned scientists to military units, and then joined the Office of Naval Research (1946–51). As the first director of the National Science Foundation (1951–63), he funded basic science research with an ann…

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Alan (Wilson) Watts - Early years, Middle years, Later years

Mystic, writer, and lecturer, born in Chislehurst, Greater London, UK. He became fascinated with Asian art and literature during his adolescence. He graduated from King's School (1932) and emigrated to the USA in 1939. He was an Episcopal chaplain (1944–50) but then left the church and became an independent writer. Believing that most churches were limiting, he advocated Asian mysticism as the al…

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Alan Alda - Family and early life

Actor and director, born in New York City, USA. He made his Broadway debut in Only in America (1959), and his film debut in Gone Are the Days (1963), but it was his extensive involvement in the television series M*A*S*H (1972–83) that earned him his greatest popularity. He won numerous awards for the series (including five Emmys), which provided a showcase for his talents as a socially conscious …

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Alan Bennett - Television work, Films, Radio, Stage, Translations

Playwright, actor, and director, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He came to prominence as a writer and performer in Beyond the Fringe, a revue performed at the Edinburgh Festival in 1960, and wrote a television sketch show, On the Margin (1966), before his first stage play, Forty Years On (1968) with John Gielgud in the lead. Despite his own self-effacing qualities, he has remained i…

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Alan Bleasdale

Playwright, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He was a schoolteacher before he turned to writing. He became known through the popular TV series, The Boys from the Blackstuff (1982), about a group of unemployed Liverpudlians, which won several awards. Later television series include the World War 1 drama The Monocled Mutineer (1986), GBH (1991), Melissa (1997), and his adaptation of Ol…

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Alan Coren - Partial bibliography

British writer and journalist. He studied at Oxford, Yale, and California universities, before joining Punch as an assistant editor in 1963. He became editor of Punch (1978–87), editor of The Listener (1988–9), and continues to contribute to other papers. He has published several humorous books, including The Bulletins of Idi Amin (1974), Present Laughter (1982), Bin Ends (1987), More Like Old T…

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Alan Davie

Painter, born in Grangemouth, Falkirk, C Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh College of Art (1937–40). His paintings in the subsequent decade had much in common with contemporary American abstract expressionism. His imaginative use of pictographic images suggestive of myth and magic, increasingly bold and colourful since the early 1970s, reflects his preoccupation with Zen and oriental mysticis…

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Alan Dundes

Anthropologist and folklorist, born in New York City, New York, USA. An Indiana University PhD, he joined the University of California, Berkeley faculty in 1963. His first book, The Morphology of North American Indian Folktales (1964) was followed by important work on the history and (mostly psychoanalytic) interpretation of diverse folklore from Cinderella and sick jokes to corporate folklore and…

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Alan Freed - "Father of Rock and Roll", Legacy

Disc jockey, born in Palm Springs, California, USA. In the 1940s and 1950s he worked for radio stations in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, where he stirred controversy by playing African-American rhythm-and-blues records for white audiences and by sponsoring integrated concerts. In 1962 he pleaded guilty to commercial bribery during a broadcasting industry scandal, but some believe he was scapeg…

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Alan G(oodrich) Kirk

US naval officer and diplomat, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He trained at the US Naval Academy, Annapolis, served as naval attaché in London (1939–41), and was promoted rear-admiral in 1941. He commanded the amphibious forces in the invasion of Sicily (1943) and the Western Task Force in the Normandy landing in 1944. He later became ambassador to Belgium (1946–9), the USSR (1949–52…

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Alan Greenspan - Personal life and early career, Greenspan the Objectivist, Chairman of the Federal Reserve

Businessman and government official. He studied at New York University, and became president and chief executive officer of Townsend-Greenspan and Co, New York City (1954–74, 1977–87). His consultancies include the US Treasury and Federal Reserve Board (1971–4). A long-time Republican, Greenspan was a member of the president's Council of Economic Advisors (1970–4), and its chair (1974–7) unde…

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Alan Hovhaness - Early life, Compositional career, Research Centre, Significant compositions, Films, Notable students of Alan Hovhaness

Composer, born in Somerville, Massachusetts, USA. Of Scottish and Armenian descent, he showed an early interest in composing and in mysticism. He studied at the New England Conservatory in the 1920s and added an awareness of the music of India to that of his Armenian heritage. Later he spent time in Asia and added yet another strand to his own often exotic compositions. Legendarily prolific, usual…

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Alan Jay Lerner - Broadway Productions, Films

Lyricist and librettist, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of a wealthy owner of a women's clothing store chain, he enjoyed the privileges of a cultured family. He began piano lessons at age five and wrote his first songs as a teenager, but his father planned for him to enter the diplomatic service. While at Harvard he contributed to the Hasty Pudding Club Shows (1938–9), and during t…

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Alan Lomax - Biography, Achievements, Bibliography

Folksong scholar, born in Austin, Texas, USA. Son of folk-music scholar John Lomax, he travelled with his father collecting and recording folksongs in prisons and elsewhere throughout the South. Among their many discoveries was Huddie Ledbetter, or ‘Leadbelly’, whom they brought to New York City in 1934. Alan joined his father in the Archive of American Folksong at the Library of Congress (1937)…

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Alan Minter

Boxer, born in Crawley, Surrey, SE England, UK. He held the European middleweight title (1977, 1978–9) and the British crown (1975–7, 1977–8), becoming world champion in 1980. Alan Minter (born August 17, 1951 in Crawley, England) is a former boxer who was Middleweight champion of the world. Minter won his next five fights, three by knockout, before tasting defeat for the first tim…

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Alan Rawsthorne

Composer, born in Haslingden, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He trained as a dentist, then turned to music, studying in Manchester and Berlin. He settled in London in 1935, and wrote a wide range of works, including three symphonies, eight concertos, choral and chamber music, and several film scores. Rawsthorne was married to Isabel Rawsthorne (née Isabel Nichols), an artist, model and muse w…

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Alan Rickman - Early life background, Professional life, Personal life, Filmography (partial)

Actor, born in London, UK. He studied at Chelsea School of Art, the Royal College of Art, and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and played a wide range of theatre roles during the 1980s, including seasons at the RSC in 1978–9 and 1985–6. He became well known for his film work, beginning with Die Hard (1988), and including Truly, Madly, Deeply (1991), Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves (1991,…

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Alan Seeger - Poetry

Poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Harvard (1910), and settled in Paris, France (1912). He joined the Foreign Legion during World War 1 and was killed during the Battle of the Somme (1916). He is best known for his poem, ‘I Have a Rendezvous with Death’, first published in The North American Review (1916). Alan Seeger (June 22, 1888 – July 4, 1916) was an American…

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Alan Shearer

England footballer, born in Newcastle-upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, NE England, UK. He played for Southampton (1988–92), then transferred to Blackburn Rovers (1992–6) at a then record British fee of £3·2 million. He transferred to Newcastle United in 1996 for a world record fee of £15 million. By June 1997 he had a tally of 213 league goals. He joined the England squad in 1992, becoming captain in …

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Alan Sillitoe - Novels, Collections of Stories, Collections of Poems

Novelist, born in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. Before serving in the Royal Air Force, he worked in a bicycle factory for several years, which provided the subject for his first and most popular novel, Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1958). Later novels include A Tree on Fire (1967), A Start in Life (1970), Life Goes On (1985), Leonard's War (1991), The German Numbers Woman (1999)…

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Alan Yentob

Television broadcaster, born in London, UK. He studied at Grenoble and Leeds universities, and joined the BBC in 1968, becoming a producer in 1970. He specialized in arts features, edited Arena (1978–85), and became head of BBC-TV music and arts in 1985. He was appointed controller of BBC2 television (1988–93), then of BBC1 (1993–6), playing a leading and controversial role in the process of re…

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Alaric I - In Roman service, In Greece, First invasion of Italy, Second invasion of Italy

King of the Visigoths (395–410), born in Dacia. After his election as king, he invaded Greece (395), but was eventually driven out by Flavius Stilicho. In 401 he invaded Italy until checked by Stilicho at Pollentia (402). He agreed to join the Western emperor, Honorius, in an attack on Arcadius, but when Honorius failed to pay the promised subsidy Alaric laid siege to Rome, and in 410 pillaged th…

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Alaric II - Reign, Battle of Vouillé and aftermath

King of the Visigoths (485–507), who reigned over Gaul S of the Loire, and over most of Spain. In 506 he issued a code of laws known as the Breviary of Alaric (Breviarum Alaricianum). An Arian Christian, he was killed at the Battle of Vouillé, near Poitiers, by the orthodox Clovis, King of the Franks. In 486 Alaric II denied refuge to Afranius Syagrius, the former ruler of the Domain of S…

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Alasdair (Chalmers) MacIntyre - Biography, Philosophical method, Virtue ethics, Secondary literature

Philosopher, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. After several positions at British universities, he went to the USA in 1969, teaching at Brandeis (1969–72), Wellesley (1972–82), Vanderbilt (1982–8), and Notre Dame (from 1988). His works include Marxism and Christianity (1954), After Virtue (1981), and other influential writings on ethics and philosophy of mind. Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre …

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Alaska - Geography, History, Demographics, Transportation, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 626 900; area 1 518 748 km²/586 412 sq mi. US state, divided into 23 boroughs, in the extreme NW corner of the continent, ‘The Last Frontier’ or ‘The Great Land’, separated from the rest of the nation by Canada; first permanent settlement by Russians on Kodiak I, 1784; managed by the Russian-American Fur Company, 1799–1861; period of decline, as Russians withdrew from the…

1 minute read

Alaska Highway - Construction, Post war, Route markings, Adjoining roads

An all-weather road which runs from Dawson Creek in British Columbia, Canada, to Fairbanks in Alaska, linking the state to the North American highway system. It was built in 1942 to supply military forces stationed in Alaska during World War 2. The Alaska Highway, also the Alaskan Highway, Alaska-Canadian Highway, and the Alcan Highway, runs from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Fairbanks,…

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Alaskan malamute - Characteristics, Temperament and behavior, History

A breed of dog; spitz bred by the Malamute Eskimos of Alaska as a sledge-dog (husky); largest sledge-dog breed; strong and active; thick grey and white coat. The Alaskan Malamute is a large northern dog breed originally bred for use as an alaskan sleddog. these dogs are uncommon and are produced primarily by breeders who market a "giant" malamute. According to the American…

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Alastair Burnet

British journalist and television news presenter. He studied at Worcester College, Oxford, then became editor of The Economist (1965–74) and The Daily Express (1974–6). He became a nationally known personality when he joined ITN as a news presenter (1976–91), and he later became associate editor for News at Ten (1982–91). He was knighted in 1984. Sir Alastair Burnet (born July 12, 1928)…

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Alastair Sim - Filmography

Actor, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. Destined to follow in the family tailoring business, he instead became a lecturer in elocution at Edinburgh University (1925–30), and made his professional stage debut in a London production of Othello (1930). Further stage work, including a season with the Old Vic, led to his film debut in Riverside Murder (1935). A distinctive and popular comic perform…

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Alastor - Alastor in fiction, Alastor in music

In Greek mythology, an avenging demon or power. The name was used by Shelley as the title of a poem outlining a myth of his own making, in which a young poet is led through various symbolic states and ultimately to destruction. The name Alastor was also used as a generic term for a class of evil spirits. …

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alba

A brief lyric used by Castilian and Brazilian-Portuguese troubadours to express grief at parting from their lovers at dawn. The word often occurs in the refrain. Its greatest practitioner was the Provençal poet Giraut de Bornelh, whom Dante praises as one of the great triad (with Arnaud Daniel and Bertrand de Born) in De vulgari eloquentia. Alba is the ancient and modern Scottish Gaelic na…

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Alba Iulia - History, Sights

46°04N 23°33E, pop (2000e) 73 300. Capital of Alba county, WC Romania, on the R Mure?; founded by the Romans, 2nd-c AD; former seat of the princes of Transylvania; railway; wine trade, footwear, soap, furniture; 12th-c Romanesque church, Bathyaneum building. Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafehérvár, German: Karlsburg / Weißenburg,Latin: Apulum) is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Rom…

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Albacete (city)

30°00N 1°50W, pop (2000e) 131 000. Capital of Albacete province, Castilla-La Mancha, SE Spain; 251 km/156 mi SE of Madrid; on the high plateau of La Mancha, 686 m/2250 ft; bishopric; railway; airport; footwear; clothing, tools, wine, flour, cutlery, furniture, paper, crafts, souvenir knives (especially clasp-knives); university; San Juan Bautista Cathedral (16th-c); fairs and fiestas (Sep)…

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Alban Berg - Life and work, Compositions, Bibliography

Composer, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied under Schoenberg (1904–10), and after World War 1 taught privately in Vienna. With the last of his Four Songs (1909–10) he displays a free harmonic language tempered wih Romantic tonal elements which remained his characteristic style. He is best known for his opera Wozzeck (1925), his violin concerto, and the Lyric Suite for string quartet. His unfin…

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Alban Butler

Hagiographer and Roman Catholic priest, born in Appletree, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He studied at Douai in France, became professor there, and was for some time chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk. He later became head of the English College at St Omer. His great work, the Lives of the Saints (1756–59), makes no distinction between fact and fiction. Alban Butler (October 24 NS, 1710 - …

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Albania - History, Geography, Demographics, Economy, Miscellaneous topics

Official name (1991) Republic of Albania, Republica e Shqipërisë The Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, IPA [ɾɛˈpubliˌka ɛ ˌʃcipəˈɾis]) is a Balkan country in Southeastern Europe. Many historians believe Albanians to be the direct descendants of Illyrians. Only during the 6th century BC did the Illyrians venture significant raids against their i…

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Albany Congress - Indian Negotiations, Plan of Union, Participants

(1754) A US colonial gathering of delegates at which Benjamin Franklin proposed a ‘plan of union’ for the separate British colonies. Both the colonial governments and the British authorities rejected the idea. The Albany Congress was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New …

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albatross

A large, slender-winged seabird, wingspan up to 3 m/10 ft; glides near water in air currents; lands only to breed. (Order: Procellariiformes (tubenoses). Family: Diomedeidae, 14 species.) …

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albedo - Terrestrial albedo, Astronomical albedo, Other types of albedo, Some examples of terrestrial albedo effects

The ratio of the radiation reflected by a surface to the total incoming solar radiation, expressed as a decimal or percentage. The degree of reflectance varies according to the type of surface: snow-covered ice has an albedo of 0·8 (80%), a dry sandy desert 0·37 (37%), a tropical rainforest 0·13 (13%). The average planetary albedo is close to 0·3 (30%). The albedo is an important concep…

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Alberico da Barbiano - Biography, Dynasty, Cruiser Alberico da Barbiano

Mercenary captain, born at Barbiano, Trentino-Alto-Adige, N Italy. He fought with Giovanni Acuto, then founded the Compagnia di San Giorgio (St George's Company), the first wholly Italian mercenary company. At its head, he fought for Pope Urban VI against the antipope Clement VII. He also conquered Bologna for Gian Galeazzo Visconti and the Kingdom of Naples for Charles III of Durazzo. Albe…

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Albert

Grand master of the Teutonic Order and first Duke of Prussia, the younger son of the Margrave of Ansbach. Elected grand master in 1511, he embraced the Reformation, and declared himself duke following the advice of Martin Luther. In geography it may refer to: In other fields it may refer to: …

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Albert (Bruce) Sabin - Honors

Immunologist, born in Bia?ystok, Poland (formerly, Russia). He emigrated to the USA with his family in 1920, and began to concentrate on biomedical research while at medical school. At Cincinnati Children's Hospital and the University of Cincinnati (1939–69), he developed the live-virus vaccine against poliomyletis as well as vaccines against dengue and sandfly fever. The first tests of his polio…

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Albert (Cabell) Ritchie - Political career, Election history, Dedications

US governor, born in Richmond, Virginia, USA. A successful Baltimore lawyer, as assistant counsel to the Public Service Commission (1910–15) he won utility rate reductions, becoming Maryland's attorney general (1915–19). As Democratic governor (1919–34), he improved health and education services in the state while reducing taxes, and campaigned against national prohibition laws. Albert C…

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Albert (Charles Paul Marie) Roussel - Recommended Recordings

Composer, born in Tourcoing, N France. He began a career as a naval officer in the Ecole Navale in 1889 but resigned at 25 and settled in Roubaix to study harmony. He took lessons in orchestration at the Schola Cantorum (1898) where d'Indy entrusted him with the counterpoint class (1902–14). The ballet Le Festin de l'Araignée (1912, The Spider's Feast) marks his impressionist period; he then mov…

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Albert (Davis) Lasker - External links and references

Advertising executive and philanthropist, born in Freiburg, Germany. Raised in Texas, he joined the Chicago advertising agency Lord and Thomas in 1898, and as sole owner (after 1912) he built the firm into a major agency. A gifted copy editor, he was instrumental in shifting advertising from information to persuasion. (He proposed the institution of an independent commissioner of baseball after th…

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Albert (Francis) Blakeslee

Botanist, born in Geneseo, New York, USA. After teaching in several American institutions and serving on collecting expeditions in Venezuela (1903) and Europe (1904–06), he became a professor at the Connecticut Agricultural College (1907–15). He joined the Carnegie Station for Experimental Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1912–41, director 1936–41), moved to Columbia University (1940–52), a…

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Albert (Gregory) Meyer

Catholic prelate, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. After studies and ordination in Rome (1926), he did parish work, was a seminary teacher and rector, and became Bishop of Superior, WI (1946) and Archbishop of Milwaukee (1953). In 1958 he was named Archbishop of Chicago, becoming a cardinal the next year. He promoted building programmes, lay involvement, and desegregation, and he also served on …

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Albert (Pinkham) Ryder - Early life, Training and early career, Artistic maturity, Ryder's methods

Painter, born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. He moved to New York (c.1868), was a founder of the Society of American Artists, New York (1878), travelled to England (1877), settled again in New York and, by 1900, had become a recluse. A religious and mystical man who shunned personal possessions, he painted dreamlike scenes with powerful emotional content, such as ‘Toilers of the Sea’ (1884)…

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Albert (the Bold)

Duke of Saxony, the son of Frederick the Gentle. He was joint ruler with his brother Ernest from 1464 until 1485 when, by the Treaty of Leipzig, they divided their inheritance between them. The two branches of the Wettin family then became known as the Albertine and Ernestine lines. In geography it may refer to: In other fields it may refer to: …

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Albert A(ugustus) Pope - Pope companies, Pope motor vehicles

Manufacturer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Decorated for ‘gallant conduct’ during the Civil War, he later opened a shoe supplies factory and became wealthy by 1877. He opened the Pope Manufacturing Co in Hartford, CT which made small, patented articles, but eventually specialized in bicycles, especially the popular ‘Columbia’ brand. He energetically promoted bicycling and founded The Wh…

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Albert Ayler - Overview, Biography, Influence, Ayler in film, Discography

Tenor saxophonist, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Part of the New York avant-garde free jazz scene in the 1960s, he played fiercely exuberant music, often ‘honking’ or ‘screaming’, that took elements from folk and rhythm and blues as well as post-bebop jazz and, later, the black marching-band tradition. Like Ornette Coleman, Don Cherry, and others, he moved from the harmonic intricacies of bebo…

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Albert Bandura

Psychologist, born in Mundare, Alberta, Canada. He studied at the universities of British Columbia and Iowa and began his long career at Stanford University in 1953. He is best known as a social learning theorist, whose research established the concept of imitation, or modelling, on a firm empirical base. His major works include (with R H Walters) Social Learning and Personality Development (1963)…

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Albert Bierstadt - Biography, Legacy

Painter, born near Düsseldorf, W Germany. He studied art at Düsseldorf (1853–7), then settled in New York City. He became associated with the Hudson River School, painting Romantic panoramic landscapes in which truth to topographical detail was secondary to dramatic and awe-inspiring effect. His paintings of the Rocky Mts gained him great popularity. Albert Bierstadt (January 7, 1830 - F…

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Albert Brisbane

Social reformer, born in Batavia, New York, USA. The son of a wealthy landowner, he had little formal schooling, but in 1828 went off to Europe ‘to solve the mystery of man's destiny’. For six years he studied at various universities and met or studied with several great thinkers, including Goethe, Hegel, Jules Michelet, and Charles Fourier. It was Fourier's social philosophy, essentially a soci…

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Albert C(oady) Wedemeyer

US soldier, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. He trained at West Point (1918) and served with distinction in Tientsin, China (where he studied Mandarin Chinese) (1930–2) and the Philippines (1932–4). The first American officer to study at the Kriegsakadamie (German general staff school) since World War 1, he became commander of all US forces in the China theatre (1944–5). He retired from the army i…

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Albert Camus - Early years, Literary career, Summary of Absurdism, Camus' ideas on the Absurd, Opposition to totalitarianism

French existentialist writer, born in Mondovi, NE Algeria. He studied philosophy at Algiers, and worked as an actor, teacher, playwright, and journalist there and in Paris. Active in the French resistance during World War 2, he became co-editor with Sartre of the left-wing newspaper Combat after the liberation until 1948. He earned an international reputation with his nihilistic novel, L'Etranger …

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Albert Chevalier - Reference

Entertainer, born in London, UK. He appeared as an actor at the old Prince of Wales' Theatre in 1877, and in 1891 became a music-hall singer. Writing, composing, and singing costermonger ballads, he immortalized such songs as ‘My Old Dutch’ and ‘Knocked 'em in the Old Kent Road’. This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the …

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Albert Claude

US cell biologist, born in Longlier, Belgium. He performed cellular research in Europe (1928–9), then joined the Rockefeller Institute (now university) (1929–72). A citizen of both Belgium and the USA, he concurrently directed the Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels (1948–72), and was a professor at the Université Libre, Brussels (1948–69). Considered the founder of modern cell biology, he share…

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Albert Einstein - Beliefs, Citizenship, Popularity and cultural impact, Works by Einstein

Mathematical physicist, born in Ulm, S Germany. He was educated at Munich and Aarau, and went on to study at the Zürich Polytechnic. Taking Swiss nationality in 1901, he was appointed examiner at the Swiss Patent Office (1902–9), where he began to publish original papers on theoretical physics. He was made world famous by his special (1905) and general (1916) theories of relativity. He was profe…

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Albert Ellis - Early life, Education and early career, Development of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Published works

Psychologist and writer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Columbia University (1947 PhD), taught at Rutgers University (1948–9), and practised clinical psychology from 1950. He published many books on psychology and sexual behaviour, and is best known as the developer of Rational-Emotive Psychotherapy, which rejects Freudian theories to assert that emotions come from conscious…

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Albert Finney - Career highlights, Awards and Nominations, Selected filmography

Actor, born in Salford, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and has performed a wide variety of roles, from Shakespearean characters to modern working-class individuals, on both stage and screen. It was his definitive portrayal of the working-class rebel in Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1960) that established him as a star. He directed …

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Albert Gleizes

Painter, born in Paris, France. An enthusiastic Cubist after meeting Léger in 1910, he exhibited with the group (1911–12) and also produced abstract works. With Metzinger he published Du Cubisme (1912) extolling Cubist ideals, and was co-founder of Section d'Or. From 1917 he incorporated religion into his Cubist art and also wrote on art and religion. His works include Harvesters (1912). …

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Albert (of Belgium) I

King of the Belgians (1909–34), born in Brussels, Belgium, the younger son of Philip, Count of Flanders. At the outbreak of World War 1 he refused a German demand for the free passage of their troops, and after a heroic resistance led the Belgian army in retreat to Flanders. He commanded the Belgian and French army in the final offensive on the Belgian coast in 1918. After the war he took an acti…

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Albert Kesselring - Biography

German air commander in World War 2, born in Markstedt, Germany. He led the Luftwaffe attacks on France and (unsuccessfully) on Britain, in 1943 was made commander-in-chief in Italy, and in 1945 in the West. Condemned to death as a war criminal in 1947, he had his sentence commuted to life imprisonment, but was released in 1952. Albert Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Germa…

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Albert Lebrun

French statesman, born in Mercy-le-Haut, NE France. A mining engineer, he studied at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines. He became a deputy (left-wing Republican) in 1900, minister for the colonies (1911–14), minister for blockade and liberated regions (1917–19), senator (1920), and president of the Senate (1931). The last president of the Third Republic, he su…

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Albert Leo Schlageter - Life, Literature

German officer and member of a volunteer corps, born in Schönau/Schwarzwald, SW Germany. After 1918 he was active in the volunteer corps in Latvia, the Ruhr, and Upper Silesia. In April 1923 he was arrested by the French for acts of sabotage during the Ruhrkampf and sentenced to death by a French military court. Executed in Golzheimer Heide, he became a symbol for the Nazis. Albert Leo Sch…

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Albert Maltz

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Columbia University (1930 BA) and at Yale's drama school (1930–2), and began a career as a playwright and teacher (1937–40). He moved to Hollywood (1941), wrote screenplays, such as This Gun for Hire (1941), and also short stories, radio plays, and novels. He was a member of the ‘Hollywood Ten’, a group that refused to answer Senator …

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Albert Namatjira - Early years, The height of success, Works, Citizenship and demise, Since his death

Artist, born in Hermannsburg Lutheran mission, near Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia, a member of the Aranda Aboriginal people. He achieved wide fame almost overnight for his European-influenced watercolour landscapes. In 1957 he was in the unique position of being made an Australian citizen, 10 years before other Aboriginal people. Divided by two cultures, his last years became a nigh…

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Albert Payson Terhune - Bibliography

Writer, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. His mother was Mary Virginia Hawes Terhune (‘Marion Harland’) (1830–1922), a successful writer of books on household management such as Common Sense in the Household (1871). Albert and his family lived in Europe (1876–8), returned to Springfield, MA (1878–84), and settled in Brooklyn, NY. His father was a minister, and the family summered at Sunnybank,…

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Albert Pike - Biography, Military career, After the war, In Freemasonry, Other Interests

Lawyer, journalist, and soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Leaving New England to seek his fortune in the West in 1831, he taught at schools, wrote for and later owned an Arkansas newspaper, and was admitted to the bar in 1837. He took a break from the law to serve in the Mexican War, and by the 1850s he had become a popular poet as well as a successful lawyer. An opponent of secession, …

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Albert Reynolds - Early life, Early political career, Taoiseach 1992–1994, Post-Taoiseach period, Governments, Political career

Irish statesman and prime minister (1992–4), born in Roosky, Co Roscommon, WC Ireland. He became an MP in 1977, and held several ministerial offices from 1979, including minister of finance (1988), under Charles Haughey, but was dismissed in 1991 after being involved in an attempt to gain Haughey's resignation. He became prime minister in the 1992 elections, but his party (Fianna Fáil) lost its …

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Albert Samain - Quotation

Poet, born in Lille, N France. He worked on the Mercure de France, then for the Revue des deux mondes. A Parnassian who had felt the influence of the Symbolists, he expressed gracefully a precise and picturesque world in the two volumes published during his lifetime, Au Jardin de l'infante (1893) and Aux Flancs du vase (1898). Le Chariot d'Or was published in 1901, a year after his death from tube…

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Albert Schweitzer - Theology, Music, Philosophy, Stance on racial relations, Medicine, Later life, Schweitzer in Popular Culture, Timeline

Medical missionary, theologian, musician, and philosopher, born in Kaysersberg, NE France (formerly Germany). He studied at Strasbourg, Paris, and Berlin, and in 1896 made his famous decision that he would live for science and art until he was 30, then devote his life to serving humanity. He became a curate at Strasbourg (1899), taught at the university (1902), and was appointed principal of the t…

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Albert Shanker - Early life, Founding the United Federation of Teachers, Activist Legacy, Later years, Shanker in Popular Culture

Union leader, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was a confrontational president of New York City's United Federation of Teachers (1964–86), leading repeated teachers' strikes and becoming a major force in city politics. As national president of the American Federation of Teachers (1974) he supported public-school reform, and his weekly column in the New York Times served as a much-quoted f…

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Albert Sidney Johnston - Early life, Texas Army, U.S. Army, Civil War, Shiloh, Epitaph

Confederate general, born in Washington, Kentucky, USA. He trained at West Point, joined the Army of Texas, became its head, and in 1838 was appointed secretary of Texas. He served in the Mexican War, and commanded in Utah and on the Pacific (1857–9). In 1861 he resigned to fight for the Confederacy in the Civil War. Appointed to the command of Kentucky and Tennessee, he fortified Bowling Green, …

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Albert Spalding

Violinist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Trained in Europe and the USA, he made his American debut in 1908 at Carnegie Hall, and for several decades thereafter he enjoyed an active international career and reputation, the first American violinist to do so. He taught at Juilliard (1933–44) and also composed for violin and piano. Albert Goodwill Spalding (Byron, Illinois September 2, 1850 …

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Albert Speer - Early years, First Architect of the Reich, Minister of Armaments, After the war

Architect and Nazi government official, born in Mannheim, SWC Germany. He joined the Nazi Party in 1931, became Hitler's chief architect in 1934, and was minister of armaments in 1942. Always more concerned with technology and administration than ideology, he openly opposed Hitler in the final months of the war, and was the only Nazi leader at Nuremberg to admit responsibility for the regime's act…

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Alberta - Economy, Government, Education, Culture, Tourism, History

pop (2000e) 2 851 000; area 661 190 km²/255 285 sq mi. Province in W Canada, bordered S by the USA; mainly a rolling plain, with edge of Rocky Mts in W; rivers, lakes, and forests in N, with much open prairie; treeless prairie in S; drained (N) by Peace, Slave, and Athabasca Rivers, and (S) by North Saskatchewan, Red Deer, and Bow Rivers (S); largest lakes, Athabasca, Claire, Lesser Slave…

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Alberto Cavalcanti - Film career, Filmography as director

Film director and producer, born in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. He began his career in Britain during the 1930s, making documentaries for the General Post Office, such as Coalface (1935). In 1941 he joined Ealing Studios and produced some notable films, including Went the Day Well? (1943), Nicholas Nickleby (1947), and They Made Me a Fugitive (1947). In the early 1950s he returned to Brazil, and be…

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Alberto Giacometti - Career, Artistic analysis, Legacy, Selected works

Sculptor and painter, born in Stampa, E Switzerland. He studied at Geneva and worked mainly in Paris, at first under Bourdelle. He joined the Surrealists in 1930, producing many abstract constructions of a symbolic kind, arriving finally at the characteristic ‘thin man’ bronzes, long spidery statuettes, such as ‘Pointing Man’ (1947, Tate, London). Though born in Borgonovo in Val Bregagl…

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Alberto Moravia - Biography, Themes and style, Bibliography

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Rome, Italy. He became a journalist, travelled extensively, and lived for a time in the USA. His first novel was a major success, Gli indifferenti (1929, trans The Time of Indifference), portraying in a fatalistic way the preoccupation with sex and money of bourgeois Roman society. His work is a bitter study of the moral crisis of Italian society, drawing o…

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Alberto Santos-Dumont - Childhood in Brazil, Move to France, Balloons and dirigibles, Heavier than air

Aviation pioneer, born in Santos Dumont (formerly Palmyra), SE Brazil. He studied in France, where he spent most of his life. After a balloon ascent in 1898, he built an airship in which he made the first flight from Saint-Cloud round the Eiffel Tower and back (1901). Two years later he built the first airship station, at Neuilly. He then experimented with heavier-than-air machines, and eventually…

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Albi - Administration, Main sights, Famous people, Twin towns

43º56N 2º09E, pop (2001e) 46 400. Capital of Tarn department, Midi-Pyrénées region, S France; near R Tarn in foothills of the Massif Central, 80 km/50 mi NE of Toulouse; scene of the suppression of the 13th-c Albigensian heretics or Cathars; birthplace of Toulouse-Lautrec and Pierre Benoît; railway; Gothic Cathedral of St Cécile; Palais de la Berbie is former archbishop's palace with a c…

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albinism - Types of albinism, Visual and other health problems associated with albinism, Culture, Famous people with albinism

A common inherited pigmentary disorder of vertebrates: affected individuals lack pigmentation of the skin, hair, eyes (iris), feathers, or scales. The disorder can be harmful, as the missing pigments protect against sunlight and/or provide camouflage against predators. Albinism is found in all human races: the absence of pigment (or melanin) results in white hair, pink skin, and pink irises. Varyi…

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Albion W(oodbury) Small

Sociologist, born in Buckfield, Maine, USA. He taught history and political economy at Colby College (Maine) before serving as its president (1889–91). He then went to the University of Chicago (1892–1926), where as founding chairman he developed the nation's first sociology department into a major academic centre. He came to be regarded as a founder of American sociology, launching and editing …

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alborada - Plot, Cast, Crew

In the 13th-c, a brief lyric, often with a homosexual implication, used by Galician-Portuguese troubadours to express joy in being reunited with their lovers at dawn. The 13th-c poet Nuno Fernandes Torneol makes the theme ironic by employing the typically merry refrain to describe a girl's distress on being forsaken by her lover. In Santa Rita, Panama, Hipolita is still living with her gran…

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Albrecht Kossel - Biography, Selected works

Biochemist, born in Rostock, N Germany. He studied at Strasbourg, and became professor of physiology at Marburg (1895–1901) and Heidelberg (1901–23). He investigated the chemistry of cells and of proteins, and the chemical processes in living tissue. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910. Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (September 16, 1853 – July …

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Albrecht Penck

Geographer and geologist, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. He studied at Leipzig, and was appointed to a professorship of physical geography at Vienna (1885–1906) and Berlin (1906–26). He examined the sequence of past Ice Ages, providing a basis for later work on the European Pleistocene. In 1894 he produced his classic Morphology of the Earth's Surface. He identified six topographic forms, and is b…

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Albrecht von Haller - Importance for Homoeopathy

Biologist, anatomist, botanist, physiologist, and poet, born in Bern, Switzerland. He studied at Tübingen and Leyden, and was professor of anatomy, surgery, and medicine in the new university of Göttingen (1736–53). Here he carried out biological experiments leading to the publication of Elementa physiologiae corporis humani (8 vols, 1757, Physiological Elements of the Human Body), a major cont…

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Albufeira

37°05N 8°15W, pop (2000e) 25 400. Fishing village and resort, Faro district, S Portugal; 38 km/24 mi W of Faro, in a bay on the S coast; figs, almonds, tourism; Moorish-style architecture; Portugal's busiest seaside resort. Albufeira البحيرة The name "Albufeira" is of arabic origin "Albuheira" and means in Arabic Lagoon and in portuguese reservoir (or sometimes lagoon) (pron. …

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Alcee (Lamar) Hastings

Lawyer, judge, and US representative, born in Altamonte Springs, Florida, USA. He studied at Fisk (1958 BA) and earned his law degree in Florida A&M (1963). He had a private law practice in Fort Lauderdale, FL (1963–77) before becoming a circuit court judge for Broward County (1977–9). He then became a federal judge for the Southern District of Florida (1979–89) and by this time he was one of t…

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Alcestis

In Greek mythology, the wife of Admetus; he was doomed to die, and she saved him by offering to die in his place. The action so impressed Heracles that he wrestled with the messenger of Death and brought her back to life. Her death and resurrection is depicted on many ancient reliefs and vase paintings and is the subject of Euripides' Alcestis. …

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alchemy - Overview, Etymology, Alchemy in history, Modern alchemy, Alchemy in art and entertainment

The attempt from early times to find an elixir of immortal life. The first reference is by a Chinese Taoist in 140 BC, and a Chinese alchemical text dates from AD 142. The word alchemy may be an Arabic derivative from Chinese, and the practice probably spread to Europe via Arab traders, where it was taken up by such scholars as Roger Bacon (1214–92). Alchemists sought to convert base metals into …

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Alcibiades - Early years, Political career until 412 BC, Recall to Athens

Athenian statesman and general, a member of the aristocratic Alcmaeonid family. A ward of Pericles and a pupil of Socrates, he was a leader against Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, and a commander of the Sicilian expedition (415 BC). Recalled from there to stand trial for sacrilege, he fled to Sparta and gave advice which contributed substantially to Athens' defeat in Sicily (413 BC) and her econo…

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