Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 28

Cambridge Encyclopedia

functional programming - Concepts, Comparison of functional and imperative programming

A method of writing computer programs in which the relationships between variables are stated, rather than instructions to perform operations on the variables. The outcome of running the program is achieved by evaluating the functional relationships. A functional language is an example of a declarative language. Functional programming is a programming paradigm that conceives computation as …

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functionalism (art and architecture)

The theory, rooted in Greek philosophy, that beauty should be identified with functional efficiency. Occasionally discussed in the 18th-c and 19th-c, it became fashionable in the 1920s and 1930s, especially under Bauhaus influence. In architecture, the form of a building was to be determined by the function it was meant to fulfil - as in the famous definition of a house as a machine for living in.…

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functionalism (sociology) - Early functionalism, Prominent Theorists, Criticisms, Other theories

A theory widely accepted in social anthropology and sociology in the mid-20th-c, according to which particular social institutions, customs, and beliefs all have a part to play in maintaining a social system. The central notion is that a community or society has an enduring structure, its parts fitting together to form a single integrated system. In Britain the leading functionalists were Bronisla…

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fundamentalism - Religious Definition:, Non-Subject Specific Definition:, Brief History:, The fundamentalist phenomenon

A theological tendency seeking to preserve what are thought to be the essential doctrines (‘fundamentals’) of a religion. The term was originally used of the conservative US Protestant movement in the 1920s, characterized by a literal interpretation of the Bible, and revived with conservative Christian movements in the late 20th-c. Generally, it is any theological position opposed to liberalism,…

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fungicide

Any chemical used to control fungi which are harmful to plants, animals, or foodstuffs. Fungicides are particularly important in controlling rusts in cereals, blight in potatoes, and mildew in fruit. They are also used to control fungi that damage the quality of food in storage, or fungi that grow on animals or humans. The first effective fungicide was ‘Bordeaux mixture’, developed in 1882 and m…

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fungus - Phylogeny and classification of fungi, Structure, Reproduction, Ecological role, Human uses of fungi

A primitive plant that obtains its nourishment either saprophytically, by secreting enzymes to dissolve insoluble organic food externally before absorption, or parasitically, by absorbing food from a host. The body form may be single-celled, but usually consists of a network (mycelium) of thread-like strands (hyphae) which may produce a compact, fruiting body bearing the reproductive tissues. Cell…

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funk - History

A term that has been used for various genres of (mainly black) popular music (adj. funky). The word was originally used for smells, and particularly bodily sexual odour; from the 1950s it described ‘hard bop’ jazz with a ‘soul’ feeling, as performed by Julian ‘Cannonball’ Adderley, Horace Silver, Lee Morgan, and others. Later in the 1960s it was used more generally for soul and rhythm-and-bl…

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fur - Fur clothing

A covering of hairs found today only in mammals, though there is some evidence that extinct flying reptiles had fur. It presumably evolved as a means of controlling heat loss from the body (most modern mammals maintain a constant body temperature). The term fur refers to the body hair of non-human mammals also known as the pelage (like the term plumage in birds). the animal's coat may consi…

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Furnifold (McLendel) Simmons

US senator, born in Jones Co, North Carolina, USA. After leading a movement to deny African-Americans the right to vote, he was elected to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, North Carolina, 1887–9) and to the US Senate (1901–31). He managed to hold control over Democratic politics in North Carolina while advancing his conservative views in the Senate through the committee posts he gained…

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further education - Wales, FE/Sixth form Colleges England and Wales, See also

A level of educational provision offered in many countries, often distinguished from higher education; known as adult education in the USA. Further education is post-school education leading, usually, to qualifications at sub-degree level, though it may not lead to any award at all but simply be taken for its own sake. A great deal is of a vocational nature, and involves study and practical work r…

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fusion

A development of jazz that started in the late 1960s, when jazz artists sought to revitalize the music by drawing on elements from other musical traditions, and particularly rock, soul, and dance music. Miles Davis's albums In A Silent Way and Bitches Brew (both 1969) were major influences on the genre, followed by ex-Davis musicians in the bands Weather Report, Chick Corea's Return To Forever, an…

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fusional language

A type of language in which words contain several features of meaning that cannot be identified in a one-to-one way with the sequence of forms which make up the words; also known as inflecting languages. For example, in the Latin dominus (‘lord’), the suffix -us ‘fuses’ the meanings of ‘masculine’, ‘nominative’, and ‘singular’. A fusional language (also called inflecting language)…

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futon

A Japanese quilt, equivalent to Western eiderdowns or duvets, traditionally filled with (heavy) cotton padding (now polyester or feathers). Most Japanese sleep on a thick futon on the tatami matting, with another on top in winter. All bedding is kept in a cupboard during the day, leaving the room free for use. A futon (布団, futon) is a type of mattress that makes up a Japanese bed. …

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futures

In economics, a futures market (or terminal market) is where commodities are bought and sold for delivery at some future date. Speculators may buy futures in the hope that the price will rise, and thus be able to make a profit by selling on to others. A futures contract enables sellers to guard against the risk that the price will fall, and protects buyers from the risk that the price will rise (h…

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Futuroscope - Architecture, Attractions, Visiting, Gallery

A theme park making use of the latest technology in cinematography, holography, and computer-generated video images, situated at Jaunay-Clan, near Poitiers, France. Since opening in 1987 it has become a very popular centre for educational visits, attracting many school parties from neighbouring countries. The Parc du Futuroscope is a French theme park based upon multimedia, cinematographic …

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Fyn - Noteworthy historic features

pop (2000e) 476 300; area 3486 km²/1346 sq mi. Danish island between S Jutland and Zealand, bounded by the Little Belt (W) and the Great Belt (E); capital, Odense; other towns include Svendborg and Nyborg; second largest island in Denmark; agriculture (‘the garden of Denmark’); Viking remains; train ferry from Nyborg to Korsør. Funen (Danish: Fyn), with a size of 2,984 km², is the…

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G(eorg) W(ilhelm) Pabst

Film director, born in Raudnitz, NWC Czech Republic (formerly Raudnice, Bohemia). He began directing in 1923, and his darkly realistic, almost documentary style was acclaimed in Die Liebe der Jeanne Ney (1927, The Love of Jeanne Ney). Other works include his pacifist Westfront 1918 (1930) and his great co-production with France, Kameradschaft (1931, Comradeship), all examples of the New Realism. T…

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G(eorge) E(dward) Moore

Philosopher, born in London, UK. He studied at Dulwich College and Cambridge, and left classics for philosophy, where he first embraced then rejected the claims of Hegelian idealism. His major ethical work was Principia Ethica (1903), in which he argued against the naturalistic fallacy. At Cambridge he became a lecturer in moral science (1911), and professor of mental philosophy and logic (1925–3…

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G(eorge) E(dward) Woodberry

Literary critic, born in Beverly, Massachusetts, USA. An inspiring teacher at Columbia University (1891–1904) and elsewhere, he wrote essays, notably Heart of Man (1899), and biographies of Poe, Hawthorne, and Emerson, but published little in his last, reclusive years. He wrote a number of books: Other publications: He edited The complete Poetical Works of Percy Bys…

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gabbro

A coarse-grained basic (low in silica) igneous rock composed of calcic plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and sometimes olivine. The vast majority of the Earth's surface is underlain by gabbro within the oceanic crust, produced by basalt magmatism at mid-ocean ridges. Gabbro is dense, greenish or dark-colored and contains varied percentages of pyroxene, plagioclase, amphibole, and …

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gable

The section of wall which conceals the triangular end of a pitched roof. The term is generally used of Gothic architecture. A gable is steeper than its Classical equivalent - the pediment - and is often elaborately shaped and decorated, especially in The Netherlands. A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the lines of a sloping roof. Strictly speaking, the tympanum is…

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Gabon - Miscellaneous topics

Official name Gabonese Republic, Fr République Gabonaise Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic, is a country in west central Africa. Afghanistan?• Albania?• Algeria?• Azerbaijan?• Bahrain?• Bangladesh?• Benin?• Burkina?Faso?• Brunei?• Cameroon?• Chad?• Comoros?• Côte?d'Ivoire?• Djibouti?• Egypt?• Gabon?• Gambia?• Guinea?• Guinea-Biss…

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G

King of Hungary (1620–1). Born into a Hungarian Protestant family, he was elected Prince of Transylvania in 1613. In 1619 he invaded Hungary and had himself elected king in 1620. Although he had to come to terms with the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II (ruled 1619–37) the following year, relinquishing his claims to the Hungarian throne, Ferdinand was obliged to grant religious freedom to Hungari…

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Gaborone

24°45S 25°55E, pop (2000e) 165 900. Independent township and capital of Botswana, S Africa; altitude 1000 m/3300 ft; area 97 km²/37 sq mi; WNW of Pretoria (South Africa); capital moved there from Mafeking, 1965; airport; a campus of University of Botswana and Swaziland; light industry, textiles, trade, services. Before 1969, the city was known as Gaberones. When the Protectorate b…

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Gabriel - Gabriel in Judaism, Gabriel in Christianity, Gabriel in Islam, Gabriel in angelology and the occult

An angel named in both the Old and New Testaments, the only other named angel in the Bible being the archangel Michael (although seven archangels are named in the Jewish apocalyptic work 1 Enoch). Gabriel is said to have helped Daniel interpret visions (Dan 8, 9). He is also recorded as foretelling the births of John the Baptist and of Jesus (Luke 1). In Biblical tradition, he is sometimes …

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Gabriel (Daniel) Fahrenheit - Biography, Fahrenheit scale

Physicist, born in Gda?sk, N Poland (formerly Danzig, Germany). He invented the alcohol thermometer in 1709, following this with a mercury thermometer in 1714. He spent most of his life in The Netherlands. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit) (24 May 1686 in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) – 16 September 1736 in The Hague, Netherlands) was a German physicist and engine…

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Gabriel (Honor - Books by Marcel in English translation

Philosopher, Christian existentialist, and playwright, born in Paris, France. He travelled widely, and after working as a writer and teacher he devoted himself to philosophy. A convert to Catholicism in 1929, he is now considered as the principal proponent of ‘Christian existentialism’, although he personally disapproved of this title. His work is challenging and lucid, accentuating the importan…

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Gabriel Duvall

Judge, born in Prince George's Co, Maryland, USA. He fought in the American Revolution and served the US House of Representatives (Virginia, 1794–6). He became a judge on the Maryland Supreme Court (1796–1802) and President Jefferson's comptroller of the treasury (1802–11) before President Madison appointed him to the US Supreme Court (1811–35). Gabriel Duvall (1752 - 1844) was a U.S. j…

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Gabriel Lippmann

Physicist, born in Hollerich, S Luxembourg. Professor of mathematical and experimental physics at the Sorbonne (1886), he invented a capillary electrometer, and produced the first coloured photograph of the spectrum. He was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physics. Gabriel Jonas Lippmann ( August 16, 1845 – July 13, 1921) was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physics for his method of repro…

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Gabriel Moore

US representative and senator, born in Stokes Co, North Carolina, USA. A lawyer, congressman (Democrat, Alabama, 1821–9), and governor (1829–31), he began the Muscle Shoals Canal and the state university before going to the Senate (1831–5). …

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Gabriel Prosser - Life, Gabriel's Rebellion, Impact, Sources

Slave insurrectionist, probably born in Henrico Co, Virginia, USA. Other than being a coachman belonging to Thomas Prosser of Henrico Co, little is known of his early life and how he came to plan a major slave revolt (1800). Richmond, VA, the state capital, where slaves outweighed whites four-to-one, was chosen as the site of the rebellion. He planned to kill all slave owners, but spare the French…

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Gabriel Richard - Work in Detroit, Political career, Legacy

Catholic missionary, born in Saintes, France. Ordained a Sulpician priest (1791), he emigrated to the USA during the French Revolution and did missionary work in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan, and from 1798 was based in Detroit. He founded several Catholic schools, and in 1817 co-founded the University of Michigan in Detroit (which moved to Ann Arbor in 1837). He acquired a printing press (180…

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Gabriela Mistral - Life, Work

Poet, diplomat, and teacher, born in Vicuña, C Chile. A teacher from the age of 15, she taught at Columbia University, Vassar College, and in Puerto Rico, and combined her writing with a career as a diplomat and cultural minister. She established herself as a poet with ‘Sonetos de la muerte’ (1914, Sonnets of Death), taking her name from Gabriele d'Annunzio and Frédéric Mistral. Her poem ‘Do…

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Gabriele d'Annunzio - Life, Politics, Literature, Museums, Works translated into English, Miscellanea, Further reading

Writer, born in Pescara, E Italy. He studied at Rome, and during the 1890s wrote several novels, influenced by the philosophy of Nietzsche, notably Il trionfo della morte (1894, The Triumph of Death). His best-known poetic work is Laudi del cielo del mare della terra e degli eroi (1899, In Praise of Sky, Sea, Earth, and Heroes), and his major plays include La figlia di Iorio (1904, The Daughter of…

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Gabriele Rossetti

Poet, scholar, and revolutionary, born in Vasto, SE Italy. He is best known as the father of four exceptionally talented children: Maria Francesca (1827–76), Dante Gabriel (1828–82), William Michael (1829–1919), and Christina (1830–94). Besides writing poetry he was a close student of Dante, whose Inferno he maintained was chiefly political and anti-papal. After the restoration of Ferdinand I …

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Gabriele Wohmann

Writer, born in Darmstadt, WC Germany. A member of the Gruppe 47, she studied modern languages and music and became a teacher. Literary influences on her prolific writing have included Marcel Proust and James Joyce, and she is an exponent of a counter-movement to political literature. Her major works, Jetzt und nie (1958), Abschied für länger (1965), and Paulinchen war allein zu Haus (1974), are…

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Gabriello Chiabrera

Poet, born in Savona, Liguria, NW Italy. An eclectic writer, he composed heroic poems (Gotiade, 1582), melodramas and pastoral dramas (Rapimento di Cefalo, 1600), tragedies (Erminia) and others. His adaptation of classical prosody to traditional verse deeply influenced the Arcadia movement. Gabriello Chiabrera (June 18, 1552 – October 14, 1638) was an Italian poet, sometimes called the It…

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Gadidae

The cod family of fishes, a large group comprising about 15 genera and 100 species of marine fish found primarily in continental shelf waters of the cool temperate N hemisphere; only the burbot is freshwater; many are extremely important commercially as food fish, including cod, burbot, haddock, ling, pollack, saithe, torsk, and whiting. Gadidae is a family of marine fish, included in the o…

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Gadsden Purchase - Overview, Purpose, Controversy, U.S. Statehood

(1853) An area in S Arizona and New Mexico bought from Mexico for $10 000 000 as a route for a transcontinental railroad. The purchase, named after US minister to Mexico James Gadsden (1788–1858), defined the present-day US/Mexican border. The Gadsden Purchase or Gadsdena, is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the Uni…

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Gaetano Bresci - Militancy, Humbert's killing

Anarchist, born in Coiano, NC Italy. An anarchist textile worker and trade union organizer, he had emigrated to the USA, but returned to Italy and in 1900 assassinated King Umberto I, whom he held responsible for the ruthless suppression of the 1898–99 riots. He was condemned to life imprisonment, but died in jail in unclear circumstances. Gaetano Bresci (1869 - May 22, 1901), was an Itali…

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Gaetano Salvemini - Biography

Italian politician and historian, born in Molfetta, Puglia, SE Italy. He was an active member of the Socialist Party, a contributor to the review Critica sociale, and an expert on the Southern Italian question. Critical of Giolitti's Southern policy, he advocated the end of protectionism, universal suffrage, and federalism. He left the Socialist Party, which he saw as too tightly connected to Nort…

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gaffer - Gaffers in the motion picture industry, Gaffer as an old man or foreman

The chief electrician in a film or television production crew, working closely with the lighting director. The charge-hand electrician working directly under the gaffer is known as the best boy. A gaffer in the motion picture industry is the head of the electrical department, responsible for the execution (and sometimes the design) of the lighting plan for a production. Sometime…

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Gaia hypothesis - Lovelock's initial hypothesis, Critical analysis, DaisyWorld simulations, The First Gaia Conference

A hypothesis, first proposed by James Lovelock in 1972, which considers the Earth as an intimately linked system of physical, chemical, and biological processes, interacting in a self-regulating way to maintain the conditions necessary for life. This contrasts with the view that the Earth is merely an inanimate habitat, fortuitously having surface conditions that have supported the evolution of pl…

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Gail (Ruth) Rebuck - Places, Other uses

Publisher, born in London, UK. She studied at the University of Sussex, and entered publishing in 1975, first joining Grisewood & Dempsey, then moving to Robert Nicholson Publications (1976) and the Hamlyn Group (1978). Appointed publishing director at Century Publishing in 1982, she stayed with the company when it became Century Hutchinson (1985) and also when this was taken over by Random House …

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Gail Borden - Early years, Career, Inventor, Later years

Surveyor and inventor, born in Norwich, New York, USA. In 1822 he surveyed land in Mississippi, then joined his family at Stephen Austin's colony in Texas, where he worked as the official surveyor. During the Texas war for independence from Mexico, he and his brother published the area's only newspaper. He also drew up the first topographical map of the republic and laid out the city of Galveston.…

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Gail Sheehy

Journalist and writer on popular psychology, born in Mamaroneck, New York, USA. She attended the University of Vermont (1958 BS), and worked as a feature writer on the New York Herald Tribune (1963–6) and as an editor on New York magazine (1966–77). She wrote a number of best-sellers, including Passages: Predictable Crises of Adult Life (1976), Pathfinders (1981), and The Silent Passage (1992), …

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gaillardia

An annual or perennial, mostly native to North America, several species being grown in gardens for their cut flowers and long flowering period. Two species are the parents of many garden hybrids: Gaillardia pulchella, an annual growing to 30–60 cm/1–2 ft with coarsely toothed, lance-shaped leaves, yellow outer ray florets coloured crimson at the base; and Gaillardia aristata, a perennial growi…

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Gainsborough

53º42N 0º46W, pop (2001e) 17 500. River port in West Lindsey district, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK; on the R Trent, 25 km/15 mi NW of Lincoln; birthplace of John Alderton, Vic Feather, Dame Sybil Thorndike; railway; Gainsborough Old Hall (1460–80); parish church of All Saints (18th-c); transport equipment, engineering, food processing, timber. Gainsborough may refer to: …

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Gaius (Cilnius) Maecenas - Biography, 'Mecenate' (patronage), Works, Legacy, Sources and references

Roman politician of ancient Etruscan lineage, who together with Agrippa played a key role in the rise to power of Octavian/Augustus, and his establishment of the empire after 31 BC. Besides being a trusted counsellor and diplomatic agent, he also helped the new regime by his judicious patronage of the arts, encouraging such poets as Horace, Virgil, and Propertius. Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (70…

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Gaius Cornelius Gallus - Work

Poet, born in Forum Julii (now Fréjus) in Gaul. He lived in Rome in intimate friendship with Virgil and Ovid, and was appointed prefect of Egypt by Augustus, but he fell into disfavour, and after being banished he committed suicide. From his four books of elegies upon his mistress ‘Lycoris’ (the actress Cyntheris), he is considered the founder of the Roman elegy. Only a few fragments of his wor…

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Gaius Flaminius

Roman general and statesman, of plebeian origin. Consul in 223 BC, he distributed the Ager Gallicus tribal lands left uninhabited since 283 BC. He was the first Roman commander to cross the R Po when he defeated the Insubres at the Addua (223 BC). He extended his road, the Flaminian Way, from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini) in 220 BC, and built the Circus Flaminius. Consul again in 217 BC, he tried to s…

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Gaius Lucilius

Satirist, born in Suessa Aurunca, Italy. He wrote 30 books of Satires, of which only fragments remain. Written in hexameters, they give a critical insight into his times, and were the first works in the style of critical observation that we have come to know as true satire. Gaius Lucilius (c. 180 BC - 103 BC), the earliest Roman satirist, of whose writings only fragments remain, was born at…

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Gaius Marius - Early Career, Legate to Metellus, Run for the Consulship, Recruitment, War in Numidia, Cimbri and Teutones

Roman general and politician, born in Arpinum. Of comparatively humble extraction, his military talents and ruthless ambition enabled him to rise to the very top in Rome, where he held an unprecedented number of consulships (seven), and married into the heart of the aristocracy - the Julian gens. Famous in his lifetime for his victories over Jugurtha (105 BC), the Teutones (102 BC), and the Cimbri…

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galactose - Structure and isomerism, Reactions, Metabolic disorders

A simple sugar (monosaccharide), found in the sugar of milk along with glucose; otherwise, it is rare in nature. Galactosaemia, a genetic defect leading to an inability to metabolize galactose, is very uncommon and requires dietary management. Galactose (Gal) (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. Galact…

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Galatea

In Greek mythology, a sea-nymph, wooed by Polyphemus the Cyclops with uncouth love-songs. In some versions Polyphemus destroys his rival Acis with a rock; in other versions he happily marries Galatea. It is probably a Sicilian story. Galatea may refer to: Galatea may also refer to: …

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galaxy - Etymology, Observation history, Types of galaxies, Larger scale structures, Galaxy formation and evolution, Galactic biology

A huge family of stars held together by their mutual gravitational attractions. Galaxies exist in a great variety of forms, ellipticals predominating, but spirals featuring prominently in popular books on account of their notable shapes. Masses range from a few million suns to 10 million million times as many. The nearest galaxies to the Milky Way are the Magellanic Clouds, some 55 000 parsec awa…

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Galaxy - Etymology, Observation history, Types of galaxies, Larger scale structures, Galaxy formation and evolution, Galactic biology

The huge star family to which our Sun belongs, seen as the Milky Way. In shape it is basically a bulging flat disc, diameter 35 kiloparsec, thickness 3000 parsec at the centre, and 300 parsec elsewhere. The Sun is 8000 parsec from the nucleus. Within this disc there are star clusters and interstellar matter. A pair of spiral arms merges from the nucleus and is superimposed on the general distribut…

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Gale Sayers - College career and rookie NFL season, First and second injuries, Devoted friendship, Sayers/Piccolo

Player of American football, born in Wichita, Kansas, USA. Running back with the Chicago Bears (1965–72), he held numerous records, and was elected to the sport's Hall of Fame in 1977. He once scored six touchdowns in a single game (1965). After retiring from the sport, he became a coach, and also went into business as a computer company executive. Gale Eugene Sayers (born May 30, 1943 in …

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Galen - Life

Greek physician, born in Pergamum, Mysia. He studied medicine at Pergamum, Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria, and later lived in Rome. He wrote at length on medical and philosophical subjects, and gathered up all the medical knowledge of his time, thus becoming the authority used by subsequent Greek and Roman medical writers. Greek: Γαληνός, Latin: Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129 –…

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galena

A lead sulphide (PbS) mineral, with very dense, dark-grey crystals. It is an important source of lead. Galena is the natural mineral form of lead sulfide. …

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Galerius

Roman emperor (305–11), born near Serdica, Dacia. He was a Roman soldier of humble extraction who rose from the ranks to become deputy ruler of the E half of the empire under Diocletian (293), and chief ruler after Diocletians's abdication in 305. He was a notorious persecutor of the Christians (303–11) until near the end of his reign, when after an illness he granted them some toleration. …

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Galicia

pop (2000e) 2 745 000; area 29 434 km²/11 361 sq mi. Autonomous region of Spain in the NW corner of the Iberian peninsula extending S to the Portuguese border; crossed by several rivers, reaching the sea in deep fjord-like inlets; a mediaeval kingdom within Castile, 11th-c; ports include Corunna and Vigo; maize, wine, fishing, wolfram, tin; a distinctive cultural and linguistic region; th…

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Galilean moons

The four principal natural satellites of Jupiter, discovered by Galileo in 1610: Io (the innermost), Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They are distinct worlds in their own right, in the same size range as the Moon. They lack sensible atmospheres and lie in near circular orbits in Jupiter's equatorial plane. Io and Europa are mainly ‘rocky’ silicate bodies while Ganymede and Callisto contain an eq…

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Galilee - Geography, Modern Galilee

N region of former Palestine and now of Israel, bounded W by the Mediterranean Sea, N by Lebanon, E by Syria, L Tiberias, and the Jordan valley, and S by the Jezreel plain; chiefly associated in Biblical times with the ministry of Jesus; main centre of Judaism in Palestine after the destruction of Jerusalem (AD 70); scene of fierce fighting during the Arab invasion of Israel, 1948. The Gali…

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Galileo - Biographical Sketch, Scientific methods, Astronomy, Physics, Mathematics, Technology, Church controversy, Galileo's writings

Astronomer and mathematician, born in Pisa, W Italy. He entered Pisa University as a medical student in 1581, and became professor of mathematics at Padua (1592–1610), where he improved the refracting telescope (1610), and was the first to use it for astronomy, discovering the four largest satellites of Jupiter. His bold advocacy of the Copernican theory brought severe ecclesiastical censure. He …

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gall - Creatures that induce galls

An abnormal outgrowth of tissue which can appear on any part of a plant, caused by insects, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, or mites. The precise infecting agent is often, but not always, identifiable from the type of gall. Common examples are oak-apples and the pincushion galls of roses. Galls or plant galls are proliferations and modifications of plant cells and can be caused by various paras…

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Gall - Creatures that induce galls

Hunkpapa Sioux war chief, born near the Morrow R in present-day South Dakota, USA. As a young warrior he was adopted by Sitting Bull as a major Sioux war chief. He fought with Red Cloud in the 1860s and was a leader in the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876). He retreated with Sitting Bull to Canada, but returned in 1880 and settled on the Standing Rock reservation. He came to accept white rule, e…

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gall wasp

A very small wasp, each species causing a characteristic gall on its host plant, typically the oak; one or more larvae develops inside each gall. The life-cycle is complex, often involving an alternation between sexual and asexual generations. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Cynipidae, c.2000 species.) Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are…

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galleon - Notable galleons, Further reading

An elaborate, four-masted, heavily armed 16th-c warship, with a pronounced beak reminiscent of the ram on a galley, hence ‘galleon’. The forecastle was relatively small, but the poop was high and ornate. A galleon was a large, multi-decked sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries. Galleons were an evolution of the caravel and carrack…

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Gallic Wars - Political background, Campaign against the Helvetii - beginning of the war

The name traditionally given to Julius Caesar's brutal campaigns (58–51 BC) against the Celtic tribes of Gaul (ancient France). They were also the occasion of his two unsuccessful invasions of Britain. The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. The …

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Gallicanism - History

A French religious doctrine, emphasizing royal or episcopal authority over matters pertaining to the French church at the expense of papal sovereignty. It emerged during Philip the Fair's struggle with Boniface VIII (1297–1303), and remained a traditional, though controversial force in France, invoked to defend established liberties against Ultramontanism and papal interference. Gallicanis…

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Galliformes

A worldwide order of medium-sized, mainly ground-feeding birds; includes the megapodes, curassows, the hoatzin, and the ‘game birds’ (pheasants, turkeys, domestic fowl); also known as gallinaceous birds. The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. These birds vary in size from the diminutive Asian Rain Quails (Excalfactoria chinen…

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Gallipoli - History, Battle of Gallipoli, Ecclesiastical history, Sources and references

Narrow peninsula extending SW from the coast of Istanbul province, NW Turkey; between the Dardanelles (SE) and the Aegean Sea (W); length c.100 km/60 mi; the scene of fierce fighting in 1915–16. Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: Gelibolu Yarımadası, Greek: Καλλίπολις/Kallipolis) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the …

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gallium

Ga, element 31. A metal with a remarkable liquid range (melting point 28°C, boiling point 2400°C), relatively rare and found chiefly as an impurity in ores of other elements. In virtually all its compounds, it shows oxidation state +3. It is important mainly as gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound converting electrical energy into visible light, and used in light-emitting diodes and other electro…

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galvanometer - Operation, Types, Uses

An instrument for measuring small electrical currents. The moving coil galvanometer consists of an indicating needle or mirror attached to a coiled wire suspended in a magnetic field. The coil rotates when a current passes through it. The angle through which it rotates (indicated by the deflection of the needle or by a beam of light reflected from the mirror) is used to measure the current. Other …

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Galway - Climate, Politics, Culture, Infrastructure, Sister Cities

pop (2000e) 183 000; area 5939 km²/2293 sq mi. County in Connacht province, W Ireland; largest Gaelic-speaking population in Ireland; farming, tourism, crafts; capital, Galway, pop (2000e) 52 000; port at head of Galway Bay; airfield, university (1849); technical college. Galway (official Irish name: Gaillimh) is the main city in the province of Connacht in Ireland and capital of Co…

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Galway Kinnell - Works

Poet and writer, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. He studied at Princeton (1948 BA), and the University of Rochester (1949 MA), travelled widely, and taught at many colleges. Based in Sheffield, VT he was a translator and essay writer, but is best known for his direct and precise poetry, as in Selected Poems (1982). Galway Kinnell (born February 1, 1927) is one of the most influential…

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Gamal Abdel Nasser - Early life, World War II, Revolution, Conflict with Naguib, Suez Canal, Relationship with the Soviet Union

Egyptian statesman, prime minister (1954–6), and president (1956–70), born in Alexandria, N Egypt. An army officer, he became dissatisfied with the corruption of the Farouk regime, and was the prime mover in the Free Officers' coup of 1952. He assumed the premiership in 1954, and then presidential powers, deposing his fellow officer, General Mohammed Neguib. Officially elected president in 1956,…

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Gamaliel - As Rabban, In Acts of the Apostles, As a Christian saint, External sources

Palestinian rabbi, the teacher of St Paul, mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 22:3). A prominent Pharisee, he taught ‘the law’ early in the 1st-c. Tolerant and peaceful, he seems to have placed Christianity on a par with other sects, and encouraged long-suffering on all sides. Gamaliel the Elder, or Rabbi Gamaliel I, was the grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. …

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Gamaliel Bailey

Physician, journalist, and abolitionist, born in Mount Holly, New Jersey, USA. In his early years he worked as a physician, but his true calling was abolitionism. He and James G Birney edited the Cincinnati Philanthropist (1836), the first anti-slavery organ in the West, and he later founded the daily Herald (1843). He moved to Washington, DC, to serve as editor-in-chief of the National Era (1847

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gambling - Legal aspects, Actions typically not regarded as gambling, Gambling variables, Psychological aspects, Types of gambling

The wagering of either money or material goods of value on the outcome of a chance happening, such as roulette or dice-throwing, or where an element of skill can be used to judge the likelihood of an outcome, such as in horse racing or football. Gambling takes place in some form in every country of the world, from the cockfights of the Philippines to the various forms (roulette, card and dice game…

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game theory - Representation of games, Types of games, Uses of game theory, History of game theory

The branch of mathematics that analyses a range of problems involving decision-making; also called games theory. Although often illustrated by games of chance, there are important applications to military strategy, economics, ecology, and other applied sciences. Game theory was developed in the 20th-c, principally by French mathematician Emile Borel (1871–1956) and US mathematician John Von Neuma…

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gamelan - Instruments and characteristics, Varieties of gamelan ensembles, Cultural context, Tuning, Influence on Western music

An ensemble used for traditional and ceremonial music, especially in Bali and Java. It consists mainly of tuned gongs, chimes, and other percussion instruments. The word "gamelan" comes from the Javanese word "gamel", meaning to strike or hammer, and the Malay-Indonesian suffix "an" makes the root a collective noun. A gamelan is a musical ensemble, which originated from Indonesi…

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gamete

A specialized reproductive cell which fuses with another gamete of the opposite sex or mating type, during fertilization, to form a zygote. Gametes are typically haploid (possessing a single chromosome set), and the zygote is diploid (possessing a double set, one derived from each gamete). Gametes are usually differentiated into male and female: male gametes (sperm) are typically motile and have r…

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gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)

A procedure undertaken to remedy infertility. Ova are collected from the surface of the ovaries after stimulation with gonadotrophin or drugs with a similar action. These are then introduced into the uterus together with spermatozoa, permitting natural fertilization to occur. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is an infertility treatment in which eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries, …

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gametophyte

The sexual (ie gamete-producing or haploid) generation in the life of a plant. It is the dominant part of the life-cycle in algae and bryophytes; it is the free-living but minor generation in ferns; while in flowering plants it is represented only by the pollen tube and embryo sac. Free-living gametophytes are relatively unspecialized, are prone to dehydration, and are generally confined to damp h…

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gamma-ray astronomy - Early history, Early discoveries, Recent observatories

The study of radiation from celestial sources at wavelengths shorter than 0·01 nm. Gamma-rays have been detected from the gamma-ray background, from a few energetic galaxies and quasars, and from certain highly evolved stars. Long before experiments could detect gamma rays emitted by cosmic sources, scientists had known that the universe should be producing these photons. Work by Feenberg…

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Gang of Four (China)

The four Shanghai-based hard-core radical leaders of the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) in China: Zhang Chunqiao (1917–2005), Yao Wenyuan (d.2005), Wang Hongwen (d.1992), and Jiang Qing (Mao Zedong's wife). Zhang and Yao were veterans of the Shanghai party machine. All were members of the politburo when they were arrested and disgraced after Mao's death (1976). The Gang of Four (Simplified…

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Gang of Four (UK)

In British politics, the four politicians who broke away from the Labour Party to found the Social Democratic Party in 1981: Roy Jenkins, William Rodgers, David Owen, and Shirley Williams. The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: Sì rén bāng) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the People's Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their po…

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ganglion (anatomy)

An aggregation of grey (non-myelinated) nervous tissue within the nervous system, constituting the bulk of many invertebrate central nervous systems. In vertebrates, there are some ganglia within the central nervous system (eg the basal ganglia), but the majority occur in the peripheral nervous system, as collections of cell bodies of neurones (eg the spinal ganglia). They are often the site of co…

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gangrene - Types, History, Treatment

Death of body tissue which occurs in parts of the body deprived of their blood supply, such as a toe or foot, or internal organ. Without infection, the affected part blackens and shrivels (dry gangrene). If it is infected, the affected part becomes swollen and ulcerated and the area of dead tissue spreads, requiring urgent surgery. This article contains photographs that some people may find…

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gannet - Systematics and evolution

A large marine bird closely related to the booby; native to the N Atlantic, S Africa, Australia, and New Zealand; long blue bill with no external nostrils; bare patches of blackish skin on face; similar habits to boobies. (Family: Sulidae, 3 species.) Gannets are seabirds in the family Sulidae, closely related to the boobies. The gannet's supposed capacity for eating large quant…

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Ganymede (astronomy) - The Myth, Ganymede in arts, Homonyms, Sources

The third natural satellite of Jupiter, discovered by Galileo in 1610; distance from the planet 1 070 000 km/665 000 mi; diameter 5260 km/3270 mi; orbital period 7·155 days. It is the largest moon in the Solar System, and larger than Mercury. The brightest of the Galilean satellites, it seems to have a large rocky core surrounded by a mantle of water and a thick crust of ice. It has many i…

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Ganymede (mythology) - The Myth, Ganymede in arts, Homonyms, Sources

In Greek mythology, a beautiful boy, the son of Tros, a Trojan prince. Zeus sent a storm-wind, or (later and more usually) an eagle, who carried Ganymede up to Olympus, where he became the cup-bearer. In return his father was given a stud of exceptional horses. In Greek mythology, Ganymede, or Ganymedes (Greek: Γανυμήδης, Ganumēdēs) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad.…

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gar - Gar in aquaria, Gar diversity

Primitive slender-bodied fish confined to fresh and brackish rivers and lakes of North America; length up to 3 m/10 ft, scales rhomboidal, jaws prolonged to form a narrow snout; feeds voraciously on other fishes and crustaceans, caught by rapid striking movements; also called garpikes. (Genus: Lepisosteus. Family: Lepisosteidae.) In American English the name gar (or garpike) is strictly a…

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Garcilaso de la Vega

Poet, born in Toledo, C Spain. Born into a noble family, he entered the court of Carlos V in 1502 and spent most of his life in service to the king. He took part in an unsuccessful expedition to relieve Rhodes (1522) and the Tunis campaign (1535). In 1525 he married Elena de Zúñiga, but in the following year fell in love with a Portuguese lady, Isabel Freyre, to whom he addressed his greatest lo…

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garden city - Design and Planning

In the UK, a planned settlement designed to provide a spacious, high-quality, living and working environment. The concept is based on 19th-c ideas of Utopian communities, and was developed by Ebenezer Howard in 1898. Each garden city was planned to a concentric land use pattern, with c.32 000 people and a residential density of 75 per ha/30 per acre. The design featured wide streets and public…

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garden cress

A slender annual (Lepidium sativum), single stem 20–40 cm/8–15 in, with lobed basal leaves and pinnate stem leaves; flowers small, white, cross-shaped; possibly native to W Asia. Long cultivated as a salad plant, it is the cress of mustard-and-cress. (Family: Cruciferae.) …

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gardenia

An evergreen shrub or small tree, native mostly to the Old World tropics, China, and Japan; leaves elliptical, glossy; flowers white, fragrant, petals forming a tube with spreading lobes. It is named after the 18th-c physician and botanist Alexander Garden (1730–91). (Genus: Gardenia, 250 species. Family: Rubiaceae.) Gardenia is a genus of about 250 species of flowering plants in the famil…

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Gardiner Greene Hubbard

Lawyer and businessman, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The son of a Massachusetts judge, he studied at Dartmouth (1841), and practised law in Boston and Washington, DC. As a civic leader, he helped introduce gaslight to Cambridge, MA, took a leading role in building one of the country's first streetcar lines, and helped develop and expand telephone services. His daughter's deafness led to his…

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Gareth (Owen) Edwards

Rugby player, born in Gwaun-cae-Gurwen, Neath and Port Talbot, SC Wales, UK. He was the scrum-half who personified Wales' second golden era in the 1970s, forming brilliant half-back partnerships with first Barry John then Phil Bennett. First capped in his teens, he became captain at 20. His 53 Welsh caps were won consecutively, and his performances were crucial to the 1971 and 1974 British Lions, …

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Garfield Bromley Oxnam

Protestant religious leader and educator, born in Sonora, California, USA. He graduated from the University of California (1913) and studied at Harvard and abroad. Ordained a Methodist Episcopal minister (1916), he was a pastor, professor of social ethics, and president of DePauw University in Indiana (1928–36). Elected a bishop (1936), he served in Omaha, Boston, and in Washington, DC (1952–60)…

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garganey

A small, slender duck (Anas querquedula), native to S Eurasia, W and NE Africa, and Indonesia; male brown with white stripe from eye to back of neck; migrates to tropics for winter; the most numerous duck wintering in Africa. (Family: Anatidae.) The Garganey, Anas querquedula is a small dabbling duck. …

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gargoyle - Gargoyles in fiction, Photo gallery

In Gothic architecture, a stone rainwater spout carved in the form of a grotesque animal or human face, with its mouth open as if spewing the water. It is usually built so as to project well out from the parapet, thus sending the water away from the building. Gargoyles are mostly grotesque figures. In Egypt, gargoyles ejected the water used in the washing of the sacred vessels which seems t…

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garlic

A perennial bulb (Allium sativum) up to 60 cm/2 ft; narrow, flat leaves; greenish-to-purple star-shaped flowers mixed with bulbils. Native to Asia, it has been cultivated in the Mediterranean region since ancient times for the strongly flavoured bulbs which are widely used in cooking. Wild relatives are sometimes used as poor substitutes. (Family: Liliaceae.) …

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garlic mustard

A biennial 20–120 cm/8 in–4 ft high (Alliaria petiolata), native to Europe and Asia; bright pale-green, heart-shaped leaves; heads of small, white, cross-shaped flowers; The whole plant smells of garlic, especially when crushed. Commonly found along hedgerows, it is sometimes called hedge garlic. (Family: Cruciferae.) Garlic mustard or Hedge garlic (Alliaria petiolata) is a flowering p…

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garnet - Physical Properties, Garnet group endmembers, Synthetic Garnets, Uses of garnets

A group of silicate minerals occurring mainly in metamorphic rocks, but also found in pegmatites. It displays a wide range of composition and colour. Important members and their primary constituents are pyrope (Mg, Al), almandine (Fe, Al), grossularite (Ca, Al), and andradite (Ca, Fe). Some varieties are important as gemstones. Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bro…

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Garoua

9º17N 13º22E, pop (2001e) 180 900. River-port capital of Nord province, Cameroon, W Africa; on the right bank of the R Bénoué, 645 km/400 mi NNE of Yaoundé; centre of a cotton growing area; the navigable Bénoué-Niger waterway connects Garoua to the open sea (1600 km/1000 mi route); birthplace of Ahmadou Ahidjo; railway; airport; cotton, cement, salt, groundnuts, petrol products. …

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Garrett (James) Hardin - Biography, Publications

Ecologist and educator, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago and Stanford (1941 PhD), joined the faculty of the University of California, Santa Barbara (1946), and became an emeritus professor there (1978). Originally a plant biologist, he became increasingly interested in genetics, evolution, and the problems of pollution and population growth. In such books as Natu…

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Garrett Birkhoff

Mathematician, born in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. He taught at Harvard (1936–81), and was a National Academy of Sciences member and consultant to General Motors, the Rand Corp, and Los Alamos Science Laboratory. His specialties included modern algebra, fluid mechanics, numerical methods, reactor theory, differential equations, and history of mathematics. Garrett Birkhoff (January 19, 1911…

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Garrett Davis

US representative and senator, born in Mount Sterling, Kentucky, USA. He served Kentucky in its legislature and at its constitutional convention, and was elected to the US House of Representatives by a Whig majority (1839–47). A renowned orator, he was sent to the US Senate in 1861, where he served until his death. Although a supporter of the Union, he grew critical of Lincoln's policies and was …

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Garrett Eckbo - Selected commissions

Landscape architect, born in Cooperstown, New York, USA. Influenced by Gropius, he specialized in clean, clear spaces for public use, designing university campuses and gardens on the West Coast (1940–65). In 1980 he began to focus on ecology. He was born in Cooperstown, New York to Axel Eckbo, a businessman, and Theodora Munn Eckbo. After Eckbo graduated from high school in 1929, he felt a…

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Garrison Keillor - Biography and personal life, Career, Awards and other recognition, Keillor in popular culture, Bibliography

Humorous writer and radio performer, born in Anoka, Minnesota, USA. He studied at Minnesota University, became a radio announcer, then began writing for The New Yorker. In 1974 he first hosted the live radio show, ‘A Prairie Home Companion’, delivering a weekly monologue set in the quiet, fictional mid-western town of Lake Wobegon, ‘where all the women are strong, all the men are good looking, …

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Garry Winogrand - Quotes, Books

Photographer and teacher, born in New York, USA. Between assignments as a commercial photographer in New York City (1952–69), he started shooting street scenes, and from 1969 he taught photography and used grants to pursue his art. Garry Winogrand (1928, New York City – 1984) was a noted street photographer known for his portrayal of America in the early 1960s. Winogrand stud…

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Garson Kanin

Playwright, screenwriter, stage and film director, and writer, born in Rochester, NewYork, USA. He commenced his show-business career in the late 1920s as a jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, then became a vaudeville comedian. He studied at New York's American Academy of the Dramatic Arts, made his acting debut (1933), served as assistant director under George Abbott, and directed his first play, H…

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Garth Fagan

Choreographer and dance teacher, born in Jamaica. The son of Jamaica's chief education officer, he began dancing with the National Dance Company of Jamaica, went on to the Dance Theater of Detroit, and then began teaching dance at the State University of New York (SUNY), Brockport (near Rochester). Working with mostly disadvantaged African-American students, he formed an amateur ensemble (1970) th…

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Gary (Frank) Cooper - Childhood, Hollywood, Death and legacy, Filmography

Actor, born in Helena, Montana, USA. The son of English parents who had settled in Montana, he studied at Grinnell College, Iowa, then worked as a cartoonist and at various other jobs before trying films in 1925 as an extra in a Western. His role as the laconic cowboy in The Virginian (1929) launched him as a star. Initially better known for his offscreen romantic escapades than his acting, he set…

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Gary (Jim) Player - Major Championships

Golfer, born in Johannesburg, NE South Africa. He is one of only five golfers to win each of the four Grand Slam events. His first major success was the 1959 (British) Open, a title he also won in 1968 and 1974. He was the first non-American for 45 years to win the US Open (1965), and the first to win the US Professional Golfers Association title (1962, 1972) and the US Masters (1961, 1974, 1978).…

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Gary (Sherman) Snyder - Early life, The Beats, Japan, Later life and writings, Snyder's poetics

Poet, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied at Reed College, OR, Indiana University, and the University of California, Berkeley, then tried various jobs before beginning to write. He is associated with the Beat poets. From the outset he identified with the natural world and the values of simple living and hard physical work. Since 1965 he has lived mainly in Japan, writing poems which…

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Gary (Stanley) Becker - Major works

Economist, born in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, USA. One of the sharpest economic minds, he often challenged long-established theories and introduced many original ideas into the economic community with his uncanny ability to apply a single, general economic principle to apparently unconnected factors. Except for 12 years at Columbia University (1957–69), he spent his career at the University of Chi…

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Gary (Winston) Lineker - Post-playing career, Trivia

Footballer, journalist, and broadcaster, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He played for Leicester City (1978–85), Everton (1985–6), FC Barcelona (1986–9), Tottenham Hotspur (1982–92), and Grampus 8, Nagoya, Japan (1993–4). He made his England debut in 1984 (captain 1990–2), playing in the 1986 and 1990 World Cups, and also in two European Championships (1988, 1992), and gain…

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Gary Graffman - References and further reading

Pianist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He began studying at the Curtis Institute at age eight, and two years later made his New York debut. His ensuing international career, mainly playing the Romantics, was cut short by a hand ailment in 1979, and he went on to teach at Curtis. Gary Graffman (born 14 October 1928) is a classical pianist, teacher of piano and music administrator. …

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Gary Hart - Biography, Literary

US politician, born in Ottawa, Kansas, USA. He studied at Yale, and established a law practice at Denver, CO. After managing George McGovern's presidential campaign (1970–2), he entered the US Senate in 1974. A ‘neo-liberal’, seeking to combine social and environmental reform with enhanced economic efficiency, he contested the Democrats' presidential nomination in 1980, and almost defeated Walt…

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Gary Kildall - Academic career, CP/M, Later career, Death, Recognition

US computer software designer. A lecturer at the Naval Postgraduate School in California, he wrote CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) in 1974, the first operating system for general use on microcomputers using the Intel 8080 chip, enabling others to write applications programs. It provided a major boost to the micro revolution. Gary Arlen Kildall (May 19, 1942 – July 11, 1994) was …

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Gary Larson - Biography, The Far Side, Awards

Cartoonist, born in Tacoma, Washington, USA. He is the creator of the irreverent, often anthropomorphic, sometimes macabre cartoon panels, The Far Side, which first appeared in syndication in 1984. Gary Larson is the creator of The Far Side, a (sometimes subdivided) single-panel comic strip which appeared in many newspapers for fourteen years until Larson's retirement January 1, 1995.…

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Gary Oldman

Film actor, producer, and director, born in London, UK. He was a member of the Glasgow Citizen's Theatre, and became known following his portrayal of punk rocker Sid Vicious in the film Sid and Nancy (1986) and of playwright Joe Orton in Prick Up Your Ears (1987). Later films include Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992), the role of Beethoven in Immortal Beloved (1994), Lost in Space (1998), Harry Potter …

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gas (chemistry) - Physics, Some types of gases, Etymology

A state of matter in which atoms are disordered and highly mobile, moving randomly with little interaction. Gases are characterized by low densities (typically 1/1000 of a solid), an ability to flow and to fill a container, and high compressibility. All substances will pass into the gas or vapour phase if heated to a high enough temperature. All gases which do not react with one another form a hom…

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gas (fuel) - Physics, Some types of gases, Etymology

A fuel which includes both manufactured gas, derived from solid or liquid fossil fuels, and natural gas, drawn from existing gaseous subterranean accumulations. The Chinese used natural gas for brine evaporation in the 1st-c BC. In the West, manufactured gas (or town gas) was made from the early 19th-c by the distillation of coal. The economics of the coal-gas industry depended to a great extent o…

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gas gangrene - Features, Pathophysiology

An infection of muscle and soft tissue by Clostridium perfringens. The bacteria infect wounds and secrete a toxin that digests tissues, producing gas bubbles from fermentation. The affected part is blackened and foul smelling, and the infection spreads rapidly, requiring urgent excision or amputation. Rare in peacetime, the infection is the scourge of soldiers on the battlefield. Gas gangre…

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gas laws - Ideal gases, Non-ideal gases

Boyle's and Charles's Laws together, interrelating pressure, volume, and temperature for a given mass of an ideal gas. These laws may be summarized in a single equation: pV = nRT, where p is the pressure exerted by n moles of a gas contained in a volume V at an absolute temperature T. R is a constant, with a value of about 8·3 J K?1mol?1, called the gas constant. The gas laws are a set…

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gas turbine - Theory of operation, Jet engines, Auxiliary power units, Gas turbines for electrical power production

An engine that passes the products of the combustion of its fuel/air mixture over the blades of a turbine. The turbine drives an air compressor, which in turn provides the air for the combustion process. The energy of the combustion products not taken up by the compressor can be used to provide a jet of exhaust gases, or drive another turbine. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine…

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Gascony - History, Geography, Economy

Former province in Aquitaine region, SW France, now occupying the departments of Landes, Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, and some adjacent areas; bounded S by the Pyrenees and W by the Bay of Biscay; part of the Roman Empire; conquered by the Visigoths, later by the Franks, who made it a duchy; joined to Guienne, 1052; in English hands, 1154–1453. Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced /gaskɔɲ/?…

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Gaspar Gil Polo

Writer, born in Valencia, E Spain. He wrote Los cinco libros de la Diana enamorada (1564), the best pastoral novel in Castilian after the Diana of Montemayor. The Diana enamorada is often described as a sequel to Montemayor's novel, but it has recently been considered more in the nature of a rejoinder on a philosophical level. Gaspar Gil Polo may have been a professor of Greek at Valencia Universi…

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Gaspara Stampa - Life, Literature

Poet, born in Padua, Veneto, NE Italy. She pursued her literary education in Venice, and was renowned for her poetic and musical gifts and for her beauty. Her remaining 311 poems were collected in the Rime and edited by her sister in 1554. Written in a style reminiscent of Petrarca, most of them are dedicated to Count Collatino di Collalto. Gaspara Stampa (1523-1554) was an Italian poet. …

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Gaspard Dughet

Painter, born in Rome, Italy. His sister married Nicholas Poussin, and he called himself after his more famous brother-in-law. He specialized in landscapes which, while modelled on the Roman countryside, combine the classical manner of Poussin and the more lyrical style of Claude Lorrain. His works were often taken as models for landscaped gardens and parks. Gaspard Dughet (also known as Ga…

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Gasparo Gozzi

Writer, born in Venice,Veneto, NE Italy. The brother of the more famous Carlo Gozzi, he was permanently in financial straits, and took various jobs to support his large family. He founded and edited reviews, such as the Gazzetta Veneta and L'osservatore veneto, where his work shows him to be a sharp and ironic social commentator. His poems are collected in Sermoni (1754–80). The brother of…

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Gaston (Louis Alfred) Leroux - Leroux's novels

Journalist and novelist, born in Paris, France. He was raised in Normandy, studied law in Paris, was admitted to the bar, then became a legal journalist on Le Matin, while writing short stories, poetry, and eventually novels and plays. His successful novels featured the reporter character ‘Rouletabille’, and include Le Mystère de la chambre jaune (1907) and Le Parfum de la dame en noir (1909). …

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Gaston Bachelard

Philosopher and scientist, born in Bar-sur-Aube, EC France. He had an unusual range of interests and influence in the history of science, psychoanalysis, and literary criticism, which were connected in such works as La Psychoanalyse du feu (1937), La Flamme d'une chandelle (1961), and La Formation de l'esprit scientifique (1938). …

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Gaston Gallimard

Publisher, born in Paris, France. The son of a wealthy art collector, he studied law and literature at the University of Paris and then took up journalism. He co-founded the Nouvelle Revue Française (1908) with André Gide and Schlumberger, and in 1911 they established a publishing house for their contributors which was later called (1919) the Librairie Gallimard. It became the leading French 20t…

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Gaston Lachaise - Biography

Figurative sculptor, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1898–1903). With Isabel Nagel, an American who later became his wife, he emigrated to Boston in 1906. He made his name as a portraitist, and as a sculptor of massively proportioned bronze statues of women, reputedly modelled on his wife. His most famous work is ‘Standing Woman’ (1932, Museum of Modern A…

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gastrin - Role in disease

A hormone (a peptide) secreted in the stomach in response to both the presence of protein in the pylorus and increased discharge of the vagus nerve. It stimulates the parietal cells of the stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid, through the mediation of histamine released from cells (histaminocytes) close by. It is also present in the duodenum, pituitary gland, and the brain (where it may function a…

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gastritis - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis

Inflammation of the stomach lining as a result of irritants, such as alcohol, cigarettes, spicy food, or strongly acid substances such as aspirin. These cause patches of inflammation which sometimes bleed. This leads to upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, sometimes with blood. Persistent irritation leads to chronic gastritis, with thinning of the lining of the stomach and sometimes ulcers.…

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gastrotrich

A minute, worm-like animal found in or on bottom sediments and in association with other aquatic organisms in various habitats; body covered in a horny layer (cuticle), and may have bristles. (Phylum: Gastrotricha, c.150 species.) The gastrotrichs (from Greek gaster "stomach" and thrix "hair") are a phylum of microscopic animals, found in fresh water and marine environments. …

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gateway - Places, In fiction

A facility provided between computer networks to enable a network operating according to one protocol to pass messages to a second network working to a different protocol. Gateway has several meanings. see gateway (telecommunications). A gateway, in the aforementioned sense, is very popular, as it is a computer or a network that allows or controls access to another computer or network…

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gaucho - History, Modern influences

A nomadic, fiercely independent mestizo horseman of the Argentine pampa, first appearing in the 17th-c. With the advent of ranches, railways, and settled government in the 19th-c, the gaucho vanished, though gaucho skills live on among the rural population of Argentina and Uruguay. An inhabitant of the S states of Brazil is known by a similar name. Gaucho (gaúcho in Portuguese) is a term c…

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gauge theory - Explanation, Importance, A brief history, A simple gauge symmetry example from electrodynamics, Classical gauge theory

A type of theory in mechanics in which interactions correspond to special symmetry transformations of the basic equations of the theory. Quantum gauge theories, in which interactions between subatomic particles are related to the preservation of symmetry properties at each point in space and time, are essential to nuclear and particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, and t…

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Gaul - Name, Pre-Roman Gaul, Religion, Social structure and tribes

In ancient geography normally used for Transalpine Gaul, bounded by the Alps, the Rhine, and the Pyrenees. Julius Caesar completed the Roman conquest in 58–51 BC, the impact of Romanization being felt most in the S, where Roman law remained in use until 1789. With the gradual Roman withdrawal in the 5th-c, Germanic colonies became independent kingdoms. Unity was superficially achieved under Clovi…

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gaur

A rare wild ox (Bos gaurus) native to hill forests of India and SE Asia; largest of wild cattle (shoulder height, 2 m/6½ ft); dark brown with white ‘stockings’; bony ridge along back behind neck; high, strongly curved horns; also known as Indian bison or seladang; domesticated form called a gayal (or mithan). …

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Gauss's law - Integral form, Gravitational analogue

In electrostatics, the total electric flux through some closed surface is proportional to the total charge enclosed by that surface; stated by Carl Gauss. The constant of proportionality is 1/?, where ? is permittivity. The law is the expression of charge as a source of electric field. In physics and mathematical analysis, Gauss's law gives the relation between the electric or gravitational…

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Gauteng - Geography, Demographics, Economy, Future growth, Education, Conservation, Sport and recreation

One of the nine new provinces established by the South African constitution of 1994, in NC South Africa, occupying the area formerly known as the PWV (Pretoria–Witwatersrand–Vereeniging) triangle; capital, Johannesburg; pop (2000e) 8 118 000; area 18 760 km²/7241 sq mi; chief languages, Afrikaans, Zulu, English; Pretoria is the administrative capital of South Africa; smallest province, m…

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gavotte - The gavotte in Baroque music, Later manifestations, References in popular culture

A French folk dance which originated among the peasants, known as Gavots, of the Pays de Gap region of the former French Province of Dauphiné. It became popular as a court dance during the 17th–18th-c, and was often included in instrumental and orchestral suites of the period. It was in a moderately quick duple or quadruple metre to which pairs of dancers moved in a circle. The gavotte (a…

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Gavrilo Princip - Early life, Assassination, Trivia

Nationalist and revolutionary, born in Obljaj, W Bosnia. He was a member of a secret Serbian terrorist organization known as the ‘Black Hand’, dedicated to the achievement of independence for the South Slav peoples from the Austro-Hungarian empire. In June 1914, he and a group of young zealots assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie on a visit to Sarajevo. The murd…

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Gay Talese

Journalist, born in Ocean City, New Jersey, USA. He was a reporter for the New York Times (1955–6), and wrote his first non-fiction ‘short stories’ for Esquire magazine, beginning in 1963. Described by Tom Wolfe as the inventor of ‘new journalism’, his style reached maturity in his best-selling non-fiction ‘novels’, The Kingdom and the Power (1969), about the New York Times, and Honor Thy F…

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Gaza Strip - Background, Demographics, Geography, Economy, Transport and communication

pop (2000e) 1 163 000, including c.8500 Jewish settlers; area 202 km²/78 sq mi. A narrow strip of land bounded NW by the Mediterranean Sea; length, 50 km/30 mi; chief town, Gaza; agricultural economy; formerly part of Egyptian Sinai, after Arab–Israeli War of 1948–9; Israeli-occupied district under military administration containing many Palestinian refugee camps, 1967–94; considerable…

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gazelle - Species

An elegant athletic antelope, native to Africa and S Asia; usually pale brown above with white underparts; some species with thick black line along side; face often with weak stripes; when alarmed, moves by ‘pronking’ (or ‘stotting’) - a vertical leap using all four legs simultaneously. (Tribe: Antilopini, 18 species.) …

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Gdynia - Economy, Education, Politics, Sights and tourist attractions, Population and area, Further reading

54°31N 18°30E, pop (2000e) 254 000. Sea-port city in N Poland, 20 km/12 mi NW of Gda?sk; developed 1924–9 as a major Baltic port and naval base; part of the Tri-city with Sopot and Gda?sk; railway; shipbuilding, fishing, oceanographic museum; monument to Polish and Soviet soldiers. Gdynia (IPA: ['gdɨɲa] (help·info), German: Gdingen (help·info) (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenh…

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gear - Spur gears, Helical gears, Double helical gears, Bevel gears, Sun gear, Sector gear, Crown gear

A device used to transform one rotary motion into another, in terms of speed and direction. The fundamental type of gear is the toothed gear wheel, which can be used in a wide variety of combinations and configurations to produce the desired ratio of output rotation to input rotation. Gears, toothed wheels or cogs are positive type drives which are used to transmit motion between two shafts…

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Geber - Biography, Contributions to chemistry, Contributions to alchemy, Popular culture, Quotations, What others have said about Jabir

Spanish alchemist, who took the name of Geber (Latin for Jabir) to trade on the reputation of Jabir ibn Hayyan, a celebrated Arabic alchemist. Geber's principal writings are the clearest exposition of alchemical theory and of laboratory procedures produced before the 16th-c, and were widely read. They include Liber fornacum (1678, Book of Furnaces). Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Arabic: جاب…

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gecko - Common species of gecko

A lizard native to warm regions worldwide; body usually flattened top to bottom; skin soft; eyes large, without movable eyelids; tongue short, often used to lick eyes; many species with flattened toes for walking on vertical surfaces; eats mainly insects; most individuals nocturnal; males are the only lizards with loud calls. (Family: Gekkonidae, 800 species.) Geckos are small to moderately…

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Geena Davis - Biography, Filmography, Television Work

Film actress, born in Wareham, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at Boston University and was a model before she made her film debut with a small role in Tootsie (1982). She won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress for The Accidental Tourist (1988), and critical acclaim for her role as Thelma in the controversial film Thelma and Louise (1991). Other films include Beetlejuice (1989), Angie (1994), Th…

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Geert Groote - Biography

Scholar, priest, and reformer, born in Deventer, C Netherlands. He studied many subjects in Holland and abroad, and spent three years studying for the priesthood in Paris. led a life of excess until 1374 when, following a spiritual conversion, he became a Carthusian monk and began to preach against the affluent lifestyle practised by many clergy throughout Holland. A brilliant orator, he preached …

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Geertgen Tot Sint Jans - Sources

Painter, born in Leyden, W Netherlands. Little is known about his life; his name means ‘little Gerard of the Brethren of St John’, and he worked for this religious Order in Haarlem, The Netherlands. Only about 15 paintings are now attributed to him. These works, mostly fragments of larger altarpieces, and all religious in subject, are characterized by strong colours, convincing landscape and, pe…

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Gehenna - Hebrew Bible observations, Rabbinic tradition, New Testament, Islam, In popular culture, External links and references

In c.7th-c BC, the site of cultic sacrifices of children to Baal by fire, condemned by Jeremiah (Jer 19.4–6); later considered an entrance to the underworld. The name is metaphorically used in both Judaism and the New Testament as a place where the wicked would be tormented (usually by fire) after death (eg Mark 9.43). Gehenna, in Jewish eschatology, is a fiery place where the wicked are p…

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Geiger counter - Description, Types and applications, Popular Culture

A device for counting atomic particles, named after German physicist Hans Geiger. Gas between electrodes is ionized by the passage of a particle, and so transmits a pulse to a counter. A Geiger counter, also called a Geiger-Müller counter, measures ionizing radiation. Geiger counters are used to detect alpha and beta radiation. The sensor is a Geiger-Müller tube, an inert gas-…

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gel - Applications

A colloidal suspension of a solid in a liquid, in which the properties of the solid predominate. An example is gelatine. Many gels display thixotropy - they become fluid when agitated, but resolidify when resting. In 2005 a sound induced gelation effect was demonstrated. Many substances can form gels when a suitable thickener or gelling agent is added to their formul…

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gelatin(e) - Physical properties, Production, Edible gelatins, Uses, Medicinal and nutritional properties, Safety concerns

A protein formed when collagen (a fibrous protein found in animal bones, skin, and hair) is boiled in water. Its dilute suspension in water sets to a firm colloid. It is used in foods, adhesives, and photographic emulsions. Gelatin is a protein product produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from skin, bones, cartilage, ligaments, etc. On a commercial scale, gelatin…

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Gelsey Kirkland - Further reading

Ballet dancer, born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. She joined the New York City Ballet at age 15, becoming its youngest member. At age 17 she danced the lead role, specially choreographed for her, in George Balanchine's new production of Firebird. Her talent inspired many choreographers. In 1974 she joined the American Ballet Theatre as partner to Mikhail Baryshnikov. An ambitious perfectionist,…

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Gemara - Gemara and Mishnah, The Sugya, Argumentation and debate

A commentary on the Jewish Mishnah, which together with the Mishnah constitutes the Talmud. It consists largely of scholarly rabbinic discussions that interpret and extend the applications of legal teachings in Rabbi Judah's Mishnah. Distinct versions were produced in Palestine and Babylon. The Gemara (also Gemorah) (גמרא - from gamar: Hebrew "[to] complete"; There are two r…

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Gemini

A conspicuous N constellation of the zodiac, with a bright pair of stars, Castor and Pollux, named after the twins of Greek mythology, lying between Taurus and Cancer. Castor is a double star, easily divided through a small telescope; orbital period 470 years; distance: 15·8 parsec. Pollux is a bright orange star, the nearest giant star to Earth; distance: 10·3 parsec. Gemini may refer to…

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gemma - Physical and Life Sciences, Arts

A multicellular unit, usually disc-shaped or filamentous, formed in special structures called gemmae cups produced by bryophytes as a means of vegetative reproduction. When dispersed, the gemmae grow into new plants. Gemma can refer to: …

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gemstones

A general term for precious or semi-precious stones or minerals valued for their rarity, beauty, and durability. There are over 2000 natural minerals, but only a few dozen have achieved the special status of a gemstone. The most highly valued are hard and transparent crystals such as diamond, emerald (a type of beryl), ruby, and sapphire (both types of corundum). Other important gemstones (with ex…

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gender (linguistics) - Etymology and usage, Social category, Other uses, Importance of gender

A grammatical concept which expresses such contrasts as masculine/feminine/neuter or animate/inanimate. A distinction is drawn between natural gender, which involves reference to the sex of real-world entities, and grammatical gender, which is associated with arbitrary word classes, and signals grammatical relationships between words in a sentence. English has natural gender - words such as he and…

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gender (sociology) - Etymology and usage, Social category, Other uses, Importance of gender

The social expression of the basic physiological differences between men and women - social behaviour which is deemed to be appropriate to ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ roles and which is learned through primary and secondary socialization. Thus, while sex is biological, gender is socially determined. The concept has attracted particular attention since the 1960s, as part of the debate concerning …

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gene - Two attempts of defining genes, Genes are stored as RNA or DNA

A unit of heredity; a segment of the DNA which contains the instructions for the development of a particular inherited characteristic. When coined by Johannsen (1909) the term referred to a hypothetical entity, and it is only recently with the study of DNA that the structure, size, and location of genes are being established. A gene in the nuclear DNA codes or carries the information for a particu…

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Gene (Francis Alan) Pitney - Biography, Selected songs written or performed by Pitney

Singer and songwriter, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. His first hit as a writer came with ‘Rubber Ball’ (1961), recorded by Bobby Vee. He also wrote ‘Hello Mary Lou’, a hit for Ricky Nelson in 1961, and one of his most revived songs. Among his best-known hits as a singer were ‘I Wanna Love My Life Away’ (1961), ‘24 Hours From Tulsa’ (1963), and ‘Something's Gotten Hold Of My Heart’ …

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Gene (William) Mauch

Baseball player and manager, born in Salina, Kansas, USA. He played shortstop or second base for six different teams (1944–57). During 1960–87 he was manager of the Philadelphia Phillies, Montreal Expos, Minnesota Twins, and California Angels. Upon his retirement he had managed more years (26) without winning a league championship than any other manager in history. Gene William Mauch (Nov…

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Gene Amdahl - Childhood and education, The IBM Amdahl years, 1979–now: Entrepreneur, Awards

Computer engineer, born in Flandreau, South Dakota, USA. Working for International Business Machines (IBM) at Poughkeepsie, NY, he helped design the IBM 704 in the 1950s and the S/360 series of computers in the early 1960s. In the 1970s he ran Amdahl Corp, then the largest manufacturer of IBM-compatible computers. He founded Trilogy (1980) to build large computers. Gene Myron Amdahl (born N…

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Gene Hackman - Biography, Academy Awards and Nominations, Filmography

Film actor, born in San Bernardino, California, USA. Having established himself as a theatre performer, he made his film debut in Mad Dog Coll (1961), and had small roles in many films before earning a Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination for his performance in Bonnie and Clyde (1967). He won an Oscar for his role as ‘Popeye Doyle’ in The French Connection (1971), and received further Oscar no…

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Gene Kelly - Upbringing, Film career, Trivia, Stage work, Filmography, Television work, Awards and Honors

Modern dancer and actor, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. A dance instructor with a degree in economics from the University of Pittsburgh, he travelled to New York City, and found employment in the chorus of Leave it to Me (1938). His stage success in Pal Joey (1939) led to a Hollywood debut in For Me and My Girl (1942), followed by a long series of musicals in which he was often co-director…

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Gene Krupa - Legacy

Musician, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A drummer, he played with several lesser known bands around Chicago until 1929, when he moved to New York City and worked with Red Nichols for the next two years. He was a sideman (1932–4) in commercial studio bands led by Russ Columbo and Mal Hallet, and also freelanced on classic jazz sessions with Bix Beiderbecke and Eddie Condon. During 1935–8, as a …

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Gene Roddenberry - Personal life, Television career, Controversy, Legacy

Writer, and film and television producer, born in El Paso, Texas, USA. He joined the Army Air Corps and served as a bomber pilot (1941–6) and as a crash investigator (1946–9). As an airline pilot (1949–53), he survived an aircrash in the Syrian desert. He moved to Los Angeles, joined the police, wrote scripts in his spare time for Dragnet, and became a full-time writer, contributing to several …

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Gene Saks - Director - Filmography

Stage and television actor, and director, born in New York City, New York, USA. He is best known as a director of comedies, including Nobody Loves an Albatross (1963), Mame (1966), and the Tony Award-winning Biloxi Blues (1984). Gene Saks (Born November 8th, 1921) is a film and stage director. Saks, who was born in New York City, is a three time Tony Award winner for his directi…

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Gene Sarazen

Golfer, born in Harrison, New York, USA. He won the US Open (1922, 1932) and the Professional Golfers' Association (PGA) championships (1922, 1923, 1933). He also won the British Open (1932) and the Masters (1935) to become the first to win each of the four major championships that comprise the Grand Slam of golf. He played on six Ryder Cup teams between 1927 and 1937. NYF = Tournament not …

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Gene Tunney

Boxer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Although he boxed as a youth, he came to notice when he won the light heavyweight title of the American Forces serving in Europe in World War 1 (he was in the US Marines). He was the world heavyweight champion (1926–8) and twice defeated Jack Dempsey during the 1920s ‘golden age’ of sports. He was the beneficiary of a controversial ‘long count’ in …

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Gene Wilder

Film actor, writer, and director, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, the son of Russian immigrants. He trained in England at the Bristol Old Vic, taught fencing as a professional, then joined the Actors' Studio. He made his film debut in a small role in Bonnie and Clyde (1967), and received a Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination for The Producers (1968). He developed an appealing, vulnerable, so…

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genealogy - Modern research, Records in genealogical research, Types of genealogical information, Reliability of sources

The study of family history. It originated as an oral tradition, the ancestry of important members of society (especially sovereigns) being memorized by a priest or bard. Later these lists of ancestors were written down, as in the Bible. Since the 16th-c, records of family descent have been strictly kept in many countries, so that most people in W Europe could trace their ancestry if they wished. …

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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) - GATT 1947, GATT 1949, GATT 1951, GATT 1955-1956

An agency of the United Nations, founded in 1948 to promote international trade. GATT was based in Geneva, and had 125 members in December 1994. It successfully concluded several rounds of negotiations which greatly reduced world tariffs. It was not, however, able to stem the spread of non-tariff barriers to trade, such as voluntary export restraints. The ‘Uruguay Round’ of negotiations in the e…

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General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) - Four Modes of Supply

An international agreement to begin to liberalize trade in services. GATS was set up as part of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations which led to the creation of the World Trade Organization in 1995. It was intended to start the process of extending to international trade in services the liberalization of trade in goods which had been achieved under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (G…

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General Assembly (religion)

The highest court, in Churches of Presbyterian order. It normally meets annually and comprises equal numbers of ministers and elders, elected by presbyteries in proportion to their size. It is presided over by a moderator, elected annually. General assembly could be: …

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General Medical Council (GMC) - Purpose, Powers, activities and sanctions, Modes of licensing, Reform, Criticism, Other healthcare regulatory bodies

The statutory body in the UK which controls the professional standing and conduct of members of the medical profession. It is responsible for maintaining the Medical Register of those entitled to practise medicine, and retains the power to erase the name of a doctor because of negligence, malpractice, or breach of medical and professional ethics. It also supervises and maintains standards of under…

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general relativity - Relationship to other physical theories, History, Status

A theory of gravity deriving almost entirely from Einstein (1916). It supersedes Newton's theory of gravitation, which is reproduced as a weak gravity, low velocity special case, and replaces the Newtonian notion of instantaneous action at a distance with the gravitational field as a distortion of space–time due to the presence of mass. For example, as the Earth moves round the Sun there is disto…

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General Strike - Notable general strikes

(4–12 May 1926) A national strike in Britain, organized by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in support of the miners' campaign to resist the imposition by mine owners of wage cuts and longer hours. By April 1926 the dispute between miners and mine owners had intensified and a government subsidy had ended. The strike involved some 3 million workers from the transport, iron, steel, printing, and bui…

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Generality lands

Territory under direct rule by the States General of the Republic of the United Netherlands in the 17th and 18th-c; generally, those areas conquered from the Spanish. They did not enjoy the self-government guaranteed by the Union of Utrecht, though there was some delegation of local powers and some retention of existing privileges. There were complaints that their industrial development was hinder…

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generative grammar

A type of grammar, devised by US linguist Noam Chomsky in the 1950s, which explicitly defines the set of grammatical sentences in a language, rather than providing an informal characterization of them. It comprises a formal set of rules which predict the grammatical set from amongst the potentially infinite number of sentences which might occur in any language. Each is assigned a unique structural…

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genetic code - Table 1: RNA codon table, Table 2: Reverse codon table, Salient features

The code in which genetic instructions are written, using an alphabet based on the four bases in DNA and RNA: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine (for DNA) or uracil (for RNA). Each triplet of bases indicates that a particular kind of amino acid is to be synthesized. Since there are 20 amino acids and 64 possible triplets, more than one triplet can code for a particular amino acid. The code is…

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genetic engineering - Applications

The formation of artificial combinations of heritable genetic material which does not involve the use of natural methods of sexual or asexual reproduction. Nucleic acid molecules, produced chemically or biologically outside the cell (eg by recombinant DNA technology), are inserted into a host organism in which they do not naturally occur, but in which they are capable of continued propagation. Gen…

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genetics - History, Areas of genetics, Journals

The science of heredity. It originated with the discovery by Gregor Mendel that hereditary characters are determined by factors transmitted without change and in predictable fashion from one generation to the next. The term was coined by British biologist William Bateson in 1907. Genetics occupies a unique position. Its principles and mechanisms extend throughout almost all biology, and it ties to…

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Geneva - Geography, Demographics, International organizations, Economy, Infrastructure, Education, Culture, Communities, Trivia, Famous Literature involving Geneva

46°13N 6°09E, pop (2000e) 175 000. Capital city of Geneva canton, SW Switzerland; on R Rhône at W end of L Geneva; built on the site of a Roman town; free city until end of 13th-c; independent republic until becoming a Swiss canton in 1814; centre of the Reformation under Calvin; former seat of the League of Nations (1920–46); capital of French-speaking Switzerland; airport (Coitrin); railwa…

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Geneva Accord - The Accord Content, Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

A peace plan for the Middle East, devised by Israeli and Palestinian moderates, launched at a ceremony in Switzerland in December 2003. Under the proposals, the Israeli army would withdraw from the Gaza Strip and most of the West Bank. Most Jewish settlements would be dismantled and evacuated. An independent Palestinian state would be set up in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The West Bank's bor…

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Geneva Bible - History

An English translation of the Bible, prepared and published in Geneva by Protestant exiles from England; first appeared complete in 1560. It was notable for its notes, for its verse divisions, and in some printings for its small size and legible Roman type. It was especially popular in Scotland, and also in England, even after the Authorized Version (1611). The Geneva Bible was a Protestant…

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Genghis Khan - Early life, Military campaigns, Mongol Empire, Death and burial, Genghis Khan's practices

Mongol conqueror, born in Temujin, Mongolia, on the R Onon. He succeeded his father at 13, and struggled for many years against hostile tribes, subjugating the Naimans, conquering Tangut, and receiving the submission of the Turkish Uigurs. In 1206 he changed his name to the one by which he is now known and made his capital at Karakorumand. In 1205–9 he conquered the Xia Xia (Tangut) kingdom in NW…

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Genoa - Flag, History, Main sights, Famous people, Miscellaneous

44°24N 8°56E, pop (2000e) 700 000. Largest seaport in Italy and capital of Genoa province, Liguria, NW Italy, on the Gulf of Genoa; larger conurbation extends 35 km/22 mi along the coast; founded as a Roman trading centre; leading Mediterranean port by 13th-c; rebuilt after World War 2, becoming a major Mediterranean port; archbishopric; airport; railway; ferries; university (1471); Academy …

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genocide - Coining of the term genocide, Genocide as a crime under international law, Criticisms of the CPPCG

The crime under international law of the deliberate and systematic destruction of a race of people or an ethnic group by mass murder. The word was coined after events in Europe in 1933–45 and the mass destruction of Jews and Rom (gypsies) by Germany. In 1948 the UN General Assembly adopted a Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; this confirmed the policy that genoc…

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genome - Genomes and genetic variation, Genome projects, Comparison of different genome sizes, Genome evolution

The complete genetic information about an organism. In most organisms this is contained in the DNA sequences within chromosomes, while in RNA-based viruses it is the total RNA sequence. Genome sizes have a 100 000 fold range from a few thousand base pairs in simple viruses to 1011 base pairs in some plants. Since individual members of an organism may have slightly different genetic constitutions …

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genotype

The genes carried by an individual member of an organism. The term may refer to the total complement of genes or to particular genes at specified loci in the chromosomes. The interaction of gene products (RNA, protein) with each other and with the environment in which the organism develops gives rise to the phenotype - the characteristics that are observed. Typically, one refers to an indiv…

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genre painting - Genre painting, Genre photography

Realistic scenes from everyday life, typically on a small scale, as produced by Dutch 17th-c masters such as Steen and Vermeer; the term may be applied, however, to any period. The genre flourished in 19th-c Britain, largely due to the popularity of the anecdotal scenes of Scottish village life by Wilkie. Genre works, also called genre scenes or genre views, are pictorial representations in…

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gentian

Any of several species, mostly perennials, found almost everywhere, except for Africa; many are low-growing alpines; leaves opposite, entire; flowers usually several cm long, funnel- or bell-shaped, with often long tubes and five spreading lobes, usually deep blue, but also white, yellow, or red. (Genus: Gentiana, 400 species. Family: Gentianaceae.) …

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Gentile Bellini

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy, the son of Jacopo Bellini and brother of Giovanni Bellini. He worked in his father's studio, and was chosen to paint the portrait of Sultan Muhammad II in Constantinople (c.1480, National Gallery, London). He is also known for his scenes of Venice. …

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Gentile da Fabriano

Painter, born in Fabriano, EC Italy. He worked chiefly in Venice and Brescia until 1419, and thereafter in Rome, Florence, and Siena. He painted religious subjects, notably ‘The Adoration of the Magi’ (1423, Florence), but few of his paintings have survived. Gentile da Fabriano (born in or near Fabriano, Marche, c.?1370; His mother died some time before 1380 and his father, Niccolò di Gi…

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genus

A category in biological classification consisting of one or more closely related and morphologically similar species. The name of the genus (eg Panthera) and the species (eg leo) together form the scientific name of an organism (eg the lion, Panthera leo). In the binomial nomenclature used worldwide, the name of an organism is composed of two parts: its genus name (always capitalized) and …

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geochemistry - Further reading

A branch of geology concerned with the abundances of elements and their isotopes in the Earth, and the processes that affect their distribution. It also subsumes the study of chemical processes in the evolution of the Earth and the Solar System. Commercial applications include geochemical prospecting, in which the chemical analysis of soils, sediments, and stream waters is used to detect concealed…

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geochronology - Geochronologic units, Dating methods, Radiometric dating, Incremental dating

The science of dating rocks or geological events in absolute terms (ie in years), usually by radiometric dating. For more recent rocks, varve counting may be applicable to Pleistocene sediments, or tree-ring dating can measure ages back to about 7000 years before the present. Geochronology is the science of determining the absolute age of rocks, fossils, and sediments, within a certain degr…

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geodesic - Introduction, Metric geometry, (Pseudo-)Riemannian geometry

The extension of the concept of a straight line to curved space, representing the shortest distance between two points. Special cases include straight lines in planes, and great circles on spheres. In general relativity, freely falling bodies move along geodesics in curved space–time. In mathematics, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces". …

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geodesic dome - History, Methods of construction, Largest geodesic dome structures

A structurally stable dome constructed of a grid of straight members connected to each other to form a continuous surface of small triangles. It was invented by Buckminster Fuller in the 1950s. An example is the Climatron in St Louis, MO, built in 1960. To meet Wikipedia's style guidelines and conform to our policies regarding neutral point of view, original research, and verifiability, ple…

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geodesy - Definition, Geoid and reference ellipsoid, Coordinate systems in space, Heights, Geodetic datums, Point positioning, Geodetic problems

A branch of science concerned with the size and shape of the Earth, its gravitational field, and the location of fixed points. Geodesic surveying, unlike plane surveying, takes into account the Earth's curvature. The shape of the Earth (the geoid) is defined as the figure which is perpendicular to the direction of gravity at all points, and approximates to an oblate spheroid, first postulated by N…

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Geoffrey (Edward Harvey) Grigson - Works, New Verse: An Anthology (1942 edition), Poetry of the Present (1949), Reference

Poet, critic, and editor, born in Pelynt, Cornwall, SW England, UK. The founder of the influential magazine New Verse (1933–9), his works include volumes of verse, essays, and anthologies. His Collected Poems, 1924–62 was published in 1963. Compiled by Grigson. Swart - Bernard Spencer - Philip O'Connor - Louis MacNeice - George Barker - Kathleen Raine - Frederic Prokosch - A. Young - Arch…

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Geoffrey (William) Hill - Biography, Writing, Controversy and Parody, Bibliography

Poet, born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, taught at the universities of Leeds (1954–80) and Cambridge (1981–8), and became professor at Boston, MA, in 1988. His first volume For the Unfallen (1959) introduced a serious and astringent voice, which has commanded increasing authority with King Log (1968), Mercian Hymns (1971), and Tenebrae (1978). His religious…

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Geoffrey (Winston Russell) Palmer - Early life and education, Member of Parliament, Leadership, After Parliament, Law Commissioner, Honours and awards

New Zealand prime minister (1989–90), born in Nelson, New Zealand. He studied at Victoria University, Wellington, taught law in the USA and New Zealand, then entered the House of Representatives as Labour Party member for Christchurch in 1979. By 1984 he had become attorney general and deputy prime minister, and succeeded David Lange as prime minister. He proved an unpopular leader, and was force…

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Geoffrey Beene

Fashion designer, born in Haynesville, Louisiana, USA. He studied medicine at New Orleans and Los Angeles before moving to New York in 1947 to study fashion. He then went to Paris, where he was a student at the Chambre Syndicale School and the Acadèmie Julienne, beginning a design career in 1949 that was noteworthy for unconventional designs even before he started his own New York company (1962).…

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Geoffrey Boycott - As player, As commentator

Cricketer and broadcaster, born in Fitzwilliam, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He gained his county cap for Yorkshire in 1963, and was capped for England the following year. An opening batsman, he played 108 times for England (1964–82), scoring 8114 runs (average 47·72), in 1981 overtaking Gary Sobers' world record of 8032 Test runs. His 22 Test centuries constitute an English record, matched by…

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Geoffrey Chaucer - Life, Works, Influence, Historical reception and representation, List of works

Poet, probably born in London, the son of a tavern keeper, perhaps the John Chaucer who was deputy to the king's butler. He may have gone to Oxford or Cambridge. In 1357 and 1358 he was a page to the wife of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, and then transferred to the king's household. In 1359 he served in France, and was taken prisoner, but ransomed with the king's help. In 1367 the king granted him a p…

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Geoffrey Holder - Selected credits

Dancer, choreographer, and artist, born in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. He started dancing at age seven in his brother's dance group, which Geoffrey later brought to Puerto Rico (1952), there attracting the attention of choreographer Agnes de Mille. He made his Broadway debut in House of Flowers (1955), and after his marriage to dancer Carmen de Lavallade he danced with the Metropolitan Opera Ballet (…

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Geoffrey of Monmouth (Gaufridus Monemutensis) - Writings

Welsh chronicler, probably a Benedictine monk, consecrated Bishop of St Asaph in 1152. His Historia regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), composed before 1147, profoundly influenced English literature, introducing the stories of King Lear and Cymbeline, the prophecies of Merlin, and the legend of Arthur in the form known today. The stories have little basis in historical fact. His Hi…

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Geoffrey Rush - Filmography

Actor, born in Toowoomba, Queensland, NE Australia. He trained at the Lecoq School in Paris, and was known for 25 years predominantly as a theatre actor in Australia, working with the Queensland, Sydney, and Melbourne Theatre Companies, and particularly remembered for his role in Gogol's Diary of a Madman. He became known internationally for his role as David Helfgott in the 1996 film Shine, for w…

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geography - Introduction, History of geography, Branches of geography

The study of the nature of the physical and human environments. It is often divided broadly into physical geography, which concerns the Earth's physical environment (the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere), and human geography, the study of people and their activities. In both there is emphasis on spatial analysis, the study of location and patterns; on ecological analysis, the in…

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geology - History, Important principles of geology, Fields or related disciplines, Regional geology, Planetary geology

The science of the Earth as a whole: its origin, structure, composition, processes, and history. The major branches of geology include mineralogy (the study of minerals), petrology (the study of rocks), geochemistry (the study of the chemical evolution of the Earth), geophysics (the study of physical processes within the Earth), structural geology (the study of the tectonic features produced by la…

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geomancy - Literary background, Western methodology, Astrological geomancy, Other uses, Further reading

The study of ‘earth mysteries’, originally a means of divination by scattering earth on a surface and analysing the resulting patterns. The notion now extends to studying how the Earth's own energy affects daily life. The geomancer's compass, which consists of eight or more rings aligned with natural features such as rivers and mountains, can detect the energy flow through the environment, and b…

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geometry - History of geometry, Contemporary geometers, Dimension, Contemporary Euclidean geometry, Algebraic geometry, Differential geometry, Topology and geometry

The branch of mathematics which studies the properties of shapes and space, originally (as its name suggests) of the Earth. About 2000 BC, the Babylonians were familiar with rules for the area of rectangles, right-angled triangles, and isosceles triangles. They took the circumference C of a circle, diameter d, as 3?d, and the area as ?C2; they subdivided the circumference of a circle into 360 equa…

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geomorphology - History, Processes, Taxonomy

A branch of geology (or geography) which studies and interprets landforms and the processes of erosion and deposition which form the surface of the Earth and other planets. Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. Landforms evolve in response to a combination of natural and anthropogenic processes. Denudati…

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geopathic stress - Identifying stressed areas, Role in disease

A term which covers all forms of naturally occurring environmental stress, but most often applied to the adverse effects which result from electromagnetic fields and other forms of radiation, including radon gas. Environmental factors contributing to geopathic stress may include ley lines, artificial structures such as power lines, and sun spots which disturb the Earth's magnetic field. These fact…

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geophysics

A broad branch of geology which deals with the physical properties of Earth materials and the physical processes that determine the structure of the Earth as a whole. Major subjects include seismology, geomagnetism, and meteorology, as well as the study of large-scale processes of heat and mass transfer in the Earth and variations in the Earth's gravitational field. Geophysical surveys measure loc…

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geopolitics - Halford Mackinder, Other Theories, Definitions, Institutions on Geopolitics

The study of the way geographical factors help to explain the basis of the power of nation states; a combination of political geography and political science. Important characteristics in this mode of analysis include territory, resources, climate, population, social and political culture, and economic activity. Prior to World War 2 it was associated with German nationalism and the Nazi regime. …

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Georg (Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp) Cantor - Life, Work

Mathematician, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia. He studied at Berlin and Göttingen, and in 1877 became professor of mathematics at Halle. He worked out a highly original arithmetic of the infinite which resulted in a theory of infinite sets of different sizes, adding a new and important branch to mathematics. He suffered a nervous breakdown in 1884, and died in an asylum. Georg Ferdinand …

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Georg (Friedrich) von Reichenbach

Engineer, instrument-maker, and inventor, born in Durlach, SW Germany. He trained at the School of Army Engineers in Mannheim, and spent the next two years in England studying the latest advances in engineering and scientific instrument-making. Returning to Germany, he designed improved muskets and cannon for the Bavarian army, and in 1804 established a firm in Munich for the manufacture of precis…

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Georg Baselitz - Life

Avant-garde artist, born in Deutschbaselitz, E Germany. He studied art in East Berlin (1956–7), before emigrating to the West in 1957. He had his first one-man show in Berlin in 1961. His violent subject-matter and his ‘wild Expressionist’ style have affinities with Munch and Kokoschka. His forte is painting figures, animals, trees, and other objects upside down. Georg Baselitz (born Jan…

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Georg Curtius

Philologist, born in Lübeck, N Germany, the brother of Ernst Curtius. One of the greatest of Greek scholars, he was professor of classical philology at Prague (1849), Kiel (1854), and Leipzig (1862–5). Georg Curtius (April 16, 1820–August 12, 1885), German philologist, was born at Lübeck. After an education at Bonn and Berlin he was for three years a schoolmaster in Dresden…

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Georg Dertinger

German journalist, politician, and co-founder of the Christlich-Demokratische Union (CDU) in the Soviet Zone. He served as German Democratic Republic foreign minister (1949–53), was then imprisoned (1954) for alleged espionage and treason, and pardoned in 1964. Georg Dertinger (25 December 1902 - 21 January 1968) was a German politician from the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). …

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Georg Ernst Stahl

Physician and chemist, born in Ansbach, SC Germany. He became professor of medicine at Halle (1694), and personal physician (1714) to the King of Prussia. He expounded the phlogiston theory of combustion, and believed that animism played a part in the phenomenon of living organisms. Georg Ernst Stahl (October 21, 1660 - May 24, 1734), was a German chemist and physician. He was b…

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Georg Henrik von Wright - Works

Philosopher and logician, born in Helsinki, Finland. He associated with the Vienna Circle of logical positivists and worked closely with Wittgenstein in Cambridge (1948–51). He was professor of philosophy at Helsinki (1946–61), and held many visiting positions in US universities. He made particular contributions to philosophical logic and to ethics in works such as The Logical Problem of Inducti…

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Georg Hermes

Roman Catholic theologian, born in Dreyerwalde, W Germany. He studied at Münster, and became theological professor there (1807) and at Bonn (1819). He sought to combine the Catholic faith and doctrines with Kantian philosophy, and the Hermesian method became influential in the Rhineland, but his doctrines were condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1835. Georg Hermes (April 22, 1775 - May 26, 18…

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Georg Herwegh

Poet, born in Stuttgart, SW Germany. The son of an innkeeper, he abandoned theology for a literary career. His polemical Gedichte eines Lebendigen (1841–3), whose lyrics combined revolutionary sentiment with popular forms of expression and put him at the forefront of the ‘Vormärz’ revolutionary movement, led to such triumphs as an audience with Friedrich Wilhelm IV, but exile to Paris soon fol…

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Georg Heym - Life, Works

Writer, born in Hirschberg, Silesia. An early Expressionist, influenced by the works of Verlaine, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, and Hölderlin, he later found his own style, which in turn had a lasting influence on Expressionist poetry. In such works as Der Dieb (1913) he takes the senselessness of existence as his theme, evoking individual loneliness and the desolation of modern urban life. He drowned whi…

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Georg Kaiser

Writer, born in Magdeburg, EC Germany. He worked in Buenos Aires as a clerk, then returned to Germany in ill health, and began to write plays which established him as a leader of the Expressionist movement. A prolific and versatile Expressionist playwright, he wrote over 60 plays. His first theatrical success was Die Bürger von Calais (1914) which reveals the influence of Nietzsche in its creatio…

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Georg Michaelis

German politician, born in Haynau, Prussia. He briefly succeeded Bethmann Hollweg as Reichskanzler (1917) and was nominated prime minister of Prussia. Influenced by the Oberste Heeresleitung, he showed little political skill in handling the papal peace initiative in August 1917 and was removed from office due to lack of parliamentary support. Georg Michaelis (September 8, 1857 – July 21, …

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Georg Philipp Telemann - Life, Works and reputation, TWV numbers, Selected works, Media

Composer, born in Magdeburg, EC Germany. He studied at Leipzig, and taught himself music by learning to play a wide range of instruments and studying the scores of the masters. He held several posts as Kapellmeister, notably at Frankfurt (1712–21), and became musical director of the Johanneum at Hamburg from 1721 until his death. A prolific composer, his works include church music, 46 passions, o…

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Georg Simmel - Life, Simmel on the Metropolis, Simmel on Sociability, The work of Simmel

Sociologist and philosopher, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied at Berlin University, where he became a lecturer in 1885, teaching philosophy and ethics, and in 1900 was appointed professor of the new discipline of sociology. In 1914 he moved to a chair in philosophy at Strasbourg, where he remained until his death. Instrumental in establishing sociology as a social science, he also wrote extensi…

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Georg Trakl - Life and work, Critical appraisal, Online texts, Bibliography

Writer, born in Salzburg, C Austria. A pharmacist, he published poems in the periodical Der Brenner and was acquainted with the influential Expressionist poet, Else Lasker Schüler. He suffered from depression and had a serious drug problem, eventually dying of an overdose of cocaine. His melancholic poetry is rich with apocalyptic imagery, focusing on the individual between purity and sin, indica…

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Georg Waitz

Historian, born in Flensburg, N Germany. He studied at Kiel and Berlin, became professor of history at Kiel (1842), and represented Kiel at the national parliament in Frankfurt (1846), where he supported the unification of all the German states into one nation. As professor at Göttingen (1849–75), he founded the Göttingen historical school. He was editor of (1875–86) and contributor to the Mon…

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - Life and work, Teachings, Hegel's legacy, Major works, Secondary literature

Idealist philosopher, born in Stuttgart, SW Germany. He studied theology at Tübingen, and taught at Bern (1793), Frankfurt (1796), and Jena (1801). He edited with Schelling the Kritische Journal der Philosophie (1802–3, Critical Journal of Philosophy), in which he outlined his system with its emphasis on reason rather than the Romantic intuitionism of Schelling, which he attacked in his first ma…

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Georg Wilhelm Steller - Sources

Naturalist and explorer, born in Windsheim, SC Germany. He studied theology at Wittenburg, then turned to medicine and botany, and joined the Academy of Sciences at St Petersburg. Seconded to the Kamchatka expedition (1737–44) led by Vitus Bering, he travelled across Russia to the E, explored Siberia and Kamchatka, met Bering in Okhotsk, sailed to Alaska, and returned via Bering I, where they wer…

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Georg Wittig

Organic chemist, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied in Tübingen and Marburg universities, and held professorships at Freiburg (1937–44), Tübingen (1944–56), and Heidelberg (1956–65). He developed a technique (1953) using boron and phosphorus compounds for the synthesis of natural substances, leading to the economical industrial production of Vitamin A and prostaglandins. He shared the Nobel …

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George (Albert) Shearing

Jazz musician, born in London, UK. Blind from birth, he played piano with Harry Parry's Radio Rhythm Band and Frank Weir's Orchestra in London during World War 2. He moved to New York in 1947 and led a trio and quartet before forming the quintet (1949) that brought him international fame. He maintained a widespread touring schedule thereafter while making many guest appearances with symphony orche…

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George (Alexander Cassidy) Devine - Biography, Early theatrical experience, Wartime, Old Vic, Sadlers Wells, Stratford, Collaboration with Tony Richardson

Actor and theatre director, born in Hendon, NW Greater London, UK. With Michel Saint-Denis and others he founded the London Theatre Studio (1936–9) in an attempt to reform British theatre training. After the War, he continued this work at the Old Vic Centre (1947–52), and directed the Young Vic touring company. In 1956 he became artistic director of the newly formed English Stage Company at the …

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George (Alfred Leon) Sarton

Historian of science, born in Ghent, NW Belgium. He studied at the university there, and emigrated to the USA in 1915. He taught at Harvard (1920–51), latterly as professor of the history of science. He became the dominant figure of his subject, founding its principal journal, Isis, in 1912, and Osiris in 1936. His monumental Introduction to the History of Science (3 vols, 1927–48) reaches to th…

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George (Allan) Russell - Background, Early Career, Sojourn in Europe, Academia, Later works, Theories

Composer, pianist, and theorist, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Active from his youth in both jazz and classical music, he wrote the influential theory book The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization (2nd edn, 1959), and composed in a variety of idioms usually reflecting his own African-American tradition. George Allen Russell (born June 23, 1923) is an American jazz composer and th…

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George (Andrew) Reisner - Timeline

Egyptologist, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. He studied law at Harvard, then Egyptology in Berlin, returning to Harvard to teach Egyptology (1905–42). For the Egyptian government he directed the important campaign to survey Nubian monuments threatened by the raising of the first Aswan dam (1907–9), returning (1916–23) to explore the pyramids of Meroe and Napata. His outstanding discovery (…

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George (Augustus) Moore

Writer, born in Ballyglass, Co Mayo, W Ireland. Groomed for the army, he lived a bohemian life in London until his father's death in 1870 left him free to become a dilettante artist and writer in Paris. A novelist of the Realist school, he introduced this type of fiction into England, notably with Esther Waters (1894). During the Boer War he sought exile in Ireland, and turned his attention away f…

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George (Cadle) Price

Politician and prime minister of Belize (1981–4, 1989–93). He studied in Belize City and the USA, was elected to the Belize City Council (1947), and founded the People's United Party (PUP) (1950). Partial self-government was achieved in 1954 and he became prime minister, leading his country (which changed its name from British Honduras in 1973) to full independence in 1981. In 1984 PUP's 30 year…

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George (Churchill) Kenney - World War II, Post-war

Aviator, born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked as a railroad engineer before enlisting in the US Army in 1918. Trained as a pilot, he shot down two German aircraft on the western front. He served in a succession of staff and line posts before taking command of the 5th Air Force, MacArthur's air arm in the Southwest Pacific (Sep 1942…

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George (Corley) Wallace - Education and military service, Early political activities, Governor of Alabama, Presidential ambitions, Power behind the throne

US state governor, born in Clio, Alabama, USA. He studied law at the University of Alabama, became a Democratic assistant attorney general in Alabama (1946–7), and served in the legislature (1947–53). Elected a state circuit judge (1953–9) he defied the US Civil Rights Commission with his segregationist rulings. After returning to private practice, he became Alabama's governor (1963–7) proclai…

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George (de Forest) Brush

Painter, born in Shelbyville, Tennessee, USA. He studied with Gérôme in Paris until 1880, then settled in Dublin, NH. He is remembered for his American Indian works and tender family paintings, such as In the Garden (1906), and A Family Group (1907). George de Forest Brush (September 28, 1855–April 24, 1941) was an American figure and portrait painter. He taught at Cooper Union and at T…

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George (Eman) Vaillant - Books

Psychiatrist, born in New York City, New York, USA. In 1967 he became involved with the Grant Study of 268 Harvard students, begun in 1937. This ongoing longitudinal study focused on the adaptations and defence mechanisms that allow people to live their lives successfully, and he discussed his findings and observations in Adaptations to Life (1977). An authority on alcoholism, which he began resea…

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George (Fletcher) Bass - Marriage and trading, Final voyage, Speculation on Bass's fate

Nautical archaeologist, born in Columbia, South Carolina, USA. He was a pioneer in the field of underwater archaeology, especially known for his work on ancient shipwrecks off the Turkish coast (1960–87). Awarded the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America in 1986, his publications include Archaeology Beneath the Sea (1976) and Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas (1988). He taught …

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George (Frederick) Will - Education and early career, Career in journalism, Criticism of the Bush administration, Trivia, Awards

Journalist, born in Champaign, Illinois, USA. An Oxford graduate with a doctorate from Princeton, he taught political science, was a congressional aide, and joined National Review as an editor (1973–6). He then became a syndicated columnist (1974), a Newsweek contributing editor, and a commentator for ABC (from 1981). A conservative known for his dry wit and erudition, he won a 1977 Pulitzer Priz…

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George (Frisbie) Hoar

US representative and senator, born in Concord, Massachusetts, USA. A lawyer and a founder of the Republican Party in Massachusetts, he served in the US House of Representatives (1869–77) and the US Senate (1877–1904). In the Senate he served on the Judiciary Committee and helped draft the Sherman Anti-trust Act. He opposed nativism, sponsored legislation to curb gambling, and was a critic of Pr…

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George (Glenn) Jones

Musician, born in Saratoga, Texas, USA. One of the stars of country music, he was born into a poverty-stricken family and raised in Beaumont, TX where he began singing on the streets as a teenager. After serving in the US Marine Corps, he made his first record (1953), appeared on the Louisiana Hayride (1955), and scored his first hit, ‘Why Baby Why’, (1956), the first of over 60 singles that he …

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George (Harold) Sisler

Baseball player, born in Manchester, Ohio, USA. One of the game's greatest hitters, he twice achieved a batting average of over ·400 in a season (1920, 1922), and in 1920 he established a major league record for most hits in a season (257). He was also an outstanding defensive first baseman during his 15-year career (1915–30), mostly with the St Louis Browns. He was elected to baseball's Hall of…

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George (Henry) Borrow - Early scandal, Russian visit, Spanish mission, Later life, Principal works

Writer and traveller, born in East Dereham, Norfolk, E England, UK. He was educated at Norwich, began to train as a solicitor, then worked for a publisher in London. From 1825 to 1832 he wandered in England, sometimes in Gypsy company, as described in Lavengro (1851) and The Romany Rye (1857). As agent of the Bible Society he visited St Petersburg (1833–5), Portugal, Spain, and Morocco (1835–9),…

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George (Herbert Walker) Bush

US statesman and 41st president (1989–93), born in Milton, Massachusetts,USA. He enlisted as a Navy combat pilot in World War 2 and was rescued by a submarine when his plane was shot down in the Pacific. He returned to graduate from Yale and then went to Texas (1948), where he made a fortune in the petroleum industry. He entered politics as a Republican and served two terms in the US House of Rep…

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George (Horace) Gallup - Life

Public opinion expert, born in Jefferson, Iowa, USA. He was professor of journalism at Drake and Northwestern universities until 1932, and, after a period directing research for an advertising agency, became professor at the Pulitzer School of Journalism, Columbia University. In 1935 he founded the American Institute of Public Opinion, and evolved the Gallup polls for testing the state of public o…

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George (Jacob) Holyoake

Social reformer, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He taught mathematics, lectured on Owen's socialist system, edited the Reasoner, and promoted the bill legalizing secular affirmations. He was the last person imprisoned in England on a charge of atheism (1842). He wrote histories of the co-operative movement and of secularism. George Jacob Holyoake (April 13, 1817 - January…

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George (John) Malcolm

Harpsichordist and conductor, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music and at Oxford, and was Master of the Music at Westminster Cathedral (1947–59), after which he earned a wide reputation as a freelance harpsichord soloist and a conductor. He was made a papal Knight of the Order of St Gregory in 1970. George John Huntley Malcolm (August 20, 1865–1931) was a politici…

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George (John) Mitchell

US lawyer and politician, born in Waterville, Maine, USA. He became a lawyer, and a US attorney and district judge in Maine. Appointed senator for Maine in 1980, he achieved national prominence for his interrogation of Oliver North during the Iran-Contra investigation, and was elected Senate majority leader in 1989. He retired from the Senate in 1995, but was asked by Clinton to organize a confere…

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George (Lawrence) Mikan - Early career, Career summary, Still-standing NBA record

Basketball player and lawyer, born in Joliet, Illinois, USA. He studied at Chicago, then played with Minneapolis in the National Basketball Association (NBA) (1948–56), winning the championship five times. He led the NBA in points-scoring three times. At 6 ft 10 in tall, he set the stage for the big men who now dominate the sport, and helped launch basketball into a new era. He resigned in 1969…

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George (Leonard) Carey - Early life, Conversion and ordination, Offices, Theological and social positions, Public statements since retirement, Select bibliography

Anglican clergyman, born in London, UK. After service in the RAF, he studied divinity at King's College, London. He held Church posts in London and Durham, then became Principal of Trinity Theological College, Bristol (1982–7). He was appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1987 and Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002). His controversial book Know the Truth (2004) revealed details of private conve…

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George (Louis Palmella Busson) du Maurier - Novels, Further reading

Artist and illustrator, born in Paris, France. He studied chemistry in London (1851), but on returning to Paris adopted art as a profession. In 1860 he went back to London, where he gained a reputation as a designer and book illustrator. Finally he joined the staff of Punch, and became widely known as a gentle, graceful satirist of fashionable life. He wrote and illustrated three novels, notably T…

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George (Mann) MacBeth - Works

Poet and novelist, born in Shotts, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. He was educated in Sheffield and at New College, Oxford, and during 1955–76 was a popular producer of programmes for the BBC. A prolific poet, he was associated with the Group (poets which included Philip Hobsbaum (1932– ) and Edward Lucie-Smith (1933– ), and the macabre content of the The Penguin Book of Sick Verse (1963), w…

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George (Michael III) Steinbrenner - Background, Buying the Yankees, A controversial Boss, The Boss in the media

Businessman and baseball executive, born in Rocky River, Ohio, USA. Chairman of the Cleveland-based American Shipbuilding Co, he became the principal owner of the New York Yankees (1973) and served as club president (1979–90). His pursuit of free agent players resulted in a World Series championship (1979) but he was constantly involved in controversies with his players and managers, usually endi…

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George (Robert) Gissing - Works

Novelist, born in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Manchester, was expelled from the university, travelled to the USA, and returned to work as a tutor in London. Workers in the Dawn (1880) was the first of over 20 novels largely presenting realistic portraits of poverty and misery, such as Born in Exile (1892) and The Odd Women (1893). His best-known novel is New Grub Street…

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George (Roy) Hill - Academy Awards and nominations

Film director, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. He had been an actor, a soldier, and a playwright before becoming a film director at the age of forty. His films include Thoroughly Modern Millie (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), Slaughterhouse 5 (1972), The Sting (1973) which earned him an Oscar for Best Director, The World According to Garp (1982), and Funny Farm (1988). …

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George (Scratchley) Brown

Aviator, born in Montclair, New Jersey, USA. He trained at West Point (1941) and during World War 2 flew heavy bombers, most notably on the raids against the Ploesti oilfields (Aug 1943). He held a series of staff and line appointments during the 1950s and 1960s. As commander of the 7th Air Force in Saigon (1968–70), he was accused of falsifying reports about air strikes in Cambodia in 1969–70. …

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George (Stanley) Halas

Player of American football, coach, owner, and pioneer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. In 1920 he formed the Decatur (IL) Staleys, which was one of the 11 original teams in the newly founded American Professional Football Association. This became the National Football League (NFL) in 1922, the same year he moved his team to Chicago and renamed it the Bears. While coaching the team (1920–9) he pl…

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George (Theodore) Wein

Music producer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A pianist, he worked with Edmond Hall, Bobby Hackett, and other mainstream jazz artists during 1944–9. He had a dual career after 1950, when he opened Storyville, the best known of the Boston nightclubs that he operated throughout the 1950s. In 1954 he inaugurated the three-day Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island, an annual production that exp…

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George (Walton) Lucas - Biography, Filmography, Trivia

Film director, screenwriter, and producer, born in Modesto, California, USA. After injuring himself as a high-school car racer, he became interested in film-making, and at the Cinema School of the University of Southern California he made a prize-winning science fiction short, THX-1138 (1965). He became a protégé and assistant of Francis Ford Coppola, and was one of the cameramen on the document…

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George (Warren) Rickey

Sculptor, born in South Bend, Indiana, USA. He studied at Trinity College, Scotland (1921–6), at Oxford (1926–9), and in Paris (1929–30). He taught widely in the USA, but was based in East Chatham, NY. He was known for his outdoor kinetic sculptures, often in polished aluminium, with parts that swing around a fulcrum in response to breezes. George Rickey (June 6, 1907–July 17, 2002) wa…

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George (Washington) Campbell

Horticulturalist and inventor, born in Cherry Valley, New York, USA. He moved to Ohio as a child and trained for newspaper work, but from the mid-1850s he turned his full energies to fruit-growing. His wide-ranging experiments with seedlings and crosses fostered the development of American grape-culture. He considered his Campbell Early, which bore its first fruit in 1892, to come the closest to h…

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George (Washington) Whistler

US soldier and engineer, born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA. At the United States Military Academy at age 14, he distinguished himself as a draughtsman. After graduating, he assisted in various topographical projects and helped in the location of several railroads, including the Baltimore & Ohio. He resigned from the army to become engineer to the Proprietors of Locks and Canals at Lowell, MA (1833

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George (Wesley) Bellows - Selected works

Painter and lithographer, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. He studied at the University of Ohio, then rejected the possibility of a career in baseball, and instead came to New York to study painting with Robert Henri (1904). His life-long interest in athletics was reflected in many of his strongest paintings, such as ‘Stag at Sharkey's’ (1907). He helped to organize the famous Armory Show (1913) but…

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