Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 27

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Frank (Holmes) Tyson

Cricketer, born in Farnworth, Lancashire, NW England, UK. A fast bowler, of his 17 Tests only four were played in England, and he is best remembered for his performance on the Australian tour of 1954–5 under Len Hutton. In that series he bowled at tremendous pace, having almost halved his run-up, taking 27 wickets to win the Ashes. He later found the pitches at Northampton unresponsive, and left …

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Frank (Maxwell) Andrews - Early life and World War I, Work with the Army Air Corps

US soldier and aviator, born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The son of a newspaperman, he trained at West Point (1906) and served in the aviation section of the Signal Corps during World War 1. As the first commander of the army's General Headquarters Air Force (1935–9), he helped develop the B-17 bomber (a key weapon of World War 2). He was a leading advocate of air power as an offensive weapon, …

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Frank (Michler) Chapman

Ornithologist, born in Englewood, New Jersey, USA. He completed his formal education in 1880, chose not to go to college, and began working in a New York City bank (1880–6). In his spare time, he continued his childhood interest in birds by doing ornithological field studies and surveys. His specimens and notes dealing with birds of Florida so impressed the American Museum of Natural History that…

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Frank (Nelson) Doubleday

Publisher, born in New York City, USA. He left school to work for the publisher Charles Scribner's, becoming manager of the new Scribner's Magazine (1886). He went on to co-found the Doubleday & McClure Co (1900), then expanded his interests, establishing the Country Life Press and opening a chain of bookshops. His company eventually became Doubleday & Co. Frank Doubleday was a native of Br…

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Frank (Nicholas) Stanton

Broadcast executive, born in Muskegon, Michigan, USA. He received his PhD in psychology from Ohio State University (and thus was often referred to as Dr Stanton). He was hired by CBS in 1934 when an executive read his dissertation on radio audience research. Co-inventor of the Stanton–Lazarsfeld programme analyser, he shepherded CBS through several decades of successful expansion as its president…

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Frank (Patrick) Herbert - Biography, Continuation of the Dune series, Ideas and themes, Status and impact in science fiction

Writer, born in Tacoma, Washington, USA. He studied at the University of Washington (1946–7), and worked as a journalist. He became a full-time science-fiction writer after the publication of his first novel, Dune (1965). He continued to write many other books while living in Townsend, WA, and is considered a master of the genre. Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986…

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Frank (Philip) Stella

Painter, born in Malden, Massachusetts, USA. The nephew of Joseph Stella, he studied art at Princeton (1954–8), settled in New York City (1958), and worked as a house painter. He produced abstract ‘pin-stripe’ works (1959), such as ‘The Marriage of Reason and Squalor’ (1959), painted his ‘black’ series (c.1960), and soon was experimenting with shaped canvases and copper and aluminium paint.…

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Frank (Purdy) Lahm - Aviator, World War I

Aviator, born in Mansfield, Ohio, USA. The son of a balloonist, he trained at West Point, served in the cavalry, and transferred to the signal corps in 1907. A pioneer aviator, he trained with Wilbur Wright, and in 1909 became one of the army's first two certified pilots. Lahm organized the US Expeditionary Force in France in 1917, and in the 1930s served as attaché for air in France, Spain, and …

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Frank (Weston) Benson

Painter and etcher, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1877–80), and in Paris (1883), settled in Boston to teach at the Museum of Fine Arts (1889–1912), and spent his summers in North Haven Island, ME. A member of the Ten (1898), he produced impressionist works, such as ‘Summer’ (1890), and also made popular wildlife etchings. Frank Weston B…

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Frank Auerbach - Notes and references

Artist, born in Berlin, Germany. He moved to Britain in 1939, and studied at St Martin's School of Art (1948–52) and the Royal College of Art (1952–5), and held his first one-man exhibition at London's Beaux Arts Gallery in 1956. He works generously with oil paint of predominantly earth colours. His subject matter is figurative, portraits of a few close friends, and familiar views of Primrose Hi…

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Frank Aydelotte - President of Swarthmore College, Institute for Advanced Study, Publications

College president and foundation officer, born in Sullivan, Indiana, USA. As president (1921–40) of Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, he developed it to become an academically outstanding institution by introducing such innovations as an honours programme. He was later director of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1940–7). Long associated with the Rhodes Trust, he planned the Guggenhe…

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Frank Beyer - Filmography (selection)

Film director, born in Nobitz, EC Germany. After studying film direction in Prague, he went on to make the feature films Die Mütter (1957, The Mothers), Nackt unter Wölfen (1963, Naked Among Wolves), and Die Spur der Steine (1966, The Trail of the Stones). His best-known work is Jakob der Lügner (1974, Jacob the Liar), which was the only East German film to receive an Oscar nomination for best …

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Frank Borman - Trivia

Astronaut, born in Gary, Indiana, USA. He trained at West Point, and became an air force pilot (1951–6). He studied aeronautical engineering at the California Institute of Technology, then taught at West Point and the Aerospace Research Pilots School. In 1962 NASA selected him for astronaut training. He was crew member of two historic missions: the Gemini 7 space endurance flight (1965) and the f…

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Frank Capra - Early life, Career, Capra in the media, Death and legacy, Filmography

Film director, born in Palermo, Sicily. His family moved to California when he was six, and he began to earn money by selling newspapers, playing the banjo, and doing odd jobs. After receiving a degree in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology (1918), he joined the army as a private. Discharged as a lieutenant, he held a variety of jobs until he talked his way into directin…

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Frank Cousins

Trade-union leader, born in Nottingham, C England, UK. He worked in the pits at 14, turned lorry driver, and by 1938 was a full-time union organizer. In 1955 he became general secretary of the Transport and General Worker's Union. He was minister of technology (1964–6) until he resigned over the prices and incomes policy, MP for Nuneaton (1965–6), and chairman of the Community Relations Commissi…

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Frank Dobson

Sculptor, born in London, UK. He was associated with the London Group for many years, and was professor of sculpture at the Royal College of Art until 1953. His individual style, with simplified contours and heavy limbs, is shown at its best in his female nudes. Frank Gordon Dobson (born March 15, 1940) is a British politician and member of Parliament for Holborn and St. Pancras, for Labour…

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Frank Dunlop - Party and Government Press Secretary, Departments of Education and Environment, Public Relations Consultant, The Mahon Tribunal

Stage director and administrator, born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at University College London. After founding and directing Piccolo Theatre, Manchester (1954), he became an associate director of the Bristol Old Vic (1956), director of Nottingham Playhouse (1961–4), associate director at the National Theatre (1967–71), and administrator (1968–71). He founded the Young V…

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Frank Duveneck

Painter, born in Covington, Kentucky, USA. He adopted his stepfather's name and studied at the Royal Academy in Munich, Germany (1870). His style consisted of broad brushstrokes, sombre brown backgrounds, and an energetic approach, as seen in ‘Whistling Boy’ (1872). Beginning in 1900, he taught at the Cincinnati Art Academy for many years. Duveneck was born in Covington, Kentucky, and by …

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Frank Furness

Architect, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He trained with Richard Morris Hunt, then fought in the Union cavalry in the Civil War. Returning to Philadelphia, he practised first with John Fraser and George W Hewitt, and after 1881 with Allen Evans. He was an outstanding exponent of the picturesque eclectic style, which blended colours, textures, and ornamental details from foreign styles o…

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Frank Gifford - After Retirement

Player of American football, and sports broadcaster, born in Santa Monica, California, USA. The recipient of a full-tuition scholarship, he graduated from the University of Southern California (1952) and became a star running back and pass receiver for the New York Giants (1952–65). Even while an active player, he acted as sports broadcaster on radio and television, first on CBS, then ABC. From 1…

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Frank Hague

Political boss, born in Jersey City, New Jersey, USA. Initially running as a reformer, he was a Democratic Jersey City commissioner (1913–17) who created a political machine that allowed him to serve a lengthy term as mayor (1917–47). Despite charges of corruption, he controlled New Jersey Democrats, handpicking governors from 1919 to 1941, and also served as vice-chairman of the National Democr…

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Frank Hamilton Cushing - Work at Zuni, Significance of work, Books on Zuni by Frank Cushing, Compare

Ethnologist, born in North East, Pennsylvania, USA. A boyhood fascination with Indian artifacts was fulfilled with his appointment at the Bureau of American Ethnology (1879–1900). Regarded as a genius of interpretation, he made major contributions to this developing field by living among the Zuni for five years (he was initiated into the tribe as Ténatsali) and excavating Hohokam and Seminole si…

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Frank Hampson - Trivia

Strip cartoonist, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. Employed as a Post Office telegraph boy, he contributed his first strip to the Post Office staff magazine in 1937. In 1950 he designed a Christian comic for boys, which eventually became the Eagle, featuring the adventures of ‘Dan Dare, Pilot of the Future’, a painted strip which introduced a unique authenticity through Ha…

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Frank Harris - Life, Select bibliography

Literary editor and journalist, born in Galway, Co Galway, W Ireland. He travelled to New York as a teenager, and worked at a series of menial jobs before returning to Europe. As a journalist he gained a considerable reputation on the London literary scene, editing the Evening News (1882–6), the Fortnightly Review (1886–94), and Saturday Review (1894–8). His notoriety as a braggart and liar was…

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Frank Hornby - Biography

British inventor of the constructional toy, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. Although he had no formal training in mechanics or engineering, he enjoyed making mechanical toys for his sons in his spare time. To reduce the time needed to make individual parts, he devised and patented (1901) perforated strips as ‘Mechanics Made Easy’ which were marketed as Meccano from 1907. At its pe…

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Frank J(ack) Fletcher - Early Life and Naval Career, World War I and Post-War Period, Interwar Service

US naval officer, born in Marshalltown, Iowa, USA. He commanded the combined USS Yorktown and USS Lexington task forces at the Battle of Coral Sea (1942), the first sea battle fought entirely in the air. He was the tactical commander at Midway (1942) and commanded the North Pacific naval forces (1943–5). Frank Jack Fletcher (29 April 1885 – 25 April 1973) was an admiral in the United Sta…

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Frank Johnson Goodnow

Political scientist and educator, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. An expert in constitutional and administrative law, he served as an adviser to President William Taft (1911–12) and to the Republic of China (1913–14). He taught at Columbia University (1883–1914) but left to serve as president of Johns Hopkins University (1914–29), where he was instrumental in dramatically increasing the endow…

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Frank Knox - Quotation

Journalist and cabinet member, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. One of Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders in Cuba, he worked as a journalist in Michigan before becoming co-owner of the influential New Hampshire Manchester Union (1912–27). A brilliant administrator, he bought and revitalized the Chicago Daily News (1931–40). Although a Republican, he was secretary of the navy (1940–4) under Frank…

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Frank Leahy

Coach of American football, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. A former Notre Dame tackle under Knute Rockne, he returned to his alma mater and won five national championships in eleven seasons (1941–53). Frank William Leahy (1908–1973) was an American collegiate football coach, who earned the nickname "The Master". Leahy was a tackle on Knute Rockne's last three teams, graduatin…

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Frank Lloyd Wright

Architect, born in Richland Center, Wisconsin, USA. His irregular education included briefly studying civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin, and after five years in Louis Sullivan's office he started his own Chicago practice (1893). His early work spearheaded the Prairie School; he designed houses influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement and characterized by horizontal lines, overhang…

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Frank McCourt - Bibliography, Quotes

Writer and teacher, born in Brooklyn, New York City, USA. His family returned to their native Ireland when he was four, and settled in Limerick. His best-selling memoir, Angela's Ashes (1996), chronicles the bitter years of an impoverished childhood up until he left Ireland in 1949. The work won him the 1997 Pulitzer Prize for Biography. A sequel, Tis: A Memoir (1999), charts his return to the USA…

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Frank Muir - Birth and early life, Early career, Writing for radio, Trivia

Writer and broadcaster, born in London, UK. He served in the RAF (1940–6), and joined Denis Norden to become one of the best-known teams of comedy script-writers (1947–64), contributing to many shows on radio and television. After a short period in television management he returned to facing the camera in Call My Bluff (1970), and began the radio series Frank Muir Goes into... (1971). With Norde…

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Frank Murphy

Judge, born in Harbor Beach, Michigan, USA. His diverse political career included posts as mayor of Detroit (1930), as governor-general then high commissioner of the Philippines (1933–5), and as US attorney general (1939–40). President Franklin D Roosevelt nominated him to the US Supreme Court (1940–9). William Francis (Frank) Murphy (April 13, 1890 - July 19, 1949) was a politician and …

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Frank Norris - Biography, Bibliography

Writer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. His family moved to California (1884), and he studied art in London and Paris. His interest in art waned and he returned to study at the University of California (1890–4), and Harvard (1895). He worked as a journalist and covered the Boer War for the San Francisco Chronicle (1895–6), and then became a staff member for The Wave (1896), a San Francisco liter…

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Frank O'Connor - Works

Short-story writer, novelist, and playwright, born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. From a poor family, he worked as a railway clerk and a librarian, and was imprisoned briefly for his involvement with the IRA. A director of the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, in the 1930s, he was a visiting professor at several universities in the USA, and became popular for his short stories published in The New Yorker (1945…

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Frank O'Hara - Work

Poet and art critic, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He studied at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Harvard, and the University of Michigan. He worked for the Museum of Modern Art from 1951, and as an editor for art magazines (1954–64). He wrote plays and art criticism, and is noted for his Surrealist poetry, as in Selected Poems (1973). Francis Russell O'Hara (June 27, 1…

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Frank Orren Lowden - Political Career, Legacy

Lawyer, US representative, and governor, born near Sunrise City, Minnesota, USA. He grew up in Iowa where he worked on a farm and taught at schools. Educated in Iowa and then Chicago, he established a lucrative law practice in Chicago, married George Pullman's daughter, and began managing the Pullman railroad industries in 1897. Serving in the US House of Representatives (Republican, Illinois, 190…

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Frank Pick - Publication, Sources

Administrator and design patron, born in Spalding, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. A solicitor by training, he joined the London Underground Electric Railways in 1906 as assistant to the general manager, rapidly becoming vice-chairman of the London passenger transport board (1933–40). His vision transformed London Transport into a unified modern system. A founder-member of the Design and Industries…

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Frank Press

Seismologist and governnment science adviser, born in New York City, New York, USA. He held faculty positions at Columbia University (1949–55), the California Institute of Technology (1955–65), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1965–77), and was president of the National Academy of Science from 1981. As director of the California Institute of Technology's seismological laboratory, …

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Frank R(attray) Lillie

Embryologist, born in Toronto, Canada. He went to the USA to complete his graduate studies (1891), and then taught and performed research at the University of Michigan (1894–9), Vassar College (1899–1900), and the University of Chicago (1900–35). He concurrently served the Woods Hole (Massachusetts) Marine Biology Laboratory as a researcher and administrator (1893–1942), developed the Oceanogr…

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Frank Richards

Children's writer, born in London, UK. Educated privately, he wrote stories for magazines and comics while still a schoolboy. As a professional writer, he produced 70 000 words a week under various pseudonyms for Gem, Magnet, and other papers. He created ‘Billy Bunter’ and ‘Greyfriars School’ for The Magnet, and after World War 2, wrote numerous books about ‘Billy Bunter’ and ‘Tom Merry’,…

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Frank Robinson

Baseball player and manager, born in Beaumont, Texas, USA. During his career as a player (1956–76), he played outfield, first base, and designated hitter (DH), mostly for the Cincinnati Reds and Baltimore Orioles. He was the first DH to hit a homer, and his 586 career home runs place him fourth in the history of the majors. He became the first to win the Most Valuable Player Award once in both le…

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Frank Sargeson

Short-story writer and novelist, born in Hamilton, Waikato, New Zealand. He qualified as a lawyer but did not practise. He took various menial jobs, but his main energy was devoted to writing novels and short stories. He made his name with collections of short stories such as Conversation with My Uncle (1936), A Man and His Wife (1940), and That Summer and Other Stories (1946), satirizing the prov…

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Frank Schlesinger - Awards and honors

Astronomer, born in New York City, New York, USA. An astronomer at the Yerkes Observatory (1903–5), he also directed the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory (1905–20) and the Yale University Observatory (1920–41). A much-honoured astronomer, he compiled a catalogue of 4000 stellar distances (1935) and wrote monographs about photographic methods and stellar parallaxes. Frank …

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Frank Sedgman - Grand Slam record, Professional World Singles Tournament wins, Sources

Tennis player, born in Mont Albert, Victoria, NE Australia. In 1952 he defeated Jaroslav Drobny in the Wimbledon singles final, becoming the first Australian to win there for thirty years, and went on to amass 22 Grand Slam titles. The Australian team regained the Davis Cup from the USA in 1950, and only lost it after he turned professional in 1953. His game was based on the modern style of heavy …

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Frank Shorter - Personal Records

US marathon runner, born in Munich, SE Germany. He won the 1972 Olympic title, and took the silver medal at the 1976 Games. His first Olympic gold came in only his sixth marathon. A track runner before stepping up to marathon distance, his success helped inspire the running and jogging boom in the USA. He went on to a career as a television sports commentator. Frank Shorter (born October 31…

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Frank Sinatra - Life, Recorded legacy, Discography, Filmography, Commercials, Television specials, Samples, Further reading

Singer and film actor, born in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. As a teenager, he organized a singing group, the Hoboken Four, which won first prize on the Major Bowes Original Amateur Hour. Following graduation from the Drake Institute, he spent several years singing in New Jersey roadhouses before finding work in the late 1930s as a radio studio singer in New York City. In 1939, while performing at a c…

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Frank Steunenberg - Governor, Assassination and Trial

US governor, born in Keokuk, Iowa, USA. A typesetter, he bought the Caldwell Tribune (1866) with his brother, later serving in the Idaho legislature. As Democratic governor of Idaho (1897–1901), he called in the federal authorities to put down the Western Federation of Miners strike (1899). Returning to publishing, he was killed by a bomb outside his home, placed there by a union member. F…

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Frank Tannenbaum - Literary works

Historian, born in Brod, Galicia, Austria-Hungary. He emigrated to the USA in 1905, two years later enrolling in night classes at the radical Ferrer School. As a young member of the Industrial Workers of the World, or ‘Wobblies’, he worked as a labour activist and was briefly imprisoned. He later earned degrees at Columbia College and the Brookings Institution. During his long career as a Latin-…

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Frank Wedekind - Other plays

Playwright, born in Hanover, NC Germany. He worked in business and journalism, before becoming a cabaret performer, playwright, and producer. He is best known for his unconventional tragedies, in which he anticipated the Theatre of the Absurd: Erdgeist (1895, Earth Spirit), Frühlings Erwachen (1891, Spring Awakening), and Die Büchse der Pandora (1903, Pandora's Box). Benjamin Franklin Wed…

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Frank Wilczek - Selected publications, Books

Theoretical physicist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Chicago (1970) and Princeton (1974), where he taught (1974–81) becoming Professor of Physics at the University of California in Santa Barbara (1981–8). In 2000 he moved from the Institute of Advanced Study to be Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2004, he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Da…

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Frank Woolley

Cricketer, born in Tonbridge, Kent, SE England, UK. His Test career spanned a quarter of a century (1909–34), and although best remembered as a batsman he was a skilled all-rounder. He played 64 Test matches for England, scoring 3283 runs and recording five centuries. Against Australia at The Oval in 1912 he took 10 wickets for 49 runs in the match, and no fielder in first-class cricket has equal…

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Frank Zappa - Biography, Discography, Further reading

Avant-garde rock musician and composer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He played guitar in a high school blues and rock band and briefly studied music theory in college. He led the satirical ‘underground’ band The Mothers of Invention (with varying line-ups) in the 1960s and 1970s, making inventive and often scabrous albums such as Freak-Out! (1966) and We're Only in it for the Money (1967, a…

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Frankenstein - Plot summary, Genesis, Publication, Name origins, Analysis, Frankenstein in popular culture

A soulless creature made from parts of corpses and animated by supposed scientific means. In Mary Shelley's novel (1818), Frankenstein was the name of the monster's creator, but it has since become transferred to the monster itself. The story readily adapted to the cinema screen: it was made into a film in 1931 by James Whale, with Boris Karloff as the monster, and has since given rise to a whole …

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Frankfort

38°12N 84°52W, pop (2000e) 27 700. Capital of state in Franklin Co, NC Kentucky, USA, on the Kentucky R; founded by Daniel Boone, 1770; state capital, 1792; railway; university; trade and shipping centre for tobacco, livestock and limestone; whisky, automobile parts, shoes, metal items; graves of Daniel and Rebecca Boone; Capital Expo (Jun). Frankfort is the name of several places: …

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Frankfurt (am Main) - Overview, Geography, 20th century architecture, Culture, Transport, Economy and Business, Education and Research, Sports, Sister cities

50°07N 8°40E, pop (2000e) 661 000. Manufacturing and commercial city in Hesse province, WC Germany; port on R Main, 27 km/17 mi N of Darmstadt; most of the German emperors crowned here; meeting place of first German National Assembly (1848–9); international junction for rail, road, and air traffic; university (1914); headquarters of the leading German stock exchange; banking, river craft, p…

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Frankfurt (an der Oder) - Overview, Geography, 20th century architecture, Culture, Transport, Economy and Business, Education and Research, Sports, Sister cities

52°50N 14°31E, pop (2000e) 91 900. Capital of region in Frankfurt district, E Germany; 80 km/50 mi E of Berlin, on R Oder, where it follows the frontier with Poland; badly bombed in World War 2; railway; textiles, machinery, furniture, semiconductors. Coordinates: 50°7′N 8°41′E Frankfurt am Main?(help·info) [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of …

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Frankfurt Parliament - Deliberations, Conclusion, Presidents of the National Assembly, Further reading

An elected assembly convened following the German revolutions of March 1848 to draft a liberal constitution for all of Germany. It represented every state in the German Confederation, but proved to be disunited and powerless. After its offer of the imperial crown to the king of Prussia was repudiated by Austria and rejected by the king himself, the parliament disintegrated. The Frankfurt Pa…

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Frankfurt School - The First Phase, The Second Phase, The Third Phase, Major Frankfurt school thinkers and scholars

The group of philosophers, sociologists, and psychologists who belonged to the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research (1923–69); leading figures included Max Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and more recently Jürgen Habermas. The School developed critical theory, an ethical, politically prescriptive critique of society which draws its inspiration from the works of Marx and Freud. …

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Frankie Dettori

British flat race jockey, born in Milan, Italy. He left school at 13 to became a stableboy and apprentice, a year later continuing in the UK, where a family friend was a Newmarket trainer. A champion apprentice in 1990, his later achievements include the Queen Elizabeth II Stakes (1990), French Derby (1992), Irish Derby (1994), Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe (1995, 2001), and the English Classic races …

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Frankie Howerd - Biography, Private life, Works, Selected bibliography

Comedian and actor, born in London, UK. He made his debut at the Stage Door Canteen, Piccadilly, London, in 1946, and appeared in revues in London during the 1950s, including Out of This World (1950), Pardon My French (1953), and Way Out In Piccadilly (1960). He occasionally acted in plays, and gave a notable performance in Sondheim's musical, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, in 196…

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frankincense - History, Use, Related Sites

An evergreen tree or shrub (Boswellia carteri) growing to 6 m/20 ft, native to Somaliland; leaves pinnate with oval leaflets, crowded towards the ends of the twigs; flowers white, 5-petalled. Aromatic resin is obtained from cuts in the bark. (Family: Burseraceae.) Frankincense or olibanum is an aromatic resin obtained from the tree Boswellia thurifera or B. Frankincense is tap…

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Franklin Buchanan

US naval officer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He became the first superintendent of the Naval School at Annapolis (1845–7). He was captain of Commodore Matthew Perry's flagship during Perry's mission to Japan (1852–3). He joined the Confederate States Navy (1861) and commanded the Chesapeake Bay squadron, and became a Confederate admiral (1862). Wounded and captured at Mobile Bay (1864), h…

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Franklin P(ierce) Adams - Quote

Journalist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A New York-based columnist for four decades up to 1941, he was better known under his initials ‘FPA’. Top writers vyed to contribute to his ‘Conning Tower’, to which he also supplied his own crisp, humorous verse and wide-ranging commentary. On a regular basis he contributed a diary of his activities on the New York literary scene, in a style parodyi…

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Franklin Pierce - Early life, Political career, Election of 1852, Presidency 1853-1857, Later life, Legacy

US statesman and 14th president (1853–7), born in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, USA. A lawyer, he steadily ascended the political ladder as a Democrat, moving from the state legislature (1829–33) to the US House of Representatives (1833–7) to the US Senate (1837–42), and then returned to private law practice in New Hampshire. Expansionist in sentiments, he served as an officer in the Mexican Wa…

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Franks - The earliest records of the Franks, Language, The Frankish Empire, Carolingian legacy

Germanic peoples, originally from the lower Rhine region. Clovis led the Salian and Ripuarian Franks and founded a kingdom embracing much of Gaul; Charlemagne, their greatest ruler, attempted to revive the Roman Empire in the West. They gave their name to Francia, which by the 13th-c stood for what is now France, but earlier had diverse territorial connotations, reflecting the vicissitudes of Fran…

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Frans Andriessen

Dutch Catholic politician, born in Utrecht, W Netherlands. A member of Katholieke Volkspartij (KVP), he supported co-operation with the other confessional parties in the Christen-Democratisch Appèl (CDA) and had a special interest in housing. He served as minister of finance (1980), member of the European Commission in Brussels (1981–92), minister of agriculture and fisheries (1985), and after 1…

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Frans Hals - Biography, Artistic career, Painting technique, Influence, Legacy, Trivia

Portrait and genre painter, probably born in Antwerp, N Belgium. Among his best-known works are ‘The Laughing Cavalier’ (1624, Wallace Collection, London) and ‘Gypsy Girl’ (c.1628–30, Louvre), and several portraits of militia groups, notable for their lively facial expressions, and bold use of colour. After 1640, his mood became more contemplative and sombre, as in ‘Man in a Slouch Hat’ (c.…

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Frantis?k Kupka

French painter, born in Opo?no, Czech Republic (formerly East Bohemia). He trained in Prague (1889) and Vienna (1892), then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1895). An occultist, he illustrated the satirical magazine L'Assiette au Beurre. In 1911 he fell under the influence of the Cubists led by Jacques Villon, became one of the pioneers of pure abstraction - a style called Orphism by Apollinair…

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Frantz Fanon - Life, Work, Influence, References in the Arts, Bibliography

French psychologist and theorist of colonialism, born in Martinique. He studied medicine and psychiatry in Lyon, where his experiences as a black intellectual led him to study the effects of racism and colonization. His analysis of the Algerian struggle for independence, Les Damnés de la terre (1961), has become the inspiration for freedom causes throughout the Third World. Frantz Fanon (J…

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Franz (Adolf) Berwald - Life and works, Critical assessment

Composer, born in Stockholm, Sweden. His reputation rests largely on the four symphonies he composed during the 1840s, the Sérieuse and Capricieuse (1842) and the Singulière and Eb in 1845. Other works include the opera Estrella de Soria (1841), and many operetta and chamber music pieces. He was the outstanding Swedish composer of the 19th-c. Franz Adolf Berwald (born in Stockholm on July…

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Franz (Karl) Achard - Publications

Chemist, born in Berlin, Germany. He took up Andreas Marggraf's discovery of sugar in beet, and perfected a process for its extraction on a commercial scale, then in 1801 opened the first beet sugar factory, in Silesia. Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753, Berlin - April 20, 1821, Wohlau-Cunern) was a German (Prussian) chemist, physicist and biologist. Achard was born in Berlin, t…

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Franz (Peter) Schubert - Early life and education, Teacher at his father's school, Supported by friends

Composer, born in Vienna, Austria. At 11 he became a member of the chapel choir at the imperial court, and with little formal training began to compose. From 1817 he lived precariously as a composer and teacher, until he formed an association with the operatic baritone, Johann Michael Vogl (1768–1840), with whom he founded the successful ‘Schubertiads’ - private and public accompanied recitals …

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Franz Beckenbauer

Footballer, born in Munich, SE Germany. As player, coach, manager, and administrator, he became a dynamic force in German football during the 1970s. With club Bayern Munich (1962–76) he had many successes in domestic and European football, among them three European Cups in a row (1974, 1975, 1976). He captained the West German national side to European Nations Cup success in 1972 and to the World…

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Franz Boas - Early life and education, Post-Graduate Studies: from Geography to Anthropology

Cultural anthropologist, born in Minden, NW Germany. A merchant's son, raised in a liberal environment, he became interested in natural history as a boy and studied geography at the universities of Heidelberg, Bonn, and Kiel. On his first field trip, to the Canadian Arctic (1883–4), he studied Eskimo tribes, and from then on his intellectual interests turned to ethnology and anthropology. He emig…

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Franz Bopp

Philologist, born in Mainz, WC Germany. After four years' study in Paris, he produced a major study of Indo-European grammar (1816). In 1821 he was appointed to the chair of Sanskrit and comparative grammar in Berlin. His greatest work (written originally in German) is A Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Old Slavonic, Gothic and German (6 vols, 1833–52). Fran…

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Franz Brentano - Life, Work and thought, Bibliography

Psychologist and philosopher, born in Marienberg, E Germany, the brother of Lujo Brentano. He became a Catholic priest (1864), and taught philosophy at Würzburg until 1873. He then abandoned the priesthood, and moved to teach at Vienna until his retirement (1895). In his most important work, Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt (1874, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint), he developed the d…

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Franz Grillparzer - Early life, Early works up to Das goldene Vlies, Historical tragedies, Slip into depression

Dramatic poet, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at the University of Vienna, and worked in the imperial civil service (1813–56). He first attracted literary attention with a tragedy, Die Ahnfrau (1817, The Ancestress), and was appointed poet to the Hofburgtheater in 1818. He wrote 12 tragedies and one comedy, as well as lyric poetry and a novel. His plays are considered to be some of the best …

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Franz Josef Land - Characteristics, Weather, Wildlife, Places of significance, History

area 20 700 km²/8000 sq mi. Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, N of Novaya Zemlya, NW Russia; over 160 islands of volcanic origin; declared Soviet territory in 1926; most northerly land of the E hemisphere; uninhabited save for a meteorological station on Ostrov Gukera (Hooker I). Franz Josef Land (Russ. Franz Josef Land consists of 191 ice-covered islands with an area of 16,134 km² and…

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Franz Joseph Gall - Source

Anatomist, born in Tiefenbrunn, SW Germany. As a physician in Vienna (1785), he evolved a theory in which a person's talents and qualities were traced to particular areas of the brain. His lectures on phrenology were popular, but suppressed in 1802 as being subversive of religion. Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in …

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Franz Kafka - Life, Literary work, Kafka in media, Bibliography, Trivia, Online texts

Novelist, born in Prague, Czech Republic, of German Jewish parents. He studied law, became an official in an insurance company (1907–23), moved to Berlin, but soon after succumbed to tuberculosis. His short stories and essays, such as Die Verwandlung (1915, The Metamorphosis), appeared in his lifetime, but his three unfinished novels were published posthumously (against his wishes) by his friend …

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Franz Karl Ginzkey - Literary works (in Auswahl)

Austrian novelist and poet, born in Pola-Istria of Sudeten German descent. He was an officer, military reporter, and archivist before turning to writing. A neo-Romantic, his works are graceful and restrained in tone, often dealing with historical Austrian subjects. Jakobus und die Frauen (1908), Der von der Vogelweide (1912), and Der Gaukler von Bologna (1916) are among his best-known novels, ofte…

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Franz Klammer - Background, Career, Legacy

Alpine skier, born in Mooswald, S Austria. He was the Olympic downhill champion in 1976, and the World Cup downhill champion five times (1975–8, 1983). In 1974–84 he won a record 25 World Cup downhill races. Franz Klammer (born December 3, 1953) is a former Austrian skier who dominated the downhill event throughout much of the mid to late 1970s. Klammer was born in Mooswald, A…

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Franz Leopold Neumann - Biography

Political scientist, born in Katowice, Upper Silesia (now Poland). He escaped Nazi persecution in Germany and emigrated to New York in 1936. He served as an adviser to the State Department during World War 2 and taught at Columbia University (1947–54). His controversial analysis, The Structure and Practice of National Socialism (1942), used Marxist analysis to demonstrate how Nazism ultimately se…

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Franz Liszt - Biography, Musical style and influence, Noted works, Literary Works, Media, Further reading

Composer and pianist, born in Raiding, Hungary. He studied and played at Vienna and Paris, touring widely in Europe as a virtuoso pianist. From 1835 to 1839 he lived with the Comtesse d'Agoult, by whom he had three children. He gave concerts throughout Europe, and in 1847 met Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein with whom he lived until his death. In 1848 he went to Weimar, where he directed the…

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Franz Marc - Career, Style and legacy, List of works

Artist, born in Munich, SE Germany. He studied in Munich, Italy, and France, and with Kandinsky founded Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) Expressionist group in Munich in 1911. Most of his paintings were of animals, such as the famous ‘Tower of the Blue Horses’ (1911, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis), portrayed in forceful colours. Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of…

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Franz Mehring

German politician, journalist, and historian, born in Schlawe, Poland. A left-wing extremist of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) from 1891, he helped found the radical Marxist Spartakusbund with Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in 1916. Franz Erdmann Mehring (born 27 February 1846 in Schlawe, Pomerania, died 29 January 1919 in Berlin), was a German publicist, politician a…

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Franz Reizenstein

Composer and pianist, born in Nuremberg, SC Germany. He studied under Paul Hindemith, and in 1934 moved to England, where he was a pupil of Vaughan Williams. Among his compositions are cello, piano, and violin concertos, the cantata Voices by Night, two radio operas, and chamber and piano music. Franz Reizenstein was a German-born British composer and concert-pianist (1911-October 15, 1968)…

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Franz Rosenzweig

Jewish theologian, born in Kassel, C Germany. He first studied medicine, then switched to modern history and philosophy. He reacted against German Idealism, and expounded an existential approach that emphasized the experience and interests of the individual. A critical religious experience in 1913 caused him to reaffirm his Jewishness and devote the rest of his life to the study and practice of Ju…

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Franz Schmidt - Symphonies

Composer, born in Bratislava, Slovakia (formerly Pressburg, Austria). He studied under Anton Bruckner, played cello in the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (1896–1911), and was a distinguished teacher at various Viennese institutions (1901–37). He continued the style of Austro-German lavish late-Romanticism in his four symphonies, an oratorio, the operas Notre Dame (Vienna, 1914) and Fredigundis (B…

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Franz Seldte

German politician and industrialist, born in Magdeburg, EC Germany. In 1918 he founded the Stahlhelm which was incorporated in the Sturmabteilung (SA) in 1933, which he led in an anti-republican spirit. He became Reichskommissar für den Arbeitsdienst (1933–4) and Reichsarbeitsminister (1933–45). He died while under American imprisonment. Franz Seldte (June 29, 1882 in Magdeburg - April 1…

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Franz von Hipper

German naval officer. He commanded the German scouting groups at the Battles of Dogger Bank (1915) and Jutland (1916). He succeeded as commander-in-chief of the German High Seas fleet in 1918. Franz Ritter von Hipper (September 13, 1863 - May 25, 1932) was a German admiral. Born in Weilheim in Bavaria, Franz Hipper joined the German Imperial Navy in 1881 as an 18-year-old cadet,…

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Franz von Lenbach - Biography

Portrait painter, born in Schrobenhausen, SE Germany. He studied in Munich, travelled in Italy, and was appointed professor in the academy at Weimar, Germany (1862). He copied the great masters, including Rubens and Velazquez, before becoming one of the finest 19th-c German portraitists. His numerous portraits of Bismarck are particularly famous. Franz von Lenbach (December 13, 1836 - May 6…

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Franz von Papen - Background, Ambassador to Austria, Post-war years

German politician, born in Werl, WC Germany. He was military attaché in Mexico and Washington, chief-of-staff with a Turkish army, and took to Centre Party politics. As Hindenburg's chancellor (1932) he suppressed the Prussian Socialist government, and as Hitler's vice-chancellor (1933–4) signed a concordat with Rome. He later became ambassador to Austria (1936–8) and Turkey (1939– 44). Taken …

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Franz von Sickingen

Knight, born in Ebernburg, W Germany. A member of the Reichsritterschaft (the class of free knights), he acquired considerable wealth fighting campaigns against cities, such as at Worms (1513), and Metz (1518). A champion of the poorer classes, he became a prominent leader of the early Reformation in Germany, declaring war against the Archbishop of Trier. He was defeated and died in his last stron…

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Franz Vranitzky

Austrian statesman and chancellor (1986–97). He studied at what is now the University of Commerce, Vienna, embarked on a career in banking, and in 1970 became adviser on economic and financial policy to the minister of finance. After holding senior appointments in the banking world he became minister of finance himself in 1984, and then federal chancellor. In 1997 he was appointed personal repres…

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Franz Waxman - Selected filmography

Film composer, born in Königshütte, Germany. He arrived in Hollywood in 1934, and went on to score many films, specializing in suspense and horror, including The Bride of Frankenstein (1935), Rebecca (1940), and Sunset Boulevard (1950). Franz Waxman (December 24, 1906, Königshütte, Upper Silesia (now Chorzów, Poland) - February 24, 1967, Los Angeles, California), born Franz Wachsmann, …

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Franz Weidenreich

Anatomist and anthropologist, born in Edenkoben, SW Germany. He studied medicine at Strasbourg, where he became professor of anatomy (1903–18), held posts at Heidelberg and Frankfurt, then left Nazi Germany for the USA in 1934. He worked in China at the Peking Union Medical College (1935–41), collaborating with Pierre Teilhard de Chardin on fossil remains of Peking Man. He moved to the American …

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Franz Werfel - Biography, Bibliography

Writer, born in Prague, Czech Republic. He lived in Vienna until 1938, when he moved to France, and then to the USA. He wrote Expressionist poems and plays, but he is best known for his novels, notably the epic Die vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh (1933, The Forty Days of Musa Dagh) and the story of the Lourdes visionary, Das Lied von Bernadette (1941, The Song of Bernadette). In 1929 he married Alma Ma…

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Franz Xaver Kroetz - Life, Stage plays, Films

Writer, born in Munich, SE Germany. His plays are among the most frequently performed of any contemporary German dramatist. He also writes prose, radio and television plays, and films for television, often set in rural Bavaria. His work, characterized by an acute observation of ordinary people, employs dialect and a colloquial style combined with naturalist elements to show how unprepared they are…

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Franz Xaver von Baader

Roman Catholic theologian and mystical philosopher, born in Munich, SE Germany. A follower of Böhme, he regarded Hume's philosophy as atheistic, and opposed Kant by maintaining that the true ethical end is not obedience to a moral law, but a realization of the divine life. Franz Xaver von Baader (March 27, 1765 – May 23, 1841), was a German philosopher and theologian. He was …

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Fraser River - History, Uses, Major tributaries

River in SW Canada, rises in the Rocky Mts, flows NW, S, and W to enter the Strait of Georgia and the Pacific Ocean 16 km/10 mi S of Vancouver; length 1368 km/850 mi; navigable below Yale; Fraser R canyon above Yale; 1858 gold rush along upper reaches led to independent colonial status for the mainland, and the beginnings of permanent non-native settlement; lower river course followed by two m…

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fraud

A false statement or action made knowingly, recklessly, or without belief in its truth in order to gain a material advantage; the fact that there may have been no intention to cheat anyone is not essential to establish the offence. Any person injured by fraud may bring an action to recover damages in the tort (or delict) of deceit. Any contract induced by fraud can be rescinded or sometimes reform…

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Fraunhofer lines

Sharp, narrow, absorption lines in the spectrum of the Sun, 25 000 of which are now identified. The most prominent lines are due to the presence of calcium, hydrogen, sodium, and magnesium. Most of the absorption occurs in cool layers of the atmosphere, immediately above the incandescent photosphere. The major Fraunhofer lines, and the elements they are associated with, are shown in the fo…

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Fray Bentos

33°10S 58°20W, pop (2000e) 22 100. River-port capital of Río Negro department, W Uruguay, on R Uruguay; airfield; railway (freight); ferry; meat; former centre of meat packing and canning industry (especially corned beef), plant now closed and made into an industrial museum; international toll bridge (San Martín) across the R Uruguay to Puerto Unzué (Argentina). Fray Bentos is a town…

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Fred (Lawrence) Whipple - Honors

Astronomer, born in Red Oak, Iowa, USA. He studied at California University, and became professor of astronomy at Harvard in 1950. An expert on the Solar System, he is known especially for his work on comets, and the six he discovered while working on photographic plates of sky surveys at Harvard were all named after him. During World War 2, he helped to invent project ‘Window’, whereby aluminiu…

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Fred Allen - Biography, The vaudevillian, Between vaudeville and Broadway, From stage to radio, At home on the air

Comedian, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Starting as a juggler in his youth, he switched to comedy when he found he was getting more laughs for his quips than applause for his skill. He appeared in vaudeville and Broadway shows (1920s) and moved into radio (1930s). As host of Town Hall Tonight (1934–40) and then CBS's Texaco Star Theatre (1940–9), he wrote much of his material and was on…

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Fred Astaire - Dancing and singing prowess, Other teamings, Later career, Personal life, Portrayals of Fred Astaire on film

Dancer, singer, choreographer, and actor, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. He began dance lessons at the age of five, and by age seven was touring the vaudeville circuit with his elder sister Adele (1897–1981) as his dance partner, making their Broadway debut in the musical Over the Top (1917), and rising to stardom with her in the 1920s in specially written shows such as Lady Be Good and Funny Face…

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Fred Eggan - Works

Anthropologist, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago (1933 PhD) and became a specialist in Hopi Indian society. A leader of professional anthropology organizations, he was named an emeritus professor (1974) after a long teaching career at the University of Chicago. Among his works is Social Organization of the Western Pueblos (1950). Fred Eggan (1906-199…

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Fred Lebow - External Links

US marathon runner and organizer, born in Romania. He emigrated to the USA in 1951, joined the New York Road Runners Club in 1968, and became club president in 1972. By obtaining sponsorship, attracting big name runners, and international television, he turned the New York Marathon into a major event and the prototype for other city marathons. Fred Lebow (June 3, 1932 - October 9, 1994) (bo…

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Fred Schepisi

Film director, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. As a teenager, he worked in an advertising agency, and by 1966 had bought the company and was making documentaries and commercials. His first major feature, The Devil's Playground (1976), reflecting his early experiences with Catholicism, established him as one of the industry's most promising talents. After The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith (…

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Fred Zinnemann - Selected filmography

Film director, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied law at the University of Vienna (1925–7), then cinematography in Paris (1927–8). He emigrated to the USA in 1929, and began making documentary films in Hollywood, notably That Mothers Might Live (1938, Oscar), and Benjy (1951, Oscar). A recurrent theme in his films concerns the conflict of conscience and moral dilemmas of reluctant heroes, as ex…

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Fred(erick) Herzberg

Psychologist, born in Lynn, Massachusetts, USA. He taught at Western Reserve University (1957–72) and the University of Utah business school (1972). An authority on motivation and the nature of work, he advocated using job enrichment as a motivator. His books include The Motivation to Work (1959) and Work and the Nature of Man (1966). Frederick Irving Herzberg (1923 - 2000) was an noted ps…

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Freddie Mercury - Early life, Singer and performer, Songwriting, Solo work, Personal life, Death, Influences, Quotes about Freddie Mercury

British pop star, born in Zanzibar, E Tanzania. His family moved to England in 1959, where he studied design and began singing with small groups. He formed the heavy metal group Queen in 1971, and this quickly became known for its combination of flamboyant musical technique and visual impact, seen to best effect in the promotional video released for the six-minute hit ‘Bohemian Rhapsody’ in 1975…

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Frederic (Michael) Raphael - Works, Fiction, Other, Screenplays (partial list)

Novelist, playwright, screenwriter, and biographer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Charterhouse and St John's College, Cambridge. He has adapted several of his novels for the screen, including Richard's Things (1973) and The Glittering Prizes (1976), which became a popular television series. Other television work has included adaptations of the novels of Roy Fuller and Geoffrey Hous…

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Frederic (Sackrider) Remington

Painter, sculptor, and illustrator, born in Canton, New York, USA. He studied at the Yale Art School (1878–9) and the Art Students League, New York City (c.1885), then moved West and became a cowboy and rancher. Offered a commission to illustrate Geronimo's Apache campaign for Harper's Weekly (1882), he began his career as a painter of the American West. He recorded the Indian Wars of 1890–91, c…

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Frederic Dan Huntington

Protestant clergyman, born in Hadley, Massachusetts, USA. He graduated from Amherst (1839) and attended Harvard Divinity School before accepting the pulpit of the South Congregational Church (Unitarian) in Boston (1842). He taught at Harvard (1855–60), and in 1859 joined the Episcopal church and served as rector of Emmanuel Church, Boston. In 1869 he became the first bishop of the newly created D…

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Frederic Lamond

Pianist and composer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. A pupil of Bülow and Liszt, he made his debut at Berlin in 1885, and followed this by touring in Europe and America. He excelled in playing Beethoven, and among his own compositions are an overture, a symphony, and several piano works. In addition to becoming one of the early champions of Brahms' piano works, Lamond was considered the …

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Frederic Tudor - The Tudor Ice Company, The ice business, Tudor and Nahant, Further reading

Businessman, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He developed and pursued the practice of sending cargoes of ice from Boston to the tropical ports of Havana, Charleston, New Orleans, and eventually Kolkata (Calcutta), India (1833). Known as the Ice King, he prospered and became a leading citizen in Boston. Frederic Tudor (September 4, 1783 - February 6, 1864) was Boston's "Ice King", the fo…

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Frederic Ward Putnam

Archaeologist and ethnographer, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. He trained as a zoologist, and was appointed curator of the Peabody Museum at Harvard (1875–1909), becoming professor of American archaeology and ethnology from 1887, then curator of anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1894. Pioneering the study of archaeological remains of native Americans, he led field ex…

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Frederic Warde

Typographer, birthplace unknown. Influenced by European craftsmen on his travels abroad, he produced classically attractive works for Princeton University Press and the Limited Editions Club, as well as under his own Pleiad imprint. Afterward Warde lived in France and Italy, where he became involved in Giovanni Mardersteig’s Officina Bodoni. Warde designed a type version of the chancery c…

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Frederic William Farrar

British clergyman and writer, born in Mumbai (Bombay), W India. He was ordained in 1854, taught at Harrow, became headmaster of Marlborough (1871–6), honorary chaplain to Queen Victoria (1869–73), and later a chaplain-in-ordinary. He was made a canon of Westminster and rector of St Margaret's in 1876, archdeacon of Westminster in 1883, chaplain to the House of Commons in 1890, and Dean of Canter…

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Frederica Von Stade - Trivia

Mezzo-soprano, born in Somerville, New Jersey, USA. She made her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1970, and by the end of the decade was an international favourite, her celebrated roles including Cherubino and Mélisande. Frederica von Stade (b. She made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera in 1970, and was a sensation as "Cherubino" in The Marriage of Figaro at the Santa Fe Opera i…

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Frederick

39º25N 77º25W, pop (2000e) 52 800. Seat of Frederick Co, Maryland, USA; 38 km/24 mi SE of Hagerstown; birthplace of Don Lynn Anderson, Claire McCardell, Thomas Pyles. Royalty: Other: …

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Frederick (Albert) Cook

Explorer and physician, born in Calicoon Depot, New York, USA. He studied medicine at the universities of Columbia and New York, before being invited in 1891 to join an Arctic expedition as surgeon to Greenland, led by Robert E Peary. In 1906 he claimed to have made the first ascent of Mt McKinley, Alaska, reported in To the Top of the Continent (1908), and in 1908 claimed to be the first man to r…

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Frederick (Brant) Rentschler - Birth, Aviator, Death, Legacy

Aircraft manufacturer, born in Hamilton, Ohio, USA. He graduated from Princeton (1909) and served as an engineer during World War 1. In 1925 he took over the buildings and name of Pratt and Whitney, which eventually became part of United Aircraft Corp. As chairman of the board of United, he produced Sikorsky helicopters, Hamilton standard propellers, and Pratt and Whitney engines. Frederick…

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Frederick (Charles) Copleston - Quotes

Jesuit philosopher, born near Taunton, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was ordained in 1937, and became professor of the history of philosophy at Heythrop College (1939) and of metaphysics at the Gregorian University, Rome (1952). He wrote several books on individual philosophers and movements, as well as an eight-volume History of Philosophy (1946–66). Frederick Charles Co…

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Frederick (Perry) Stanton

US representative and governor, born in Alexandria, Virginia, USA. A lawyer in Memphis, he went to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Tennessee, 1845–55), chairing the Committee on Naval Affairs before becoming governor of the Kansas territory (1858–61). Frederick Perry Stanton was a member of the United States House of Representatives for Tennessee's 10th congressional district a…

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Frederick A(ugustus) P(orter) Barnard

College president, born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, USA. A mathematician and scientist, he was president of Columbia College (later university) (1864–89), which he developed into a major university. Women were admitted in 1883 (Barnard College is named for him), and he established the Teachers College and the School of Mines, and pioneered the elective system. Frederick Augustus Porter Ba…

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Frederick Augustus (Conrad) Muhlenberg

US representative and clergyman, born in Trappe, Pennsylvania, USA. Sent to school in Germany as a teenager, he returned to Philadelphia in 1770 to become a Lutheran minister, and spent three years at Christ Church in New York. His career as a clergyman ended in 1779, when he was appointed to the Continental Congress. After a three-year term, he continued in local political offices, and presided o…

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Frederick C(hapman) Robbins

Virologist and paediatrician, born in Auburn, Alabama, USA. After completing his medical studies, he served in the army as an epidemiological investigator (1942–6). At Children's Hospital, Boston (1946–50), he joined John F Enders and Thomas H Weller in devising tissue culture techniques for cultivating the poliomyelitis virus, thus enabling the development of a polio vaccine. This breakthrough …

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Frederick Carder - English period (1881-1903), Corning period (1932-1959)

Glass-maker, born in Staffordshire, C England, UK. In 1903 he went to the USA to manage Steuben Glass Works. With training in chemistry and metallurgy, he perfected numerous glass-making techniques including enamelling, etching, intarsia, and cire perdue (‘lost wax’). Considered a founder of the modern glass movement, he created over 8000 designs, many of them in Art Nouveau style comparable in …

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Frederick Delius - In America, Music, Bibliography

Composer, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK, of German–Scandinavian descent. He followed a commercial career until he was 20, when he went to Florida as an orange planter, studying music in his spare time. He entered Leipzig Conservatory in 1886, and became a friend of Grieg. After 1890 he lived almost entirely in France, composing prolifically. He wrote six operas, including A Vill…

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Frederick Douglass - Early life, Career, Later life, Douglass' works, Fictional appearance

Abolitionist, writer, and public official, born near Tuckahoe, Maryland, USA. Born into slavery (his father was white, his mother was part American Indian), he was taught to read as a household servant but at age 16 was sent out to work as a field hand. In 1836 he was apprenticed to a shipyard in Baltimore, MD but he escaped (1838) and settled in New Bedford, MA, where he assumed the name by which…

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Frederick Forsyth - Biography and works, Bibliography

Writer of suspense thrillers, born in Ashford, Kent, SE England, UK. Educated at Tonbridge School, Kent, he served in the Royal Air Force and later became a journalist. His reputation rests on three taut thrillers, The Day of the Jackal (1971), The Odessa File (1972), and The Dogs of War (1974). Later novels include The Fourth Protocol (1984), Icon (1996), Avenger (2003), and The Afghan (2006). …

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Frederick Funston - Early life and career, Philippines, Stateside and overseas again, World War I and death

US soldier, born in New Carlisle, Ohio, USA. The son of a farmer and a five-term congressman known as ‘Fog Horn’ Funston, he was trained as a botanist. In 1896–7 he served as a volunteer with the Cubans revolting against Spain. As a volunteer in the US Army, he fought in the Philippine insurrection that followed the Spanish-American War (1899–1901). Promoted to brigadier general, he led a smal…

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Frederick Gardner Cottrell

Chemist, born in Oakland, California, USA. He was affiliated with the University of California (1902–11), and held a number of government posts until 1930. He invented electrostatic precipitators for the removal of suspended particles from gases (c.1911), helped develop a process for separation of helium from natural gas, and contributed to establishing the US synthetic ammonia industry. In 1912 …

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Frederick Goddard Tuckerman

Poet, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1841) and at the Law School there (1839–42), and was admitted to the bar (1844) but practised only briefly. A wealthy man, he retired to Greenfield, MA to study literature, botany, and astronomy (1847). Rediscovered as a poet in 1931, he is known for his sonnets and narrative poetry, notably ‘The Cricket’, a study of the relations…

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Frederick Haynes Newell

Civil engineer, born in Bradford, Pennsylvania, USA. He was appointed hydrographer to the US Geological Survey in 1888. He helped prepare bills including the Reclamation Act of 1902, became director of the Reclamation Service (1907–14), and later consulted on numerous natural resource projects and wrote on the subject. Frederick Haynes Newell (March 5, 1862 - July 5, 1932), First Director …

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Frederick Hurten Rhead

Potter, born in Hanley, Staffordshire, C England, UK. A descendant of six generations of potters, he emigrated to the USA (1902) to work as a designer at Weller Pottery and Roseville Pottery. After teaching at University City Pottery and Arequipa Pottery, he opened Rhead Pottery in Santa Barbara, CA (1913). In 1927 he joined the Homer Laughlin China Company, West Virginia, as art director. There h…

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Frederick (Emperor) I

Holy Roman Emperor, born of the Hohenstaufen family. He succeeded his uncle, Conrad III, in 1152. His reign was a continuous struggle against unruly vassals at home, the city republics of Lombardy, and the papacy. He went on several campaigns in Italy, and though severely defeated at Legnano (1176), he quelled Henry the Lion of Bavaria, and asserted his feudal superiority over Poland, Hungary, Den…

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Frederick (of Prussia) I

King of Prussia (1701–13), born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He succeeded to the electorate of Brandenburg in 1688 (as Frederick III) and was made the first King of Prussia for his loyalty to Emperor Leopold against the French. He maintained a large court, established a standing army, and was a great patron of the arts and learning. See also: Frederick William I …

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Frederick (Emperor) II

Holy Roman Emperor, born in Jesi, near Ancona, EC Italy, the grandson of Frederick I. He succeeded Henry VI in 1220, and was the last emperor of the Hohenstaufen line. He was also King of Sicily (1198) and of Germany (1212). He keenly desired to consolidate imperial power in Italy at the expense of the papacy, and devoted himself to organizing his Italian territories, but his plans were frustrated…

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Frederick (of Denmark) II

King of Denmark and Norway (1559–88), born in Haderslev, Denmark, the son of King Christian III. His competition with Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic developed into open warfare and began the Seven Years' War of the North (1563–70). He failed in his attempt to take full control of the Baltic and reluctantly signed the Peace of Stettin (1570) with Sweden, in which both countries agreed to shar…

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Frederick (of Prussia) II

King of Prussia (1740–86), born in Berlin, Germany, the son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George I of Great Britain. His childhood was spent in rigorous military training and education. In 1733 he married, and lived at Rheinsberg, where he studied music and French literature, and himself wrote and composed. As king, he fought to oppose Austrian ambitions, and earned a gr…

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Frederick (of Denmark) IX

King of Denmark (1947–72), born near Copenhagen, the son of Christian X. He married Ingrid, the daughter of King Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden, in 1935, and they had three daughters, Margrethe (later Queen Margrethe II), Benedikte, and Anne-Marie, who married the former King Constantine II of Greece. During World War 2, Frederick encouraged the Danish resistance movement, and was imprisoned by the Ge…

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Frederick Jackson Turner - Secondary Sources

Historian, born in Portage, Wisconsin, USA. Taking his PhD from Johns Hopkins (1890), he taught at the University of Wisconsin (1889–1910) and at Harvard (1910–24). When he delivered a paper, ‘The Significance of the Frontier in American History’, at the American Historical Association's meeting at Chicago World's Columbian Exposition (1893), he gained almost overnight prominence among his col…

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Frederick James Furnivall

Philologist, born in Egham, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at London and Cambridge universities, and won fame as an oarsman and racing-boat designer. He was called to the bar and, influenced by Maurice and Christian Socialism, helped to found the Working Men's College in London. He achieved fame as a philologist and editor of English texts, giving a great impulse to Early English scholarship. …

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Frederick John Kiesler - Exhibitions

Architect and sculptor, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied architecture in Vienna, emigrated to New York City (1926), and became known for his innovative architectural designs in Europe and America, including the design for the Art of This Century Gallery (1942). He is also known for his environmental and surrealistic sculptures, as in Galaxy (1951). Frederick John Kiesler (Czernowitz or T…

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Frederick Law Olmsted - Academic campuses designed by Olmsted and sons, Other notable Olmsted commissions

Landscape architect and writer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. The father of landscape architecture in America (he coined the term), he attended lectures at Yale and studied engineering, then took a year-long voyage to China (1843). He returned to start an experimental farm on Staten Island (1847–57), influenced by the views of his friend, Andrew J Downing. In 1850 he travelled to England, w…

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Frederick Lewis Allen - Bibliography

Writer and editor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He became editor of Harper's Magazine (1941) and was widely known for his colourful works of social history, including Only Yesterday (1931). Frederick Lewis Allen (July 5, 1890, Boston – February 13, 1954, New York City) was the editor of Harper's Magazine and also notable as an American historian of the first half of the twent…

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Frederick Loewe

Composer, born in Vienna, Austria. The son of an operetta tenor Edmund Loewe, at age 13 he was the youngest pianist to solo with the Berlin Symphony. At age 15 he composed ‘Katrina’ (1919), which sold two million copies of sheet music in Europe. Although he had studied with great European masters of the piano, when he went to the USA (1924) he failed as a piano virtuoso. He took up a series of o…

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Frederick Marryat - Early life and naval career, Literary career, Works

Naval officer and novelist, born in London, UK. After a life at sea, including commanding the Ariadne (1828), he retired and wrote novels based on his experiences, of which some of the best known are Frank Mildmay (1829), Peter Simple (1833), and Mr Midshipman Easy (1836). He toured the USA and wrote other books before settling in Langham, Norfolk, where he spent his days farming and writing stori…

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Frederick McCubbin - Works, Location, References and links

Landscape painter, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. A part-time artist, working in his father's bakery until 1877, he became teacher of drawing at the National Gallery of Victoria's Art School in 1886, a position which he held until his death. With other painters, including Tom Roberts, he established the first of the artist camps which became the Heidelberg school of Australian painting…

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Frederick Reines - Early life, Discovery of an early passion for science

Physicist, born in Paterson, New Jersey, USA. He studied at New York University (1944), worked on the atomic bomb at Los Alamos (1944–9), taught at Case Western Institute of Technology (1959–66), then joined the University of California, Irvine (1966–88). For his discovery of the neutrino, one of the fundamental particles of the universe, he shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physics with Martin P…

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Frederick Russell Burnham - Early Life, First Matabele War, Second Matabele War, On Scouting, Second Boer War, Post Africa

Explorer and scout, born in Tivoli, Minnesota, USA. He moved W with his family and became a horseback messenger with Western Union Telegraph Company at age 13. After two decades of ranging in the SW and Mexico, he went to Africa with his wife and three children. He worked closely with British imperialist Cecil Rhodes, who granted him 100 square miles of land in Southern Rhodesia (present-day Zimba…

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Frederick Sanger - Education, Achievements, Titles and honours

Biochemist, born in Rendcombe, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied in Cambridge, and worked there throughout his career, after 1951 at the Medical Research Council Unit. By the mid-1950s he had secured a notable success through experimental work which revealed the full sequence of the 51 amino acids in insulin, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1958. He then worked…

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Frederick Schwatka

Explorer, born in Galena, Illinois, USA. He trained at West Point (1871), and served as a cavalry lieutenant on the frontier, while also studying law and medicine. He qualified as a lawyer (1875) and a doctor (1876). He led an expedition (1878–80) to uncover the wreckage of the Franklin expedition, and established that all had perished and no records were left behind. After resigning from the arm…

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Frederick Soddy - Bibliography

Radiochemist, born in Eastbourne, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He studied in Wales and at Oxford, and held posts at Montreal, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Oxford, where he was professor of chemistry (1919–36). In 1913 he discovered forms of the same element with identical chemical qualities but different atomic weights (which he called isotopes), for which he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1…

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Frederick Stratten Russell

Marine biologist, born in Dorset, S England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and served with distinction in the Royal Naval Air Service during World War 1. After the war he joined the staff of the Plymouth Laboratory, of which he eventually became director. He is best known for his work on medusae and plankton, the latter being instrumental in elucidating the movement of water masses in the ocean (dis…

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Frederick Temple - Early Life, Rugby, Bishoprics, Archbishop of Canterbury, Science and Religion

Archbishop of Canterbury, born in Levkás, Greece. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford, where he became a mathematics lecturer and fellow, was principal of Kneller Hall Training College (1858–69), and headmaster of Rugby (1857–69). He wrote the first of the allegedly heterodox Essays and Reviews (1860) which almost prevented his appointment to the bishopric of Exeter, and supported the disesta…

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Frederick Townsend Ward - Early life, Filibustering, Shanghai Newcomer, Shanghai Foreign Arms Corps, Commander of the Ever Victorious Army

Soldier of fortune, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. Sent to sea at age 15 as punishment by his father, he soon became a mercenary - with William Walker in Mexico, with Garibaldi in Italy, and with the French in the Crimean War. In 1859 he arrived in a China torn by civil war, offered his services to the Manchu Dynasty leaders, and during the next three years he led Chinese troops to many victor…

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Frederick W(inslow) Taylor - Early years, The development of management, Relationship with ASME, Closest followers, Articles

Efficiency engineer, born in Germantown (now part of Philadelphia), Pennsylvania, USA. After an apprenticeship at a hydraulic works in Philadelphia (1874–8), he went to work at Midvale Steel Co, where he co-developed the Taylor–White system for heat treating chrome-tungsten tool steel. While there, Midvale introduced piece work in the factory, and Taylor became interested in the most efficient w…

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Frederick William (of Brandenburg)

Elector of Brandenburg (1640–88), born near Berlin, Germany. On his accession, he found the state exhausted by the Thirty Years' War. He therefore made a treaty of neutrality with the Swedes, regulated the finances, sought to re-people the deserted towns, and reorganized the army and administrative system of the Hohenzollern state. He recovered some territory and gained East Pomerania by the Trea…

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Frederick William Faber

Priest and hymn writer, born in Calverley, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and took Anglican orders, but under the influence of Newman became a Roman Catholic and founded a lay community of converts (the Wilfridians) in 1845. He was ordained priest in 1847, and in 1849 became head of the Oratory which moved to Brompton Road in 1854. He wrote many theological works, but is reme…

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Frederick William (of Prussia) III

King of Prussia (1797–1840), the son of Frederick William II (1744–97), born in Potsdam, EC Germany. At first cautiously neutral towards Napoleon's conquests, he eventually declared war (1806) and was severely defeated at Jena and Auerstadt, with the loss of all territory W of the Elbe. To further Prussia's recovery, he sanctioned the reforms of Hardenburg and Stein, and the military reorganizat…

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Frederick William MacMonnies - Nathan Hale, Dancing Bacchante with an Infant Faun, Life, Publications

Sculptor, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. An assistant of Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1880, 1887–9), he studied in Paris (1884), worked there (1889–1915), then returned permanently to New York City. He created many public naturalistic sculptures, such as ‘Civic Virtue’ (1919), located in City Hall Park, New York City. Three of MacMonnies' best-known sculptures are Nathan Hale, Dancing Bacc…

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Frederick Wiseman - Philosophy, Process and Style, Filmography

Documentary film-maker, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After teaching law, he turned to making his own distinctive style of documentaries, starting with Titicut Follies (1967) and continuing through a long series that focused on American institutions, such as Model (1980), and then increasingly on broader experiences, as in Near Death (1989). The hallmark of a Wiseman documentary is its appar…

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Frederik Pohl - Biography and writing career, Works

Writer and editor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He attended the public schools in New York City and then went to work as a writer and editor for popular magazines (1939–43, 1946–9), with time out to serve with the US Army Air Force (1943–5). He had set himself up as a literary agent (1946) and by 1953 his own works were successful enough to allow him to become a freelance writer. He pu…

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free electron laser - FEL creation, Accelerators, From the klystron to the free electron laser, X-ray FELs

A device which produces laser light using a beam of electrons rather than a collection of excited atoms. First demonstrated in 1976, it provides a good source of variable wavelength light. It works by passing a beam of high-speed electrons between a set of magnets with alternating north–south poles. Side-to-side oscillations cause electromagnetic radiation to be emitted, which is produced in a fo…

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free jazz - Definition, Philosophies, Free jazz in the world

A change of direction for jazz that started in the late 1950s and continues to be influential today. It moved away from the harmonic and chordal structures of bebop and ‘hard bop’ to looser improvizations that often owed as much to the blues and gospel traditions. Free jazz often also dispenses with a regular beat or a consistent melodic line. The leading pioneer of the movement was the US saxop…

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free port - Free ports and Free Zones by country

An area near a port or airport where business enterprises may import materials and components free of tax or import duties, as long as the resulting finished articles are exported. It is a means of avoiding problems created by import tariffs and other restrictions, such as high raw material costs, or shortages of key components. An example is Shannon Airport, Ireland (established 1961). The term i…

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Free State - Conflict over new territories, The end of slave states

pop (2000e) 2 534 000; area 129 437 km²/49 963 sq mi. One of the nine new provinces established by the South African constitution of 1994, in EC South Africa; capital, Bloemfontein (also, the judicial capital of South Africa); chief languages, Sesotho (56%), Afrikaans, Xhosa; many settlements date from the Great Trek of 1836; claimed by British as the Orange River Sovereignty, 1848; indep…

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free trade - History of free trade, Criticism of Free trade, Alternatives to free trade

An economic doctrine that trade between countries should not be controlled in any way; there should be no tariffs or other barriers. The problems which result from tariffs were identified by Adam Smith in 1776, and the cause of free trade, taken up by Sir Robert Peel, led to the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. Since the 19th-c, tariff barriers have become very common, but groups of countries may …

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free verse - Some types of Free Verse

Verse which, while being rhythmical, observes no strict or recurrent metrical pattern or use of rhyme. Much if not most 20th-c verse was written in free verse. It is now the predominant verse form in English. It has some precedents in the poems of Blake, but the pioneers of free verse in English were Whitman, T S Eliot, Pound, and William Carlos Williams. Many poets (such as T S Eliot) have mainta…

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free will - Free will in philosophy, Moral responsibility, Science and free will, In Hindu philosophy, In Buddhist philosophy

A concept that has generated a famous philosophical problem: is our everyday assumption that we are free agents, able to do or not do this or that at will, compatible with the view that every event has a cause? Free will is generally supposed to be a precondition for moral responsibility, so the question has implications for ethics, for theology, and for the scientific view of the world. Th…

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freehold

Land or property held for use by the owner for an indefinite period of time. This is in contrast to leasehold, where the leaseholder has possession only for some finite period (eg 99 years), subject to payment of ground rent, reversion of the property to the ground landlord at the end of the lease, and possibly restrictions on the uses to which the property can be put. In the 19th-c the spacious l…

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Freeman (John) Dyson - Biography, Views, Science and Religion, Books

Physicist, born in Crowthorne, Bracknell Forest, S England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became professor of physics at Cornell University (1951–3), then at the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton (1953–94). He is well known for his research in quantum theory, especially quantum electrodynamics and the stability of matter, and for contributions to public debate on scientific issues. Throu…

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freemasonry - Organizational structure, Principles and activities, Membership requirements, Women and Freemasonry, History, Contemporary challenges, Opposition to Freemasonry

A movement claiming great antiquity, whose members (masons) are joined together in an association based on brotherly love, faith, and charity. The one essential qualification for membership is a belief in a supreme being. Non-political, open to men of any religion, freemasonry is known for its rituals and signs of recognition that date back to ancient religions and to the practices of the mediaeva…

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Freeport

42º17N 89º36W, pop (2000e) 26 400. County seat of Stephenson Co, NW Illinois, USA; located on the R Pecatonica, 45 km/28 mi W of Rockford; settled (1827) by Germans from Pennsylvania and originally named Winneshiek; William ‘Tutty’ Baker built a trading post here and is credited as the founder of the town; it was renamed Freeport in recognition of the free ferry service he operated across …

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freesia

A perennial (Freesia refracta) growing to 75 cm/30 in, producing corms, native to S Africa; leaves sword-shaped, forming flat fans; flowers up to 5 cm/2 in long, goblet-shaped, creamy white, fragrant, in one-sided sprays. Cultivars may have orange-to-crimson or blue-to-mauve flowers. (Family: Iridaceae.) …

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freethought - Overview, Symbol, History

A post-Reformation movement which rejected the control of any religious authority over reason in the examination of religious issues. The term was used by the 17th–18th-c deists, such as Anthony Collins (1676–1729). It is represented in the 19th-c by the National Secularist Society (1866) and in the 20th-c and 21st-c by the Secular Society and the Freethinkers of America. Freethought is a…

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Freetown - History, Travel, Features

8°30N 13°17W, pop (2000e) 722 000. Seaport capital of Sierra Leone; visited by the Portuguese, 15th-c; founded in the 1790s as a foundation for freed slaves; capital of British West Africa, 1808–74; W Africa's oldest university, Fourah Bay, founded as a college in 1827; capital of Sierra Leone, 1961; airport; oil refining, plastics, sugar, cement, footwear, soap, fish processing; trade in pla…

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Bertha Freifrau (Baroness) von Suttner - Kinsky Legend, Kinsky Residences, Kinsky Stud Farms, Members of the Kinsky Family, Kinsky Family Today

Writer and pacifist, born in Prague, Czech Republic. In 1876 she married a fellow novelist, Baron Arthur von Suttner (1850–1902), and founded in 1891 an Austrian Society of Friends of Peace (Österreichische Gesellschaft für Friedensfreunde;since 1964 the Suttner-Gesellschaft). Her novel Die Waffen nieder! (1889, trans Lay Down your Arms!) won the pacifist movement many new members. She also edi…

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Fremantle

32°07S 115°44E, pop (2000e) 26 300. Seaport city in Western Australia state, Australia, at the mouth of the Swan R, part of Perth metropolitan area; known locally as ‘Freo’; founded as a penal colony, 1829; railway terminus; trade in petroleum, iron and steel products, grain, wool, fruit; the Round House (1830), a former jail; maritime museum housing relics from 17th-c Dutch wrecks; a notabl…

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Fremont Older

Journalist, born in Appleton, Wisconsin, USA. As managing editor of the San Francisco Bulletin (1895–1918), he waged a crusade against political bosses and the Southern Pacific Railway, and later edited the San Francisco Call. Older began his working life at age twelve as an apprentice printer, he claimed, after reading the story of Horace Greeley. In 1895, Older became manging…

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French and Indian War - Causes, Beginning of the War, Overview, Outcome, Trivia, Present day locations of battles and expeditions

(1745–63) The last of the 18th-c wars between France and Britain for the control of North America. It was the first phase of what was later the Seven Years' War (1756–63). France accepted final defeat at the Treaty of Paris (1763). One consequence was that the War encouraged the American colonists to seek military independence of the British. The French and Indian War was the nine-year No…

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French art - Historic overview, Art museums in France, Vocabulary, Reference works

The art associated with France can be traced back to remote prehistoric times. It absorbed Greek and Celtic influences from the 6th-c BC onwards, and flourished under Roman rule (the Gallo-Roman period, 120 BC–3rd-c AD). The glories of mediaeval art include architecture, sculpture, and stained-glass at churches and cathedrals, such as Moissac, Vézelay, Souilhac, Saint-Denis, Chartres, Reims, and…

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French bulldog - Appearance, Coat colors in French Bulldogs, History, Temperament, Health, Books, Magazines and manuals

A breed of dog, developed in France by crossing British bulldogs with local breeds; narrower and taller than the British breed, with smaller head and straighter legs. The French Bulldog is a dog breed that first emerged in France in the mid- to late 19th century. French Bulldogs are a compact, muscular dog with a smooth coat, snub nose and solid bone. French Bulldogs…

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French Community

A grouping of some former French colonies which under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic (1958) opted to stay closely associated with France. The member states had full internal autonomy, but many matters including currency, defence, and foreign affairs remained the responsibility of the Community, which in effect meant France. Some 12 overseas territories opted to join. Pressures for full ind…

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French Guiana - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics

pop (2000e) 173 200; area 90 909 km²/35 091 sq mi. Overseas department of France in South America, bordering the Atlantic, divided into two arrondissements; bounded W by Suriname, E and S by Brazil; capital Cayenne; timezone GMT ?3; mixed Creole, European, and Amerindian population; official language, French; chief religion, Roman Catholicism (87%); unit of currency, the euro; low-lying ne…

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French literature - French Nobel Prize in Literature winners, Selected list of French literary classics, Literary criticism, Poetry

A literature emerging in the 12th-c from late Latin, which continued to exercise a powerful influence. The earliest vernacular works were the chansons de geste, soon followed by courtly romances dealing with both classical and Celtic subjects (Chrétien de Troyes' Lancelot, late 12th-c), and the allegorical romance, of which the Roman de la Rose (mid-13th-c) is the finest example, its two parts co…

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French Polynesia - Politics, Geography, Famous people of French Polynesia, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 246 000; area 3941 km²/1521 sq mi. Island territory comprising five scattered archipelagoes in the SE Pacific Ocean, between the Cook Is (W) and the Pitcairn Is (E); capital, Papeete; timezone GMT ?6; chief ethnic group, Polynesian; chief religion, Christianity (87%); official language, French and Tahitian, with local languages widely spoken; island groups include the Society Is …

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French Republican calendar - Extra days, French Republican calendar in fiction

A calendar introduced during the French Revolution by the National Convention to herald the beginning of a new epoch for France and for humanity in general, and to further the anti-clerical campaign for de-christianization. The structure and nomenclature were devised by a committee under the deputy, Fabre d'Eglantine, Year 1 dating from the abolition of the monarchy and the declaration of the Repu…

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French Revolution - Causes, Crisis in the royal finances, The Estates-General of 1789, Assembly

A complex upheaval, profoundly affecting every aspect of government and society, and therefore considered a significant turning point in French history. Although its causes have been subject to conflicting interpretation, conventionally the start was the summoning of the Estates General, the Assembly representing the three estates of the realm (spring 1789). Subsequently the National Assembly and …

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French Revolutionary Wars - Context of the wars, War of the First Coalition, Napoleon in Egypt

(1792–9) A series of campaigns between France and neighbouring European states hostile to the Revolution and to French hegemony, merging ultimately into the Napoleonic Wars (1799–1815). Starting with France's declaration of war on Emperor Francis II, Prussia, and Sardinia, which precipitated the War of the First Coalition (1792–7), French forces attacked the Rhine, the Netherlands, and Savoy, a…

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French Union

A term for the political entity of the French Empire introduced by the constitution of the Fourth Republic in 1946. Former colonies were reclassified as departments of France or overseas territories; trust territories became overseas territories; and former protectorates became associated states. The latter had all become independent when the Union was replaced by the Community in 1958. Est…

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frequency - Measurement, Frequency of waves, Examples

The number of complete cycles per second for a vibrating system or other repetitive motion; symbol f or ?; units Hz, (hertz). For wave motion, it corresponds to the number of complete waves per second. The frequency of tuning C on the piano is 523·25 Hz; the frequency of yellow light 5 × 1014 Hz. Frequency is the measurement of the number of times that a repeated event occurs per unit…

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frequency modulation (FM) - Applications in radio, Theory, Modulation index

In wave motion, the altering of frequency in a systematic way, leaving amplitude unchanged. In FM radio, an electrical signal modulates the frequency of a broadcast carrier radio wave by an amount proportional to the signal amplitude. Demodulation takes place in the radio receiver to give a copy of the original signal. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents infor…

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fresco - Technique, Frescoes in history, Selected examples of Italian frescoes

An ancient technique for painting on walls, perfected in the 14th–16th-c in Italy; it is difficult, and is nowadays uncommon. The wall is prepared with layers of plaster, sometimes as many as four, the penultimate (arricciato) being marked out with the artist's design (underdrawing or sinopia). The final layer of lime-plaster (intonaco) is then laid and, while it is still wet (fresco means ‘fres…

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Fresno - Placenames, US Battleships, Television

36°44N 119°47W, pop (2000e) 427 700. Seat of Fresno Co, C California, USA; founded, 1872; city status, 1885; airfield; railway; university; centre of a wine-producing region; grapes, grain, cotton, cattle, agricultural machinery, food processing; often called the world's raisin centre. …

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friar - Name, Orders

A member of one of the mendicant (‘begging’) Christian religious orders founded in the Middle Ages. Unlike monks, they are not confined to a single monastery or abbey. A friar is a member of a Roman Catholic religious mendicant order of men, that is, an order primarily supported by charity. Most friars are either Augustinians, Carmelites, Dominicans, or Franciscans. Fria…

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friarbird

A bird of the honeyeater family, native to N Australia and the adjacent islands of SE Asia, also known as the leatherhead; songbird with head partly or totally naked (hence its common names); eats fruit, insects, and nectar. (Genus: Philemon, 17 species. Family: Meliphagidae.) The friarbirds (also called Leatherhead) are four species of honeyeaters in the genus Philemon: They ar…

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Fribourg - Education, Famous Fribourgeois, Miscellaneous

46°49N 7°09E, pop (2000e) 36 000. Mediaeval town and capital of Fribourg canton, W Switzerland; on a peninsula in the R Sarine, 27 km/17 mi SW of Bern; founded, 1178; persisted as a Catholic stronghold in the Reformation; bishopric; railway junction; university (1889); foodstuffs, beer, engineering; Cathedral of St Nicholas (13th–15th-c), Church of the Woodcutters (13th-c), town hall (16th-…

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friction - Equations, Coefficient of friction, Types of friction, Reducing friction, Energy of friction

A force acting against the direction of motion for two objects in contact sliding across one another. Friction may be sufficient to prevent actual relative motion. It is caused by surface roughness, and by the attraction of the atoms of one surface for those of the other. The coefficient of friction, ?, expressed as a number, has only two possible values for a given pair of surfaces, depending on …

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Fridtjof Nansen - Arctic exploration, Academic career and scientific works, Diplomatic and political career, The League of Nations

Explorer, born near Oslo, Norway. He studied at Oslo University and later at Naples. In 1882 he made a voyage into the Arctic regions in the sealer Viking, and on his return was made keeper of the natural history department of the museum at Bergen. In 1888 he journeyed across Greenland E–W, but his great achievement was his scheme for reaching the North Pole by letting his ship, The Fram, get fro…

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Frieda Fromm-Reichmann - Sources:

Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, born in Karlsruhe, Germany. She emigrated to the USA in 1935 and became a disciple of Harry Stack Sullivan. She pioneered psychotherapeutic methods with schizophrenic patients and contributed to the understanding of the psychic assets of the mentally ill. For some years (1926–42) she was married to the philosopher and psychologist Erich Fromm. Frieda Fromm-R…

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Friedrich (Wilhelm August) Froebel

Educationist, born in Oberweissbach, C Germany. He studied at Jena, Göttingen, and Berlin, and in 1805 began teaching at Frankfurt. In 1816 he put into practice his educational system, whose aim, to help the child's mind grow naturally and spontaneously, he expounded in Die Menschenerziehung (1826, The Education of Man). In 1836 he opened his first kindergarten school at Blankenburg, and spent th…

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Friedrich (Wilhelm) Nietzsche

Philosopher and critic, born in Röcken, EC Germany. He was a strongly religious child and a brilliant undergraduate, accepting the chair of classical philology at Basel (1869–79) before graduating. Influenced by Schopenhauer, he dedicated his first book, Die Geburt der Tragödie (1872, The Birth of Tragedy) to his friend Wagner, whose operas he regarded as the true successors to Greek tragedy, b…

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Friedrich Accum - Publications

Chemist, born in Bückeburg, NC Germany. In 1793 he moved to London, where he pioneered the introduction of gas lighting, and did much to arouse public opinion against unclean food and dishonest trading. Friedrich Christian Accum (29 March 1769, Bückeburg - 28 June 1838, Berlin) was a German chemist. He was a son of Christian Accum (Hertz Markus, before conversion) and Suzanne …

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Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus - Further reading

Publisher, born in Dortmund, W Germany. He founded the firm of Brockhaus in Leipzig and published the famous dictionary, Konversations-Lexikon, begun by R G Lömbel in 1796 and completed in 1811. The business was carried on by his descendants. Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus (May 4, 1772 - August 20, 1823) was a German encyclopedia publisher and editor, famed for publishing the Conversations-Lex…

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Friedrich August Wolf

Classical philologist and archaeologist, born in Haynrode, C Germany. Professor at Halle, he was instrumental in the foundation of Berlin University (1807) and became professor there (1810). In his Prologomena ad Homerum (1795) he initiated a critical-philological approach to the study of Homer's works. Friedrich August Wolf (February 15, 1759–August 8, 1824) was a German philologist and …

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Friedrich Ebert - Legacy

German statesman, the first president of the German Republic (1919–25), born in Heidelberg, SWC Germany. A saddler at Heidelberg, he became a Social Democrat journalist and a Reichstag member (1912). Chairman of his party (1913), he was a Socialist leader in the revolution of 1918. Friedrich Ebert (February 4, 1871 – February 28, 1925) was a German politician (SPD), who served as Chancel…

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Friedrich Engels - Works

Socialist philosopher and businessman, collaborator with Karl Marx, and founder of ‘scientific socialism’, born in Barmen, W Germany. From 1842 he lived mostly in England and published his study The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1845. A partner in the Ermen and Engels cotton plant in Manchester, he was converted to communism by the radical, Moses Hess. After a first brief meeting …

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Friedrich Ernst Dorn

Chemist, born in Guttstadt, Germany. He studied at Königsberg, and is known for his discovery of radon. Friedrich Ernst Dorn (1848-1916) was a German physicist who discovered radon. In 1885, at Halle University, Ernst Dorn took over the position of personal ordinarius professor for theoretical physics from Anton Oberbeck. Since Dorn was already an ordinarius professor , he …

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Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock - Biography, Bibliography

Poet, born in Quedlinburg, C Germany. Inspired by Virgil and Milton, he began Der Messias (The Messiah) as a student at Jena (1745), completing it in 1773. He lived in Copenhagen (1751–71), then moved to Hamburg. Regarded in his own time as a great religious poet, he helped to inaugurate the golden age of German literature, especially by his lyrics and odes. Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (J…

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Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle

Anatomist and pathologist, born in Fürth, SC Germany. He studied at Bonn and Berlin, and held professorships at Zürich (1840–4), Heidelberg (1844–52), and Göttingen (1852–85). He was a major influence in the development of histology, his Allgemeine Anatomie (1841, Comprehensive Anatomy) being the first systematic treatise of the subject. His Handbuch der rationellen Pathologie (1846–53, Han…

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Friedrich Ludwig Jahn - Contribution to sports

Physical educationist, born in Lanz, NEC Germany. After studying at Halle, Göttingen, and Greifswald, he became a teacher and began a programme of physical exercise for his students, inventing most of the equipment that is now standard in gymnasia. He opened the first gymnasium (Turnplatz) in Berlin in 1811. An ardent nationalist, he commanded a volunteer corps in the Napoleonic Wars (1813–15), …

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Friedrich Meinecke - Work

Historian, born in Salzwedel, NC Germany. Professor at Stuttgart (1901), Freiburg im Breisgau (1906), and Berlin (1914–28), he was also editor of Historische Zeitschrift (1894–1935) and chairman of the Historische Reichskommission. A liberal, he opposed Nazism. He was co-founder and first rector of the Freie Universität Berlin. Friedrich Meinecke (October 30, 1862-February 6, 1954) was a…

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Friedrich Mohs

Mineralogist, born in Gernrode, C Germany. He became successively professor at Graz, Freiburg, and Vienna. The Mohs scale for measuring mineral hardness, introduced in 1812, is still in use, rating talc as hardness 1, and diamond as hardness 10. He wrote The Natural History System of Mineralogy (1821) and Treatise on Mineralogy (3 vols, 1825). …

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Friedrich Naumann - Life

German politician, born in Störmthal bei Leipzig, EC Germany. Founder of the Nationalsozialer Verein, the aim of which was a democratic and social restructuring of state and economy, he became a member of the Reichstag (from 1907) and co-founder of the Deutsche Demokratische Partei (1918). During World War 1 he promoted the democratization of the empire under the rule of parliament, and devised a…

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Friedrich Olbricht - Life

German general and resistance fighter, born in Leisnig, E Germany. He participated in the invasion of Poland as division commander and became chief of general staff from March 1940. He played a central role in the failed attempt on Hitler's life of 20 July 1944 (Zwanzigster Juli) and was shot later the same day. Friedrich Olbricht (born 4 October 1888 in Leisnig, Saxony; Friedri…

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Friedrich Paulus - Biography

German soldier and tank specialist, born in Breitenau, C Germany. He served in World War 1, and by 1940 was deputy chief of the general staff. As commander of the 6th Army he led the attack on Stalingrad (1942), but was trapped in the city by a Russian counter-attack. Totally cut off, he and his troops held out for three months before capitulating in February 1943. Released from captivity in 1953,…

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Friedrich von Gentz - Writings, War between Austria and France, Private life

German political writer, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). In 1786 he entered the public service of Prussia, but in 1802 exchanged into that of Austria. He wrote bitterly against Napoleon, became a friend and adviser to Metternich, and was secretary-general of the Congress of Vienna (1814), and of subsequent European conferences. He was the theorist and practical exponent of …

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Friedrich von Holstein

German diplomat and lawyer, born in Schwedt an der Oder, NE Germany, into an important Prussian military and land-owning family. He was Votragender Rat to the foreign office in Berlin (1876–1906) and a close colleague of Bismarck, whom he secretly opposed from 1885, undermining his policy of closer relations with Russia. Renowned as a ‘grey eminence’ of German foreign affairs, he lost the chanc…

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Friedrich Waismann

Philosopher, born in Vienna, Austria. He became a prominent member of the Vienna Circle, along with Carnap and Schlick, and later taught at Cambridge and Oxford. He argued that most empirical concepts have an ‘open texture’, in that we cannot completely foresee all the possible conditions in which they might properly be used, and therefore even empirical statements cannot be fully verified by ob…

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Friedrich Wolf - Life, Works

Writer, born in Lehnitz, Oranienburg, NE Germany. He was a ship's doctor in World War 1, then practised medicine in Stuttgart and Hechingen. In 1928 he joined the KPD (German Communist Party) and emigrated in 1933, returning to Germany in 1945. He worked for Russian radio broadcasting propaganda during World War 2 and was appointed German ambassador to Warsaw (1949–51). His early plays were Expre…

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friendly society - List of some friendly societies

A voluntary mutual-aid organization in the UK which provides financial assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or retirement. The register of Friendly Societies includes some that are several hundred years old. Their operations are governed by the Friendly Society Acts (1974–1984). A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal orga…

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Friends of the Earth - Campaign Issues, Friends of the Earth groups, Structure of the network, History

An international federation of environmental pressure groups with autonomous organizations in member countries. It conducts campaigns on topics such as safe energy, the recycling of waste, acid rain, tropical rainforest destruction, the preservation of endangered species, and transport. The groups which make up Friends of the Earth conduct their own campaigns and coordinate their activities…

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Friesland - Distinguishing features

pop (2000e) 630 000; land area 3352 km²/1294 sq mi. Province in N Netherlands; includes most of the West Frisian Is; capital, Leeuwarden; other chief towns, Harlingen, Sneek; major livestock farming area, specializing in butter and Frisian cattle; extensive land reclamation along North Sea coast. Friesland (pronunciation (help·info)) is a province in the north of the Netherlands and …

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frieze

The middle part of an entablature on a classical building, usually decorated. It may also be the decorative band running along the upper part of an internal wall and below the cornice. In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain or decorated with bas-reliefs. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the pi…

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frigate - Origin, The age of sail, Modern frigates, Lists of frigates

A small warship in World War 2, superior in speed and armament to a corvette, but less powerful and smaller than a destroyer. Its present role is mainly anti-submarine and general-purpose. In days of sail, frigates were used as scouts for the main fleet, being smaller, faster, and less heavily armed than ships of the line. The term "frigate" was used in the seventeenth century, initially to…

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Frigyes Riesz

Mathematician, born in Györ, NW Hungary. He studied at Zürich, Budapest, and Göttingen, and taught at the University of Kolozsvár (Cluj) from 1911. He worked in functional analysis, integral equations, and subharmonic functions, and developed a new approach to the Lebesgue integral. He published the important textbook Leçons d'analyse fonctionnelle (1952, Lessons of Functional Analysis). …

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Frisbee - Games using flying discs

A brand name for a type of plastic disc approximately the size of a dinner plate, thrown through the air. Most discs are used as a leisure pursuit, but competitions exist. The Frisbee was introduced in the USA in the late 1950s by the toy manufacturing company Wham-O. Inventor Ed Headrick patented the company's first designs for the modern Frisbee in 1967, after improving the aerodynamics of the i…

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Frisian Islands

Island chain in the North Sea, extending along the coasts of The Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark, and politically divided between these countries; includes the North Frisian Is (Ger Nordfriesische Inseln), notably (German) Sylt, Föhr, Nordstrand, Pellworm, Amrum, and (Danish) Rømø, Fanø, Mandø; the German East Frisian Is (Ger Ostfriesische Inseln), notably Borkum, Juist, Norderney, Langeoog…

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Frisians - History, Frisian Migrations, Modern history

A Germanic tribe, referred to by Tacitus and Pliny, based generally in Friesland in The Netherlands and in German Ost-Friesland. They were constantly at war with the early counts of Holland, though by that time the original inhabitants had been heavily diluted by the barbarian invasions and the Vikings. The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Fri…

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fritillary (botany)

A perennial with a small scaly bulb (Fritillaria meleagris), native to Europe; stem growing to 50 cm/20 in; leaves grass-like, bluish; flower a broad bell 3–5 cm/1½–2 in, drooping, dull purple rarely white, with a distinctive chequered pattern; cultivated for ornament. It is also called snake's head and guinea flower from its colour and the drooping habit of the flower. (Family: Liliaceae.)…

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fritillary (entomology)

A colourful, day-flying butterfly; wings typically yellow-brown with black markings; forelegs reduced, non-functional; eggs ribbed; caterpillars with spines. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Nymphalidae.) Fritillaria is a genus of about 100 species of bulbous plants in the family Liliaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix Fritil…

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Frits Bolkestein - Biography, The Bolkestein Directive, Links with Menatep bank and the Royal Dutch Shell

Dutch politician, member of the Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD). He served as secretary of state for economic affairs (1982–6) and minister of defence (1988–9). In 1990 he became leader of the party and was also elected president of ‘Liberal Internationale’. Frederik Bolkestein (born 4 April 1933 in Amsterdam; He was the leader of the market liberal People's Pa…

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Frits W(armolt) Went

Plant physiologist, born in Utrecht, The Netherlands. He performed research in Java (1928–32), and went to the USA to join the California Institute of Technology (1933–58), where he co-discovered (with K V Thimann) the plant growth hormones known as auxins. He devoted 20 years of research to these substances, and also invented the phytotron, a specialized greenhouse for investigations of the con…

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Frits Zernike - Biography, Research in physical optics, Honors

Physicist, born in Amsterdam. Professor of physics at Groningen University (1910–58), he developed the phase-contrast microscope (1938), which allows the study of internal cell structure without the use of stains that kill the cell. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1953. Frederik Zernike (Amsterdam, July 16, 1888 – Amersfoort, March 10, 1966) was a Dutch physicist and winner…

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Fritz (Albert) Lipmann

Biochemist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He performed research in cell energy metabolism in Europe (1927–39), taking a year (1931–2) as fellow at the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller University). Fearing the rise of Nazism, he emigrated to the USA to join Cornell (1939–41), then moved to Harvard and the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston) (1941–57). Beginni…

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Fritz (Richard) Schaudinn

Zoologist and microbiologist, born in Röseningken, Germany. He studied philology at Berlin, but turned to zoology, and after research work in Berlin became director of the department of protozoological research at the Institute for Tropical Diseases, Hamburg (1904). He demonstrated the amoebic nature of tropical dysentery, and discovered the spirochaete Treponema Pallidum which causes syphilis (1…

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Fritz (Wolfgang) London

Physicist, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied at Frankfurt and Munich, then did research in philosophy at Bonn. He worked at Zürich, and devised the quantum theory of the chemical bond with Walter Heitler (1927). In 1930 he calculated the non-polar component of forces between molecules, now called van der Waals or London forces. With his brother Heinz he fled from …

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Fritz Eichenberg - Selected works

Illustrator and printmaker, born in Cologne, Germany. He studied graphics in Leipzig, emigrated to the USA (1933), settled in New York City, taught at the Pratt Graphics Center (1956–63), and retired to Rhode Island. He is known for his scathing socio-political wood engravings and illustrations, such as ‘Beastiarium Juvenile’ (1965). Fritz Eichenberg (October 24, 1901–November 30, 1990…

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Fritz Haber - Biography, Further reading

Chemist, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied in Berlin, Heidelberg, and Zürich. Professor of chemistry at Karlsruhe and Berlin, he became known for his invention of the process for making ammonia from the nitrogen in the air. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918. Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who recei…

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Fritz Kreisler - Work on Broadway

Violinist, born in Vienna, Austria. At age 10 he won a gold medal at the Vienna Conservatory and in 1887 won the Grand Prix at the Paris Conservatory. The next year saw his American debut in New York. For some years he pursued medicine and military service, but returned to music (1899). From then on he was one of the most beloved violinists in the world, also composing light violin works (which he…

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Fritz Lang - Early life and career, The Goebbels myth, Metropolis, M and his life in America

Film director, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at the College of Technical Sciences and the Academy of Graphic Arts in Vienna, and intended to paint, but turned to the cinema after working with a film company in Berlin. His early films include Dr Mabuse, der Spieler (1922, Dr Mabuse, the Gambler), the first of three Mabuse films (the others in 1932 and 1960), and the futuristic Metropolis (192…

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Fritz Machlup

Economist, born in Vienna, Austria. Educated in Vienna, he went to the USA (1933) and taught at several universities including the University of Buffalo (1935–47), Johns Hopkins (1947–60), Princeton (1960–71), and New York University (1971–83). He was an exceptional writer on many subjects, including Keynesian economics, the philosophy of economics, and the patent system. Fritz Machlup …

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Fritz Perls - Life, Bibliography

Psychiatrist, born in Berlin, Germany. He left Germany in 1933, but did not settle in the USA until 1946. He was a founder and the most influential practitioner of Gestalt psychotherapy, which he explained in Ego, Hunger, and Aggression (1947), Gestalt Therapy (1951), Gestalt Therapy Verbatim (1969), and other books. In the 1960s he was resident psychiatrist at the Esalen Institute at Big Sur, CA …

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Fritz Pollard

Player of American football, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The second African-American (after Bill Lewis of Harvard, 1892–3) to be named consensus All-America, his running led Brown University to the 1916 Rose Bowl. In the 1920s he played and coached in the National Football League. Frederick Douglass "Fritz" Pollard (January 27, 1894 – May 11, 1986) was the first African American head…

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Fritz Reiner

Conductor, born in Budapest, Hungary. He conducted opera in Budapest and Dresden before coming to the USA in 1922 to take over the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. In 1931 he taught at the Curtis Institute, then joined the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (1938–48). After several seasons with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, he found his greatest acclaim leading the Chicago Symphony Orchestra …

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Fritz Reuter

North German writer, born in Stavenhagen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Along with Groth, he played an important role in introducing Plattdeutsch (Low German) into literary as well as everyday language. In 1833 he was arrested as a member of the Jenaer Burschenschaft and condemned to death; this was commuted to 30 years imprisonment, but he was freed under amnesty after seven years, though broken in healt…

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Fritz Sauckel

German politician, born in Haßfurth, SC Germany. A member of the Sturmabteilung (SA) from 1922 and the Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) from 1923, he became Reichsstatthalter in Thuringia and a member of the Reichstag (1933–45). As general deputy in charge of the Arbeitseinsatz he was responsible for the deportation and forced labour of over 5 million people from 1942 onward…

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Fritz Todt

Engineer, born in Pforzheim, SW Germany. As Hitler's inspector of German roads (1933) he was responsible for the construction of the Reichsautobahnen. The Todt Organization was also responsible for the construction of the Siegfried Line (1937). Nazi minister for armaments (1940), and for fuel and power (1941), he was killed in an aircrash. Fritz Todt (September 4, 1891 – February 8, 1942)…

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Fritz von Opel

Automotive industrialist, born in Rüsselsheim, WC Germany. He worked for his grandfather's manufacturing firm, which began experimenting with rocket propulsion for automobiles and aircraft (1898). The world's first rocket-propelled car was the Opel-Rak 1 (1928), followed by the Opel-Rak 2, which he himself test-drove. He also piloted the second rocket airplane to fly. Fritz Adam Hermann Op…

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Fritz von Unruh

Playwright and novelist, born in Koblenz, W Germany. He served as a cavalry officer until 1912. An ardent pacifist, the ideal of a new humanity underlies all his Expressionist works, particularly the novel Opfergang (1916, Way of Sacrifice). He warned against the Nazi Party in Berlin in Monte Carlo (1931) and Zero (1932). He left Germany in 1932, and went to the USA, returning in 1962. Frit…

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Fritz Zwicky - Life and work

Physicist, born in Varna, NE Bulgaria, of Swiss parents. He studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, then took a position at the California Institute of Technology in 1925, becoming professor of astrophysics there (1942–68). He remained a Swiss citizen all his life. He researched extensively into galaxies and interstellar matter, and produced the standard catalogue on compac…

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Friuli-Venezia Giulia - History

pop (2001e) 1 171 000; area 7843 km²/3027 sq mi. Autonomous region of NE Italy; comprising the provinces of Gorizia, Trieste, Pordenone, Udine; chief town, Trieste; agriculture (particularly viticulture), coffee products, textiles, paper, furniture, light engineering; winter mountain sports; tourism. Friuli-Venezia Giulia is one of the twenty Regions of Italy, and one of five with ad…

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frog - Morphology and physiology, Natural history, Distribution and conservation status, Evolution, Uses in agriculture and research

An amphibian of Order: Anura (3500 species), found worldwide except in the Arctic and Antarctic; short body with fewer than 10 vertebrae in the spine; inhabits diverse environments. The smooth wet-skinned species are called frogs; the rough dry-skinned species (adapted to drier habitats) are called toads. This distinction reflects the different lifestyles of the species; there is no technical diff…

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frogfish

Bizarre, bottom-dwelling fish found amongst rocks and marine growths of warm seas; length up to 20 cm/8 in; body with strong cryptic coloration, skin loose and warty, pectoral fins used for crawling across bottom; filament on front of head acts as lure to attract prey; includes Antennarius hispidus, also known as toadfish. (Genus: Antennarius. Family: Antennariidae.) …

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froghopper - Gallery

A small, hopping insect that feeds by sucking the sap of plants; also known as cuckoo-spit insect and spittlebug. The eggs are laid on the plants, and hatch into sedentary larvae which surround themselves with mucus-like ‘cuckoo spit’ that protects them against drying out and predation. (Order: Homoptera. Family: Cercopidae, c.2500 species.) The froghoppers, or the superfamily Cercopoidea…

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frogmouth

A large, nocturnal, nightjar-like bird native to Australasia (except New Zealand) and SE Asia; short but very broad bill (hence the name); inhabits forests; eats mainly small animals foraged from ground. (Family: Podargidae, 12 species.) The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. …

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Frome - Frome Festival, Politics, Badgers Hill, Cheese and Grain Hall

51°14N 2°20W, pop (2000e) 22 000. Town in Somerset, SW England, UK; on the R Frome, 17 km/10 mi S of Bath; a town of Anglo-Saxon origin with narrow alleys and old stone houses; railway; textiles, plastics, printing, engineering, perry making; Longleat House (1568), 8 km/5 mi NE. Frome (pronounced [fruːm]) is a medium-sized town in Somerset, England, near the Mendip Hills. The town …

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front

A meteorological term for the sharp boundary between two parcels of air of different origin and characteristics, along which a steep horizontal temperature gradient exists. A warm front is the leading boundary of warm air, and a cold front is the leading boundary of polar or cold air. Each front is associated with its characteristic weather. In a depression, the meeting of the cold front with the …

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Frontier Thesis - Further reading: Scholarly studies

An interpretation of the development of the USA associated with the historian Frederick Jackson Turner, who first advanced it in 1893. Turner argued that the westward-moving frontier was central to the evolution of democratic government, national values, and political institutions. The individualism of the frontier encouraged democracy, and the abundance of free land acted as a safety valve for so…

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Frosinone

41º38N 13º22E, pop (2001e) 48 100. City and capital of Frosinine province, Lazio region, WC Italy; 84 km/52 mi ESE of Rome; ancient city founded by the Volsci on a hill overlooking the Sacco R plain; conquered by Romans (386 BC); birthplace of Luigi Angeloni; cathedral (originally Romanesque), Church of S Benedetto (19th-c Baroque), Church of S Lucia (Neoclassical); agriculture, engineering,…

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frost - Frost, Effect on plants

A meteorological condition which occurs when the air temperature is at or below the freezing point of water, causing condensation. It may cause considerable damage to plants, especially if ground frost is accompanied by air frost. Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. If solid surfaces in contact with the air are chilled below the deposition point (see f…

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frostbite - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

The damage of exposed parts of the body by the direct effect of extreme cold. The fingers, nose, and feet are especially vulnerable, and the part may die and become gangrenous. Frostbite (congelatio in medical terminology) is the medical condition whereby damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. In extreme cold or when the body is exposed to cold for long period…

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frottage - Terminology

A technique used by some modern artists, notably Max Ernst, whereby paper is placed over a textured surface, such as a plank of wood, and rubbed with a pencil or crayon producing an impression. It is often combined with collage. Frottage is sexual activity without penetration that can include any form of sexual rubbing, whether naked or clothed, for arousal or orgasm. Frottage c…

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fructose - Structure, Health effects

C6H12O6. A simple sugar (a monosaccharide) found mainly in fruits in combination with glucose to produce the disaccharide, sucrose (table sugar). Fructose is twice as sweet as glucose, and has been used as a sweetening agent. Fructose consumption does not cause a rise in blood glucose, and so it can be tolerated by diabetics. Fructose intolerance is a very rare hereditary disease. Fructose …

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Fr - Collapse of Rome (372-410), Migrations (Dark Age) 400-700

In German history, a period generally dated from 750–1170 and linguistically subdivided into the Carolingian Renaissance (to 900, Old High German lingers); Ottonian Renaissance (to 1025, predominance of Middle Latin); and Cluniac reforms (to 1150, early Middle High German). Under Charlemagne the Church embarked on the linguistic and cultural re-education of the Germanic tribes, which drew on anti…

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fruit - Botanic fruit and culinary fruit, Fruit development, Seedless fruits, Seed dissemination, Uses

Strictly, the ripened ovary and seeds of a plant, but more generally used to include any structures closely associated with these, such as a swollen receptacle. A simple or true fruit develops from a flower with one or several fused carpels; an aggregate fruit from a flower with several free carpels; and a multiple fruit from several flowers. When structures or tissues other than those of the gyne…

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fuchsia

An evergreen or deciduous shrub, native to Central and South America and New Zealand; leaves lance-shaped to oval, paired or in whorls; flowers pendulous with a long, red 4-lobed tube surrounding a purple bell with projecting stamens and style; numerous cultivars show a wide range of flower colours. It was named in honour of the German physician and herbalist, Leonhard Fuchs (1501–66). (Genus: Fu…

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fuel - Extraction of energy from fuel, Types of fuel

A substance capable of releasing thermal energy in chemical, electrochemical, or nuclear processes. The oldest are combustible natural fuels (such as wood and cow dung). The chief solid fossil fuels are fossil vegetable matter in various degrees of carbonization, such as coal, lignite, and peat. Liquid fuels include some vegetable oils, but are mainly petroleum products. Gaseous fuels mainly compr…

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fuel injection - Objectives, Benefits, Basic function, Type of fuel, Various injection schemes

A method of introducing the fuel into an engine cylinder. In a diesel engine the fuel is injected at high pressure directly into the combustion chamber. In a petrol engine a special fuel/mixture control unit (increasingly microprocessor controlled) replaces the conventional carburettor, to produce improved running and transient performance. In this system, the petrol is usually injected into the p…

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Fuerteventura - History, Geography, Geology, Climate, Economy, Tourism, Sites of interest

pop (2000e) 49 500; area 1659 km²/640 sq mi. Island of Spain, in the province of Las Palmas, the second largest in size of the Canaries archipelago; volcanic, mountainous, arid; almost totally unproductive; some cereals, potatoes, tomatoes; subsists on fishing; capital, Puerto del Rosario. Fuerteventura, a Spanish island, is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coa…

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Fugger

A German merchant dynasty which moved in 1367 from Graben am Lech to Augsburg and was elevated to the position of Reichsgrafen in the 16th-c. Their trading, mining, and banking empire reached its peak under Jakob Fugger II. They financed princes of the Empire (Reichsfürsten), influenced the election of popes, and secured the election of Karl V as emperor by bribery. The first reference to …

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fugu - Consumption, Fugu poisoning, Social aspects, Availability

A Japanese globe fish or puffer fish, eaten as a delicacy at special restaurants, cooked or in small slices, raw. Parts of this white fish are poisonous and cause instant death. Only restaurant staff who have passed the official examination and have a special licence are allowed to prepare it. Takifugu is a genus of pufferfish, often better known by the Japanese name Fugu (Japanese: 河豚,…

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fugue - Characteristics and anatomy, Is the fugue a musical form?, History, Perceptions and aesthetics

A musical composition (or part of one) in which a single theme announced by each ‘voice’ in turn serves to generate the whole, and usually reappears in different keys and sometimes in different guises (inverted, in shorter or longer note-values, etc). In music, a fugue (IPA: [fjuːg]) is a type of contrapuntal composition. The remainder of the fugue develops the material further using all…

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Fulbert of Chartres

Theologian and philosopher, born in Laudun, S France. Of humble origins, he studied in Reims and went on to establish a school at Chartres (990) which became an international centre of learning, including among its pupils Berengarius of Tours. Fulbert became Archbishop of Chartres in 1007. His 140 epistles throw valuable light on the 11th-c French church. Fulbert of Chartres (born 960, died…

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Fulda - History, Rulers of Fulda through Secularization, Miscellaneous

50º32N 9º41E, pop (2002e) 62 500. Manufacturing city in Kassel district, E Hessen province, W Germany; located on the R Fulda, 86 km/53 mi NE of Frankfurt (am Main); birthplace of Ferdinand Braun, Reinhard Goering, Philip James de Loutherbourg; railway; carpets, clothing, industrial textiles; cathedral (1704–12). Coordinates: 50°33′N 9°40′E Fulda is a city in Hessen…

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Fulgencio Batista (y Zald - Second rule, Opposition, Aftermath, Books written by Batista, Bibliography on Batista

Cuban soldier and dictator, born in Oriente province. A labourer's son, he rose from sergeant-major to colonel in the army coup against President Machado (1931–3) and was later elected president (1940–4), fostering a major programme of social and economic reform. He stepped down in 1944, and travelled abroad, but returned to power following another army revolt in 1952, overthrowing President Pri…

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Fuller's earth

Fine earthy material containing montmorillonite clay; formerly used for cleansing oil and grease from wool (fulling), and now used for clarifying vegetable oils by absorbing impurities. Fuller's earth is any nonplastic clay or claylike earthy material that can be used to decolorize, filter, and purify animal, mineral, and vegetable oils and greases. In the United States, two varieties…

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fulmar

A marine tubenosed bird, native to N oceans (Fulmarus glacialis) or S oceans (2 species); comes to land only to breed; can eject oily and foul-smelling vomit to deter predators. (Family: Procellariidae.) The two Fulmars are closely related seabirds occupying the same niche in different oceans. …

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fulminate - Historical notes, Compounds

A salt containing the ion CNO?, also called isocyanate. As its name suggests (Lat ‘thunder’), it is an explosive; Hg(CNO)2 is used as a detonator. Fulminates are chemical compounds which include the fulminate anion. The fulminate anion is a pseudohalic anion, acting like a halogen with its charge and reactivity. The best known is mercury fulminate which has been used as a primary ex…

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Fulton Mackay

Actor, born in Paisley, Renfrewshire, W Scotland, UK. He was a member of the Citizens' Theatre, Glasgow (1949–51, 1953–8), and of the Old Vic company (1962–3). As a director of the Scottish Actors Company, he appeared in numerous productions, made several television and film appearances, and is probably best remembered for playing the role of Mr Mackay, the officious prison warder, in the 1970s…

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fumaric acid - Biology, Medicine, Food

C2H2(COOH)2, IUPAC trans-butenedioic acid, melting point 300ºC (in a sealed tube). An unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, used in the manufacture of polyester resins. The salts are called fumarates, and are often used in preparations of drugs. It is a geometrical isomer of maleic acid. Fumaric acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-butenedioic acid), also called allomaleic acid, boletic acid or licheni…

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Funafuti - Islands in Funafuti, Bays and streets in Funafuti, TeNamo Lagoon

8°30S 179°12E, pop (2000e) 3500. Port and capital town of Tuvalu, SW Pacific, on the E side of Funafuti atoll; airfield; US military base; copra. Funafuti is the capital of the small island nation of Tuvalu. Other sites of interest are the remains of American aircraft that crashed on Funafuti during World War II, when the airstrip was used by the American forces to defend the Gilbe…

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Funchal - Postage stamps

32°40N 16°55W, pop (2000e) 109 000. Capital of Madeira, on S coast of Ilha da Madeira; third largest Portuguese city; bishopric; exports Madeira wine, embroidery, fruit, fish, dairy produce, wickerwork; sugar milling, distilling, tobacco products, soap, canning; important port and tourist resort on the transatlantic route from Europe for the Caribbean; cathedral (1485), forts (17th-c), Chapel …

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function (mathematics) - Mathematical definition of a function, Functions in other fields, The vocabulary of functions, Specifying a function

In mathematics, a relation which associates any one element in one set (the domain) with one and only one element in another set (the range). For example, the square function f:x ? x2 maps 2 into 4, 3 into 9. In mathematics, a function relates each of its inputs to exactly one output. A standard notation for the output of the function f with the input x is f(x). The set of all input…

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functional group

A part of a molecule with characteristic reactions. Important examples include the hydroxyl group, –OH, characteristic of alcohols, and the amino group, –NH2, characteristic of amines. (For convenience, the basic functional groups covered in General Biology are also listed here) …

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