Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 26

Cambridge Encyclopedia

fine - Criminal Law, Fines in English land transactions

A financial penalty paid to the state, following conviction by a court for a criminal offence. Limits are normally set on the levels of fines inferior courts are permitted to levy, and the offender's means are generally taken into account. The court may allow time for payment or payment by instalments. Failure to pay a fine without good cause can lead to imprisonment for default. Fines are the mos…

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Fine Gael - Core policies, Pre-election pact, Young Fine Gael, Current state of the Irish political parties

An Irish political party created out of the pro-Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921) wing of Sinn Féin. It was known as Cummann na nGaedheal from 1923 until it changed its name in 1933. The first government of the Irish Free State, it has largely been in opposition since the 1930s, and has never held power on its own. It supports an Irish confederation, and is largely pragmatic in domestic matters. F…

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Finger Lakes - Lakes, Region

A group of 11 long, narrow, finger-like lakes in W New York State, USA; includes (W–E) Canandaigua, Keuka, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco, and Skaneateles lakes; a wine-making centre. The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York, mainly linear in shape, each lake oriented on a north-south axis. The longest, Cayuga Lake, is 40 miles (64 km) from end to end, but never more t…

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fingerprint - Fingerprint identification, Latent prints, Patent prints, Plastic prints, Classifying fingerprints, Timeline

An impression made on a surface by the pattern of ridges at the ends of fingers and thumbs. No two people have the same fingerprints, and the technique of fingerprinting has thus long been used by law enforcement agencies as a means of identification. Systems of fingerprint classification have been in use since the end of the 19th-c, based on the general shape of the ridge pattern, its size and po…

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finial

In Gothic architecture, the decorative termination of a steep triangular form, such as a gable or pinnacle. It is often carved in the form of a fleur-de-lys, and can accompany decorative foliage clumps (or crockets) running up the sides of the pinnacle below. The finial is an architectural device, typically carved in stone and employed to decoratively emphasise the apex of a gable, or any o…

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Finland - History, Geography and nature, Administrative divisions, Demographics, Government and politics, Industry, economy and globalisation

Official name Republic of Finland, Finn Suomen Tasavalta, Swed Republiken Finland The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomi, Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland?(help·info)), is one of the Nordic countries. Finland is bounded by the Baltic Sea with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has a population of over five million p…

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Finlandia Hall - Design and Building, Facilities

Leading concert and congress centre in Helsinki, S Finland. Designed by Alvar Aalto, the main building was completed in 1971 and the congress wing in 1975. Finlandia Hall is a concert hall with a congress wing in Helsinki, by Töölönlahti bay. Alvar Aalto was commissioned by the City of Helsinki to design a concert and congress building, the first constructed part of a great c…

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Finley Peter Dunne - Mr. Dooley, Margaret Abbott, Other Famous or Interesting Quotes from Finley Peter Dunne, Works

Journalist and humorist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. As a Chicago journalist he created the fictional Mr Dooley (1892), a garrulous Irish bar keeper whose rogue commentaries on current events were nationally syndicated and reprinted in eight volumes (1898–1919). He moved to New York (1900) and was associated with Collier's, American Magazine and the socialist Metropolitan, before retiring in …

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Fiona Shaw - Selected filmography

Actress, born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. After studying philosophy at University College, Cork, she trained as an actor at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, graduating with the Bancroft Gold Medal. Throughout her career she has worked consistently with the Royal Shakespeare Company. Productions here include As You Like It (1985), Les Liaisons Dangereuses (1985), Much Ado About Nothing (1986), a…

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Fiordland - Demographics / Economy

area 10 232 km²/3949 sq mi. National park, SW South Island, New Zealand; largest of New Zealand's national parks, with mountains, lakes and a coastline indented by fjords; established in 1904; a world heritage site. Fiordland is a geographic region of New Zealand that is situated on the south-western corner of the South Island. Most of it is covered by the Fiordland National Park, whic…

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FIPRESCI

A federation of national film critic associations founded in 1930 to provide a central source of information and to defend the professional interests of the members. An International Film Critics Award (the FIPRESCI Prize) is presented at selected important film festivals, and Special Awards are made each year to the best film of the year in various categories. FIPRESCI (short for Fédérat…

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fire salamander - Habitat and diet, Distribution, Subspecies, Gallery

A salamander native to Europe, NW Africa, and SW Asia (Salamandra salamandra); black with yellow stripes or spots; broad head; short tail; inhabits damp upland deciduous forest; only adult female enters water (to give birth to live tadpoles). (Family: Salamandridae.) The Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is probably the most well-known salamander species in Europe. Fire Sa…

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firebrat

A widely-distributed bristletail. It is found as a pest in human dwellings, favouring warm places such as kitchens. (Order: Thysanura. Family: Lepismatidae.) …

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firecrest

A small bird (Regulus ignicapillus) native to Europe, N Africa, and Madeira; head with orange stripe and white ‘eyebrows’; inhabits woodland or scrubland; eats insects; Europe's smallest breeding bird. (Family: Regulidae, sometimes placed in Silviidae.) …

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firedamp - Damps

Methane found in coal mines. A mixture of methane and air is inflammable or explosive in certain proportions, and has been the cause of many pit disasters. The reduction of the hazard is a major consideration in coal mine operation. One of the best methods of firedamp detection remains the Davy safety lamp. Firedamp (or whitedamp) is a flammable gas found in coal mines. Firedamp…

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firefly - Fireflies and humans

A small, mostly nocturnal beetle; males with soft wing cases, females larva-like, often wingless; jaws hollow, used to inject digestive juices into prey; larvae found in soil and leaf litter; all stages luminous, but most pronounced in adults; luminous organs near tip of abdomen used to produce mating signals; also known as glowworms and lightning bugs. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Lampyridae, c.20…

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Firenzuola

44º07N 11º23E, pop (1999e) 4700. Town in Tuscany, NC Italy, in the Santerno River valley, 51 km/32 mi SW of Firenze; founded, 1300; birthplace of Giulio Alberoni; railway; potatoes, fruit; popular tourist destination for hunting and fishing. Firenzuola is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Florence in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 40 km northeast of Florence. …

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firewall

A technology which is used by organizations that have linked their enterprise computer systems into the Internet. The firewall prevents users from outside the organization doing anything which would corrupt the system inside. One standard approach uses the firewall to filter out suspicious messages and discard them. Another approach offers a caller a copy of a system so that, if the caller does an…

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fireworks - History, Competitions, Types, Laws and politics

Artificial devices, normally used for display purposes, which when ignited produce an array of coloured lights, sparks, and explosions; they were known in China by AD 600. They contain flammable and explosive materials (eg charcoal, sulphur) which react with oxygen-yielding substances (eg nitre, chlorate of potash). Government control is very strict on their manufacture and sale to children. The m…

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firm - Organisations, Music and popular culture

The unit in which non-government economic activity is organized. Firms range from one-man businesses and partnerships to large public companies. Firms own or hire factors of production, including employees, land, and buildings, buy inputs such as fuel and materials, and sell their output. To stay in business, firms need to cover their costs, and to expand they need either current profits to financ…

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Firmin Didot

Printer, born in Paris, France. As a printer, and especially as an engraver and founder, he raised the family name to the highest eminence. He revived and developed the stereotyping process, and produced fine editions of many classical, French, and English works. Firmin Didot was a member of a family of printers who were in a family founded by François Didot (1689–1757), the father of 11…

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firmware - Definitions, Origins, Firmware and device drivers, Examples

A concept intermediate between software and hardware, used to describe devices which combine elements of each. A computer program stored in an unalterable form in an integrated circuit such as a read-only memory could be described as firmware, while the same program written on paper or stored on a floppy disk, both of which can be altered, could be described as software. In computing, firmw…

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first aid - Training, Wilderness first aid, Conditions that often require first aid, Providing first aid

The treatment and management of a victim at the site of an accident or collapse. In conscious individuals, important steps include the arrest of bleeding by the application of pressure (dressing, plastic bags, or paper) and by laying the victim flat. Injured parts must be handled gently. Unskilled extrication of victims who have suffered neck injury can cause serious damage. Otherwise the individu…

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first fleet - People of the First Fleet, Preparation for the voyage, The voyage, Ships of the First Fleet

In Australian history, the name given to the 11 ships which left Portsmouth, England (1787), carrying the first European settlers to E Australia. The fleet carried officials, 212 marines and their families, and 579 convicts plus provisions. Unusual for the time, all who embarked arrived safely in Australia. The fleet's captain, Arthur Phillip, decided that Botany Bay was unsuitable and proceeded n…

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First Nations - History, Diversity

A term used in Canada to describe Canadian aboriginal peoples, introduced in the 1980s as a response to French- and English-Canadian claims to be the ‘two founding nations’. They are represented in land claim and constitutional discussions with Ottawa by the Association of First Nations. First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. Collectively, First Nations, Inuit, and Métis pe…

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fiscal drag - Example of fiscal drag, Real fiscal drag, Political Dimension

The effect of inflation on tax revenues. If tax allowances are not kept in line with inflation, individuals pay relatively higher amounts of tax, thus dragging down post-tax incomes; consequently the demand for goods and services falls. Fiscal drag refers to the increase in tax revenue caused when the threshold of a tax is not increased in line with inflation. Suppose a person e…

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fiscal policy - Economic effects of fiscal policy

The use by government of tax and its own rate of spending to influence demand in the economy. When a government decides to lower taxes or raise public expenditure, the effect is to stimulate economic activity by increasing the demand for goods and services. There is a risk that this may lead to increasing inflation, or an increase in imports, resulting in a trade deficit. In contrast, a tightening…

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fish - Classification, Fish anatomy, Evolution, Fish disease, Aquarium Fish Resources

Any cold-blooded aquatic vertebrate without legs, but typically possessing paired lateral fins as well as median fins. There is a 2-chambered heart, a series of respiratory gills present throughout life in the sides of the pharynx, and a body usually bearing scales and terminating in a caudal (tail) fin. As a subgroup of the Vertebrata, the fishes are sometimes referred to collectively as Pisces. …

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Fishbourne

Roman palace near Chichester (Noviomagus Regnorum), West Sussex, S England, UK, discovered in 1960. Probably erected in the AD 60s for the British client-king Cogidubnus, a noted Roman collaborator, it continued in use into the 4th-c. Major features are the formal courtyard garden, the monumental entrance and audience hall, the mosaics of the four colonnaded wings, and the site museum. Fish…

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fisher

A mammal, related to the marten, native to North America; length, up to 1 m/3¼ ft; thick brown-black coat; inhabits dense forest; eats small mammals, birds, carrion; also known as pekan (Martes pennanti). (Family: Mustelidae.) Fisher or Fishers can mean:- …

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fisheye lens - Types of fisheye lenses, Focal length, Other uses

A distinctive type of lens design that uses a large, curved front element resembling the eye of a fish. A very large angle of view is given, up to 180 or even 220 degrees. This is made possible by abandoning optical correction for curvilinear distortion in the lens, so that the image is characterized by lines that are strongly curved instead of straight. The imagery has a novelty value, as well as…

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Fitz-Greene Halleck - Publications

Poet, born in Guilford, Connecticut, USA. He was educated in public schools, and became a store clerk (1806–11), bank clerk (1812–30), and personal secretary to John Jacob Astor (1832–49) in New York. He was noted for his satirical verse, such as Fanny (1819), but is now best known for his historical poems such as ‘Marco Bozzaris’. Fitz-Greene Halleck (July 8, 1790 – November 19, 186…

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Fitzhugh Lee - Early life, Civil War, Postbellum

US soldier, born in Fairfax Co, Virginia, USA. The nephew of Robert E Lee, he trained at West Point (1856) and led Confederate cavalry in the Virginia theatre during the Civil War. He was governor of Virginia (1886–90), US consul general to Cuba (1896–8), and commanded the US VII Corps in Cuba following the Spanish-American War (1899–1901). Fitzhugh Lee (November 19, 1835 – April 18, 1…

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Five Civilized Tribes

The Muskogean-speaking nations of Indians (Chickasaws, Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, Seminoles) who originally inhabited the present SE USA. The Cherokees, in particular, adopted white ways, establishing a republic, and acquiring literacy in their own language and English. Nonetheless, they were removed to beyond the Mississippi R in the 1830s, along the ‘trail of tears’. The Five Civilize…

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fives

A handball game played by two or four players, derived from the French game jeu de paume (‘palm [of hand] game’). The first recorded game was at Eton School in 1825; other variations include Rugby and Winchester fives. The origin of the name is uncertain: it may be because the game was played with the five fingers of the hand or because the original scoring system was in multiples of five. …

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fixative (painting) - Drawing, Biology, Embalming, Perfumery

A liquid preparation sprayed over charcoal drawings, chalks, or pastels to prevent smudging. It is effective with monochromatic work, but less so with pastels, because of the inevitable alteration of colour values brought about when it is applied. In drawing, a fixative is a liquid, similar to varnish, which is usually sprayed over a finished piece of artwork to better preserve it and preve…

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fjord - Ancillary features, Locations, Scandinavian usage, False fjords, Fjords in culture and history

A long, narrow, steep-sided coastal inlet extending far inland and often reaching very great depths. Most are drowned valleys formed by glacial erosion, with subsequent sea-level rise after their retreat. The best-known fjords are in Norway and E Greenland. Other regions have fjords, but many of these are less pronounced due to more limited exposure to westerly winds and less pronounced rel…

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flag (botany) - History, National flags, War flags, Flags at sea, Shape and design, In sports, Swimming flags

A species of iris (Iris pseudacorus) with yellow flowers 7·5–10 cm/3–4 in diameter, found in wet, swampy ground in Europe, W Asia, and N Africa. (Family: Iridaceae.) The first flags were used to assist military coordination on battlefields and flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification, especially in environments where communication is si…

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flag (politics) - History, National flags, War flags, Flags at sea, Shape and design, In sports, Swimming flags

A piece of cloth, usually with a design, used as an ensign, standard, or signal, or to mark a position, commonly attached at one end to a staff or halyard. Flags have been used since ancient times, and some symbols are universal; a white flag signals a truce; a yellow flag the presence of infectious disease. A nation signifies its mourning by flying its flags at half-mast. The first flags w…

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flagellate - Form and behavior, Groups of flagellates

A microscopic, single-celled organism that possesses 1, 2, 4, or more thread-like organelles (flagella), typically used for swimming; many are parasites of animal hosts; others live in aquatic or even terrestrial habitats. (Phylum: Mastigophora.) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. Some cells in animals may be flagellate, for instance the sperm cells…

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flagellum - Arthropod flagellum, Bacterial flagellum, Archaeal flagellum, Eukaryotic flagellum

A thread-like structure found on some bacteria and on or in many eucaryotic organisms. Flagella usually function in locomotion, bacterial flagella rotating and eucaryotic flagella undulating as they beat. In eucaryotic organisms there are two main kinds of flagellum: a smooth whip-like type, and a tinsel type with rows of long hairs along its length. Prokaryotes may have one or many flagell…

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flageolet

A simple, high-pitched, end-blown flute, made of wood, with six fingerholes; later, often fitted with metal keys and an ivory mouthpiece. It was popular during the 16th–18th-c, and did not become obsolete until about the mid-19th-c. An inferior keyless variety, made of brass, is known as the ‘tin whistle’, or ‘penny whistle’. In the late 18th and early 19th century certain English inst…

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flamenco - History, Cante flamenco, Palos, Flamenco artists, Sources

A traditional song and dance of the Rom (gypsies) of Andalusia in S Spain. It evolved over centuries of fusion between Rom, Moorish, Andalusian, and other traditions. Canto (‘song’) is the core of flamenco, whose text and melody, like the flamenco dance, are improvised within traditional conventions of rhythms and chords. The men's dancing involves intricate toe- and heel-clicking steps, while t…

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flamingo - Systematics, Physiology

A large wading bird, native to South America, Africa, S Europe, and W Asia; plumage white or pink (pink colour deriving from pigments in food); inhabits shallow soda or brine lakes; filters minute organisms from water with stout, downwardly angled bill; swims well; forms immense flocks. (Family: Phoenicopteridae, 5 species.) Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus …

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Flanders - Flanders in France, Flanders in the Netherlands, Contemporary Flanders, History, Government and politics, Administrative divisions

Historical region of NW Belgium and NE France; autonomous in early Middle Ages; densely populated industrial area; chief towns Bruges, Ghent, Sint-Niklaas, Aalst, Ronse; traditional textile industry, with linen, silk, cotton processing; intensive farming, especially wheat, sugar-beet, oats, barley, potatoes; scene of heavy fighting in both World Wars. Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has severa…

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Flann O'Brien - Early writings, Novels, Journalism

Writer and journalist, born in Strabane, Co Tyrone, W Northern Ireland, UK. He studied at Dublin, and his first and major novel was At Swim-Two-Birds (1939, translated into Gaelic, 1956). A civil servant, he contributed a column to the Irish Times for some 20 years under his Irish pseudonym. Best known as an idiosyncratic newspaper columnist, various anthologies appeared after his death - The Best…

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flatfish

Any of the bottom-dwelling, mainly shallow-water fishes in which the adult body is strongly compressed laterally and asymmetrical, with both eyes on the same side of the head; nine families (sole, tongue-sole, plaice, halibut, dab, flounder, turbot, brill, topknot); excellent food fishes, very important commercially. The flatfish are an order (Pleuronectiformes) of ray-finned fish, also cal…

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flatworm - Body functions, Classes

A flattened, worm-like animal with a definite head but without a true body cavity (coelom); digestive system usually lacks an anus; free living flatworms typically feed on small invertebrates; parasitic forms include tapeworms and flukes. (Phylum: Platyhelminthes.) The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek "platy"': flat; Most flatworms are free-living forms, but many are parasitic on other ani…

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flax

A slender erect annual (Linum usitatissimum), growing to 60 cm/2 ft; leaves narrow; flowers numerous, blue, c.3 cm/1½ in diameter, with five spreading petals; fruit a capsule with numerous seeds. Its origin is unknown, but it is cultivated throughout temperate and subtropical regions for flax fibre obtained from the stems, and for linseed oil from the seeds. (Family: Linaceae.) …

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flea

A small, wingless insect that as an adult is a blood-feeding external parasite of warm-blooded animals (mostly mammals, but including some birds); body flattened from side to side, usually hairy; mouthparts specialized for piercing and sucking; hindlegs adapted for jumping; larvae maggot-like, feeding on organic refuse around domicile of host; c.1750 species, many of medical and veterinary importa…

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Fletcher Christian - Christian in fiction

Seaman and ringleader of the mutiny against Captain William Bligh on the Bounty in 1789, born in Cockermouth, Cumbria, NW England, UK. Educated at Cockermouth Grammar School, he declined to go to university, and joined the navy instead at the age of 18. He served with Bligh on various ships, and was selected by him as midshipman on the Britannia sailing to the West Indies in 1787. A close friendsh…

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Fletcher Henderson

Pianist, arranger, and jazz bandleader, born in Cuthbert, Georgia, USA. He graduated in chemistry from Atlanta University, and moved to New York City in 1920 to continue his studies, but was diverted into a musical career, starting as house pianist for publishing and recording companies. In 1924 he put together a big band for what was supposed to be a temporary engagement, but stayed at the head o…

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Fletcher Steele - External links and Sources

Landscape architect, born in Rochester, New York, USA. In the 1920s and 1930s he introduced French Modernism to American landscape design, replacing beaux arts formalism with more experimental designs. From his Boston office (1920–70) he completed some 600 commissions, including Naumkeag in Stockbridge, MA, where he created sweeping vistas with curving walls and sculpted mounds of earth. F…

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Fleury Abbey

Benedictine abbey founded (c.630) at Fleury, St Benôit-sur-Loire, France by monks from Orleans. The abbey first existed under the rules of the Irish monk St Columba but then adopted the rule of the Italian St Benôit, whose remains were brought from Rome. The abbey flourished under the guidance of St Abbon (late 10th-c). During the French Revolution it was destroyed and the relics hidden away for…

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flint - Uses

A type of chert, occurring as grey, rounded nodules in chalk or other limestone. It breaks into sharp-edged flakes and hence was used as a Stone Age tool. Flint (or flintstone) is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline silicate form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chalcedony. The exact mode of formation of flint is not yet clear or agreed but it is thought that…

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flint glass

Heavy crystal glass, containing lead, highly suitable for cutting and engraving. It was first introduced c.1675, and so called because early examples were made with powdered flint instead of the more usual sand. It has a higher refractive index than crown glass (without lead), and thus played an important part in making corrected compound lenses. Flint glass is an optical glass that has rel…

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Flintshire - History, Geography, Fairtrade

pop (2001e) 148 600; area 437 km²/169 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in NE Wales, UK; drained by R Clwyd; administrative centre, Mold; other chief towns, Flint, Queensferry; tourism, agriculture, light industry; castles at Flint, Hawarden; St Winifred's Well at Holywell; Theatre Clwyd. The current administrative area of Flintshire (a unitary authority) came into existence…

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floodgate - Types of floodgates, Floodgate valves, The physics of flood gates

A moveable barrier which can be raised or closed to prevent flooding at times of bad weather or very high tides. Flap gates are metal barriers which are buried in special housings in the sea or river bed. When not needed they are full of water. With a warning of a tide exceeding 100 cm (40 in), compressed air is pumped into the flapgates. This empties them of water and they rotate on hinges so t…

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Flora - Flora classifications, Flora treatises

An ancient Roman goddess of flowers and flowering plants, who appears with the Spring. She was given a temple in 238 BC, and her games were celebrated on 28 April. In botany, flora (plural: floras or florae) has two meanings. The first meaning, or flora of an area or time period, refers to all plant life occurring in an area or time period, especially the naturally occurring or indige…

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Flora (Jane) Thompson - Bibliography

Writer, born in Juniper Hill, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. She left school at 14 to work in the local post office. She married young, and wrote mass-market fiction to help support her increasing family. In her 60s she published the semi-autobiographical trilogy combined as Lark Rise to Candleford (1945), its three parts, Lark Rise, Over to Candleford, and Candleford Green having appeared separatel…

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Flora Macdonald

Scottish heroine, born in South Uist, Western Isles, W Scotland, UK. After the rebellion of 1745, she conducted the Young Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, disguised as ‘Betty Burke’, to safety in Skye. For this she was imprisoned in the Tower of London, but released in 1747. She married in 1750, and in 1774 emigrated to North Carolina, where her husband fought in the War of Independence. When h…

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Florence - History of Florence, Geography, Main sights, Other points of interest, Demography, Transportation, Economy and industry, Cuisine

43°47N 11°15E, pop (2000e) 408 000. Ancient city and capital of Florence province, Tuscany, NC Italy, on R Arno; ancient Etruscan town; major trading centre by 12th-c; cultural and intellectual centre of Italy from the Middle Ages; capital of new Kingdom of Italy, 1865–70; badly damaged by floods, 1966; archbishopric; airport (Pisa, 53 km/33 mi); railway; university (1321); European Univers…

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Florence (Molthrop) Kelley - Publications, External links and references

Social reformer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Raised in a middle-class family and influenced by the Quakers, she was educated mainly at home before attending Cornell (1882 BA). Denied entry to the University of Pennsylvania graduate school because of her sex, she taught for a while and then studied at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. There she adopted Socialism and translated Fri…

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Florence Ellinwood Allen

Jurist and women's suffrage activist, born in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The daughter of the first woman admitted to Smith College, she first studied music but decided to take up law instead, graduating from New York University Law School in 1913. Admitted to the Ohio bar (1914), she served as legal counsel for the suffragist movement, became assistant prosecutor for Cuyahoga County (1919), was el…

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Florence Harding - Reference

US first lady (1921–3), born in Marion, Ohio, USA. A divorcee and five years older than Warren Harding, after their marriage (1891) she became a major influence in advancing his career. Following his untimely death, she ignored rumours that she had poisoned him. She later destroyed personal papers that might have told more about the marriage. Florence Harding (August 15, 1860 – November …

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Florence Knoll

Designer, born in Saginaw, Michigan, USA. After architecture and design study and work with Eliel Saarinen, Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and Mies van der Rohe, she joined the Hans G Knoll furniture company (1943), where she perfected such office features as the executive table desk and the boat-shaped conference table. Fabric walls and natural materials in her institutional and commercial interi…

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Florence Mills

Entertainer and singer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. She was appearing in musicals by age five, toured with two sisters in vaudeville at age 15, and then gained notice in 1916 singing in the Panama Trio. Her big break came when she replaced the lead in the all-black hit musical, Shuffle Along (1921), and she went on to star in such Broadway musicals as Plantation Revue (1922) and…

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Florence Nightingale - Early life, Crimean War, Return home, Later career, Contributions to statistics, Legacy and memory, Trivia

Hospital reformer, born in Florence, NC Italy. Raised in England, she trained as a nurse at Kaiserswerth and Paris. During the Crimean War, after the Battle of Alma (1854), she led a party of 38 nurses to organize a nursing department at Scutari. There she found grossly inadequate sanitation, but soon established better conditions and had 10 000 wounded under her care. She returned to England in …

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Florence of Worcester

Monk and chronicler. He wrote Chronicon ex chronicis which supplements and extends the Chronicon written by Marianus Scotus, and is a valuable source for Anglo-Saxon history. Florence of Worcester (died July 7, 1118) was a 12th century English chronicler. Beyond the date of his death, recorded by the man who continued his work, nothing is known of Florence's life. The basis of h…

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Florent Schmitt

Composer, born in Blamont, E France. From Nancy he went to the Conservatoire de Paris with Dubois, Lavignac, Gédalge, Massenet, and Fauré, whom he admired, as well as Debussy. He gained the Prix de Rome (1900) with ‘Semiramis’. ‘Psaume XLVII’ (1904) shows him in full possession of his technical abilities, and a quintet for piano was finished in 1908. Other works include the ballet Salomé(19…

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Florenz Ziegfeld - Broadway productions

Theatre manager, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He devised and perfected the American revue spectacle, based on the Folies Bergères, and his Follies of 1907 ran for 24 editions to 1943, making his name synonymous with extravagant theatrical production. The Follies featured a chorus line of some of America's most beautiful women, all personally chosen to ‘glorify the American girl’. He also pro…

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Florida - Government, Economy, Important cities and towns, Professional sports teams, State symbols, Fauna

pop (2000e) 15 982 400; area 151 934 km²/58 664 sq mi. State in SE USA, divided into 67 counties; the ‘Sunshine State’ or ‘Peninsular State’; discovered and settled by the Spanish in the 16th-c; ceded to Britain in 1763, and divided into East and West Florida; given back to Spain after the War of Independence, 1783; West Florida gained by the US in the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; East F…

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Florida Keys - Origins, Major islands, Transportation, History, Environment

A series of small islands curving approx 240 km/150 mi SW around the tip of the Florida peninsula, USA; about 160 km/100 mi NE of Havana; include (NE to SW) Key Largo, Long Key, Key Vaca, Big Pine Key, Sugarloaf Key and Key West; tropical products (limes, pineapples, etc) in the S; tarpon fishing; tourism; Overseas Highway (1938) runs from the mainland to Key West, 198 km/123 mi long. …

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florin

A type of coin first made in the Italian city of Florence in 1252. Florins became popular for trade during the economic expansion of Europe from the 13th-c to the 15th-c. In 1849, Britain issued its first silver florin, the two-shilling piece, which became the ‘old’ 10p piece after the coinage was decimalized in 1971. This 10p piece was replaced in 1993. Florin may refer to these modern c…

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Floris

Sculptor, ornamentalist, and architect, born in Antwerp, N Belgium, the brother of artist Frans (1560–70). He studied sculpture under Giovanni da Bologna, visiting Rome c.1538. Most remarkable among his works are the Town Hall, Antwerp (1561–66) and the marble reredos at Tournai Cathedral (1572). Floris may refer to: …

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flounder - Fishing and cooking, Flounder tramping, Threats, Flounder families

Common European flatfish (Platichthys flesus) found in shallow inshore waters from Norway to the Mediterranean, also penetrating into fresh water in N areas; upper body surface grey-brown with dark patches and orange spots, underside white; length up to 50 cm/20 in; locally important as a food fish. (Family: Pleuronectidae.) After metamorphosis, flounder lie on one side on the ocean floor…

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flour - Types of flour, Flour type numbers, Flour production, Flour products

The finely ground product of a cereal seed, especially wheat, primarily used to make bread. A wheat seed consists of an outer coat (husk), with the germ (embryo) at one end and a starchy centre (endosperm). When the seed is ground, it forms a wholemeal flour suitable for baking; if the flour is refined to increase the proportion of endosperm, white flour is produced. Wholemeal flour is richer in f…

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flowchart - Symbols, Software, Examples

A diagrammatic representation of a sequence of events. In the computing context, a data flowchart describes the overall operations in a complete data-processing system, such as an accounting system, without giving specific details of the individual computer programs; a program flowchart describes the sequence of operations within the program. There are recognized symbols to indicate the various ty…

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flower - Flower function, Flower anatomy, Pollination, Fertilization, Seed production, Seed dispersal, Flower evolution, Uses by humans

The reproductive organ of a flowering plant (angiosperm) derived from a leafy shoot of limited growth in which the leaves are modified for specific roles. It typically consists of four distinct whorls of parts attached to a receptacle: the sepals (calyx), the petals (corolla), the stamens (andrecium), and the carpels or ovary (gynecium). The parts of any whorl may be fused or otherwise highly modi…

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flowering rush

A perennial (Butomus umbellatus) native to Europe and temperate Asia, growing in or beside water; stems to 1·5 m/5 ft; rhizomatous; leaves grass-like, triangular in cross-section; flowers c.2·5–3 cm/1–1¼ in diameter, pink, 3-petalled, in a terminal umbel. (Family: Butomaceae.) …

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flowerpecker - Species

A name applied loosely to many small woodland birds of the family Dicaeidae; more precisely, the 41 species of the genera Prionochilus and Dicaeum; found from India to Australia; tongue tube-like; eats nectar and berries, especially mistletoe. The flowerpeckers are a family of passerine birds found in tropical southern Asia and Australasia from India east to the Philippines and south to Aus…

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Floyd Abrams - Personal, Early career and legal scholarship, Important First Amendment Cases, Criticism, Quotes by Abrams

Lawyer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Yale Law School and at Columbia Law School (1981–6),and later became a visiting lecturer at Yale (1974–80). At New York's Cahill Gordon & Reindel, he argued more First Amendment and media cases before the US Supreme Court than any other lawyer in history. Abrams earned his undergraduate degree from Cornell University in 1956, and…

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Floyd Bennett

Aviator, born near Warrensburg, New York, USA. He left school at age 17 and ran an automobile garage before enlisting in the US Navy (1917), where he learned to fly. In 1925 he flew with Richard Byrd on an expedition to Greenland, and on 9 May 1926 was at the controls as the two men made the first flight to the North Pole. He received the Congressional Medal of Honor for this feat and became a nat…

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Floyd Patterson - Childhood and amateur career, Early Pro career, Pop Culture References

Boxer, born in Waco, Texas, USA. He grew up in New York City, ending up in a correctional institution, where he took up boxing. Clever rather than hard-hitting, he won the gold medal in the middleweight class in the 1952 Olympics. Turning professional, he knocked out Archie Moore in 1956 to become the youngest holder of the world heavyweight title, and successfully defended it four times before lo…

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flugelhorn

A musical instrument made of brass, somewhat like a cornet and with a similar compass, but with a slightly larger bell. It is a standard instrument in British brass bands, and is used in jazz, but is rarely found in orchestras. The flugelhorn (also spelled fluegelhorn or flügelhorn) is a brass instrument resembling a trumpet but with a wider, conical bore. The flugelhorn is bui…

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fluid

A substance which flows and is able to fill its container: a liquid, gas, or plasma. Stationary fluids cannot sustain transverse or twisting forces. Their mechanical properties are governed by the laws of fluid mechanics. A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. While in a solid, stres…

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fluid mechanics - Relationship to continuum mechanics, Assumptions, Navier-Stokes equations

The study of the mechanics of fluids. Fluid statics is concerned with the properties of fluids at rest. Fluid dynamics considers the properties peculiar to moving fluids. Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics are the study of stationary and moving incompressible fluids (usually liquids), respectively. Aerodynamics is concerned with the flow of gases, especially air. The properties of fluids include densi…

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fluidics - Fluidic amplifier, Fluidic systems

The study of control and detection systems based on fluid movement. Available devices include fluid amplifiers (in which a small flow modifies a large flow), logic circuits, and switches. Fluidic devices contain no moving parts, are robust, and constitute no electrical hazard. An example is the fluidic vortex valve, which uses a controlling stream to alter the principal flow by creating a vortex, …

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fluorescein - Chemical and physical properties, Synthesis, Applications

C20H12O5. An anthraquinone dye, red with an intense green fluorescence. Very dilute solutions are used to detect leaks in water systems, and to trace water flow patterns. Fluorescein is a fluorophore commonly used in microscopy, in a type of dye laser as the gain medium, and in forensics and serology to detect latent blood stains. Fluorescein has an absorption maximum at 490 nm and em…

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fluorescence - Equations, Rules, Applications, Organic liquids

Light produced by an object excited by means other than heating, where light emission ceases as soon as the energy source is removed. It is a type of luminescence, exploited in dyes and in the coating of fluorescent light tubes. Fluorescence is a luminescence that is mostly found as an optical phenomenon in cold bodies, in which the molecular absorption of a photon triggers the emission of …

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fluorescent lamp - History, Principles of operation, Usage, Mercury toxicity, Cleanup of broken fluorescent lamps, Advantages over incandescent lamps

A lamp consisting of a tube, coated inside with fluorescent material (phosphor), filled with mercury vapour, and with an electrode at each end. Light is generated by passing a current between the electrodes through the vapour, producing ultraviolet light that is converted to visible light by phosphor fluorescence. Such lamps are more efficient than filament lamps. A fluorescent lamp is a ga…

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fluoride - Examples, Fluorides and effects on health, See also

A compound containing fluorine, especially one containing F? ions. Sodium fluoride (NaF) is commonly added in small amounts to drinking water or dentifrice to supply fluoride ions necessary for strong dental enamel. See category for a longer list. Fluoride in a concentrated form is also a prescription medication. Fluoride containing compounds are added to toothpaste,…

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fluorine - Applications

Element 9, composed of molecules F2, boiling point ?187°C. A yellow gas, the first of the halogens, the most electronegative element, oxidation state ?1 in nearly all its compounds. It reacts with nearly all substances, including some of the noble gases, and is very corrosive and toxic. It occurs mainly in the mineral fluorite (CaF2), and is obtained by the electrolysis of a mixture of hydrogen f…

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flute - History, Flute acoustics, Categories of flute

Broadly speaking, a musical instrument in which a column of air is activated by the player blowing across a mouth-hole or (as in the recorder) against a sharp edge (or ‘fipple’) towards which the breath may be directed through a duct. Flutes may therefore be divided into two categories: cross-blown (or transverse) and end-blown. The unqualified term ‘flute’ generally refers to the transverse c…

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flux (physics) - Transport phenomena, Electromagnetism

A term indicating flow, such as a flux of particles flowing past a point, or the flux of some fluid moving from high to low pressure. For electric and magnetic fields, flux indicates the total amount of field flowing from a source through some region. There are many fluxes used in the study of transport phenomena. (Either an alternate form of Fick's law that includes the molecular mass, or …

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flux (technology) - Transport phenomena, Electromagnetism

Any substance used in metallurgical processes to promote the flow of molten metal and waste (slag) and to segregate unwanted impurities. Limestone fulfils this purpose in iron smelting. In soldering, rosin is often used. There are many fluxes used in the study of transport phenomena. (Either an alternate form of Fick's law that includes the molecular mass, or an alternate form of Darcy's la…

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fly - Maggots, Transportation of insects, Fly-like insects, Rarest known flies, Flies in mythology and religion

The common name of many small flying insects. True flies have a single pair of membranous flying wings only; hindwings modified as club-shaped, balancing organs (halteres); mouthparts forming a proboscis adapted for sucking, occasionally for piercing; feed on nectar, plant and animal secretions, blood, and decomposing matter; larvae maggot-like, lacking true legs, varied in feeding habits; c.150 …

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flying spot scanner

A device for reproducing a slide transparency or motion-picture film on television by scanning the picture area with a spot of light, usually generated on the screen of a cathode-ray tube. The transmitted light is collected by a photocell or sensor tube to produce the video signal. A flying spot scanner uses a high resolution, high light output, low persistence Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to sca…

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flying squirrel

A squirrel with a large flap of skin between its front and hind legs; glides between trees (up to 450 m/1475 ft in one leap); active at dawn and dusk; 33 species in Asia (one reaches E Europe, most in SE Asia), and two species in North America. The flying squirrels, scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini, are a tribe of squirrel (family Sciuridae). Squirrel Samurai Champloo Fu…

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flywheel

A wheel attached to the shaft of an engine, whose distribution of weight enables it to act as a smoothing device for the engine's power output. A flywheel is a heavy rotating disk used as a storage device for kinetic energy. Flywheels can also be used by small motors to store up energy over a long period of time and then release it over a shorter period of time, temporarily magnifying…

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foam - Structure of foams

A suspension of gas in liquid or of liquid in gas, also called froth. It is stabilized by the addition of detergents to the liquid phase. Foams are controlled by adding agents to raise the surface tension of the liquid. They are useful, especially in mineral extraction, as differences in the surface properties of components of an ore can be used to float off part in a foam. They are also used in f…

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focus

The point of convergence for rays of light passing through a positive lens at which the sharpest real image is formed. The position of a camera lens must be adjusted (‘focused’) so that this image coincides with the photosensitive surface. Focus may refer to: FOCUS may mean: …

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fog - Characteristics, Types

A cloud which occurs at ground level, resulting in low visibility. It forms when two air masses with differing temperatures and moisture contents mix together. Radiation fog develops on cold, clear nights when terrestrial radiation cools the ground surface, and lowers the temperature of the air close to the ground to below the dew point temperature, causing condensation. Advective fog forms when w…

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folic acid - Folate deficiency, Folic acid and pregnancy, Folic acid supplements and masking of B12 deficiency

A B vitamin found in liver and most green vegetables, required for the synthesis and functioning of red cells. A deficiency, which is rare in developed countries, leads to anaemia. Folic acid is often given in association with iron for the routine prevention of anaemia, as in pregnancy. Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. A table of selected food s…

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folium of Descartes - Definition, Characteristics of the curve, Algebraic components of the folium of Descartes

One of the simplest curves (and one of the first to be found) with a node, ie a point at which the curve crosses itself. It is represented by the Cartesian equation x3 + y3 = 3axy. The Folium of Descartes is an algebraic curve first proposed by Descartes in 1638 with an implicit equation: Using the method of implicit differentiation, we can solve the above equation for y': …

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folk music - Defining folk song, Subjects of folk music, Variation in folk music

Music which is transmitted orally, usually with modifications from generation to generation and from place to place, so that its original form and composer are forgotten. Much folk music exhibits melodic inflections, rhythmic characteristics, or performing styles which link it to a particular country or locality, but it is not unknown for folktunes to cross boundaries, and even seas. Sound recordi…

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folklore - History, Categories of folklore, Other usages, For further reading

The traditional songs, tales, proverbs, legends, and beliefs of a people. The term was suggested in 1846 by William John Thoms (1803–85), founder of the folklore journal Notes and Queries. Nowadays it often embraces material culture (utensils, arts and crafts, housing, dress) and non-material culture (festivals, dances, customs, and rituals). The field of folklore now overlaps considerably with t…

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follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Structure, Activity, Disease States, Availability

A chemical substance (a glycoprotein gonadotrophin) secreted by the front lobe of the pituitary gland in vertebrates. It has an important role in reproduction: in mammals it stimulates the early maturation of ovarian follicles (in females) and the production of sperm (in males). FSH is a glycoprotein. The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids. FSH…

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Folsom

A prehistoric ‘kill site’ in New Mexico, USA, excavated in 1926: 19 fluted spear points of 9000–8000 BC, found with the skeletons of 23 extinct long-horned bison (Bison antiquus), established for the first time the co-existence of humans with Ice Age mammals in the New World and the antiquity of the native American population. Still earlier occupation, c.20 000–5000 BC, is now attested. …

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Fomalhaut - Fomalhaut in fiction and popular culture

A bright S hemisphere star in Piscis Austrinus. Distance: 7·7 parsec. Also called Alpha Piscis Austrini, it is the 18th star (excluding the Sun) in order of apparent brightness. A white star, it is used in navigation because of its conspicuous position. Fomalhaut was associated with the Roman goddess Ceres, and her Greek counterpart Demeter. Fomalhaut (α PsA / α Piscis Austrini / Alpha …

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Fontainebleau

A magnificent 16th-c chateau built by Italian craftsmen for Francis I on the site of an earlier royal chateau-fortress at Fontainebleau in France; a world heritage site. It was used by Napoleon as his imperial palace. Fontainebleau is renowned for its large and scenic Forest of Fontainebleau, a favorite weekend getaway for Parisians, as well as for the historical Château de Fontainebleau o…

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Fonthill Abbey

Grand neo-Gothic house located in Wiltshire, SW England, UK. Commissioned by William Thomas Beckford, the abbey, and its 500 acre estate, was the creation of architect James Wyatt. Begun in 1796, the cathedral-style residence was dominated by a 300 ft octagonal tower, and was furnished with many art and literary treasures. But shortcuts imposed by an impatient Beckford resulted in faulty foundati…

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food - Food production, Food trade

Any plant or animal material which is primarily eaten for nutritional purposes. Anything eaten specifically for its therapeutic purposes, real or otherwise, is strictly speaking not a food, even though it may have some nutritive properties. Thus vitamin C supplements, taken to prevent a cold, are being used pharmacologically and not nutritionally. Food is traditionally made through farming,…

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Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - What the FAO says about itself, Criticism, FAO Offices, Sources and notes

A specialized agency of the United Nations dealing with agriculture and nutrition. The FAO was set up in 1945 and has its headquarters in Rome. It conducts research and surveys, and publishes statistics, in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, and the distribution of their products. It provides technical assistance to improve productivity in the sectors producing and distributing agr…

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Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - Authorization and mandate, Jurisdiction, Organization, Criticisms of US drug packaging and distribution practices

A law enforcement agency in the USA which inspects, tests, and sets safety standards for foodstuffs, medicines, and a wide range of household goods and services that might affect personal health (eg cosmetics, cleaning fluids). It is also involved with the regulations governing associated products (eg labels, packaging, cookers, radiation devices) and locations (eg restaurants and food-stalls). …

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food preservation - Preservation Processes, Methods

The treatment of food to maintain its quality and prevent deterioration. Food may become available during specific seasons. Preserving perishable food to make it available over a longer period has been an essential component of the technological conquest of nature. Drying removes the water necessary for the growth of spoilage organisms, while bacterial growth can be prevented by acidifying (pickli…

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foot - Customs, Measurement, Parts of the foot, Disorders of the feet

The terminal part of the lower limb which makes contact with the ground or other substrate; an instrument of support when standing, and of propulsion and restraint when walking or running. It consists of a number of bony elements (the tarsal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones), whose size, number, and arrangement differs between species, bound together by ligaments, and supported by tendons and mus…

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foot-and-mouth disease - Vaccination

A contagious feverish disease of artiodactyls characterized by blistering inside the mouth and in the cleft of the hooves; also known as hoof-and-mouth disease. It can be caught by humans. In domestic stock, diagnosis (at least in Western countries) would lead to the immediate destruction of the affected herd, as happened with the British outbreak in 200 (when over 2000 cases were confirmed betwee…

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football hooliganism - Brazil, England, France, Italy, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland, Turkey

Hooliganism at football (soccer) matches, regarded as a recent social problem, but found from the beginning of the 20th-c. The Scottish Cup was withheld in 1909 after the fans of Glasgow Celtic and Glasgow Rangers were engaged in a battle which resulted in pay boxes being burned down. A new wave of hooliganism started in the 1960s, and became particularly severe in the mid-1980s, when English ‘fa…

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Football War - Football results

A lightning war fought over several days in July 1969 between Honduras and El Salvador, rapidly halted by international pressure. It was so named because recriminations between the two Central American states had come to a head during the qualifying matches for the 1970 World Cup. The Football War (La guerra de fútbol, in Spanish) was a five-day war fought by El Salvador and Honduras in 19…

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Forbidden City - Names, History, Image gallery, Influences of the Forbidden City

The Imperial Palace in Beijing, the residence of the imperial rulers of China from its construction by 200 000 workmen in 1420 until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. The last Emperor, Puyi, and his retinue resided here until their eviction in 1924. The walled and moated palace complex covers 74 ha/183 acres, and is the best preserved example of mediaeval Chinese architecture. The Imperial …

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force - Examples, Quantitative definition, Force and potential, Types of force, Units of measurement

An influence applied to an unrestrained object which results in a change in its motion, causing it to accelerate in some way; symbol F, units N (newton); a vector quantity. Force equals mass of object multiplied by acceleration (Newton's second law). A force is a lift, a push, or a pull that has a size and a direction. The actual acceleration of the body is determined by the vector sum of a…

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forces of nature

In physics, taken to mean gravitation, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force. Examples of their manifestations include the orbit of the Earth round the Sun (gravitation), the force between electrical charges (electromagnetism), radioactive beta-decay (weak nuclear force), and the binding force holding the atomic nucleus together (strong nuclear force). Forces Of Nat…

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Ford (Christopher) Frick - Hall of Fame

Baseball executive, born in Wawaka, Indiana, USA. A New York sports writer for many years (1922–34), he also made radio sports broadcasts (1930–4). He served as National League president (1934–51) and commissioner (1951–65), and was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1969. Ford Christopher Frick (December 19, 1894 - April 8, 1978) was an American sportswriter and executive who serv…

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Ford Foundation - History, Critics

A philanthropic foundation set up in 1936 by Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, as an international charity mainly concerned with food shortages and population control in developing nations. It has also been involved in the arts and humanities, and in public television in the USA. The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democra…

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Ford Madox Brown

British historical painter, born in Calais, NW France. He studied art at Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp. In Paris he produced his ‘Manfred on the Jungfrau’ (1841), a work intensely dramatic in feeling, but sombre in colouring. A visit to Italy (1845) led him to seek a greater richness of colouring, as in ‘Chaucer Reciting his Poetry’ (1851). He was a close associate of William Morris, and in 1861 …

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Ford Madox Ford - Ford's Novels, Ford's Promotion of Literature, Selected works

Writer and literary critic, born in Merton, Surrey, SE England, UK. He collaborated with Conrad on The Inheritors (1901) and Romance (1903), wrote The Good Soldier (1915) and over 80 other books of fiction and non-fiction, and founded the English Review (1908). After World War 1, he changed his name to Ford, and exiled himself to France and the USA, where he edited The Transatlantic Review (1924),…

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foreign aid

The help given by one nation to another, usually poorer, by means of grants, gifts, special trading deals, cheap loans or credit terms, expertise, or goods. It may be bilateral, or multilateral. Foreign aid (also international aid or overseas aid) is a situation in which one country helps another country through some form of donation. The main recipients of foreign aid are developing …

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foreign direct investment (FDI) - History, Types of FDI

Investment in production in one country by firms based abroad. FDI forms a major part of investment in most industrial and some developing countries. Some FDI is intended to utilize local natural resources. Sometimes it is to employ relatively cheap labour, and sometimes to produce goods near to markets, particularly if trade barriers hinder exports. FDI may involve additions to a country's capita…

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Foreign Legion

The elite formation of the French Army, recruited from non-French nationals. La Légion Etrangère was first raised in 1831, and has seen action almost wherever French arms have been engaged. Always the subject of romance and adventure, the legion retains its reputation for toughness. A foreign legion is a regular military force consisting of foreigners who are not normally subjects of the …

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forensic psychiatry - Court work, Britain, Fictional depictions

A branch of psychiatry concerned with legal matters, including the soundness of mind of an accused, laws concerning guardianship, the mental health of prisoners, and the protection of society from the criminally insane. Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. In Britain one is required to complete a three-year subspeciality training in forensic psychiatry, after completing one…

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forest - Classification, Forest management

A plant community extending over a large area and dominated by trees, the crowns of which form an unbroken covering layer or canopy. About 35 per cent of the world land area is forested. Forests may cover mountainous regions, such as the Black Forest in Germany, or areas of heath and woodland. Well-known examples in the UK are the New Forest in Hampshire and Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire. …

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Forest Ray Moulton

Astronomer, born in Le Roy, Michigan, USA. A professor at the University of Chicago (1898–1926), he proposed (with Thomas Chamberlin) a hypothesis (no longer accepted) explaining the origins of the Solar System. As administrative secretary at the American Academy for the Advancement of Sciences (1937–48), he edited 25 symposium volumes. He wrote nine books, including Consider the Heavens (1935) …

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forestry - What foresters do, History, Forestry today, Forestry education, Forestry organizations

The business of growing, harvesting, and marketing trees and of managing the associated wildlife and recreational resources. Foresters grow new timber crops by a process called artificial reforestation. The process is called afforestation when seedlings are planted on land that was never covered by a forest. About 75 000 seeds per hectare are usually sown to ensure an adequate crop of trees. If s…

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forgery

The act of falsely making, reproducing, altering, or signing a document or instrument with the intention of defrauding others as to its authenticity; also included are discs, tapes, or similar devices in which information is recorded or stored, whether mechanically or electronically. It is essential to the criminal offence of forgery that the false document or device is intended to be used as if i…

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forget-me-not - Forget-me-not in popular culture, Forget-me-not in Remembrance, Media

An annual or perennial, native to temperate regions; inflorescence coiled, straightening as it elongates; flowers tubular with five spreading lobes, often pink in bud, opening blue, sometimes with a yellow or white eye as a honey guide, or wholly these colours. (Genus: Myosotis, 50 species. Family: Boraginaceae.) The Forget-me-nots are the genus Myosotis of flowering plants in the family Bo…

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formaldehyde - Uses, Health effects

HCHO, IUPAC methanal, boiling point ?21°C. The simplest aldehyde, a gas with a characteristic odour, which polymerizes readily and reversibly to paraformaldehyde (CH2O)n. An aqueous solution, called formalin, is used as a disinfectant and preservative. Manufactured by the incomplete oxidation of methanol, it is an ingredient in plastic manufacture of the phenol–formaldehyde type. The chem…

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Formentera - History

38°43N 1°26E; pop (2000e) 4390; area 100 km²/39 sq mi. Island in the Balearic Is, Spain, S of Ibiza; capital, San Francisco; largely formed by two high pine-clad capes (La Mola and Berberia) with a C depression edged by white-sand beaches; tourism; patronal festival (Jul). Formentera is the smallest and most southerly island of the Illes Pitiüses group (which includes Eivissa (Ibiza…

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formic acid - Safety

HCOOH, IUPAC methanoic acid, boiling point 101°C. A liquid with a pungent odour, the simplest carboxylic acid. It is a moderately strong acid; partially neutralized solutions have a pH of about 4. Formic acid is secreted by some insects, especially red ants, in the sting. It is used in textile and leather manufacture, and as an industrial solvent. Formic acid (systematically called methano…

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Fornax

A faint S constellation. Fornax (IPA: /ˈfɔːnaks/, Latin: furnace) is a southern constellation which was first introduced by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille under the name Fornax Chemica (Latin for chemical furnace). …

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forsythia

A deciduous shrub, suckering and rooting from the tips of arching branches, native to SE Europe and E Asia; leaves oval, toothed, opposite; flowers yellow, with four spreading petals, in clusters appearing before leaves on last season's wood. It is named after Scottish gardener William Forsyth (1737–1804). The commonly planted ornamental is hybrid Forsythia × intermedia. (Genus: Forsythia, 7 s…

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Fort Knox - History, Fort Knox in popular culture

A US army post established in Kentucky in 1917, and noted as the site, since 1937, of the US Bullion Depository. Built in 18 months at a cost of $560 000, the door alone of its steel and concrete vault weighs more than 20 tons. Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. It holds the U.S. Army Armor Center, the U.S. Army Armo…

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Fort Sumter - Start of the Civil War (1861), 1863–1865, After the war

The site of the first engagement of the American Civil War (12 Apr 1861), at the mouth of Charleston harbour, South Carolina; named after an officer who fought in the US War of Independence, Thomas Sumter (1734–1832). It was a Federal fort which found itself in Confederate territory, after the secession of the Southern states. When Lincoln refused demands for its evacuation, the fort was attacked…

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Fort-de-France - Sights

14°36N 61°05W, pop (2000e) 114 000. Capital town of Martinique, Lesser Antilles, E Caribbean; airport; naval base; chief commercial and shipping centre, tourism; cathedral (1895). Fort-de-France is the capital of France's Caribbean département d'outre-mer of Martinique. The city has a fine, natural harbour defended by three forts: …

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Fortaleza - History, Tourism, Cultural features, Education, Sports

3°45S 38°35W, pop (2000e) 2 069 000. Port capital of Ceará state, NE Brazil, on the Atlantic coast; airfield; railway; commercial and industrial centre, especially for agriculture; centre for coastal and overseas trade; two universities (1955, 1973); tourist centre in old waterfront prison; modern cathedral; local festival with raft (jangada) races (Jul), local Umbanda terreiros (churches) c…

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FORTH - Overview, Programmer's perspective, Structure of the language, Programming, Code examples

A compact computer programming language originally written for astronomers in the USA, which has advantages for use in control applications using small computer systems. The name is derived from fourth, as in ‘fourth generation language’. Forth is a programming language and programming environment, initially developed by Charles H. A procedural, stack-oriented and reflective p…

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FORTRAN - Language features, Variants of Fortran, Criticisms and rebuttals, Code examples, FORTRAN jokes

Acronym for FORmula TRANslation, a widely used high-level computer programming language developed in the USA from the 1950s onwards for mathematical, engineering, and scientific use. Fortran (previously FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM in the…

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Fortuna

The ancient Roman goddess of Fortune, introduced by King Servius Tullius (578–534 BC). In the Middle Ages she was highly revered as a divine and moral figure, redressing human pride. Her wheel is frequently referred to and depicted, as at St Etienne in Beauvais, where figures can be seen climbing and falling off. Fortuna (latin and spanish: "fortune") can mean: …

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Fortune Theatre - The 17th Century Venue, The 20th Century Venue

Elizabethan playhouse built in 1600 by Philip Henslowe. Located in N London, it was named after the goddess of fortune whose statue stood over the doorway. Established to compete with the newly constructed Globe, the Fortune opened with a performance by the Admiral's Men, who continued to perform there for many years. It was closed by the Puritans in 1642 and demolished in 1661. For the New…

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forum

The Roman equivalent of the Greek agora; originally the market-place of a town, later its civic centre. Besides shops and stalls, it contained the principal municipal buildings, such as the Council chamber and law courts. Forum, (Latin, plural "fora") may refer to: In the media: Names of events: Names of places: …

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Forza Italia - Party ideology and factions, Leading members, Party leadership

The name of the political movement founded in late 1993 by businessman Silvio Berlusconi, prior to the 1994 elections. It staged an American-style election campaign, making use of the powerful Berlusconi commercial organization and his information network. Together with the other forces in the centre-right Polo delle libertà alliance, it obtained considerable success at the polls. Forza It…

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fossil - Developments in interpretation of the fossil record, Rarity of fossils, Permineralization, Replacement and compression fossils

The remains of a once-living organism, usually restricted to organisms that lived prior to the last Ice Age. Fossils typically comprise the bodies or part of the organisms themselves, but also include a variety of trace fossils such as burrows, tracks, impressions, and faeces. Fossils are usually mineralized and found in sedimentary rocks. Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally "having been …

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fossil fuel - Levels and flows, Environmental effects, Fossil fuel subsidies

Fuels derived from the fossilized remains of plants and animals, such as peat, coal, and crude oil. Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. The utilization of fossil fuels has enabled large-scale industrial development and largely supplanted water-driven mills, as well as the combustion of wood or peat…

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Foster

41º51N 71º45W, pop (2000e) 4300. Residential town in Providence Co, Rhode Island, USA; separated from the town of Scituate and incorporated in 1781; birthplace of Nelson W Aldrich; agriculture. Foster may refer to: …

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foster care - Foster care, Recent United States Foster Care Legislation

A form of child care in which children who have been separated (by death, custodial, or other reasons) from their biological parents live with a ‘foster family’ for varying lengths of time, often many years. Foster parents usually receive some state aid to help support the children. The system was developed in the UK during the late 1940s when many children had become orphaned through World War …

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Fou Ts'ong

Concert pianist, born in Shanghai, E China. Internationally acclaimed as an interpreter of Mozart and Chopin, he studied under the Italian pianist and founder of the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra, Mario Paci. He won third prize in the International Chopin Competition in Warsaw (1955). Since 1958 he has made his base in London and performed extensively on the international circuit. Fou Ts'ong …

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Foucault pendulum - The dynamics of the Foucault pendulum, Foucault pendula in the world

A pendulum that is free to swing in any direction, such that the plane of swing gradually rotates as the Earth turns under it; devised by Léon Foucault in 1851. At the North and South Poles, the pendulum would complete one cycle every 24 hours, but would take longer at other latitudes, with no rotation at the Equator - a consequence of the Coriolis force. The pendulum was used by Foucault as proo…

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Fountains Abbey - National Trust property

A Cistercian monastery founded in 1132 near Ripon, North Yorkshire, N England, UK; a world heritage site. The ground plan of what was once the wealthiest Cistercian house in England can be clearly discerned today. The abbey ruins stand in the magnificent water gardens of Studley Royal, which were laid out in the early 18th-c. Fountains Abbey in North Yorkshire, England (54°6′42″N, 1°3…

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Four Freedoms - The Declarations, United Nations, The four freedoms and disarmament, Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms Paintings

Four basic human rights proclaimed in 1941 at an annual message to Congress by President Roosevelt. They included freedom of speech and worship, and freedom from want and fear. The Four Freedoms are goals famously articulated by United States President Franklin D. In an address also known as the Four Freedoms speech, Roosevelt enumerated four points as fundamental freedoms humans "eve…

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Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse - Horses and their riders, Original text, Interpretations, Zechariah's Horses

Symbolic Biblical characters described in Rev 6 (also Zech 6.1–7), where they signal the beginning of the messianic age. Each comes on a steed of different colour, symbolizing devastations associated with the world's end (black = famine; red = bloodshed, war; pale = pestilence, death), except for the white horse, which has a ‘crown’ and is sent ‘to conquer’. The Four Horsemen of …

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Four Noble Truths - Four Noble Truths

The summary of the central teachings of Buddha. (1) All life involves suffering, and is inevitably sorrowful. (2) The cause of suffering and sorrow is craving or desire arising from ignorance. (3) There is escape from suffering, because craving and desire can end. (4) There is an Eightfold Path leading to the end of suffering and sorrow. Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Chinese: 四聖

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four-eyed fish

Slender-bodied fish found in turbid shallow coastal waters, estuaries, and freshwater lakes of South and Central America; length up to 30 cm/1 ft; eyes prominent on top of head, divided into distinct upper and lower parts providing simultaneous vision in air and water while swimming along the surface. …

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Fourteen Points - The Fourteen Points

A peace programme outlined by US President Wilson to Congress in 1918. The Germans subsequently asked Wilson for an armistice agreement based on their acceptance of these points, which, with two reservations, were accepted by the Allied powers as the basis for a peace settlement. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a join…

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Fox - General characteristics, Classification, Vocalization, Ecobalance, Trivia

A North American Algonkin Indian group originally from N Wisconsin. They were mainly sedentary agriculturalists, but they also hunted and fished. Affected by Iroquois expansionism and white settlers, they settled permanently in Iowa in 1842 and are still there, retaining many traditional organizational features. A fox is a member of any of 27 species of small omnivorous canids. The animal m…

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fox - General characteristics, Classification, Vocalization, Ecobalance, Trivia

A small member of the dog family (21 species), worldwide except SE Asia; usually thin muzzle, large pointed ears, long bushy tail; hunts alone; renowned for its cunning; often nocturnal; lives in a den (burrow or rock crevice). A fox is a member of any of 27 species of small omnivorous canids. The animal most commonly called a fox in the Western world is the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), althoug…

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Fox Conner - Early career, World War One, Conner and Eisenhower, Later service

US soldier, born in Slate Springs, Mississippi, USA. He trained at West Point (1898), then held a series of staff positions in a long career, including assistant chief-of-staff for operations, American Expeditionary Force in France (1917). As a writer on military subjects, he achieved a reputation as a thoughtful student of the military problems of his time. Fox Conner was born in Calhoun C…

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fox terrier - Origin, Development of the Fox Terrier around the world, Coloring

An active British terrier with a deep chest, pointed muzzle, and soft, folded ears held high; tail usually docked short when young; usually white with black and brown markings; two forms: wire-haired and smooth-haired. The name Fox Terrier or Foxy refers primarily to two different breeds of dog, the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier, that were independently bred in England i…

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Fra Angelico - Biography, Evaluation, Works, Trivia, Further reading, Gallery

Painter, born in Vicchio, Tuscany, NW Italy. He entered the Dominican monastery of San Domenico at Fiesole, and in 1436 was transferred to Florence where he worked for Cosimo de' Medici. In 1445 he was summoned by the pope to Rome, where he worked until his death. His most important frescoes are in the Florentine convent of S Marco (St Mark), which is now a museum. These aids to contemplation are …

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Fra Bartolommeo

Painter, leading artist of the High Renaissance, born near Florence, NC Italy. Under the influence of Savonarola he publicly burnt many of his paintings and in 1500 became a Dominican novice, but Raphael's visit to Florence in 1504 encouraged him to take up painting again. He worked in Venice (1507), then in Florence (c.1509–12), before going to Rome. His work is distinguished by controlled compo…

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Fra Diavolo - Legacy

Brigand and guerrilla leader, born in Itri, WC Italy. He joined the Bourbon army in 1798 and took part in their guerrilla warfare against the Parthenopean Republic. For years he headed a band of desperados in the Calabrian Mts and evaded capture by skilful guerrilla warfare, earning his nickname for his fierce ways. In 1806 he attempted to excite Calabria against France, but was taken prisoner and…

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fractionation - Plasma protein fractionation

The separation of the components of a mixture from one another. It is usually carried out chemically by (1) fractional crystallization, making use of varying solubilities of the different substances, or (2) fractional distillation, making use of differing boiling points. Fractionation is a separation process in which a certain quantity of a mixture (solid, liquid, solute or suspension) is d…

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fracture (medicine) - Types of fracture

A physical break in the continuity of a bone. Most commonly the result of external force, it occurs occasionally as a consequence of disease, as when cancer affects bone substance (a pathological fracture). The break in the bone takes a number of forms, from a hairline transverse fracture with no displacement (a greenstick fracture) to a severe fracture in which the bone is shattered into a number…

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fracture (physics) - Types of fracture

The breaking of a material subject to excessive stress. The atomic layers are pulled away from one another. Prior to the fracture, most materials undergo elastic then plastic deformation. The fracture occurs when the applied stress exceeds the tensile strength of the material. A detailed understanding of how fracture occurs in materials requires the study of fracture mechanics. …

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frame relay - Frame Relay description, Frame Relay versus X.25, Virtual circuits, X.25 origins

A technology developed by telephone companies in North America to transfer digitally coded messages over the telephone network at very high speed using fibre-optic cabling. SONET (Sychronous Optical NETwork) is the name given to a fibre-based mesh network employing frame relay to deliver various levels of service, on demand, to a customer. OC-1 offers 51·84 Mbps (megabauds per second) while OC-1…

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franc - Origins, French franc, CFA and CFP francs, Comorian franc, Belgian franc and Luxembourg franc, Swiss franc

The former currency unit of many countries, notably France, Belgium, and Switzerland, now replaced by the Euro in EU countries. The name derives from the words on a 14th-c gold coin, Francorum rex (‘King of the Franks’). The franc is the name of several currency units, most notably the French franc, the currency of France until it adopted the euro in 2002; Before the introduction of the e…

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France - Geography, Contrast and diversity, History, Administrative divisions, Transport, Military, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Public health, Gallery

Official name Republic of France, Fr République Française France (French: IPA: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française, IPA: [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and which also comprises various overseas islands and territories located in other continents. French people often refer to Met…

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Frances (Eliza) Hodgson Burnett - Life and work

Writer, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. Brought up in Manchester, she emigrated with her parents to Knoxville, TN (1865). She wrote for periodicals, travelled to Europe (1875–7), married, and moved to Washington, DC. After the failure of her marriage, she divided her time between Long Island and England, and wrote her enduring classics for young readers, Little Ford Fauntl…

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Frances Cleveland

US first lady (1886–9, 1893–7), born in Buffalo, New York, USA. One of the youngest and most admired of all first ladies, she married Grover Cleveland in the White House in 1886; she was 21 and he was 49. She held numerous public receptions and her hairstyle and clothing were widely imitated. She married again after her husband's death, and was active in poor relief during the 1930s Depression. …

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Frances Perkins

Cabinet member, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Graduating from Mount Holyoke College (1902), she taught, worked in settlement houses, and came to favour a greater role for the federal government in aiding the poor. Soon after earning a graduate degree in political science from Columbia University, she witnessed the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911) that killed 146 factory workers, an event that…

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Frances Power Cobbe

Social worker and feminist, born in Newbridge, near Dublin, E Ireland. She travelled in Italy and the East, and wrote Cities of the Past (1864) and Italics (1864). A strong theist, a supporter of women's rights, and a prominent anti-vivisectionist, she was associated with Mary Carpenter in the founding of ragged schools. Frances Power Cobbe (December 4, 1822 – April 5, 1904), was an Irish…

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Francesca da Rimini - Arranged marriage

Daughter of Guido da Polenta, Lord of Ravenna, whose tragic love story has often been recounted in literary and artistic works. She was married to Gianciotto the Lame, son of Malatesta, Lord of Rimini; but she already loved Paolo, Gianciotto's brother. Gianciotto, surprising the lovers together, killed them both. The story is woven into Dante's Inferno. Francesca da Rimini or Francesca da P…

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Francesco (Duke) Caracciolo - Biography

Neapolitan admiral, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. He was in charge of the Neapolitan fleet from 1871, fought the pirates in the S Mediterranean, and escorted King Ferdinand IV and his family in their escape to Sicily in 1798. He returned to Naples in 1799, was put in charge of the republican fleet, and fought against the English for the Neapolitan Republic. When the republic fell he was cond…

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Francesco Albani - Early years in Bologna, Mature work in Rome, Legacy, Partial Anthology of Works

Painter of the Bolognese school, born in Bologna, N Italy. He studied first under Denis Calvaert (c.1540–1619), and afterwards under Ludovico Carracci. He painted about 45 altarpieces, but most of his work deals with mythological or pastoral subjects. Born at Bologna, his father was a silk merchant, and intended to bring up his son to the same occupation; Rome by 1600 was exhib…

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Francesco Algarotti

Writer, born in Venice, Veneto, NE Italy. He was an enthusiastic traveller, a friend of Voltaire, and an adviser to Prussian King Frederick II. A prolific writer, he wrote on literary (Saggio sopra l'opera in musica, 1755) and scientific subjects, such as Newton's theory Newtonianismo per le dame (1737), which was expanded and republished as Dialoghi sopra l'ottica newtoniana (1752). His essays we…

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Francesco Bartolozzi

Engraver, born in Florence, NC Italy. He settled in London to become engraver to George III, and in 1802 was superintendent of the Royal Academy of Engravers in Lisbon. His prints, said to be more numerous than those of any engraver, include line engravings and stippled works, printed in brown and red, called Bartolozzi red. He was originally destined to follow the profession of his father,…

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Francesco Borromini - Early life and first works, San Carlino (San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane)

Baroque architect and sculptor, born in Bissone, N Italy. He spent all his working life in Rome, where he was associated with his great rival Bernini in the Palazzo Berberini (1620–31) and the baldacchino in St Peter's (1631–3). His own chief buildings include the S Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1641) and the oratorio of S Philippo Neri (1650). Although now considered one of the great Baroque arch…

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Francesco Bracciolini

Poet, born in Pistoia, NC Italy. He was in the service of Maffeo Barberini who became Pope Urban VIII. He is considered one of the fathers (along with AlessandroTassoni) of the mock-heroic poem, with his Dello scherno degli dei (1618). He also wrote a number of religious poems and classic-style tragedies. Francesco Bracciolini (November 26, 1566- August 31, 1645) was an Italian poet. …

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Francesco Cetti - Reference

Jesuit and naturalist, born in Mannheim, SWC Germany. He was educated in Lombardy and at the Jesuit College in Monza, and in 1766 was appointed professor of mathematics at the university of Sassari. He was a distinguished naturalist as well as a theologian and philosopher. The bird Cetti's warbler (Cettia cetti) was named after him. Francesco Cetti (August 9, 1726 – November 20, 1778) was…

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Francesco Cilea - Biography, Works

Operatic composer, born in Palmi, S Italy. He was director of the Naples Conservatory from 1916 to 1936. He wrote several operas, of which the best known is Adriana Lecouvreur (1902). Francesco Cilea (July 26, 1866 Palmi, near Reggio Calabria - November 20, 1950 Varazze, near Savona) was an Italian opera composer. Born in Palmi near Reggio di Calabria, Francesco Cilea gave early…

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Francesco Cossiga - Election as President of Italy, The Cossiga Presidency, Lifetime senator, Miscellaneous news

Italian politician, born in Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. He lectured in constitutional law, then became a Christian Democrat deputy and senator. He was interior minister (1976–8), prime minister (1979–80), senate president (1983–5) and president (1985–92). Francesco Cossiga (born July 26, 1928) is an Italian politician and former President of the Italian Republic. Resigning fro…

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Francesco Dall'Ongaro - Biography

Writer and journalist, born in Mansuè, Veneto, NE Italy. He gave up the priesthood for journalism and politics and took part in the 1848 revolutionary rising, became a deputy in the Roman Republic's Constituent Assembly, and went into exile after its fall. He lectured in literature in Florence and Naples, and wrote collections of poems, Stornelli (1847–61) and Alghe della laguna (1866, in Veneti…

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Francesco de Sanctis

Literary critic and historian, born in Morra Irpina, Campania, SW Italy. He was jailed (1850–3) for taking part in the anti-Bourbon revolution and went into exile. He then lectured at Turin and Zurich University on Dante and Petrarca (published later in Saggi critici (1866) and Saggio critico sul Petrarca (1869)), briefly became Italian education minister (1861–2) and went into opposition. In 18…

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Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi - Reference

Italian politician and writer, born in Livorno, Tuscany, W Italy. He founded the Indicatore livornese newspaper and spent time in jail because of his democratic ideas. One of the three members of the temporary Tuscan government during the 1848–9 revolutionary risings, he went into exile when Leopoldo II returned. He later became a deputy in the new Italian parliament and opposed the ‘historic ri…

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Francesco Durante - Sources

Composer, born in Naples, SW Italy. Head of the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto in Naples (1742–5), he wrote a wide variey of church and chamber music. Francesco Durante (March 31, 1684 – September 30, 1755) was an Italian composer. He was born at Frattamaggiore, in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, and at an early age he entered the Conservatorio dei poveri di Gesù Cristo…

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Francesco Filelfo - Biography

Humanist, born in Tolentino, Marche, E Italy. He spent some time in Constantinople, then taught Greek and Latin in Florence, Siena, Bologna, and Pavia before moving to Milan, where he was often involved in literary disputes. Renowned for his learning, he wrote works in Latin Satyrae (1448) and Sphortias (1450–73), and a large number of letters in Latin and Greek. Francesco Filelfo (July 25…

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Francesco Guardi - Biography, Mature style

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy. A pupil of Canaletto, he was noted for his views of Venice, full of sparkling colour, with an Impressionist's eye for effects of light, as in the ‘View of the Church and Piazza of San Marco’ (National Gallery, London). Francesco Lazzaro Guardi (October 5, 1712 – January 1, 1793) was a Venetian painter of veduta. Francesco Guardi was born in…

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Francesco Guicciardini - Early life, Start of career beyond Florence, Papal service, Service to the Medici, Evaluations

Historian, born in Florence, NC Italy. He studied at Florence, Ferrara, and Padua, became professor of law there, and also practised as an advocate; but his real field was diplomacy. He became papal governor of Modena and Reggio (1515), Parma (1521), the Romagna (1523), and Bologna (1531). Retiring from the papal service in 1534, he secured the election of Cosimo de' Medici as Duke of Florence; bu…

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Francesco Morosini - In memoriam

Doge of Venice, a member of a well-known Venetian family. As governor of Candia, he led the town's resistance against the Turks. He was the commander-in-chief of the Venetian fleet, and from 1684 was in charge of the fight against the Turks, conquering the strongholds of Navarino, Modone, Athens, and Nauplia. In recognition, he was given the title ‘Peloponnesiaco’ and appointed doge in 1688. …

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Francesco Redi

Physician and poet, born in Arezzo, NC Italy. He studied at Florence and Pisa, and became physician to the dukes of Tuscany. He wrote a book on animal parasites, and proved by a series of experiments that maggots cannot form spontaneously on meat that has been covered. As a poet, his chief work is Bacco in Toscana (1685, Bacchus in Tuscany). Francesco Redi (February 18/19, 1626–March 1, 1…

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Francesco Saverio Nitti

Italian politician, prime minister (1919–20), and economist, born in Melfi, Basilicata, S Italy. He was a lecturer at Naples University and became a parliamentary deputy in 1904. He held a number of posts during World War 1 then became prime minister. Strongly opposed to Fascism, he went into exile (1924–45), and on his return founded the Unione Democratica Nazionale (Democratic National Associa…

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Francesco Zuccarelli

Painter, born in Pitigliano, NC Italy. He trained at Florence and Rome, and was active at Florence, but worked mainly in Venice after 1732. His pastoral landscapes, populated by shepherds and maidens and painted in a soft Rococo style, were very popular, especially in England, where he worked 1752–62 and 1765–71. Francesco Zuccarelli (15 August 1702- December 30, 1788) was an Italian rocc…

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franchise (economics)

A licence to carry out some business activity, using the name, products, and know-how of the franchisor; for example, in fast-food restaurants. The franchisee pays a licence fee and a percentage of the business done to the franchisor, and undertakes to conform to pre-set standards. In sport: In music: …

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franchise (politics)

The right to vote. It was only during the 19th-c and 20th-c that the franchise was extended to all citizens in most democratic countries. Various qualifications and rules determine who may be eligible and how the vote may be exercised: in the UK, people over the age of 18 who are registered may vote, providing they are not peers or peeresses in their own right, felons, or lunatics, and have not be…

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Franciabigio - Critical assessment and legacy

Painter, born in Florence, NC Italy. He worked in collaboration with Andrea del Sarto on the Church of the Annunziata and the Chiostro dello Scalzo, and was much influenced by him and by Raphael. His ‘Madonna del Pozzo’ was long thought to be by Raphael. Franciabigio (1482-1525) was a Florentine painter of the Renaissance. He was born in Florence, and initially worked under Al…

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Francis (Andrew) March - Works, Death and Legacy, Sources

Philologist, born in Millbury, Massachusetts, USA. Inspired by the lectures of Noah Webster at Amherst College, he went on to teach for 49 years at Lafayette College in Easton, PA (1855–1906), where in 1857 he was appointed to the chair of English language and philology, the first professorship of its kind. His text, A Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language (1870), details the Indo-Europ…

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Francis (Beverley) Biddle

Lawyer and US attorney general, born in Paris, France. He was secretary to Supreme Court Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes (1911–12), then practised as a lawyer in Philadelphia. He was first chairman of the National Labour Relations Board (1934) and a strong defender of the Tennessee Valley Authority and other New Deal programmes. Solicitor general (1940–1) and attorney general (1941–5) o…

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Francis (Davis) Millet - Early life, Artistic life, Literature

Painter and writer, born in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, USA. He studied art in Antwerp, Belgium (1871–3), and travelled widely, but was based in New York City. A war correspondent for several periodicals during the Russo-Turkish War (1877) and in the Philippines (1899), he painted historical genre scenes. He was the co-author, with Poultney Bigelow, of From the Black Forest to the Black Sea (189…

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Francis (Gladheim) Pease

Astronomer and designer of optical instruments, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He was observer and optician at Yerkes Observatory, WI (1901–4), and instrument-maker at the Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena (1908–13), where he designed the 100-inch telescope, as well as the 50 ft interferometer telescope by means of which he gained direct measurements of star diameters. He was also invo…

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Francis (Harry Compton) Crick - Biography, family and education, Biology Research

Biophysicist, born in Northampton, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He studied at London and Cambridge, and from 1949 carried on research in molecular biology at the Cavendish Laboratory. In 1953, with the help of X-ray diffraction photographs taken by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, he and J D Watson constructed a molecular model of the genetic material DNA. In 1958 he proposed that the DN…

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Francis (Henry) King - Works, Reference

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Adelboden, WC Switzerland. He studied at Shrewsbury and Oxford, after a childhood spent partly in India, and worked for the British Council in Finland, Greece, Egypt, and Japan (1945–64). His novels include The Dividing Stream (1951, Somerset Maugham Award), The Needle (1975), Act of Darkness (1983), Visiting Cards (1990), The Ant Colony (1991), and Ash on…

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Francis (Maitland) Balfour

Embryologist, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK, the brother of Arthur Balfour. He studied at Cambridge, where he became the first professor of animal morphology in 1882 after publishing his Treatise on Comparative Embryology (1880). Francis Maitland Balfour (November 10, 1851 - July 19, 1882) was a British biologist. The younger brother of the politician, Arthur Balfour, he wa…

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Francis (Patrick) Kenrick

Catholic prelate, born in Dublin, Ireland. After studies in Rome he was ordained (1821) and headed a seminary in Bardstown, KY, becoming a leading Catholic theologian. As coadjutor bishop of Philadelphia (from 1830) he asserted church power over lay trustees, founded a seminary, for which he wrote theology textbooks, and promoted calm during the 1844 anti-Catholic riots. As Archbishop of Baltimore…

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Francis (William) Aston

Physicist, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Birmingham and Cambridge, and was noted for his work on isotopes. He invented the mass spectrograph in 1919, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1922. The Aston dark space in electronic discharges is named after him. Francis William Aston (born Birmingham, September 1, 1877; died Cambridge, Nove…

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Francis Asbury - Resources

Protestant religious leader, born in Handsworth, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He went to America in 1771 as a missionary. A powerful preacher, he toured the colonies and the Mississippi territory, and developed the system of circuit-riding for the frontier ministry. Appointed superintendent of American Methodists (1772), he fought for many years against British efforts to retain control of the Am…

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Francis Atterbury

Anglican clergyman and controversialist, born in Milton, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, took holy orders, and became Dean of Carlisle (1704), Prolocutor of Convocation (1710), Dean of Christ Church (1712), and Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster (1713). In 1715 he refused to sign the bishops' declaration of fidelity, and in 1722 was committed to the Tower for compli…

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Francis Bacon - Early life, Career, Death, Works and philosophy, Works on East Asia, Posthumous reputation, Timeline

Artist, born in Dublin, Ireland. He settled permanently in England in 1928. After working as an interior designer he began painting in c.1930 without any formal training, making a major impact in 1945 with his ‘Three Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion’. Although the initial inspiration for his work was Surrealism, he made frequent use of imagery annexed from old masters, usually translated int…

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Francis Baily

Astronomer, born in Newbury, West Berkshire, S England, UK. He made a large fortune as a stockbroker, and on his retirement in 1825 devoted himself to astronomy. In 1936 he detected the phenomenon known as Baily's beads - a broken ring of bright points around the edge of the Moon, formed in a total solar eclipse by the Sun's rays shining through the Moon's valleys at the moment of totality. He als…

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Francis Bitter - Early life, Career at MIT, Legacy

Physicist, born in Weehawken, New Jersey, USA. He taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1934–60), and was concurrently a commander in the US Naval Reserves (1943–51). He made significant contributions to the fields of ferromagnetism, nuclear structure, and optics. During the 1930s he invented the Bitter electromagnet, a water-cooled solenoid that produced the first sustained power…

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Francis Brett Young - Selected works

Novelist, born in Halesowen, West Midlands, C England, UK. Established first as a physician, with a period as ship's doctor, he achieved celebrity as a writer with Portrait of Clare (1927, James Tait Black). From then on he wrote a succession of novels of leisurely charm, characterized by a deep love of his native country. Noteworthy titles are My Brother Jonathan (1928), Far Forest (1936), Dr Bra…

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Francis Cabot Lowell

Textile manufacturer, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, USA. He worked in the import-export trade and observed textile machinery in Lancashire while on a visit to England (1810–12). On his return, with the assistance of his brother-in-law Patrick Tracy Jackson, Paul Moody, and Nathan Appleton, he started the Boston Manufacturing Co (1813) in Waltham, MA, the first mill to combine all the operat…

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Francis Daniel Pastorius

Lawyer, born in Sommerhausen, Germany. He studied at several European universities and practised law in Frankfurt, Germany, where he met friends of William Penn. In 1683, acting as agent for a group of German Quakers, he journeyed to Philadelphia where he bought 15 000 acres from Penn and laid out the settlement of Germantown. He was the first mayor of the new town and master of the Germantown sc…

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Francis Ford Coppola - Life and career (1960 to 1978), Career: 1979 to present, Selected filmography, Trivia

Film director and screenwriter, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He studied the theatre in New York City, and film-making in Los Angeles. His first feature as director was Dementia 13 (1963), and this was followed by the musical Finian's Rainbow (1967). Among his outstanding productions were The Godfather (1972; Part II, 1974; Part III, 1990) and his controversial study of the Vietnam War, Apocalyp…

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Francis Fowke

Engineer and architect, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He obtained a commission in the Royal Engineers on the strength of his drawing, and in 1856 was appointed architect and engineer to the government department of science and art. He planned the Albert Hall in London, produced the original designs for the Victoria and Albert Museum in London (completed by Sir Aston Webb), and planned …

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Francis Frith

Topographical photographer, born in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, C England, UK. He travelled extensively in Egypt and the Near East (1856–9), using the large 40 x 50 cm cameras and complicated wet-plate process of the period to produce the first photographic traveller's records to be seen in Britain. From 1864 he toured throughout Britain and established a nationwide service of photographs of loc…

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Francis Garnier

Explorer, born in St Etienne, SW France. As a naval officer, he fought in the Chinese war (1860–2). Appointed to a post in Cochin-China (S Vietnam), he was second-in-command of the Mekong R Expedition (1866–8) during which he mapped 3100 mi of unknown territory in Cambodia and Yunnan. He aided in the defence of Paris (1870–1), and in the Tonkin War (1873) took Hanoi, but was killed in a furthe…

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Francis George Scott

Composer, born in Hawick, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. He studied at the universities of Edinburgh and Durham, and in Paris under the symphonic composer Jean Jules Amiable Roger-Ducasse (1873–1954). He lectured in music at Jordanhill Training College for Teachers, Glasgow (1925–46). His Scottish Lyrics (5 vols, 1921–39) comprise original settings of songs by Dunbar, Burns, and other poets…

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Francis Godwin - Reference, Weblinks

Clergyman and writer, born in Hannington, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became rector of Sampford, Bishop of Llandaff (1601), and Bishop of Hereford (1617). His eight works include A Catalogue of the Bishops of England (1601), but he is best known as the author of the first science-fiction romance in English literature, Man in the Moon or a Voyage Thither, by Domingo G…

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Francis Harrison Pierpont - Other Notable Facts

US governor, born in Morgantown, Virginia (now West Virginia), USA. A lawyer and an active Whig, he supported the Union when the Civil War broke out. When Virginia seceded (1861), he organized a mass meeting at Wheeling and became the provisional governor of Western Virginia (1861–3). When West Virginia was admitted as a state (1863), he became governor of the ‘restored’ state of Virginia, the …

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Francis Hopkinson

Public official, writer, musician, and judge, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The first graduate of what is now the University of Pennsylvania, he became a lawyer, operated a dry goods store, then moved to New Jersey and returned to practising law. He represented New Jersey at the First Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence. He helped design the first national fl…

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Francis I

King of France (1515–47), born in Cognac, W France. He was Count of Angoulême and Duke of Valois before succeeding Louis XII as king and marrying his daughter, Claude. He combined many of the attributes of mediaeval chivalry and the Renaissance prince, the dominant feature of his reign being his rivalry with the Emperor Charles V, which led to a series of wars (1521–6, 1528–9, 1536–8, 1542–4…

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Francis (Emperor) II

Last Holy Roman Emperor (1792–1806), the first emperor of Austria (Francis I, 1804–35), and king of Hungary (1792–1830) and Bohemia (1792–1835), born in Florence, NC Italy. Defeated on several occasions by Napoleon (1797, 1801, 1805, 1809), he made a short-lived alliance with him, sealed by the marriage of his daughter, Marie Louise, to the French emperor. Later he joined with Russia and Pruss…

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Francis James Child

Philologist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard, where with the exception of two years' study in Germany he remained on the faculty until his death, teaching rhetoric, oratory, and English literature. His most important scholarly contributions include his five-volume edition of Spenser's Poetical Works (1855), for many years the authoritative text, and seminal papers on the …

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Francis Jammes - Selected works

Poet and novelist, born in Tournay, S France. His poetry reacted against Symbolism and followed a new trend known as Naturism, his first collection, De L'Angélus de l'aube à l'Angélus du soir, appearing in 1889. Preferring to live in the country, he wrote of his childhood and the life of the islands his family came from. His conversion to Catholicism in 1905 influenced his later poetry, such as…

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Francis Lee Bailey - Education and military service, Notable cases, Controversies, Publications, Gallery Magazine

US criminal lawyer. A graduate of Harvard Law School, he founded a detective agency there to conduct his own case research. As a defence attorney, he defended the Boston Strangler, Albert Desalvo, and the kidnapped heiress, Patty Hearst, convicted of bank robbery with her left-wing terrorist abductors. For the English astronomer, see Francis Baily Francis Lee Bailey Jr., commonl…

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Francis Lieber - Works

Political reformer, editor, and political scientist, born in Berlin, Germany. Persecuted as a liberal in Prussia, he fled in 1826 and arrived in Boston in 1827. Proposing to translate a German encyclopedia, he so enlarged and revised it that he ended up editing a new Encyclopedia Americana (13 vols, 1829–33). He taught at South Carolina (1835–57) and Columbia (1857–72). Two of his works, Manual…

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Francis Makemie

Protestant clergyman, born in Co Donegal, Ireland. He was ordained c.1682 and sent to America as a missionary. He evangelized in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Barbados before settling down as a successful merchant and pastor at Rehobeth on Maryland's eastern shore, and he founded the first presbytery in America (1706). Regarded as the main founder of the Presbyterian Church in America, h…

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Francis Marion - Family and early life, Service during the Revolution, Popular culture, Controversy, Landmarks, Gravestone, See also

American soldier, born in Berkeley Co, South Carolina, USA. A planter, he had fought against the Cherokees (1759, 1761), and when the American Revolution began, he volunteered and led ‘irregulars’ in several engagements. A sprained ankle had led him to leave Charleston, SC before its surrender to the British, and he was available to command the remaining resistance in South Carolina after the co…

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Francis Marion Crawford - Reference, See Also

Writer, born in Bagni di Lucca, Italy. The son of Thomas Crawford, he studied in the USA and at European universities. Soon after the immediate success of his first novel, Mr Isaacs (1882), he moved to Italy. An inveterate traveller, he used foreign settings in many of his popular historical romances and adventure novels, many of which he adapted for the stage. He wrote the play Francesca da Rimin…

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Francis Nicholson

Colonial governor, born in Yorkshire, N England, UK. He had a broad, far-ranging career, as governor or lieutenant-governor of five colonial areas (New York, Virginia, Maryland, Nova Scotia, South Carolina) during 1688–1722. He supported the founding of the College of William and Mary and directed the conquest of Port Royal (1710), which established British supremacy in Nova Scotia. Franci…

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Francis Ouimet - Career, Effect on U.S. golf

Golfer, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. He recorded the first major success in US golfing history when he defeated Harry Vardon and Ted Ray in a play-off for the US Open of 1913, and broke the British stranglehold on top-level events. He was a member of every Walker Cup team from 1922 to 1949, either as player or non-playing captain, and in 1951 became the first foreigner ever to be made ca…

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Francis Parkman - Biography, Legacy, Selected works

Historian, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The son of a wealthy old Massachusetts family, he graduated from Harvard College (1844) and Law School (1846), but never intended to practise law. Always one who pursued outdoor experiences, he immediately headed West and set out on the Oregon Trail (1846), getting to know various American Indians and frontier types. His health suffered during the tri…

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Francis Picabia

Painter, born in Paris, France. He was one of the most anarchistic of modern artists, involved in Cubism, Dadaism, and Surrealism. He helped to intoduce Dadaism to New York in 1915. His anti-art productions, often portraying senseless machinery, include ‘Parade Amoureuse’ (1917) and many of the cover designs for the American anti-art magazine 291, which he edited. Francis-Marie Martinez P…

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Francis Ponge - Works

Poet, born in Montpellier, S France. He was involved with the Surrealists for a short time, joined the Communist party in 1937, and was literary and art editor of the party's weekly Action (1944–6). He left the party in 1947 to concentrate on writing and teaching. His best-known works are Le Parti pris des choses (1942) and the lengthy poem ‘Le Savon’. His work was mainly in the form of prose p…

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Francis Poulenc - Works, Personal life

Composer, born in Paris, France. He became a member of Les Six, and was prominent in the reaction against Impressionism. His works include much chamber music and the ballet Les Biches, produced by Diaghilev in 1924; but he is best known for his considerable output of songs, such as Fêtes galantes (1943). Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: [fʀɑ̃sis ʒɑ̃ maʀsɛl pulɛ̃k]) (January 7, 1…

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Francis Preston Blair

Journalist, born in Abingdon, Virginia, USA. A founding editor of the Washington, DC Globe, a Democratic party paper (1830), he was a member of President Andrew Jackson's ‘kitchen cabinet’ of advisers. For a time he also published the Congressional Globe, a predecessor of the Congressional Record. Opposed to the extension of slavery, he helped organize the Republican Party and became a close adv…

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Francis Quarles - Works

Religious poet, born near Romford, Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and London, and was successively cup-bearer to the Princess Elizabeth (1613), secretary to Archbishop Ussher (c.1629), and chronologer to the City of London (1639). A royalist and churchman, many of his books and manuscripts were destroyed during the Civil War. His best-known work is the emblem book (a series of symb…

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Francis Rawdon Chesney - Publications

Soldier and explorer of the Euphrates, born in Annalong, Co Down, SE Northern Ireland, UK. In 1829 he surveyed the Isthmus of Suez, providing data later used in the construction of the Suez Canal. After 1831 he four times explored a route to India by rail and sea via Syria and the Euphrates. He transported two steamers overland from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and one successfully reached …

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Francis Scott Key - Life, Monuments and memorials, Media

Lawyer and poet, the writer of ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’, born in Frederick Co, Maryland, USA. During the British bombardment of Fort McHenry, Baltimore (1814), which he witnessed from a British man-of-war, he wrote a poem about the lone US flag seen flying over the fort as dawn broke. It was published as ‘The Defence of Fort McHenry’, and later set to a tune by the English composer, John Sta…

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Francis Sylvester Mahony

Priest and humorous writer, born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. He became a Jesuit priest, but was expelled from the order for a late-night frolic, and was ordained a priest at Lucca in 1832. He moved to London in 1834, forsook his calling for journalism and poetry, and contributed to Fraser's Magazine and Bentley's Miscellany. He is remembered as author of the poems ‘The Bells of Shandon’ and ‘T…

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Francis Thomas Bacon

British engineer, the designer of a practical fuel cell. He studied at Cambridge, then worked for Sir Charles Parsons as an engineer (1925–40). He proposed the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells in submarines, and carried out research at the Anti-Submarine Establishment (1941–6) and at Cambridge University (1946–56). He was principal consultant to the National Research and Development Council (1…

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Francis Thompson - Footnote

Poet, born in Preston, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He studied for the priesthood, turned to medicine, but failed to graduate. He was rescued from poverty, ill health, and opium addiction by Wilfrid and Alice Meynell, to whom he had sent some poems for Meynell's magazine Merry England. His later work was mainly religious in theme; it includes the well-known ‘The Hound of Heaven’. Francis T…

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Francis Throckmorton

English conspirator, who plotted the unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I in 1583. The nephew of one of the queen's diplomats, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, he was educated at Oxford and at the Inner Temple. A zealous Roman Catholic, he engaged in plots in Europe against the English government. He was arrested in England while organizing communication between Mary Queen of Scots and Ca…

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Francis Turner Palgrave

Poet and critic, born in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and after a variety of posts in education and administration became professor of poetry there (1886–95). He is best kown as the editor of the Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrical Poems (1861; second series, 1896), known to generations of schoolchildren as ‘Palgrave's Golden Treasury’. Francis Turner Pa…

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Francis Wayland

Lawyer and educator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the son of Francis Wayland (1796–1865). He studied at Harvard Law School and became a lawyer in Massachusetts and Connecticut. As dean of Yale Law School (1873–1903), he revitalized and expanded the school and introduced the first American graduate law degrees. Francis Wayland (March 7, 1796–September 30, 1865), American education…

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Francis Wayland

Clergyman and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. He wrote the classic Moral Dignity of the Missionary Enterprise (1823). As president of Brown University (1827–55), he greatly strengthened the faculty and curriculum, and his influential Report on the Condition of the University (1850) advocated a higher education responsive to democracy's needs. He also planned the Rhode Island publi…

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Francis William Newman - Read on

Scholar, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was elected to a fellowship at Balliol College. He went as an unsectarian missionary to Baghdad (1830–3), then returned to England and became classical tutor at Bristol College (1834), professor at Manchester New College (1840), and professor of Latin at University College London (1846–69). In religion he took a position directly opposite th…

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Francisco de Almeida - Mission to the east, Relatives and subjects

Portuguese soldier and first viceroy of the Portuguese Indies (1505–9), until he was superseded by Affonso d'Albuquerque. He was killed in South Africa on his voyage home in a skirmish with natives at Table Bay. Francisco de Almeida (pron. Almeida is credited with establishing portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean. Before Almeida or his son could return to Portugal, they lost their lives…

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Francisco de Enzinas - Family and Education, New Testament translation, Last years on the Continent, Posthumous editions, Links

Humanist, born in Burgos, NC Spain. He studied at Louvain, taught Greek at Cambridge, went to Geneva to see Calvin, and died of the plague on his return to Strasbourg. A disciple of Luther and admirer of Melanchthon, he hellenized his name to Dryander. He wrote Breve y compendiosa institución cristiana (1540) before translating and publishing Nuevo Testamento de Nuestro Redemptor (1543), an offen…

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Francisco de Orellana

Explorer, born in Trujillo, WC Spain. He went to Peru with Francisco Pizarro. After crossing the Andes in 1541, he descended the Amazon R to its mouth. The river's original name was Rio Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce; but Orellana is said to have renamed it after an attack by a tribe in which he believed women, like the Amazons of Greek mythology, were fighting alongside men. Orellana took par…

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Francisco de Paula Santander - Acting Executive, Political Differences, Return to New Granada

Colombian statesman, born in Rosario de Cúcuta, New Granada (modern Colombia). He took part in the Spanish-American Wars of Independence, acted as vice-president of Grancolombia (1821–7) during Bolívar's campaigns, and was president of New Granada in 1832–7. Francisco de Paula Santander (April 2, 1792 - May 6, 1840), was one of the military and political leaders during Colombia's (then …

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Francisco Franco (Bahamonde) - Early life, During the Second Spanish Republic, The Spanish Civil War, Spain under Franco

Spanish general and dictator (1936–75), born in El Ferrol, Galicia, NW Spain. He graduated from Toledo military academy in 1910, acquired extensive combat experience in Morocco, and by 1926 was Spain's youngest general. During the Second Republic (1931–6), he led the repression of the Asturias miners' revolt (1934), and in 1935 served as chief-of-staff. In 1936 he belatedly joined the conspiracy…

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Francisco Guerrero - References and further reading

Composer, born in Spain. A disciple of Cristóbal de Morales and his brother Pedro Guerrero, he was chapel master in the cathedrals of Jaén, Málaga, and Sevilla. In 1588, after travelling to Italy, he went to Jerusalem and wrote a book El viaje de Jerusalén (1596) about the trip made by his brother. His works were published in Paris, Louvain, Rome, and Venice. One of the great masters of Spanis…

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Francisco Pi y Margall - Early life, Political life under the monarchy, Presidency and later political life

Historian, essayist, and president of the First Republic (1873–4), born in Barcelona, NE Spain. His major work Historia de España en el siglo XIX (7 vols of 8, 1902), was edited and partly written by his son, Francisco Pi y Arsuaga, from materials that his father had assembled. His other studies included Historia de la pintura en España (1851), Estudios sobre la Edad media (1873), Las nacionali…

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Francisco Pizarro - Conquest of Peru (1532), Pizarro's legacy, In popular culture

Conquistador, born in Trujillo, WC Spain. He served in Italy, and with the expedition which discovered the Pacific (1513). In 1526 he and Almagro sailed for Peru, and in 1531 began the conquest of the Incas. He killed the Inca king, Atahualpa, then worked to consolidate the new empire, founding Lima (1535) and other cities. In 1537, dissension with Almagro over the control of Cuzco led to conflict…

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Francisco Rabal

Actor, born in Aguilas, Murcia, SE Spain. In 1932 the family settled in Barcelona but moved to Madrid six years later. His acting career began in 1946 with promising roles in the theatre companies of Infanta Isabel, María Guerrero, and Lope de Vega. At the beginning of the 1950s he starred in the film that launched his career, María Antonia, la Caramba, directed by Arturo Ruiz Castillo. His inte…

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Franciscus Gomarus - Life, Theology, Synod of Dordrecht, References and links

Dutch Protestant theologian, born in Bruges, NW Belgium. He studied at Oxford, Cambridge, and Heidelberg, became professor in Leyden (1594) and worked on a translation of the Old Testament. He was a strong believer in predestination. His great opponent was Arminius, who led the more liberal Remonstrants. Gomarus led the Counter-Remonstrants, and at the Synod of Dordt (1618) was successful in drivi…

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Franciscus Sylvius

Physician, born in Hanau, WC Germany. One of the most outstanding teachers in Europe, he became professor of medicine at Leyden (1658–72), and introduced ward instruction to medical students. He founded the iatrochemical school of medicine, which was paramount in the rational application of science to a previously rather mythical form of medicine. He developed drugs to counteract chemical imbalan…

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Francistown - Demographics, Infrastructure

21°11S 27°32E, pop (2000e) 67 300. Independent township in Central district, Botswana, S Africa; altitude 990 m/3248 ft; area 79 km²/49 sq mi; industrial and commercial centre of Botswana; originally a gold-mining settlement; airfield; railway; textiles, light industry, trade, services. Francistown is the second largest city in Botswana, with a population of about 113,315 (urban a…

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Franco Modigliani

Economist, born in Rome, Italy. He emigrated to the USA after receiving a degree from the University of Rome (1939), and taught at several universities before moving to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1962). In the early 1950s, he originated the ‘lifecycle hypothesis’ which provided a microeconomic foundation in individual behaviour for patterns of national savings. With Merton Miller…

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Franco Moschino

Fashion designer, born in Abbiategrasso, N Italy. He studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts, Milan, and afterwards worked as a freelance illustrator in the fashion industry. He started his own company Moonshadow in 1983, with designs inspired by the Surrealist movement of the 1920s. Francisco Moschino (born February 27, 1950 - September 18, 1994) was an Italian fashion designer rememb…

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Franco Sacchetti

Writer, born in Dubrovnik, S Croatia. A merchant, he travelled extensively throughout Europe before settling in Florence in 1363. He was prior of Florence in 1384 and podestà of a number of cities. His works include Libro delle rime (1352–81), but best known is Trecentonovelle (1385–92), a collection of 300 short stories of which 223 are extant. Notable for their lively, conversational language…

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Franco Zeffirelli - Selected filmography

Stage, opera, and film director, born in Florence, NC Italy. He began his career as an actor and designer (1945–51), and during the 1950s produced many operas in Italy and abroad. His stage productions include Romeo and Juliet at the Old Vic (1960), universally acclaimed for its originality, modern relevance, and realistic setting in a recognizable Verona, and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1964…

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Franco-Prussian War - Causes of the war, Opposing forces, French incursion, German advance

(1870–1) A conflict occasioned by the Hohenzollern candidature for the Spanish throne and the Ems telegram, and caused by the changing balance of power in Europe. It resulted in crushing defeats for France at Sedan and Metz by Moltke's reformed Prussian army, the siege of Paris, and the humiliating Treaty of Frankfurt. Germany gained most of Alsace and part of Lorraine, including Metz, and France…

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Fran - Bibliography

Poet, born in Leeuwarden, N Netherlands. He studied theology in Leiden and worked as a clergyman in various places. He wrote humorous poems under his pseudonym, but his parodies and satire are expressions of his romantic and melancholic nature. He would laugh in order not to cry. He suffered from depressions and took his own life in 1894. A section of Snikken en grimlachjes has been transla…

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Fran

Rugby player and coach, born in Vereeniging, Gauteng, NE South Africa. A flanker who made his debut for Transvaal in 1988 and for South Africa in 1993, he was captain in all his 29 international appearances. He led Transvaal to the Currie Cup wins in 1993 and 1994, and is remembered as the captain of the winning South African 1995 World Cup side who received the cup from President Nelson Mandela, …

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francolin - Distribution, Species

A partridge native to Africa and S Asia; large bird with patches of bare skin on head and neck; inhabits forest or scrubland. (Genus: Francolinus, 40 species.) Of the 36 species of francolins which occur in Africa, 12 occur in the subcontinental region of southern Africa; …

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Franconia

A European duchy which, as its name denotes, was once part of the lands of the Franks. These lands were divided in 843 into three broad divisions, including E Francia (later the kingdom of Germany), with Franconia, between Upper Lotharingia and Thuringia, as one of its constituent duchies. Franconia (German: Franken) is a historic region in Germany, which today forms three administrative re…

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Frank (Charles) Carlucci - Early career, Post-Administration work

US statesman, born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Princeton and Harvard, worked in the Nixon administration (1969–74), then served under presidents Ford (1974–6) and Carter (1977–81) as US ambassador to Portugal, and later as deputy director of the CIA. He found himself out of step with the ‘hawks’ in the Reagan administration (1981–9), and left to work at Sears World Trade af…

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Frank (Charles) Laubach

Missionary and pioneer educator, born in Benton, Pennsylvania, USA. A Protestant missionary sent to evangelize the Moro tribespeople of the Philippines (1915–36), he began to combat illiteracy by devising his own system of phonetic symbols and pictures and by promoting his motto, ‘Each one teach one’. As he and his work became known, he was invited by governments to introduce his methods in var…

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Frank (Donald) Drake - Early life and education, Accomplishments, Recent activities and academics, Honors

Astronomer, born in Chicago, USA. His was the first organized search for extraterrestrial intelligence radio signals at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in West Virginia (1958–63). While on the Cornell University faculty (1964–84), he also directed the world's largest radio telescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. At the University of California, Santa Cruz (1984), he displayed a stained-glass…

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Frank (Garvin) Yerby - Books by Frank Yerby

Writer, born in Augusta, Georgia, USA. He studied at Paine College (1937 BA), Fisk University (1938 MA), and at the graduate level at the University of Chicago (1939). He taught English in the South (1939–41), and worked as a laboratory technician (1941–4), and as chief inspector for Fairchild Aircraft in Jamaica, NY (1944–5). He lived in Florida in the early 1950s, before settling in Madrid, S…

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Frank (Henry) Loesser

Lyricist and composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a songwriter in Hollywood in the 1930s and 1940s, he wrote such hits as ‘Heart and Soul’ (1938, with Hoagy Carmichael), the Oscar winning ‘Baby, It's Cold Outside’ (1949), and ‘On a Slow Boat to China’ (1948). After a modest success with Where's Charley? (1948), he scored his greatest triumph, with both critics and the public, w…

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