Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 25

Cambridge Encyclopedia

European Monetary System (EMS) - Stage I, Stage II, Stage III

A financial system set up in 1979 by member states of the European Economic Community with the immediate aim of stabilizing exchange rates and the ultimate aim of achieving Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), with a single European currency. A European Currency Unit (ECU) was created, but only as a unit of account; later named the Euro. Central banks were to consult on exchange rates, and to assist…

1 minute read

European Parliament - Location, Political groups and parties, History

The representative assembly of the European Union (EU). Created in 1952 as the Common Assembly, its title as the European Parliament was formalized by the 1987 Single European Act. Despite its name, it has few legislative powers, but it does have the right to be consulted by the Council of Ministers, to dismiss the Commission (a right so far never used, but effective as a threat), and to reject or…

1 minute read

European Southern Observatory (ESO) - Instruments at La Silla, Instruments at Paranal

An agency of eight member states founded in 1962 to operate a European astronomical observatory in the S hemisphere. It is a world-class observatory with a number of optical telescopes, including the 3·6 m aperture at La Silla, Chile (2430 m/7972 ft), and a share in a sub-millimetre telescope. Construction is under way on Cerro Paranal, Chile (2635 m/8645 ft) of an array of four 8·2 m aper…

less than 1 minute read

European Space Agency (ESA) - History and goals, Member countries, budget and organisations, Launch vehicle fleet, Human space flight, Projects

A consortium space agency of 13 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK (founding nations) together with Austria and Norway, and associate member Finland) to promote space research, technology, and applications for exclusively peaceful purposes; Canada also participates in some programmes. It was created in 1975 as an a…

less than 1 minute read

European Union (EU) - Demographics, Member states and enlargement, Institutions and legal framework, Main policies, Criticisms, Further reading

An organization of European nations committed to increasing economic integration and political, judicial and social co-operation among its member states. Its founder members of 1958 - Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands - were joined by the UK, Denmark, and the Republic of Ireland (1973), Greece (1981), and Spain and Portugal (1986). East Germany was incorporated …

1 minute read

Eurostar - Eurostar Routes, Rolling stock, Regional Eurostar, Organisation

International high-speed passenger train service between London (Waterloo) and Continental Europe via the Channel Tunnel. Direct services include Paris (and Disneyland), Brussels, Calais, and Lille, as well as Bourg St-Maurice and Moutier in the French Alps. Operated jointly by Eurostar (UK) Ltd, the French Railways (SNCF) and Belgium Railways (SNCB), it commenced operations in 1994. There are 27 …

less than 1 minute read

Eurovision Song Contest - Origins, Format, Participation, Selection procedures, Hosting, Eurovision Week, Voting, Rules, Expansion of the Contest

An annual contest organized by television companies throughout Europe (and Israel) to choose a winning pop song from among those entered by the participating countries. The first was held at Lugano, Switzerland, in 1956; since then it has been customary for the winning country to host the following year's contest. The Eurovision Song Contest is an annual competition held between active memb…

less than 1 minute read

Eurozone - Countries with the euro as currency, Non-Eurozone EU countries, Upcoming EU nations

Those 12 countries within the European Union that have adopted the € as their common currency. In 2002 Euro notes and coins entered general circulation in Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, and Greece, with each country taking a short period of time to phase out its old currency. The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosys…

less than 1 minute read

Eurydice - Wife of Orpheus, Wife of Creon, Wife of Acrisius, Wife of Nestor, Wife of Ilus

In Greek mythology, a dryad, the wife of Orpheus. After her death, Orpheus went down to the Underworld and persuaded Hades to let her go by the power of his music. The condition was that she should follow him, and that he should not look at her until they reached the light. Not hearing her footsteps, he looked back, and she disappeared. In Greek mythology, there were several characters name…

less than 1 minute read

eurypterid - Body structure, Eurypterid fossils, Classification by Tollerton, 1989

An extinct, aquatic water scorpion; large, up to 3 m/10 ft in length; resembling a scorpion with a stout body bearing fangs anteriorly and a long, slender tail; known from the Ordovician period to the end of the Palaeozoic era. (Phylum: Arthropoda. Class: Eurypterida.) The eurypterids were the largest known arthropods that ever lived (with the possible exception of Anomalocarids). …

less than 1 minute read

Eusebius of Caesarea - Biography, Works, Estimate of Eusebius

Historian of the early Church, probably born in Palestine. He became Bishop of Caesarea c.313, and in the Council of Nicaea held a moderate position between the views of Arius and Athanasius. His great work, the Ecclesiastical History, is a record of the chief events in the Christian Church until 324. Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, "Eusebius […

less than 1 minute read

Eusebius of Nicomedia

Syrian clergyman. He was bishop first of Beryus (Beirut) in Syria, then of Nicomedia. He defended Arius at the Council of Nicaea (325), and afterwards became the leader of an Arian group known as the Eusebians. Exiled to Gaul for his views, he returned in 328 and influenced Emperor Constantine to move towards Arianism, and baptized him in 337, just before his death. He had also been responsible fo…

less than 1 minute read

Eustache Deschamps

Poet, born in Vertus, NE France. He was brought up by Machaut, who may have been his uncle and who probably taught him his craft. He studied law in Orléans, then held administrative and diplomatic posts under Charles V and Charles VI. He held important posts in Champagne, but after his patron, Charles V, died, his possessions were ravaged by the English. A prolific writer, he produced farces, tra…

less than 1 minute read

euthanasia - Terminology, Legislation and national political movements, Euthanasia protocol, Ethics, Perceptions, Films containing euthanasia

The painless ending of life, usually as an act of mercy to relieve chronic pain or suffering. It has been advocated by pressure groups such as Exit (UK) and the Hemlock Society (USA), and by some physicians as a dignified death for the elderly who have lost the will or desire to live. Since the 1980s, several cases of doctor-assisted suicide (the death of a terminally ill patient, through taking l…

less than 1 minute read

Euthymides

Greek vase painter of the so-called ‘red figure’ style. He was a contemporary of Euphronios, and seemingly a rival, as amongst the six surviving signed vessels one is inscribed with the words: ‘Euphronios never did anything like it’. His painted figures are amongst the earliest to show foreshortened limbs. Euthymides was an Athenian potter and painter of vases, primarily active between …

less than 1 minute read

eutrophication - Concept of eutrophication, Ecological effects, Sources of high nutrient runoff, Prevention and reversal

The enrichment of lake waters through the discharge of run-off carrying excessive fertilizers from agricultural land, and human waste from settlements. The inflow of phosphate and nitrogen-rich waters can result in the loss of lake flora and fauna, as once-clear waters become turbid with microscopic algae. These are better able to live in the enriched conditions, and cause oxygen depletion for oth…

less than 1 minute read

Eutyches

Archimandrite (monastic superior) at Constantinople. He was the founder of Eutychianism, holding that, after the incarnation, the human nature became merged in the divine, and that Jesus Christ had therefore but one nature. He was condemned by a synod at Constantinople in 448, but the Council of Ephesus (449) decided in his favour and restored him, deposing his opponents. The Council of Chalcedon …

less than 1 minute read

Eva Braun - Background, Relationship and turmoil, Lifestyle, Marriage and suicide

Mistress of Adolf Hitler, born in Munich, SE Germany. She was secretary to Hitler's staff photographer, became Hitler's mistress in the 1930s, and is said to have married him before they committed suicide together in the air-raid shelter (the bunker) of the Chancellery during the fall of Berlin. Eva Anna Paula Braun, later Eva Hitler (February 6, 1912 – April 30, 1945) was the longtime co…

less than 1 minute read

Eva Hesse - Early life, Career, Legacy

Sculptor, born in Hamburg, N Germany. Her family emigrated to the USA in 1939, and settled in New York City. She studied at the Pratt Institute, New York, and at Cooper Union. From 1965 she worked in a variety of unusual materials, including rubber, plastic, string, and polythene. These were made into hauntingly bizarre objects designed to rest on the floor or against a wall or even be suspended f…

less than 1 minute read

Eva Le Gallienne - Early life and early career, Fame and relationships, Later life

Stage actress, born in London, UK, the daughter of Richard Le Gallienne. Making her stage debut in London at 15, she moved to the USA the next year and thereafter spent most of her professional career in America, both as a versatile actress in serious plays and as a director and producer. She founded the Civic Repertory Theater in New York City (1926–32), and later the American Repertory Theater …

less than 1 minute read

Eva Marie Saint - Biography, Filmography, Television work

Film actress, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. She studied at the University of Ohio, and had done a little work on radio, television, and Broadway before Elia Kazan cast her in On the Waterfront (1954), for which she won a Best Supporting Actress Oscar. Other films include North by Northwest (1959), Exodus (1960), A Talent For Loving (1970), The Last Days of Patton (1986), and I Dreamed of Africa…

less than 1 minute read

Eva Tanguay - Early life, Career

Actress, born in Marbleton, Canada. A whirlwind of energy on stage, she was an oversized vaudevillian with a big voice (1901–24), who delighted in shocking audiences with outrageous costumes and lyrics. Her signature song was ‘I Don't Care’ from The Chaperones (1903). Eva Tanguay (born August 1, 1879 in Quebec, Canada – died January 11, 1947 in Hollywood, California, United States) was…

less than 1 minute read

Evan Mecham - Personal background and business career, Political career, Governorship, Efforts to remove him, After office

Businessman and governor, born in Duschesne, Utah, USA. A World War 2 army veteran, he made millions as president of Mecham Pontiac in Glendale, AZ (1950–88). After serving in the state senate (Republican, 1960–2), he became American Newspaper Group publisher (1963–74). A controversial governor of Arizona (1987–8), most notorious for refusing to recognize Martin Luther King's birthday as a sta…

less than 1 minute read

Evander Holyfield - Boxing career, Life outside the ring, Trivia

Boxer, born in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. He became the World Boxing Association (WBA) heavyweight champion in 1996 and the International Boxing Federation heavyweight champion in 1998. He was undisputed heavyweight champion of the world in 1990–2. He lost the WBA crown to John Ruiz in 2001. Evander Holyfield (born October 19, 1962 in Atmore, Alabama) is a professional boxer from the United St…

less than 1 minute read

Evangelical Alliance - Recent Controversy

A religious movement, founded in 1846 - the formal expression of an international evangelical community embracing a variety of conservative evangelical churches and independent agencies. They are united by the common purpose of winning the world for Christ. In the USA it has been succeeded by the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States of America. The Evangelical Allianc…

less than 1 minute read

Evangelical United Brethren Church - United Brethren History

A Christian denomination established in the USA in 1946 through the merger of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical Church. Both Churches were similar in belief and practice, emphasizing the authority of scripture, justification, and regeneration. In 1968 it merged with the Methodist Church to form the United Methodist Church. The Evangelical United Brethren Church…

less than 1 minute read

evangelicalism - Roots, Doctrine, Development, Globally, Demographics

Since the Reformation, a term which has been applied to the Protestant Churches because of their principles of justification through faith alone and the supreme authority accorded to scripture. Subsequently, it has been applied more narrowly to Protestant Churches emphasizing intense personal conversion (‘born-again Christianity’) and commitment in their experience of justification and biblical …

less than 1 minute read

Evangelista Torricelli - Contributions to physics, Selected works

Physicist and mathematician, born in Faenza, NEC Italy. He moved to Rome in 1627, where he devoted himself to mathematics, became Galileo's amanuensis (1641), and succeeded him as professor at the Florentine Academy. He discovered the effect of atmospheric pressure on water in a suction pump, and gave the first description of a barometer, or Torricellian tube (1643). Evangelista Torricelli …

less than 1 minute read

evaporation - Factors influencing rate of evaporation, Applied evaporation

The passing from a liquid phase to a gas phase; in particular, the process by which water is lost from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere as water vapour. It is an important part of the exchange of energy within the Earth–atmosphere system which produces atmospheric motions, and therefore climate (the global energy cascade). Rates of evaporation depend on such factors as solar radiation, the t…

less than 1 minute read

evapotranspiration - Evapotranspiration and the water cycle, Estimating evapotranspiration, Potential evapotranspiration

The transfer of water vapour to the atmosphere from vegetation and soil surfaces through evaporation and transpiration. Rates of evapotranspiration are determined by factors such as wind velocity, water availability, vapour pressure gradient, and energy availability. Actual evapotranspiration is the observed rate, and differs from potential evapotranspiration, which is what would occur if there we…

less than 1 minute read

Evel Knievel - Early life, Daredevil, Caesar's Palace, Marketing the image, Snake River Canyon, Retirement(s)

Motorcycle stunt performer, born in Butte, Montana, USA. Raised by his grandparents in Butte, a copper-mining town, he began doing motorcycle stunts as a teenager. He embarked on an incredibly varied career (1956–65) that included professional hockey, a stint in the US Army, work in the copper mines, and eventually crime - safecracking and holdups. He ‘went straight’ in 1965 and formed Evel Kni…

less than 1 minute read

Evelyn (Arthur St John) Waugh - Early life, The Thirties, Second World War, Later years, List of works, Biographies about Evelyn Waugh

Writer, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and quickly established a reputation with such stylistically brilliant satirical novels as Decline and Fall (1928), Vile Bodies (1930), A Handful of Dust (1934), and Scoop (1938). He became a Catholic in 1930, and his later books display a more serious attitude, as seen in the religious theme of Brideshead Revisited (1945), a nostalgic evocation of…

less than 1 minute read

Evelyn (Elizabeth Ann) Glennie - Background, Career, Deafness, Collaborations, Awards and recognitions, Films

Percussionist, born in Ellon, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. Although profoundly deaf, she studied at the Royal Academy of Music, London, winning several prizes, and made her debut recital at the Wigmore Hall in 1986. She has since received international recognition as a percussionist, playing with orchestras all over the world. A composer herself, several pieces have been specially composed for …

less than 1 minute read

Evelyn Underhill

Anglican mystical poet and writer, born in Wolverhampton, West Midlands, C England, UK. She studied at King's College, London, and became lecturer on the philosophy of religion at Manchester College, Oxford. She led religious retreats, was a religious counsellor, and wrote numerous books on mysticism, including The Life of the Spirit (1922), volumes of verse, and four novels. Her Mysticism (1911) …

less than 1 minute read

evening primrose

The name given to several very similar species of erect, robust biennials, native to North America, but cultivated and naturalized in many other countries; leaves lance-shaped to oval; flowers large, several cm in diameter, broadly funnel-shaped with four narrow sepals and four overlapping yellow (sometimes red or white) petals, usually fragrant and opening at night. The oil from Oenothera biennis…

less than 1 minute read

Everett (McKinley) Dirksen

US representative and senator, born in Pekin, Illinois, USA. After serving in the army, he worked in family businesses before entering local politics in 1926. As a Republican member of the US House of Representatives (1933–51), he supported the ‘New Deal’ domestic programme while championing isolationist foreign policy. A political pragmatist, he drafted the Legislative Reorganization Act of 19…

less than 1 minute read

Everglades - Overview, Everglades National Park, History

S Florida, USA; swampy, subtropical region, length c.160 km/100 mi, width 80–120 km/50–75 mi, area c.12 950 km²/5000 sq mi; covers most of the Florida peninsula S of L Okeechobee; consists of saw grass savannahs and water dotted by clumps of reeds; in an area of heavy rainfall only a few metres above sea-level; drainage and reclamation schemes have made a large amount of land productive…

less than 1 minute read

Everhardus Johannes Potgieter

Writer, and literary critic, born in Zwolle, NC Netherlands. He worked as a commercial representative for various businesses. He was a co-founder of the magazine De Gids (1837), which was to become the most influential literary magazine in the next decades. When R C Bakhuizen van den Brink left the magazine in 1943, it was Potgieter who wrote nearly all articles for the magazine, but left after a …

less than 1 minute read

Evesham - History, Education, Travel, Famous People, Twin Towns

52°06N 1°56W, pop (2000e) 17 300. Town in Worcestershire, WC England, UK; in the Vale of Evesham in a fruit- and vegetable-growing area; railway; foodstuffs, engineering. The town had a population of 22,304 at the 2001 census, with a small hospital, a library, two secondary schools and a college. The town is home to the Evesham Technology computer manufacturing company, has a numb…

less than 1 minute read

evidence - Evidence in science, Evidence in criminal investigation, Evidence in law

Oral statements, documents, materials, or other facts, including forensic information, which when produced in a court or tribunal are used to prove or disprove certain other facts under dispute and ultimately the case itself. Not all evidence is admissible in court, and sometimes quite complicated rules determine what evidence is permissible. Some forms of evidence, such as hearsay evidence, may b…

less than 1 minute read

evidence-based medicine - Overview, Qualification of evidence, Criticism of evidence-based medicine

The use by physicians of the current best scientific evidence in making decisions about the medical care of patients. Often there are gaps between an individual doctor's practice and the latest research about particular conditions, often because the research is not easily available. Increasingly, systems are being developed, including powerful electronic databases, to enable physicians to identify…

less than 1 minute read

evolution - Study of evolution, Evidence of evolution, Ancestry of organisms, Modern synthesis, Misunderstandings about modern evolutionary biology

Any gradual directional change; now most commonly used to refer to the cumulative changes in the characteristics of populations of organisms from generation to generation. Evolution occurs by the fixation of changes (mutations) in the structure of the genetic material, and the passing on of these changes from ancestor to descendant. It is well demonstrated over geological time by the sequence of o…

less than 1 minute read

evolutionism - Development of usage, Ancient Evolutionary Thought, Evolutionary Thought in the Modern West before Darwin

A widely held 19th-c belief that organisms - individuals, races, and even societies - were intrinsically bound to improve themselves, that changes were progressive, and that acquired characters could be transmitted genetically. Evolutionism, from the Latin evolutio, unrolling, refers to theories that certain things develop or change as natural (unplanned) outgrowths of those that existed be…

less than 1 minute read

Ewan MacColl - Early history, Acting career, Music, Radio, Songwriting, Bibliography

Folk-singer, composer, and writer, born in Salford, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. As a playwright, he collaborated with Joan Littlewood in forming the experimental Theatre Workshop in the 1940s, and reviving street theatre. Later he became a pioneer of the British folk-music revival. His series of Radio Ballads, begun in 1957, combining contemporary social comment with traditional musical fo…

less than 1 minute read

Ewan McGregor - Filmography, Discography

Actor, born in Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland, UK. At age 16 he joined the Perth Repertory Company, then studied acting at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London. His first important role was in the television series Lipstick on Your Collar (1993), and feature film success followed with Shallow Grave (1994) and Trainspotting (1996). Later films include Brassed Off (1997), Little Voice (19…

less than 1 minute read

examination

A method of testing the knowledge, understanding, or skills of candidates for qualifications or positions. Chinese written competitive civil service examinations originated in the 2nd-c BC; oral examinations date from the 12th-c. By the 8th-c, written examinations were being used for six specialized degrees, including medicine (10 papers). Examinations were found in the Arab world until the 10th-c…

less than 1 minute read

Excalibur - Excalibur and the Sword in the Stone, History, Video games

In Arthurian legend, the name of King Arthur's sword, which was given to him by the Lady of the Lake. As he lay dying he instructed Sir Bedivere to throw it back into the lake, where a hand drew it under. In another account, he acquires the sword by pulling it from a stone, thus proving he was the rightful king. Excalibur is the mythical sword of King Arthur, sometimes attributed with magic…

less than 1 minute read

exciton - Subtypes, Dynamics, Interaction

In insulating and semiconductor crystals, a quantized ripple in electron energy that moves about the crystal transferring energy but not charge. A type of quasi-particle, it is important in understanding optical reflection and transmission properties. An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an imaginary particle called an electron hole in an insulator or semiconductor, and such is a …

less than 1 minute read

exclusionary rule - History of the Rule, Limitations of the Rule, Exceptions to the Rule

In the USA, a criminal procedure rule which prevents certain kinds of evidence from being used against a defendant in court: evidence seized in violation of the Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable search and seizure, the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination, and the Sixth Amendment right to counsel. It was adopted by the US Supreme Court in federal cases in Weeks v. US (191…

1 minute read

executive information system (EIS) - History of EIS, EIS Components, EIS Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages of EIS, Future Trends in EIS

A computer program or suite of computer programs designed to provide executives with the information they need to take decisions. It differs from a management information system (MIS) in that, for example, in a retail store the MIS would supply the store manager with information about how various brands were selling and thus allow the manager to determine a pricing policy, whereas an EIS would all…

less than 1 minute read

executor(s)

The individual(s) named in the will by a deceased person as being responsible for ensuring that his or her wishes are carried out. These duties include paying any debts from the estate, and ensuring that any balance is distributed amongst the beneficiaries according to the instructions in the will. Where a person dies without making a will, or where a named executor refuses to accept the appointme…

less than 1 minute read

Exeter - Situation, Economy, History, Politics and administration, Notable Buildings, Culture, Education, Sports, Transport, Districts of Exeter

50°43N 3°31W, pop (2001e) 111 100. County town of Devon, SW England, UK; on the R Exe, 70 km/43 mi NE of Plymouth; founded by the Romans 1st-c AD; stone wall erected in 3rd-c against Saxons and (later) Danes; port status partially restored by the construction of England's first ship canal (1560); W headquarters of Royalist forces during Civil War; university (1955); railway; airfield; agricu…

less than 1 minute read

existentialism - Historical background, Major concepts in existentialism, Criticisms of existentialism, Existentialism in psychotherapy, Terror management theory

A philosophical movement, closely associated with Kierkegaard, Camus, Sartre, and Heidegger. Usually contrasted with empiricist or rationalist traditions, its most salient theses are that there is no ultimate purpose or order in the world; that the world is vaguely hostile; that persons choose and cannot avoid choosing their character and goals, by self-creating ‘leaps’, and have the obligation …

less than 1 minute read

Exmoor - Landscape, Coastline, Rivers, Wildlife, Places of interest

National park in Somerset and Devon, SW England, UK; area 686 km²/265 sq mi; established in 1954; occupies coastline between Minehead and Combe Martin Bay; highest point, Dunkery Beacon, 520 m/1707 ft; Brendon Hills (E); known for its ponies; major tourist area. Exmoor National Park is a national park situated on the Bristol Channel coast of Devon and Somerset in South West England. E…

less than 1 minute read

Exmoor pony - Breed characteristics, Breed history, The Exmoor today

The oldest British breed of horse; a small pony developed on Exmoor, Devon; height, 11·2–12·3 hands/1·2–1·3 m/3 ft 10 in–4 ft 3 in; very hardy; broad chest, deep body, stiff springy coat; brown with cream muzzle; broad nostrils, eyes slightly protruding. The Exmoor pony is the oldest and most primitive of the British native ponies, as well as the purest, and some herds still roa…

less than 1 minute read

experimental psychology

The name given to a branch of psychology which relies on experimentation to address research problems. First used to indicate the emergence of a distinct scientific discipline of psychology at the end of the 19th-c, the term came to refer to the study of mental phenomena by experimental methods in contrast to sheer speculation (‘armchair psychology’). It is now used for an approach which relies …

less than 1 minute read

expert system - Types of problems solved by expert systems, Application, Expert systems versus problem-solving systems

A computer system which can perform at least some of the functions of the relevant human expert. Expert systems have been developed for use in areas, such as medical diagnosis and geological prospecting, which require a large amount of organized knowledge plus deductive skills. An expert system also known as a knowledge based system, is a computer program that contains some of the subject-s…

less than 1 minute read

exploration - Notable explorers since 950 A.D., Exploration by area

The investigation of the surface area of the Earth for scientific, commercial, or military purposes. Early journeys of exploration were made in the 10th-c by Scandinavian navigators, followed by the great voyages of discovery of Columbus, Vasco da Gama and John Cabot (15th-c), Magellan (16th-c) and others, through to the later era of imperialism (1880–1914) when many European powers sought to gai…

less than 1 minute read

exponential function - Properties, Derivatives and differential equations, Formal definition, Numerical value, On the complex plane

In mathematics, a function in which the variable is in the exponent, eg 2x. The most important exponential function is y = ex which has the property that dy/dx = y for all values of x. So the rate of growth of ex is proportional to its size: the larger it is, the faster it grows - hence the popular usage of exponential to refer to any process of runaway growth. In its more general form y = A…

less than 1 minute read

exposure (photography) - Blown out highlights, Helping Links

The controlled presentation of a photosensitive surface to light in order to record an image. For a given sensitivity, exposure level is determined by the intensity of the light and the exposure duration, and must be correctly set to ensure satisfactory reproduction of tone and colour. In still cameras this is done by a suitable combination of lens aperture and shutter speed, but in motion-picture…

less than 1 minute read

exposure (physics)

A measure of exposure to ionizing radiation, based on the amount of ionization produced in dry air by X-rays or gamma rays; symbol X, units R (röntgen). The modern notions of absorbed dose and dose equivalent are generally more useful. Exposure can refer to In biology: In photography: In law: In psychology: In entertainment: …

less than 1 minute read

exposure index (EI)

A number in an arithmetical sequence used to specify the sensitivity of photographic film in actual use. This number may differ from the film speed printed on the box using the ISO, ASA, or DIN speed systems. It can represent a preferred film speed rating, or one that is necessary when a filter is used or when the film is uprated for ‘push processing’ to increase the effective film speed. …

less than 1 minute read

Expressionism - Origin of the term, Visual artists, Expressionist groups in painting, In other media

A movement in art, architecture, and literature which aims to communicate the internal emotional realities of a situation, rather than its external ‘realistic’ aspect; the term was first used in Germany in 1911, but the roots of the movement can be traced to van Gogh and Gauguin in the 1880s. Their influence was felt by the Norwegian Edvard Munch, and the Belgian James Ensor, but the full flower…

less than 1 minute read

extensive farming - Economic Viability, Rural Life

Farming with relatively low input levels, especially of fertilizers, sprays, and pharmaceuticals. Lower yields per hectare may be compensated for by larger areas per farm and per farmer; so acceptable income levels may still be achieved. Examples of extensive farming include upland sheep and cattle farming in the UK, and prairie farming in North America. Extensive farming (as opposed to int…

less than 1 minute read

extinction - Causes, Mass extinctions, Human attitudes on extinction

The disappearance of a species from a particular habitat (local extinction), or the total elimination of a species worldwide. Animal species are categorized as extinct if they have not been definitely located in the wild for the past 50 years. In biology and ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is ge…

less than 1 minute read

extracellular fluid (ECF) - Contents of ECF

The fluid which surrounds the cells of the body. In humans the adult volume is c.14 l/25 UK pt/30 US pt, and consists of blood plasma, the interstitial fluid of tissues, and transcellular fluids. Its principal components (apart from water) are sodium, chloride and bicarbonate ions, and proteins. The concept that the body's cells are protected from a continuously changing and often hostile exter…

less than 1 minute read

extradition - Extradition treaties or agreements, List of extradition laws by country, Footnote

The removal of a person by a state in which that person is currently located to the territory of another state where the person has been convicted of a crime, or is said to have committed a crime. The process is normally conducted through extradition treaties, which specify the cases and the procedures under which extradition will take place. Treaties are normally restricted to more important crim…

less than 1 minute read

Extremadura - History

pop (2000e) 1 064 000; area 41 602 km²/16 058 sq mi. Autonomous region of W Spain on the Portuguese frontier; crossed by the Tagus and Guadiana Rivers, bounded (N) by the Sierra de Gata and Sierra de Gredos (rising to 2592 m/8504 ft); merino sheep, pigs, vines, figs, olives, almonds; considerable industrial development since the 1970s through the use of hydroelectricity and irrigation c…

less than 1 minute read

eye - Varieties of eyes, Evolution of eyes, Anatomy of the mammalian eye, Cytology, Acuity, Dynamic range

A specialized receptor organ responding to light stimuli. Various forms exist, such as the stigmata of certain protozoa, the ocelli of annelids, and the compound eye of insects. In land-based vertebrates, such as humans, the eyeball is composed of two parts: the transparent corneal part at the front, and the opaque scleral part at the back. Three concentric coats form the wall of the eyeball: an o…

1 minute read

eyespot

A splash-borne disease of wheat and barley (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides = Tapesia yallundae), causing decay at the bases of growing stems, and leading to abortion of the developing ear or to stem breakage resulting in a flattened crop. The disease is carried between seasons on crop residues, so that infection is more severe when successive susceptible crops are grown on the same field. It …

less than 1 minute read

Eynsham - Gallery

51º48N 1º22W, pop (2000e) 5000. Town in Oxfordshire, SC England, UK; 10 km/6 mi NW of Oxford; Ælfric was first abbot of the 11th-c abbey that was later dissolved by Henry VIII (1538); abbey stone is preserved in many local buildings. Eynsham is a large village in Oxfordshire, England with a population of 5,000, lying six miles between Witney and Oxford. Eynsham was an impo…

less than 1 minute read

Eyvind Johnson

Writer, born near Boden, NE Sweden. After minimal schooling, and a number of years in mainly manual occupations, he spent most of the 1920s in Paris and Berlin, and began to write. His four-part Romanen om Olof (1934–7, The Story of Olof) is the finest of the many working-class autobiographical novels written in Sweden in the 1930s. He was much involved in anti-Nazi causes, and produced a number …

less than 1 minute read

Ezekiel - Biography of Ezekiel, Historical Background, Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel

Biblical prophet. A priest of Jerusalem, he was taken captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 BC. He is the author of a book of Old Testament prophecies which looked forward to a new Jerusalem after the destruction of the old. The Book of Ezekiel is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible as well as the Christian Old Testament, attributed to the prophet Ezekiel (Hebrew: יְחֶזְקֵאל, …

less than 1 minute read

Ezio Pinza

Bass singer, born in Rome, Italy. After gaining fame in Italy he became a favourite at the Metropolitan Opera, New York City (1926–48). He later appeared in Broadway shows and films, including South Pacific. The Italian bass Ezio Pinza (18 May 1892 - 9 May 1957) was one of the outstanding opera singers of the first half of the 20th century. Pinza was born in Rome and grew up in…

less than 1 minute read

Ezra (Weston Loomis) Pound - Early life and contemporaries, The London Revolution, Paris, Italy, St. Elizabeths

Poet and writer, born in Hailey, Idaho, USA. Brought up in Pennsylvania, he studied at Hamilton College, NY (1905 BPh), and the University of Pennsylvania (1906 MA). He taught at Wabash College, IN (1906), travelled in Europe (1906–7), then lived in London (1908–20), Paris (1920–4), and Italy (1924–45). He was arrested and jailed for treason by the USA (1945) because he had made public broadca…

less than 1 minute read

Ezra Cornell - Birth and early life, Marriage and early career, The telegraph, Cornell University, Later life

Industrialist and philanthropist, born in Westchester Landing, New York, USA. He began as a carpenter and millwright, and in association with Samuel Morse devised insulation for telegraph wires on poles. He founded several telegraph companies, including the Western Union Telegraph in 1855. In 1865, in association with Andrew Dickson White (1832–1918), he founded and endowed Cornell University, wh…

less than 1 minute read

Ezra Jack Keats - Biography, Bibliography

Illustrator of children's books, born in New York City, USA. My Dog Is Lost (1960) was his first book, but The Snowy Day (1962), about a small black boy's adventure in the snow, is the one for which he is best known. Among later books, Peter's Chair (1967) was a notable success. Ezra Jack Keats (born March 11, 1916, died May 6, 1983), author of The Snowy Day was an easel artist and one of t…

less than 1 minute read

Ezra Stiles

Scholar and clergyman, born in North Haven, Connecticut, USA. Besides conducting his Newport, RI ministry (1755–86), he was a theologian and scientist reputed to be the most learned scholar in New England. He wrote the charter founding Rhode Island College (1764) (later Brown University) and taught ecclesiastical history during his tenure as a secularizing president of Yale (1778–95). The…

less than 1 minute read

Ezra Taft Benson - General conference talks, External resources

Government official and religious leader, born in Whitney, Idaho, USA. He served as secretary of agriculture (1953–1961) under President Eisenhower, and became president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) in 1985. Ezra Taft Benson (August 4, 1899 – May 30, 1994) was President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1985 until his death. Kimball t…

less than 1 minute read

Ezzelino da Romano

Italian politician and ruler of Vicenza, Verona, and Padua, born in Onara, Veneto, NE Italy. The son of Ezzelino II da Romano, he strongly supported Frederick II, whose daughter Selvaggia he married in 1238. He conquered Verona and Bassano in 1232, received Vicenza from Frederick (1236), and seized Padua and Treviso (1236–7). Leader of the Ghibellines, in 1254 he was excommunicated by Innocent IV…

less than 1 minute read

F Anstey

Writer, born in London, UK. He studied at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and in 1880 was called to the bar. A whimsical humorist, he wrote Vice Versa (1882), The Brass Bottle (1900), and many other novels and dialogues. He also joined the staff of Punch (1887–1930). Thomas Anstey Guthrie (8 August 1856 - March 10, 1934), was an English novelist and journalist, who wrote his comic novels under th…

less than 1 minute read

F(rederic) W(illiam) H(enry) Myers

Poet and essayist, born in Keswick, Cumbria, NW England, UK. A classical scholar, he studied at Cambridge, and became a school inspector (1872–1900). He wrote poems (collected 1921), essays, a book on Wordsworth (1881), and Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death (1903). He was one of the founders of the Society for Psychical Research in 1882, and for the rest of his life he was one of…

less than 1 minute read

F(rederic) W(illiam) Maitland - Biography, Reference

Jurist and historian of English law, born in London, UK. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (1873–6) and Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the bar in 1876. After practising law he became reader in English law (1884) and professor (1888) at Cambridge. His contribution was to apply historical and comparative methods to the study of English institutions, and with Frederick Pollock he wrote the …

less than 1 minute read

f-number - Notation

A numerical system of indicating the size of the aperture stop in a camera lens, which determines how much light is transmitted to the film and hence the control of exposure in conjunction with shutter speed. The f-number is calculated by dividing the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the clear aperture of the lens as given by the iris diaphragm. A small f-number indicates a large apertu…

less than 1 minute read

Fabian Society - History, Legacy, Current and recent activities, Current Organisational Structure, Recommendations for reform of the British monarchy

A socialist group established in 1884 which took its name from the Roman general Fabius Cunctator, noted for his cautious military tactics. It adopts a gradualist approach to social reform, and sometimes ‘Fabian’ is applied to people who are not members of the Society but who believe in reformist socialism. The Society was traditionally a small select group of intellectuals, but has a close asso…

less than 1 minute read

Fabian von Schlabrendorff - Books

German resistance fighter and lawyer, born in Halle/Saale, EC Germany. He actively fought National Socialism from 1933 onwards, and belonged to the resistance movement around Hans Oster. He was involved in the two failed bomb attacks of March 1943 and was arrested in August 1944. He worked as a lawyer after 1945 and became a judge at the Bundesverfassungsgericht (1967–75). Fabian von Schla…

less than 1 minute read

fable - History, Some modern fabulists, Notable fables

A brief fictitious story about animals or plants that teaches a moral, which may be interpreted as referring to human behaviour. The mode, both in verse and in prose, has been popular at all times; famous examples include Aesop's Fables (6th-c BC), the Fables of La Fontaine (late 17th-c), and George Orwell's Animal Farm (1945). In many fables, the moral is summed up at the end in the form of a pro…

less than 1 minute read

fabliau - Example tales

A short narrative poem popular in 12th–14th-c France, and also appearing in English (eg Chaucer's Miller's Tale). The subjects were usually bawdy, misogynist, and anti-clerical. The fabliau (plural fabliaux or "'fablieaux'") is a comic, usually anonymous tale written by jongleurs in northeast France circa the 13th Century. Typical fabliaux concern cuckolded husbands, rapacious …

less than 1 minute read

facade

The exterior face or elevation of a building. Every building has a facade, simply by virtue of having an outside; but the term is particularly associated with consciously designed, overtly formal, aesthetic qualities. The term derives from Italian facciata, for the front of a building. A facade (or façade) (IPA: [fəˈsɑd]) is generally one side of the exterior of a building, especially t…

less than 1 minute read

factor analysis - Mathematical model of the same example, Factor analysis in psychometrics, Factor analysis in marketing

A set of techniques popular in psychometric research to reduce data to manageable form. Given a set of correlations between various measures (eg responses to items on a questionnaire), factor analysis identifies a small number of factors (weighted combinations of the observed measures) which best account for the correlations. Such factors are statistical: giving them a psychological interpretation…

less than 1 minute read

factor VIII - Genetics, Physiology, Therapeutic use

One of a series of enzymes present in the blood which controls the clotting process. Sufferers from classical haemophilia lack this factor, and their blood therefore lacks the capacity to clot. They are treated by intravenous administration of factor VIII that has been separated from fresh blood. This process carries the risk of transferring infections such as AIDS from the blood donor. In future,…

less than 1 minute read

factors of production - Developments and Alternative views

The providers of the services needed to produce the national income. These include labour, capital, land, and entrepreneurship. Labour can be classified by various levels and types of skill. The skill and experience which makes some forms of labour more productive than unskilled labour are referred to as human capital. Capital includes physical assets, including land, buildings, plant, and equipme…

less than 1 minute read

Factory Acts - Factory Act of 1802, Factory Act of 1833, Factory Act of 1844, Factory Act of 1847

Legislation passed in Britain from 1802 onwards to regulate employment in factories. The early Acts were generally concerned to limit the hours of work of women and children. The 1833 Factory Act prohibited children under nine from working in textile mills, and was the first to appoint factory inspectors. A maximum 10-hour working day in mines and industries for women and older children was agreed…

less than 1 minute read

factory farming - History, Animals, Crops, Origins of the term "factory farming", Alternatives, Regulation of practices, Further reading

An intensive form of livestock production, usually carried out indoors with strict control over the environment and feeding regimes; also known as battery farming. It accelerates growth: a battery chick reaches maturity in 42 days (normally 84). Currently the predominant production technique for eggs, poultry meat, and pig meat, it is opposed by many environmentalists who object to the frequent us…

less than 1 minute read

Fahd (ibn Abd al-Aziz al Saud)

Ruler of Saudi Arabia (1982–2005), born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He was one of seven sons of the founder of Saudi Arabia, King Abd-Aziz ibn Saud, and his favourite wife, Hassa. Effectively ruler since the assassination of his older half-brother Faisal in 1975, he became king on the death of his other half-brother, Khaled. As king, he ruled as a traditional Arab monarch but continued the modernizi…

1 minute read

faience - On-line bibliographic references

Earthenware decorated with an opaque glaze containing oxide of tin. The name derives from the Italian town of Faenza, but is usually applied to wares from France and Germany. English and Dutch Delftware and Italian maiolica employ exactly the same technique. Technically, lead-glazed earthenware, such as the French sixteenth-century Saint-Porchaire ware, does not properly qualify as faience,…

less than 1 minute read

fainting - Types, Clinical symptom

A brief episode of loss of consciousness, usually sudden in onset; also known as syncope [singkuhpee]. It is caused either by the reduction of blood supply to the brain or by changes in its electrical activity. Less commonly, low blood sugar may be responsible. Reduced cerebral blood flow may result from the pooling of blood in the lower limbs due to prolonged standing or overactivity of the vagus…

less than 1 minute read

fairy shrimp

A slender and delicate aquatic crustacean that typically swims on its back, beating its leaf-like legs; contains c.180 species, found in ephemeral freshwater pools and inland saline lakes all over the world. (Class: Branchiopoda. Order: Anostraca.) …

less than 1 minute read

Faisalabad - History, Education, Sites of interest, Development, Transport

31º25N 73º09E, pop (2000e) 1 776 000. City in Punjab province, Pakistan; W of Lahore, in an important cotton and wheat-growing region; railway; grain, textiles, flour, soap, chemicals, textile machinery. Faisalabad (Urdu: فیصل آباد ) is located in Punjab, Pakistan. Faisalabad is the third largest city in Pakistan with an estimated 2006 population of 2.6 million (city proper). …

less than 1 minute read

faith healing - Christian faith healing, Proposed sociobiological basis, Criticism, Ethical issues when conventional treatment is refused

The alleviation of physical and mental ailments by the prayer of a healer relying on a higher source (usually, the power of God) working in response to faith. Known in several religions, the practice is now a major feature of Christian pentecostal and charismatic movements, often accompanied by the laying on of the healer's hands, usually in the context of worship. Critics assert that, even when a…

less than 1 minute read

Faith Ringgold

Painter, soft sculptor, performance artist, and social activist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at City College of New York (1948 BA; 1959 MA), and began to paint seriously after a trip to Europe in 1961. She soon put aside European influences, however, and began to represent her African-American heritage. A strong feminist, she stated that her art had ‘taken its direction’ fr…

less than 1 minute read

Falange - Early history, Spanish Civil War, After the war, Post-Franco era, Falangism today, Debate

A Spanish fascist movement, founded in 1933 by José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903–36). It merged in 1934 with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (JONS) to form the Falange Española de las JONS, and participated in the right-wing rising of July 1936 and the subsequent Civil War. It was fused by Franco in 1937 with other rightist forces to form the single party of Nationalist Spain. …

less than 1 minute read

falcon

Any bird of prey of the family Falconidae (c.60 species); worldwide; includes the carrion-feeding caracara, the forest falcon (large eyes, acute hearing, hunts in near-darkness), and the true falcon (a fast-flying predator which usually kills its prey in flight). True falcons include kestrels, hobbies, and the merlin. …

less than 1 minute read

falconry - History, Birds, Training and Technique, Falconry Around the World, Literature and Film

A sport in which birds of prey are trained to hunt animals and other birds; also known as hawking. Two kinds of falcon are used. Long-winged birds, such as the peregrine, are used in open country, swooping on their prey from a great height and with devastating speed. The short-winged birds, or accipiters, perch on the falconer's gloved fist or tree branch until they see their prey, and then rely o…

less than 1 minute read

Falkland Islands - Name, History, Geography, Economy, Transport

(UK British Overseas Territory) The Falkland Islands, also called the Malvinas, are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located 300 miles (483 kilometres) from the coast of South America, 671 miles (1080 km) west of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Shag Rocks), and 584 miles (940 km) north of Antarctica (Elephant Island). They consist of two main islands, East Fal…

less than 1 minute read

Falklands War - Lead up to the conflict, War, The Fall of Port Stanley, Allegations of nuclear deployment

(Apr–Jun 1982) A war between Britain and Argentina, precipitated by the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Is, known to Argentinians as the Malvinas. Britain had ruled the islands continuously since 1833, but Argentina claimed them by inheritance from the Spanish Empire and through their proximity to her shores. The British had been conducting talks with Argentina on sovereignty over the Falkland…

less than 1 minute read

fallacy - Aristotelian fallacies, Other systems of classification, Fallacies in the media and politics, General list of fallacies:

In logic, an invalid inference. ‘All cats are mammals, Fido is a mammal; therefore Fido is a cat’ is a fallacy, easily confused with the valid ‘All cats are mammals, Fido is a cat; therefore Fido is a mammal’. An argument can of course be valid but have a false conclusion, or be invalid and have a true one. In everyday speech the word fallacy is used much more generally to denote a mistake or …

less than 1 minute read

fallow deer - Distribution and history, Name

A true deer (Dama dama) native to Mediterranean countries (introduced elsewhere); in summer, pale brown with white spots; in winter, grey without spots; antlers long, usually flattened with marginal projections; young male developing antlers for the first time called a pricket. The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The Fallow Deer was…

less than 1 minute read

Falun Gong - Origins, History and timeline, Beliefs and teachings, Research into health benefits, Criticism and controversies, Ethics

A spiritual sect established in China by Li Hongzhi (1951– ), now claiming 100 million adherents worldwide. It offers a mixture of Buddhist meditation, physical exercise, Taoist philosophy, martial arts, and pantheistic mysticism. The sect's beliefs are laid down in its core text, Zhuan Falun, written by Li. Its followers have no political agenda, but wish to be officially accepted and allowed to…

less than 1 minute read

Famagusta - History, Sites of interest

35°07N 33°57E, pop (2000e) 21 300. Capital town of Famagusta district, E Cyprus, on Famagusta Bay; occupies site of ancient Arsinoë (3rd-c BC); strongly fortified by Venetians (15th–16th-c); chief port of Cyprus until 1974 Turkish invasion; now under Turkish occupation; declared by Cyprus government closed to shipping and an illegal port of entry; old town wall; 14th-c citadel; ruins of Chur…

less than 1 minute read

family - The family cross-culturally, Family in the West, Economic function of the family

An ambiguous term, referring to both the group formed by a co-resident husband, wife, and children (which sociologists term the nuclear family) or to a wider category of relatives, including non-resident grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc (the extended family). The nuclear family was once regarded as the key domestic institution of modern Western societies, but marriage has become somewhat …

1 minute read

family therapy - Methodology, In the United States, Founders and key influences

A type of psychiatric treatment, developed in the USA, in which the whole family rather than the individual patient is the focus of therapy. An attempt is made to change the structure and functioning of the unit as well as to improve relationships within it, which then indirectly helps the patient. The main development of this technique took place in the 1960s as a form of psychotherapy. It has su…

less than 1 minute read

famine - Characteristics of famine, Historical famine, by region

A period of food scarcity which may lead to malnutrition and death through starvation. The causes of famines are complex; they may result from natural causes, such as failure of a harvest following lack of rainfall and drought, or from combinations of political and economic circumstances such as war. Famine may also occur in a region where food is not completely scarce, but is unavailable to a sec…

less than 1 minute read

fan palm

A dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis), native to dry places in the Mediterranean, often planted as an ornamental; trunk fibre-covered, sometimes extremely short, suckering and forming clumps; leaves fan-shaped. It is the only widespread native palm in Europe. (Family: Palmae.) Fan palm as a descriptive term can refer to any of several different kinds of palms in various genera with leaves that …

less than 1 minute read

Fan Zhiyi - Biography, Career history

Footballer, born in Shanghai, China. His first club was Shanghai Shenhua and he was also national team captain. In 1998 he became one of the first Chinese professional footballers to move to Europe, when he joined English club Crystal Palace for a transfer fee of £1 million. Playing mainly as a defender and in midfield, he was named Player of the Month three times with the club. He then joined Du…

less than 1 minute read

fandango

A Spanish dance for two people in triple time, usually accompanied by guitars and castanets and alternating with sung couplets. It was known from c.1700 as a popular dance at roadside inns, and later became fashionable in aristocratic ballrooms. A striking feature of the fandango is the introduction of abrupt pauses when the music stops and the dancers freeze in position until the music begins aga…

less than 1 minute read

Fannie (Merritt) Farmer - Early life, Cookbook fame

Home economist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. She became interested in food preparation while working as ‘mother's helper’ and enrolled (1887) in the Boston Cooking School. She stayed on and became its director (1894), resigning to open Miss Farmer's School of Cooking (1902) to teach practical food preparation. She turned increasingly to diets for the sick and convalescent, teaching nurses…

less than 1 minute read

Fannie Hurst - Bibliography

Writer, born in Hamilton, Ohio, USA. She studied at Washington University, MO (1909 BA) and Columbia University (1910–12). Settling in New York City, she held a variety of jobs, ranging from working in restaurants and factories, to small acting parts in plays. Starting in 1920, she wrote an endless succession of novels, plays, screenplays, short stories, and articles. An immensely popular writer …

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Ardant - Selected filmography

Actress, born in Saumur, W France. Originally a stage actress, after 1979 she began a successful career in the cinema in films as varied as La Vie est un Roman (1983, director Alain Resnais), Le Paltoquet (1986, director M Deville), and Ridicule (1996), which received a César for best film and producer of the year award (Patrice Leconte). Later films include Pédale Douce (1996) and Nathalie (200…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Blankers-Koen - Early life, World War II, "The Flying Housewife", After London, Later life

Athlete, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. She first competed for her country at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, and in 1940 married her coach, former Olympic triple jumper John Blankers. She dominated women's events in the London Olympics of 1948, winning four gold medals: the 100 m and 200 m, the 80 m hurdles, and the 4 × 100 m relay. In a career spanning nearly two decades, she set 2…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Brice - Early life and career, Death, Film tributes, Works about Fanny Brice

Entertainer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Born on Manhattan's Lower East Side to successful immigrant saloon-keepers, at age 14 she assumed the name Brice and built a comedy act based on parody, dialect, and physical humour. A perennial Ziegfeld Follies attraction after 1910, she attained international stardom in the 1921 Follies with her signature torch-song parody, ‘My Man’. Appearing…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Burney - Early life, Writings, diaries, After departing royal service

Writer and diarist, born in King's Lynn, Norfolk, E England, UK. She educated herself by reading English and French literature and observing the distinguished people who visited her father. Her first and best novel, Evelina, was published anonymously in 1778, and influenced Jane Austen. She was given a court appointment in 1786, but her health declined; she retired on a pension and married a Frenc…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Cradock - Early Life, Early Career, Family, Television, Later Years, Books, Works about Fanny Cradock

British writer and television cook. From 1955 she became known for her ‘bon viveur’ television cookery programmes, dressed in a ball gown, and presented with her monocled husband, Johnny. Her writing included cookery books, children's books, several novels (under the pen name Frances Dale), and columns on cookery and restaurants in the daily press, which became notorious for their social pretens…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Crosby - Early life and career, Early writing career, Blindness, Career in writing hymns, Fame

Hymn writer, born in Southeast, New York, USA. Blind from infancy, she was pupil and teacher in New York City's Institute for the Blind. She composed about 6000 popular hymns, including ‘Safe in the Arms of Jesus’ (played at President Grant's funeral) and ‘Pass Me Not, O Gentle Saviour’ (reportedly a favourite of Queen Victoria). Moody and Sankey acknowledged a great debt to her. France…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Kemble - Publications

Actress, born in London, UK, the niece of John Philip Kemble. She made her debut at Covent Garden as Juliet in Romeo and Juliet, and created a great sensation. For three years she played leading parts in London, then went with her father to America (1832), where she married a Southern planter. Divorced in 1848, she successfully returned to the stage under her maiden name. Frances Anne Kembl…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Lewald

Writer, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). In 1845 she met Adolf Stahr (1805–76), a Berlin critic, whom she later married. She was an enthusiastic champion of women's rights, which were aired in her early novels, including Clementine (1842). She also wrote records of travel in Italy and Great Britain, and published an autobiography. Her later works were family sagas, notably …

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Workman - People with the surname Bullock

Explorer and mountain climber, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. In 1881 she married William Hunter Workman, a prominent physician. The couple lived in Europe (1889–98) and bicycled through the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. They then engaged in exploration, mountain climbing, mapping, and photographing in the Himalayan mountains (1899–1912). She lectured extensively, and they publ…

less than 1 minute read

Fanny Wright

Abolitionist, social activist, and writer, born in Dundee, E Scotland, UK. Having lost both parents while a child, she was raised by relatives. She read on her own, and by her twenties was writing romantic poetry and plays with progressive themes. In 1818 she went to the USA with a younger sister, and her play Altorf was produced in New York City. When it failed, she travelled throughout the NE an…

1 minute read

Fano

43º85N 13º01E, pop (2001e) 56 400. Resort town in Marche region, E Italy; fishing harbour and beaches; an ancient roman colony, the town takes its name from a temple (Fanum) dedicated to the goddess Fortuna; Arch of Augustus (9th-c AD), Malatesta Fortress (15th-c), cathedral (12th-c) with frescoes by Domenichino; birthplace of Bruno Barilli and Pope Clement VIII; carnival (Feb). Fano is…

less than 1 minute read

fantail - Species

The name used for a group of birds of uncertain affinity, native to SE Asia (India to the Philippines, Australia); inhabits forests; eats insects. Some authors classify fantails with flycatchers in the family Muscicapidae; others make a separate family, Rhipiduridae. (Genus: Rhipidura contains most of the c.42 species.) Fantails are small insectivorous birds of southern Asia and Australasia…

less than 1 minute read

fantasia - In film, Names, Other meanings

An instrumental piece in which the composer's imagination is allowed free rein in one direction or another. An element of improvisation is often suggested, but some fantasias (such as Purcell's for strings) are carefully structured. …

less than 1 minute read

farad - Explanation

SI unit of capacitance; symbol F; named after Michael Faraday; defined as the capacitance of a capacitor comprising two parallel plates between which is a potential difference of one volt when the capacitor is charged with one coulomb of electricity; commonly used as µF (microfarad, 10?6 F) and pF (picofarad, 10?12 F). Since the farad is a very large unit compared to typical requirement…

less than 1 minute read

Faraday effect - Faraday rotation in the interstellar medium

The rotation of polarization plane for linearly polarized light passing through some substance in the presence of a strong magnetic field; described by Michael Faraday in 1845, and historically important as a means of demonstrating the link between light and magnetism. It is a type of magneto-optical effect, caused by anisotropy induced by the applied field. It is distinct from optical activity: r…

less than 1 minute read

farandole

An ancient chain dance originating in Provence, S France, in the Middle Ages. Its participants, linked in a slow, stately line, accompanied themselves with singing or to a flute and drum. The dancers moved sideways or facing forward through streets and around churches or houses, and going under one or more arches made by the raised arms of their companions. Many country and traditional forms invol…

less than 1 minute read

farce - Characteristics, Representative examples: A chronology

A comic dramatic genre, one of the oldest in the history of the theatre, which focuses on both the limitations and liberties of the human body. Throughout a varied history (from Greek and Roman mimes to the Marx Brothers) it has never surrendered its anarchic purpose. Ruthless in pursuit of laughter, farce demands precision plotting and playing, bold stereotyping and mimicry, an aggressive sense o…

less than 1 minute read

Farnese - List of important Farnese family members

A Roman family renowned for their patronage of the arts. Pier Luigi (d.c.1487) married into Roman aristocracy; his son Alessandro became Pope Paul III and made his son, Pier Luigi, Duke of Castro and Parma-Piacenza. Alessandro (1545–92) headed the Spanish army in France and Flanders; Ranuccio I strenghtened his rule. The dynasty's decline started with Odoardo (1622–46). With the death of Antonio…

less than 1 minute read

Farnworth - Geography and administration, History, Present day, Notable residents

53º33N 2º24W, pop (2001e) 24 900. Town in Salford borough, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK: 4 km/2½ mi SE of Bolton; birthplace of Archbishop Richard Bancroft, Roy Chadwick, Frank Tyson; railway; textiles, knitted garments, engineering, paper, wood products. Farnworth is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, in Greater Manchester England. Farnworth was original…

less than 1 minute read

farthing

Formerly the coin of the lowest value in British currency, a quarter of an old (pre-decimalization) penny, its value therefore being 1/960th of £1. The farthing is derived from the Anglo-Norman silver penny (denarius) divided into four parts on the reverse side, along the lines of a cross. Each penny could be struck in half to make a halfpenny and quartered to make a farthing. The first round far…

less than 1 minute read

fasciation

The abnormal, flattened growth of a single shoot, which resembles several stems fused together and often bears several inflorescences. Its causes include mechanical damage to meristems, infections by the bacterium Phytomonas, and mutation. It is common in such plants as dandelions and plantains. Cock's comb is a mutant which breeds true. Fasciation is a condition of plant growth in which th…

less than 1 minute read

fascism - Scope of the word Fascism, Definition, Italian Fascism, Nazism and fascism, Fascism and religion

A term applied to a variety of vehemently nationalistic and authoritarian movements that reached the peak of their influence in 1930–45. The original fascist movement was founded by Mussolini in Italy (1921), and during the 1930s several such movements grew up in Europe, the most important being the German Nazi Party. The central ideas of fascism are a belief in the supremacy of the chosen nation…

less than 1 minute read

fashion - Fashion and variation, Fashion and the process of change, Fashion and the media, Quotes

A prevailing style in dress adopted by large numbers of the population. This is a Western phenomenon; in other cultures, styles have altered little over the centuries, until very recent times when ‘Westernization’ has occurred in some cases. Although many think of ‘fashion’ as relating only to women's clothing, from the Middle Ages until the 19th-c, it involved men equally. In the latter third…

1 minute read

fat (chemistry) - Chemical structure, Importance for living things

A complex mixture of many different triglycerides, each formed when three molecules of fatty acids combine with one of glycerol. It is the major storage fuel of plants and animals. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Fats may be either solid or gas at normal room temperature, depending on their …

less than 1 minute read

fat (physiology) - Chemical structure, Importance for living things

A white or yellowish animal tissue (adipose tissue) in which individual cells are swollen with the accumulation of fat forming a single globule within the cytoplasm (white fat). The stored triglycerides are an energy source for the organism. White fat acts as a packing and insulating material in many animals (eg subcutaneous tissues in humans), but it can also act as a shock-absorber (eg under the…

less than 1 minute read

fatalism

The philosophical doctrine that the future is as unalterable as the past - that what will be will be, no matter what a person may do or not do to affect it. Fatalists are determinists, but not all versions of determinism entail fatalism. Fatalism is the view that human deliberation and actions are pointless and ineffectual in determining events, because whatever will be will be. …

less than 1 minute read

Father of the House (of Commons) - Canada

The honorary and affectionate title given to the longest serving MP in the British parliament. In 2004, this was Tam Dalyell, MP for Linlithgow, Scotland. He stepped down after the 2005 general election and was succeeded by Alan Williams, MP for Swansea West. The term "Father of the House" is not used in Canada. …

less than 1 minute read

Father's Day - History, Trivia

In some countries, a day on which fathers are honoured. In the USA and the UK, it is held on the third Sunday in June; in Australia, the first Sunday in September. Father's Day is a primarily secular holiday inaugurated in the early 20th century to complement Mother's Day in celebrating fatherhood and parenting by males, and to honour and commemorate fathers and forefathers. …

less than 1 minute read

Fats Domino

Musician, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. A singer and pianist, he was one of the first black rhythm & blues artists to attract a wide following among white youth. He played in New Orleans honky-tonks from his early teens, and in 1950 he recorded ‘The Fat Man’ which became his first million-seller. During 1954–68 he headlined many rock 'n' roll package shows on the strength of such hits as…

less than 1 minute read

Fats Navarro

Jazz musician, born in Key West, Florida, USA. He was a brilliant and influential trumpeter and a sideman with Andy Kirk, Billy Eckstine, and Tadd Dameron before his death from tuberculosis. Theodore (Fats) Navarro (24 September 1923 – 6 July 1950) was an American jazz trumpet player. He is regarded by many to have been one of the first modern jazz trumpet improvisers and in his sho…

less than 1 minute read

Fats Waller

Jazz pianist, organist, singer, and songwriter, born in New York City, USA. He performed with such ebullience, frequently parodying songs and styles, that it was sometimes hard for audiences to see him as more than a buffoon. A brilliant piano player in the stride tradition, he was a natural songwriter, as seen in such hits as ‘Ain't Misbehavin'’ (1929) and ‘Keeping Out of Mischief Now’ (1932)…

less than 1 minute read

fault

In geology, a fracture in rock along which displacement has occurred due to stresses in the Earth. Where relative movement is vertical or nearly so, normal faults are caused by compression, which in extreme cases may lead to the overthrusting of one body of rock over another, and reverse faults are caused by crustal extension. Tear faults release compressional stress by sideways displacement, the …

less than 1 minute read

Faust - General plot, History, Origin of Mephistopheles in Faust

A legendary German scholar of the early 16th-c (derived from a historical magician of that name), who sold his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge, magical power, love, and prolonged youth. His story inspired Marlowe's Dr Faustus (1592), other literary works by Lessing (1784), Goethe (1808, 1832), and Thomas Mann (1947), and musical works including Gounod's opera Faust (1859). Faust…

less than 1 minute read

Fauvism

A name given by a hostile critic to a group of modern painters (1898–1908) who were experimenting with vivid colours; they included Matisse, Derain, and Vlaminck. Their work was inspired by van Gogh, Gauguin, and Cézanne. Les Fauves (French for The Wild Beasts) were a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep col…

less than 1 minute read

fax - Overview, Capabilities, Alternatives, History

The facsimile transmission of documents, diagrams, and photographs over a telephone network, widely available for international communication since 1986, and developed from the earlier inventions of Arthur Korn (telephotography, 1907) and Edouard Belin (the belinograph, 1925). The original is scanned by laser beam and digitally coded for transmission to the receiver, where it is printed out line b…

less than 1 minute read

Faxian

Buddhist pilgrim, explorer, and diarist. Inspired by the visit of Kumarajiva to China (386) he made a momentous journey through Turkestan, India, and SE Asia (399–414) looking for Buddhist Scriptures. In India he visited every region except the Deccan, learned Sanskrit, and translated the earliest Life of Buddha into Chinese. He later wrote his memoirs (AD 416) in Nanjing: Account of Buddhist Cou…

less than 1 minute read

Fay Compton

Actress, born in London, UK, the daughter of the actor Edward Compton (1854–1918), and the sister of Sir Compton Mackenzie. She first appeared on the stage in 1911, and won acclaim in London in Peter Pan (1918). She later played many famous parts, especially in plays by Barrie. Fay Compton (September 18, 1894 in West Kensington, London – December 12, 1978) was an English actress from a n…

less than 1 minute read

Fay Vincent - Actions as commissioner, Trivia

Lawyer and baseball commissioner, born in Waterbury, Connecticut, USA. An aspiring athlete, he suffered a back injury in college and was forced to pursue a more cerebral career. He took his law degree at Yale (1963) and practised law in New York City and Washington, DC (1963–78). As a corporate lawyer, he moved over to become president and chief executive officer of Columbia Pictures Industries (…

less than 1 minute read

Fay Weldon - Novels

Writer, born in Alvechurch, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. She studied at the University of St Andrews, and worked as an advertising copywriter before becoming a full-time author, writing novels, short stories, and television plays. Her work deals with contemporary feminist themes, as in Female Friends (1975) and Puffball (1980), and caustic satires of male-dominated society, as in The Hearts and…

less than 1 minute read

Faye Dunaway - Filmography, Guest Appearances, Academy Awards and nominations

Film actress, born in Bascom, Florida, USA. She made her Broadway debut in A Man for All Seasons (1962), but it was an off-Broadway success in the play Hogan's Goat (1965) which led her to a television debut, a personal contract with Otto Preminger, and a film debut in The Happening (1966). Her first starring role was in Bonnie and Clyde (1967). Later films include Chinatown (1974, Oscar nominatio…

less than 1 minute read

feather - Characteristics, Evolution, Human uses

A structure formed from the skin of birds. It may be less than 0·5 mm/¼ in long, or more than 1·5 m/5 ft. Birds evolved from reptiles, and feathers are modified scales. The naked region of the central shaft, near the skin of the bird, is called the calamus. Beyond this is the rachis, bearing many side branches (barbs). Each barb also has small side branches (barbules). The barbules of adjac…

1 minute read

February Revolution (France) - World War I, Petrograd's riots, The Provisional Government and Petrograd's Soviet

The revolution in France (22–24 Feb 1848) which campaigned for universal suffrage and the introduction of a socialist government of the people. It resulted in the abdication of King Louis Philippe, the proclamation of a republic, and the establishment of a provisional government. Although not the first of the European revolutions of 1848, it inspired subsequent revolutionary activity in Germany, …

less than 1 minute read

February Revolution (Russia) - World War I, Petrograd's riots, The Provisional Government and Petrograd's Soviet

Popular demonstrations, strikes, and military mutinies in Petrograd, Russia (Feb–Mar 1917), which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the collapse of the tsarist government. The regime was succeeded by a series of provisional governments composed of liberal and moderate socialist ministers, and by the establishment of the Soviet (‘council’) of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, a situation k…

less than 1 minute read

February strike - Background, Razzias, The strike, Remembrance, Sources

A general strike in Amsterdam in February 1941 organized by the underground communists, in protest at German action against the Jews in The Netherlands. The strike was started by city employees, but found spontaneous support among the general population. It was put down by violence. It is now commemorated annually. The 1941 February strike, also known as 'The Strike of February 1941', was a…

less than 1 minute read

Fedayeen - Islamic history, Palestinians, Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Fictional

A label commonly used to describe commandos who operated under the umbrella of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The name is from the Arabic fidai, ‘one who sacrifices oneself’ (for a cause or country). Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'īyīn, فدائيون: "one who is ready to sacrifice his life", Armenian: Ֆէտայի) describes several distinct, primarily Arab g…

less than 1 minute read

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - Overall mission, History, Organization, Publications, Crime statistics, Media portrayal, Criticism

The US organization primarily concerned with internal security or counter-intelligence operations, although it also has responsibility for investigating violations of federal law not remitted by the federal government to any other organization. The FBI is a branch of the Department of Justice. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency…

less than 1 minute read

Federal Reserve System (FRS) - Legal status and position in government, History, Roles and responsibilities, Organization, Control of the money supply

The USA Central Bank, known as ‘The Fed’, set up in 1913. It replaced the Independent Treasury System, established in the 1840s. The Fed divides the USA into 12 districts, each with its own Federal Reserve Bank, carries out the normal duties of a central bank, and also manages cheque clearance on behalf of member banks. It is the major regulator of the US money supply and stock market functions.…

less than 1 minute read

federalism - Democracy, U.S. Constitution, Europe, Canada

A form of territorial political organization which aims to maintain national unity while allowing for regional diversity. This is achieved by distributing different constitutional powers to national and regional governments. Power is not hierarchically distributed, but allocated among independent yet interacting centres; the national government is thus not in a position to dictate to regional gove…

less than 1 minute read

Federico (Count) Confalonieri

Italian patriot, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. A man of strong liberal leanings, he founded Il Conciliatore, a literary review with an anti-Austrian bias. He was arrested in 1821 for his links with the Carboneria and sentenced to death, commuted to life imprisonment. After spending 12 years in the notorious Spielberk jail in Moravia, he was pardoned in 1835. Count Federico Confalonieri …

less than 1 minute read

Federico da Montefeltro - Biography, Portraits

Duke of Urbino, born in Gubbio, Umbria, C Italy. The illegitimate son of Guidantonio, Count of Montefeltro and Urbino, he became duke in 1474. One of the greatest of all condottiere, he served a number of princes, and was commander-in-chief of the Italic league in 1466. He extended his territories, taking Fano and Fossombrone, and in 1474 his title was recognized by Pope Sixtus IV. He built Urbino…

less than 1 minute read

Federico Fellini - Filmography as director, Bibliographies

Film director, born in Rimini, E Italy. He studied at Bologna, and was a cartoonist, journalist, and scriptwriter before becoming an assistant film director in 1942. His highly individual films, always from his own scripts, include La strada (1954, The Road, Oscar), Le notte di Cabiria (1956, Nights of Cabiria, Oscar), Fellini's Roma (1972), Amarcord (1973, I Remember, Oscar), Otto e mezzo (1963, …

less than 1 minute read

Federico Moreno Torroba - Biography, Works, List of works, Bibliography

Spanish composer. A disciple of Conrado del Campol, he began his career as a symphonist with La ajorca de oro y cuadros castellanos. Dedicated to the composition of zarzuelas, he was greatly successful with Luisa Fernanda (1932). His other works include La mesonera de Tordesillas (1925), La chulapona (1934), La Caramba (1942), and La ilustra moza (1943). A guitarist and expert in primitive Spanish…

less than 1 minute read

Fedor von Bock - Trivia

German soldier, born in Kostrzyn, WC Poland. He studied at Potsdam Military School, served as a staff officer in World War 1, and commanded the German armies which invaded Austria (1938), Poland (1939), and the Lower Somme, France (1940). Promoted to field marshal in 1940, he participated in the invasion of Russia with remarkable success (1941), but was dismissed by Hitler for failing to capture M…

less than 1 minute read

feedback - Types of feedback

The process by which information is conveyed to the source of the original output; also, the information itself. The term comes from cybernetics, and is applied both to machines and to animal and human communication, whereby it enables the sender of a message to monitor its reception and make any necessary modification. Feedback is the signal that is looped back to control a system within i…

less than 1 minute read

Feldenkrais method - Overview, Techniques, History, Influence on Somatics, Resources and External links

A system of slow exercises developed by nuclear physicist Moshe Feldenkrais. The system was designed to relearn free body movements (ie the way young children move) and to discard acquired restricting movement habits and postures. Feldenkrais emphasized two principles of practice: awareness through movement, which is practised during class sessions; and functional integration, practised in individ…

less than 1 minute read

Felice Casorati

Painter, born in Novara, N Italy. He was one of the exponents of Italian Neoclassicism, and is noted for his series of portraits of women. Felice Casorati (December 4, 1883 - March 1, 1963) was an Italian painter, primarily of figure compositions, portraits and still life, which are often distinguished by unusual perspective effects. Casorati was born in Novara and…

less than 1 minute read

Felice Cavallotti - Duel with Count Macola

Italian politician and scholar, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. A follower of Garibaldi, he became a deputy of the far left in 1873 and opposed Depretis and Crispi. He was also a journalist and playwright. Because of his polemic nature, he was involved in a number of trials and was killed in a duel. Felice Cavallotti (b. Aged 55, Cavallotti was killed in a duel with Count Maco…

less than 1 minute read

Felice Orsini - Biography, Bibliography, Additional source

Revolutionary, born in Meldola, NEC Italy. He was early initiated into secret societies, and in 1844 was sentenced at Rome to the galleys, amnestied, and again imprisoned for political plots. In 1853 he was shipped by the Sardinian government to England, where he joined the Young Italy movement and formed close relations with Mazzini. In 1857 he made an unsuccessful attempt in Paris to assassinate…

less than 1 minute read

Felicia Dorothea Hemans

Poet, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. She produced a large number of books of verse of all kinds - love lyrics, classical, mythological, sentimental - including The Siege of Valencia (1823) and Records of Women (1828). She is perhaps best remembered for the poem ‘Casabianca’, better known from its first line, ‘The boy stood on the burning deck’. Browne is a surname relate…

less than 1 minute read

Feliciano de Silva - Legacy

Novelist, born in Ciudad Rodrigo, W Spain. He married the daughter of a Jewish converso despite the difficulties, recording this love-match in the poignant Sueño de Feliciano de Silva at the end of part I of Amadís de Grecia (1530), a work which is in the full tradition of the romances of chivalry and is one of the first to include pastoral elements, taking as its model the Arcadia (1504) of San…

less than 1 minute read

Felicity (Ann) Kendal - Early life, Career, Male fanbase, Personal life, Source

British actress, born in Olton, West Midlands, C England, UK. Her parents had a travelling theatre company, and she grew up touring India and the Far East, attending various schools in India, and learning stage craft from her parents. She graduated from playing page boys at the age of eight to a number of Shakespearean roles before returning to England in 1965, making her London debut in Minor Mur…

less than 1 minute read

Felidae - Classification

The cat family (37 species); a family of muscular carnivores with camouflaged coloration; round head with powerful jaws, long canine teeth; sharp claws (usually retractable); cannot chew food; eats meat almost exclusively; usually catches own prey; hunts by stalking followed by a pounce or short sprint; species of genus Panthera called big cats. The Felidae family includes lions, tigers, do…

less than 1 minute read

Feliks Topolski

Painter, draughtsman, and illustrator, born in Poland. He studied at Warsaw, and in Italy and Paris, and went to England in 1935. From 1940 to 1945 he was an official war artist, and became a British citizen in 1947. His lively and sensitive drawings, depicting everyday life, appeared in many books and periodicals, and he also designed for the theatre. His publications include Britain in Peace and…

less than 1 minute read

Felix (George) Rohatyn - Career in finance, Diplomacy and foreign policy credentials, LaRouche Enmity

Financier and writer, born in Vienna, Austria. His family fled the Nazis in the mid-1930s, settling first in France, then in the USA. He graduated from Middlebury College (1948), and joined Lazard Freres & Co, the investment house, that same year. In 1950 he became a naturalized US citizen and served in the army (including a tour in Korea) in 1951–3. He returned to Lazard and worked for the firm …

less than 1 minute read

Felix Andries Vening Meinesz - Biography, Research and Discoveries

Geophysicist, a pioneer of submarine gravity measurements, born in The Hague, W Netherlands. After graduating in civil engineering from the Technical University of Delft (1910), he worked on a gravity survey of The Netherlands. He was appointed professor of geodesy at Utrecht (1927), and professor of geophysics at Delft (1938–57). He devised a gravity measuring instrument for use on unstable plat…

less than 1 minute read

Felix Bloch

Physicist, born in Zürich, Switzerland. He made pioneering contributions to studies of superconductivity and magnetism while affiliated with several European universities. After Hitler's regime caused his emigration to the USA (1934), he went to Stanford (1934–41), investigated uranium isotopes for the Manhattan Project (1941–4), performed counter-radar research for Harvard (1944–5), then retu…

less than 1 minute read

F

French painter and engraver, the husband of Marie Bracquemond. He studied under Guichard and exhibited with the Impressionists in 1874, 1879, and 1880. In 1871 he was appointed director at the Sèvres porcelain factory, and later at the Haviland factory in Limoges. He was an outstanding and innovative engraver who published Du Dessin et de la Couleur (1886) on this art-form. A friend of the Impres…

less than 1 minute read

Felix de Weldon - Work

Sculptor and painter, born in Vienna, Austria. The son of a wealthy textile manufacturer, he studied sculpture, and by age 17 was earning commissions. He went on to study in Paris, Rome, and Madrid, and in the 1930s settled in England, where he became known for his many portrait busts. By the early 1940s he had moved to Canada, and in World War 2 he enlisted in the US Navy and was assigned as a wa…

1 minute read

Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky

Russian revolutionary, born in Vilnius, E Lithuania. In 1897 he was exiled to Siberia for political agitation, fought in the 1905 revolution, and in 1917 became chairman of the secret police and a member of the Bolshevik central committee. After 1921 he reorganized the railway system, and was chairman of the supreme economic council (1924–6). Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Feliks D…

less than 1 minute read

Felix Frankfurter - Early life, Legal career, Criminal justice in Cleveland, Bibliography, Supreme Court, Retirement, Trivia

Judge, and presidential adviser, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to the USA at age 12 and studied at Harvard Law School (1906). He briefly practised law and served as an assistant district attorney in New York before joining the faculty at Harvard Law School (1914–39), during which time he served as a legal adviser to President Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference (1919). An early contribut…

less than 1 minute read

Felix Grundy

US representative and senator, born in Berkley Co, Virginia, USA. He was tutored at home and went on to serve in the Kentucky legislature (1801–6) before becoming a successful criminal lawyer in Nashville, TN (1807–40). A Whig representative (1811–15) and senator (1827–38), he resigned to become attorney general to President Martin Van Buren. Felix Grundy (September 11, 1777–December …

less than 1 minute read

Felix Hausdorff

Mathematician, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied at Leipzig and Berlin, and taught at Leipzig (1896–1910). In 1910 he moved to Bonn, where he stayed until, as a Jew, he was forced by the Nazis to resign his chair in 1935; ultimately he committed suicide with his family, to avoid the concentration camps. He is regarded as the founder of point set topology, and his …

less than 1 minute read

Felix Hebert

US senator, born near St Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada. He served one term in the US Senate (Republican, Rhode Island, 1929–35) and was party whip during 1933–5. Felix Hebert (December 11, 1874 - December 14, 1969) was a United States Senator from Rhode Island. Born near St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, he came to the United States when his parents returned in 1880 and resumed their resid…

less than 1 minute read

Felix Salten - Novels

Novelist and essayist, born in Budapest, Hungary. He lived in Vienna, but settled in Switzerland after fleeing from the Nazis. He became a theatre critic, but is known especially for his animal stories, particularly Bambi (1929) which, in translation and filmed by Walt Disney, achieved great popularity in America and Britain. He also wrote Florian, the Emperor's Stallion (1934) and Bambi's Childre…

less than 1 minute read

Felix Wankel

Mechanical engineer, the designer of a rotary engine, born in Lahr, SW Germany. He was employed in various engineering works before opening his own research establishment in 1930. While carrying out work for German motor manufacturers, he devoted himself to the development of an alternative configuration to the conventional piston-and-cylinder internal combustion engine. After many trials he produ…

less than 1 minute read

felony

Originally, at common law, every crime which occasioned the forfeiture of land and goods, usually punishable by death. In modern times, in the USA, a felony is a crime which carries a potential punishment in a state prison of not less than one year. It corresponds roughly to an indictable offence in the UK, and is distinguished from a misdemeanour. In England and Wales, all distinctions between fe…

less than 1 minute read

felt - History, Manufacture

A non-woven cloth consisting of loose ‘webs’ of natural or synthetic fibre, or formed in fabrics by the action of moisture, heat, and repeated pressure; the fibres become locked together by entanglement. Felts have important uses in clothing (eg hats), domestic furnishing (eg floor and table covers), and industry (eg insulators). Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, cond…

less than 1 minute read

feminism - Feminism in many forms, Modern feminism, Worldwide statistics, Contemporary criticisms of feminism

A socio-political movement whose objective is equality of rights, status, and power for men and women. It has its roots in early 20th-c struggles for women's political emancipation (the suffragettes), but has been broadened in its political scope by the influence of radical left-wing beliefs, especially Marxism, which has led feminists to challenge both sexism and the capitalist system which is sa…

less than 1 minute read

femur - Fractures, In other animals, Additional images

The long bone of the thigh, having a rounded head, neck, and shaft, and an expanded lower end. It articulates by the head with the pelvis (via the hip joint), the patella, and the tibia (via the knee joint). It is the largest and longest bone in the body, and gives attachment to powerful muscle groups which move the thigh with respect to the trunk, and also the calf with respect to the thigh. …

less than 1 minute read

fencing - Philosophies, Weapons, Protective clothing, Practice, Footwork, Competition, Collegiate fencing, High School Fencing

The art of fighting with a sword, one of the oldest sports, which can be traced back to the ancient Egyptians c.1300 BC. Fencing was popular in the Middle Ages, and the rapier was developed by the end of the 16th-c. Modern weapons consist of the sabre, foil, and épée. In competitive fencing, different target areas exist for each weapon, and contestants wear electronically wired clothing to indic…

less than 1 minute read

feng shui - History, Doctrine, Schools of feng shui, Use in burials, Scepticism, Use in the West

The study of harmony with nature, based on the principles of I Ching. It was originally used to determine the most auspicious site to place a tomb, so that an ancestor's spirit could be in harmony with heaven and earth. The study of these principles later extended to harmonizing both internal and external environments, and to include the location of buildings, the details of architecture, and even…

less than 1 minute read

fennel

A strong-smelling, bluish-green biennial or perennial (Foeniculum vulgare), growing to 2·5 m/8 ft, native to the Mediterranean region; leaves feathery, much divided into thread-like segments; flowers yellow, in umbels to 8 cm/3 in across; fruit ovoid, ribbed. Cultivated since classical times, the leaves are used as a flavouring. Cultivated forms with swollen bases to the leaf stalks are eaten…

less than 1 minute read

fenugreek

An annual (Trigonella foenum-graecum) growing to 50 cm/20 in, a native of SW Asia; leaves have three shallowly toothed leaflets; pea-flowers yellowish-white, solitary or in pairs, stalkless in the upper leaf axils; pod up to 10 cm/4 in long. Grown for fodder, its seeds are edible (used in curries), and it is also employed medicinally. (Family: Leguminosae.) …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (Edralin) Marcos - Early life, Military career, Early political career, Cabinet and Judicial Appointments 1965-73

Philippines statesman and president (1965–86), born in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. He trained as a lawyer, and as a politician obtained considerable US support as an anti-Communist. His regime as president was marked by increasing repression, misuse of foreign financial aid, and political murders (notably the assassination of Benigno Aquino in 1983). He declared martial law in 1972, but was overth…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (Julius) Cohn

Botanist and bacteriologist, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He received his doctorate from Berlin at the age of 19. Professor of botany at Breslau (1859) and founder of the Institute of Plant Physiology, he is regarded as the father of bacteriology, in that he was the first to account it a separate science. He did important research in plant pathology, and worked with Robe…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (of Castile) - Royalty and Nobility, Other people, Other meanings

King of Castile as Ferdinand V (from 1474), of Aragón and Sicily as Ferdinand II (from 1479), and of Naples as Ferdinand III (from 1503), born in Sos, Aragón, Spain. In 1469 he married Isabella, sister of Henry IV of Castile, and ruled jointly with her until her death. He introduced the Inquisition (1478–80), and in 1492, after the defeat of the Moors, expelled the Jews. Under him, Spain gained…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (Vandeveer) Hayden

Geologist, born in Westfield, Massachusetts, USA. After working on surveys in the NW (1853–62), he became professor of geology at Pennsylvania University (1865–72), and was subsequently head of the US geological survey. He was influential in securing the establishment of Yellowstone National Park. Dr. Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (September 7, 1829–December 22, 1887) was an American geolo…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Bordewijk - Bibliography, Prizes

Writer and lawyer, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. His first work was a collection of poems, Paddestoelen (1916, Mushrooms), under the pseudonym of Ton Ven. Inspired by Edgar Allen Poe, he made his debut as a novelist with three volumes of Fantastische Vertellingen (1919, 1923–4 Fantastic Tales), but his reputation as a novelist was established with three short novels Blokken (1931, Blocks), …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Bruckner - Works

Playwright, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied philosophy, medicine, and law in Vienna and Paris. He founded the Renaissance Theatre in Berlin before emigrating to the USA in 1936. Together with Heinrich Mann, Brecht, and Döblin, he founded the Aurora Verlag. He returned to West Berlin in 1951 to work in the theatre. His beginnings were in the Expressionist style, with his success as a young man…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Christian Baur

Theologian and New Testament critic, born in Schmiden, SW Germany. He held the Tübingen chair of theology from 1826, and founded the ‘Tübingen School’ of theology, the first to use strict historical research methods in the study of early Christianity. Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - December 2, 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand de Saussure - Contributions to linguistics, Legacy

Linguist, the founder of modern linguistics, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. He taught historical linguistics at Paris (1881–91), and became professor of Indo-European linguistics and Sanskrit (1901–13) and of general linguistics (1907–13) at Geneva. The work by which he is best known, the Cours de linguistique générale (1916, Course in General Linguistics) was compiled from the lecture notes…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis

Dutch politician, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He was a Lutheran minister until 1879, when he turned socialist and left the church. He was secretary of the Sociaal-Democratische Bond (SDB) and published widely. In 1882 he founded the Union for Universal Suffrage. In 1886 he was convicted of lese majesté (one year in prison) for an article ‘De Koning komt’ (The King is Coming) in Recht vo…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Foch - Early life, Foch and World War I, Paris Peace Conference, Post-war career, Writing

French marshal, born in Tarbes, S France. He taught at the Ecole de Guerre, proved himself a great strategist at the Marne (1914), Ypres, and other World War 1 battles, and commanded the Allied Armies in 1918. Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing "the most original and subtle mind in the French …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Freiligrath - Further reading

Poet and journalist, born in Detmold, WC Germany, one of the few overtly political writers of the time. Initially a merchant like his father, he turned to writing and also translated French and English writers. His first successful poems and ballads earned him a royal pension, but in 1844, which saw the publication of his collected political poems Ein Glaubensbekenntnis, he renounced this, having …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Georg Frobenius - Contributions to group theory

Mathematician, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied at Göttingen and Berlin, where he took his doctorate in 1870, then taught at Zürich (1875–92), before returning to Berlin as professor. He founded the theory of group representations, which was later to become essential in quantum mechanics, and a major theme of 20th-c mathematics. Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (October 26, 1849 - August 3, …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Hodler

Artist, born in Bern, Switzerland. He was one of the group of Swiss painters whose landscapes influenced the Expressionist artists of the early 20th-c. He also painted many symbolic works: in particular, ‘Die Nacht’ (1890, Night; Kunstmuseum, Bern), engaging with the symbolism of youth and age, solitude, and contemplation, brought him great acclaim throughout Europe. Ferdinand Hodler (Mar…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (Emperor) I

King of Bohemia and Hungary (1526), King of Germany (1531), and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1556). In 1521 he received the Austrian hereditary countries from his brother Charles V and appointed his representative and successor in Germany. He worked towards an agreement between Catholics and Protestants, the Augsburger Religionsfriede (1555). …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (of Bulgaria) I

King of Bulgaria, born in Vienna, Austria. The youngest son of Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg and Princess Clementine of Orléans, he served in the Austrian army. On the abdication of Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, Ferdinand was offered, and accepted, the crown in 1887. In 1908 he proclaimed Bulgaria independent, and took the title of king or tsar. Allying himself with the Central Powers, he invade…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (of Naples) I

King of Naples (from 1458), born in Valencia, E Spain, the illegitimate son of Alfonso V of Aragón. He faced opposition from the pro-Angio aristocracy, but he defeated them, thanks to Pius II's recognition and the help of Francesco Sforza. He abolished feudal practices and promoted commerce, and embarked on a series of alliances with Milan, the papacy, and Florence to maintain the political statu…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (of the Two Sicilies) I

King of Naples, as Ferdinand IV (1759–99, 1799–1806) and of the Two Sicilies (1816–25), born in Naples, SW Italy. He joined England and Austria against France in 1793, and suppressed the French-supported Roman Republic (1799), but in 1801 was forced to make a treaty with Napoleon. In 1806 he took refuge in Sicily, under English protection, being reinstated by the Congress of Vienna (1815). In 1…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (Emperor) II

Grandson of Ferdinand I, he became King of Bohemia (1617), King of Hungary (1618), and Holy Roman Emperor (1619). His repression of the Protestants was one of the causes of the Dreißigjähriger Krieg (Restitutionsedikt of 1629). See: …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand (of Castile) III - Marriages and Family

King of Castile (1217–52) and León (1230–52), the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berengaria of Castile. He permanently united the kingdoms of Castile and León. During his important reign, he campaigned against the Moors, taking Córdoba (1236), Jaén (1246), and Seville (1248), and occupied Murcia, thus completing the reconquest of Spain, except for the kingdom of Granada which became a vassal…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Lassalle - Early life, Return to Berlin, Founding of the ADAV, Death, Publications

Social Democrat, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). In Berlin (1844–5) he championed the cause of Countess Sophie Hatzfeld's divorce before 36 tribunals, earning financial independence. He took part in the revolution of 1848, during which he met Marx, and for an inflammatory speech got six months in prison. He founded the Universal German Working-Men's Association (the foreru…

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Magellan - First voyages, Journey, Death, Circumnavigation and return, Discoveries, Trivia, General, Further reading

Navigator, born in Sabrosa or Porto, Portugal. After serving in the East Indies and Morocco, he offered his services to Spain. He sailed from Seville (1519) around the foot of South America (Cape of the Virgins) to reach the ocean which he named the Pacific (1520). He was killed by natives in the Philippines, but his ships continued back to Spain (1522), thus completing the first circumnavigation …

less than 1 minute read

Ferdinand Porsche

Automobile designer, born in Hafersdorf, Germany. He designed cars for Daimler and Auto Union, then set up his own studio, and in 1934 produced the plans for a revolutionary type of cheap car with the engine in the rear, to which the Nazis gave the name Volkswagen (‘people's car’). The Porsche sports car was introduced in 1950. Porsche's son, Ferry Porsche, is the eponym for Porsche autom…

less than 1 minute read

Ferhat Abbas - Involvement with FLN, After independence

Algerian nationalist leader, born in Taher, N Algeria. He founded a Muslim Students' Association in 1924, then became a chemist. In 1955 he joined the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), the main Algerian resistance organization, founding in 1958 the ‘Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic’ in Tunis. After independence in 1962, he was appointed President of the National Constituent As…

less than 1 minute read

Fermat's last theorem - Fermat's Last Theorem from a comment in a margin

A mathematical theorem proposed by Pierre de Fermat, which states that there are no positive integers x, y, z, and n (where n is greater than 2), such that xn + yn = zn (compare x2 + y2 = z2, where there is an infinite number of integers satisfying this relation). Fermat wrote in the margin of a book ‘I have found remarkable proof of this theorem, but the margin is too narrow to contain i…

less than 1 minute read

Fermat's principle - History, Derivation

A principle in physics: light rays travel between two points in such a way that the time taken is a minimum; stated by Pierre de Fermat in 1657. It is a special case of the least-action principle. Fermat's principle of optics, in its historical form states: The actual path between two points taken by a beam of light is the one which is traversed in the least time. Fe…

less than 1 minute read

fermion

Subatomic particle having half integer spin; the particle of matter; named after Enrico Fermi. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two fermions may occupy the same state. Electrons, protons, and quarks are all fermions. In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin. Informally speaking, fermions are particles of matter and bosons are particles that transmit for…

less than 1 minute read

fern - Fern structure, Economic uses, Cultural connotations, Misunderstood names, Gallery

A member of a large group of spore-bearing, vascular plants related to clubmosses and horsetails, and containing some 10 000 species which comprise the class Filicopsida or Filicinae. Like their relatives, they have a long fossil record containing many extinct forms. Ferns appear as early as the Devonian period, but they were especially abundant and diverse during the Carboniferous. The visible p…

less than 1 minute read

Fernand Braudel - Works

Historian, born in Lorraine, NE France. He studied at the Sorbonne, and taught in Algerian schools (1923–32), in Paris (1932–5), and at Saõ Paulo University (1935–8). He wrote, from memory, his great work La Mediterranée et le monde mediterranéen à l'époque de Philippe II (The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World at the Time of Philip II) in a German prison camp in Lübeck throughout …

less than 1 minute read

Fernandel

Film comedian, born in Marseille, S France. He worked in a bank and soap factory before his debut on the stage in 1922, and from 1930 appeared in over a hundred films, interrupted only temporarily by military service and Nazi occupation. He established himself internationally with his moving portrayal of the naive country priest of The Little World of Don Camillo (1953), and with his versatile han…

less than 1 minute read

Fernando Alonso - Complete Formula One results, References, See also, External links

Motor-racing driver, born in Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. Encouraged by his father, he began karting as a child and went on to become the world junior karting champion in 1996. The funds provided by sponsorship enabled him to take up motor racing and he joined Formula One in 2001, first driving for Minardi and then Renault. In the 2003 season he won the Hungarian Grand Prix and finished sixth in the w…

less than 1 minute read

Fernando Arrabal - Prizes, Novels, Poetry, Plays, Films

Playwright and novelist, born in Melilla, Spanish Morocco. He studied law in Madrid and drama in Paris, then settled permanently in France. His first play, Pique-nique en campagne (1958, trans Picnic on the Battlefield), established him in the tradition of the Theatre of the Absurd. He coined the term panic theatre, intended to shock the senses, employing sadism and blasphemy to accomplish its aim…

less than 1 minute read

Fernando Bujones

Ballet dancer, born in Miami, Florida, USA. He studied with Alicia Alonso in Havana and at the School of American Ballet in New York City. In 1972 he joined the American Ballet Theatre (ABT) and, after winning the prestigious gold medal in Varna, Bulgaria (1974), was made principal dancer. A powerful and technically skilled performer, he enjoyed a diverse repertoire with the ABT and went on to app…

less than 1 minute read

Fernando Rey

Actor, born in Spain. He obtained his first film rôle as a protagonist Acte in López Rubio's Eugenia de Montijo (1944). Considered among his best films are Orduña's Locura de amor (1948) and Agustina de Aragón (1950); Berlanga's ¡Bienvenido, Mr Marshall! (1952); Bardem's La venganza (1957); and Friedkin's The French Connection (1971). One of Buñuel's preferred performers, he acted in several…

less than 1 minute read

Fernando Wood - Reference

US representative, mayor, and businessman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. As a Tammany Hall Democrat, he served New York City in the US House of Representatives (1841–3), and then made a fortune as a merchant from the California gold rush of 1849. Again as a Tammany candidate, he served as mayor of New York City (1855–9), and although he achieved some good things, notably in helping to…

less than 1 minute read

Ferrante Pallavicino

Writer, born in Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He moved to Germany and converted to Calvinism in 1640, but in 1643 was sentenced to death for apostasy and beheaded. He wrote Il corriere svaligiato, a savage libel against popes, Spaniards, and Jesuits, as well as novels inspired by the Bible (La Susanna, 1636), chivalry (Il prencipe ermafrodito, 1654) and myths (La rete di Vulcano, 1654) in an …

less than 1 minute read

Ferrara - History, Main sights, Ferrara in culture, Politics

44°50N 11°38E, pop (2000e) 148 000. Ancient town and capital of Ferrara province, Emilia-Romagna region, N Italy; seat of the Council of Ferrara (1439) and of the 15th-c Renaissance court; ceded to France (1797–1815); part of Kingdom of Sardinia, 1859; archbishopric; railway; university (1391); sugar, hemp, milling, agricultural machinery, chemicals, trade in fruit and wine; birthplace of Sav…

less than 1 minute read

ferret

A domesticated form of the European polecat (Mustela putorius); yellowish-white with pink eyes; domesticated over 2000 years ago; sent down burrows to chase out rabbits; bred white so it is not mistaken for a rabbit. The name black-footed ferret is used for the North American polecat Mustela nigripes, formerly thought to be extinct in the wild, but now being re-established through a recovery progr…

less than 1 minute read

ferrimagnetism

The magnetic property of materials for which neighbouring atomic magnetic moments are of different strengths and are aligned antiparallel. It is related to ferromagnetism, but exhibiting much weaker gross magnetic properties. It is observed in ferrites and certain other materials. In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment of the atoms on different sublattices …

less than 1 minute read

ferrocene - History, Physical properties, Chemical properties, Applications of ferrocene and its derivatives, Variations

Fe(C5H5)2, orange solid, melting point 173ºC, first prepared in 1951, in which an iron atom is symmetrically bonded to two cyclopentadienyl rings. It was the first of a series of transition metal organometallic compounds called metallocenes. Ferrocene is the chemical compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2. Ferrocene, like many chemical compounds, was first prepared unintentionally…

less than 1 minute read

ferromagnetism - Ferromagnetic materials

A property of ferromagnetic substances (eg iron, nickel, cobalt, gadolinium, dysprosium, and many alloys) arising from large-scale alignment between atomic magnetic moments. An applied magnetic field intensity H, supplied by a surrounding electric coil, causes a disproportionately large magnetic flux density B to appear in the bulk material. A field may remain in the material even when the externa…

less than 1 minute read

Ferruccio (Benvenuto) Busoni - Biography, Busoni's music, Busoni's editions, Recordings, References and external links

Pianist and composer, born in Empoli, NC Italy. An infant prodigy, in 1889 he became professor of the pianoforte at Helsinki, and later taught and played in Moscow, Boston, and Berlin. The influence of Liszt is apparent in his great piano concerto. Of his four operas Doktor Faust, completed posthumously by a pupil in 1925, is his greatest work. Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, 1…

less than 1 minute read

Ferruccio Parri

Italian politician, born in Pinerolo, Piedmont, NW Italy. Strongly anti-Fascist, he started an organization with Carlo Rosselli to help people hounded by the Fascists to leave the country. He was arrested in 1926 and was in internal exile until 1933. With others he founded the Partito d'Azione (Action Party) and the partisan brigades Giustizia e libertà. He was prime minister in 1945, a deputy in…

less than 1 minute read

fertilizer - Inorganic fertilizers (Mineral Fertilizer), Organic fertilizers, Environmental effects of fertilizer use

A substance which provides plant nutrients when added to soil. The term normally refers to inorganic chemicals containing one or more of the basic plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, or potash. It may also refer to compounds containing trace elements such as boron, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc; to lime, which is used to correct acidity; or to a concentrated organic subs…

1 minute read

fescue

A tufted grass with inrolled, bristle-like leaves, found almost everywhere; important as pasture grass. Upland species are often viviparous, ie the seeds germinate to form plantlets before being shed from the inflorescence. (Genus: Festuca, c.80 species. Family: Gramineae.) …

less than 1 minute read

Festival of Britain - South Bank, Festival Buildings, Events, Legacy, Representation, Design

An event organized in 1951 to mark the centenary of the Great Exhibition held in London in 1851, intended to demonstrate ‘the British contribution to civilization, past, present, and future, in the arts, in science and technology, and in industrial design’. The Royal Festival Hall was built for the occasion. Construction of the South Bank site opened up a new public space, including a riv…

less than 1 minute read

feudalism - Etymology, What is feudalism?, History of the term "feudalism", History of feudalism, Questioning feudalism

A modern construct from Lat feudum (‘fief’), originally coined in 1839, referring to phenomena associated more or less closely with the Middle Ages. In a narrow sense, the word is used to describe the mediaeval military and political order based on reciprocal ties between lords and vassals, in which the main elements were the giving of homage and the tenure of fiefs. Such developments emerged in…

less than 1 minute read

feuilleton

The literary section of a daily newspaper, originally on the lower part of the front page, dedicated to drama criticism; later a separate page or pages. The roman-feuilleton is a novel serialized in a newspaper; this was a flourishing form in the 1840s, and among those writers to profit from it were Honoré de Balzac, George Sand, and Dumas père. Feuilleton (a diminutive of French feuillet…

less than 1 minute read

fever - Measurement, Mechanism, Types, Causes, Treatment

A clinical condition when the temperature of the body rises above the upper limit of normal; also known as pyrexia. Individuals with a fever are said to be febrile. Taking the temperature of a patient has been routine in medical practice for over 100 years. Normal temperature is between 36·6 and 37·7ºC, measured with a rectal thermometer. Body temperature depends on a balance between heat produ…

less than 1 minute read

feverfew

An aromatic perennial (Tanacetum parthenium) growing to 60 cm/2 ft, probably native to SE Europe and parts of Asia, and widely introduced elsewhere; leaves yellowish-green, with lobed or toothed leaflets; flower-heads up to 2 cm/¾ in across, long-stalked in loose, flat-topped clusters; spreading outer florets white, inner disc florets yellow. It is grown for ornament and as a medicinal herb, …

less than 1 minute read

fibula - Components, Blood Supply, Ossification

A long slender bone in the calf, which articulates with the foot (via the ankle joint) and the tibia. It has a head, neck, shaft, and an expanded lower end. It is thought to have no weight-bearing function, but gives attachment to many of the muscles of the calf. Compression on or fracture of the neck of the fibula may lead to nerve damage (the common peroneal nerve) leading to foot drop. T…

less than 1 minute read

Fichtelberg

Mountain in the Erzgebirge range, S of Chemnitz, on the frontier between Germany and the Czech Republic; height 1214 m/3983 ft; heavily forested. The Fichtelberg is a mountain with two main peaks in the middle of the Erzgebirge (English: Ore mountains) in south-eastern Germany, in Saxony near the Czech border. At 1,214.6 meters above sea level, the Fichtelberg is the tallest mountai…

less than 1 minute read

fiddler crab - Subgenera and species, Gallery

A marine crab commonly found on intertidal mud flats in tropical and subtropical regions; adults make burrows in mud, emerging to feed on surface when tide is out; males have a large claw used for signalling during courtship. (Class: Malacostraca. Order: Decapoda.) Note: A separate disambiguation page exists for the initials UCA. A fiddler crab, sometimes known as a calling crab…

less than 1 minute read

fideism - The logic of fideism, Fideism in Christianity, Theologies opposed to fideism, Fideism in Islam

The view that the principles of some area of inquiry cannot be established by reason, but must be accepted on faith. Fideism in religion may claim either that the basic tenets of religious belief go beyond what reason can establish or, more radically (with Kierkegaard), that they contradict reason. In Christian theology, fideism is any of several belief systems which hold, on various ground…

less than 1 minute read

Fidel Castro (Ruz) - Childhood and education, Political beginnings, Human rights record, Religious beliefs, Public image, Personal, References and footnotes

Cuban revolutionary, prime minister (1959– ), and president (1976– ), born near Birán, S Cuba. He studied law in Havana. In 1953 he was imprisoned after an unsuccessful rising against Batista, but released under an amnesty. He fled to the USA and Mexico, then in 1956 landed in Cuba with a small band of insurgents. In 1958 he mounted a full-scale attack and Batista was forced to flee. As prime m…

less than 1 minute read

field emission

The emission of electrons from a metal surface caused by the application of an intense electric field. Field emission microscopes guide electrons emitted from a sharp metal point to a screen, forming a highly magnified image of the metal's structure. Also known as Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, field emission is a form of quantum tunneling in which electrons pass through a barrier in the presen…

less than 1 minute read

field ion microscope

A sharply pointed metal electrode maintained at a high positive potential relative to a screen. Gas ions form from gas atoms close to the tip, due to the extreme electric field (a form of field emission), and are guided to the screen producing an image of the tip structure. Magnifications of 1·5 million may be achieved, allowing individual atoms to be resolved; useful for studying adsorption at s…

less than 1 minute read

fieldfare

A thrush native to Europe and Asia (Turdus pilaris); found in S Greenland since 1937; brown back, mottled breast, grey head; inhabits woodland and farmland; eats fruit, insects, worms, and slugs. …

less than 1 minute read

Fielding (Harris) Yost - Coaching record

Coach of American football, born in Fairview, West Virginia, USA. He coached the University of Michigan (1901–23, 1925–6) to 10 Western Conference titles, and his 1901 team won the first Rose Bowl. *Claimed national championship. …

less than 1 minute read

Fields Medal - Conditions of the award, Unusual circumstances, In popular culture

An award established by the 1924 International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) in Toronto to honour outstanding mathematical achievement. It was decided to present two gold medals at each future congress (every four years from 1936), and Professor J D Fields donated funds to establish the award. Equivalent to the Nobel Prize, the Fields Medal is restricted to mathematicians up to the age of forty…

less than 1 minute read

FIFA - History, The World Cup, Other tournaments, Laws of the game, Structure, Recognitions and awards, Commercial activities

The abbreviation of Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the world governing body of association football, founded in Paris in 1904 with seven members. There are now 150 member countries affiliated. FIFA stages its World Cup tournament every four years. FIFA (in full, Fédération Internationale de Football Association, French for International Federation of Association Foot…

less than 1 minute read

Fife - History of Fife, Geography of Fife, Towns and villages, Places of interest, Notable Fifers, Sports

pop (2000e) 354 500; area 1307 km²/505 sq mi. Local council in E Scotland, UK; bounded by the Firth of Tay (N), North Sea (E), and the Firth of Forth (S); low-lying region, drained by Eden and Leven Rivers; Lomond Hills in the W; many small fishing ports; oil, gas, and chemical developments in the W at Mossmorran; coal mining (open cast, serving the Longannet power station); interior mainly …

less than 1 minute read

fife - History of Fife, Geography of Fife, Towns and villages, Places of interest, Notable Fifers, Sports

A small, high-pitched, transverse flute, with six fingerholes and (in modern and some older instruments) metal keys. Fifes have been mainly military instruments, used (like the bugle) for calls and signals, and also, in ‘drum and fife’ bands, for marching. Fife (Fìobh in Gaelic) is a council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with landward boundar…

less than 1 minute read

fifth column - Sources

A popular expression from the early days of World War 2 to describe enemy sympathizers who might provide active help to an invader. The name originally described the rebel sympathizers in Madrid in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War, when four rebel columns were advancing on the city. The term originated with a 1936 radio address by Emilio Mola, a nationalist general during the 1936-39 Spani…

less than 1 minute read

fifth force - Theory and experiment, Other interactions

A new force postulated by US physicist Ephraim Fischbach (1942– ) and others in 1986, in addition to the four recognized fundamental forces. It is weaker than gravity, and of intermediate range. It is claimed that, due to the fifth force, the apparent gravitational force between objects separated by distances of a few hundred metres depends on the material from which they are made, and varies onl…

less than 1 minute read

figurative art - Figurative artists, Notes and references

Any form of visual art in which recognizable aspects of the world, especially the human figure, are represented, in however simplified, stylized, or distorted a form, in contrast to abstract or non-figurative art. Painting can therefore be divided into the categories of figurative and abstract, although, strictly speaking, abstract art is derived (or abstracted) from a figurative source. …

less than 1 minute read

Fiji - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Sport, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji Fiji (Fijian: Viti; Hindustānī: फ़िजी فِجی), officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands, is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. The name Fiji is the old Tongan word for the islands, which is in turn derived from the Fijian name Viti. The first i…

less than 1 minute read

filariasis - Diagnosis

A disease common in tropical areas caused by nematode worms. Larvae are transmitted to uninfected human beings by mosquitoes. Adult forms develop within the body, and settle in lymph nodes, very often in the groin. The lymph nodes enlarge and interfere with the flow of lymph, causing gross oedema of the limbs. Lymphatic Filariasis is a parasitic and infectious tropical disease, caused by th…

less than 1 minute read

filbert

A species of hazel (Corylus maxima), native to the Balkans, and cultivated elsewhere for its edible nuts, which are completely enclosed in a leafy cup, constricted above the nut to form a neck. (Family: Corylaceae.) …

less than 1 minute read

Filbert Bayi - Career, Later life

Athlete, born in Karutu, near Arusha, Tanzania. He made his debut in the 1972 Olympic Games at Montreal. In 1973 he won the African Games 1500 m, later running the year's fastest 1500 m at 3:34·6 (min:sec). At the Commonwealth Games of 1974, he ran one of the greatest world records as he forged away from the rest of the field in the 1500 m to take the gold medal in 3:32·16, ahead of John Walk…

less than 1 minute read

filefish - Physical description, Species

Deep-bodied fish common in shallow tropical and warm temperate waters; body strongly compressed, length up to 25 cm/10 in; dorsal fin spiny; scales finely toothed and rough to touch; valuable food fish in some areas; also called porky. (Genus: Stephanolepis. Family: Balistidae.) Filefish (also known as foolfish, leatherjackets or shingles) are tropical to subtropical tetraodontiform marin…

less than 1 minute read

filibuster - Filibusters in the United States, Filibusters in Canada, Filibusters in the UK Parliament, Filibusters in France

To hold up the passage of a bill in the US Senate, by organizing a continuous succession of long speeches in opposition. If more than a third of the senators in a vote on the issue are opposed to closure of the debate, the filibuster cannot be prevented, and the bill is ‘talked out’. The term is also more generally applied to any attempt to delay a decision or vote by exercising the right to tal…

less than 1 minute read

Filippino Lippi - Biography, Major works

Painter, born in Prato, near Florence, NC Italy. He was the son of Fra Filippo Lippi, and was apprenticed to Botticelli. He completed the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel, Florence, left unfinished by Masaccio c.1484. Other celebrated series of frescoes were painted by him between 1487 and 1502, the one in the Caraffa Chapel, S Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, being his most influential. ‘The Vision of…

less than 1 minute read

Filippo Baldinucci - Publications by Baldinucci

Art historian, born in Florence, NC Italy. He was entrusted by Cardinal Leopoldo Medici (1617–75) with the arrangement of the Medici collection. Filippo Baldinucci (1624– January 1 1696/7), was the most significant Florentine biographer/ historian of the artists and the arts of the Baroque period. Patronised by the Medici, he aspired to become the new Vasari by renewing and expandi…

less than 1 minute read

Filippo Brunelleschi - Early life, Building the Dome, Other Architectural Works, Other Inventions

Architect, goldsmith, and sculptor, born in Florence, NC Italy. One of the figures responsible for the development of the Renaissance style in Florence, his chief work is the dome of the cathedral there. Erected between 1420 and 1461, it is (measured diametrically) the largest in the world, and served as the model for Michelangelo's design for St Peter's in Rome. Other well-known buildings by him …

less than 1 minute read

Filippo Maria Visconti - Biography, Trivia

Duke of Milan, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. The son of Gian Galeazzo, he became Count of Pavia in 1402, under the guardianship of Facino Cane, who was in fact ruling the territories. He inherited the duchy of Milan in 1412 and married Facino's widow, Beatrice di Tenda, thus acquiring his former domains. He strengthened his state implementing a number of reforms and rewarding his supporters wi…

less than 1 minute read

Filippo Turati - Early life, PSI, Opposition to Fascism

Italian politician, born in Canzo, Lombardy, N Italy. In 1891 he founded the review Critica Sociale, in which he expounded the principles of Italian socialism, and helped found the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) in 1892. A deputy in 1869, he was jailed in 1898 for his part in the Milanese rising of that year, but was pardoned in 1899. As a reformist, he urged the party to work with Giolitti, but th…

less than 1 minute read

film - History of film, Film theory, Film criticism, Stages of filmmaking, Film crew, Animation, Film venues

A light-sensitive photographic emulsion on a thin flexible transparent support, originally celluloid (cellulose nitrate), but later the less inflammable cellulose triacetate and polyester materials. Film for still cameras is supplied in cut sheets and film packs, but more generally as short rolls in various standard widths coded 110, 126, 127, and 135. Motion-picture film is used in long rolls, up…

less than 1 minute read

film festival

An event organised to celebrate and promote the work of the film industry and to raise the prestige of the location holding the festival. More than 600 international film festivals take place every year, the most famous being at Cannes, S France. The International Federation of Film Producers Associations (FIAPF) acts as a regulator, awarding accredited status to events which satisfy minimum stand…

less than 1 minute read

film production

There are four stages: (1) Preparation. The producer, director, and scriptwriter develop an idea into a story, treatment, or scenario that can be converted into a screenplay. The producer organizes finance resources, and a timetable; the production team and artists are chosen; locations are selected; and sets are designed and constructed in the studio. (2) Shooting. Once photography starts on th…

less than 1 minute read

filter (photography)

In photography, a transparent material which modifies the light passing in a specified manner. It is used in front of light sources to alter colour temperature, reduce intensity, or scatter light by diffusion. On camera lenses it changes colour balance or tonal rendering. Other camera filters introduce soft focus, fog effects, or star patterns around bright points. The term filter may refer…

less than 1 minute read

filter (technology)

A device for removing fine solid particles from a mixture. It usually consists of some woven or felted material (eg paper, textile), and is thus distinct from a sieve, which removes coarse particles with a wire mesh or perforated metal. By analogy, the term is also used for any device which separates the components of a wave system (eg sound, light, radio-frequency currents). The term filte…

less than 1 minute read

fin

The external membranous process of an aquatic animal, such as a fish or cetacean, used for locomotion and manoeuvring; may be variously modified as suckers and claspers. The median fins are called dorsal, anal, and caudal (tail); the paired lateral fins are pectorals and pelvics. A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid med…

less than 1 minute read

finch

Any bird of the family Fringillidae; commonly kept as songbirds; bill internally modified to crush seeds. The name is also applied loosely to any small seed-eating bird with a stout conical bill, such as estrildid finches (Family: Estrildidae). Finches are passerine birds, often seed-eating, found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. Genus Eophona - Oriental grosbeaks Genus Mycero…

less than 1 minute read