Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 24

Cambridge Encyclopedia

environmentalism - History, Forms of Environmentalism, Environmental organizations and conferences, Corporation-NGO-Government and Public Alliance

A term which has several meanings according to the perspective of the user. Its broadest meaning is a concern with all environmental matters: a recognition of increasing environmental degradation brought about by mismanagement of the Earth's resources (eg the burning of fossil fuels), and therefore the need for conservation. More narrowly, its use can be applied to the ideology which rejects the

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Enzo

King of Sardinia. He was the illegitimate son of Frederick II, who made him King of Sardinia after his marriage in 1239 to Adelasia, the widow of Ubaldo Visconti, a magistrate on the island. He fought against the Guelphs, and was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV (1241) for taking captive a group of prelates bound for Rome and the council that was supposed to remove Frederick from the throne. Enz…

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Enzo Ferrari - Biography, Books

Racing-car designer, born in Modena, N Italy. He became a racing driver in 1920 (with Alfa-Romeo), founded the company which bears his name (1929), and was its president until 1977. In 1940 he began designing his own cars. Since 1951, the marque has been a major presence at Grand Prix races. Enzo Anselmo Ferrari (February 18, 1898 - August 14, 1988) was the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari G…

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enzyme - Structures and mechanisms, Cofactors and coenzymes, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Inhibition, Biological function, Control of activity

A specialized protein molecule produced by a living cell, which acts as a biological catalyst for biochemical reactions. Each enzyme is specific to a particular reaction or group of similar reactions. The molecule undergoing a reaction (the substrate) binds on to an active site on the enzyme to form a short-lived compound molecule, thereby greatly increasing the rate of the reaction. Enzyme activi…

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EOKA - EOKA-B

Acronym for Ethniki Organosis Kipriakou Agonos (‘National Organization of Cypriot Struggle’), a Greek Cypriot underground movement seeking to end British rule and achieve enosis, the union of Cyprus with Greece. Founded in 1955 by a Greek army officer, Colonel George Grivas, with the support of Archbishop Makarios III, it pursued a campaign of anti-British violence which climaxed in 1956–7. EOK…

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Eos - Consorts/Children

In Greek mythology, the goddess of the dawn, daughter of Helios, mother of Memnon. She abducted various mortals. When she took Tithonus, Zeus granted her request that he should be made immortal, but she forgot to ask for perpetual youth, so he grew older and older, finally shrinking to no more than a voice or, possibly, the cicada. Eos ("dawn") was, in Greek mythology, the Titan goddess of …

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Epaminondas - Historical record, Youth, education and personal life, Early career, 371 BC, The 360s BC, Legacy

Theban general and statesman, whose victory at Leuctra (371 BC) broke the military power of Sparta and made Thebes the most powerful state in Greece. His death at the Battle of Mantinea abruptly brought this supremacy to an end. Epaminondas (Greek: Ἐπαμεινώνδας) (c. 418 BC–362 BC) was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-…

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ephedrine - Chemistry, Mode of action, Clinical use

A drug with similar actions to adrenaline, used as a nasal decongestant. Earlier, it was also used in the treatment of asthma and low blood pressure. In traditional Chinese medicine, the herb ma huang (Ephedra sinica) contains ephedrine as its principal active constituent. Ephedrine exhibits optical isomerism and has two chiral centres. Ephedrine may also be referred…

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ephemera

A term formerly used to refer to short-lived insects (eg the mayfly), latterly extended to apply to the minor printed documents of everyday life (tickets, handbills, labels, advertising material, etc) produced specifically for short-term use. The conservation and study of printed ephemera has increased in recent years. The Ephemera Society, founded in London in 1975, now has offshoots in the USA, …

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ephemeris - Scientific ephemeris

A table giving the computed positions and brightness of an orbiting celestial object such as a planet or comet. It is calculated from the object's orbital elements, which include the orbit period, inclination, eccentricity, and positional direction of the object at the moment when the orbit crosses the equatorial plane of the primary body. The name is also used for a book, published annually, whic…

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ephemeris time

A fundamental measure of time used between 1958 and 1984, defined by reference to the position of the Sun in 1900, and the length of the tropical year. It was used as an invariable measure of time until replaced by terrestrial dynamical time in 1984. Ephemeris Time (ET) is a now obsolete time scale used in ephemerides of celestial bodies, in particular the Sun (as observed from the Earth), …

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Ephesus - History, Main sights

37°5N 27°9E. Ancient city of Lydia and important Greek city-state on the W coast of Asia Minor; at the mouth of R Bayindir, near the Aegean coast; centre of the cult of Cybele (an Anatolian fertility goddess) and worship of Artemis/Diana, whose temple was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; in Roman times, principal city of the province of Asia, and seat of the Roman governor; visited…

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Ephraim Chambers - Early life, Cyclopaedia, Other writing, Epitaph

Encyclopedist, born in Kendal, Cumbria, NW England, UK. While apprenticed to a globemaker in London he conceived the idea of a Cyclopaedia, or Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (2 folio vols, 1728). A French translation inspired Diderot's Encyclopédie. Ephraim Chambers (c1680 - 15 May 1740), was an English writer and encyclopedist, who is primarily known for producing the Cyclopaed…

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Ephraim McDowell

Surgeon, born in Rockbridge Co, Virginia, USA. He attended medical lectures at the University of Edinburgh (1793–4) before returning to Danville, KY (1795) where he became known as the best surgeon W of Philadelphia. Often regarded as the ‘father of abdominal surgery’, he never got a medical degree. At his office in 1809, he successfully removed a 20-pound tumorous ovary without incurring perit…

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epic

A heroic poem; a long narrative of wars and adventures where larger-than-life characters perform deeds of great public and national significance. The earlier epic poems, in the oral tradition, reach back into myth and legend, where men and gods moved on the same scene; among these are the Sumerian epic Gilgamesh (c.3000 BC), the Homeric epics Iliad and Odyssey (c.1000 BC), and the Indian Mahabhara…

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Epictetus - Life, Philosophy: ethics and psychology, Modern influence

Stoic philosopher, born in Hierapolis. At first a Roman slave, on being freed he devoted himself to philosophy. He was banished by Emperor Domitian along with other philosophers in AD 90, and settled at Nikopolis in Epirus. He wrote no works; the Enchiridion is a collection of maxims dictated to a disciple. Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; He was probably born at Hierapolis, Phrygia, a…

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Epicurus - Biography, The School, Teachings, Legacy, Further reading

Greek philosopher, born in Samos, Greece. He visited Athens when he was 18, then opened a school at Mitylene (310 BC), and taught there and at Lampsacus. In 305 BC he returned to Athens, where he established a successful school of philosophy, leading a life of great temperance and simplicity. He divided philosophy into three parts: logic; physics, where he developed the atomistic ideas of Democrit…

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Epidaurus

A Greek city-state situated in the E Peloponnese. It was famous in antiquity for its sanctuary to Asclepius, the god of healing, and for its magnificent open theatre, which is still used today. Epidaurus (Greek: Ἐπίδαυρος, Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. Reputed to be the birthplace of Apollo's son, Asklepios the healer, Epidaurus w…

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epidemiology - Epidemiology as causal inference, Legal interpretation of epidemiologic studies, Epidemiology and advocacy, Types of Studies

The study of the distribution and causes of disease in populations. In the 19th-c, the major causes of death were infections. Study of the occurrence of outbreaks in relation to the social conditions prevailing at the time led to effective measures for their control. For example, epidemics of cholera were traced to polluted water, and of puerperal fever to the contaminated hands of medical attenda…

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epiglottis - Infection of the Epiglottis, Epiglottis Prolapse and Sleep Apnea

A pear-shaped sheet of elastic fibrocartilage, broad above (where it lies immediately behind the tongue) and narrow below (where it attaches to the back of the thyroid cartilage), and covered on both surfaces by mucous membrane. The back surface contains taste buds and mucous glands. It moves on swallowing, and partly covers the opening into the larynx. In some mammals it extends above the soft pa…

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Epigoni - The war, As a poetic theme, In art

In Greek mythology, the ‘next generation’ of heroes. After the failure of the Seven Champions to take Thebes, their sons made another expedition and succeeded; this was shortly before the Trojan War. This is an article about the Greek myth. For the play by Sophocles, see The Progeny. In Greek mythology, Epigoni (Greek Epigonoi, meaning "offspring") are the sons of the Argive h…

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epigram - Ancient Greek, Ancient Roman, English, Poetic epigrams, Non-poetic epigrams, Other Definitions

Originally, an inscription on a statue; hence, any short, pithy poem. The Latin poet Martial wrote over a thousand. Coleridge's definition is also an example: ‘What is an epigram? A dwarfish whole,/Its body brevity, and wit its soul’. Some other famous epigrammatists have been Lord Chesterfield, Byron, George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, and Ogden Nash. An epigram is a short poem with a cle…

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epigraphy - Scope, History

The study of ancient inscriptions, variously inscribed on memorial stones, clay pots and tablets, marble, wood, wax, and other hard surfaces, and using a wide variety of techniques (eg carving, embossing, painting). The field provides insights into the early development of writing systems, as seen in the carvings on the Egyptian pyramids, the oracle bones from Shang China, and the memorial inscrip…

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epilepsy - Classification, Diagnosis, Causes, Triggers, Seizure types, Seizure syndromes, Treatment, Pathophysiology, History and stigma, Legal implications

A transient seizure or fit usually associated with a short-lived disturbance of consciousness. It stems from a synchronous high-voltage electrical discharge from groups of neurones in the brain. The disorder takes several forms, which include loss of consciousness with generalized convulsions (grand mal), short periods of loss of consciousness in which patients simply stop what they are doing and …

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Epiphany

A Christian festival (6 Jan) which commemorates the showing of the infant Jesus to the Magi (Matt 2), the manifestation of Jesus's divinity at his baptism (Matt 3), and his first miracle at Cana (John 2). Its eve is Twelfth Night. In some countries, gifts are exchanged at Epiphany rather than at Christmas. Epiphany may refer to: In television: …

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epiphenomenalism - Background, Some critical responses, Arguments for, Arguments against

A theory which maintains that mental phenomena are distinct from and caused by physical phenomena. They are the incidental effects of physical events, and so exert no causal influence on the physical world. Thus T H Huxley characterized mind as ‘the steam above the factory’. Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena…

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epiphyte

A plant not rooted in the soil, but growing above ground level, usually on other plants. It uses such hosts for support only, and should not be confused with parasites, which also obtain food from their hosts. Epiphytes have aerial roots which help to attach them to their supports, and to trap organic debris, providing nutrients. They also absorb water, either as rain or directly from the air, and…

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epistemology - Defining knowledge, Acquiring knowledge, Practical applications, References and further reading

The branch of philosophy dealing with the theory of knowledge - its sources, limits, kinds, and reliability. These central issues divide such major schools as empiricists, rationalists, and sceptics. Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of Western philosophy that studies the nature and scope of knowledge. The term "epistemology" is based on the Greek words "επιστημ…

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epistolary novel - Early works, Later works, Literary and intellectual points

A novel in letters - one whose narrative is conducted by an exchange of letters between the characters. Richardson's Clarissa (1748) popularized the form, and influenced Laclos' Les Liaisons dangereuses (1782, Dangerous Liaisons). Interesting possibilities and complications arise due to the shifting point of view and the absence of an omniscient narrator. Mark Harris's Wake Up, Stupid (1959) and J…

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epithelium - Classification, Junctional complexes, Secretory epithelia

A layer of cells lining the internal surface of a hollow organ, and covering the external surface of the body; the internal lining may also be known as endothelium. Its function varies in different regions of the body (eg protection, secretion, absorption). Several types have been identified according to the shape and disposition of the individual cells (columnar, cuboidal, squamous), their arrang…

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EPROM

Acronym for electrically programmable read-only memory, a type of integrated circuit read-only memory which can be reused by removing the chip from the computer, erasing its contents, electrically writing new data into it, and replacing it in the computer. EPROMs are more widely used than the related EAROMs. EPROMs come in several sizes both in physical packaging as well and storage capacit…

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Equator - Equatorial climate, Equatorial countries, "Crossing the Line"

The great circle on the Earth's surface, halfway between the Poles, dividing the Earth into the N and S hemispheres; known as the terrestrial equator. Its own latitude is 0°, and from here latitude is measured in degrees N and degrees S. The celestial equator is the great circle in the sky in the same plane as the terrestrial equator. When the Sun is on it, day and night are everywhere equal (hen…

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Equatorial Guinea - History, Politics, Economy, Geography, Demographics, Official languages, Culture, Mass media, Sports, Equatorial Guinea in fiction

Official name Republic of Equatorial Guinea, Span República de Guinea Ecuatorial Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country in West Middle Africa, one of the smallest in continental Africa. Equatorial Guinea is the smallest country, in terms of population, in continental Africa (Seychelles and São Tomé and Príncipe are smaller). …

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equestrianism - Overview of equestrian activities, History of equestrianism, Horse racing, Olympic disciplines, Horse Shows, "Western" riding

The skill of horsemanship. As a sport it can fall into one of four categories; show jumping, dressage, three-day eventing (also known as horse trials), and carriage driving. The governing body is the International Equestrian Federation. Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving horses. This broad description includes both use of horses for practical, working purposes as well as…

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equilibrium (economics)

The state of a system in which opposing forces are balanced, so that there is no tendency to change. The term is used in economics in a variety of ways. In microeconomics, equilibrium is used to describe a situation where supply and demand for a good are equal, price being adjusted to bring this about. In macroeconomics equilibrium describes a situation where aggregate supply and demand are equal,…

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equinox - Day arcs of the Sun, Coordinate systems, Cultural aspects, Trivia, facts and fables

Either of the two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator. Physically these are the points at which the Sun, in its annual motion, appears to cross the celestial equator – the vernal equinox as it crosses from S to N, and the autumnal equinox as it crosses from N to S. The vernal equinox is the zero point in celestial co-ordinate systems. 2 Either of the…

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equity (economics) - In a health care context

The capital of a company, belonging to the shareholders (who are legally the owners). It consists of issued share capital (the money received from the sale of shares); profits retained (traditionally known as reserves); share premiums (excess receipts from the sale of shares over their nominal value); and revaluation reserves (sums resulting from the increase in the value of assets since their pur…

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equity (law) - Distinction between law and equity, History, Development of Equity in England, Statute of Uses 1535

A source of English and, later, US law, originally developed by the Lord Chancellor and later by the Court of Chancery. It arose from the right of litigants to petition the monarch. In time these petitions were handled by the Lord Chancellor. Originally flexible and administered according to fairness, as opposed to the sometimes harsh rules of common law, equity developed into a fixed set of rules…

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equivalence principle - Experiments

A principle arising from the observation that gravitational and inertial mass have the same value, expanded by Einstein to the principle that, locally, effects of gravitation are equivalent to acceleration. The (strong) equivalence principle states that physical laws in any local free-falling inertial reference frame are the same as in special relativity. The principle is of central importance to …

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Equuleus

An insignificant N constellation, the second-smallest in the sky. …

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era

The second largest of the time divisions used in geology, each being divided into a number of periods. Era is a word used in English since 1615, derived from Late Latin æra, era "an era or epoch from which time is reckoned," probably identical to Latin æra "counters used for calculation," plural of æs "brass, money". The Spanish era is calculated from 38 BC, perhaps because of a ta…

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Erasistratus (of Ceos)

Greek physician, born in Ceos. He founded a school of anatomy at Alexandria, and is considered one of the pioneers of modern medicine. He is said to have been the first to trace arteries and veins to the heart, and to have named the tricuspid valve in the heart. Erasistratus of Chios (310 BC- 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria. Here, Erasistr…

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Erasmus Darwin - Biography, Zoönomia, Other achievements, Quotations

Physician, born in Elton, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK, the grandfather of Charles Darwin. He studied at Cambridge and Edinburgh universities, and at Lichfield became a popular physician and prominent figure, known for his freethinking opinions, poetry, large botanical garden, mechanical inventions, and position in the Lunar Society. Many of his ideas on evolution anticipated later theories. His…

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Erastus Corning - Erastus Corning , Railroads, Civil War politics, Later years

Businessman and US representative, born in Norwich, Connecticut, USA. He moved to Albany, NY (1814), where he began to manufacture iron. He bought a foundry and formed a partnership with metallurgy expert John F Winslow, their products becoming renowned throughout the USA. He promoted an extension of the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad and became president of the Utica and Schenectady Railroad (1833–53)…

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Eratosthenes - Life, Measurement of the Earth, Other work, The mysterious astronomical distances, Named after Eratosthenes, Further reading

Greek astronomer and scholar, born in Cyrene. He became chief librarian at Alexandria, and is remembered for the first scientific calculation of the Earth's circumference, which was correct to within 80 km/50 mi. Eratosthenes (Greek Ἐρατοσθένης) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Hellenistic mathematician, geographer and astronomer. He is noted for devising a system of latitude and longi…

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Ercole d'Este II

Marquis of Este, then Duke of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio, born in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. The son of Alfonso I and Lucrezia Borgia, he married Renata of France, daughter of Louis XII, in 1528. He joined the anti-imperial league with France and the Papal States in 1556, but then reached an agreement with Spain (1558) which guaranteed his domains, and was ratified the following year with …

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Erechtheum

The latest building on the Athenian Acropolis, named (by Pausanias in the 2nd-c AD) after the legendary king Erechtheus of Athens. It is a symmetrical, two-part Ionic marble temple dedicated to Athena and Poseidon-Erechtheus, and built during the Peloponnesian War (c.420–407 BC). The six caryatids of the porch (one now among the Elgin marbles) are particularly noteworthy. The Erechtheum, o…

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Erechtheus

In Greek mythology, an early king of Athens, born from the Earth and nurtured by Athena. He sacrificed his daughter Chthonia to secure victory over the Eleusinians, but was killed by Poseidon. The Erechtheum, a temple on the Acropolis, is probably on the site of his palace. Erechtheus in Greek Mythology was the name of a king of Athens, and a secondary name for two other characters …

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Eretria - Ancient History, Modern Revival, Historical population

In antiquity, a Greek city-state situated on the island of Euboea off the coast of Attica. It was sacked in the first Persian War for the help it had given to the Ionian cities of Asia Minor in their revolt (499 BC) against Persia. Coordinates: 38°23′N 23°47′E Eretria (Greek Ερέτρια; The earliest surviving mention of Eretria was by Homer (Iliad 2.537), w…

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ergonomics - Overview, Domains, History, Foundations, Applications, Colloquial Use, Resources

The study of work, including the design of the work situation, the analysis and training of work skills, the effects of physical and psychological environments, work-stress, errors, and accidents. Human engineering and human factors are equivalent terms. Ergonomic investigations commonly involve collaboration between anatomists, physiologists, psychologists, and engineers. Large amounts of data ar…

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ergot - Life cycle of the fungus, Effects on humans and animals, Speculations

A fungal disease of grasses caused by Claviceps purpurea; forms hard black fruiting bodies (sclerotia) in flower-heads of infected grasses, including cereal crops; sclerotia contain chemicals (alkaloids) which can cause severe poisoning if ingested. (Class: Pyrenomycetes.) Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. …

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ergotism - Causes, Symptoms, History

A condition which results from eating bread made from rye heavily infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which contains ergot alkaloids. These substances constrict blood vessels, so that victims develop burning sensations in the limbs, gangrene, and convulsions. It also induces abortion in pregnant women. Ergotism is now rare, but epidemics occurred well into the 19th-c. Outbreaks caused gre…

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Eric (Allan) Dolphy - Life

Jazz musician, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He was an influential multi-instrumentalist who played with Chico Hamilton, John Coltrane, and Charles Mingus, before his death from a brain tumour. Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. Dolphy was one of several groundbreaking jazz alto play…

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Eric (Allan) Dolphy - Life

Musician and composer, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He played the flute, alto saxophone, clarinet, and bass clarinet, from 1958 working with Chico Hamilton, Charles Mingus, John Coltrane, and other leading musicians of the period, as well as with his own quintet. Despite his early death (related to diabetes), he proved to be one of the most influential musicians of the 1960s. Eric …

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Eric (Earle) Shipton

Mountaineer, born in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Educated in England, he spent many years climbing in E and C Africa, and obtained much of his knowledge of the East during his terms as consul-general in Kashgar (1940–2, 1946–8) and Kunming (1949–51). Between 1933 and 1951 he either led or was a member of five expeditions to Mt Everest, and helped pave the way for the successful Hunt–Hillary expedi…

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Eric (Henry) Liddell - Early life, University of Edinburgh, Paris Olympics, Service in China, Chariots of Fire

British athlete and missionary, born in Tientsin, E China. He studied at Eltham College, London, and Edinburgh University. At the 1924 Olympics in Paris he won the bronze medal in the 200 m, and then caused a sensation by winning the gold medal in the 400 m (at which he was comparatively inexperienced) in a world record time of 47·6 s. In 1925, having completed his degree in science, and a deg…

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Eric (Herman Wilhelm) Voegelin

Political philosopher, born in Cologne, Germany. After studying and teaching law in Europe, he emigrated to the USA to escape Nazism, teaching at Louisiana State University (1942–58) and elsewhere in the USA. He was naturalized in 1944, and taught at the University of Munich (1958–69) before becoming a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution in Stanford, CA. He sought to develop a compr…

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Eric (Honeywood) Partridge

Lexicographer, born in Waimata Valley, Gisborne, New Zealand. He studied at Queensland and Oxford universities, was elected Queensland travelling fellow at Oxford after World War 1, and briefly lectured at Manchester and London universities (1925–7). For most of his life he worked as a freelance writer, carrying out a vast amount of painstaking personal research into the history and meaning of wo…

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Eric (John Ernest) Hobsbawm - Life, Politics, Academic life, Works, Controversy, Publication list

Historian, born in Alexandria, N Egypt. The son of Jewish parents - an English-born father and Viennese mother - his early years were spent in Vienna and Berlin before moving to London (1933). He studied at Cambridge and became a lecturer at Birkbeck College, University of London (1947), and later professor of Economic and Social History there (1970–82, emeritus 1982). His many works include Labo…

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Eric (Lennard) Berne - Background and education, Clinical work, Intuition, Transactional Analysis, Personal life, Further reading

Psychiatrist and writer, born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He studied medicine at McGill University and attended the Yale Psychiatric Clinic (1936–8). He was affiliated with the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute (1947–56) and conducted a private practice in psychiatry for more than 30 years. His theory of ‘transactional analysis’ became well known through his book Games People Play: The P…

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Eric (Richard) Porter

Actor, born in London, UK. He made his first appearance in 1945 at the Arts Theatre, Cambridge, then worked in repertory in London and Birmingham, and joined John Gielgud's company at the Lyric Theatre (1952–3). Both a classical and modern actor, he appeared with the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre, notably as Big Daddy in Tennessee Williams's Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1988), and …

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Eric (Robert Russell) Linklater - Works

Novelist, born in Dounby, Orkney Is, NE Scotland, UK. He studied medicine and English at Aberdeen, served in World War 1, then became a journalist in Mumbai (1925–7), and an English lecturer at Aberdeen. While in the USA (1928–30) he wrote Poet's Pub (1929), the first of a series of satirical novels which include Juan in America (1931) and Private Angelo (1946). Later books include A Year of Spa…

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Eric (Samuel) Heffer - Family and early life, Parliament, Ministerial office, Militant, Last years, Publications

British politician. He worked as a carpenter-joiner until he entered the House of Commons, representing Walton, Liverpool, in 1964. He had joined the Labour Party as a youth, and became Liverpool president (1959–60) and a Liverpool city councillor (1960–6). A traditional Socialist, favouring public ownership, and strongly unilateralist, he distrusted centrist tendencies and had a brief, uncomfor…

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Eric Ambler - Life, Works, Bibliography

Novelist and playwright, born in London, UK. He studied at Colfe's Grammar School and London University, and worked as an advertising copy-writer before turning to writing thrillers, invariably with an espionage background. He published his first novel, The Dark Frontier, in 1936. His best-known books are Epitaph for a Spy (1938), The Mask of Dimitrios (1939), Dirty Story (1967), and The Intercom …

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Eric Bristow - Early career, Technique, Achievements

Darts player, born in London, UK. World professional champion a record five times (1980–1, 1984–6), he was also the beaten finalist twice. His other major championships include the World Masters (1977, 1979, 1981, 1983–4), the World Cup individual (1983, 1985), and the News of the World Championship (1983–4). Eric Bristow MBE (born Hackney, London, 27th April 1957) is a British darts pl…

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Eric Carle - Early life, Writing and illustrating career, Style, Quotes, Later life

Picture book artist, born in Germany. Using a distinctive collage technique he has written and illustrated several children's books. He is best-known for The Very Hungry Caterpillar (1970), in which the voracious creature burrows through the pages of the book in search of delicacies. Eric Carle (born June 25, 1929) is a children's book author and illustrator, most famous for his book The Ve…

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Eric Clapton - The search for his father, Clapton's Guitars, Discographies, Band, Trivia

Rock guitarist and singer, born in Ripley, Surrey, SE England, UK. In the 1960s he was in British rhythm-and-blues bands The Yardbirds and John Mayall's Bluesbreakers, then ‘supergroups’ Cream and Blind Faith. He has since played and recorded with most of the great names of rock music. ‘Layla’, recorded in 1970 with Duane Allman and others under the name of Derek and the Dominoes, is considere…

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Eric Coates - Life, Works

Composer, born in Hucknall, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He studied in Nottingham and at the Royal Academy of Music, London, working as a violinist. Sir Henry Wood performed several of his early works at Promenade Concerts. Success as a composer of attractive light music enabled him to devote himself to composition after 1918. Among his best-known compositions are ‘London Suite’ (1933) and ‘…

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Eric Foner - Biography, Career, Exhibitions, Prizes, Criticism, Works by Foner, Reference

Historian, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Oxford, UK (1965 BA) and Columbia University (1969 PhD), and taught at Columbia (1969–73, 1982) and the City College of New York (1973–82). He soon gained prominence as a proponent of the new sociological approach to history, which he applied in such works as Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (1980), where he looked b…

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Eric Hoffer - Hoffer's Working Class Roots and "Intellectuals"

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Unschooled and temporarily blind as a child, he read voraciously after recovering his sight at age 15. At age 18 he went to California and took up work first as a migrant farmer, then a dockworker (from 1943), and began writing in his spare time. His writings, starting with The True Believer (1951), a study of fanaticism and mass movements, won recogni…

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Eric Morecambe - Early life and childhood career, Eric and Ernie, Two of a Kind (1961-1968)

Comedian, born in Morecambe, Lancashire, NW England, UK. Having appeared in working men's clubs since the age of 11, he teamed up in 1943 with fellow entertainer, Ernie Wise (originally Ernest Wiseman) (1925–99). They made their West End debut in the revue Strike a New Note in 1943. In 1947 they teamed up again and, as Morecambe and Wise, subsequently became the finest British comedy double-act f…

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Eric Newby - Life, Selected bibliography

Travel writer, born in London, UK. He worked briefly in advertising before joining a Finnish four-masted bark in 1938, an adventure described in The Last Grain Race (1956). He served in the navy during World War 2 and was captured off Sicily and held as a prisoner-of-war (1942–5), but managed to escape. For some years he worked in the rag trade, which he eagerly left to take A Short Walk in the H…

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Eric Sykes - Biography, Awards, Selected filmography

Comedy writer and performer, born in Oldham, Lancashire, NW England, UK. After entertaining in RAF shows during World War 2, he started to write scripts for radio shows such as Variety Bandbox (1947) and Educating Archie (1950–4). The creator of his own BBC series (1959–65, 1972–80), he offered simple, innocent humour devoid of malice and with a propensity towards physical jokes and slapstick a…

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Eric Temple Bell - Biography, Writing career, Works

Mathematician, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. Emigrating to the USA in 1902, he taught for most of his career at the California Institute of Technology (1926–53). He contributed significantly to numerical functions, analytic number theory, multiple periodic functions, and Diophantine analysis. He published Men of Mathematics (1937), 17 science fiction books, short stories, and poetry. …

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Erica Jong - Career, Personal life, Views on 9/11, Awards

Writer and poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied at Barnard College (1963 BA) and Columbia University (1965 MA; School of Fine Arts 1969–70). She taught at a variety of institutions in New York City, and in Heidelberg, Germany, as a faculty member of the Overseas Division of the University of Maryland. She wrote volumes of poetry and novels, and achieved some celebrity with Fear…

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Erich (Georg Anton Sebastian) von Falkenhayn - Early Life, Chief of Staff, Later Career, Assessment

German soldier, born near Grudziadz, NC Poland. He served as an adviser with the Chinese army, and with the international force in the Boxer Rebellion (1900). He was Prussian war minister in 1913 and succeeded Moltke as chief of general staff in September 1914, but was dismissed after the failure of his offensive strategy in 1916. He commanded in the invasion of Romania (1916–17), and was then tr…

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Erich (Wolfgang) Korngold

Composer, born in Brünn, NE Austria. He studied in Vienna, and from the age of 12 had spectacular success there and throughout Germany as a composer of chamber, orchestral, and stage works in late-Romantic vein. His finest operas were Violanta (1916) and Die tote Stadt (1920, The Dead City). He was professor at the Vienna State Academy of Music (1930), but in 1934 emigrated to Hollywood. Two of h…

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Erich Fried - Works

Writer, born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated to London in 1938 after his parents were arrested. After the war he became a writer, making a name for himself at the BBC. His poetry was socially critical and became increasingly political, reflecting his social commitment. Warngedichten (1963–4) shows Brecht's influence, and he gained fame with und Vietnam und (1966). He also wrote essays and radio …

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Erich Fromm - Life, Psychological theory, Political ideas and activities, external links

Psychoanalyst and social philosopher, born in Frankfurt, Germany. He studied at the universities of Frankfurt, Heidelberg, and Munich, and at the Berlin Institute of Psychoanalysis. After emigrating to the USA (1933), he established a private practice in psychiatry and taught at New York University and the National University of Mexico. His major writings explored those needs that he identified as…

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Erich Heckel - Biography, Criticism

Painter, born in Döbeln, E Germany. He studied architecture at Dresden before turning to painting. He excelled in lithography and the woodcut, as in his Self-portrait (1917, Munich). Vilified by the Nazis, he stayed in Berlin and was professor at Karlsruhe (1949–56). He is best known for his paintings of nudes and landscapes, and as a founder member of the Expressionist school, Die Brücke (‘th…

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Erich Honecker - Early political career, Leadership of East Germany, Post-1989, Personal, Hobbies

East German statesman and head of state (1976–89), born in Neunkirchen, W Germany. Active in the Communist youth movement from an early age, he was involved in underground resistance to Hitler, and was imprisoned for 10 years. Released by Soviet forces, he became the first chairman of the Free German Youth in the German Democratic Republic (1946–55). He first entered the Politburo in 1958 and su…

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Erich Kleiber - notes

Conductor, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied in Prague, and the age of 33 became director of the Berlin State Opera, holding this post for 12 years until forced by the Nazis to leave Germany. In 1938 he became a citizen of Argentina. After the war he was again appointed director of the Berlin State Opera, until his resignation in 1955. His son, Carlos Kleiber (1930–2004), was also a conductor. …

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Erich Leinsdorf

Conductor, born in Vienna, Austria. After musical studies in Vienna, he became an assistant to Bruno Walter and Toscanini at the Salzburg Festival (1934–7). He moved to New York City in 1938 to conduct at the Metropolitan Opera, and was acclaimed especially for his Wagner. He conducted the Rochester Philharmonic (1947–56), the New York City Opera and Metropolitan (1955–62), and the Boston Symph…

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Erich Loest - Works

Writer, born in Mittweida, Saxony, E Germany. His first novel, the autobiographical Jungen, die übrig bleiben (1954), about children in uniform and their difficulties after the war, was well-received. Imprisoned for seven years for his criticism of the East German government, on his release he wrote crime stories and thrillers, before addressing the problems in East Germany in his later work. He …

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Erich Maria Remarque - Well-known novels, Remarque in English translation

Novelist, born in Osnabrück, NWC Germany. He served in World War 1, and worked as a sports journalist while writing his famous war novel, All Quiet on the Western Front (1929). An immediate international success, it was filmed in 1930. The Nazis ordered it to be burned, and he was deprived of his German citizenship. Other titles, none of which were as critically acclaimed, include its sequel, The…

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Erich Mendelsohn - Life, Buildings, Publications by Mendelsohn, Publications about Mendelsohn

Architect, born in Olsztyn, N Poland (formerly Allenstein, Germany). He studied architecture at Munich, and attracted attention with his architectural sketches during World War 1. He was commissioned to design the Einstein Tower in Potsdam (1919–21), as well as factories and department stores, and became noted for his use of modern materials (particularly expanses of glass) and construction metho…

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Erich Mielke - Tenure as Stasi head

German politician, born in Berlin, Germany. He joined the Kommunistiche Partei Deutschlands (KPD) in 1925. Accused of murdering two policemen, he fled to Belgium in 1931, fought in the Spanish Civil War in the International Brigade (1936–9), and stayed in the USSR until 1945. After the creation of the German Democratic Republic he was responsible for establishing the secret service (Stasi) which,…

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Erich Ollenhauer - Early political career and exile, Leadership of the SPD

German politician, born in Magdeburg, EC Germany. He became chairman of the Socialist Youth Party (1928), member of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) Vorstand, and was exiled in Prague, Paris, and London (1933–46). Returning to West Germany in 1946 he became a member of the Bundestag (1949) and opposition leader (1952) after the death of Kurt Schumacher. He was also deputy chairma…

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Erich Raeder - Biography

German grand admiral, born in Wandsbek, N Germany. He joined the navy in 1894, and became a chief-of-staff during World War 1. In 1928 he was made commander-in-chief of the navy, and encouraged the building of submarines and capital warships despite the ban imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. He became grand admiral in 1939, but disagreed with Hitler on the deployment of the navy and was removed …

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Erich von Stroheim - Background, Film career, Filmography (as Director)

Actor and film director, born in Vienna, Austria. Regarded by later generations of film-makers and critics as an early genius of American film whose abilities were sacrificed to commercialism, in his brief eight-film career he established himself as one of the silent era's most prominent directors. Although he claimed he was a Prussian aristocrat and cavalry officer, he was actually the son of a J…

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Eridu - Eridu in myth

The oldest of the Sumerian city-states, lying SW of Ur. Excavations of the site have revealed a continuous series of temples starting in the sixth millennium BC and ending in the third with the great ziggurat. Eridu (or Eridug/Urudug, from Sumerian Eri.dugga, "Good City") was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur. In Sumerian mythology, it was said to be one of the five ci…

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Erie Canal - History, The Erie Canal today, Locks

An artificial waterway extending 580 km/360 mi between Albany and Buffalo, New York State. Constructed 1817–25, it greatly accelerated the development of the mid-West and of New York by providing a water route from the Hudson R to L Erie. Although improved rail transport in the late 19th-c spelled its decline, it is still a significant element in the New York State Barge Canal System. Th…

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Erik (Alfred Leslie) Satie - Life and work, "Petit dictionnaire d'idées reçues" (short dictionary of preconceived ideas), Sources

Composer, born in Honfleur, NW France. He worked as a cafe pianist, and studied erratically in Paris, not beginning to compose seriously until after he was 40. He wrote ballets, lyric dramas, and whimsical pieces which were in violent revolt against musical orthodoxy, and influenced Debussy, Ravel, and others. Eric Alfred Leslie Satie (Honfleur, 17 May 1866 – Paris, 1 July 1925) was a Fre…

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Erik Bruhn

Dancer and ballet director, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He trained at the Royal Danish Ballet School, joining the company in 1947. An unrivalled exponent of the Bournonville style, he toured the world as guest performer with many companies. He was the director of the Royal Swedish Ballet (1967–72) and artistic director of the National Ballet of Canada (1983–6). Erik Belton Evers Bruhn (O…

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Erik Johan Stagnelius - Life, Poetry, Philosophy, Poem "For Decay"

Romantic poet, born on the island of Öland, SE Sweden. He studied at Uppsala, and became a civil servant in Stockholm. Little is known of his life, but his works show that he was constantly torn between idealism and eroticism. They include the epic Vladimir den store (1817, Vladimir the Great), plays such as Martyrerna (1821, The Martyrs), and lyric poetry, much of it found in Liljor i Saron (182…

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Erik the Red - Exiles, Discoveries, Eystribyggð, The legacy of Erik the Red

Norwegian sailor who explored the Greenland coast and founded the Norse colonies there (985). His son Leif Eriksson landed in ‘Vinland’, often identified as America (1000). Both men are the subject of Icelandic sagas. About 960, Erik's father had to flee Norway because of "some killings", as The Saga of Eric the Red recounts. The family settled in a Norse colony on the coast of Iceland. …

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Erika Mann - Early life, Acting and writing, Biographical films

Writer, born in Munich, SE Germany. She trained as an actress before moving to Switzerland in 1933 where she founded the cabaret Die Pfeffermühle which was sharply critical of the Nazis. She married W H Auden in 1935 and emigrated to the USA in 1936. She wrote children's books, such as Stoffel fliegt übers Meer (1932), two books about the Third Reich - Zehn Millionen Kinder (1938) and Die Lichte…

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Erinyes - Erinyes in Mythology, Erinyes in later culture, Erinyes in contemporary culture

In Greek mythology, spirits of vengeance, depicted as carrying torches and covered with snakes; also known as the Furies. They are best thought of as personified curses, avengers of crime ‘within the kindred’ (outsiders could be pursued by the blood-feud). Their names are Alecto ‘never-ceasing’, Megaira ‘grudger’, and Tisiphone ‘avenger of blood’. In Greek mythology the Erinyes (Ε

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Eris

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Night and the sister of Ares. A late story tells how she was present at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis and threw a golden apple ‘for the fairest’; this brought Hera, Athene, and Aphrodite into contention, and was the first cause of the Trojan War. The name means ‘strife’ in Greek. The name Eris typically refers to: It may also refer to: …

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Eris

The largest object discovered in our Solar System since Neptune in 1846, and designated a dwarf planet (or pluton) in 2006, along with Pluto, Charon, and Ceres. First detected in the Kuiper Belt in 2003 and confirmed in 2005, it is made of rock and ice and measures c.2398 km/1490 mi across, making it slightly larger than Pluto. It is estimated to be three times as far away as Pluto, in an orbit …

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Eritrea - History, Administrative divisions, Politics and government, Geography, Economy, Society, Culture

Local name Erta Eritrea was consolidated into a colony by the Italian government on January 1, 1890. The modern nation-state of Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia following a thirty year war which lasted from 1961 to 1991. Eritrea is officially a parliamentary democracy consisting of six regions, but it currently functions as a single-party state. Eritrea is a multilingual …

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Erle Stanley Gardner

Crime novelist, born in Malden, Massachusetts, USA. After travelling a great deal while young, he settled in California, studied in law offices, and was admitted to the bar, where he became an ingenious lawyer for the defence (1922–38). In the 1940s he set up The Court of Last Resort, an organization to help those unjustly imprisoned. He is best known as the writer of the ‘Perry Mason’ books, b…

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Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari - Music, Works of Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, Sources

Composer, born in Venice, NE Italy. Sent to Rome to study painting, he turned to music, and studied in Munich, returning to Venice in 1899. He became an operatic composer, his best-known works being I quattro rusteghi (1906, trans The School for Fathers) and II segreto di Susanna (1909, Susanna's Secret). He also composed choral and chamber works, and music for organ and piano. Ermanno Wolf…

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Ermengarda - Excerpts, Mistaken attribution, Copyright status, Additional recordings

The daughter of Desiderio, King of the Lombards. She was given in marriage to Charlemagne as a pledge of the peace between the Franks and Lombards, in accordance with the wishes of Bertrada, Charlemagne's mother. She was repudiated by him when Desiderio supported Carloman's sons against Charlemagne. She is one of the characters in Manzoni's Adelchi. Desiderata (Latin for "desired things", p…

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Ernest (Alexandre) Ansermet - Conducting career, Notable premieres

Conductor and musical theorist, born in Vevey, SW Switzerland. He studied at Lausanne, and gave up teaching mathematics in 1910 to devote his time to music. He was conductor of the Montreux Kursaal in 1912 and of Diaghilev's Russian Ballet (1915–23). In 1918 he founded the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, whose conductor he remained till 1967. His compositions include a symphonic poem, piano piece…

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Ernest (Miller) Hemingway

Writer, born in Oak Park, Illinois, USA. The son of a doctor, he never attended college but became a journalist for the Kansas City Star (1917–18). He served with the Red Cross Ambulance Corps in France (1917–18) and was wounded while accompanying the Italian army into battle. He worked as a journalist, covering the Greco-Turkish war for the Toronto Star (1920). In Chicago, he married (his first…

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Ernest (Percival) Rhys - Works

Editor and writer, born in London, UK. He spent much of his youth in Carmarthen and became a mining engineer. Abandoning this for a writing career in 1886, he was first a freelance, then on the staff of Walter Scott's publishing house, Constable's, for whom he edited the Camelot Classics series. He is best-remembered as editor of the Everyman Library of Classics, the first volume of the 983 publis…

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Ernest Bevin - Early life, Transport and General Workers Union, Foreign policy interests, Ministerial office, Foreign Secretary

British statesman, born in Winsford, Somerset, SW England, UK. Orphaned at seven, and self-taught, he early came under the influence of trade unionism and the Baptists, and was for a time a lay preacher. A paid official of the dockers' union, he gained a national reputation in 1920 when he won most of his union's claims against an eminent barrister, earning the title of ‘the dockers' KC’. He bui…

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Ernest Bloch - Composition, Location of Source Materials for Research on Ernest Bloch

Composer, born in Geneva, Switzerland. He studied in Europe, and in Paris introduced his opera Macbeth (1910), which was attacked for its Modernism. After teaching in Geneva he emigrated to the USA (1917), where he held several teaching posts (his remarkable roster of students included Antheil and Sessions) and gained an international reputation as a composer. He spent most of the 1930s in Switzer…

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Ernest E(verett) Just - Early life, Career, Death, Founding of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity

Cell biologist, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. He was a teacher and researcher at Howard University (1907–41), and also studied at the Woods Hole (MA) Marine Biological Laboratory. He made pioneering contributions to the cytology and embryology of marine organisms, and in 1925 demonstrated the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation on cells. By 1929, the diminishing number of Afr…

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Ernest F(ox) Nichols - Dartmouth Presidency, Categories

Physicist, born in Leavenworth, Kansas, USA. He was affiliated with Colgate (1892–8), Dartmouth (1898–1903; president, 1909–16), Yale (1916–20), and Nela Research Laboratories, Cleveland (1921–4). He made major advances in studies of infrared radiation (1890s) and quantitatively measured the pressure of light (1901). Nichols served as a professor of physics at Colgate University from 1…

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Ernest Flagg

Architect, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. In his New York practice (established 1891) he promoted the American adoption of Beaux-Arts principles, pioneered tenement housing with his influential light-court plan (1894), developed small-house design, and wrote Small Houses (1922). Flagg was born in Brooklyn, New York, studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and began his architectural…

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Ernest Gruening

US senator, born in New York City, New York, USA. He graduated from Harvard Medical School but then proceeded to write and edit (1912–34). He edited the Nation (1920–3) and was territorial governor of Alaska (1939–53). Working to get Alaska accepted as a state, he wrote The State of Alaska (1954), and became one of the new state's first two US senators (Democrat, Alaska, 1959–69). He cast one …

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Ernest John Moeran - Early life, Composing music

Composer, born in Heston, SE Greater London, UK. He was a pupil at the Royal College of Music, London, and after service in World War 1 he studied under John Ireland. As well as his orchestral Rhapsody (1924), he composed a large number of songs, a symphony, and concertos for violin, piano, and cello. Ernest John Moeran (December 31, 1894 - December 1, 1950) was an English composer. …

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Ernest Nagel

Philosopher of science, born in Nové M?sto, C Czech Republic. He emigrated to the USA, became a US citizen in 1919, and taught philosophy at Columbia University (1931–70). He published widely on the philosophy of science, his best-known works being An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method (1934, with M R Cohen), Logic without Metaphysics (1957), and The Structure of Science (1961). …

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Ernest Newman

Music critic, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He was successively music critic of the Manchester Guardian, the Birmingham Post, and The Sunday Times (from 1920). His writings are noted for their wit and elegance, and for their strict factual accuracy. He is best known for his far-reaching studies of Wagner, notably his biography of Wagner (4 vols, 1933–7). Ernest Newman (Nov…

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Ernest Solvay

Industrial chemist, born in Rebecq-Rognon, C Belgium. He worked in his father's salt-making business, then at a gasworks. While there he solved the problems of large-scale commercial production of sodium carbonate (1863) used in the manufacture of glass and soap. His findings made him a considerable fortune, and he founded various institutes of scientific research. In 1861, he developed the…

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Ernest Thompson Seton - Works

Naturalist, writer, and illustrator, born in Durham, Co Durham, NE England, UK. The twelfth of 14 children, he emigrated to Canada with his family (1866) when his father's shipping business failed. He studied art, but returned to his first love, natural history, writing and illustrating a series of books about birds and animals, but critics accused him of humanizing his wild creatures for narrativ…

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Ernest Tubb - Biography

Country music songwriter and performer, born near Crisp, Texas, USA. After recording for RCA Victor and Decca, he joined the ‘Grand Ole Opry’ in 1943. His own radio programme, Midnight Jamboree, helped launch the careers of the Everly Brothers and Elvis Presley. His drawling vocal style, unaffected lyrics, and espousal of the electric guitar made him a major influence on honky tonk music. He was…

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Ernest William Barnes

Anglican clergyman, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge where, as one of the most outstanding mathematical scholars of his time, he became a lecturer in 1902. He was ordained in 1908, became Master of the Temple in 1915, and Bishop of Birmingham in 1924. His strongly-held modernist and pacifist views involved him in continued controversy within the Church of E…

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Ernest William Hornung

Writer, born in Middlesbrough, NE England, UK. Brother-in-law of Arthur Conan Doyle, he was the creator of Raffles the gentleman burglar, hero of The Amateur Cracksman (1899), Mr Justice Raffles (1909), and many other adventure stories. Ernest William Hornung (June 7, 1866 – March 22, 1921) was a British author. Hornung was the third son of John Peter Hornung, a Hungarian, and…

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Ernestine Schumann-Heink

Contralto, born near Prague, Czech Republic. Having come to fame in Europe, especially for her Wagnerian roles, she made her US debut in Chicago in 1898, singing regularly with the Metropolitan Opera until 1932. A US citizen since 1905, she remained in the USA during World War 1 and demonstrated her patriotism while sons of her different marriages fought on opposite sides. She made one film, Here'…

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Ernesto Geisel - Early life, Presidency

Brazilian general and president (1974–9), born in Rio Grande do Sul, S Brazil. His military presidency was notable for its policy of ‘decompression’, which led to the restoration of democracy in 1985. Ernesto Beckmann Geisel (August 3, 1908 - September 12, 1996) was a Brazilian military leader and politician. Born in Bento Gonçalves as the son of Lutheran German immigrants, …

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Ernesto Rossi

Italian politician and writer, born in Caserta, Campania, SW Italy. He fought as a volunteer in World War 1 and was a founder of the anti-Fascist Justice and Freedom movement. Exiled internally in 1939, from there he issued the ‘Ventotene manifesto’, where he advocated European federalism. After the War he was a member of the Action Party before founding the Radical Party in 1955. Ernesto…

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Ernesto Teodoro Moneta

Italian patriot and intellectual, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. He fought in the 1st and 2nd Italian Independence wars as a volunteer. He was editor of the radical newspaper Il Secolo during 1867–96. A noted pacifist, in 1890 he founded the Unione lombarda per la pace e l'arbitrato, a peace organization, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1907, but then went on to approve the Libyan ventur…

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Ernesto Zedillo (Ponce de L - Early life, 1994 election, Presidency, Post-presidency

Mexican president (1994–2000), born in Mexico City, Mexico. Educated at Bradford, Colorado, and Yale. He worked as an economist before serving as planning and budget minister (1988–92) and education minister (1992–3). A member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), he was acting as campaign manager for the party's candidate when the candidate was assassinated. Zedillo took his place an…

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Ernie Harwell - Biography, Awards and non-broadcast activities, Books by Ernie Harwell

Baseball broadcaster, born in Washington, Georgia, USA. He was an announcer for the Brooklyn Dodgers (1948–9), New York Giants (1950–3), Baltimore Orioles (1954–9), and Detroit Tigers (1960–91). William Earnest "Ernie" Harwell (born January 25, 1918 in Washington, Georgia) is a former Major League Baseball play-by-play announcer. He announced baseball for 55 years, 42 of them with…

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Ernie Nevers

Player of American football, born in Willow R, Minnesota, USA. A triple-threat fullback, he was a unanimous 1925 All-American at Stanford and scored a record 40 points in one National Football League game in 1929. Ernest Alonzo Nevers (born June 11, 1902 in Willow River, Minnesota; …

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Ernie Pyle

Journalist, born near Dana, Indiana, USA. He held a variety of reporting and editorial jobs, then in the late 1930s devoted himself to reporting, especially as a correspondent in Latin America. During World War 2 he accompanied Allied forces in the invasions of North Africa, Italy, and Normandy, and reported from the front lines with personal stories of soldiers and their lives. His reports, colle…

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Ernst (Florens Friedrich) Chladni - See Also

Physicist, born in Wittenberg, NC Germany. The founder of the science of acoustics, he invented the euphonium. His study of the vibration of solid bodies resulted in the patterns known as Chladni figures. Chladni was born in Wittenberg. One of Chladni's most well known achievements was inventing a technique to show the various modes of vibration in a mechanical surface. …

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Ernst (Heinrich Philipp August) Haeckel - Research, Biography, Publications, Further reading

Naturalist, born in Potsdam, EC Germany. He studied at Würzburg, Berlin, and Vienna, and became professor of zoology at Jena (1862–1909). One of the first to sketch the genealogical tree of animals, he strongly supported Darwin's theories of evolution. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-color illustrations of animals and sea creatures (see: Kunstformen der …

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Ernst (Heinrich) Heinkel

Aircraft engineer, born in Grünbach, Germany. He was chief designer of the Albatros Aircraft Company in Berlin before World War 1. He founded the Heinkel-Flugzeugwerke at Warnemünde (1922), making at first seaplanes, and later bombers and fighters which achieved fame in World War 2. He built the first jet plane, the HE-178, in 1939, and also the first rocket-powered aircraft, the HE-176. …

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Ernst (Heinrich) Weber - Works

Physiologist, born in Wittenberg, EC Germany, the brother of Wilhelm Weber. He became professor of anatomy (1818) and of physiology (1840) at Leipzig, where he devised a method of determining the sensitivity of the skin, introducing the concept of the ‘just noticeable difference’. His findings were expressed mathematically by Fechner (the Weber–Fechner Law of the Increase of Stimuli). Er…

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Ernst (Walter) Mayr - Biography, Mayr's ideas

Ornithologist and evolutionist, born in Kempten, Germany. He was assistant curator of zoology at the museum of the University of Berlin (1926–32). Wishing to ‘follow in the footsteps of Darwin’, he made three expeditions to New Guinea and the Solomon Is (1928–30), which led to his demonstrating that the development of separate species in higher animals depends on the geographical isolation of …

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Ernst Albrecht

German politician, born in Heidelberg, SWC Germany. A member of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), from 1976 to 1990 he was premier of Lower Saxony. He also served (1970–90) as member of the Landtag (regional parliament) and on the EEC Commission (1958–70). Ernst Albrecht (born June 29, 1930 in Heidelberg) is a German politician (CDU) and was prime minister of Lower Saxony from 1976 un…

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Ernst Badian - Works

Ancient historian, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied in New Zealand and England, then went to the USA (1968), where he taught at Buffalo State University (1969–71) and Harvard (1971). Founder of the American Journal of Ancient History (1976), he gave the University of California Sather lectures in 1976. His many publications and professional activities made him an important force in his discipl…

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Ernst Barlach - Biography, Works

Expressionist sculptor, playwright, and poet, born in Wedel, N Germany. He was identified with the German Expressionist school of both art and drama. While he was best known as a sculptor in wood, his greatest achievement was his war memorial at Güstrow Cathedral, a great bronze ‘Angel of Death’, which was removed by Hitler as ‘degenerate’. Barlach's plays include Der tote Tag (1912, The Dead…

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Ernst Cassirer - Biography, Works, Partial bibliography

Philosopher, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied at Berlin, Leipzig, Heidelberg, and Marburg, where he was attracted to neo-Kantianism. He worked as a tutor and civil servant, then became professor of philosophy at Hamburg (1919), and rector (1930), but he resigned when Hitler came to power, and taught at Oxford (1933–5), Göteborg (1935–41), Yale (1941–4) and Col…

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Ernst Curtius

Classical archaeologist, born in Lübeck, N Germany, the brother of Georg Curtius. He studied at Bonn, Göttingen, and Berlin, and became professor at Göttingen (from 1856) and Berlin (from 1868). His most notable excavations were at Olympia in Greece (1875–80). You may be looking for Ernst Robert Curtius (1886–1956). Ernst Curtius (September 2, 1814–July 11, 1896), was a …

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Ernst Hardt

Writer, born in Graudenz, Prussia. He became manager of the National Theatre in Weimar (1919–24) and head of Westdeutsche Rundfunk until 1933. His early work shows the influence of George, and later work that of French Symbolism. He wrote neo-Romantic poetry published as a collection entitled Aus den Tagen der Knaben (1904) in the periodical Blätter für den Kunst. Other works include novels, su…

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Ernst Jandl - Awards, Poems

Writer, born in Vienna, Austria. His first poetry, Andere Augen (1956), was traditional, but he began to experiment with form and language, creating innovative ‘Sprechgedichte’ (speaking poems), as in ‘Laut und Luise’ (1966). Other works include nature, love, and political poetry, experimental radio plays, including Das Röcheln der Mona Lisa (1970) and Fünf Mann Menschen (1971), and the film…

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Ernst Johann von Biron

Baltic nobleman and Duke of Courland (1737–43, 1763–9). A favourite of Tsarina Anna Ivanovna of Russia, he rose to a position of power under her and was elected Duke of Courland. After her death (1740), he was made regent for her grandnephew Ivan VI but was generally disliked and was exiled following a coup (1741). Deprived of his duchy in 1743, he was later recalled and Catherine II restored hi…

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Ernst Kaltenbrunner - Early life, Kaltenbrunner rises to a major Nazi figure, Nuremberg Trials, Miscellaneous

Nazi leader, born in Ried im Innkreis, N Austria. He studied at Prague, joined the Nazi Party (1932), and became leader of the Austrian SS (1935). He agreed with Himmler on the establishment of gas-chambers for execution (1942), became head of the SD (Security Service), the intelligence branch of the SS (1943), and was instrumental in the deportation of millions of Jews, as well as Catholic and Pr…

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Ernst Lubitsch - Life and work, Selected Filmography, Further reading

Film director, born in Berlin, Germany. A teenage actor in Max Reinhardt's theatre company, he then starred as ‘Meyer’ in a popular slapstick series before beginning his directorial career. He was invited to Hollywood by Mary Pickford, whom he directed in Rosita (1923), and stayed on to become an acknowledged master of light, sophisticated sex comedies graced with ‘the Lubitsch touch’ of elega…

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Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - Sources

Artist, born in Aschaffenburg, SWC Germany. He studied architecture at Dresden, then turned to painting, and became the leading spirit in the formation of Die Brücke (‘The Bridge’, 1905–13), the first group of German Expressionists. Many of his works were confiscated as degenerate by the Nazis in 1937, and he committed suicide in 1938. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (May 6, 1880 – June 15, 193…

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Ernst Mach - Physics, Sensory perception, Philosophy of science

Physicist and philosopher, born in Turas, Austria. He studied at Vienna University, and became professor of mathematics at Graz in 1864, and of physics at Prague (1867) and Vienna (1895). His experimental work has proved of great importance in aeronautical design and the science of projectiles, and his name has been given to a unit of velocity (the Mach number - the ratio of speed of object to the…

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Ernst Moritz Arndt - Early life and studies, Opposition of serfdom and Napoleonic rule, Biographies

Poet and German patriot, born on the island of Rügen (then Swedish). He studied at Stralsund, Greifswald, and Jena, and in 1805 became professor of history at Greifswald. In his Geist der Zeit (1806, Spirit of the Times) he attacked Napoleon with such boldness that he had to take refuge in Stockholm (1806–9). In 1818 he became professor of history in the new University of Bonn; but, aiming stead…

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Ernst Otto Fischer

Inorganic chemist, born in Munich, SE Germany. He studied at the Munich Technical University, and spent his career there, becoming director of the Inorganic Chemistry Institute in 1964. Working independently, he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1973 for explaining how certain metals and organic substances can merge to form organometallic sandwich compounds. Ernst Otto Fischer is a Ge…

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Ernst Reuter - Early years, Weimar Republic, Post-War Berlin, Family, Honors, Publications, Literature

German politician, born in Apenrade, W Germany. He joined the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) in 1912. After 1918 he built the Kommunistiche Partei Deutschlands (KPD) organization in Berlin, served as its secretary general (1921), was excluded from the party in 1922, and returned to the SPD. He became Oberbürgermeister of Magdeburg (1931–3), a member of the Reichstag (1932–3), and…

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Ernst Ruska

Physicist, born in Heidelberg, SWC Germany. He studied high voltage and vacuum methods at Munich and Berlin, and from 1928 worked on the development of the electron microscope. His transmission electron microscope achieved magnifications of up to 106×, compared with 2000× for a good optical microscope, and its commercial availability (from 1938 onwards) revolutionized biology. He was awarded the…

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Ernst Toch - Works

Composer, born in Vienna, Austria. He had a prominent career in Germany before fleeing the Nazis and going to the USA in 1935. He wrote some film scores and taught privately, meanwhile composing a substantial body of music in a post-Romantic style with touches of Modernism. Ernst Toch (pronounced [tɵʜ]) (7 December 1887 - 1 October 1964) was a composer of classical music and film scores. …

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Ernst Toller - Biography, Works, Books

Writer, born in Samotschin, Poland. Badly wounded in World War 1, he finished his law studies in Munich and Heidelberg, became a member of the council of the Workers Republic in Bavaria, and was subsequently imprisoned for five years. He wrote anti-war Expressionist plays and was a major exponent of political theatre, as seen in Masse Mensch (1921), Die Maschinenstürmer (1922), and Hinkemann (192…

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Ernst Udet - Life of a flier, Despair and suicide

German airman, born in Frankfurt, WC Germany. He was a leading German air ace in World War 1, and from 1935 worked in the German air ministry. A Luftwaffe quartermaster-general in World War 2, having fallen foul of the Gestapo, he committed suicide by crashing his aircraft. The authorities described his death as an accident while testing a new air weapon. Zuckmayer's play, The Devil's General, is …

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Ernst von Wildenbruch - Biography

Writer, born in Beirut, Lebanon, the grandson of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia and the son of the Prussian ambassador to Constantinople. He studied law, and became a judge and later a senior Prussian civil servant. He wrote poetry and very popular patriotic plays with historical themes, notably Spartakus (1873), Die Karolinger (1882), and Die Haubenlerche (1891). He became court poet in Prussi…

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Eros (astronomy)

Asteroid 433, discovered in 1898 by Carl Gustav Witt at the Urania Observatory, Copenhagen. It passed within 23 million km/14 million mi of Earth in 1975. Eros is highly elongated in shape, about 30 × 14  km/18 × 8 mi across. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendevous (NEAR) spacecraft encountered and photographed it in December 1998. Eros may refer to: See also: EROS …

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Eros (mythology) - Conceptions of Eros, Myths associated with Eros

Originally, in Homer, simply an abstract force of ‘erotic desire’; but in Greek mythology, the son of Aphrodite and Ares. He is first depicted on vases as a handsome athlete, then as a boy with wings and arrows, and finally, in the Hellenistic period, as a chubby baby. In Greek mythology, Eros was the primordial god responsible for lust, love, and sex; His Roman equivalent was Cupid, "des…

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erosion - Causes, Erosion processes, Tectonic effects of erosion, Materials science, Figurative use, Origin of term

In geology, the alteration of landforms through the removal and transport of material by water, wind, glacial movement, gravity, or living organisms. Rivers are the most effective agents of erosion, forming the pattern of hills and valleys, while wave action forms the coastlines. Erosion can have serious economic effects by removing the topsoil. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, …

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Errett Bishop - Life, Work, Quotes

Mathematician, born in Newton, Kansas, USA. He taught at Berkeley (1954–65) and at the University of California (1965–83). He specialized in the theory of functions of several complex variables, the theory of uniform algebras, and functional analysis. Errett Albert Bishop (1928–1983) was an American mathematician known for is work on analysis. He is the father of constructivist analysis…

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Errett Lobban Cord

Manufacturer, born in Warrensburg, Missouri, USA. A racing-car driver and mechanic, he became president of Auburn Automobile Co in Auburn, IN, which acquired the Duesenberg Motor Co in Indianapolis (1926). In 1929 the Auburn plant introduced the Cord L-29, the first successful front-wheel drive car, which remained in production until 1932. Manufacture of all Cord and Duesenberg automobiles ceased …

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Errico Malatesta - Biography, Political beliefs, Malatesta's periodicals, Further reading

Italian politician, born in Campania, S Italy. He studied medicine at Naples University but was expelled for encouraging student unrest. To demonstrate his beliefs, he gave away his personal wealth, and worked as an electrician in cities around Europe, at the same time organizing anarchist revolutionary groups. He joined the First International and worked together with Bakunin, and in 1891 founded…

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Errol (Leslie Thomson) Flynn - Acting career, Private life, family and death, Post-death controversy, Pop culture references, Filmography

Actor, born in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. He moved to England to gain acting experience, joined the Northampton Repertory Company, and after a part in a film was offered a Hollywood contract. His first US film, Captain Blood (1935), established him as a hero of historical adventure films, and his good looks and athleticism confirmed him as the greatest Hollywood swashbuckler, in such films as Th…

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Erskine (Preston) Caldwell - Works

Writer, born in White Oak, Georgia, USA. In his early years he was a Hollywood screenwriter and foreign correspondent. His first novels, Tobacco Road (1932) and God's Little Acre (1933), were widely banned for obscenity, but they created an enduring portrait of ‘white trash’, and encouraged others to write frankly about the South they knew. He produced 50 volumes of fiction, travel writing, and …

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Erskine Bowles - Early Life and Education, Senatorial Races, After Senate Races, Electoral history

US public official, born in North Carolina. Educated at the University of North Carolina and Columbia University, he became an investment banker (1975–93) and administrator of the US Small Business Administration (1993–4). He joined the White House as deputy chief-of-staff (1994–5), and after returning to his business career (1995–6) became chief-of-staff in Clinton's second administration (19…

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Ert - Quotations

Fashion designer, born in St Petersburg, NW Russia. He went to Paris, where he became a dress and theatrical-costume designer. He worked for the Folies-Bergère (1919–30), and designed the costumes for the American musical revues The Ziegfeld Follies and George White's Scandals. In the 1960s he produced lithographs and sheet-metal sculptures. His autobiography, Things I Remember, was published in…

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Erving Goffman - Achievements, Major works

Sociologist, born in Alberta, W Canada. He studied at the universities of Toronto and Chicago, then taught at California (1958–68) and Pennsylvania universities. He is best known for his work on patterns of human communication, particularly the way in which people present themselves to each other, and what happens when they deviate from accepted norms. His books include Asylums (1961), Relations …

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Erwin (Johannes Eugen) Rommel - World War I, Inter-war years, World War II, Battles, Popular perception, In fiction

German field marshal, born in Heidenheim, S Germany. He studied at Tübingen, fought in World War 1, taught at Dresden Military Academy, and became an early Nazi sympathizer. He commanded Hitler's headquarters guard during the early occupations, and led a Panzer division during the 1940 invasion of France. He then commanded the Afrika Korps, where he achieved major successes. Eventually driven int…

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Erwin Chargaff - Early life, Columbia University, Chargaff's rules, Later life

Biochemist, born in Czernowitz, S Czech Republic. He studied at Vienna, Yale, Berlin, and Paris, and worked at Columbia University, New York City, from 1935. His pioneer work on nucleic acids showed that the DNA of an organism has a composition characteristic of the organism; and his work on the ratio of bases present in DNA (the Chargaff rules) provided a fundamental contribution to the double he…

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Erwin Panofsky - Books, About Panofsky

Art historian, born in Hanover, NC Germany. He studied at Berlin, Munich, and Freiburg universities, taught at the University of Hamburg (1921–32), and worked as a librarian. He fled from Nazi Germany to New York City in 1934, and from 1935 taught at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Although best known for developing the iconological approach to art - a method of interpreting the mean…

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Erwin Piscator - Biography

Theatre director, born in Ulm, SW Germany. He studied at the König School of Dramatic Art, and at the university, becoming first an actor then a director. He was the first to use the term epic theatre to describe a theatre composed of short, episodic plays with political ambitions, and pioneered staging techniques using films and mechanical devices. He opened his own theatre in Berlin in 1926. He…

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Erwin von Witzleben - Early years, First World War, Between the Wars, Second World War, Decorations, Notes about personal names

German field marshal, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Germany). Appointed field marshal in 1940, before and during the Sudetenland crisis he was involved in plans to topple Hitler, and joined General Ludwig Beck in the military resistance movement (Kreisauer Kreis). Commander-in-chief on the Western Front (1941–2), he was dismissed from this position in 1942. He was envisaged as Obe…

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erysipelas - Risk factors, Signs and symptoms, Cause and transmission, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications

An infectious skin disease caused by haemolytic strains of Streptococcus. The bacterium is spread from person to person by direct contact, and enters through small breaks in the skin. The skin becomes reddened and swollen, resembling the texture of an orange, and the infected area spreads rapidly. Patients are extremely unwell, with a high fever. Treatment is with penicillin. Erysipelas (Gr…

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erythromycin - History, Available forms, Mechanism of action, Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Side-effects, Contraindications

An antibiotic discovered in 1952 in extracts of the bacteria Streptomyces erythreus taken from a soil sample obtained in the Philippines. It works by blocking the synthesis of proteins in microbes. It belongs to the so-called macrolide group of antibiotics. Resistance can develop. It is used particularly in the treatment of pneumonia and legionnaire's disease. Erythromycin (also known as er…

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erythropoietin - Discovery and biological role, EPO as a therapeutic agent, Erythropoietin as a blood doping agent

A type of hormone (a polypeptide) present in vertebrates, secreted mainly by the kidneys, but also by other organs (eg the liver). It stimulates the proliferation and maturation of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in red bone marrow. The enhanced secretion of erythropoietin follows oxygen deficiency in some (as yet unknown) kidney cells, which results in compensatory increases in circulating erythro…

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Es'kia Mphahlele - Politicisation and exile, Bibliography

Novelist, autobiographer, and critic, born in Pretoria, South Africa. His ghetto childhood bulks large in his autobiography, Down Second Avenue (1959). He spent the years 1957 to 1978 in Nigeria, France, Kenya, Zambia, and the USA. By the time he published a second volume of autobiography, Afrika My Music (1984), he had also written four volumes of short stories and three novels. His influential c…

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Esarhaddon - In fiction

King of Assyria (680–669 BC), the son of Sennacherib and father of Assurbanipal. He is best known for his conquest of Egypt (671 BC). Sennacherib was murdered in 681 BC, some claim at the instigation of Esarhaddon, though this seems hardly likely, as he was not in a situation to exploit unrest arising from the death of his father. He was formally declared king in spring of 681 BC. …

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Esau - Symbolic struggle, The descendants of Esau at the end of time

Biblical character, the elder son of Isaac. He was depicted as his father's favourite son, but was deprived of Isaac's blessing and his birthright by his cunning brother Jacob (Gen 27). The story was used to explain why Esau's descendants, the Edomites, were thereafter hostile to Jacob's descendants, the Israelites. Esau (Hebrew עֵשָׂו‎, Standard Hebrew Esav, Tiberian Hebrew Ēśāw…

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Esbjerg - The city of Esbjerg

55°28N 8°28E, pop (2000e) 85 000. Seaport on W coast of Ribe county, SW Jutland, Denmark; railway; ferry link with UK and Faroe Is; base for North Sea oil and gas exploration; fishing, trade in agricultural produce; the most important Danish North Sea port. Esbjerg is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Ribe County on the west coast of the Jutland peninsula in southwest Denmark. The mun…

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escalator - Designs, Usage, Usage in Advertising, Accidents, Safety features, Safety tips, Longest escalators and systems, Etymology

A moving staircase, used to transport people or goods from one level to another, found mainly in large department stores and in railway stations and airports. Introduced in the USA, the Reno Inclined Elevator was patented by Jesse W Reno in 1892 and installed at the Old Iron Pier on Coney Island in 1896. Escalator steps are mounted on an endless belt, lying flat at the top and bottom to enable peo…

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escape velocity - Calculating an escape velocity, Deriving escape velocity using calculus

Spacecraft velocity at which the energy of a craft is sufficient to overcome the gravitational attraction of the parent body, and will thus not return to that body. Earth escape velocity is c.11 km/s (7 mi/s) (root 2 × circular orbit velocity); Sun escape velocity is about 42 km/s (26 mi/s), reached by Voyagers 1 and 2 after Jupiter flyby, when velocity was increased by gravity assist. …

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eschatology - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Mormonism, Native American, Norse mythology, Zoroastrianism, Prophetic movements, Other religions, Philosophy

The Christian doctrine concerning ‘the last things’ - the final consummation of God's purposes in creation, and the final destiny of individual souls or spirits and of humanity in general. The expected imminent return of Christ to establish the Kingdom of God was not realized, in early Christianity, which led to alternative, often symbolic, representations of ‘the last things’. The notion is s…

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Esek Hopkins

American naval officer, born in Scituate, Rhode Island, USA. He was commander-in-chief of the Continental navy (1775–7). He disregarded congressional orders to attack British ships in the Chesapeake Bay and instead attacked and captured New Providence, Bahamas (1776). Following a difficult year for the new navy (1776–7), Congress dismissed him from the naval service. Esek Hopkins (26 Apri…

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esparto

A tufted perennial grass (Stipa tenacissima), native to N Africa, and naturalized elsewhere, consisting of spikelets with long, feathery bristles in narrow panicles. The leaves are used to make paper. (Family: Gramineae.) …

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Esperanto - History, Linguistic properties

The best known of the world's artificial languages, invented by Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof in 1887, designed to overcome problems of international communication. It has 5 vowels and 23 consonants, a mainly W European lexicon, and shows Slavonic influence on syntax and spelling. Precise estimates of numbers and levels of speaker fluency are difficult to obtain: there are anywhere between 1 and 15 mill…

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essay - The essay as literary genre, The essay as a pedagogical tool, Non-literary essays

A short, written prose composition that discusses a subject or proposes an argument. Regarded as a minor literary form, the term essai was coined by Michel de Montaigne in Les Essais, which remains the finest example. An essay is a short work of writing that treats a topic from an author's personal point of view. Essays are non-fictional but often subjective; Essays can be learned arguments…

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Essen - Geography, History, Politics, Transportation, Sights in Essen

51°28N 6°59E, pop (2000e) 647 000. Industrial city in Düsseldorf district, W Germany; 29 km/18 mi NE of Düsseldorf, between Emscher and Ruhr Rivers; badly bombed in World War 2; bishopric; railway; headquarters of many large industrial corporations; important centre of retail trade; mining, iron and steel, engineering, locomotives, electronics, glass, chemicals, plastics, brewing, machine …

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Essenes - Contemporary ancient sources, Name, Location, Rules, customs, theology and beliefs, Scholarly discussion

A Jewish sect renowned in antiquity for its asceticism, communistic lifestyle, and skill in predicting the future. The famous Dead Sea Scrolls are believed to have belonged to a local Essene community. The main source of information about the life and belief of Essenes is the detailed account contained in a work of the 1st century Jewish historiographer Josephus entitled The Jewish War …

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essential oil - Production, Essential oil use in aromatherapy, Solvents, Raw Materials

A natural volatile oil produced by plants, giving a distinctive aromatic scent to the foliage. Mostly terpenoids, they help to reduce water loss by evaporating and forming a barrier around the leaf surface; the oil glands can often be seen as shining coloured dots scattered over the foliage or flowers. Common in plants from hot dry habitats, both the quality and quantity of oil is to some extent d…

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essentialism - Essentialism in philosophy, Essentialism in ethics, Essentialism in biology, Essentialism and society, Essentialism in history

The philosophical doctrine, articulated by Aristotle and others, that all things have a nature or essence - a cluster of properties which define them, and without which they would cease to exist or be the things they are. For example, being a mammal is an essential property of a cow; in contrast, being brown is an accidental property, something which could be different. In philosophy, essen…

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Essex - Population and settlement, Transport, Economy, County emblems, Towns and villages, Places of interest, Twinning

pop (2001e) 1 310 900; area 3672 km²/1418 sq mi. County of SE England, UK; NE of London; bounded E by the North Sea and S by the Thames estuary; county town, Chelmsford; major towns include Harwich (ferry port), Colchester, Southend; Southend and Thurrock new unitary authorities from 1998; agriculture (especially grain), oysters, electronics, motor vehicles, tourism; creation of the UK's la…

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Esteban Manuel de Villegas

Poet, born in Matute, Nájera, Logroño, N Spain. He was the most important member of the so-called Aragonese school, after the brothers Leonardo de Argensola. Little of his life is known, except that he married c.1626, practised law, and was exiled by the Inquisition from Nájera, Logroño, and Madrid for four years from 1659. His epic poems were failures, but the splendid versions and imitations…

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Estelle Morris

British stateswoman, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. She studied at Coventry College of Education and Warwick University, and took up a teaching post at a comprehensive school in Coventry (1974–92). Elected Labour MP for Birmingham Yardley in 1992, she became minister of state for the Department for Education and Employment (1997–8), minister for school standards (1997–2…

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ester - Ester synthesis, Ester reactions

A compound obtained by the condensation of an alcohol with an acid, as in the following example:. Esters are named as if they were salts, the first part being derived from the alcohol, and the second part from the acid. Most simple esters have characteristic fruity odours: ethyl acetate has the odour of pears, and is also an important solvent. Vegetable and animal fats and oils are mainly esters o…

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Esther - The name, The story, Modern retelling

Biblical queen, a foster-daughter of the Jew, Mordecai. According to the Book of Esther she was chosen by the Persian King Ahasuerus (possibly Xerxes I) as his wife in place of the disgraced Queen Vashti, and brought about the deliverance of her people. Esther (Hebrew: אֶסְתֵּר, Standard Ester Tiberian ʾEstēr), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus…

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Esther (Helen) McCracken

Playwright and actress, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. She acted with the Newcastle Repertory Company (1924–37), and had her first play produced in 1936, but it was with Quiet Wedding (1938) that her reputation was made as a writer of domestic comedy. Other successes were Quiet Weekend (1941) and No Medals (1944). Esther McCracken (1902 - 1971) was born in Newc…

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Esther (Louise) Rantzen - Marriage, Honours

Television presenter and producer, born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. She studied at Oxford, and joined the BBC in 1963, making sound effects for radio drama. She went on to be a researcher, then reporter, and during 1973–94 produced and presented That's Life, a populist consumer programme. She has campaigned against issues of child abuse and drug problems in a variety of documen…

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Esther Forbes - Resources

Writer, born in Westborough, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at the University of Wisconsin (1916–18), and worked as an editor for Houghton Mifflin in Boston (1920–6, 1942–6). Although she wrote some history works for adults, she is best known for her historical novels for young readers, such as Johnny Tremain (1943). Esther Forbes (June 28, 1891 - August 12, 1967) was an American biogra…

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Estonia - History, Politics, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Image Gallery, Further reading, Notes and references, Media

Official name Republic of Estonia, Estonian Eesti Vabariik, Russ Estonskaya Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti or Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. Estonia has land borders to the south with fellow Baltic state Latvia (339?km) and Russia (229?km) to the east. Estonia has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004 and of the NATO sin…

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estuary

A partly enclosed coastal water body connected with the open ocean and filled with sea water significantly diluted by fresh water run-off from land. Estuaries are among the most biologically productive areas on Earth. The addition of nutrient material from land via surface run-off is trapped by estuarine circulation patterns and continuously recycled by organisms. An estuary is semi-enclose…

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Esztergom - History, Sister cities, Population history

47°47N 18°44E, pop (2000e) 29 100. River-port town in Komáron county, N Hungary; on R Danube, NW of Budapest; fortress in Roman times; capital, 10th-c; seat of primate, 1198; railway; school of forestry; coal, lignite, wine, machinery; birthplace of St Stephen, Hungary's first king; 19th-c Basilica (largest church in Hungary); thermal springs nearby. Esztergom (Croatian: Ostrogon; …

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ETA

Basque separatist organization whose goal is Basque self-determination. Founded in 1959, it split off from its parent Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV), fragmenting further in 1966 to produce a more violent Marxist-Leninist wing, which conducted bomb attacks and assassinations. The Franco government responded with a brutal policy of assaults and torture, but the post-Franco government granted parti…

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etching - Explanation, History, Industrial uses, Printing, Faults

A form of intaglio printing invented in the early 16th-c, whereby the design on a copper plate is bitten with acid, rather than cut directly with the engraving tool (burin). The greatest master of the technique was Rembrandt. Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is etched into the surface of a metal plate by acid. In pure etching, a metal (usually copp…

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Eteocles - Oedipus's Curse, Quarrel over the rule of Thebes

In Greek legend, the elder of Oedipus's two sons, both of whom he cursed. Eteocles became king of Thebes after his father's death, and refused to share power with his brother Polynices. Seven Champions attacked the city, and Eteocles was killed by Polynices. In Greek mythology, Eteocles ʼΕτεοκλῆς was a king of Thebes, the son of Oedipus and either Jocasta or Euryganeia. …

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Ethan Allen - Biography, Publications, Other Associates

American soldier, born in Litchfield, Connecticut, USA. He and his brothers acquired large landholdings in the ‘New Hampshire Grants’, as Vermont was then known. He spent his career trying to achieve independence for the Green Mountain area that is now the state of Vermont, commanding (1770–5) an irregular force called the Green Mountain Boys. At the outbreak of the War of Independence (1775–8…

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ethane - Extraterrestrial ethane

C2H6, boiling point ?89°C. The second member of the alkane series; an odourless gas, used for refrigeration, which forms explosive mixtures with air. The molecular shape, joined tetrahedra, is characteristic of the whole alkane series. Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. At the anode, acetate is oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and methyl radicals, and the highly re…

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ethanol - History, Physical properties, Chemistry, Production, Ethanol, Feedstocks, Use, Metabolism and toxicology

CH3CH2OH, boiling point 78°C, also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and simply alcohol. It is a colourless liquid with a characteristic odour, mainly prepared by the fermentation of sugars. An important solvent, disinfectant, and preservative, it is mainly known for its intoxicating properties in beverages. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorles…

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Ethel Barrymore - Early life, Career

Stage and film actress, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The daughter of Maurice Barrymore, and a member of the famous family of actors. In 1897–8 she scored a great success in London with Sir Henry Irving in The Bells, had her first Broadway success in Captain Jinks of the Horse Marines (1901), and made some early silent films. In 1944 she won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in None…

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Ethel Merman - Audible Samples of Ethel Merman, Theatre performances, Filmography, Television performances

Actress and singer, born in Astoria, New York, USA. A gutsy, powerful musical comedy performer, she is remembered for her showstopping performances in Annie Get Your Gun (1946) and Call Me Madam (1950). Ethel Merman (January 16, 1908 – February 15, 1984) was a Tony Award winning star of stage and film musicals, well known for her powerful voice and vocal range. William Cullen Bryant …

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Ethel Sibyl Turner

Novelist and children's writer, born in Doncaster, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. She moved to Australia at the age of nine. With her sister, Lilian, she started a magazine, and wrote the children's page, later doing the same for two other Sydney periodicals. Her first book, Seven Little Australians, published in 1894, was an immediate success, has been in print ever since publication, and is now…

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Ethel Waters - Early life, Career, Death, Private life, Awards and recognitions

Stage and film actress and singer, born in Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. An eloquent performer, she began in both black and white vaudeville, then made her debut on Broadway in 1927. She is remembered for her role in The Member of the Wedding (1950). Her best known song was ‘Stormy Weather’. Ethel Waters (October 31, 1896 – September 1, 1977) was an Oscar-nominated American blues vocalist…

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Ethelbert (Woodbridge) Nevin - Works

Composer, born in Edgeworth, Pennsylvania, USA. After studies in America and Europe, he pursued a career of composing sentimental parlour songs and piano pieces such as ‘The Rosary’. Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin November 25, 1862 - February 17, 1901 American pianist and composer. He is known primarily for the composition of the extremely familiar piano piece, Narcissus from Wate…

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Ethelred II - Conflict with the Danes, Death, Marriages and issue, Legacy

King of England (978–1016), the son of Edgar. He was aged about 10 when the murder of his half-brother, Edward the Martyr, placed him on the throne. In 1002 he confirmed an alliance with Normandy by marrying as his second wife Duke Richard's daughter Emma - the first dynastic link between the two countries. Renewed attacks by the Vikings on England began as raids in the 980s, and in 1013 Sweyn Fo…

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ether (chemistry) - Nomenclature, Similar structures, Primary, secondary, and tertiary ethers, Polyethers, Organic reactions, Important ethers

An organic compound containing an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl groups. Ethers are relatively unreactive compounds. The best known is ethyl ether (CH3CH2–O–CH2CH3), a volatile liquid, boiling point 35°C, used as an anaesthetic. Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. A typic…

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ether (physics) - Nomenclature, Similar structures, Primary, secondary, and tertiary ethers, Polyethers, Organic reactions, Important ethers

A substance once believed to pervade all space, thought necessary as the medium of propagation of light. The Michelson–Morley experiment was important in demonstrating the absence of ether, which is no longer required by the modern theory of light. Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alky…

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Ethernet - History, General description, Dealing with multiple users, Autonegotiation and duplex mismatch

A model of a local area network in which the workstations of the network are linked by coaxial cable. If any network station wishes to communicate with another, it sends an addressed message along the cable; this is then recognized and picked up only by the workstation to which it is addressed. There is also a model of local area network, called a ‘thin’ ethernet, which uses telephone wires but …

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ethics - Normative ethics, Applied ethics

The branch of philosophy dealing with the concepts and principles of morality, and including such theoretical questions as the source and foundation of morality, the status and justification of moral rules, the relationship between moral and other human objectives, and the nature of responsibility. Ethics has various subfields of application, such as medical ethics and business ethics, and its mea…

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Ethiopia - Geography, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Archaeology, Sports

Official name Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, formerly bAyssinia, Amharic Hebretesebawit Ityopia The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatur…

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ethnic cleansing - Definitions, Origins of the term, Ethnic cleansing as a military and political tactic

The systematic removal of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group from a geographical area. Ethnic cleansing differs from genocide in that the objective is not to exterminate all members of the group; however, mass murder, either organized or on an ad hoc basis, has often been part of the process of ethnic cleansing. The term became widely applied to the activities of various governments…

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ethnic group - Types of ethnic group, In the United States, In the United Kingdom, In China, Ethnic ideology

A segment of a population within a society who share common descent (actual or putative), attitudes and behaviour, and cultural and physical characteristics, and who perceive themselves as a distinct group. Members of an ethnic group generally claim a strong cultural continuity over time, although some historians and anthropologists have documented that many of the cultural practices on whi…

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ethnocentrism - Usage, Psychological underpinnings of ethnocentrism

A limited or parochial perspective which evaluates other societies and their cultures according to one's own cultural expectations. It implies a very restricted understanding of foreign cultures, and a notion that one's own is not only different, but ‘better’. Ethnocentric comments are often heard emanating from disdainful but narrow-minded tourists. Ethnocentricity is the tendency to loo…

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ethnography - Cultural and Social anthropology, Other related fields

A detailed description of the culture of a particular society, based on fieldwork by ethnographers or anthropologists, using the method of participant observation. In Europe, the subject is often referred to as ethnology. Ethnography (from the Greek ἔθνος ethnos = nation and γράφειν graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents qualitative description of …

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ethnolinguistics

The study of the relationship between language and culture. It is concerned with all aspects of language, including its structure and usage, which have any connection with culture and society. Ethnolinguistics is a field of linguistic anthropology which studies the language of a particular ethnic group. Ethnolinguistics is frequently associated with minority linguistic groups wi…

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ethnomethodology - History and Influence, Varieties of ethnomethodology, Some leading policies and methods

The sociological theory developed out of the work of the US sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1917– ) and others in the 1960s. It studies the methods people use to accomplish successful social interaction, and is derived from earlier phenomenological and symbolic interactionist theories. Ethnomethodology (literally, 'the study of people's (folk) methods') is a sociological discipline which foc…

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ethnomusicology

The scientific study of folk and national music, especially that of non-Western countries, in its anthropological, cultural, and social contexts. Studies of some remote or exotic musical cultures were made in the 18th–19th-c, but because ethnomusicology deals with oral traditions, it was not until sound recording became easily available that the discipline could establish itself widely and on a s…

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ethology - Etymology, Differences and similarities with comparative psychology, Darwinism and the beginnings of ethology

The study of animal behaviour from the viewpoint of zoology and ecology. It considers the fine details of individual species behaviour in relation to properties of the natural environment to which the species has adapted (its ecological niche). The data are derived from direct observation and monitoring (eg by radio-tracking) of animals under natural or quasi-natural conditions. It assumes that mo…

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ethylene - Structure, Nomenclature, Production, Theoretical considerations, Chemical reactions, Ethylene as a plant hormone, Effects upon humans

CH2=CH2, IUPAC ethene, boiling point ?104°C. A colourless gas, the first member of the alkene series. It is a very important industrial chemical, which polymerizes to polyethylene. Small traces hasten the ripening of fruit. This hydrocarbon has four hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms that are connected by a double bond. From 1795 on, ethylene was referred to as the …

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Etruria

The heartland of the Etruscan people, roughly corresponding to modern Tuscany. In antiquity, it was defined as the area between the Arno, Tiber, Apennines, and Tyrrhenian Sea. Rome was influenced strongly by the Etruscans, with a series of Etruscan kings ruling at Rome until 509 BC when the last Etruscan king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was removed from power and the Roman Republic was…

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Ettie Annie Rout - Bibliography, Online Resources, References and Links

Journalist and social reformer, born in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. She moved to New Zealand in 1885, and found fame during World War 1 through her campaign to control venereal disease among New Zealand troops in Europe. A friend of Marie Stopes, she later turned her attention to the sexual education of women. She wrote six books, including Safe Marriage (1922) and The Morality of Birth Control (…

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Ettore (Arco Isidoro) Bugatti

Car manufacturer, born in Milan, N Italy. He began designing cars in 1899, and set up his works in Strasbourg (1907). In World War 1 he moved to Italy and later to France, where his racing cars won international fame in the 1930s. Before founding his own automobile company, Ettore designed a number of engines and vehicles for others. In 1907, Bugatti went to work for the Deutz Gasmotoren Fa…

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Etty Hillesum - Quotes, Writings

Jewish writer, born in Middelburg, SW Netherlands. She studied law, Slavic languages, and psychology in Amsterdam and died in Auschwitz concentration camp. Her letters and diary written during her stay in concentration camps survived the war, and in 1981 a selection from her diary was published under the title Het verstoorde leven (Interrupted Life). In this book she describes her search for inner…

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etymology - Types of word origins, Methods of etymology, History of etymology

The study of the origins of the form and meaning of words and their history; a branch of historical linguistics. The ‘parent’ of a later word form is known as its etymon. Words can be mistakenly analysed in relation to some similarity of form or meaning with other words, to give a folk etymology, as when asparagus is referred to as ‘sparrow-grass’. The etymological fallacy maintains that the

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Eubie Blake - Birth, Music, Composition, Marriage, Death, Age controversy, Legacy, Timeline

Composer and pianist, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He studied piano as a child and sang outside saloons in a vocal quartet at age 12. While a teenager he began playing piano at bordellos, travelling in minstrel shows, and playing in fine hotels in Baltimore and Atlantic City. He published his first song in 1914, and the next year met Noble Sissle, who soon became his lyricist. In 1916 they be…

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Euboea - Historic population, Municipalities and communities, Persons, Sporting teams, See also

pop (2000e) 218 000; area 3655 km²/1411 sq mi. Second largest Greek island, in the Aegean Sea, separated from the mainland by a narrow channel; length 144 km/89 mi; rises to 1744 m/5722 ft; capital, Chalcis; chief towns Istiaia, Kimi, and Karistos; olives, grapes, cereals, sheep, goats; several tourist resorts on coast. Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοι

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Eucharist - Eucharist in the Bible, Christian theology, Ritual and liturgy

For most Christian denominations, a sacrament and the central act of worship, sometimes called the Mass (Roman Catholic), Holy Communion, or Lord's Supper (Protestant). It is based on the example of Jesus at the Last Supper, when he identified the bread which he broke and the wine which he poured with his body and blood (1 Cor 11.23–5; Matt 26.26–8; Mark 14.22–4; Luke 22.17–20), and generally …

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Euclid - The Elements, Other works, Biographical sources, Tributes

Greek mathematician who taught in Alexandria c.300 BC, and who was probably the founder of its mathematical school. His chief extant work is the 13-volume Elements, which became the most widely known mathematical book of Classical antiquity, and is still much used in geometry. The approach which obeys his axioms became known as Euclidean geometry. Euclid (also referred to as Euclid of Alexa…

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Eudora (Alice) Welty - Major Works

Writer, born in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. She studied at Mississippi State College for Women (1926–7), the University of Wisconsin (1929 BA), and Columbia's Graduate School of Business (1930–1). She worked for newspapers and a radio station in Mississippi, as a publicity agent for the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and lectured at several colleges, living most of her life in Jackson. She …

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Eugen Bleuler

Psychiatrist, born in Zollikon, N Switzerland. Professor at Zürich (1898–1927, he carried out research on epilepsy, then turned to psychiatry, and in 1911 published a study on what he called schizophrenia or ‘splitting of the mind’. Jung was one of his pupils. Bleuler was born in Zollikon, a small town near Zürich in Switzerland. In 1886 Bleuler became the director of a psy…

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Eugen Gerstenmaier - Life, career, resistance, In the Bundestag, Political Leanings, Honours

German politician and Protestant theologian, born in Kirchheim unter Teck, SW Germany. He joined the Christlich-Demokratische Union (CDU) and was a member of the Bekennende Kirche and the Kreisauer Kreis opposed to Hitler. After the failed attempt on Hitler's life in 1944 he was sentenced to seven years in prison. He became founder and head of the Evangelisches Hilfswerk (1945–51) and president o…

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Eugen Jochum

Conductor, born in Babenhausen, S Germany. He studied in Augsburg (1914–22) and Munich (1922-4), and became musical director of the Hamburg Staatsoper and conductor of the Hamburg Philharmonic Orchestra (1934–49). In 1949 he returned to Munich, where he conducted the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Eugen Jochum (November 1, 1902 – March 26, 1987) was an eminent German conductor. …

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Eugen Richter

German politician, lawyer, and political economist, born in Düsseldorf, W Germany. As one of the first professional politicians he was an opponent of social democracy. A member of the Reichstag (1867–1906), he became leader of the Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, the Freisinnige Partei (from 1884), and the Freisinnige Volkspartei (from 1893). He was committed to the ideals of the 1848 revolution. …

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Eugene (Andrew) Cernan

Astronaut, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A US Navy officer (1956), he became a test pilot and went on to study aeronautical engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. He undertook astronaut training (1963) and was a crew member of several historic missions: Gemini 9 (1966), Apollo 10 (1969), and Apollo 17 (1972). He was involved in the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (1975), later resign…

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Eugene (Edward) Speicher - Works

Painter, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. He studied at the Fine Arts Academy, Buffalo (1902–6), and the Art Students League, New York (1906–8) under Robert Henri and William Merritt Chase. Based in Woodstock, NY, he painted landscapes and portraits, such as ‘Consuela’ (1947). …

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Eugene (George) Istomin - Awards and Recognitions

Pianist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He began piano lessons at age six with Alexander Siloti and at age 12 he was accepted into the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia where he studied under Rudolf Serkin and Mieczyslaw Horszowski. He came to national prominence at age 17 when he won the Leventritt Award (1943) and the Philadelphia Orchestra Youth award. He made his debut recital i…

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Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill - Life, Selected Works, Further reading

Playwright, born in New York City, USA. Born into a volatile theatrical family, his education was fragmented, and for six years he went to sea, living the life of a tramp at docksides, and making an attempt at suicide. After a spell in a sanatorium recovering from tuberculosis, he began writing plays as a means of making sense of his disturbed emotions. He was sent to study play-writing at Harvard…

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Eugene Aram

Scholar and murderer, born in Ramsgill, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. Though self-taught, he became a schoolmaster, amassed considerable materials for a comparative lexicon, and postulated the relationship between Celtic and Indo-European tongues. In 1745 he was tried for the murder of a wealthy shoemaker, but acquitted for want of evidence. In 1759, on fresh evidence coming to light about the m…

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Eugene D(onald) Millikin

US senator, born in Hamilton, Ohio, USA. He practised law in Denver, CO before he was appointed and then elected to the US Senate (Republican, Colorado, 1941–57). Politically unknown before his appointment, he soon became recognized as a thorough conservative and isolationist. He espoused Colorado's irrigation needs while he was on the Interior Committee. Eugene Donald Millikin (February 1…

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Eugene Dennis - Venona

Communist Party leader, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. Joining the Communist Party in 1926, he was arrested for organizing lettuce workers in California's Imperial Valley (1927–8). He attended a Communist Party school while in Moscow (1931–5) and on return to the USA he held a series of posts in the Communist Party, becoming its general secretary (1945–51, 1955–9). He was imprisoned (1951–…

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Eugene Field

Writer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He became a journalist at 23, and from 1883 was a columnist with the Chicago Morning News, achieving a reputation as humorist and poet with his column ‘Sharps and Flats’. He wrote the well-known nursery lullaby ‘Little Boy Blue’, and published several books of children's verse. Eugene Field (September 2, 1850 - November 4, 1895) American writer, …

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Eugene Hale - Source

US representative and senator, born in Turner, Maine, USA. A conservative, he was elected to the US House of Representatives (Republican, Maine, 1869–79) and the US Senate (1881–1911). He was a reliable supporter of business interests, and although he helped to modernize the US Navy, he opposed the spirit of imperialism that followed the Spanish-American War. Eugene Pryor Hale (6 June 183…

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Eugene Ormandy - Biography, Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, The Philadelphia Orchestra, Guest Appearances, Recordings, Awards and Honors, Death and Legacy

Conductor, born in Budapest, Hungary. A child prodigy, he studied the violin in Budapest, became an orchestral player in Berlin, then emigrated to the USA (1921), and became a US citizen (1927). He took up conducting, and headed the Minneapolis Symphony (1931–6) before taking the podium of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1936 (for two years co-conductor with Stokowski). He remained at that post unt…

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Eugene Talmadge

US governor, born in Forsyth, Georgia, USA. A Georgia farmer and lawyer, he entered state politics as Democratic commissioner of agriculture (1927–33). A states' rights governor (1933–7), he and Huey Long led Southern opposition to President Franklin D Roosevelt. He returned to farming and law, and then became governor again (1941–3), but lost favour after demanding that the University of Georg…

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eugenics - Meanings and types of eugenics, History

The ‘science’ that dealt with the alleged effects on the individual of biological and social factors. The term was coined in 1883 by Francis Galton as ‘the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities’. Eugenics was destroyed in the earlier years of the 20th-c by the propagation (eg in Germany and the USA) of political doctrines, in the name of eugenics, which were…

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Eugenics Society

A society founded in London in 1907 as the Eugenics Education Society, adopting its present name in 1926. Its American counterpart changed its name in 1971 to the Society for the Study of Social Biology and the Eugenics Society altered its own in 1990 to the Galton Institute. With the arrival of modern genetic knowledge, and particularly of clinical genetics, much of the Institute's earlier activi…

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Eugenie Clark - Personal life, Academic life, Bite incident

Ichthyologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She was an assistant ichthyologist at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography (1946–7) and the New York Zoological Society (1947–8), then relocated to the American Museum of Natural History (1948–66) while concurrently serving as executive director of marine biology at the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL (1955–66). Her popular autobi…

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Eugenio Barba

Theatre director, born in Brindisi, S Italy. He was the founder (1964) of Odin Teatret, an experimental theatre company and centre for collective research in performance. In 1979 he established the International School of Theatre Anthropology. His theoretical writings include The Floating Islands (1984), Beyond the Floating Islands (1986), and The Paper Canoe (1994). Eugenio Barba (born Oct…

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Eugenio Montale - Life, Works

Poet, born in Genoa, NW Italy. He was the leading poet of the modern Italian ‘Hermetic’ school, and his primary concern was with language and meaning. His main theme was the ‘pain of living’ in a desolate universe where the only hope came from chance encounters with the everyday. His works include Ossi di seppia (1925, Cuttlefish Bones), Le occasioni (1939, The Occasions), La bufera e altro (1…

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Eugenio Monti - Victories

Bobsleigh driver, born in Dobbiaco, NE Italy. The winner of a record six Olympic bobsleighing medals, he won golds in the two- and four-man events at the 1968 Games, after winning the silver in both events in 1956, and the bronze in 1964. He was also a member of 11 Italian world championship winning teams between 1957 and 1968. After retiring in 1968, he was appointed manager to the Italian nation…

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Euhemerus - The Sacred History, Euhemerism and the Early Christians, Euhemerism in the Modern World

Greek philosopher and mythographer, probably from Messene, Sicily, the author of Sacred History. He was the first to try to link mythical beings and events with historical fact, explaining the gods as distorted representations of ancient warriors and heroes. His name lives on in the term Euhemerism. Euhemerus (Ευήμερος) (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the cou…

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Eupen - Historical Sketch

50°38N 6°02E, pop (2000e) 17 500. Town in E Liège province, E Belgium; principal town in German-speaking Belgium; popular health resort (Kneipp water-cure) and holiday centre; largest artificial lake in Belgium; railway; textiles, artificial fibres, tourism, cables and wires; St Nicholas Church (1727); carnival (Nov). On 1 January 2006 Eupen had a total population of 18,248 (8,892 male…

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euphonium - Construction and general characteristics, Name recognition and misconceptions, History and development

A musical instrument of the tuba family, much used in brass bands and occasionally in orchestral music. A person who plays euphonium is sometimes called a euphoniumist or a euphonist. British euphonium players often colloquially refer to themselves as euphists. Similarly, the instrument itself is sometimes referred to as "euph." The euphonium is pitched in concert B-flat (…

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Euphronios

Greek potter and vase painter. His name is inscribed, as either painter or potter, on 15 vessels which constitute some of the finest surviving examples of vessels painted in the so-called ‘red figure’ style. Euphronios was a Greek painter and potter of red-figure vases, active in Athens between 520 and 470 BC, the time of the Persian Wars. Euphronios's signature on these later pieces may …

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Eureka Stockade - Background, Protests, Chartism and the Ballarat Reform League, Escalation, Commander in Chief, Battle, Weapons, Aftermath

In Australian history, an armed clash between goldminers and a combined police and military force at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, Victoria, (1854), which cost the lives of 30 miners and 5 soldiers, with many others wounded. The miners had objected to the expensive mining licence imposed by the government. Public opinion swung behind the miners, reforms to the goldfields were carried out, and the…

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eurhythmics - Important Influences on the development of Eurhythmics

A system of musical training devised by Jaques-Dalcroze, designed to develop a quick response to changing rhythms by fitting bodily movements to pieces of music. Eurhythmics (also Rhythmic Gymnastics, Rhythmics) is an approach to the education of music that was devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze. It is the expression of physical and musical rhythms and the basic laws affecting the…

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Euripides - Life, Plays, Bibliography, Further reading

Greek tragic playwright, born in Athens, Greece. He abandoned painting for literature, writing about 80 dramas, of which 19 survive, such as Alcestis (438 BC), Medea (431 BC), Orestes (408 BC), and Electra (417 BC). The Bacchae (c.405 BC) and Iphigenia in Aulis (c.414–412 BC) were put on the Athenian stage only after the author's death, when his work became very popular. He died at the court of A…

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Euro - Characteristics of the euro, Economic and Monetary Union, Effects of a single currency, Euro exchange rate

The common currency unit used in 12 countries of the European Union (from 1 Jan 1999 in Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, and from 1 Jan 2001 in Greece), and also from 1999 in Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican. Euro notes and coins entered general circulation on 1 Jan 2002, at which point each country had a period of ti…

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Eurocommunism - Theoretical Foundations, Western European Communist Parties, Further reading

An attempt by W European communist parties to fashion a programme and organization more appropriate to liberal democracies and market economies. The Italian communist party was at the forefront, and achieved the most in reform. Such refashioning of Marxism–Leninism has not led to a resurgence of communism, however, and did not receive support from the Soviet communist party. The term has lost mos…

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Eurodollar - Futures Contract, Finance

US dollars held in banks in Europe. Considerable sums are involved, resulting from such major concerns as the oil industry, where trade is conducted in dollars. They may be borrowed by companies, as Eurodollar loans, and are particularly useful when international trade is planned. Eurodollars are deposits denominated in United States dollars at banks outside the United States, and thus are …

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Europa (astronomy)

The second natural satellite of Jupiter, discovered by Galileo in 1610 and named by the German astronomer Simon Marius (1573–1624) shortly thereafter; distance from the planet 671 000 km/417 000 mi; diameter 3140 km/1950 mi; orbital period 3·551 days. It has a crust of frozen water possibly no more than 150 km/90 mi thick, criss-crossed by dark curvilinear cracks (typically 20–40 km/15…

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Europa (mythology) - Europa's family, "The Rape of Europa", Europa in literature, Europa in the visual arts

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Agenor, king of Tyre, who was abducted by Zeus in the shape of a bull; he then swam with her on his back to Crete. Her children were Minos and Rhadamanthus. Europa (Greek Ευρώπη) was a Phoenician woman in Greek mythology, from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken. This can especially be said of the story of Europa" T…

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Europe - Etymology, Political geography, Languages and cultures, Religions

Second smallest continent, forming an extensive peninsula of the Eurasian land-mass, occupying c.7% of the Earth's surface; bounded N and NE by the Arctic Ocean, NW and W by the Atlantic Ocean, S by the Mediterranean Sea, and E by Asia beyond the Ural Mts; supports over 25% of the world's population; major rivers include the Danube, Rhine, Rhône, Loire, and Tagus; major mountain systems include t…

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European Central Bank (ECB) - Objectives and Tasks, Criticism of the ECB, Other languages, Trivia

A bank established in Frankfurt (am Main) on 1 June 1998 to oversee the introduction and development of the Euro, and to set interest rates (3 per cent, at the outset). The Bank reports to the European Parliament on a yearly basis. The ECB and the national central banks together form the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), which govern the conduct of the single monetary policy, and whose prim…

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European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) - Presidents of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, 1952-1967

The first European economic institution, set up in 1952 under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1951). It worked to remove customs duties and quota restrictions in coal, iron ore, and scrap, and aimed to ensure that competition in these commodities was fair. Its founding members were France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg. It subsequently came to include Denmark, Ire…

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European Commission - Responsibilities of the Commission, Criticism of the Commission, Appointment and makeup of the Commission, History

The administrative and executive bureaucracy of the European Union (EU), carrying out both political and administrative tasks. Its functions are to uphold the European ideal, propose new policy initiatives, and ensure that existing policies are implemented. In a narrow sense it comprises 20 commissioners directly nominated by the member states; the UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain each nomina…

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European Community (EC) - European Community, Community Pillar, European Economic Community, The future of the European Communities

The name generally used in 1967–93 to refer to the organization which then became the European Union. It was a community of Western European states initially created to achieve economic integration, but with the longer-term goal of political integration also in mind. It grew out of the European Coal and Steel Community which was established in 1952 under the Treaty of Paris by Belgium, France, It…

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European Convention on Human Rights - The Protocols to the Convention

A convention which sets out the main rights and fundamental freedoms to be protected, contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, namely, the right to life, to a fair trial, and to freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and education. The Convention was originally formulated by the Council of Europe in 1950, and came into force in 1953. It set up the European Commission on Human Rig…

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European Council

The summit-level body which brings together (normally two or three times a year) the heads of state and/or government of the member states of the European Union, together with the president of the European Commission (who is not a member). Meeting originally on an informal basis, it was constituted formally in 1974, and takes the main decisions in the European Union, for instance on such issues as…

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European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) - History and structure, Reform, Notable cases, Architecture

A judicial court established by the European Convention on Human Rights, based in Strasbourg, France. It was founded in 1950 to safeguard the rights of free expression and to protect against discrimination. In countries that recognize the Convention within their own legal systems, verdicts in domestic courts concerning discrimination are not binding, and cases can be referred to the ECHR by refere…

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European Defence Community

A supranational community which was to ensure the security of its members against aggression, and produce a more coherent grouping than the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A treaty was signed in May 1952 by the six members of the European Coal and Steel Community (other W European countries could join) but was never ratified by the French parliament, and the project was abandoned. The E…

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European Economic Area (EEA) - EEA freedoms, EEA legislation, Institutions

A trading bloc linking the European Union and the European Free Trade Association (with the exception of Switzerland and Liechtenstein), introduced as one of the economic agreements of the Maastricht Treaty in January 1994. Its 372 million members make it the world's biggest free-trade area. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between t…

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European Free Trade Association (EFTA) - Institutions, Portugal Fund, International Conventions, Relationship to the European Economic Area, Future of EFTA, United Kingdom

An association originally of seven W European states who were not members of the European Economic Community (EEC), intended as a counter to the EEC; it was established in 1959 under the Stockholm Convention. The members (Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK) agreed to eliminate over a period of time trade restrictions between them, without having to bring into line …

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