Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 23

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Eleanor of Provence - Reference

Queen consort of Henry III of England (1236–72), the daughter of Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Provence. In the Barons' War of 1264 she raised an army of mercenaries in France to support her husband, but her invasion fleet was wrecked. After the accession of her son, Edward I, in 1272 she retired to a convent. Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Pr…

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Eleanor Steber - Discography

Soprano, born in Wheeling, West Virginia, USA. American-trained, she made her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1940 and stayed there until 1966, becoming famed for her sensitive musicality. Thereafter she continued singing recitals and teaching. Eleanor Steber, (born Wheeling, West Virginia, 17 July 1914 - died Langhorne, Pennsylvania. 3 October 1990) was an American opera singer. Sh…

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Eleatics - History, Philosophy

A group of presocratic Greek philosophers in the 5th-c BC, from Elea in S Italy. In contrast to the more empirical Milesians, Parmenides, Melissus, and Zeno initiated a metaphysical tradition based on deductive argument, which greatly influenced Plato and subsequent philosophers. The Eleatics were a school of pre-Socratic philosophers at Elea, a Greek colony in Lucania, Italy. Other members…

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Eleazar Wheelock

College president, born in Windham, Connecticut, USA. A Congregational minister, he founded Moor's Indian Charity School in Lebanon, CT (1754). In 1770 he moved the school to Hanover, NH re-establishing it as Dartmouth College, and was president until his death. He wrote Narrative of the Indian School at Lebanon (1762–75). He was born in Windham, Connecticut to Ralph Wheelock and Ruth Hunt…

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electoral college - Beginnings of electoral colleges

A body made up of people who are responsible for electing a person to some office. These people can hold a particular office themselves (as in the case of the College of Cardinals who elect the pope) or be elected from a wider electorate. The most famous electoral college is the one that elects the president of the USA. It is made up of electors from each state pledged to cast their vote for the p…

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Electra - Psychology, Adaptations of the Electra story

In Greek tragedies, but not in Homer, the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, who assisted her brother Orestes when he arrived in Argos to avenge his father, and who later married his friend Pylades. Her personality is developed in different ways by the playwrights. In Greek mythology, Electra was daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. Electra was absent from Mycenae when h…

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Electra Havemeyer Webb

Museum founder, born in New York City, New York, USA, the daughter of Louisine Elder Havemeyer. She studied at a commercial college, learned outdoor sports from her father, and married J Watson Webb in 1910. Immensely wealthy, the couple lived in New York City and Westbury, Long Island. They settled in Shelburne, VT (1949), building a house on the Webb land holdings. Two years earlier, Electra had…

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electric eel

Large freshwater fish (Electrophorus electricus) found in shallow streams of the Orinoco and Amazon basins of South America; body cylindrical at front, becoming compressed posteriorly, length up to 2·4 m/8 ft; long anal fin; dorsal, tail, and pelvic fins absent; produces powerful electric shocks to stun prey, as defence, and for navigation in turbid waters. (Family: Electrophoridae.) The…

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electric field - Coulomb's law, Energy in the electric field, Parallels between electrostatics and gravity

The region of electric influence surrounding positive or negative electric charges; symbol E, units V/m (volts per metre); a vector quantity, with field direction specified as the direction of motion of a positive charge placed in the field. For a force F on a test charge of q coulombs, the field is given as E = F/q, ie the electric field is the electric force per unit charge. It may be represen…

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electric ray

Any of a family of sluggish, bottom-living marine rays, widespread in tropical to temperate seas; body disc rounded, skin smooth, tail robust; well-developed electric organs produce strong shocks to stun prey; also called torpedo rays; includes large N Atlantic species, Torpedo nobiliana; length up to 1·8 m/6 ft. (Family: Torpedinidae.) Electric rays (order Torpediniformes) are fish that…

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electrical conduction - Solids (including insulating solids), Electrolytes, Gases and plasmas

The transport of electrical charge through some substance. Only metals conduct electricity well; conduction is by means of the free electrons in the electron gas characteristic of metal structure. Ionic and covalently bound solids are insulators; but ionic solids such as salt (sodium chloride) conduct when dissolved in water, as the electrically charged ions become free to move. In semiconductors,…

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electrical engineering - History, Education, Practicing engineers, Tools and work, Sub-disciplines, Related disciplines

A branch of engineering which studies the practical applications of electricity and electronics. Until the 1940s electrical engineering was a small part of the general field of engineering, confined to communications, lighting, and the generation and transmission of electrical power. As progress was made in the area of electrical and electronic communications, it developed into a separate field, n…

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electricity - SI electricity units

Phenomena associated with electrical charges and currents, and the study of such phenomena. Between collections of positive and negative charges there exists a potential difference. If a conducting path exists between the two charge groups, charges will flow from one to the other, constituting an electric current. Electric charge which builds up on an insulator and is thus unable to flow is termed…

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electrochemistry - History, Principles, Electrochemical cells, Standard electrode potential, Spontaneity of Redox systems

The study of chemical change in a solution, resulting from the uptake of electrical energy from an external circuit or its supply to a circuit. Storage batteries (accumulators) illustrate this process, as they charge and discharge respectively. In all cases, changes in the oxidation states of elements occur, and energy is converted between chemical and electrical forms. Electrochemistry is …

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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - Overview, Techniques and equipment, Side effects and complications, Effectiveness, Current use, Informed consent, Involuntary ECT

A treatment for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, in which a convulsion is produced by passing a low-level electric current through the brain of an anaesthetized patient. The technique is mainly used in severe depression and schizophrenia not treatable by any other means. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock therapy, is a controversial medical treatment invo…

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electroencephalography - Clinical use, Research use, Methods, Activity types, Artifacts, History

The investigation of the electrical activity of the brain, using electrodes applied to the scalp, and usually recorded as a tracing on paper (an electroencephalogram, or EEG). The EEG changes with the mental activity of the subject, and characteristic patterns of electrical activity (eg for sleep, coma, epileptic seizure) can be recognized. The alpha rhythm (c.10 Hz) appears with relaxation and e…

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electrolysis - Overview, Electrolysis of water, Experimenters, First law of electrolysis, Second law of electrolysis, Military uses, Examples

The splitting of a compound into simpler forms by the input of electrical energy. When water is electrolysed between inert electrodes, the following two half-reactions take place: In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. An ionic compound is dissolved with an appropriate so…

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electrolyte - Explanation, Physiological importance, Electrolytes in electrochemistry

A system, usually a solution, in which electrochemical reactions occur. It must be sufficiently conducting to allow current to pass - an effect which is often achieved by using a high concentration of electrochemically inert ions. An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions which behaves as an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electro…

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electromagnetic induction

The production of electromotive force (emf) - loosely, a voltage - in a conductor, either by moving the conductor in a magnetic field or by changing the field around the conductor. The emf induced in a circuit equals the rate of change of magnetic flux through it, multiplied by ?1 (Faraday's law, 1831). Induction is crucial to the operation of transformers, generators, and motors. Electroma…

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electromagnetic radiation - Electromagnetic spectrum, Derivation

Oscillating electric and magnetic fields which propagate together through empty space as a radiated wave; velocity c, the velocity of light. They include radio waves, light, and X-rays. No ether is required for the propagation of electromagnetic waves, which exhibit particle-like properties, more noticeable for higher frequencies, consistent with quantum theory. Electromagnetic radiation is…

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electromagnetism - SI electricity units

Phenomena involving both electric and magnetic fields, and the study of such phenomena. The first indication of a link between electricity and magnetism was shown by Hans Christian Ørsted, who demonstrated that an electrical current caused the deflection of a compass needle (1819). This established that magnetic effects are produced by a moving electrical charge. Ørsted's observation was interpr…

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electromotive force - Explanation of electromotive force, Electromotive force in thermodynamics, Electromotive force and potential difference, Electromotive force generation

The work done by some source in separating electrical charges to produce a potential difference capable of driving current round a circuit; often abbreviated emf. The term ‘force’ is a misnomer; generally, emf is a property of the source, whereas potential difference depends on both source and current flow. A source of emf transfers energy to the circuit by doing work in raising potential. For e…

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electromyography - Electrical Characteristics, Procedure, Normal results, Abnormal results

The study of the muscular contractions which take place during speech. Muscles produce tiny amounts of electrical activity when they contract. The activity is recorded by applying electrodes to the individual muscles of the vocal tract, and displaying the signals on a screen or on paper. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for evaluating and recording physiologic properties of mus…

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electron - Classification, Properties and behavior, In practice, In theory, History

A fundamental particle, denoted e?, where the minus sign indicates that the charge is negative; charge of ?1·602 × 10?19C; mass 9·110 × 10?31 kg or 0·511 MeV, approximately 1/1836 that of the proton; spin ½ fermion; stable against decay; no known size, assumed point-like; no known substructure; a carrier of negative charge in matter, including electrical currents in conductors. Electro…

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electron capture

A radioactive decay in which an atomic electron combines with a proton in the nucleus to form a neutron (which remains in the nucleus) and a neutrino. Nucleon number remains unchanged; proton number is reduced by one. For example, the decay of fluorine to oxygen, 9F17+e? gives 8O17 +?. Electron capture ( sometimes called Inverse Beta Decay) is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when …

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electron diffraction - Theory, Electron diffraction in a TEM

An interference effect involving electrons from an incoming beam scattering from different layers of atoms in a solid, giving distinctive intensity patterns which can be used to determine the solid's structure. It is especially useful for surface studies, since electrons (being charged) do not penetrate far into the material. The original observation of electron diffraction was made in 1927 by US …

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electron gun - Ionisation

A device for producing electron beams. A heated cathode produces electrons by thermionic emission. These are attracted away by a nearby positively-charged grid, which regulates the number of electrons and hence beam brightness. Electric fields then accelerate and focus the beam. It is an essential component of television tubes, electron microscopes, and cathode ray tubes. An electron gun is…

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electron microscope - History, Types, Sample Preparation, Disadvantages

A microscope using a beam of electrons instead of light, and magnetic or electrostatic fields as lenses. If considered as a wave system, the electron beam has a much higher frequency than visible light, and so provides a much higher resolution. In the transmission electron microscope, the direct passage of the beam through the specimen produces an image on a fluorescent screen. The specimen must b…

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electronegativity - List of elemental electronegativity

A qualitative measure of the tendency to hold electrons, or to form the negative end of a dipole in a bond to other atoms. It is roughly proportional to the sum of the ionization energy and the electron affinity for an atom. A rough scale of values (suggested by Linus Pauling) is: F, 4; O, 3·5; Cl, 3·2; N,Br, 3; S,I, 2·7; C, 2·5; other non-metals 2–2·2; metals 1·0–1·8. These are on…

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electronic data interchange (EDI) - Standards, Interpreting data, Standards Bodies

A set of standards which have been established between different computer users to enable data created by one to be sent to another in an understandable form. For example, department stores use EDI to transmit orders to suppliers. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the computer-to-computer exchange of structured information, by agreed message standards, from one computer application to an…

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electronic music - Overview, Electronic music press, Further reading

Music in which the sound is generated by electronic instruments (especially synthesizers), processed by means of tape recorders heard through loudspeakers. Influential studios include those at Cologne (West German Radio), Brussels (Studio de Musique Électronique), Paris (Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Musique), and the Columbia–Princeton Center in New York City. Elect…

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electronic publishing - Electronic Publishing Solutions

The issuing to identified users of selected, edited, textual and illustrative material taken from an electronic database. The data may be communicated on-line to the customer's computer, or transferred to a portable medium such as magnetic tape or disk or CD-ROM disk. The term is used generally to cover all publishing except print on paper (though some electronic journals are issued also in conven…

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electronics - Overview of electronic systems and circuits, Electronic devices and components, Types of circuits, Noise

The scientific study and application of the movement of electrons. The field developed out of 19th-c experiments with electricity, which resulted in the invention of thermionic valves and their subsequent replacement by transistors, introduced at Bell Laboratories in 1948. Transistors facilitated the miniaturization of electronic components, as did the silicon chip and the integrated circuit. The …

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electrophile - Electrophiles in organic chemistry

An entity with a deficiency of electrons which tends to react at a negatively charged centre. Most electrophiles are cations. In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. The electrophiles attack the most electron-populat…

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electroplating - Process, Current density, Brush electroplating, Industrial Use

The depositing of a metal, most usually silver or nickel, on another metal by electrolysis. The object to be plated is made the cathode; the metal to be deposited is derived from the anode. The plating may be intended for decoration, or to provide resistance to corrosion. Electroplating involves the coating of an electrically conductive object with a layer of metal using electrical current.…

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electrostatic generator - Description, Related machines, Fringe science and devices

A device for producing a large electric charge, usually by the repetition of an induction process and the successive accumulation of the charge produced. An important 19th-c type was the Wimshurst machine (1878), devised by British engineer James Wimshurst (1832–1903). Modern, very high voltage machines are versions of the Van de Graaff belt-operated generator (1929). An electrostatic gene…

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electrostatics - Fundamental concepts, Static charge generation, Triboelectric series, Electrostatic generators

The study of fields and potentials due to stationary electric charges. Electrostatic forces bind electrons to the nucleus in atoms. Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the forces exerted by a static (i.e. unchanging) electric field upon charged objects. In electrostatics we study e-fields, voltage, and charge, but ignore any magnetic fields generated by the motion …

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elegy

In classical times, any poem in elegiac metre (a couplet consisting of one hexameter and one pentameter), such as those written (in Greek) by Archilochus (7th-c BC), and (in Latin) by Propertius. In modern literatures, it is a poem of mourning or lament, such as Milton's Lycidas (1637) or Shelley's Adonais (1821), often incorporating serious general reflections on life, as in Gray's Elegy Written …

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Eleonora Duse - Early life, acting career

Actress, born near Venice, NE Italy. The daughter of strolling players, she rose to fame in Italy, then triumphed throughout the European capitals (1892–3), mainly acting in plays by contemporary French playwrights, Ibsen, and the works of her lover, Gabriele d'Annunzio. Her histrionic genius ranks ‘The Duse’ as one of the world's greatest actresses. She retired through ill health in 1909, but …

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elephant - Zoology, Usefulness to the environment, Threat of extinction, Humanity and elephants, Rogue elephant

A large mammal of family Elephantidae; the only living members of order Proboscidea (many extinct forms); almost naked grey skin; massive forehead; small eyes; upper incisor teeth form ‘tusks’; snout elongated as a muscular grasping ‘trunk’; ears large and movable (used to radiate heat). There are two living species. The African elephant is the largest living land animal (height up to 3·8 m/…

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elephant bird - Elephant Bird Species, Gallery

An enormous bird, known from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs; fossil remains found on Madagascar; flightless, stood up to 3 m/10 ft tall, and laid eggs more than 30 cm/1 ft long. (Family: Aepyornithidae.) Elephant birds are an extinct family of flightless birds made up of the genera Aepyornis and Mullerornis. Aepyornis …

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elephant seal

A huge true seal; adult male up to 6 m/20 ft long, weight 3700 kg/8150 lb; swollen pendulous snout (more pronounced during breeding season); two species: the sea elephant or southern elephant seal from the sub-Antarctic (Mirounga leonina), and the northern elephant seal from the NE Pacific (Mirounga angustirostris.) (Family: Phocidae.) …

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Elephanta Caves - Reference notes

A group of Hindu cave-temples located on Elephanta I off the W coast of Maharashtra, India; a world heritage site. The temples, which were excavated in the 8th–9th-c, are noted for their sculptures, in particular the ‘Trimurti’, an enormous bust of Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma. The Elephanta Caves are the focal point of the Elephanta Island, located in the Mumbai harbour off the coast of Mu…

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elephantiasis

A gross swelling of one or both legs, scrotum, and occasionally arms as a result of blockage of the lymphatic channels by filariasis. The condition is found only in the tropics. …

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Eleusinian Mysteries - Mythology, The Mysteries, Outline – The Greater Mysteries in Five Acts, End of the Eleusinian Mysteries

The secret initiation ceremonies connected with the worship of the corn-goddess Demeter and her daughter Persephone, held annually at Eleusis near Athens in ancient times. In origin agricultural fertility rites, they later came to have a moral dimension. Initiation, preceded by ritual purification, was believed to secure happiness in the after-life for those who had led a blameless life. Th…

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elevator - Design, Modern elevator construction, Elevator safety, Uses of elevators, Types of elevator hoist mechanisms, Controlling elevators

A device which carries people or objects from one level to another in a building with several floors. The elevator car is moved by a system of cables and pulleys, which link the car to a counterweight, the power usually being generated by electricity (earlier lifting systems had used a variety of methods, such as animal, steam, and water power). The invention of the elevator fostered the developme…

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Elfego Baca - The Frisco Shootout, Law and Order, Political Life, Legends

Mexican-American hero, born in Socorro, New Mexico, USA. A fearless lawman, he protected Mexican-Americans from Texans in New Mexico Territory. In 1884 he arrested a drunken Texas cowboy and killed another Texan who tried to free him. Besieged and shot at by a mob of Texans, he surrendered, was tried, and found innocent. He was sheriff of Socorro Co and then turned to practising law (1894–1945). …

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Elfriede Jelinek - Biography, Work and politics, The Nobel Prize, Bibliography

Writer, born in Mürzzuschlag, EC Austria. A feminist novelist, her books focus on the subordinate role of women in society and their economic and social dependence on men. In her earlier work, such as Michael. Ein Jugendbuch für die Infantilgesellschaft (1972), she used satire to expose the gap between media-inspired ‘reality’ and ordinary life. She also writes poetry and plays for radio and s…

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Elgin (Gay) Baylor - Early life, Trivia, NBA highlights, Quotes

Basketball player, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. An All-American from Seattle University, he played for the Minneapolis and Los Angeles Lakers (1958–72) and was a 10 times All-NBA (National Basketball Association) first team forward (1959–65, 1967–9). In 1960 he scored 71 points in a game, and his lifetime scoring average of 27·4 points per game is third best in NBA history. H…

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Elgin Marbles - Description, Interpretation of the frieze, Criticism by Elgin's contemporaries, Damage to marbles

Marble sculptures of the mid-5th-c BC from the Parthenon of Athens. Acquired in 1801–3 by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin (1766–1841), in circumstances of doubtful legality while Greece was under Turkish rule, they were shipped to England, and in 1816 purchased by the government for the British Museum, where they remain on display. In the 1980s in particular, the question of their return to Gree…

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Eli Smith

Missionary and translator, born in Northford, Connecticut, USA. He was ordained as a Congregational minister (1826) and went to Malta to work for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He travelled extensively in the Middle East (1829–31) and published his Missionary Sermons and Addresses (1833). During the last decade of his life he translated much of the Bible into Arabic. He…

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Eli Terry - Background, Career, Heritage

Inventor and clock manufacturer, born in East Windsor, Connecticut, USA. After an apprenticeship (1786–92), he made his first clocks by hand, and turned to using water power to drive his tools (1800) when he established the USA's first clock factory in Plymouth, CT. In 1807 he formed a partnership with Seth Thomas, and their factory eventually produced 10 000–12 000 clocks per year. Terry hims…

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Eli Whitney - Invention and innovation, Other Inventions

Inventor and engineer, born in Westborough, Massachusetts, USA. He showed early mechanical skill, manufacturing nails at home by age 15. Determined to get an education, he taught at schools to pay for his way at Yale (1789–92). Moving to Savannah, GA to teach, he found the post filled, but he was invited to stay on the plantation belonging to General Nathanael Green's widow. After learning of the…

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Elia Kazan

Stage and film director, born in Constantinople (now Istanbul), NW Turkey. His family emigrated to New York City when he was four, and he studied at Williams College and Yale University. He began as an actor on Broadway and in Hollywood, and with Lee Strasberg he founded the Actors Studio in New York in 1947. He directed his first stage play in 1935, and began directing feature films with A Tree G…

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Elias (Magnus) Fries

Botanist, born in Femsjö, SW Sweden. He studied at the University of Lund, then became professor at Uppsala, and keeper of the botanic garden there. He wrote on fungi, lichens, and the flora of Scandinavia, and introduced a classificatory system for fungi which, apart from a few minor exceptions, is still valid. The genus Freesia is named after him. Elias Magnus Fries (August 15, 1794 – …

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Elias Ashmole - Solicitor and royalist, Freemason, Marriage, Alchemy and the Tradescant Collection, Restoration, Ashmolean Museum

Antiquary, born in Lichfield, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He qualified as a lawyer in 1638 and subsequently combined work for the royalist cause with the study of mathematics, natural philosophy, astronomy, astrology, and alchemy, entering Brasenose College, Oxford. In 1652 he issued his Theatrum chymicum, and in 1672 his major work, a History of the Order of the Garter. In 1677 he presented to …

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Elias Boudinot - Personal history, Political career, Later public service, Legacy, Quotes

Cherokee writer and leader, born near Rome, Georgia, USA. The first editor of the Cherokee Phoenix (1828–34), he was murdered by other Cherokee for his support of Cherokee land cessions. He also wrote a novel and translated part of the Bible into Cherokee. Elias Boudinot (1740–1821) was an early American lawyer and statesman from Elizabeth, New Jersey who was a delegate to the Continenta…

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Elias Canetti - Life, Works, Trivia

Writer, born in Rustschuk, N Bulgaria. He was educated at schools in England, Austria, Switzerland, and Germany, and lived in England from 1938, though continued to write in German. His interest in crowd psychology produced two important works: the novel Die Blendung (1936, trans as both Auto da Fé and The Tower of Babel) and the study Masse und Macht (1960, Crowds and Power). He was awarded the …

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Elias Hicks - Early life, Ministry, Hicks' Reported Views, Disputes Among Friends, Later life

Liberal Quaker preacher and abolitionist, born in Hempstead, Long Island, New York, USA. A carpenter by trade, he became a preacher in the American Society of Friends (Quakers) in 1775, and worked for the abolition of slavery. Because of his successful opposition to the adoption of a set creed in 1817, he was held responsible for the subsequent split of the Quakers into Orthodox and Hicksite Frien…

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Elias Howe - References in popular culture

Inventor, born in Spencer, Massachusetts, USA. As a boy, he tinkered with the machinery in his father's sawmill, and in 1835 went to work as an apprentice in a Lowell, MA cotton mill. He later built and patented the world's first sewing machine (1846), but no US manufacturer was interested. With some success he attempted to introduce his machine to the English market, and on returning to the USA (…

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Elias J(ames) Corey - Major contributions, Praise, Graduate student death, Woodward-Hoffmann rules

Molecular chemist, born in Methuen, Massachusetts, USA. He joined the University of Illinois (1951–9), then moved to Harvard. He is known for the technique of retrosynthetic analysis, used in synthesizing complex pharmaceuticals, in which a chemist plans the molecule to be synthesized and studies its theoretical structure. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1990. Elias James C…

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Elie Nadelman - Works

Sculptor, born in Warsaw, Poland. He studied at Warsaw Art Academy, left Poland in 1904, and settled in Paris. His drawings and sculptures after 1906 reveal a simplification of forms and stylization close to Cubism, but also show an affinity with antique sculpture. In 1914 he moved to the USA, taking a studio in New York City. There he produced a number of unusual painted figure sculptures in wood…

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Elihu Burritt

Blacksmith and reformer, born in New Britain, Connecticut, USA. After working as a blacksmith in New Britain, CT, and Worcester, MA (1827–37), and mastering several languages in his spare time, he toured as a lyceum lecturer, gaining his nickname. In Worcester he founded a newspaper, the Christian Citizen (1844), especially to propagate his views on Christian pacifism, and he travelled to England…

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Elihu Root - Early life and career, External links

Lawyer, US statesman, and public official, born in Clinton, New York, USA. He rose to prominence as US district attorney for the S district of New York (1883–5) and legal adviser to Theodore Roosevelt. As secretary of war (1899–1904) he reorganized the army and established governmental systems for Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. As secretary of state (1904–9) he cultivated friendly rela…

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Elihu Thomson - Biography

Electrical engineer and inventor, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He emigrated to the USA with his family at age five, and attended Philadelphia schools. With the support of Edwin J Houston (1847–1914), a teacher at a Philadelphia high school where Thomson also taught (1870–6), he began experimenting with electricity. Together they invented an arc street-lighting system (…

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Elihu Vedder - Further reading

Painter and illustrator, born in New York City, USA. He studied in Paris and Italy, settling in Rome in 1866. Among his major works are ‘Minerva’ and other murals in the Library of Congress, Washington, DC, and his illustrations for an edition of the Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (1884). Elihu Vedder (1836, New York City - 1923) was an American symbolist painter, book illustrator, and poet.…

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Elihu Vedder - Further reading

Illustrator and painter, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied in Paris (1856), toured Europe, returned to New York (1861–6), then settled in Rome (1866). He is known for his paintings, such as ‘The Questioner of the Sphinx’ (1863), illustrations of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (1884), and murals for the Library of Congress, Washington, DC (1896–7). Elihu Vedder (1836, New Yo…

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Elihu Yale - Life, Death and legacy

Colonial administrator and benefactor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, of English parents. They returned to Britain in 1652, and he was educated in London. In 1672 he went to India in the service of the East India Company, becoming Governor of Madras in 1687. He was resident in England from 1699. Through the sale in America of some of his effects, he donated money to the collegiate school esta…

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Elijah (Jordan) Wood - Filmography, Awards and nominations

Actor, born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA. He moved with his family to Los Angeles in 1988 where he gained a number of small film parts, including Back to the Future II (1989), before playing a starring role in Paradise (1991). After several further films, he became well known following his role as Frodo Baggins in The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–3). Later films include Eternal Sunshine of the S…

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Elijah McCoy - Life

Inventor and manufacturer, born in Canada. His African-American parents had fled from Kentucky to escape slavery. He showed an early talent for mechanical innovations, and in Ypsilanti, MI he devloped lubricators for steam engines (1870). In 1882 he moved to Detroit, where he perfected his lubricating cup, still widely used to provide a steady supply of oil to machinery. He opened the Elijah McCoy…

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Elijah Muhammad - Early life, Teachings, Legacy

Religious movement leader, born near Sandersville, Georgia, USA. The son of former slaves and sharecroppers, he left home at age 16 and went to Detroit, where he worked in a Chevrolet car plant. Having had his own spiritual revelation (c.1930), he fell in with the Nation of Islam, a movement founded by W D Fard (or Farad), a somewhat mysterious African-American who was working as a salesman in Det…

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elimination reaction - E2 mechanism, E1 mechanism, E2 and E1 elimination final notes, Specific elimination reactions

A chemical reaction characterized by the removal of part of a molecule to leave a smaller one. In the following example, bromine is eliminated from dibromoethane to give ethylene: An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. Either the unsaturation of the molecule increases (as in mos…

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Elinor Glyn - Career, "Vamp", References in popular culture

Writer, born in Jersey, Channel Is. A writer of romantic novels, she started with The Visits of Elizabeth (1900), and found fame with Three Weeks (1907), a book which gained a reputation for being risqué. She went to Hollywood (1920–9), where her works were glamorized on the screen. She also wrote an autobiography, Romance Adventure (1936). She was the celebrated author of such early 20th…

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Elinor Wylie - More about Elinor Wylie, Online Works, Works

Poet and writer, born in Somerville, New Jersey, USA. She attended private schools and was a debutante. After leaving her first husband, she went to England with Horace Wylie (1910–14), and on returning to America they were married in 1915. In 1921, she left Wylie and moved to New York City, where she married William Rose Benét (1923). All of her writing was published in the final seven years of…

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elint

The practice of ‘electronic intelligence’ gathering, in which one finds out the performance factors of hostile weapons systems by interpreting their electronic emissions. The term is also now used to cover any intelligence gathered by electronic means. ELINT stands for ELectronic Signals INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ELINT pri…

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Elio Vittorini - Life, Partial bibliography

Novelist, critic, and translator, born in Syracuse, Sicily, S Italy. He educated himself despite great obstacles, and became Italy's most influential writer of his time, known for the help he gave to younger writers. He was founder editor of Il Politecnico (1945–7) and Il Menabò (1959–66), and translated modern US writers such as Poe, Steinbeck, and Faulkner. Conversazione in Sicilia (1941, Con…

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Eliot (Furness) Porter - Photography career

Photographer, born in Winnetka, Illinois, USA. Although he had photographed natural subjects as a youth, he studied chemical engineering at Harvard and then took his MD degree at the Harvard Medical School (1929). He taught biochemistry at Harvard and Radcliffe (1929–39) and practised photography as an amateur. After the first showing of his work (1938) at An American Place, Alfred Stieglitz's ga…

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Eliot Feld

Dancer, choreographer, and artistic director, born in New York City, USA. He trained at the School of American Ballet, and appeared in both Broadway and Hollywood versions of West Side Story before joining American Ballet Theatre (ABT) in 1963, where he began to choreograph. He left ABT to found the short-lived American Ballet Company (1969–71), rejoined ABT for a few seasons, and formed Eliot Fe…

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Eliphalet Nott

College president, born in Ashford, Connecticut, USA. He was a nationally famous Presbyterian preacher in Albany, NY, before beginning an extraordinary career as president of Union College, Schenectady (1804–66). He restored the college's financial viability through state lotteries, established engineering and medical schools, and brought Union a reputation for intellectual quality. Elipha…

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Eliphalet Remington

Firearms manufacturer, born in Suffield, Connecticut, USA. He stayed on his father's farm even after marriage. In 1816 the family removed to Herkimer Co, NY, where the father built a water-powered forge to make agricultural tools. Eliphalet made rifle barrels, a task at which he became highly skilled. By his father's death (1828), the Remingtons' reputation for excellence was established, and Elip…

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Elisabeth Bergner - All About Eve

Austrian actress, born in Drogobytsch (Drogobych), Galicia (now Russia). Moving to Berlin via Vienna and Munich, she married the director Paul Czinner in 1933 and with him moved to London. She specialized in expressive roles, which she played to great effect on stage and in films such as Fräulein Else (1929), Ariane (1931), Der träumende Mund (1932), and Wie es euch gefällt (1936). Elisa…

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Elisabeth Eybers

Poet, born in Klerksdorp, N South Africa. She was raised in an intellectual environment and studied at the Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg. In 1961 she moved to Amsterdam but continued to write in her native language, and in 1936 published her first poetry Belydenis in die Skemering (Confession in the Twilight). In her early work, her religious doubts and feelings play a prominent part. L…

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Elisabeth Schumann - Biography, Website

Operatic soprano and Lieder singer, born in Merseburg, EC Germany. She made her debut in Hamburg in 1909, and in 1919 was engaged by Richard Strauss for the Vienna State Opera, and sang in his and Mozart's operas all over the world, making her London debut in 1924. She later concentrated more on Lieder by such composers as Schubert, Hugo Wolf, and Richard Strauss. She left Austria in 1936, and bec…

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Elisha

Hebrew prophet in succession to Elijah; his activities are portrayed in 1 Kings 19 and 2 Kings 2. He was active in Israel under several kings from Ahab to Jehoash, was credited with miraculous signs, counselled kings, and attempted to guide the nation against her external enemies, especially the Syrians. His name first occurs in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor (1 …

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Elisha (Graves) Otis

Inventor, born in Halifax, Vermont, USA. A master mechanic in a bedstead factory, he was put in charge of the construction of a new factory at Yonkers, NY. There he designed a spring-operated safety device which would hold lifting platforms securely if there was any failure of tension in the rope (1852). He opened a shop, patented his ‘elevator’, and exhibited it dramatically in a rope-cutting i…

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Elisha (Kent) Kane

Physician and Arctic explorer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Entering the US Navy as a surgeon, he visited China, the East Indies, Arabia, Egypt, Europe, W Africa, and Mexico. He sailed as surgeon and naturalist with the first expedition (1850–1) in search of Sir John Franklin, who had been missing since 1845. He then commanded a second Arctic expedition (1853–5), which had no greater…

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Elisha Gray - Elisha Gray and the Telephone

Inventor, born in Barnesville, Ohio, USA. A manufacturer of telegraphic apparatus, his firm became the Western Electric Co. His 60 patents included a multiplex telegraph. He also claimed the invention of the telephone, but lost the patent rights to Alexander Graham Bell after a long legal battle in the US Supreme Court. Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an electrical eng…

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Eliza Cook - Works

Poet, born in London, UK. She contributed to magazines from an early age, and issued volumes of poetry in 1838, 1864, and 1865. She wrote Eliza Cook's Journal (1849–54), much of it republished as Jottings from my Journal (1860). Eliza Cook (24 December 1818 - 23 September 1889) was an English author born in Southwark, the daughter of a local tradesman. Her work for the Dispatch…

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Eliza Haywood - Biography, Fiction, Acting and drama, Periodicals and Non Fiction, Political Writings, Translations, Critical Reception

Novelist, born in London, UK. She left her middle-aged clergyman husband, became an actress, and wrote a number of scandalous society novels about real people, their names thinly disguised by the use of initials. (The British Museum has the key to their full names.) They include Memoirs of a Certain Island Adjacent to Utopia (1725) and The Secret History of the Present Intrigues of the Court of Ca…

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Elizabeth

40º40N 74º15W, pop (2000e) 120 600. Seat of Union Co, NE New Jersey, USA; deepwater port on Newark Bay and Arthur Kill; connected to Staten Is, NY by the Goethals Bridge; oldest English settlement in NJ; originally named Elizabethtown (until 1740); incorporated as a city, 1855; former production centre for Singer sewing machines (1783 to 1980s); birthplace of Rick Barry, Judy Blume, William Ha…

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Elizabeth (Andreas) Evatt

Reformist lawyer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. She studied at Sydney and Harvard universities, and was the youngest law student ever accepted to the Sydney University Law School, and the first woman to win the university law medal. She became deputy president of the Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission (1973–89), chaired the Royal Commission on Human Relationships …

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Elizabeth (Cleghorn) Gaskell - Life, Works, Publications, See Also

Writer, born in London, UK. In 1832 she married William Gaskell (1805–84), a Unitarian minister in Manchester. She did not begin to write until middle age, when she published Mary Barton (1848). Her other works include Cranford (1853), Ruth (1853), North and South (1854–5), Wives and Daughters (1865, unfinished, televised in 2000), and a biography of her friend Charlotte Brontë. Elizabet…

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Elizabeth (Dorothea Cole) Bowen - Assessment, Selected works

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. She moved to England when she was seven, and later lived in London and Italy. In 1923 she published her first collection of short stories, Encounters. Her best-known novels are The Death of the Heart (1938) and The Heat of the Day (1949). Elizabeth Dorothea Cole Bowen (7 June 1899 – 22 February 1973) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and…

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Elizabeth (Hobbs) Keckley - Early life, Marriage and Release, Career

Dressmaker, born in Dinwiddie, Virginia, USA. She purchased her freedom from slavery in 1855. By 1860 she was a dressmaker in Washington, DC, and attracted the notice of Mary Todd Lincoln, to whom she became a companion and confidante. Keckley lost her clientele after publishing details of the Lincoln's private lives in Behind the Scenes (1868) and she spent her last forty years in obscurity. …

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Elizabeth (Joan Cecil) Jennings - Works

Poet and writer, born in Boston, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. She studied at St Anne's College, Oxford. A Roman Catholic, her verse is intensely personal, often rhymed, with themes of childhood, age, religion, and art. Her first published work was Poems (1953), followed by AWay of Looking (1955, Somerset Maugham Award). Following a nervous breakdown she retired to Oxford, where she produced Colle…

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Elizabeth (of Bohemia)

Queen of Bohemia, the eldest daughter of James I (of England) and Anne of Denmark. She married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, in 1613. Driven from Prague and deprived of the Palatinate by Maximilian of Bavaria, the couple lived in exile in The Hague with their numerous children, continually beset by financial difficulties. Frederick died in 1632, but Elizabeth outlived him by 30 years. Her son, Ch…

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Elizabeth (Penn) Sprague Coolidge

Music patron, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The daughter of a wealthy wholesale grocer, she began studying piano at age 11, and started composing music in the 1890s. Following the deaths of her husband, father, and mother in 1915, she used her inheritance to sponsor the South Mountain (later Berkshire) Chamber Music Festival (1918–24), then established the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Foundation …

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Elizabeth (Queen Mother)

Queen-consort of Great Britain, born in St Paul's Walden Bury, Hertfordshire, UK. Her father became 14th Earl of Strathmore in 1904. Much of her childhood was spent at Glamis Castle in Scotland, where she helped the nursing staff in World War 1. In 1920 she met the Duke of York, the second son of George V; they were married in April 1923. Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II) was born in 1…

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Elizabeth Arden

Beautician and businesswoman, born in Woodbridge, Ontario, SE Canada. A nurse by training, she went to New York City in 1907 and opened a beauty salon on Fifth Avenue in 1910, adopting the personal and business name of ‘Elizabeth Arden’. She produced cosmetics on a large scale, and developed a worldwide chain of salons. With her rival, Helena Rubinstein, she made make-up acceptable to ‘respecta…

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Elizabeth Barrett Browning - Biography, Literary significance

Poet, born in Durham, Co Durham, NE England, UK, the wife of Robert Browning. She seriously injured her spine (c.1821), and was long an invalid. Her first poems were published at 19, and other volumes appeared in 1838 and 1844. In 1845 she met Robert Browning, with whom she eloped in 1846. Her best-known work is Sonnets from the Portuguese (1850), ‘Portuguese’ being Browning's pet name for her. …

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Elizabeth Barton - Bibliography

Prophet, born in Kent, SE England, UK. A domestic servant in Aldington, she began to experience trances and make prophetic utterances against the authorities after an illness in 1525. She denounced Henry VIII's divorce and marriage to Anne Boleyn, was charged with treason, and hanged at Tyburn. Little is known of Barton's early life, although she appears to have come from a poor background,…

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Elizabeth Bishop - Early life, Young adulthood, Writing career, Works, Prizes and Awards

Poet and writer, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. She studied at Vassar College (1934 BA), and then travelled widely. She was the Consultant in Poetry, Library of Congress (1949–50), spent many years in Brazil (1952–67), and taught at Harvard (1970–9). Known for her meditative and personal poetry, her collections North and South (1946) and A Cold Spring (1955), received the Pulitzer Prize…

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Elizabeth Blackwell - References and external links

Physician, born in Counterslip, near Bristol, SW England, UK. The first woman of modern times to graduate in medicine, she fostered personal hygiene as a means of moral reform and combating disease. Sister of pioneering physician Emily Blackwell, she emigrated with her family to the USA at the age of 11 (1832). Educated along with her brothers, and introduced to abolitionist and reform activities,…

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Education and intellectual development, Marriage and family

Women's rights leader and feminist pioneer, born in Johnstown, New York, USA. The daughter of a lawyer who made no secret of his preference for another son, she early showed her desire to excel in intellectual and other ‘male’ spheres. She graduated from the Emma Willard's Troy Female Seminary (1832) and then was drawn to the abolitionist, temperance, and women's rights movements through visits …

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Elizabeth Catlett - United States, Mexico, Awards, Works

Sculptor, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. She studied at Howard University (1936) and the State University, Iowa (1940 MFA). As an African-American she was a social activist as well as an artist. Based in Morelos, Mexico, she has taught at the School of Fine Arts, National University of Mexico (1958–76), and is known for her wood sculptures, such as ‘Black Unity’ (1968). E…

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Elizabeth David - Books, Film

British writer of cookery books. She studied at the Sorbonne, Paris, returned to England with a love of French cuisine, travelled to the Mediterranean, and spent the war years in Egypt. Returning to Britain (1946), she published A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950), quickly followed by French Country Cooking (1951) and Italian Food (1954). She ran a kitchen shop in London (1965–73) which became a …

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Elizabeth Daviot Mackintosh - Mystery novels by Tey

Novelist and playwright, born in Inverness, Highland, N Scotland, UK. She taught physical education before the success of her first novel, The Man in the Queue (1929). Under the pseudonym of Gordon Daviot she wrote more serious works, including the historical drama, Richard of Bordeaux (1932), which was staged with great success in London and New York. As Josephine Tey she wrote many popular detec…

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Elizabeth Dole - Early life and career, 2000 Presidential election, Election to the U.S. Senate

US politician, born in Salisbury, North Carolina, USA. After graduating from Harvard Law School, she entered government service in the Johnson administration, then served in all the Republican presidencies that followed. When she married Senator Robert Dole in 1975, she became a Republican. Following periods with Ronald Reagan as Secretary of Transportation (1983–7), and with George Bush as Secre…

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Elizabeth Fry - Birth and family background, Awakening of social concern, Marriage and motherhood, Fry's prison work

Quaker prison reformer, born in Norwich, Norfolk, E England, UK. In 1810 she became a preacher in the Society of Friends. After seeing the terrible conditions for women in Newgate prison, she devoted her life to prison reform at home and abroad. She also founded hostels for the homeless, and charitable societies. Elizabeth Fry (née Gurney; May 21, 1780 – October 12, 1845) was an English …

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Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

Physician, the first English woman doctor, born in London, UK. In 1860 she began studying medicine, in the face of opposition to the admission of women, and eventually (1865) qualified as a medical practitioner by passing the Apothecaries' Hall examination. In 1866 she established a dispensary for women in London (later renamed the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital), where she instituted medical…

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Elizabeth Gurley Flynn

Labour leader and social reformer, born in Concord, New Hampshire, USA. The daughter of Irish nationalists, she showed an early talent for public speaking on social issues. Dropping out of school by 1907, she became an organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World, and was involved in many famous strikes. She also worked for women's suffrage, peace, and other progressive causes, and was one of…

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Elizabeth Jane Howard - Bibliography

Novelist, born in London, UK. She trained as an actress at the London Mask Theatre School, then worked as a model and later as an editor and book critic. Her first novel, The Beautiful Visit (1950), an examination of the subtleties of relationships, won the John Llewellyn Rhys Memorial Prize. The Cazalet Chronicles, a quartet comprising The Light Years (1990), Marking Time (1991), Confusion (1993…

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Elizabeth Kenny - Youth, Work, Legacy

Australian nurse. She began practising in the bush-country in Australia (1912), then joined the Australian army nursing corps (1915–19). She developed a new technique for treating poliomyelitis by muscle therapy rather than by immobilization with casts and splints. She established clinics in Australia (1933), Britain (1937), and America (Minneapolis, 1940), and travelled widely to demonstrate her…

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Elizabeth Macarthur - Marriage to John Macarthur, Role in founding Australian wool industry, Legacy

Australian pioneer, born in Bridgerule, Devon, SW England, UK. She married John Macarthur in 1788 and emigrated to New South Wales. During her husband's prolonged absences, she introduced the merino sheep to the area (1797), and experimented in the breeding of sheep for fine wool which led to the establishment of the Australian wool industry. Elizabeth Macarthur (born 14 August 1766, died 9…

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Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer

Journalist and women's-rights pioneer, born in Montgomery Co, Tennessee, USA. She had a difficult youth due to the illness and early death of her mother and the strains of the Civil War. After brief formal schooling, she married George Gilmer (1882), but their 47-year marriage was most unhappy. Her husband was often sick, became incapacitated and died in a mental hospital. She lived apart from him…

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Elizabeth Montagu

Writer and society leader, born in York, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. In 1742 she married Edward Montagu, grandson of the 1st Earl of Sandwich, thus became a cousin by marriage to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. She established a salon in Mayfair which became the heart of London social and literary life. The members became known as ‘Bluestockings’, from the way several of them dressed. A family de…

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Elizabeth Ryan - Grand Slam singles finals, Grand Slam singles tournament timeline

Tennis player, born in Anaheim, California, USA. She won 19 Wimbledon titles (12 doubles and seven mixed doubles), a record which stood from 1934 until 1979, when it was surpassed by Billie Jean King. Six of her women's doubles titles were with Suzanne Lenglen. ACF = All comers final, with the winner to play the defending champion. …

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Elizabeth Seaman - Places

Journalist, born in Cochrane Mills, Pennsylvania, USA. As a reporter for the New York World, she won renown for such stories as her exposé of conditions in an insane asylum on New York City's Blackwell's I, where she posed as an inmate. In 1889–90 she made a round-the-world trip in 72 days, bettering the 80-day record of Jules Verne's fictional Phineas Fogg. A pioneering woman journalist, she to…

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Elizabeth Taylor - Biography, Filmography

Novelist, born in Reading, S England, UK. Educated locally, she worked as a governess and librarian, and wrote her first novel, At Mrs Lippincote's (1945), while her husband was in the Royal Air Force. Her understated, shrewd observation of middle-class life in the SE of England continued with further novels, including A Wreath of Roses (1949), The Wedding Group (1968), and Blaming (1976, posthumo…

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Elizabeth Woodville - Queen consort, Queen Dowager, Children of Elizabeth Woodville

Queen consort of Edward IV of England. A widow, she married Edward IV in 1464, and was crowned in 1465. When Edward fled to Flanders in 1470, she sought sanctuary in Westminster. In 1483 her sons, Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, were murdered (the ‘Princes in the Tower’). After the accession of Henry VII in 1485, her rights as dowager queen were restored, but in 1487 she was forced to retire…

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Elizur Wright

Abolitionist and insurance reformer, born in South Canaan, Connecticut, USA. After graduating from Yale he taught in the early 1830s at Western Reserve (Ohio), but hostility towards his abolitionist activism led him to resign. Moving to New York, he helped found and became secretary of the New York Anti-Slavery Society (1833), edited its publications, and resigned (1839) to serve briefly as editor…

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elk

The largest of the true deer (Alces alces) (shoulder height, 2·4 m/8 ft); widespread in temperate N hemisphere; usually solitary; long snout, with broad overhanging top lip; throat with loose flap of skin (called the ‘bell’); antlers broad, dish-like, with marginal projections; also known in North America as moose. Elk may refer to a number of species of large deer: Elk may…

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Ella (Reeve) Bloor

Radical, labour organizer, and feminist, born in Staten Island, New York, USA. Married in 1881, she raised a large family while becoming a women's rights activist. After her divorce (1896), she studied at the University of Pennsylvania, remarried, and became increasingly devoted to labour and left-wing causes, joining the Socialist Party in 1902. She adopted the pen name Mrs Richard Bloor (1906) w…

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Ella Cara Deloria - Life, Work and achievements, Books by Deloria

Yankton Sioux scholar and writer, born in Wakpala, South Dakota, USA. She worked with Franz Boas (1929) at her alma mater, Columbia University, on a study of Siouan language. Her most important books are Dakota Texts (1932), Speaking of Indians (1944), and the novel Waterlily (1988), published 17 years after her death. Ella Cara Deloria (January 30, 1888 – February 12, 1971), also called …

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Ella Fitzgerald - Biography, Collaborations with other Jazz artists, Film and television appearances, Personal life, Tribute albums, Tribute statue

Singer, born in Newport News, Virginia, USA. Discovered in 1934 singing in an amateur contest in Harlem, she joined Chick Webb's band and recorded several hits, notably ‘A-tisket A-tasket’ (1938). Her lucid intonation and broad range made her a top jazz singer. Her series of recordings for Verve (1955–9) in multi-volume ‘songbooks’ are among the treasures of American popular song. After 1971 …

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Ella Wilcox - Bands, Fictional characters, US towns, US counties, US mountains, US Secondary Schools

Poet and writer, born in Johnstown Center, Wisconsin, USA. Although she studied briefly at the University of Wisconsin (1867–8), she was largely self-educated, and her sentimental, inspirational verse, although immensely popular in its day, never found favour among serious students of poetry. Her Poems of Passion (1883) gained her early notoriety for writing ‘immoral’ poetry, and her poems ther…

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Ellen (Anderson Gholson) Glasgow

Novelist, born in Richmond, Virginia, USA. From a socially-prominent family, she was the archetypal Southern Belle, apart from her desire to be a successful novelist. Her early works reflected the irony of her situation, and include The Voice of the People (1900), and Virginia (1913). She obtained critical acclaim in her late middle age, with the publication of Barren Ground (1925). Other works in…

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Ellen (Churchill) Semple

Geographer, born in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. She studied at Vassar College (1882), later earning an MA there before travelling to Leipzig where she audited Friedrich Ratzel's courses (1891–92) because women could not enroll in the university. After founding a girls' school in Louisville with her sister (1893), she pursued a career of writing and field research. Her first book, American History …

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Ellen (Louise) Wilson

US first lady (1913–14), born in Savannah, Georgia, USA. Originally a painter, she married Woodrow Wilson in 1885. A great asset to her husband, she translated German books for use in his scholarly work. As first lady she worked for the improvement of the Washington slums and for better sanitary facilities for women in government offices. She died of Bright's disease while in the White House. …

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Ellen Church - Trivia

Nurse and pioneer airline stewardess, born on a farm near Cresco, Iowa, USA. As a young nurse in San Francisco, she approached officials of United Airlines and proposed that stewardesses be added to flight crews. Her idea was accepted, and she and several other nurses, known as ‘Sky Girls’, began flying between Chicago and San Francisco (15 May 1930). After 18 months she was grounded after a car…

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Ellen Gates Starr

Social reformer, born near Laona, Illinois, USA. Growing up in an Illinois village, she was influenced by her aunt, Eliza Allen Starr, a writer and lecturer on Christian art who lived in Chicago, to enroll in the Rockford Female Seminary (1877–8) in Rockford, IL, where she first met Jane Addams. For several years she taught at a girls' school in Chicago, but after years of corresponding with Adda…

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Ellen Gilchrist - Selected works

Writer, born in Vicksburg, Michigan, USA. She studied at Vanderbilt University, Millsap College (Jackson, MI), and the University of Arkansas. She has written poetry, short stories, and novels, and is known especially for her satirical treatment of the upper-class world of the southern states of the USA. Her novels include The Annunciation (1983), I Cannot Get You Close Enough (1990), and Net of J…

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Ellen Henrietta Richards

Chemist, sanitation engineer, educator, and home economist, born in Dunstable, Massachusetts, USA. She graduated from Vassar and then became the first woman admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). After graduating from there (1873) she was refused a doctorate, but in 1876 she established and taught at the Woman's Laboratory at MIT. She also set up programmes in the Boston publ…

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Ellen Shipman - People

Landscape architect and feminist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Overcoming resistance to women in her profession, she designed gardens for private clients, and employed an all-female staff in her New York City and Cornish, NH design firms (1920–50). Biddle, a surname, may refer to: …

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Ellen Wood - Conventional definition, Relative and Nominal Price, Marxian price theory

Writer, born in Worcester, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. She wrote a series of melodramatic novels, of which East Lynne (1861) was particularly successful. In 1867 she acquired the monthly Argosy, and her novels went on appearing in it long after her death. The concept of price is central to microeconomics where it is one of the most important variables in resource allocation theory (also…

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Ellesmere Island - History of Ellesmere Island, Geography, Population

Arctic island in Northwest Territories, Canada; separated from Greenland by the Nares Strait; area 196 236 km²/75 747 sq mi; barren and mountainous, large ice-cap (SE), fjord coastline; several small settlements; Cape Columbia, northernmost point in Canada. Ellesmere Island (French: Île d'Ellesmere) lying in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the most northerly of the Canadian Arc…

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Elliot (Lee) Richardson - Cabinet career

Lawyer and cabinet member, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He became Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts (1965–7) and state attorney general (1967–9), then served as Nixon's secretary of health, education, and welfare (1970–3), and briefly as secretary of defense (1973). He became US attorney general in 1973, but resigned in protest at the firing of Watergate prosecutor, Archibald Cox. Sec…

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Elliott Coues

Ornithologist, born in Portsmouth, New York, USA. He moved to Washington, DC with his family at age 11 and became interested in birds after meeting naturalists from the Smithsonian Institution. He enlisted in the Union Army as a medical cadet (1862), was appointed an assistant surgeon (1864), and served in various western posts until 1881. During those years he made collections and compiled inform…

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ellipse - Parameterisation, Eccentricity, Semi-latus rectum and polar coordinates, Area, Circumference, Stretching and projection

In mathematics, the locus of a point which moves so that the sum of its distances from two fixed points (or foci) is constant. It can also be defined as a section of a double cone, or as the locus of a point which moves so that the distance from the focus is proportional to its distance from a fixed line (the directrix), the constant of proportion being less than 1. The Cartesian equation of an el…

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Ellis (Gibbs) Arnall

US governor, born in Newnan, Georgia, USA. A lawyer and Democratic member of the Georgia assembly, he was elected Speaker (1933–7) and became Georgia's attorney general (1939–43). A progressive governor (1943–7), he ended prison chain gangs, abolished the poll tax, and restored accreditation of the state university. Later founding an Atlanta law firm, he served as director of the Office of Pric…

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Ellis Island - History, Immigration, Jurisdiction, Inspection Symbols, Trivia, Noted Ellis Island immigrants

A small island (27·5 acres) in New York Bay, USA; named after New Jersey merchant Samuel Ellis, who owned it in the 18th-c. It served as the main immigration centre to the USA from 1892 to 1943, with c.2000 immigrants a day arriving there in the peak years of the early 20th-c. It was sometimes called ‘the isle of tears’, as not all would-be immigrants were permitted to enter, and families were …

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Ellsworth Bunker

Diplomat and executive, born in Yonkers, New York, USA. He was an executive in the sugar industry (1927–66) and became a diplomat in 1951. He was ambassador to Argentina, Italy, India, and Nepal (1951–61). He was ambassador to South Vietnam during the crucial stages of the Vietnam War (1967–73) and the chief negotiator of the Panama Canal treaties (1973–8), which became controversial during th…

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elm - Species, varieties and hybrids, Cultivation and uses, Dutch elm disease, Insect use

A deciduous N temperate tree; leaves ovoid, doubly toothed, asymmetric at base; flowers tiny, appearing before leaves; seed oval, with broad papery wing. In recent years the North American elm populations have been devastated by a virulent form of Dutch elm disease, so named for the work on resistant strains carried out in The Netherlands. In the mid-1960s it spread to Europe and particularly the …

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Elmer (Ambrose) Sperry

Engineer and inventor, born in Cortland, New York, USA. A lumber merchant's son, he attended the State Normal School at Cortland and Cornell before founding the Sperry Electric Co (1880) in Chicago, the first of his eight companies. This firm manufactured dynamos and arc lamps, and over the years he invented and produced a wide range of items, including mining machinery, street-car equipment, elec…

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Elmer (Holmes) Davis - Education and Early Career, The move to radio, The Office of War Information, After the War

Journalist, broadcaster, and writer, born in Aurora, Indiana, USA. A prominent radio news commentator (1939–42, 1945–53), he was noted for his straightforward style and dry humour. He headed the War Information Office during World War 2 (1942–5), and his books include Not to Mention the War (1945) and two short-story collections. Elmer Davis (January 13, 1890 - May 18, 1958) was a well-k…

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Elmer Bernstein

Composer and conductor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied the piano under Aaron Copland, giving public recitals by the age of 15, and attended the Juilliard School of Music and New York University. After writing music for UN radio shows and a brief career as a concert pianist, he began to compose film scores. His music for The Man With the Golden Arm (1955) brought widespread acclai…

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Elmer Bischoff

Painter and teacher, born in Berkeley, California, USA. He taught painting at the San Francisco Art Institute (1946–52, 1956–63), and at the University of California, Berkeley (1965–85). A typical example of his work is ‘Woman With Dark Blue Sky’ (1959). Elmer Nelson Bischoff (1916–March 2, 1991) was a visual artist in the San Fransciso Bay Area. Bischoff, along with Richard Diebenko…

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Elmore (John) Leonard - Novels, Radio

Thriller writer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. During World War 2 he served in the US Navy, and afterwards studied English literature at Detroit. Throughout the 1950s he worked in advertizing as a copywriter, but from 1967 concentrated on screenplays and novels. Regarded as the foremost crime writer in America, his books include Unknown Man No. 89 (1977), La Brava (1983), Touch (1987), Get …

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Elohim - Hebrew grammar, Significance in the documentary hypothesis, Etymology, Elohim in Islam, Elohim in Mormonism

A divine name for the God of Israel, the plural form here being purged of its polytheistic meaning, and used as a plural of majesty. There are over 2500 occurrences in the Hebrew Bible, making it one of the most common divine names therein, but it could still be applied to other gods, angels, or even figures such as Moses. Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים , אלהים) is a Hebrew word which expr…

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Elsa Morante - Biography, Bibliography

Writer, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. She began her career with a collection of short stories, Il gioco segreto (1941), followed by Le straordinarie avventure di Caterina (1959). In the novels Menzogna e sortilegio (1948) and L'isola di Arturo (1957) she is already formulating her trademark style of escaping from painful reality through a kind of symbolic fantasy. Her rebellion to the slavery of hi…

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Elsa Schiaparelli

Fashion designer, born in Rome, Italy. After studying philosophy, she lived in the USA, working as a film scriptwriter, then went to Paris in 1920. She designed and wore a black sweater knitted with a white bow, as a result of which she received orders from a US store, which started her in business. Her designs were inventive and sensational, and she was noted for her use of colour, including ‘sh…

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Elsa Triolet - Bibliography

French writer, born in Moscow. She married first André Triolet, then the French political activist and writer Louis Aragon, whom she met in 1928, and on whom she had a great influence. Her work included novels and short stories, including Bonsoir Thérèse (1938), Le premier Acoroc coûte deux cents francs (Prix Goncourt, 1944), and a trilogy, L'Âge de Nylon, comprising Roses à Crédit (1959), …

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Elsevier - Origins, Elsevier at a glance

Originally the name of a 17th-c Dutch family of book traders, publishers, and printers established in Leiden, The Hague, Utrecht, and Amsterdam. Today, after a merger with the Nederlandse Dagbladunie N V (Netherlands Association of Newspapers N V), it is an international group of publishers, printers, and bookshops. Elsevier, the world's largest publisher of medical and scientific literatur…

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Elsie de Wolfe - Books by Elsie de Wolfe

Interior decorator, born in New York City, New York, USA. She adapted the fashion sense of her acting years (1890–1904) to a career as America's first professional woman decorator. The transformation of her own house (1898) from gloomy, cluttered Victorian to light, airy Neoclassical led to freelance work on New York's Colony Club, the Frick mansion, and houses of the wealthy. The restoration of …

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Elsie Janis - Early career, World War I, Later Life

Singer, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. Pushed on stage by her mother at age eight, she delighted audiences in Europe and America with her singing and impersonations of other celebrities, such as Will Rogers (1900–32). She worked as both writer and production supervisor of films in the early 1930s. Elsie Janis, (March 16, 1889 - February 26, 1956) was an American singer, songwriter, actress, …

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Elsinore - In fiction

56°03N 12°38E; pop (2000e) 58 200. Seaport on The Sound, NE Zealand, Denmark, opposite Helsingborg, Sweden; railway; shipbuilding, engineering; site of Kronborg Castle, a world heritage site, famous as the scene of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Helsingør [hɛlseˈŋøɔ̯ˀ], also known by its English name Elsinore, is a city in Helsingør municipality on the northeast coast of the island of Z…

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Elspeth (Josceline) Huxley

Novelist and essayist, born in London, UK. She wrote much about life in Kenya, where she lived as a child. Her best-known novel, The Flame Trees of Thika (1959), was about her childhood, as was The Mottled Lizard (1962) and Love Among the Daughters (1968). She also wrote detective novels, such as Death of an Aryan (1939, also known as The African Poison Murders). In 1993 she published a biography …

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Elspeth Buchan

Scottish religious, the wife of a potter. In 1784 she founded a fanatical sect in Irvine, the Buchanites, announcing herself to her 46 followers as the Woman of Revelations xii. Elspeth Buchan (1738-1791), founder of a Scottish religious sect known as the Buchanites, was the daughter of John Simpson, proprietor of an inn near Banif. Having quarreled with her husband, Robert Buchan, a …

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Elvis (Aaron) Presley - Early life, Voice characteristics, Sun recordings, Presley and his manager "Colonel" Tom Parker

Popular singer and film actor, born in Tupelo, Mississippi, USA. An only child (a twin brother was stillborn), he was raised in a religious home. As a boy he sang with his local Assembly of God church choir, which emulated the style of African-American psalm singing. At age 10 he won a school singing contest and taught himself the rudiments of the guitar (though he never really could read music). …

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Elvis Costello

Singer and songwriter, born in London, UK. The son of big-band singer Ross McManus, he started his own career with the unrecorded band Flip City and as a solo folk club singer. Signed to Stiff Records in 1977, his debut album My Aim Is True established his reputation. For his second album, This Year's Model (1978), he was joined by The Attractions - a three-piece group consisting of Steve Nieve, P…

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Elwood (Richard) Quesada

Aviator, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He enlisted in the army in 1924 and received a commission after completing flight training the following year. Among other assignments in the 1930s, he flew as chief pilot on the New York–Cleveland airmail run. During World War 2 he commanded the Ninth Fighter Command in England (1943) and, as head of the Ninth Tactical Air Command, directed…

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Ely - History

52°24N 0°16E, pop (2000e) 10 500. Small city in E Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK; in fertile, wheat-growing fens, on R Ouse, 23 km/14 mi NE of Cambridge; railway; paper, agriculture, engineering, plastics, tourism; 12th-c cathedral (octagonal tower), King's School (1543); Isle of Ely (higher ground surrounded by fens) the location of Hereward the Wake's defence against the Normans. El…

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Elysium - Elysium in post-classical literature, Elysium in Christianity

In Greek and Roman mythology, the happy fields, often located on the borders of the Underworld, where the good remain after death in perfect happiness. It is sometimes confused with the pre-Greek Islands of the Blessed, where heroes are said to live immortally. The Elysian Fields lay on the western margin of the earth, by the encircling stream of Oceanus, and there the mortal relatives of t…

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Emancipation Proclamation - Implementation, Background, International impact, Postbellum

(1 Jan 1863) A document issued by President Lincoln during the American Civil War, declaring the freedom of all slaves in areas then in arms against the US government; it did not free slaves in areas not in rebellion. He had issued a preliminary proclamation on 22 September 1862. The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive decree by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during that country's Ci…

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Emanuel (Gottlieb) Leutze

Painter, born in Gmünd, SE Germany. He emigrated to America in 1825, but returned to Europe on several occasions to study. His famous historical paintings have been reproduced countless times, especially ‘Washington Crossing the Delaware’ (1851). His popular mural, ‘Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way’ (1862), is in the Capitol, Washington, DC. Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, …

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Emanuel (Maffeolti) Ungaro - The House of Emanuel Ungaro

Fashion designer, born in Aix-en-Provence, SE France, of Italian parents. He trained to join the family tailoring business, but went instead to Paris in 1955, worked for a small tailoring firm, and later joined Balenciaga. In 1965 he opened his own house, with Sonia Knapp designing his fabrics. Initially featuring rigid lines, his styles later softened. In 1968 he produced his first ready-to-wear …

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Emanuel Ax - Awards and Recognitions

Pianist, born in Lvov (Lwow), Poland. He studied at the Juilliard School and made his New York debut in 1973. He went on to become one of the most popular soloists and recitalists of his generation, his repertoire encompassing classics to moderns. Ax is a particular supporter of 20th-century composers and has given three world premieres in the last few seasons; Ax regularly performs duo rec…

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Emanuel Celler - Service in the House of Representatives, Final Years

US representative, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He studied at Columbia University Law School (1912), then practised law in New York City, serving as an appeal agent on the draft board during World War 1. A Democrat in the US House of Representatives (1923–73), he was chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary. After his defeat by reform Democrats, he joined a commission to revise the federal …

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Emanuel Geibel

Poet, born in Lübeck, N Germany. Son of a parish priest, he studied theology and philosophy, then became a teacher and professor of literature in Munich, whose literary and aesthetic circle he led together with Heyse, and also met Chamisso and Eichendorff. His conservatism earned him the hostility of the radical ‘Junges Deutschland’ writers. Classical in style, his poems, such as Zeitstimmen (1…

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Emanuel Lasker - Chess champion, Mathematician, Other facets of his life, Notable chess games

Chess player and mathematician, born in Berlinchen, NE Germany. He won the world championship in 1894, retaining it until 1921, when he was defeated by Capablanca. He studied mathematics at Erlangen University, and formulated a theorem of vector spaces which is known by his name. He left Germany in 1933, and finally settled in the USA, continuing to play chess until his late 60s. Emanuel La…

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Emanuel Swedenborg - Biography, Veracity, Scientific beliefs, Psychic accounts, Theology, Bibliography, Notes and references, Further reading

Mystic and scientist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at Uppsala, travelled in Europe, and on his return was appointed assessor in the college of mines. He wrote books on algebra, navigation, astronomy, and chemistry, and in 1734 published his monumental Opera philosophica et mineralia (Philosophical and Logical Works), a mixture of metallurgy and metaphysical speculation on the creation of …

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embargo

An order obstructing or impeding the movement of ships of a foreign power, which can entail preventing them from either leaving or entering a port. In the past, embargoes were associated with anticipating the outbreak of war, but their use is limited today. The term is also employed to describe any attempt to suspend trading with another country, and the imposition of a time and date before which …

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Ember Days - Etymology, Origins, Timing, Ordination of clergy

In the Christian Church, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of the weeks (Ember Weeks) following the first Sunday in Lent, Whitsunday, Holy Cross Day (14 Sep) and St Lucy's Day (13 Dec); formerly observed as special times of fasting and abstinence. In the liturgical calendar of the Western Christian churches, Ember days are four separate sets of three days within the same week - specifical…

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embezzlement

The dishonest taking or fraudulent use of money or other property entrusted to an employee (or agent) by his or her employer (or principal). It is a form of theft, the separate offence of embezzlement having been abolished in England and Wales by the Theft Act (1968). Many US penal codes, likewise, subsume this offence under theft. However, in Scottish law it is distinguished from both theft and f…

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embolism

An obstruction of a blood vessel by the accumulation and adhesion of any undissolved material (such as a blood clot) carried to the site in the bloodstream. It is usually identified according to the vessel involved (cerebral, coronary, pulmonary) or the undissolved material (air, fat). Embolisms are most commonly due to blood clots that break off from areas of thrombosis, often veins in the leg. F…

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embrasure

A recess in a building for a window. It also refers to the splayed opening between any two upstanding parts of a parapet or crenellated wall. The term embrasure, in architecture, refers to the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenelle; A loophole, arrow loop or arrow slit is a similar concept, but passes…

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embroidery - Types of embroidery, History, Embroidery and needlework organizations

The ornamentation of fabrics with decorative stitching - an art which dates from very early times (as shown in Egyptian tomb paintings), when the designs were sewn onto a base fabric by hand. It was highly developed in the Middle and Far East, and in India, for rich garments and furnishings. In Europe, church vestments provided consistently sumptuous examples. Embroidery skills were part of the ne…

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embryo - Description, Growth of the Human Embryo

In flowering plants, the young plant developed from an ovum and contained within the seed; in animals, the developing young, typically derived from a sexually fertilized ovum, contained either within the egg membranes or inside the maternal body. The embryonic phase commences with the division of the fertilized egg (zygote), and ends with the hatching or birth of the young animal. In organi…

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embryology

The study of the development of animals from the first division of the fertilized egg, through the differentiation and formation of the organ systems, to the ultimate hatching or birth of the young animal. The study of the development of an organism, commencing with the union of male and female gametes. Embryology literally means the study of embryos, but this definition is restrictive. An …

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Emden - History, Economics, Sports, Famous people from Emden, Naval ships named after the city, Curiosities

53º22N 7º12E, pop (2001e) 51 900. Seaport in Lower Saxony, W Germany; on the estuary of the R Ems, 74 km/46 mi WNW of Oldenburg; has the most westerly German North Sea harbour, situated at the end of the Dortmund-Ems Canal; ferry service to the island of Borkum; birthplace of Ludolf Backhuysen; shipyards, fisheries. Coordinates: 53°22′N 07°12′E Emden is a city and se…

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emerald - Synthetic emerald, Cultural and historical/mythical usage, Famous emeralds

A gem variety of beryl, coloured green by minor amounts of chromium oxide. The finest crystals are from Colombia. Emerald (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) is a variety of the mineral beryl, colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes iron. Most emeralds are highly included, so it is quite rare to find an emerald with only minor inclusions. A rare type of emerald known …

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emery

A natural mixture of crystalline corundum with iron oxides, occurring as dark granules. Very hard, it is used as an abrasive. Emery may refer to: Emery as a place name: Emery as a given name: Emery as a surname: …

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Emil (Adolf) von Behring - Biography, Partial list of publications, References and further reading

Bacteriologist and pioneer in immunology, born in Hansdorf, W Poland (formerly Prussia). He was professor of hygiene at Halle (1894–5) and Marburg (from 1895), and discovered antitoxins for diphtheria and tetanus. He was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1901). Emil Adolf von Behring, born Adolf Emil Behring (March 15, 1854 – March 31, 1917) was a German physiolog…

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Emil (Michel) Cioran - Early life, Career in Romania, Career in France, Major themes and style, Manuscripts, Major works

Essayist, born in Romania. He settled in Paris in 1947, first writing in his native tongue, then in French. Making use of nihilism, he published aphorisms, the most famous collection of which is Précis de Decomposition (1949). Other works include Des Larmes et des saints (1937), La Tentation d'exister (1956), Mauvais Demiurge (1969), and Aveux et Anathèmes (1987). He also wrote a thesis on Bergs…

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Emil Artin - Influence and work, Conjectures, Supervision of research, Family, Selected bibliography

Mathematician, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied in Leipzig, and taught at Göttingen and Hamburg before emigrating to the USA in 1937, where he held posts at Indiana and Princeton before returning to Hamburg in 1958. His work was mainly in algebraic number theory and class field theory. Emil Artin (03 March 1898, Vienna – 20 December 1962, Hamburg) was an Austrian mathematician. …

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Emil du Bois-Reymond - Life, Works, Source

Physiologist, the discoverer of neuroelectricity, born in Berlin, Germany. He became professor of physiology at Berlin in 1855, where he investigated the physiology of muscles and nerves, and demonstrated electricity in animals. Emil du Bois-Reymond (b. The Prussian capital was the place both of his birth and of his life's work, and he will always be counted among Germany's grea…

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Emil Jannings - Filmography

Actor, born in Rorschach, NE Switzerland. He grew up in Görlitz, Austria, and made his name in Max Reinhardt's company from 1906. He worked in American films (1926–9), and won the first Oscar for his performances in The Way of All Flesh (1928) and The Last Command (1928). With the advent of sound movies he returned to Germany, where he appeared with Marlene Dietrich in The Blue Angel (1930), his…

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Emil Kraepelin

Psychiatrist, born in Neustrelitz, NE Germany. He studied at Würzburg, and did further study under Wundt, whose techniques he later used for research on the effects of alcohol. Professor at Dorpat, Heidelberg, and Munich, he was a pioneer in the psychological study of serious mental diseases (psychoses), which he divided into two groups, manic-depressive and dementia praecox. He compiled a classi…

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Emil Leon Post - Early work

Mathematician and logician, born in Augustow, Poland. Emigrating to the USA as a child, he lost his left arm (age 12) and rejected a career in astronomy. He did pioneering work in proof theory and multivalued logics and was co-founder of the theory of recursive functions. He was a founding member of the Association for Symbolic Logic. Emil Leon Post (February 11, 1897 Augustów Poland – A…

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Emil Ludwig

Writer, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied law, but wrote plays and poems, and after World War 1 wrote the novel Diana (1918–19). He became popular as a new-style biographer, emphasizing the personality of his subjects, including (English translations) Napoleon (1927), Bismarck (1927), Goethe (1928), and the controversial biography of Christ, The Son of Man (1928).…

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Emil Nolde - Works

Artist and printmaker, born in Nolde, W Germany. One of the most important Expressionist painters, he was briefly a member of the Expressionist die Brücke (1906–7), but produced his own powerful ‘blood and soil’ style of distorted forms in violent religious pictures such as ‘The Life of Christ’ (1911–12). He also produced a large number of etchings, lithographs, and woodcuts. Emil No…

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Emil Savundra - Early career, Fire, Auto and Marine, “Trial by television”, Later career

Convicted swindler and fraudster, born in Sri Lanka. He gave himself the title ‘Doctor’, and perpetrated huge financial swindles in Costa Rica, Goa, Ghana, China, and Britain. He is best known in Britain for the crash of his Fire, Auto and Marine Insurance Co, which left 400 000 British motorists without insurance cover in 1966. In an attempt to defend his actions he made a television appearanc…

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Emile Berliner

Inventor, born in Hanover, NC Germany. He worked as an apprentice printer until he emigrated to the USA in 1870, and later became chief inspector for the Bell Telephone Company. In the years after 1876 he patented several improvements to Alexander Graham Bell's telephone, demonstrated the flat disc gramophone record (1888), and developed a method of making several copies of a record in shellac fro…

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Emile Verhaeren - Principal works, Quotation

Poet, born in St Amand lez-Pueres, NC Belgium. He studied law at Louvain, but turned to literature, writing in French, and becoming a leading figure of the Belgian literary renaissance of the 1890s. His poetry hovers between powerful sensuality, as in Les Flamandes (1883) and the harrowing despair of Les Débâcles (1888). Among his most notable works are La Multiple Splendeur (1906) and the five-…

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Emilia-Romagna - Demographics, Image gallery

pop (2002e) 3 960 000; area 22 126 km²/8541 sq mi. Region of N Italy, comprising the provinces of Piacenza, Parma, Reggio nell'Emilia, Modena, Bologna, Ferrara, Ravenna, and Forli; extends from the Po valley to the Appno Tosco-Emilliano, and E to the Adriatic coast; agriculture, tomatoes, fruit, wine, sugar-beet, maize, rice; petrochemicals, car manufacture, textiles, shoes; fishing and to…

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Emiliano Zapata - Early life and local politics, Revolution against Huerta and Carranza, Sources

Mexican revolutionary, born in Anencuilo, SC Mexico. He became a sharecropper and local leader, and after the onset of the Mexican Revolution he mounted a land distribution programme in areas under his control. Along with Pancho Villa, he fought the Carranza government, and was eventually lured to his death at the Chinameca hacienda. Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879 – April 10, 191…

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Emilio Aguinaldo - Early life and career, Philippine Revolution, Presidency of the First Republic of the Philippines

Filipino revolutionary, born near Cavite, Luzon, Philippines. He led the rising against Spain in the Philippines (1896–8), and then against the USA (1899–1901), but after capture in 1901 took the oath of allegiance to America. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. In the Philippines, Aguinaldo…

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Emilio de Bono

Fascist politician and general, born in Cassano d'Adda, N Italy. He was a quadrumvir in Mussolini's March on Rome (1922), Governor of Tripolitania (1925), and colonial secretary (1939), and commanded the Italian forces invading Abyssinia (1935). He voted against Mussolini in the Fascist Supreme Council (1943), and was summarily tried and executed as a traitor by neo-Fascists in Verona. Emil…

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Emilio de' Cavalieri - Life, Works, Sources

Composer, born in Rome, Italy. He lived mainly at the Florentine court of the Medici, where he was inspector general of arts. His dramatic works were forerunners of opera and oratorio. Emilio de' Cavalieri (c. His work, along with that of other composers active in Rome, Florence and Venice, was critical in defining the beginning of the musical Baroque era. A member of the Roman School…

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Emilio Lussu - Biography, Works

Italian politician and writer, born in Armungia, Sardinia, Italy. He co-founded the Partito sardo d'azione (Sardinian Action Party) after World War 1. In Paris, where he moved after the rise of Fascism, he co-founded the movement Giustizia e libertà (Justice and freedom) with Carlo Rosselli. Back in Italy in 1943 he helped found the Partito d'azione (Action Party) and after its demise joined the …

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Emilio Salgari - The Sandokan Series, The Black Corsair Series, The Pirates of Bermuda Series

Writer, born in Verona, Veneto, N Italy. A journalist, his first short stories, Tay-see and I selvaggi della Papuasia (both 1883), were published in instalments in local papers with great popular success. He wrote many adventure novels set in exotic locations, in which an evocative atmosphere makes up for poverty of style, including I misteri della jungla nera (1895) and Il corsaro nero (1899). Hi…

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Emily (Elizabeth) Dickinson - Poetry and influence, Biography, Music

Poet, born in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. She attended Amherst Academy (1840–7), Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (1847–8), and lived in Amherst all her life. She met the Reverend Charles Wadsworth in Philadelphia (1854), and he may have been the inspiration for some of her love poems. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a former minister and author, seems to have been her literary mentor, as indicated in…

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Emily Anne Eliza Shirreff

British pioneer of women's education. With her sister, Maria Georgina Grey, she wrote Thoughts on Self-Culture, Addressed to Women (1850), and published works on kindergartens and the Froebel system. She founded the National Union for the Higher Education of Women (1872), and was mistress of Girton College, Cambridge (1870–97). Emily Anne Eliza Shirreff (1814-97) was a pioneer in the movem…

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Emily Blackwell - Obstacles

Physician, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. Emigrating with her family to the USA (1832), she was the product of a progressive education for the time and very much influenced by her older sister Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman in modern times to receive a medical degree. Although extremely shy, she followed her sister into medicine. She was turned down by 11 medical schools, including Elizabe…

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Emily Carr

Painter and writer, raised in Victoria, British Columbia, SW Canada. She studied art at the California School of Design in San Francisco, and by 1913 had produced a large body of work on native themes. Her mature and original work began at age 57, when she travelled E to meet members of the Group of Seven. Nature themes replaced native themes after 1932, and her work became less designed and more …

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Emily Clara Folger

Scholar and book collector, born in Ironton, Ohio, USA. She studied at Vassar (1885) and married Standard Oil executive Henry Clay Folger, who collected Shakespeare folios. Living relatively simply, in 50 years they amassed 100 000 books and manuscripts, primarily on the Elizabethan period. She became a Shakespearean scholar, authenticating and cataloguing their purchases. After her husband's dea…

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Emily Davison - Sources

Suffragette, born in London, UK. She studied at London University and Oxford, and in 1906 became a militant member of the Women's Social and Political Union. Frequently imprisoned, she often resorted to hunger-striking. In the 1913 Derby, wearing a WSPU banner, she tried to catch the reins of the king's horse and was trampled underfoot, dying several days later. Emily Wilding Davison (Octob…

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Emily Greene Balch

Pacifist, social reformer, and economist, born in Jamaica Plain (now in Boston), Massachusetts, USA. She studied at Bryn Mawr College, then taught sociology and economics at Wellesley College (1896–1918). She took an active role in labour disputes and other social issues, and in 1910 published Our Slavic Fellow Citizens, a pioneering work in its sympathetic view of immigrants. As the impact of Wo…

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Emily Post

Authority on etiquette, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. She wrote society fiction and essays before writing her classic Etiquette - The Blue Book of Social Usage (1922). In her 10 editions of Etiquette, and her syndicated etiquette column and radio show, she defined good manners for millions of Americans, dispensing relaxed yet serious advice that was striking in its flexible response to changin…

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Emin Pasha - Biography, Publications

Doctor and explorer, born in Neisse, Germany (now Nyasa, SW Poland). He studied medicine at Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia), and Berlin, and became a medical officer in the Turkish army in 1865. In 1876 General Gordon appointed him chief medical officer of the Equatorial Province, and governor in 1878. A skilful linguist, he added enormously to the knowledge of African languages, made …

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Emma - Plot summary, Film and television adaptations, Criticism and themes

Queen of the Netherlands, the second wife of King William III of The Netherlands and mother of the future Queen Wilhelmina, born in Arolsen, WC Germany. She married William in 1879, and became regent during the last days of his life, and for Queen Wilhelmina until her majority in 1898. She was a very highly regarded member of the Dutch royal family, and her popularity contributed appreciably to th…

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Emma Bonino - National Political Career, Trivia

Politician, born near Turin, Piedmont, NW Italy. Born into a poor farming family, at the age of 28 she became pregnant and chose to have an abortion, then illegal in Italy. To draw attention to the squalid conditions of underground abortions, she made hers public, was sent to jail, went on hunger strike, and helped to change the law. She then joined the small Radical Party and campaigned successfu…

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Emma Goldman - Life, Emma Goldman in fiction, Books written by Emma Goldman

Anarchist and propagandist, born in Kovno, Lithuania. She moved with her family to St Petersburg, Russia (1882), where she worked in a glove factory and absorbed the prevailing radical-revolutionary ideas. She emigrated to the USA (1885), worked in a Rochester, NY garment factory, and was briefly married to a fellow worker. Angered by the execution of those connected with the Haymarket bombing in …

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Emma Lazarus

Writer, born in New York City, USA. She published striking volumes of poems and translations, including Admetus and Other Poems (1871), Songs of a Semite (1882), and By the Waters of Babylon (1887). She also wrote a prose romance, Alide: an Episode of Goethe's Life (1874), and a verse tragedy, The Spagnaletto (1876). She is best known for her sonnet, ‘The New Colossus’ (1883), inscribed in a roo…

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Emma Stebbins - Career, Works

Sculptor and painter, born in New York City, New York, USA. She was a painter until 1857, lived and worked in Rome (1857–70), and is famous for ‘The Angel of the Waters’ (c.1862), installed in Central Park (1873), where it is known as the ‘Bethesda Fountain’. She returned to America and lived in New York City (1870) and in Newport, RI. Born and raised in a wealthy New York family, Steb…

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Emma Thompson - Selected filmography

Actress, born in London, UK. She studied at Cambridge and made her stage debut with the Footlights while still a student. She played opposite Robert Lindsay in Me and My Girl (1983), going on to appear on BBC TV's Fortunes of War for which she won a BAFTA award. In 1989 she appeared in the film of Henry V, directed by Kenneth Branagh whom she married the same year (divorced, 1996). On stage, she a…

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Emma Willard

Educator, born in Berlin, Connecticut, USA. Raised by a father who, while a farmer, encouraged her to read and think for herself, she attended a local academy (1802–4) and then began teaching. In 1807 she went to Middlebury, VT to head a female academy there, marrying a local doctor (1809). She opened her own school, the Middlebury Female Seminary (1814), to provide advanced education that young …

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Emmeline Pankhurst - Secondary literature

Suffragette, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. In 1879 she married Richard Marsden Pankhurst (d.1898), a radical Manchester barrister who had been the author of the first women's suffrage bill in Britain and of the Married Women's Property Acts of 1870 and 1882. She founded the Women's Franchise League (1889), and in 1903, with her daughter Christabel Harriette (1880–1958), …

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Emmett (Littleton) Ashford

Baseball umpire, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. In 1951 he became the first black umpire in professional baseball, and in major league baseball in 1966. Known for his flamboyant calling of balls and strikes, he umpired American League games during 1966–70. Emmett Littleton Ashford (November 23, 1914 – March 1, 1980), nicknamed "Ash", was the first African American umpire in Major …

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Emory Upton - Early life, Civil War, Postbellum, Military strategy, Selected works, Further reading

US soldier and military theorist, born near Batavia, New York, USA. He trained at West Point (1861), and earned rapid promotion. At Spotsylvania (1864), his tactical innovations led to a penetration of forbidding Confederate defences, and he later published important works on tactical theory. He committed suicide after discovering he had contracted a fatal disease. Emory Upton (August 27, 1…

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emotion - Definition of emotion, Theoretical traditions, Etymology, Physical responses to emotion, Neurobiology, Computer models of emotion

A psychological state involving the arousal of a person's feelings, seen especially in contrast with cognitive states, which describe their rational thoughts and beliefs. The psychological study of the emotions has been dominated by attempts to understand their relationship with concomitant cognitive and physiological states. An influential theory, originally espoused by William James, proposes th…

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Empedocles - Philosophy, Death and literary treatments, Further reading

Greek philosopher and poet, born in Acragas, Sicily, who by tradition was also a doctor, statesman, and soothsayer. In his poem, On Nature, he agreed with Parmenides that there could be no absolute coming to exist or ceasing to exist; all change in the world is the result of two contrary cosmic forces, Love and Strife, mixing and separating four everlasting elements, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire. T…

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emperor moth

A large, broad-winged moth; wings grey or grey-brown with conspicuous eye-spots on forewings and hindwings; caterpillar green, with hairy warts on each segment, found from May to August; hibernates as pupa in a brown cocoon. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Saturniidae.) …

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Empfindsamkeit

A German movement influenced by the English cult of sensibility, including Sterne's Sentimental Journey. It lasted from 1740 to 1780 and emphasized a form of emotionalism that was often spiritual in nature, having its roots in Pietism and rejecting what it viewed as the excessive rationalism of the Enlightenment. Unlike ‘Sturm und Drang’, it generally avoided violent expressions of feeling and t…

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emphysema - Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Pathogenesis, Associations, Prognosis and treatment

A disorder of the lungs in which there is destruction of the elastic fibres that normally cause lung tissue to recoil during expiration. As a result, the lungs become progressively more distended and overfilled with air. The small air tubes (bronchioles) become dilated, and the small sacs where gaseous exchange place (alveoli) are destroyed and replaced by air-filled cavities (bullae). The chest s…

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Empire State Building - Description, Floodlights, Use by mass media, Similar skyscrapers, In pop culture, Further reading

An office block in Manhattan, New York City, USA, designed by the firm of Shreve, Lamb & Harman, built 1930. At 449 m/1472 ft high (including a 68 m/222 ft high television mast added in 1951) it was the tallest building in the world until 1970. The Empire State Building is a 102-story contemporary Art Deco style skyscraper in New York City, declared by the American Society of Civil Engi…

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empiricism - Philosophical usage, Scientific usage, History

A philosophical tradition which maintains that all or most knowledge is based on experience and is ultimately derived from the senses; it is usually contrasted with rationalism, and with theories which emphasize the importance of innate or a priori knowledge. Empiricists such as Locke, Hume, and Mill take the natural sciences as their paradigms of knowledge; rationalists take logic or mathematics.…

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empyema - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

A collection of pus between the two layers of membranes which cover the lung (the pleura). It is most commonly due to the spread of infection from pneumonia in the lungs. An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity, most commonly the pleural space surrounding the lungs. Typical symptoms are just about the same as tuberculosis which includes: fever (which may b…

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emu - Physical description, Reproduction, Ecology and behaviour, Conservation status, Uses of Emu, Cultural references

A flightless bird native to Australia (Dromaius novaehollandiae); the second largest living bird (after the ostrich), 1·9 m/6¼ ft tall; inhabits dry plains and woodland; eats fruit, shoots, flowers, and insects; runs at nearly 50 kph/30 mph; swims well; related to the cassowary. (Family: Dromaiidae.) The Emu (IPA pronunciation: [ˈiːmjuː]), Dromaius novaehollandiae, is the largest b…

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emulsion - Emulsifier

A suspension of one liquid in another, particularly of an oil in water. All emulsions eventually separate, ‘stable’ emulsions merely separating more slowly than ‘unstable’ ones. Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance, because the many phase interfaces (the boundary between the phases is called the interface) scatter light that passes through the emulsion. Energy input through …

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encephalitis - Features, Etiology, Diagnosis, Encephalitis lethargica

Inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a viral infection, but other micro-organisms (including syphilis and malaria) may also be responsible. The clinical features are fever, headache, drowsiness, and confusion, as well as hallucinations, paralysis, and abnormal movements. Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. Sometimes, encephalitis…

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enclosure - Introduction, The Middle Ages and Renaissance, Literary References to Enclosure

In the UK, the name given to the process whereby land previously part of large open fields or waste was fenced off and held in private ownership. Much land was enclosed for pasture during the 16th-c when sheep-farming became more profitable. This reduced the amount of labouring work available on the land, and contributed to increasing social tension. Most land was enclosed by agreement of propriet…

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encounter group

A form of group therapy in which the leader facilitates the acquisition of insight and sensitivity to others, using such techniques as bodily contact and the sharing of emotional experiences. Also known as T- (‘training’) groups, sessions vary greatly in length and type, and can have both positive and negative effects on members. Such groups (also called "T" (training) groups and "sensiti…

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endangered species - Issues of extinction, Conservation status, Endangered mammals, Endangered birds, Endangered reptiles, Endangered amphibians, Endangered fish

Plant and animal species which are in danger of becoming extinct. Their classification as endangered species is made by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The danger of extinction generally comes from habitat loss and disturbance caused by human activity, overexploitation, and in many cases pollution. For example, disturbance threatens the pupping beaches…

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endive

An annual or biennial (Cichorium endivia) growing to 120 cm/4 ft, native to S Europe; basal leaves lobed, upper leaves lance-shaped, clasping the stem at their base; flower-heads blue, in clusters of 2–5. Closely related to chicory, it is widely grown as a salad plant, cultivated varieties having many different, often crisped leaf forms. (Family: Compositae.) Endive (Cichorium endivia) i…

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endocarditis

Infection and inflammation of the lining of the heart, particularly of the heart valves. People with congenital abnormalities of the heart or with existing heart-valve disorders (such as prosthetic valves or valves damaged by rheumatic fever) are particularly vulnerable. Bacteria circulating in the blood colonize and multiply on the heart valves and initiate an inflammatory process; streptococci a…

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endometriosis - Symptoms, Epidemiology, Causes, Diagnosis, Cause of pain, Treatments, Infertility, Relation to cancer

A common disorder in which the cells that normally line the uterine cavity (endometrium) grow in other sites of the body, usually elsewhere in the pelvis, such as on the ovaries, rectum, and bladder. The cause is unknown, but it is possible that endometrial cells migrate up through the uterine tubes and implant in the pelvis (retrograde-menstruation). The endometrial cells outside the uterus respo…

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endoscopy - Overview, Components, Types, History, Risks, Recent developments

The introduction of an instrument into a body aperture or duct for direct visual inspection and biopsy. It is carried out with a flexible glass fibre endoscope, which can pass narrow channels and bends more easily than the rigid instruments used formerly. Examples include bronchoscopy (bronchi), gastroscopy (stomach), colonoscopy (colon), cystoscopy (bladder), jejunoscopy (jejunum), and peritoneos…

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Endymion

In Greek mythology, a handsome shepherd of Mt Latmos, who was loved by the Moon-goddess Selene. Zeus put him to sleep, while Selene looked after his flocks, and visited him every night. He was also said, as King of Elis, to have founded the Olympic Games. Endymion may be: Fictional character: Titled work: Astronomy: Oth…

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energy - Historical perspective, Energy in Natural Sciences, Different forms of energy and their inter-relations

An abstract calculable quantity associated with all physical processes and objects, whose total value is found always to be conserved; symbol E, units J (joule); one of the most important concepts in physics. It is an additive, scalar quantity, which may be transferred but never destroyed, and so provides a useful book-keeping device for the analysis of processes. It is sometimes called the capaci…

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Engelbert Dollfuss - Biography

Austrian statesman and chancellor (1932–4), born in Texing, C Austria. He studied at Vienna and Berlin, and became leader of the Christian Socialist Party. As chancellor, he suspended parliamentary government, drove the Socialists into revolt, and militarily crushed them (Feb 1934). In July 1934, an attempted Nazi putsch in Vienna culminated in his assassination. Engelbert Dollfuss (German…

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Engelbert Humperdinck

Composer, born in Siegburg, W Germany. He studied music at Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, and Berlin, and travelled widely as a teacher. He composed several operas, one of which, Hänsel und Gretel (1893), was highly successful. Engelbert Humperdinck (September 1, 1854 – September 27, 1921) was a German composer, best known for his opera, Hänsel und Gretel (1893). Humperdinck wa…

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engine - Usage of the term, History of engines, Air-breathing engines

A mechanical device that transforms some of the energy of its fuel into a convenient and controllable form (usually rotational motion), for use by other devices. There is no recognized standard classification of engine types, although the majority convert the motion of an oscillating piston in a cylinder to rotary motion by means of a crank linkage mechanism. The piston is made to oscillate by mea…

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engineering - Methodology, Etymology, Engineering in a social context, Cultural presence, Legislation, Comparison to other disciplines, Further reading

The branch of technology which makes power and materials work for people. Engineers study ways of harnessing power sources, such as the use of gasoline and other fuels to power cars, aeroplanes, ships, trains, and space vehicles, and the conversion of water power into hydroelectricity. They also analyse and use many types of material, depending on the problem to be solved; for example, the propert…

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England - Etymology, History, Politics, Geography, Economics, Demographics, Culture, Language, Religion, English people, Nomenclature, National symbols and insignia

(UK) England (pronounced IPA: /ˈɪŋglənd/) is a nation in northwest Europe and the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total population of the United Kingdom, whilst the mainland territory of England occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great …

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Englandspiel

The name for a German security operation (known as Fall Nordpol in German) between March 1942 and April 1944, based on codes captured from an SOE (Special Operations Executive) agent. Although the messages received in England omitted the appropriate security checks, they were accepted as genuine. The Germans took advantage of this mistake to pass false information to England, leading to the captur…

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English (language)

A language belonging to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family. Its unbroken literary heritage goes back to the inflecting language, Anglo-Saxon, notably in the 8th-c epic poem Beowulf. Standard English prose evolved from the Chancery (law-court) English of the 14th-c, and has been codified continuously - its grammatical structure in such early works as Lindley Murray's English Grammar (1…

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English art - Museums exhibiting English Art

The art associated with England, since prehistoric times influenced by the commercial and cultural links with both the Mediterranean and N Europe. Thus the classical style was introduced by the Roman occupation, but Anglo-Saxon invaders in the 5th-c reaffirmed the priority of abstract pattern-making and animal ornament. The Norman conquest in the 11th-c ushered in one of the greatest periods of En…

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English Channel - Crossing and Trade, Notable Channel Crossings

Arm of the Atlantic Ocean, bounded N by England and S by France; formed with the rise in sea level after the last glacial period; connected to North Sea by Straits of Dover (E), 34 km/21 mi wide; 565 km/350 mi long by 240 km/150 mi wide at its widest point (Lyme Bay–Golfe de St-Malo); crossings by ferry and hovercraft, linking Dover to Dunkirk and Boulogne, Folkestone to Calais and Boulogne…

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English Civil War - Terminology, Background, The First English Civil War, The Second English Civil War

The country's greatest internal conflict, between supporters of Parliament and supporters of Charles I, caused by Parliamentary opposition to royal policies. Although the king left London in March 1642, open hostilities between Royalists and Parliamentarians did not immediately break out. The prospect of compromise was bleak, but both sides, fearing the consequences of civil strife, moved slowly t…

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English cocker spaniel - Appearance, History, Working Cockers

A small, active, friendly spaniel; shoulder height, 45 cm/18 in; long ears set low on head; tail docked short when young; gave rise to the American cocker spaniel. The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. It is one of several varieties of spaniel and somewhat resembles its American cousin, the American Cocker Spaniel, although it's closer to the working-dog form of the Fiel…

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English Heritage - Domain, Membership, Controversies, Equivalent organisations

In the UK, a body directly responsible for over 350 buildings and monuments formerly in the care of the Department of the Environment, and for protecting and preserving England's collection of 12 500 designated monuments and over 300 000 ‘listed’ buildings. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Board for Scotland, and Cadw (Welsh ‘heritage’), have similar functions. By caring for the b…

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English literature - Middle Ages, Early modern (Renaissance), Elizabethan literature, Jacobean literature, Caroline and Cromwellian literature, Restoration literature

The earliest texts written in English are chronicles dating from the 7th-c, but literature begins with the heroic poems and fragments of the next century, written in Old English; the most famous is Beowulf. After the Norman conquest, the language and culture underwent fundamental changes, and Middle English (11th–14th-c) offers a range of lyrical, courtly, realistic, and satirical poems, the most…

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English National Ballet

A classical ballet company which tours nationally and internationally from its studio base in Westminster, London, UK. Founded in 1950 by the Polish-born impresario Julian Braunsweg as the London Festival Ballet, the company changed its name to the English National Ballet in 1988. One of the world's leading exponents of contemporary dance, it won acclaim with its Alice in Wonderland (1995), starri…

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English National Opera - History, Repertoire, Home, Education

Opera company founded in 1931 by Lilian Baylis as the Vic-Wells Opera, named after the Old Vic and Sadler's Wells theatres that she also managed. The company moved to its present location at the London Coliseum in 1968 and was renamed English National Opera in 1974. All performances are in English, and the company aims to reach a wide audience through its programme of educational activities, foste…

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English Nature

A British governmental agency, set up by the Environmental Protection Act (1990), and responsible for the conservation of England's wildlife and natural features. It manages National and Marine Nature Reserves, selects and schedules Sites of Special Scientific Interest and Ramsar sites (Wetlands of International Scientific Importance). It also undertakes research on conservation issues. English Na…

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English setter - Appearance, History, Miscellaneous

A large breed of dog, developed in England; taller at shoulder than at rear end; muzzle deep; coat long, white with dark markings. The English Setter is a breed of dog. It is part of the Setter family, which includes red Irish Setters, Irish Red and White Setters, and black Gordon Setters. The English Setter is a gun dog, bred for a mix of endurance and athleticism. …

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English-Speaking Union - Debating and Public Speaking, The US-UK Debate Tour Exchange, The Parliamentary Exchange Programmes

A charity founded by Sir Evelyn Wrench (1882–1966) in 1918 with the purpose of ‘improving understanding about people, international issues, and culture through the bond the English language provides’. Based in London, in 2006 the Union had branches in over 50 countries, two-thirds in the UK and the USA. The mission statement of The English-Speaking Union (as stated in its website) is to:…

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engraving - The engraving process, Modern engraving, Noted engravers, External Links

A process of printmaking by the intaglio method; also the resulting print. The term is often used less precisely to mean any process whereby a design is printed on paper. Reproductive engraving simply reproduces an already existing work of art and has been superseded by photography; an original engraving is a work of art in its own right. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin t…

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Enid (Mary) Blyton - Personal life, Most popular works, Other works, Subject matter, Controversies, Statistics, Trivia

Children's writer, born in London, UK. She trained as a Froebel kindergarten teacher, then became a journalist. In 1922 she published her first book, Child Whispers, a collection of verse, but it was in the late 1930s that she began writing her many children's stories featuring such characters as Noddy, the Famous Five, and the Secret Seven. She identified closely with children, and always conside…

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Enlightenment

A European literary and philosophical movement of the 18th-c, rooted in the 17th-c Scientific Revolution and the ideas of Kant, Locke, and Newton. Its basic belief was the superiority of reason as a guide to all knowledge and human concerns; from this flowed the idea of progress and a challenging of traditional Christianity. It is important to distinguish between the national differences that it a…

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Enniskillen - Places of interest, People, History, 2001 Census, Education

54°21N 7°38W, pop (2000e) 11 500. Town in Fermanagh district, County Fermanagh, SW Northern Ireland, UK, on an island in the R Erne; English families were settled here after Tyrone's rebellion; scene of a victory of William III over James II, 1689; became an important Protestant stronghold; scene of an IRA bombing at the Remembrance Day service in 1987, killing 11 people; airfield; tourism, wa…

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Enoch

Biblical character, the son of Jared, and the father of Methuselah. He was depicted as extraordinarily devout, and therefore as translated directly into heaven without dying (Gen 5.24). In the Graeco-Roman era his name became attached to Jewish apocalyptic writings allegedly describing his visions and journeys through the heavens (1, 2, and 3 Enoch). Note: Enoch is often confused with Enos.…

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Enoch Pratt

Iron merchant, capitalist, and philanthropist, born in North Middleborough, Massachusetts, USA. He worked as a clerk in Boston before he moved to Baltimore (1831). He ran a wholesale iron establishment for many years, was a leader of the Maryland Steamboat Co (1872–92), and was also engaged in banking and insurance. During the Civil War he supported the (unpopular) Union cause in Baltimore. He us…

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enosis

A political movement in Cyprus for union with Greece, reflecting the demands of Cypriots opposed to foreign rule, and closely associated with the leadership of the Greek Orthodox Church. There was an enosis rising in 1931, and since then there has been serious conflict, at times amounting to civil war, between the Greek and Turkish populations. Now independent, Cyprus has never achieved union with…

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Enrico Berlinguer - Biography, Analysis, Trivia

Italian politician, born in Sassari, Sardinia. From his early 20s he devoted himself to making the Italian Communist Party a major force in Italian politics, and became secretary-general (1972). In 1976, under his leadership, it won more than a third of the Chamber of Deputies' seats, prompting him to propose the ‘historic compromise’: an alliance of the Catholics with the Communists. His propos…

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Enrico Caruso - Repertoire, Media

Operatic tenor, born in Naples, SW Italy. He was born into a poor family, the 18th of 20 children, and received little formal education. He made his debut in Naples in 1894, in London in 1902, and in New York City in 1903. The extraordinary power of his voice, combined with his acting ability, won him worldwide recognition. Enrico Caruso (February 25, 1873–August 2, 1921) was one of the m…

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Enrico Cecchetti - A Lifetime of Dance

Dancer, teacher, and choreographer, born in Rome, Italy. After performing in Italy, London, and the USA, he settled in Russia (1887), first as dancer with the Imperial Ballet in St Petersburg (Leningrad), then as teacher. He was ballet master of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes in Paris for 15 years. Though he choreographed several works, he is remembered for the influential ballet technique he develope…

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Enrico Cialdini

Duke of Gaeta, general and diplomat, born in Castelvetro di Modena, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He escaped to France after participating in the Parma-Piacenza revolutionary risings (1831). He fought the 1st Independence War with the Piedmontese army, and defeated the papal forces at Castelfidardo, and the Bourbon troops at Gaeta. He was responsible for halting Garibaldi at Aspromonte, and was in comm…

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Enrico Corradini

Italian politician and scholar, born in San Miniatello di Montelupo, Tuscany, W Italy. He supported the Libyan venture with his newspaper Idea Nazionale (National Idea) and was a leading light of the nationalist movement. He strongly supported Italian participation in World War 1, supported the Fascist movement, and became a minister and a senator under Mussolini. Enrico Corradini (1865, ne…

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Enrico Dandolo - Background and career, Fourth Crusade, Blindness, Family

Italian statesman, born in Venice, NE Italy. In 1173 he was ambassador to Constantinople, and in 1192 became Doge of Venice. In 1202 he marched at the head of the Fourth Crusade, subduing Trieste and Zara, the coasts of Albania, the Ionian Is, and (1205) Constantinople, where he established the empire of the Latins. Born in Venice, he was the son the omonymous Enrico, patriarch of Grado. Da…

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Enrico de Nicola

Italian politician, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. A criminal lawyer, he became a deputy of the liberal right in 1909, and held a number of posts until 1923. He was temporary head of state in 1946 and the first president of the new Italian republic in 1948. He became president of the senate (1951–2) and of the Constitutional Court (1956–7). Enrico Roberto De Nicola (November 9, 1877 …

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Enrico Fermi - Biography, Post-War Work, Personal Life, Trivia, Patents

Physicist, born in Rome, Italy. His precocity in physics and mathematics was encouraged by a family friend throughout his education. While a lecturer at the University of Florence (1924–7), he developed a new form of statistical mechanics to explain the theoretical behaviour of atomic particles (1926). At the University of Rome, he and his colleagues split the nuclei of uranium atoms by bombardin…

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Enrico Macias

French singer. Originally a teacher, he became known to the public after a tour with Billy Bridge. Repatriated from Algeria, he became the singer of the Pieds-Noirs. With ‘Les filles de mon Pays’ his success even had echoes in Algeria, where he was banned. ‘Les Gens du Nord’ and ‘L'Ile du Rhone’ began a period where the singer dedicated his compositions to friendship between peoples. …

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Enrique Granados (y Campi - Life, Music and influence, Works, References and further reading

Composer and pianist, born in Lérida, NE Spain. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, and achieved fame as a pianist and composer of piano music. In 1916 he used his piano suite Goyescas (1911) as the basis for an opera with the same title. He was drowned when the Sussex was torpedoed by the Germans in the English Channel. Enrique Costanzo Granados y Campiña (July 27, 1867 – March 24, …

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entablature

The horizontal element supported by the orders of classical architecture. It consists of an architrave, frieze, and cornice. Pure classical Doric entablature is simple. The frieze is dominated by the triglyphs, vertically channelled tablets, separated by metopes, which may or may not be decorated. The cornice is split into the soffit, the corona, and the cymatium. …

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Entebbe

0°05N 32°29E, pop (2000e) 32 000. Town in S Uganda, E Africa; on N shore of L Victoria, 25 km/15 mi SW of Kampala; founded, 1893; former capital of Uganda, 1894–1962; airport; railway; scene in 1976 of a dramatic rescue by Israeli forces of Israelis whose plane had been hijacked by a group of Palestinian terrorists. Entebbe is a city in Uganda with a population of approximately 90,50…

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Entente Cordiale

A term first used in the 1840s to describe a close relationship between the UK and France; then given to a series of agreements in 1904 between the two countries, dealing with a range of issues, in particular establishing the predominant role of the UK in Egypt, and France's interests in Morocco and Algiers. The Entente Cordiale (French for "friendly understanding") was a series of agreemen…

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enthalpy

An energy quantity appearing frequently in thermodynamics; symbol H, units J (joule); defined as H = U + pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure, and V is volume. For example, for a gas at constant pressure, the total heat that must be added to raise the temperature of the gas is the sum of the increase in internal energy of the gas plus the work done in expanding against surrounding pre…

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entomology - Applied entomology, Identification of insects, Taxonomic specialization, Museums

The branch of biology dealing with all aspects of the study of insects. Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on Earth, and their importance has led to the development of several specialized areas of entomology. Many insects are beneficial to humans, such as those responsible for the pollination of crop plants, but others are harmful, by feeding on the crops or their stored products, or …

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entropy - History, Definition and description of entropy, Approaches to understanding entropy, Topics in Entropy, Other relations

In thermodynamics, a numerical measure of disorder; symbol S, units J/K (joules per kelvin). As a system becomes increasingly disordered, its entropy increases. For example, the entropy of a system comprising a drop of ink and a tank of water increases when the drop of ink is added to the water and disperses through it, since dispersed ink is highly disordered. Entropy can never decrease, which in…

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environment

The conditions and influences of the place in which an organism lives. The large number of different types of environment (eg urban environment, tropical rainforest environment) makes it impossible to formulate a single definition. In general, the physical environment describes the characteristics of a landscape (eg climate, geology) which have not been changed markedly by human impact, whereas th…

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Environment Agency - Goals, Responsibilities, Organisational management, Regions and areas

The body established by the Environment Act (1995) of England and Wales to enforce and regulate pollution controls. The Agency carries out the functions of the former National Rivers Authority, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, and the waste regulation authorities. It is also responsible for certain other functions connected with the environment, such as controlling effluent and sewage slud…

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