Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 22

Cambridge Encyclopedia

easement - Classification of easements, Dominant tenement versus servient tenement, Trespass upon easement, Restrictive easement, England and Wales

In English law, a right of use over the land of another. The easement must normally benefit the adjoining land, no matter who is the owner; and will be extinguished if both properties (the dominant and servient tenements) are subsequently owned and occupied by one person. A private right of way may exist as an easement, though a person may instead have permission to cross land by virtue of a licen…

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Eastbourne - History, Reputation, People, Districts, Transport, Sports, Leisure and Recreation, Parks, Events, Education, Culture, Politics, Trivia

50º46N 0º17E, pop (2001e) 89 700. Coastal town in East Sussex, SE England, UK; on the English Channel, 30 km/19 mi E of Brighton; fashionable 18th-c resort; birthplace of Angela Carter, Sir Frederick Hopkins, and Frederick Soddy; railway; Lamb Inn (13th-c), Pilgrims Inn (14th-c); Saxon parish church of St Mary; art gallery; tourism; international tennis tournament (Jun). Eastbourne is…

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Easter

The chief festival of the Christian Church, commemorating the resurrection of Christ after his crucifixion. It is observed in the Western Churches on a Sunday between 22 March and 25 April inclusive, depending on the date of the first full moon after the vernal equinox; the Orthodox Church has a different method of calculating the date. The name Easter perhaps derives from Eostre, the name of an A…

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Easter Island - History, Ecology, Cultural artifacts, Demography, Local Council, Mythology, Selected bibliography

27°05S 109°20W; pop (2000e) 2800; area 166 km²/64 sq mi; maximum length 24 km/15 mi; maximum width 12 km/7 mi. Chilean island just S of the Tropic of Capricorn and 3790 km/2355 mi W of Chile; triangular, with an extinct volcano at each corner; rises to 652 m/2139 ft at Terevaka; undulating grass and tree-covered hills with numerous caves and rocky outcrops; a third covered by Rapa-N…

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Easter Rising - Background: Parliamentary Politics v Physical Force, Planning the Rising, The Rising, Reactions to the Rising

(24–29 Apr 1916) A rebellion in Dublin of Irish nationalists, whose aims were to establish an Irish Republic. It was organized by two revolutionary groups: the Irish Republican Brotherhood led by Patrick Pearse, and the socialist ‘citizen armies’ organized by James Connolly. It was preceded by centuries of discontent under British rule, marked by a number of unsuccessful, sporadic revolts. Imme…

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Eastern Cape - Geography, Economy, Formation, Municipalities

One of the nine new provinces established by the South African constitution of 1994, in SE South Africa, incorporating the former Transkei and Ciskei homelands, and formerly part of Cape Provinces; capital, Bisho; pop (2000e) 6 170 000; area 170 616 km²/65 858 sq mi; chief languages, Xhosa (85%), Afrikaans, English; second poorest province; automotive industry at Port Elizabeth; agricultu…

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Eastman Johnson - Biographic information, Style, Subject matter

Painter, born in Lovell, Maine, USA. He studied in Germany and France (1849–55) and returned to America to continue his career as a genre and portrait painter. His series of canvases focusing on harvesting cranberries, such as ‘The Cranberry Pickers’ (c.1875), remains his most famous work. Eastman (Jonathan) Johnson (July 29, 1824 - April 5, 1906) was an American painter. He was best kno…

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Easton (Massachusetts) - Locations, Surname, Other

42º02N 71º08W, pop (2000e) 22 300. Town in Bristol Co, SE Massachusetts, USA; located 38 km/24 mi S of Boston and 32 km/20 mi NE of Providence, RI; land first settled, 1694; incorporated as Easton, 1725; birthplace of Oakes Ames; Ames family donated many late 19th-c town buildings including Oakes Ames Memorial Hall, The Ames Free Library, and Old Colony Railroad Station; c.15% of the area …

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Eaton Hodgkinson - Early life, Scientific work, Later years, Bibliography

Engineer, born in Anderton, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. He had little formal higher education, but became one of the foremost authorities on the strength of materials, by carrying out tests in the engineering works of Sir William Fairbairn. He proposed the Hodgkinson's beam as the most efficient form of cast-iron beam (1830), and published a paper On the Strength of Pillars of Cast Iron and Other M…

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Ebbe Sand - Honours

Footballer, born in Hadsund, Jutland, Denmark. In 1992 he left his home team of Hadsund to join top club Brondby of Copenhagen, but only signed a professional contract in 1997 after completing his engineering degree. His 1997–8 season was very successful: Brondby completed the league and cup double, he finished top goal scorer (28), and was named Danish Footballer of the Year. He joined the 1998 …

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Ebbw Vale - Brief history, Education, Sport

51º47N 3º12W, pop (2002e) 18 400. Industrial town in Blaenau Gwent, SE Wales, UK; located on the R Ebbw, 56 km/35 mi NW of Bristol; former major centre of coal mining and iron and steel production; railway; printing, engineering. Ebbw Vale (Welsh: Glyn Ebwy) is a town at the head of the valley formed by the Ebbw Fawr river in south Wales. Originally a rather insignificant …

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Eben Norton Horsford

Chemist, born in Livonia (formerly Moscow), New York, USA. He was professor at Harvard (1847–63) and developed one of the first laboratories in America for analytic chemistry. He invented baking powder and founded the Rumford Chemical Co (1856) to produce it. He also made rations composed of grain and meat for the military during the Civil War. Eben Norton Horsford was an American scientis…

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Ebenezer Butterick

Inventor and fashion business executive, born in Sterling, Massachusetts, USA. Working as a tailor, with his wife, Ellen Augusta Pollard Butterick (d.1871), he invented paper clothing patterns for home sewers. They began selling patterns (1863) and he formed E Butterick & Company, New York (1867–81), established European branches, and founded fashion magazines. He was later secretary of the reorg…

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Ebenezer Cobham Brewer

Clergyman and writer, born in London, UK. He studied law at Trinity Hall, Cambridge (1835), one year after receiving orders. He then became a London schoolmaster. His most enduring work is his Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1870). Dr. Ebenezer Cobham Brewer (1810-1897), was the compiler of Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, a Victorian reference work. E Cobham Brewer was …

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Ebionites - History, Ebionite writings

Literally, ‘poor men’; a Judaeo-Christian sect of the early Christian era, opposed by Irenaeus in the late 2nd-c AD. They were apparently ascetic, and continued to observe rigorously the Jewish Law. They also believed that Jesus was the Messiah, a virtuous man anointed by the Spirit, but not truly ‘divine’. Ebionites were in theological conflict with other streams of early Christianity.…

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Ebla - Discovery and excavation, Ebla in the third millennium BC, Ebla in the second millennium BC

An important Syrian city-state of the third millennium BC, lying S of Carchemish. It traded with Anatolia, Assyria, and Sumeria, and exacted tribute from such places as Mari. Ebla (Arabic: عبيل، إيبلا) was an ancient city located in northern Syria, about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. It was an important city-state in two periods, first in the late third millennium BC, then agai…

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Ebola - Structure, Species, Replication, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Ebola as a Weapon, Cultural impact

A virus, first isolated in 1976 in Africa, belonging to the Filoviridae family, which causes severe and often fatal haemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. It is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent because of its extreme pathogenicity and the lack of a protective vaccine or anti-viral drug. Little is known of its natural history and its host is still unidentified. In June 2005 it…

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ebony

An evergreen or deciduous tree, native to tropical and subtropical regions, but mainly concentrated in lowland rainforest; leaves alternate, entire, often forming flattened sprays; flowers unisexual, solitary or in small clusters in leaf axils, urn-shaped with 3–5 spreading lobes, white, yellow, or reddish; fruit a berry seated on a persistent calyx. In most species the white outer wood is soft, …

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ecclesiology - Issues addressed by ecclesiology

The theological study of the nature of the Christian Church. The term can also signify the science of church construction and decoration. In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the "church" is —ie. its role in salvation, its origin, its…

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echidna

An Australasian mammal; coat with spines; minute tail; long claws used for digging; long narrow snout and sticky tongue; eats ants and termites, or larger insects and earthworms; young develop in pouch. (Family: Tachyglossidae, 2 species.) …

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Echidna

In Greek mythology, a fabulous creature, half-woman and half-snake, who was the mother of various monsters. …

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echinoderm - Physiology, Classification

A spiny-skinned marine invertebrate characterized by its typically 5-radial (pentamerous) symmetry; body enclosed by a variety of calcareous plates, ossicles, and spines; water vascular system operates numerous tubular feet used in feeding, locomotion, and respiration; includes starfishes, brittle stars, sea lilies, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers, as well as a diverse range of fossils. (Phylum: Ec…

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Echo

In Greek mythology, a nymph of whom several stories are told. Either she was beloved by Pan, and was torn to pieces, only her voice surviving; or she was punished by Hera so that she could only repeat the last words of another speaker. She loved Narcissus, who rejected her, so that she wasted away to a voice. Echo may refer to: …

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echolalia - Types of Echolalia

The automatic repetition of the last words or phrases uttered by someone else. The effect is most commonly seen in dementia, but is also found in childhood psychiatric disorders and in schizophrenia. Echolalia is the repetition or echoing of verbal utterances made by another person. The word "Echolalia" is derived from the Greek "Echo", meaning "to repeat", and "lalia", meaning …

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echolocation

The perception of objects by means of reflected sound waves, typically high-frequency sounds. The process is used by some animals, such as bats and whales, for orientation and prey location. See: See also: …

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eclampsia

Convulsions arising during pregnancy in association with pre-eclampsia. It is a rare disorder, but is dangerous to both the mother and fetus. …

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eclipse - Eclipses in the Earth-Moon system, Eclipses elsewhere in the solar system

The total or partial disappearance from view of an astronomical object when it passes directly behind, or into the shadow of, another object. In the case of our Sun, a solar eclipse can occur only at new Moon, when the Moon is directly between the Earth and the Sun. Although the Moon is much nearer the Earth than the Sun, a coincidence of nature makes both appear nearly the same size in our sky. A…

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ecliptic - Ecliptic and equator, Ecliptic and stars, Ecliptic and Sun, Ecliptic and planets, Ecliptic and Moon

That great circle which is the projection of the Earth's orbit onto the celestial sphere, and therefore is the apparent path of the Sun across our sky. Positions of the planets as viewed from Earth are generally very close to the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the apparent path the Sun traces out along the sky — independent of Earth's rotation — in the course of the year. It should be distin…

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eclogue - Modern Eclogues

A short dramatic poem, originally with a pastoral setting and theme. Of classical derivation (notably in Theocritus and Virgil), the form was popular in the 16th–17th-c (as Spenser's Shepheardes Calendar, 1579), satirized in the 18th-c (eg Gay, Swift), and was adapted to more general purposes by some 20th-c poets (eg Auden, MacNeice). In English literature, Edmund Spenser's The Shepheardes…

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ecology - Scope, History of ecology, Fundamental principles of ecology

The study of the interaction of living organisms with their physical, biological, and chemical environment. Because of the complexity of ecosystems, ecological studies of individual ecosystems or parts of ecosystems are often made, from which links between different systems can be established. In this way, ecologists attempt to explain the workings of larger ecosystems. Important ecological concep…

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econometrics - People, Software

A branch of economics which seeks to test and measure economic relationships through mathematical and statistical methods for the purposes of assessing and choosing among alternative policies. It is widely used in economic forecasting. Econometrics now provides the standard of proof across the full range of applied microeconomics, which studies everything from household spending and investment by …

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Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - Comparison with other Regional blocs, Executive Secretaries, Chairmen

An organization formed in 1975 by 15 W African signatories to the Treaty of Lagos: Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, and Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso); Cape Verde joined in 1977; Mauritania left in 2002. Its principal objectives are the ending of restrictions on trade, the establishment of a commo…

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economic history

The study of the economies and forms of wealth-creation in past societies. Such work tended to appear as subordinate parts of predominantly political accounts, especially in Britain, until the early 20th-c, but departments of economic history began to appear in universities in the inter-war period. Most of the subject was empirically based, but after c.1950 more attention was paid to prevalent eco…

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economics - Areas of study in economics, Economic language and reasoning, Schools of economic thought

The study of the allocation of scarce resources among competing ends, the creation and distribution of wealth, and national income. The first major economist was Adam Smith, and the economic theory of the classical school (equilibrium) dominated thinking until the 1930s. The main change in thinking at that time was the result of work by J M Keynes, whose economic theories attempted to solve the pr…

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ecosystem - Overview, History, Hotspots

An ecological concept which helps to explain the relationships and interactions between one or more living organisms and their physical, biological, and chemical environment (eg a pond and its associated plants, fish, insects, birds, and mammals). The concept is helpful in describing interactions at any level, from the individual plant in its community to planet Earth. The study of ecosystems is c…

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ecstasy

A designer drug which is supposedly mildly hallucinogenic; also called MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), ‘E’ or ‘Adam’. It is reported to heighten the tactile senses of touch and skin sensations, and thereby act as an aphrodisiac. It has been responsible for several deaths because it causes the body to overheat. Ecstasy may mean: In the arts: …

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ectopic pregnancy - Overview, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Nontubal ectopic pregnancy, Treatment

The implantation of a fertilized ovum in a site other than within the uterus. The most common abnormal site is within the uterine tube. The main predisposing factor is pelvic inflammatory disease due to chlamydia trachomatis. There are two possible outcomes. Either the embryo dies and is reabsorbed, or alternatively the pregnancy ruptures into the abdominal cavity. This presents as a surgical emer…

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ectoplasm

A viscous substance said to exude from the body of a medium during a seance, and from which materializations sometimes supposedly form. This alleged phenomenon was primarily produced by mediums in the late Victorian era. It is the subject of much controversy, as some mediums were discovered to simulate such effects fraudulently, by such means as regurgitation of a previously swallowed substance (s…

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Ecuador - History, Politics, Geography, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, Religion, Culture, Transportation

Official name Republic of Ecuador, Span República del Ecuador Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, short form Ecuador, IPA [re'puβlika ðel ekwa'ðoɾ]) is a representative democratic republic in South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. Advanced indigenou…

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ecumenism - Christian ecumenism and interfaith pluralism, Three approaches to Christian unity, Contemporary developments

A movement seeking visible unity of divided churches and denominations within Christianity. The 4th-c and 5th-c ‘Ecumenical Councils’ had claimed to represent the Church in the whole world. A dramatic increase of interest in ecumenism and the reuniting of Churches followed the Edinburgh Missionary Conference (1910), and led to the formation in 1948 of the World Council of Churches. Assemblies ar…

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Ed McBain - Bibliography as Evan Hunter, Bibliography as Ed McBain, Bibliography (Various), Complete Chronological Bibliography

Novelist, born in New York City, USA. The son of Italian parents, he studied at Cooper Union Art School, NY (1943–4), served in the US Navy (1944ndash;6), and worked as a teacher and salesman before attending Hunter College, where he graduated in English (1950). He decided to devote himself to writing, and spent some time as an editor for a literary agency (1951–3). In 1952 he changed his name l…

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Edda - The Poetic Edda, The Prose Edda

The name of two separate collections of Old Norse literature. The Elder Edda, long handed down by oral tradition, dating from the 9th-c to the 12th-c, consists of heroic and mythological poems. It comprises mythological poems featuring Germanic gods and goddesses and heroic lays based on early Germanic history. The Younger or Prose Edda was written (mainly in prose) in the early 13th-c by the Icel…

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Eddie Arcaro

Jockey, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He was winner of the Kentucky Derby on five occasions, and was six times the leading money-winner in the USA. In 1941 and 1948 he won the horse-racing triple crown (the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes). Eddie Arcaro (February 19, 1916–November 4, 1997) was an American thoroughbred horse-racing jockey. He was born Geor…

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Eddie Cantor - Biography, Filmography, Work on Broadway, Listen to, Quote

Entertainer, born in New York City, New York, USA. A rolling-eyed actor with a high-pitched singing voice, who often performed in black-face, he appeared in Kid Cabaret (1912) with George Jessel. He worked for Florenz Ziegfeld (1916–28), where he sang his best-known songs, including ‘Making Whoopee’. A radio host and film actor in the 1930s, he helped found actors' unions and to promote the Nat…

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Eddie Cicotte

Baseball player, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He was one of eight Chicago White Sox players who allegedly conspired to ‘fix’ the 1919 World Series. An outstanding right-handed pitcher, he lost two games in that series. In 1921 he was barred from baseball for life for his part in the ‘Black Sox’ scandal. Edward Victor Cicotte (June 19, 1884 - May 5, 1969) (pronounced See-Cot) was an A…

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Eddie Condon

Jazz musician, born in Goodland, Indiana, USA. He was a wit and a raconteur, a nightclub proprietor, a guitarist, and a member of Chicago's fabled ‘Austin High Gang’ of the 1920s. Albert Edwin Condon, better known as Eddie Condon, (16 November 1905–4 August 1973) was a jazz banjoist, guitarist, and bandleader. Condon was born in Goodland, Indiana. In 1928 Condon …

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Eddie Constantine

Film actor and singer, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. The son of a Russian immigrant opera baritone, he studied voice in Vienna and sang in the chorus at Radio City Music Hall. He then followed his wife, dancer Helene Mussel, to Paris where he established himself as a nightclub singer and actor, becoming widely known as protégé and friend of Edith Piaf. His film credits include a series o…

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Eddie Foy

Actor and dancer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He started dancing in saloons as a child to support his family, then added a blackface routine as a teenager for circuses and minstrel shows. On the Western circuit for years, he achieved success in costume fantasies before returning home to Broadway (1901). In 1903 he was appearing at Chicago's Iroquois Theatre when fire broke out, and altho…

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Eddie Izzard - Biography, Comedic style, Cross-dressing, Campaigning, Critical reception, Discography and appearances

British comedian, actor, and writer, born in Aden, SW Yemen. His family moved to Northern Ireland, then South Wales, and he studied at the University of Sheffield, where he presented his first shows. He worked in street theatre and comedy clubs before devising a theatre act as a stand-up comic, and becoming nationally known through live videos of his major shows at the Ambassadors (1993) and the A…

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Eddie Murphy - Early life, Stand-up comedy routines, Saturday Night Live, Post SNL career, Singing career

Comic performer and film director, born in New York City, USA. A popular prankster and mimic at school, he hosted a talent show at the Roosevelt Youth Center in 1976 and subsequently decided to pursue a career in show-business. He first came to national prominence on the television show Saturday Night Live (1980–4). A charismatic, self-confident humorist, his debut in the film 48 Hrs (1982) was f…

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Eddie Rickenbacker - Early life, Near-death experiences, Auto racing career, World War I

Aviator, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. A skilled racing-car driver, he enlisted in the army (1917) and became attached to General Pershing's motor vehicle staff. With help from Colonel William ‘Billy’ Mitchell, he gained a transfer to the aviation service. He shot down 26 enemy aircraft in seven months, receiving the Congressional Medal of Honor and the nickname, ‘Ace of Aces’. In 1921 he found…

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Eddy Merckx - Racing career, After retirement, Other records and achievements, Significant victories by race, Significant victories by year

Racing cyclist, born in Woluwe St Pierre, C Belgium. He won the Tour de France five times (1969–72, 1974), the Tour of Italy five times, and all the major classics, including the Milan–San Remo race, seven times. World Amateur Road Race champion in 1964, he won the professional title three times. He won more races (445) and more classics than any other rider. He retired in 1978 and established h…

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Eddy Mitchell - Filmography, Bibliography

Rock star, born in Paris, France. Cinéphile presenter on television, he adapted American songs while working at various jobs. He launched himself into rock with the group Five Rocks, which Barklay baptized Les Chaussettes Noires (after a financial agreement with La Lainière de Roubaix). It became the major group of its kind producing its first record in 1960 ‘Tu parles trop’. He recorded the h…

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edelweiss - Symbolic uses, Sources

A perennial (Leontopodium alpinum) growing to 20 cm/8 in, native to the mountains of SE Europe; leaves narrowly lance- or spoon-shaped, with a dense covering of white woolly hairs pressed flat against the surface; flower-heads yellowish-white, arranged in a flat-topped cluster surrounded by pointed, spreading, star-like, woolly bracts. It is a well-known alpine plant with romantic associations, …

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Eden Phillpotts

British novelist, playwright, and poet, born in Mount Aboo, India. Educated in Devon, SW England, UK, he remained associated with the county for most of his life. He was the author of well over 200 books, the best of them being novels about Dartmoor, such as Children of the Mist (1898), The Secret Woman (1905), and Widecombe Fair (1913). With his daughter, Adelaide, he collaborated in two successf…

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Eden Project - Views of the Eden Project, Layout, The steel and plastic biomes, Environmental issues, Recent events, Literature

A sustainable garden development created as a tourist attraction near St Austell, Cornwall, SW England, UK. Opened in 2001, the project's aim is to ‘promote the understanding and responsible management of the vital relationship between plants, people and resources, leading towards a sustainable future for all’. Sited in the crater of a disused clay pit are two bubble shaped geodesic domes known …

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Edgar (Jean) Faure - Works, Faure's First Ministry, 20 January - 8 March 1952

French writer, statesman, and prime minister (1952, 1955–6) born in Béziers, S France. He trained as a lawyer in Paris, entering politics as a Radical-Socialist. He was minister of finance and economic affairs several times in the 1950s, becoming premier for two short periods. He was later minister of agriculture (1966), education (1968), and social affairs (1969), president of the National Asse…

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Edgar (Parks) Snow - Works

Journalist and writer, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. After graduating from the Columbia School of Journalism, he went to China as a reporter (1928–40) and for the rest of his life wrote on Chinese affairs. In the first foreign news reports from Yenan in the mid-1930s, collected as Red Star over China (1937), he presented the Communist revolutionaries as a popular and potentially victorious …

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Edgar Allan Poe

Poet and writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He was abandoned by his father when a baby and his mother died before he was three, so he was taken as a foster child into the home of John Allan, a Richmond, VA tobacco merchant whose business took him to Britain, where Poe was educated (1815–20). Returning to Virginia, he continued his education (1823–5) and attended the University of Virgin…

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Edgar Cayce - Claimed psychic abilities, The Readings, Major themes, Biography, Other Cayce-like figures, Criticism

Psychic medium, born near Hopkinsville, Kentucky, USA. He had little education and took up photography. At age 19 he had a nervous collapse and began to experience visions and ‘receive’ messages describing ways to heal people. Over a period of 40 years, he performed ‘life readings’ for people and diagnosed over 30 000. Essential to his therapy was his belief that everyone has had previous exi…

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Edgar Lee Masters - Poetry, Notable Works

Poet and novelist, born in Garnett, Kansas, USA. He studied at Knox College, Galesburg IL, was admitted to the bar in 1891, and became a successful lawyer in Chicago. His most memorable work is the Spoon River Anthology (1915), a book of epitaphs in free verse in the form of monologues about a small town community. Good friends, let’s to the fields… After a little walk and by you…

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Edgar Quinet - Biography, Personality, Early editions

Poet, historian, and politician, born in Bourg-en-Bresse, E France. He studied at Strasbourg, Geneva, Paris, and Heidelberg. His first major work was a translation of Herder's Philosophy of History (1825), and his reputation was established with the epic poem Ahasvérus (1833). Appointed professor of foreign literature at Lyon (1839), his lectures caused so much excitement that the government supp…

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Edgar Rice Burroughs - Selected bibliography, In Popular Culture

Writer, born in Chicago, Illinois. Son of a wealthy businessman, he trained at the Michigan Military Academy, then served briefly in the US cavalry until he was dropped for being underage. For the next 15 years (1896–1911) he worked at a variety of jobs including cowboy and miner, finally deciding to try his hand at writing. He published his first story, ‘Under the Moons of Mars’ (using the pen…

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Edinburgh - Parts of the city, Viewpoints, Climate, Culture, Sports, Demographics, Economy, Government and politics, Transport, Education, Health

55°57N 3°13W, pop (2000e) 445 400. Capital of Scotland; in EC Scotland, UK, between Pentland Hills and S shore of Firth of Forth; port facilities at Leith; castle built by Malcolm Canmore (11th-c); charter granted by Robert Bruce, 1392; capital of Scotland, 1482; in the 1760s, New Town area designed by James Craig (1744–95), but the business centre remained in the Old Town; Nor' Loch separati…

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Edinburgh Festival

An international festival of the arts, particularly music and drama, that takes place in August/September every year in Edinburgh, UK. It was established in 1947. As well as the Festival proper, the ‘Fringe’ offers a lively and ever-growing selection of ‘alternative’ events. Other festivals that take place in Edinburgh during the rest of the year include: …

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Edirne - History, Ecclesiastical history, Culture, sites and partnership with Europe, Education, Miscellanea, Sources and external links

41º40N 26º34E, pop (2001e) 125 600. Capital of Edirne province, NW Turkey; near the Bulgarian border WNW of Istanbul at the junction of the Maritsa and Tundzha rivers; ancient Thracian town rebuilt and renamed after the Roman emperor Hadrian (2nd-c); site of Battle of Adrianople (378); Selimiye Mosque (16th-c); railway; textiles, soap, leather, carpets, cheese; grease-wrestling contest (Jun). …

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Edith (Kermit ) Roosevelt - Reference

US first lady (1901–9), born in Norwich, Connecticut, USA. She became the second wife of Theodore Roosevelt in 1886 (the first had died in 1884). She promoted a sense of harmony in the White House, using caterers for entertaining and a personal secretary to handle her correspondence. Following Roosevelt's death in 1919, she became active in charity work and remained a firm Republican, openly oppo…

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Edith (Newbold) Wharton - Early life, Critical acclaim and World War I, Later life, Characteristics of her writing, Works

Writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Raised in a wealthy ‘old’ family, she was privately educated and travelled often in Europe, where she met her lifelong friend and mentor, Henry James. She married a Boston banker, Edward Robbins Wharton (1885), and they divided their time between homes in New York City, Newport, RI, Lenox, MA, and Europe. Her husband was 10 years older than she, and …

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Edith Cavell - Memorials, Books on Edith Cavell

Nurse, born in Swardeston, Norfolk, E England, UK. She became a nurse in 1895, and matron of the Berkendael Medical Institute, Brussels, in 1907. She tended friend and foe alike in 1914–15, yet was executed by the Germans for helping Belgian and Allied fugitives to escape capture. Edith Cavell was born in 1865 at Swardeston in Norfolk, where her father, the Reverend Frederick Cavell, was V…

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Edith Clarke

Electrical engineer, born in Howard Co, Maryland, USA. Using her inheritance to attend Vassar, she went on to study engineering at the University of Wisconsin, worked for American Telephone and Telegraph (1912–18), and became the first woman to receive an MS in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1919). She then worked at General Electric (1922–45), focusing on…

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Edith Cresson - Biology, Family name, Fiction, Business and commerce

French stateswoman and prime minister (1991–2), born in Boulogne-Billancourt, NC France. She studied at the School of Higher Commercial Studies, joined the Socialist Party (1965), was Mayor of Thure (1977), and was appointed the first female agriculture minister (1981). She subsequently held a number of government posts before achieving the distinction of becoming France's first woman prime minis…

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Edith Hamilton - Works by Edith Hamilton

Classicist and writer, born in Dresden, Germany, the sister of Alice Hamilton. Born to Americans visiting abroad, she learned Latin and Greek while a child. She was educated at Bryn Mawr (BA; MA 1894), then served as the headmistress (1896–1922) of the Bryn Mawr School (Baltimore, MD), the first US school designed to prepare young women for college. Under considerable strain, she retired to what …

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Edith Head - Actresses designed for, Oscar nominations, Trivia

Costume designer, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. Educated at the University of California, Los Angeles and Stanford University, she taught languages and art before joining Paramount studios during the 1930s. She was head designer there until 1967, when she moved to Universal. As Hollywood's best-known designer, she worked on many films, including She Done Him Wrong (1933), All About Eve (19…

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Edith Stein - The Writings of Edith Stein

Carmelite nun, philosopher, and spiritual writer, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). Born into an Orthodox Jewish family, she later renounced her faith (1904). She studied at Göttingen, then joined the philosophy faculty at Freiburg (1916). She converted to Roman Catholicism (1922), and entered the Carmelite Convent at Cologne (1934), where she took her new name. Under threat…

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editing (film) - Print media, Technical editing, Visual media

The physical cutting and joining of the first prints of a motion-picture film negative (‘rush prints’), each scene and take having been identified and synchronized with the corresponding magnetic sound by the clapper board at the head end. Material is studied on an editing table, with separate paths for picture and sound, the picture being shown on a small screen. Selected frames are marked with…

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editing (publishing) - Print media, Technical editing, Visual media

The preparation of a book for publication. A commissioning editor (or sponsoring editor) commissions books and assesses submitted typescripts. A copy-editor, subeditor, or desk editor checks the text for accuracy, consistency and conformation to house style, marks it with instructions for the typesetter, and may recommend changes in content and structure to the author. The work of the editor may a…

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Edme Mariotte

Physicist and priest, born in Dijon, E France. One of the earliest members of the Academy of Sciences, he wrote on percussion, air and its pressure, the movements of fluid bodies and of pendulums, and colours. He coined the word barometer in his Discours de la nature de l'air (1676) in which he independently stated Boyle's law of 1662 (long known in France as Mariotte's law). Mariotte is be…

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Edmond Halley - Biography and career, Hollow Earth, Named after Halley

Astronomer and mathematician, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, but left without taking a degree to undertake cataloguing the stars of the S hemisphere. He published his catalogue in 1687 and was elected a member of the Royal Society, as well as receiving his degree after intercession by the king. He then began a study of planetary orbits, and correctly predicted the return in 1758 of the …

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Edmond Hoyle

Writer on card games, called ‘the father of whist’, who lived in London, UK. His popular Short Treatise on Whist (1742) ran into many editions, and was ultimately incorporated with his manuals on backgammon, brag, quadrille, piquet, and chess into an omnibus volume (1748). Edmond Hoyle (1672 - August 29, 1769), also known as Edmund Hoyle, is a writer best known for his works providing det…

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Edmond Rostand - Short Biography, Selected works

Poet and playwright, born in Marseille, S France. After some early poetry, he achieved international and enduring fame with his play, Cyrano de Bergerac (1897, filmed 1950, 1990), the story of the gifted nobleman who felt no-one could love him because of his enormous nose. This was followed by several other verse-plays, such as L'Aiglon (1900, The Eaglet) and Chantecler (1910). Edmond Eugè…

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Edmondo de Amicis - Early career, Later years

Writer, born in Oneglia, Liguria, NW Italy. He took part in the Battle of Custoza in 1855 and the taking of Rome in 1870. His first work was a collection of short stories on army life, La vita militare (1868), and after leaving the army began travelling and recounting his trips with much success, in Ricordi di Londra (1874) and Costantinopoli (1878). International acclaim came with the deeply mora…

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Edmonton - History, Geography and location, Climate, Economy, Demographics, Infrastructure, Education, City life, Sports and recreation, Media

53°34N 113°25W, pop (2000e) 691 000. Capital of Alberta province, Canada, on banks of N Saskatchewan R; most northerly large city in North America; Fort Edmonton built by Hudson's Bay Company, 40 km/25 mi below present site, 1795; destroyed by Indians, 1807, and rebuilt on new site, 1819; reached by railway, 1891; chosen as capital, 1905; rapid growth after discovery of oil nearby, 1947; Uni…

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Edmund (Charles) Blunden

Poet and critic, born in Yalding, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, was professor of English literature at Tokyo (1924–7), and fellow of Merton College, Oxford (from 1931). He joined the staff of The Times Literary Supplement (1943), and from 1953 lectured at the University of Hong Kong. He later became professor of poetry at Oxford (1966–8). A lover of the English countryside, he is e…

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Edmund (Charles) Tarbell

Painter, born in West Croton, Massachusetts, USA. He was based in Boston, studied at the Boston Museum School (1879), where he later taught (1889–1913), and in France (1883–8). He was a member of the Ten (1898–1919), largely an Impressionist group, and his paintings, such as ‘In the Orchard’ (1891), have recently been re-evaluated and praised. Edmund Charles Tarbell (April 26, 1862 –…

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Edmund (Gustav Albrecht) Husserl - Life and works, Philosophers influenced by Husserl, Bibliography

Philosopher, founder of the school of phenomenology, born in Prossnitz, EC Czech Republic. He studied mathematics at Berlin and psychology at Vienna, and taught at Halle (1887), Göttingen (1901), and Freiburg (1916). His two-volume Logische Untersuchungen (1900–1, Logical Investigations) defended the view of philosophy as an a priori discipline, unlike psychology, and in his Ideen zu einer reine…

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Edmund (Jennings) Randolph

Lawyer and cabinet officer, born in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, the grandson of Sir John Randolph and descendant of Pocahontas. A lawyer and briefly an aide to General George Washington (1775), he served in the Continental Congress (1779–82). As a delegate to the Constitutional Convention (1787), he proposed the Virginia Plan (or Randolph Plan), basing representation solely on population. He ref…

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Edmund B(eecher) Wilson

Geneticist, born in Geneva, Illinois, USA. After studying in Europe (1882–3), he taught at Williams College (1883–4), then moved to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1884–5). He became the first professor of biology at Bryn Mawr (1885–91), where he published his research on earthworm embryology and studies of movement in the invertebrate Hydra. In the 1890s he began the first of nearl…

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Edmund Blampied - Early years, Art school, Etching, Independent artist, Military service, Gold medal at 1925 Paris exposition

Artist, born in Jersey, Channel Is. He is best known for his etchings which depict everyday farming life, in particular horses and peasants. During the German occupation he designed the Jersey occupation stamps, and later the Channel Islands ‘victory’ issue. Edmund Blampied (born Jersey 30 March 1886, died Jersey 26 August 1966) was one of the most eminent artists to come from the Channel…

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Edmund Bonner - Early life, An agent of royal supremacy, Realignment with Catholicism, Under Elizabeth, Bonner in historical memory

English clergyman and bishop. The reputation he gained at Oxford recommended him to Wolsey, who made him his chaplain. His zeal in King Henry VIII's service after Wolsey's fall earned him due promotion, and in 1540 he was made Bishop of London, but was imprisoned (1549–53) for refusing to recognize royal supremacy during the minority of Edward VI. He was restored to office under Mary I. Following…

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Edmund Burke - Life, Influence and reputation, Speeches, Summary

British statesman and political philosopher, born in Dublin, Ireland. Educated at a Quaker boarding-school and at Trinity College, Dublin, he began studying law (1750), but then took up literary work. His early writing includes his Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1756). He became secretary for Ireland, and entered parliament in 1765. His main speech…

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Edmund Cartwright

Inventor of the power loom, born in Marnham, Nottinghamshire, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became a clergyman (1779), and after visiting Arkwright's cotton-spinning mills devised his power loom (1785–90), and also a wool-combing machine (1790). Attempts to use the loom at Doncaster and Manchester met with fierce opposition, and it was not until the 19th-c that it came into practical use. …

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Edmund Clarence Stedman - Literature

Poet and writer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. His father died when he was two, and he was raised by his maternal grandfather (1835–9) and by his uncle in Norwich, CT. He studied at Yale (1849–c.51), then worked for various newspapers in Connecticut and New York City. He ran his own brokerage house in New York City (1864–1908), and lived in Bronxville, NY. He wrote rather imitative sentim…

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Edmund G(erald) Brown - Further reading

US state governor, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He studied law, then opened a practice in San Francisco (1927–43), serving as district attorney there (1943–50) and as California's Democratic attorney general (1950–8). Becoming governor (1959–67), he expanded the state university system and initiated a statewide water project. His most public moment came in 1960, when he decided that…

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Edmund Gibson

Church jurist, born in Bampton, Cumbria, NW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became Bishop of Lincoln (1716), then of London (1720). He edited the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and translated Camden's Britannia, but he is best known for his great Codex iuris ecclesiastici Anglicani (1713, Codex of English Church Law). His aim was to reconcile the clergy and universities to the Hanoverian dynasty. …

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Edmund Gunter

Mathematician and astronomer, born in Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became professor of astronomy in Gresham College, London, and invented many measuring instruments that bear his name; Gunter's chain, the 22-yard-long, 100-link chain used by surveyors; Gunter's line, the forerunner of the modern slide-rule; Gunter's scale, a two-foot rule with scales of chords, tangents and…

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Edmund Gurney - Reference

Psychical researcher, born in Hersham, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became one of the founding members of the Society for Psychical Research. He conducted important experimental studies of hypnosis and telepathy, and a statistical survey of hallucinations. His investigation of apparitions, telepathy, and other such phenomena culminated in his classic Phantasms of the Living…

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Edmund II - Heirs

King of the English for a few months in 1016, the son of Ethelred the Unready. He was chosen king by Londoners on his father's death (Apr 1016), while Canute was elected at Southampton by the Witan. Edmund hastily levied an army, defeated Canute, and attempted to raise the siege of London, but was routed at Ashingdon, or possibly Ashdon, Essex (Oct 1016). He agreed to a partition of the country, b…

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Edmund Kean - Trivia

Actor, born in London, UK. He became a strolling player, and after 10 years in the provinces made his first appearance at Drury Lane as Shylock (1814). A period of great success followed as a tragic actor, but because of his irregularities he gradually forfeited public approval, his reputation being finally ruined when he was successfully sued for adultery in 1825. He reintroduced a naturalistic s…

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Edmund Kirby Smith - Early life and the U.S. Army, Civil War, Post-bellum career

US soldier, born in St Augustine, Florida, USA. Resigning from the US Army (1861) after 16 years, including service in the Mexican War and on the frontier, he joined the Confederate army. He led the advance into Kentucky (1862) and fought at the Battle of Perryville, and was then reassigned to head the Trans-Mississippi Department. On 2 June 1865, he became the last senior Confederate commander to…

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Edmund Ludlow - Early life, English Civil War, Campaign in Ireland, Commonwealth and Protectorate, Restoration career in exile

English politician, born in Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire, S England, UK. During the Civil War he served under Sir William Waller and Thomas Fairfax, and was returned for Wiltshire in 1646. Elected to the council of state, he was sent to Ireland as lieutenant-general of horse in 1651, but refused to recognize Cromwell's protectorate. He was member for Hindon in 1659, urged the restoration of the Rump …

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Edmund Pendleton

Jurist and Revolutionary patriot, born in Caroline Co, Virginia, USA. His father died the year he was born. He worked as a law clerk and was admitted to the bar in 1745. Although he did not come from wealth, he led the conservatives' party in Virginia and opposed Patrick Henry on almost every question except the goal of American freedom. He sat in the Continental Congress (1774, 1775) and was pres…

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Edmund Rubbra - Works

Composer, born in Northampton, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. He studied at Reading and London, and developed an interest in the polyphonic music of the 16th–17th-c. He wrote 11 symphonies, chamber, choral and orchestral music, songs, and solo instrumental works. He taught at Oxford (1947–68), and became professor of composition at the Guildhall School of Music (1961–74). Rubbra's musi…

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Edmund Ruffin

Agriculturist and writer, born in Prince George Co, Virginia, USA. Suspended from William and Mary College for bad grades, and bored by the War of 1812, he returned to Coggin's Point, the family estate. There he discovered that depleted soils were acidic and that the high-calcium ‘marl’ could replenish them. In 1832 he published An Essay on Calcareous Manures which grew over five editions to 500…

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Edmund Spenser - Life, Poetry, List of works

Poet, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and obtained a place in Leicester's household, which led to a friendship with Sir Philip Sidney and a circle of wits (the Areopagus). His first original work was a sequence of pastoral poems, The Shepheards Calendar (1579), which heralded the English literary Golden Age. In 1580 he became secretary to the lord deputy in Ireland, and for his servic…

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Edmund W(are) Sinnott

Botanist and educator, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He taught at Harvard (1908–15), during which period he made botanical expeditions to Australasia. He then moved to the Connecticut Agricultural College (1915–28), before going on to Barnard College (1928–39), Columbia University (1939–40), and Yale (1940–56). During the 1920s and 1930s he performed extensive research on the genetic…

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Edmund Waller - Trivia

Poet and politician, born in Coleshill, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, became an MP in 1621, and was a member of the Long Parliament in 1640. In 1643 he plunged into a conspiracy (Waller's plot) against parliament, was arrested, and banished, but returned to England in 1651. His collected poems were published in 1645, among them his well-known pieces, ‘On a Girdle’ and…

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Edmund Wilson - Early life, Context and relationships, Cold War times, Works (selected)

Writer and editor, born in Red Bank, New Jersey, USA. He studied at Princeton (1916 BA), and served with the US Army in World War 1. In New York City he became an editor for such periodicals as Vanity Fair (1920–1) and the New Republic (1926–31), and was the regular book reviewer for the New Yorker (1944–8) and thereafter contributed occasional reviews. He wrote a novel, plays, poems, and short…

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Edna Ferber

Writer, born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. A midwestern reporter, she moved to New York City in 1912. She is remembered for her popular fiction featuring strong heroines, as in So Big (1924, Pulitzer) and Giant (1952). Show Boat (1926) was transformed into a classic musical, and other works include several witty stage comedies written in collaboration with George S Kaufman, including Dinner at Eigh…

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Edoardo Scarfoglio

Writer and journalist, born in Paganica, Abruzzo-Molise, Italy. He was a contributor to La domenica letteraria and Capitan Fracassa and founded the Il Mattino newspaper in 1891, the year he married novelist Matilde Serao. A nationalist, he supported Italy's colonial ventures. His early work, the poems I papaveri (1880), was influenced by Carducci, but his later short stories (Il processo di Frine,…

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Edouard (-Emile-Louis) Dujardin

Writer and essayist, born in Saint-Gervais-la-Forêt, WC France. He co-founded the Revue Wagnérienne, with H S Chamberlain, and became editor of the Revue Indépendante (1886–9). He is best known for his novel Les Lauriers sont coupés (1888) which pioneered the monologue intérieur and influenced James Joyce to develop the stream-of-consciousness technique used in Ulysses. Other works include S…

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EDTA - Uses, Environmental behavior

C10H16N2O8, diaminoethanetetra-acetic acid (the abbreviation is from an older form of the name). One of the most versatile of the complexing agents; up to six of its O and N atoms can co-ordinate to a metal ion at one time. It is used to remove small traces of metal ions from solutions. Annual consumption of EDTA is about 35,000 tons in 1999 in Europe and 50,000 tons in the US. …

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Eduard Bernstein - Life, Views

Socialist leader, born in Berlin, Germany. He lived in England from 1888 to 1901. An associate of Engels, he was an advocate of revisionism, an evolutionary parliamentary form of Marxism, and was periodically a member of the Reichstag from 1902 to 1928. Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and f…

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Eduard B - Cell Free Fermentation Experiment

Chemist, born in Munich, SE Germany, the brother of Hans Büchner. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1907 for demonstrating that alcoholic fermentation is due not to physiological but to chemical processes in the yeast. Eduard Buchner (May 20, 1860 – August 13, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermenta…

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Eduard Suess

Geologist, born in London, UK. He became professor of geology at Vienna (1857–1901). Of his works, Das Antlitz der Erde (1885–1909, The Face of the Earth) was the most important. His theory that there had once been a great supercontinent made up of the present southern continents led to modern theories of continental drift. Eduard Suess (August 20, 1831 – April 26, 1914) was a geologist…

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Eduardo Chillida

Spanish sculptor, born in San Sebastián, N Spain. He continued in the tradition of cast-iron sculpture begun earlier by his compatriots Gargallo and González, but abandoned the figurative element which persisted in their work. His sculptures, formed of entwined bars and plates of cast iron, in general owe their impact to the attractive emotional obscurity of the entwined forms, and not to figura…

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Eduardo de Filippo - Selected works

Actor and playwright, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. With brother Peppino and sister Titina, he made an early debut in the Scarpetta theatre company, then later jointly founded with them Compagnia del Teatro umoristico. His plays included Natale in casa Cupiello (1931, 1943), Napoli milionaria (1945), Questi fantasmi (1946), Filumena Marturano (1946), and Sabato, domenica e lunedì (1959), wh…

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Eduardo Frei (Montalva) - Early life, Administration

Chilean statesman and president (1964–70), born in Santiago, Chile. He studied in Chile, and became one of the leaders of the Social-Christian Falange Party in the late 1930s, and of the new Christian Democratic Party after 1957. His presidency saw an ambitious programme of social reform. Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a chilean political figure and president of Chile from…

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education - Philosophy of education, Psychology of education, Academic disciplines, Teaching, Schooling, Alternative education, Technology, Challenges, Parental involvement

What takes place when human beings learn something, often from others but sometimes for themselves. It may happen during the day in specially constructed buildings with qualified teachers following structured, approved courses based on books, equipment, or activities, or more informally away from institutions in homes, streets, or meeting places. It is not confined to traditional school subjects s…

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educational psychology - Social, moral and cognitive development, Individual differences and disabilities, Learning and cognition, Research methodology

A branch of psychology developed in the early 20th-c to apply the findings of psychology to the understanding of learning. It was greatly influenced by the psychometric movement, which resulted in the traditional role of the educational psychologist often being limited to one of testing children and placing ‘backward’ ones into special education. With the decline in popularity of IQ tests and of…

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Edvard (Hagerup) Grieg - Biography, Music, Grieg's music in popular culture, Important Repertoire, Literature

Composer, born in Bergen, SW Norway. He studied at Leipzig, where he was much influenced by Schumann's music, then worked in Copenhagen (1863–7), and developed into a strongly national Norwegian composer. After some years teaching and conducting in Christiania, the success of his incidental music for Ibsen's Peer Gynt (1876), and a state pension, enabled him to settle near Bergen. His other major…

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Edvard Munch - Biography, Frieze of Life — A Poem about Life, Love and Death, Trivia

Painter, born in Löten, E Norway. He studied in Oslo, travelled in Europe, and finally settled in Norway in 1908. In Paris he came under the influence of Gauguin. He was obsessed by subjects such as death and love, which he illustrated in an Expressionist Symbolic style, using bright colours and a tortuously curved design, as in ‘The Scream’ (1893). His engravings influenced die Brücke in Germ…

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Edward (Alexander) MacDowell

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied in France and Germany and taught piano at the Darmstadt Conservatory, where he became a protégé of Liszt. Returning to the USA (1888), he lived and worked in Boston and then headed Columbia University's new department of music (1896–1904). While his music is essentially European-Romantic, he also flirted with American nationalistic mate…

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Edward (Brewster) Sheldon - Works

Playwright, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. His output is divided between social realism, such as The Nigger (1909), which confronts issues of racial purity, and love stories, such as Romance (1913), his biggest success. …

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Edward (Cornelis Florentius Alfons) Schillebeeckx - Selective bibliography

Theologian, born in Antwerp, N Belgium. Professor of dogmatics and the history of theology at Nijmegen, The Netherlands (1958–83), his publications have ranged widely across the whole field of theology, from sacraments (Christ the Sacrament, 1963), to the presentation of the Gospel in contemporary society (Jesus in Our Western Culture, 1987). Like Hans Küng, he has attracted Vatican investigatio…

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Edward (Francis Charles Publius) de Bono - History, Games, Published works

Psychologist and writer, born in Malta. He studied medicine at the Royal University of Malta, then went as a Rhodes Scholar to Oxford, where he read psychology, physiology, and medicine. He was a lecturer in medicine at Cambridge (1976–83), and is now involved with a number of organizations to promote the skills of thinking which break out of the trammels of the traditional (lateral thinking). Th…

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Edward (Franklin) Albee - Plays, Non Dramatic Writings, Quotes

Playwright, born near Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He studied at Trinity College, CT, and at Columbia University. His major works include The Zoo Story (1958), a one-act duologue on the lack of communication in modern society, The American Dream (1960), and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962, filmed 1966), which won several awards. A Delicate Balance (1966), Seascape (1975), and Three…

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Edward (Frederick) Sorin - Youth, Missionary to America, Foundation of Notre Dame

Religious leader, born in Ahuillé, France. Ordained in 1838, he emigrated to Indiana as a missionary (1841) and founded Notre Dame University (1844), serving as its president (1844–65). In 1868 he became superior general of his congregation, the Holy Cross Fathers. Father Sorin was born February 6, 1814, at Ahuillé, near Laval, France. At the time of Father Sorin's ordination…

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Edward (Goodrich) Acheson

Chemist, metallurgist, electrical engineer, and inventor, born in Washington, Pennsylvania, USA. With little formal schooling, he invented a rock-boring machine for coal mines and by 1880 was working in Thomas Edison's laboratory. In the late 1880s he helped install electrical plants in Europe. Back in America, he discovered silicon carbide (carborundum), an extremely useful abrasive, and among hi…

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Edward (Henry) Gordon Craig

Stage designer, actor, director, and theorist, born in Stevenage, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He worked for nine years as an actor in Irving's company, but left the Lyceum in 1897 to be both a director and a designer. He settled in Italy in 1906, where he published the theatre journal, The Mask (1908–29), which together with his scene designs and his books, On the Art of the Theatre (1911) and…

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Edward (Henry) Molyneux - Overview

Fashion designer, born in London, UK. After studying art, he worked for Lucile in London and abroad. After service as a captain in the British army in World War 1, in which he lost an eye, he opened his own couture house in Paris in 1919, with branches in London, Monte Carlo, Cannes, and Biarritz. He became famous for the elegant simplicity of his tailored suits with pleated skirts, and for his ev…

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Edward (Jean) Steichen - The Pond-Moonlight

Photographer, born in Luxembourg. His family moved to the USA in 1882, and he studied art in Milwaukee (1894–8). He was a member of The Linked Ring in England, and in 1902 helped Alfred Stieglitz to found the American Photo-Secession Group. In World War 1 he served as commander of the photographic division of the US army, and in the 1920s achieved success with his ‘New Realism’ fashion and port…

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Edward (John) Bevan

Industrial chemist, born in Birkenhead, Merseyside, NW England, UK. After a private education he studied chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, and became a consulting chemist. In 1892, with Charles Cross, he patented the viscose process of rayon manufacture. After graduating, Bevan became a chemist at the Scottish paper making firm of Alexander Cowan & Cross who was interested…

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Edward (Joseph) Kelly - List of Two Person Exhibitions, List of Group Exhibitions, Introduction by Ken Kiff

Mayor, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. As chief engineer of the city's sanitary district, he was indicted on various corruption charges. A leader of Chicago's corrupt Democratic Party machine, he was appointed to fill Anton Cermak's term and served as Democratic mayor (1933–48). He oversaw many public improvements, but his office was tainted by scandals. 1985 Air Gallery, London …

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Edward (Lamson) Henry - Early life, Early service in India, Inspector-General of Police, Assistant Commissioner (Crime), Commissioner

Painter, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. He was a popular genre painter and illustrator who specialized in simple scenes, such as ‘Carriage Ride on a Country Lane’ (1906). Sir Edward Richard Henry, 1st Baronet GCVO KCB CSI (26 July 1850 – 19 February 1931) was the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (head of the Metropolitan Police of London) from 1903 to 1918. …

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Edward (Mitchell) Bannister - Bibliography, Links

Painter, born in St Andrews, New Brunswick, E Canada. A prominent black painter in his day, he moved to Boston (c.1848), studied at the Lowell Institute under William Rimmer (1855), and settled in Providence, RI (c.1870). His recently rediscovered landscapes, such as ‘Fishing’ (1881), were painted in the naturalistic Barbizon style, a French approach (c.1830–70) popular in America. With …

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Edward (Pearson) Warner - Details

Aeronautical engineer and international civil servant, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1920–6), he influenced aeronautic pioneers. As assistant secretary of the navy for aeronautics (1926–9), he aided the growth of American aviation. He was editor of Aviation (1929–34), an adviser to the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), and served as h…

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Edward (Philip George) Seaga

Jamaican politician and prime minister (1980–9), born in the USA. He went to school in Kingston, Jamaica, then studied at Harvard, and was on the staff of the University of the West Indies before joining the Jamaica Labour Party, becoming its leader (1974– ). He entered the House of Representatives in 1962 and held a government post before becoming Leader of the Opposition. In 1980 he had a reso…

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Edward (St John) Gorey - Biography, Books, Legacy, Pseudonyms

Illustrator, writer, and designer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He graduated from Harvard (1950) and by 1953 was working in New York City as a magazine staff artist. To publish his own distinctive work with its macabre subjects, Gothic illustrations, and black humour, he established his own Fantod Press (1962). As his books garnered a wider public, he was able to divide his time between New Yor…

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Edward A(drian) Wilson - Early life, Antarctica, Honors

Physician, naturalist, and explorer, born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He first went to the Antarctic with Scott in the Discovery (1901–4). On his return to England he researched grouse diseases and made illustrations for books on birds and mammals. In 1910 he returned to the Antarctic on the Terra Nova as chief of the expedition's scientific staff. One of the party of five th…

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Edward Abbey - Biography, Controversy, Death and burial, Quotations, What others have said about Edward Abbey, Bibliography

Writer and conservationist, born in Home, Pennsylvania, USA. Raised on a Pennsylvania farm, he moved permanently to the Southwest in 1947. He published his first book, the novel Jonathan Troy, in 1954. In Desert Solitaire (1968), an account of his years as a part-time ranger in the Arches National Monument, Utah, he called for, among other things, a ban on motor vehicles in wilderness preserves. T…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Alleyn

Actor, born in London, UK, the stepson-in-law of Philip Henslowe. A contemporary of Shakespeare, he was associated with the Admiral's Men, and formed a partnership with Henslowe to run the Bear Garden and build the Fortune Theatre. He founded Dulwich College (1619), and deposited in its library documents relating to his career (including Henslowe's diary), which give a unique insight into the fina…

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Edward Armitage

Painter, born in London, UK. He studied under Delaroche, and became professor at the Royal Academy schools in 1875. He produced chiefly historical and biblical subject-paintings. Edward Armitage (b 20 May 1817 in London; In 1843 Armitage returned to London, where he entered the competition for the decoration of the new Houses of Parliament at Westminster, the old Houses of Parli…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Askew Sothern

Actor, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. The lanky comedian first appeared in England as Douglas Stewart, then as Sothern in Boston, USA (1852). His greatest fame came as Lord Dundreary in Our American Cousin (1858). Edward Askew Sothern (April 1, 1826–January 21, 1881), English actor known for his comic roles. Sothern was born in Liverpool, the son of a merchant.…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bach - Biography, Bach Centre

British medical microbiologist. He theorized that the dew condensing on a plant would, when exposed to sunlight, absorb the energy of the plant into the water molecules. From this premise he developed a system of herbal remedies prepared from 38 different species of flower. He believed that every disorder arises as a result of an imbalance of inner energy, and that nature has a cure for all illnes…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Backhouse Eastwick

Orientalist, born in Warfield, Bracknell Forest, S England, UK. After service with the East India Company he was appointed (1845) professor of Hindustani at Haileybury College, and assistant political secretary in the India Office (1859). He was secretary of the legation in Persia (1860–3), and produced many translations from Persian. He later became MP for Penryn and Falmouth (1868–74). …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bancroft - Biography, Life after Revolutionary War

Secret agent and inventor, born in Westfield, Massachusetts, USA. He moved to England, and was a double agent - working for both Benjamin Franklin and the British government simultaneously - during the American Revolution. He then remained in England and made discoveries in textile dyes manufacturing. Edward Bancroft (January 9, 1744 – September 8, 1820) was an American physician and doub…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bates

US public official and cabinet member, born in Belmont, Virginia, USA. A Missouri state legislator, US congressman (Whig, Missouri, 1827–9) and moderate voice in antebellum politics, he attracted national notice with a speech (1847), and unsuccessfully sought the Republican presidential nomination (1860). As Lincoln's attorney general (1861–4) he was the first cabinet officer from W of the Missi…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bellamy - Further reading

Writer, born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, USA. He studied law, then turned to journalism, founding the Daily News (1880) in Springfield, MA. He also tried his hand at fiction, but he had become increasingly absorbed in contemporary social issues. In 1888 he published a utopian romance, Looking Backward: 2000–1887, and its million-copy sales enabled him to devote the ensuing years to refining…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bennett Williams

Lawyer and sports executive, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. After practise with the law firm of Hogan & Hartson (1945–9) in Washington, DC, he opened his own office to focus on cases involving civil liberties and constitutional guarantees. Starting in the 1950s, he was often vilified for defending such controversial clients as Senator Joseph McCarthy, gambler Frank Costello, industrialist Be…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Blyth - Blyth's role in the development of Natural Selection, Other works

Naturalist and zoologist, born in London, UK. A druggist in London, he spent so much time on ornithology that his business failed. He was curator of the museum of the Asiatic Society in Bengal (1841–62). Several birds are named after him, including Blyth's kingfisher, Blyth's pipit, and Blyth's warbler. Edward Blyth (December 23, 1810 - December 27, 1873) was an English zoologist and chemi…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bond - Early life, First plays, Contribution to the cinema, The 1970s and early 1980s, Prophet without honour

Playwright and director, born in London, UK. His first play, The Pope's Wedding, was given a Sunday night reading at the Royal Court Theatre, London, in 1962 and aroused great controversy. Saved (1965) achieved notoriety through a scene in which a baby in a pram is stoned to death. Later plays such as Narrow Road to the Deep North (1968) use historical themes to look at broad contemporary issues. …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Bowes

Entrepreneur and radio impresario, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He left school at age 13 and worked as an office boy. He built a flourishing real estate business that was temporarily ruined by the earthquake and fire of 1906. He married Margaret Illington, an actress, and they moved E to run theatres in Boston and New York City. He built the Capitol Theatre in New York City, an early fi…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Braddock

British general, born in Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK. After service in France and The Netherlands, he was appointed commander of all British troops in North America (1754). He was sent in 1755 to expel the French from Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh), but was defeated by the French and their Indian allies, and was mortally wounded in the battle. The remnants of his force were led away by Georg…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Burra

Artist, born in London, UK. He studied at the Chelsea School of Art and the Royal College of Art, and travelled widely in Europe and the USA. Well known as a colourist, his Surrealist paintings of figures against exotic (often Spanish) backgrounds are invariably in watercolour, as in ‘Soldiers’ (1942, Tate, London). He also designed for the ballet. Edward Burra (29 March 1905 – 22 Octob…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Capell

Scholar, born near Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, E England, UK. He was the first to publish a complete and careful collation of the full text of Shakespeare (10 vols, 1768) based on the Folio and Quarto texts, and a commentary, Notes and Various Readings to Shakespeare (3 vols, 1783). Edward Capell (June 11, 1713 – February 24, 1781), English Shakespearian critic, was born at Troston Hall (TL…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Charles Ford

Baseball pitcher, born in New York City, New York, USA. During his 16-year career with the New York Yankees (1950, 1953–67), the left-hander won 236 games and the Cy Young award in 1961. He had more appearances (22), pitched more innings (146), had more strikeouts (94) and won more games (10) than any pitcher in World Series history. He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1974. White…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Charles Pickering - Honors

Astronomer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the brother of William Henry Pickering. After graduating from Harvard's Lawrence Scientific School (1865), he taught physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1867–76), where he pioneered in teaching physics aided by emphasizing laboratory experiments. He became the director of the Harvard College Observatory (1877–1919), where he pione…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Clark

Lawyer and entrepreneur, born in Athens, New York, USA. He began practising law in Poughkeepsie (1833), and moved his practice to New York City (1836) to form Jordan and Clark with his father-in-law, the state's attorney general. In 1854 sewing machine inventor Isaac Merritt Singer came to the firm for advice in his defence against a patent infringement suit brought by Elias Howe. Clark became a p…

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Edward Cocker

English engraver, who also taught penmanship and arithmetic. He was reputedly the author of Cocker's Arithmetic (1678), which went through 112 editions. Its reputation for accuracy gave rise to the expression ‘according to Cocker’, but it has been exposed as a poor and inaccurate forgery made by his editor and publisher. Cocker was the reputed author of the famous Arithmetick, the popular…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Dahlberg - Selected works

Writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The illegitimate son of a woman barber, as a boy he was sent to an orphanage in Cleveland, OH, but ran away. After studying at the University of California and Columbia University, he joined the expatriate community in Paris in the 1920s. He wrote pioneering proletarian novels in the 1930s, including Bottom Dogs (1929) and From Flushing to Calvary (1932)…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Davy

Physician and scientist, born in Ottery St Mary, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied medicine, and commenced business in London as a chemist, but at about 30 began experimenting with telegraphy. He emigrated to Adelaide, South Australia, in 1838, where he involved himself in civic affairs, and continued his experiments on subjects including starch production and the smelting of copper. As inventor o…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Dickinson Baker - Life, In memoriam, Trivia

US representative, senator, and soldier, born in London, UK. Brought to the USA as a child, he became a lawyer and practised in Springfield, IL where he became a friend of Abraham Lincoln. After defeating Lincoln in a Whig party primary for the US House of Representatives, he took the seat in 1845, but resigned the next year to volunteer for service in the Mexican War. Lincoln (who would name his …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Drinker Cope - Reference

Zoologist and palaeontologist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Although his post-secondary education was limited to one year's study with Joseph Leidy at the University of Pennsylvania, he went on to found (with Leidy and O C Marsh) the science of American vertebrate palaeontology. He made many W American expeditions and found more than 600 fossil species, mostly of cold-blooded vertebrat…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Durell Stone

Architect, born in Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA. He studied at the University of Arkansas, Harvard, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then taught at New York University and at Yale (1946–52). He set up his practice in New York City (1935–78). More eclectic than innovative, he moved from a Modernist to a more ornamented style, often using grillwork and deliberately echoing the local/c…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Emerson Barnard - Early life, Astronomical work, Honors

Astronomer, born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. He made a systematic photographic survey of the sky and correctly concluded that those areas apparently devoid of stars, which he called ‘black nebulae’, were in fact clouds of obscuring matter. He discovered the fifth satellite of Jupiter in 1892. In 1916 he discovered the star which has the greatest known motion relative to other stars (Barnard's …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Everett - Harvard University service and early political career, Gettysburg Oration, Death and legacy

US representative and senator, educator, and orator, born in Dorchester (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. A Harvard valedictorian (1811), he served as pastor of the Brattle Street Church in Boston (1814–15) then, after studying abroad, became a professor of Greek literature at Harvard (1819–25). He was a US representative (Independent, Massachusetts, 1825–35), governor of Massachusetts …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Everett Hale - Quote

Unitarian clergyman and writer, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. He started on his father's newspaper, the Boston Daily Advertiser, and produced numerous essays, short stories, pamphlets, and novels throughout his life. He became a minister in Roxbury in 1846. He is best remembered for his story ‘The Man Without a Country’ (1863), which encouraged patriotism during the C…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Fitzgerald Beale - Early years in the Navy, In California, Retirement, Legacy

Explorer and naval officer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. Although a naval officer (1842–51), he made six transcontinental journeys carrying important dispatches (including the first authentic report of gold in California in 1848). He was an Indian agent and the surveyor-general for California and Nevada (1851–65). Later, he served briefly as US ambassador to Austria-Hungary. …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Forbes - Early years, Travels, Scholarly years, Final years

Naturalist, born in Douglas, Isle of Man, UK. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, but from 1836 devoted himself to the natural sciences. He became professor of botany at King's College, London (1843), and professor of natural history at the School of Mines (1851) and Edinburgh (1853). He did much to advance and systematize several disciplines in natural history, made formative observations in oceano…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Gibbon - Life, Assessment, Influence on other writers, Works by Gibbon

Historian, born in Putney, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, became a Catholic at 16, and was sent to Lausanne, where he boarded with a Calvinist pastor who wooed him back to Protestantism. After a visit to Rome in 1764 he began to plan for his major work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (5 vols, 1776–88). Left money by his father, he settled in London for the …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Gibbon Wakefield - Early life, Prison, South Australia, Canada, The New Zealand Company, Canada again, Final years in Britain

Originator of subsidized emigration from Britain, born in London, UK. He was imprisoned for tricking an heiress into marriage, and was inspired by the plight of his fellow prisoners to write A Letter from Sydney (1829), in which he proposed the sale of small units of crown land in the colonies to subsidize colonization by the poor from Britain (rather than convicts). His proposals (later called Wa…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Gierek

Polish statesman, born in Porabka, S Poland. He lived in France (1923–34) during the Pilsudski dictatorship, and joined the French Communist Party in 1931. He was deported to Poland in 1934, and lived in Belgium (1937–48), becoming a member of the Belgian resistance. On his return to Poland in 1948, he joined the ruling Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP), being inducted into its Politburo in 19…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Harper - The launching of broadcasting in Ceylon, Colombo Radio, Eighty Years of Broadcasting in Sri Lanka

Composer, born in Taunton, Somerset, SW England, UK. A lecturer in music at Edinburgh University, he directs the New Music Group of Scotland. Early works owed much to serial and aleatoric styles, but with the orchestral Bartók Games (1972) and a one-act opera Fanny Rodin (1975) he evolved a more tonally-based style. Other works include the operas Hedda Gabler (1985), The Mellstock Quire (1988), a…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Harrigan - Works, Further reading

Actor, playwright, and manager, born in New York City, New York, USA. Beginning as a vaudeville performer, he formed a highly popular team with Tony Hart. His songs and short sketches eventually grew to full-length musicals, featuring comic characters broadly drawn from American working-class life, including African-American and European immigrants. His shows include The Mulligan Guards' Ball (187…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Herbert Thompson

Explorer and archaeologist, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. Untrained in archaeology, geology, or fieldwork, he managed to get himself sent as US consul to Mexico (1885), expressly to investigate Maya sites, and for 40 years he sent back a stream of valuable artifacts and information, particularly from Chichén Itzá. His popular books stimulated public interest in Maya culture. Edwa…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Hicks - Life and work, Gallery of major works, Selected works and where to view them

Painter, born in Attleborough (now Langhorne), Pennsylvania, USA. A Quaker minister, he also earned a living by painting signs, carriages, and, most importantly, primitive folk scenes. The series of paintings he called ‘The Peaceable Kingdom’, based on the 11th chapter of Isaiah, where the animal kingdom lives in harmony together, occupied him for much of his painting life and has brought him co…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Hitchcock - Writings

Geologist and educator, born in Deerfield, Massachusetts, USA. An ordained Congregational minister (1821–5), he remained a lifelong classicist and theologian after resigning his pulpit to become professor (1825–64) and president (1845–54) of Amherst College. He concurrently served as trustee and lecturer at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now College) (1836–64). His research as state geologist …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Hodges Baily

Sculptor, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He executed many of the well-known London statues, including that of Lord Nelson in Trafalgar Square. Edward Hodges Baily (March 10, 1788 - May 22, 1867) - (sometimes misspelled Bailey) was a British sculptor who was born in Bristol. His father, who was a celebrated carver of figureheads for ships, destined him for a commercial life, bu…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Hopper - Life, Works, Exhibitions, Influence

Painter, born in Nyack, New York, USA. He studied under Robert Henri (1900–6) and travelled in Europe (1906–10), but his etchings, watercolours, and oils over the next 50 years would reflect little of the current art trends. He supported himself as a commercial illustrator until recognition in the mid-1920s. His vision of realism, using moody light and buildings, created a world of human isolati…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Irving - His youth, Work in Scotland, His rise in London, Forerunner of the Catholic Apostolic Church, Monument

Church of Scotland clergyman, born in Annan, Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh University, then was invited to the Caledonian Church, Hatton Garden, London (1822), where for a while he enjoyed success as a preacher. In 1825 he began to announce the imminent second advent of Jesus Christ, and to elaborate his views of the Incarnation. Charged with heresy for maintainin…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Jenner - Smallpox, Monuments

Physician, the discoverer of the vaccination for smallpox, born in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. After an apprenticeship with a local surgeon, he studied under John Hunter in London, then returned to practise in Berkeley (1773), while remaining a firm friend of Hunter. Having observed how an infection of the mild disease cowpox prevented later attacks of smallpox, in 1796 he inoculat…

less than 1 minute read

Edward John Eyre - Early life, South Australian expeditions, Further reading

Explorer and colonist, born in Hornsea, East Riding of Yorkshire, NE England, UK. He emigrated to Australia at 17, settled on the Lower Murray as a sheep farmer, and was appointed a magistrate. In 1840–1 he explored the region between South and Western Australia, and discovered L Eyre. In 1847 he became Governor of New Zealand, in 1854 of St Vincent, and in 1862 of Jamaica. In 1865 he suppressed …

less than 1 minute read

Edward John Thye

US senator and governor, born in Frederick, South Dakota, USA. A farmer all his life, he became the deputy commissioner of agriculture for Minnesota (1938–42). Elected lieutenant-governor (Republican, 1943), he became governor (1943–5) when Harold Stassen left to serve in the navy, and was elected for a full term (1945–7). He moved on to the US Senate (Republican, Minnesota, 1947–59), where he…

less than 1 minute read

Edward John Trelawny

Writer and adventurer, born in London, UK of an old and famous Cornish family. He ran away from school, entered the navy at 13, and was discharged in 1812. He recalled his experiences in the Adventures of a Younger Son (1831). He became friendly with Shelley and Byron at Pisa in 1822, and never recovered from Shelley's death by drowning; he helped to recover the body and supervised its cremation. …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Johnson

Historian, probably born in Canterbury, Kent, SE England, UK. He was trained as a joiner, then emigrated to Boston, MA (1630). In Massachusetts he traded with the Indians and settled in Charlestown (1636), and was a founder of Woburn (1640), where he worked at a variety of civic positions. He is best known for his work extolling the attractions of the colonies in America, The Wonder-Working Provid…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Johnston

Calligrapher, born in Uruguay of Scottish parents. He studied at Edinburgh. Instead of practising medicine, for which he had trained, he taught himself the art of lettering, and began to teach others. He taught at the Central School of Fine Arts and Crafts, London (1899–1913), where one of his students was Eric Gill; he also taught at the Royal College of Art. His books, Writing and Illuminating,…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Kamau Brathwaite - Selected works

Poet and academic historian, born in Bridgetown, Barbados. His major achievement is contained in The Arrivants: a New World Trilogy (1973), which comprises his first three volumes: Rights of Passage (1967), Masks (1968), and Islands (1969). Later works include Mother Poem (1972) and Sun Poem (1982). His historical writing includes The Folk Culture of the Slaves of Jamaica (1970). (Lawson) E…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Kienholz - Early life and artistic development, Collaboration with Nancy Reddin

Avant-garde artist, born in Fairfield, Washington, USA. Self-taught, he opened the Now Gallery in Los Angeles in 1956, and co-founded the city's first avant-garde gallery, the Ferus Gallery, in 1957. His ‘assemblages’ were typically room-size, and incorporated dummies, furniture, bones, rugs, household objects, and quantities of ‘blood’ arranged to create shockingly violent tableaux. Ed…

less than 1 minute read

Edward L(awrie) Tatum

Geneticist, born in Boulder, Colorado, USA. At Stanford (1935–45), he worked with George W Beadle using the bread mold Neurospora to discover the relationship between genetic mutation and the synthesis of essential cellular chemicals (1941). At Yale (1945–78), he and his graduate student Joshua Lederberg found (1947) that similar mutations could be demonstrated after sexual reproduction in the b…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Lear - Lear's writing, Personal life

Artist and writer, born in London, UK. The youngest of 21 children, he suffered from epilepsy and depression. Employed by the Zoological Society of London and the British Museum as an artist, and later by the 13th Earl of Derby, he travelled widely in Europe, making landscape sketches and oil paintings which he published in several travel books, including Sketches of Rome (1842) and Illustrated Ex…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Livingston - Early life, Louisiana, Later career, Monuments and memorials

Lawyer and US statesman, born in Columbia Co, New York, USA. A member of the distinguished Livingston family, he studied law and went on to serve in the US House of Representatives (Democrat-Republican, New York, 1795–1801). He held the offices of US attorney and mayor of New York City simultaneously (1801–4) but resigned when a business associate all but ruined him financially. He moved to New …

1 minute read

Edward Lloyd

English newspaper founder and coffee-house keeper. From 1688 until 1726 he owned a coffee house in Lombard St, London, after which is named Lloyd's, the London society of underwriters. It also became a haunt of merchants and ship-owners, and for them Lloyd started his Lloyd's News, later to become Lloyd's List, London's oldest daily newspaper, providing an information service on shipping matters. …

less than 1 minute read

Edward M(oore) Kennedy - Family and youth, Early career, Chappaquiddick incident, Presidential bid, Democratic Party icon, Political views

US senator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, youngest son of Joseph Kennedy. Raised in a family that placed a high priority on achievement, he persuaded a Harvard classmate to sit an exam for him and was suspended. After serving in the army, he finished Harvard and went on to graduate from the University of Virginia Law School (1959). Only 30 years old when he ran for the US Senate seat his bro…

1 minute read

Edward N(orton) Lorenz - Work, Publications

Meteorologist, born in West Hartford, Connecticut, USA. Working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1946, he was the first to describe what is known as ‘deterministic chaos’ as a shaper of weather, and was the originator of the term ‘the butterfly effect’ - the flapping wings of a butterfly in China could alter the weather over America a few days later. Among other major meteorol…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Preble - Things named in his honor, Books

US naval officer, born in Falmouth (now Portland), Maine, USA. He commanded the Tripoli squadron against the Barbary pirates (1803–4) and authorized the burning of the captured USS Philadelphia. He had virtually defeated the Tripolitans when he was replaced in 1804. He had created the first working tactical naval squadron, and was a hero to many young officers who later distinguished themselves i…

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Edward Rutledge - Trivia

US governor, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA, the brother of John Rutledge. A South Carolina lawyer, he served in the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774–6), where he shifted from his Loyalist sympathies to sign the Declaration of Independence. He went back to South Carolina to fight against the British, and was briefly their prisoner after the fall of Charleston. A staunch Fede…

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Edward Samuel Corwin - Authorship

Political scientist, born near Plymouth, Michigan, USA. A long-time professor at Princeton (1905–46) and a government adviser, he is best known for his expertise in constitutional law. He served as an adviser to the Public Works Administration (1935) and as an assistant to the attorney general (1936–7). Edward Samuel Corwin (January 19, 1878 – April 23, 1963) was president of the Americ…

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Edward Sapir - Life and work, Bibliography

Anthropologist and linguist, born in Lauenburg, Germany. He emigrated to the USA in 1889 and was raised in an orthodox Jewish family on New York City's Lower East Side. He attended Columbia University (1904 BA; 1909 PhD), where he came under the influence of Franz Boas. After teaching briefly at the Universities of California and Pennsylvania, he became chief of anthropology for the Canadian Natio…

1 minute read

Edward Singleton Holden - Career, Death and legacy

Astronomer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He trained at West Point (1870), then taught mathematics for the United States Navy (1873–81), directed the Washburn Observatory in Wisconsin (1881–5), and designed and directed the Lick Observatory in California (1888–98). In 1901 he became the librarian of the US Military Academy and wrote several books, including three collections of children's st…

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Edward Taylor - External Links

Protestant clergyman and poet, born near Coventry, West Midlands, C England, UK. Refusing to take the oath of conformity required of English schoolteachers, he emigrated to Massachusetts (1668), graduated from Harvard (1671), and became a physician and pastor in Westfield, MA, where he remained to the end of his life. At his death he left a manuscript of his ‘Poetical Works’. His poems, many on …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Teller - Early life and education, Work on the Manhattan Project, The hydrogen bomb, The Oppenheimer controversy

Physicist, born in Budapest, Hungary. He studied at Karlsruhe, Munich, and Göttingen universities, and under Niels Bohr at Copenhagen. He left Germany in 1933, moving to the USA in 1935. He contributed profoundly to the modern explanation of solar energy, anticipating the theory behind thermonuclear explosions. He was a member of the team under Fermi that produced the first nuclear chain reaction…

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Edward Terry Sanford

Judge, born in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. He was a US assistant district attorney general (1907–8) and a US district judge (1908–23) before President Harding named him to the US Supreme Court (1923–30). Edward Terry Sanford (July 23, 1865-March 8, 1930) was an American jurist who served on the United States Supreme Court. Sanford, an attorney from Tennessee, first served in t…

less than 1 minute read

Edward the Elder - Succession and Early Reign, Achievements, Family

King of Wessex (from 899), the elder son of Alfred the Great. He built on his father's successes and established himself as the strongest ruler in Britain. By one of the most decisive military campaigns of the whole Anglo-Saxon period, he conquered and annexed to Wessex the S Danelaw (910–18). He also assumed control of Mercia (918). Although he exercised no direct power in the North, all the chi…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Vernon

British admiral, born in London, UK. He joined the navy in 1700, and also became an MP (1727–41). In 1739, during the War of Jenkins' Ear, he was sent to harry the Spaniards in the Antilles, and his capture of Portobello made him a national hero. During the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 his masterly disposition in the Channel successfully kept the standby Gallic reinforcements in their ports. He rec…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Villella

Dancer, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the School of American Ballet, the High School of Performing Arts, and New York Maritime College, where he was a welterweight boxing champion. He joined New York City Ballet (1957), becoming known for his vigour and dynamic style, and Balanchine and Robbins gave him roles in such works as A Midsummer Night's Dream (1962), Tarantella (1964), and Wat…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Weston - Life and work, Illness, Selected publications

Photographer, born in Highland Park, Illinois, USA. He established his own studio in Glendale c.1910, and later became recognized as a Modernist, emphasizing sharp images and precise definition in landscapes, portraits, and still-life. He produced notable landscapes of the Mohave Desert, and in 1937, with the first-ever award of a Guggenheim Fellowship to a photographer, travelled widely taking ph…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Whymper - Early life, The Matterhorn, Exploration in Greenland, South American exploration, Canadian Rockies

Wood-engraver and mountaineer, the first to climb the Matterhorn, born in London, UK. He was trained as an artist on wood, but became better known for his mountaineering than for his book illustrations. In the period 1860–9 he conquered several hitherto unscaled peaks of the Alps, including the Matterhorn (1865), when four of his party fell to their death. He later travelled in Greenland, the And…

less than 1 minute read

Edward William Godwin

Architect and designer, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He trained as an architect at Bristol. Northampton Town Hall (1861) dates from his early Gothic period. His mainly domestic architecture included the White House in Chelsea (1877) for his friend Whistler. A central figure in the ‘Aesthetic Movement’, his furniture designs after 1875 were much influenced by the Japanese taste which that mov…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Williams

Poet and antiquary, born in Llancarfan, Vale of Glamorgan, S Wales, UK. He worked there as a stonemason, and became a poet in Welsh and English. He had links with 18th-c Radicalism, mingling its ideas with Romantic exaltation of the Welsh past, and established neo-Druidic cults and celebrations in Wales from 1792. He published collected poems purportedly by the 14th-c poet Dafydd ap Gwilym, which …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Winslow - Further reading

Colonist, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, born in Droitwich, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. He sailed in the Mayflower in 1620, and from 1624 was assistant governor or governor of the Plymouth colony, which he described and defended in several publications, including Good Newes from New England (1624). Sent by Cromwell against the West Indies (1655), he died at sea. He was born in Droitwich, W…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Witten - Biography, Awards and honors

Physicist and mathematician, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. He became professor of physics at Princeton University (1980–7), then professor of natural sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study. A central figure in the study of superstrings, he has made important contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. His work linking knot theory with quantum theory gained him the 1990 Fields Me…

less than 1 minute read

Edward Young

Poet, born in Upham, Hampshire, S England, UK. He studied at Oxford, becoming a fellow of All Souls, Oxford in 1708. His early work met with little success. He is best known for ‘The Complaint, or, Night-Thoughts on Life, Death and Immortality’ (1742–6), inspired by the deaths in quick succession of his stepdaughter, son-in-law, and wife. It is a highly acclaimed piece of work, and some of its …

less than 1 minute read

Edward Zane Carroll Judson

Adventurer and writer, born in Stamford, New York, USA. His adventurous life was obscured by his own fabrications, but he seems to have run away to sea as a youth, and after some soldiering and trapping in the American West he tried to launch a career as a publisher and editor in New York City (1844). That venture failed, and he may have escaped a lynching after being accused of a murder in Nashvi…

1 minute read

Edwin (Albert) Link

Inventor and aviation executive, born in Huntington, Indiana, USA. While working in his father's piano factory, he and his brother built a flight simulator to help them learn to fly. In 1935 he founded Link Aviation Inc, which produced flight simulators and other apparatus. He also invented equipment for deep-sea exploration, including a mobile unmanned television camera. Edwin Albert Link …

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Edwin (George) Morgan - Awards¹

Poet, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow University, where he later taught literature. He is a versatile writer, having produced both powerful ‘social’ poems (the Glasgow Sonnets in From Glasgow to Saturn, 1973) as well as much experimental writing, including concrete and computer poems. His work is well represented in Poems of Thirty Years (1982). Later works include You: An…

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Edwin (Howland) Blashfield - Selected commissions

Painter, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied in Paris (1867), and returned to America to paint large murals, such as the one commissioned for the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. He also executed decorations for the Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa state capitols, and a large mosaic for the Church of St. Matthew, Washington (DC). Among his publications are Mural Painting in America (1913) …

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Edwin (Mattison) McMillan

Physical chemist, born in Redondo Beach, California, USA. He studied at Princeton University, and became professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley (1946–73). He shared with Glenn Seaborg the 1951 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his part in the discovery of the transuranic elements. Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907 – September 7, 1991) was the first scientist…

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Edwin (Powell) Hubble - Biography, Discoveries, Nobel Prize, Honors

Astronomer, born in Marshfield, Missouri, USA. A high school athlete in Wheaton, IL, he lettered in basketball and track at the University of Chicago. A Rhodes scholar at Oxford, he read law and boxed in an exhibition match against the French champion, George Carpentier. After one year of practising law in Louisville, KY (1913), he went back to the University of Chicago and took up astronomy. In 1…

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Edwin Arlington Robinson - Life, Selected works

Poet, born in Head Tide, Maine, USA. He was brought up in the town of Gardiner, Maine, which provided the background for ‘Tilbury Town’, the fictional New England village setting of his best poetry. He studied at Harvard, and went to New York City to find work. He made his name with an early collection of poetry The Children of the Night (1897), and was three times a Pulitzer prizewinner, for hi…

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Edwin Austin Abbey - Works by Abbey

Painter and illustrator, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He settled in England in 1878. He is known for his illustrations of the works of Shakespeare and Robert Herrick, for his panels of The Quest of the Holy Grail in Boston Public Library, and for his picture of Edward VII's coronation. Edwin Austin Abbey (April 1, 1852 – August 1, 1911) was an American artist, illustrator, and…

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Edwin Forrest

Actor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a strikingly handsome, flamboyant man who excelled in tragic roles. A great favourite among ordinary theatre-goers, his acting style was seen as a breath of fresh air in contrast to the more tightly restrained British model. But he was criticized by those who found vulgar his tendency to show off his physique and powerful voice. His first stag…

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Edwin J(oseph) Cohn - Blood fractionation project, Physical chemistry of proteins, A most important book, Personality

Biochemist, born in New York City, New York, USA. A pioneer in protein chemistry, he spent his career at Harvard Medical School (1920–53). He performed research on pernicious anaemia (1926–32), which led to the eventual isolation of vitamin B12 by other scientists. During World War 2, he planned and directed blood fractionation programmes for the armed forces. After the war he continued his rese…

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Edwin Lawrence Godkin

Editor, born in Co Wicklow, Ireland. He studied at Queen's College, Belfast, became a journalist, and worked as a war correspondent in the Crimea for the London Daily News (1853–5). He emigrated to New York (1856) and wrote for the News and other publications. In 1865 he became editor of The Nation, shaping it into a crusading journal of reformist ideas. He sold this small, ailing, high-quality m…

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Edwin Muir

Poet and critic, born in Deerness, Orkney Is, NE Scotland, UK. Educated in Kirkwall, he moved to Glasgow at 14, and in 1919 married the novelist Willa Anderson (1890–1970), with whom he settled in London. They travelled in mainland Europe (1921–4), where they collaborated in notable translations of Kafka and other authors. He also worked in Rome, Scotland, and Harvard (1955–6, as professor of p…

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Edwin P(earce) Christy - Background

Entertainer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the originator of the Christy Minstrels show. He was singing with two assistants at a public house in Buffalo in 1842, but steadily increased the success of his ‘black-face’ minstrelsy, taking his show to New York City and London. Many of his songs were commissioned from Stephen Foster. He retired in 1855, and committed suicide during a fit o…

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Edwin Way Teale

Naturalist and writer, born in Joliet, Illinois, USA. The only child of a railroad mechanic, his lifelong interest in natural history grew out of childhood summers on his grandfather's N Indiana farm. He graduated from Earlham College in 1922 and was a staff writer for Popular Science magazine (1928–41). His first nature book was Grassroots Jungles (1937), and he helped promote an appreciation of…

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eel

Any of numerous marine and freshwater fishes with an elongate cylindrical body form; median fins continuous, pelvics absent, and pectorals present or absent; adults live in fresh water, returning to sea to spawn; common European eel (Anguilla anguilla. Family: Anguillidae) an important food fish; larval stage called a leptocephalus. The name is also used for c.20 families of shallow water and deep…

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eelpout

Slender-bodied fish (Zoarces viviparous) with broad head, long dorsal and anal fins, well-developed pectorals, abundant in European coastal waters; length up to 50 cm/20 in; young born fully-formed. The name is also used generally for members of the family Zoarcidae, and as an alternative name for the burbot, Lota lota. (Family: Zoarcidae.) …

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Eero Saarinen - Biography, Works

Architect, born in Kirkknonummi, Finland. Taken to the USA in 1923 by his father, the Finnish architect and designer Eliel Saarinen, he studied sculpture in Paris and received a graduate degree in architecture from Yale (1934). In partnership with his father (1936–50) he helped define Modernist architecture in a series of public, institutional, and commercial buildings known for their innovative …

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Efrem Zimbalist

Violinist and composer, born in Rostov, W Russia. He became director of the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia (1941–68), and composed for both violin and orchestra. Efrem Zimbalist (9/21 April 1889 - February 22, 1985) was one of the world's most prominent concert violinists, as well as a composer, teacher and conductor. He was born in Rostov on Don, Russia to a Jewish …

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egalitarianism

A political philosophy which places a high value on equality among members of society, and advocates the removal of barriers to it. It is based on the view that all people are fundamentally equal, and that certain social and political institutions produce inequalities, such as in wealth and income, education, legal rights, and political power. Egalitarianism was one of the tenets of the French Rev…

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Eger - History, Ecclesiastical history, Districts of Eger, Main sights, Twin towns, Trivia

47º53N 20º27E, pop (2002e) 61 600. Town in Heves county, N Hungary; located on the R Eger, SW of Miskolc; an early Magyar settlement, it was made a bishopric (11th-c) by St Stephen; destroyed by the Tatars (13th-c), it was rebuilt and fortified; captured (1596) by the Turks and held for nearly 150 years; birthplace of Therese Benedek; railway; thermal springs; noted for its red wine; tobacco p…

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egg

The mature female reproductive cell (ovum) in animals and plants; also the fertilized ovum in egg-laying animals, such as birds and insects, after it has been laid. This type of egg is covered by egg membranes, including the hard shell, which prevent it from drying out or being damaged. The eggs produced by domestic poultry (especially hens) are widely used as food. The hen's egg contains all the …

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Mount Egmont - Geography and people, History, Famous sons and daughters, Other information, See Also

39°18S 174°05E. Symmetrical volcanic peak, W North Island, New Zealand, S of New Plymouth; height, 2518 m/8261 ft; in a national park, area 335 km²/129 sq mi, established in 1900. Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island, and a mountain of the same name that is the region's main geographical feature. Taranaki is situated on the west coast of the Nor…

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ego - History, Freud's structural theory, Jung Wah Hong's definition of ego

In psychiatry, that aspect of the personality which deals with the practical aspects of the external world. This was one component of Freud's description of the psychic structure which comprises the id, the ego, and the superego. The id represents the most primitive aspect of the personality: basic biological drives (eg hunger, sex, anger, and elimination) and instincts striving for pleasure. The …

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egocentrism

In Piagetian psychology, the apparent inability to understand another's viewpoint. Piaget argued that young children are egocentric, acting as if others see the world from the same perspective and share their interests and feelings. However, research has shown that young children are not wholly egocentric. In psychology, egocentrism is the characteristic of regarding oneself and one's own o…

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egoism

The thesis that people always do or should promote their own self-interest and that enlightened self-interest is the basis of conventional morality. A notable proponent was Thomas Hobbes. Egoism may also imply or may be fundamental to any number of related concepts, such as: Egoism is advocated by - or can be claimed to be advocated by - the following: …

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Egon (Joseph) Wellesz

Composer and musicologist, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied under Schoenberg, and became professor of musical history at Vienna (1930–8). Exiled from Austria by the Nazis, he became a research fellow then lecturer and reader in music (1944–56) at Oxford. His works include six operas, nine symphonies, and much choral and chamber music. The record label cpo in Osnabrück has now …

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Egon Erwin Kisch - Biography

Writer, born in Prague, Czech Republic. A German-speaking Czech journalist and novelist, he was a reporter in Berlin before being deported in 1933. He took part in the Spanish Civil War and spent World War 2 in Mexico. His accounts of these experiences elevated the status of journalism to that of a new literary genre. They include Der rasende Reporter (1925), Zaren, Popen, Bolschewiken (1927), and…

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Egon Krenz - Early years, Leader of the German Democratic Republic, Trial and prison, Quotations

German politician, born in Kolberg, Pomerania, NW Poland. At first a teacher, he began his political career in the German Democratic Republic as member of Freie Deutsche Jugend (FDJ), became member of the Central Committee (1973) and the Politbüro (1983), was nominated (1989) general secretary of the Sozialistiche Einheitspartei (SED), and became chairman of the Staatsrat in succession to Erich H…

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Egon Ronay

Gastronome and writer, born in Hungary. He studied law at Budapest, and trained as a chef at home and in London before becoming manager of the family group of restaurants in Hungary. He emigrated to England in 1946 and opened his own restaurant in London (1952–5). He founded the annual Egon Ronay's Guide to Hotels and Restaurants in 1956, and subsequently similar guides to pubs, ski resorts, and …

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Egon Schiele - Biography, Legacy

Painter, born in Tulln, NE Austria. He studied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in 1906, met Klimt in 1907, and developed a powerful form of Expressionism in which figures, often naked and emaciated and drawn with hard outlines, fill the canvas with awkward, anguished gestures. In 1912 he was arrested, and some of his work was destroyed by the police. He died in the influenza epidemic of 1918. …

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egret

The name used for a number of heron species. It is not applied consistently; some species are called egret by some observers, and heron by others. An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. …

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Egypt - Etymology, Politics, Military, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, Geography, Culture, Geographic locale, Notes and references

Official nameArab Republic of Egypt, Arabic Jumhuriyah Misr Al-Arabiya Egypt (Egyptian: Km.t, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Kīmi, Arabic: مصر Miṣr; Egypt is the fifteenth most populous country in the world. Around half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with the majority spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo (the largest city in Africa and the Mi…

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Ehud Barak - Military service, Education, Political career, Term as Prime Minister, Post-Prime minister career

Israeli statesman and Labour prime minister (1999–2001), born in Kibbutz Mishmar Hasharon, C Israel. Educated in Jerusalem and Stanford University, USA, he joined the Israeli army in 1959 and saw active service in both the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War, becoming a major-general in 1982. In 1991 he was appointed chief of the general staff and, following the signing of the Gaza–Jericho agreem…

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eider

Any of four species of sea duck native to the northern N hemisphere; also known as eider duck. The female lines her nest with the soft downy feathers from her breast; these are collected commercially as eiderdown. (Subfamily: Anatinae, tribe: Somateriini.) …

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eidophor

A large-screen projection television system in which a scanning electron beam modulated by the video signal distorts the surface of an oil layer in a vacuum tube to refract the beam of light from a xenon lamp. Colour requires a triple-tube unit with the light divided by dichroic filters and recombined in projection. An Eidophor was a television projector used to create theatre-sized images.…

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Eiffel Tower - Installations, Events, The 72 names, Image copyright claims, Gallery, In pop culture, Similar towers and reproductions

A famous city landmark in Paris, France, designed by Gustave Eiffel and erected (1887–9) in the Champs-de-Mars for the Paris Exhibition of 1889. The tower consists of an open-lattice framework supporting three tiered platforms. At 300 m/984 ft high, it was the tallest building in the world until 1930. The Eiffel Tower (pronounced /'aifəl'taʊɚ/; Completed in 1889, the tower replaced th…

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Eiger - The Nordwand, Pictures

46°34N 8°01E. Mountain peak with three ridges in the Bernese Alps, SC Switzerland; its N face is one of the most formidable climbs in the Alps; height, 3970 m/13 025 ft; first ascent by Charles Barrington in 1858; N face first climbed in 1938. The Eiger is a mountain in the Alps of Switzerland. In July 2006, a piece of the Eiger, amounting to approximately 2 million cubic m…

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Eigg - History

Island in Highland, W Scotland, UK; S of Skye, 11 km/7 mi from mainland (E); area 67 km²/26 sq mi; reserve managed by Scottish Wildlife Trust; rises to 394 m/1291 ft at Sgurr of Eigg; historically associated with the Clan Macdonald; ferry connections to Mallaig; cattle, crofting, fishing. Eigg (Gaelic Eige ) is one of the Small Isles, in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. Afte…

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Eileen (Alannah) Joyce

Concert pianist, born in Zeehan, Tasmania, Australia. Discovered by Percy Grainger, she was sent at the age of 15 to study at Leipzig Conservatory. She made her debut with Sir Henry Wood at a promenade concert under his baton (1930). She became a prolific broadcaster, and during the war frequently visited the blitzed towns of Britain with Malcolm Sargent and the London Philharmonic. She is particu…

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Eileen Farrell

Soprano, born in Willimantic, Connecticut, USA. Her rich, hearty voice made her a popular radio performer in the early 1940s, and from there she moved on to serious recitals. From 1958 she sang with the San Francisco Opera and the Lyric Opera of Chicago, and in the 1960s with the Metropolitan Opera. Later she taught at colleges in Indiana and Maine. She approved her distinction as one of the few s…

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Einar Benediktsson

Poet and entrepreneur, born near Reykjavík, Iceland. He studied law at Copenhagen and became a country magistrate in Iceland. A fervent nationalist, he became convinced that only foreign investment could bring prosperity to Iceland. He devoted many years to touring Europe seeking capital (unsuccessfully) for his ambitious industrial schemes to exploit Iceland's natural resources of hydro power an…

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Eindhoven - The city of Eindhoven

51°26N 5°30E, pop (2000e) 203 000. Modern industrial city in SE North Brabant province, S Netherlands; on the R Dommel, 88 km/55 mi SE of Rotterdam; airport; railway; technical university (1956); electronics, engineering, trucks, tractors, engines, military vehicles, glassware, synthetic fibres, paper, textiles, tobacco; Philips Evoluon museum of modern technology, Centre of Micro-Electronic…

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Eino Leino

Poet, born in Paltamo, C Finland. He studied at Helsinki, and went into journalism as a literary critic. He developed the Kalevala metre into a distinctive style of his own, notably in Helkavirsiä (1903–16, Whitsongs). He also wrote novels, and made fine translations of classics, including those of Dante and Goethe. Eino Leino (July 6, 1878 - January 10, 1926) was a Finnish poet and journ…

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Eisenach - History, Economy

50º59N 10º19E, pop (2001e) 43 400. Town in C Germany; 50 km/31 m W of Erfurt; founded, 12th-c; birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach, Ernst Abbe, Charlotte von Stein; restored Bach House; hilltop Wartburg Castle dominates the town. Coordinates: 50°58′N 10°19′E Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. The history of Eisenach is linked with the Wartburg cast…

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Eisleben

51º32N 11º33E, pop (1999e) 22 400. Town in Saxony-Anhalt, C Germany, in the E foothills of the Harz Mts, W of Halle; birthplace of Martin Luther and Johann Agricola; the houses where Luther was born and died have been preserved; Church of St Peter and St Paul (1486–1513) contains Luther's baptismal font; Luther memorial statue (1883); centre of the Mansfeld copper, silver, and slate mining re…

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eisteddfod - The National Eisteddfod, The Urdd Eisteddfod, The International Eisteddfod, National Eisteddfod venues

A Welsh gathering of 12th-c origin for competitions in music and literature, the earlier eisteddfodau [iystethvodiy] being concerned with the testing of bards in their art. At the annual National Eisteddfod, held in August (entirely in Welsh) alternately in N and S Wales, the central event is the chairing of the bard for a poem in free verse, a tradition that dates from 1867. Since 1937, the event…

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Eivind Berggrav

Lutheran bishop, born in Stavanger, SW Norway. After some years as a teacher, pastor, and prison chaplain, he became Bishop of Tromsø and then Bishop of Oslo and Primate of the Norwegian Church (1937–50). He led the Church's opposition to the Quisling government, and was imprisoned (1941–5). He was a strong supporter of the ecumenical movement, becoming a president of the World Council of Churc…

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Ejnar Hertzsprung - Honors

Astronomer, born in Frederiksberg, EC Denmark. He trained as a chemical engineer at the Copenhagen Polytechnic. Interested in the chemistry of photography, and in astronomy, he began researching starlight with photographs in 1902, and was appointed as an astronomer at the Potsdam Observatory (1909–19). He had then already shown that for most stars, colour and brightness are related; all later wor…

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ekistics

The science which analyses the nature, origin, and evolution of human settlements. It can be divided into ekistic geography, ekistic economics, and social ekistics. Ekistics is the science of human settlements, including regional, city and community planning and dwelling design. Ekistics involves the descriptive study of all kinds of human settlements and the formulation of general co…

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El Cid - Early life, Service under Alfonso, Exile, Conquest of Valencia, Legend, Tizona, Origin of the Campeador title

Historical figure, born in Vivar, Burgos, NC Spain. His exploits, both true and legendary, were recounted in a number of mediaeval and Renaissance epics and ballads, notably the earliest extant chanson de geste, the Cantar de mio Cid (c.1140). Nothing is known of his birth, but much of his later life is described in the chronicles, such as the conferring of his knighthood by Fernando I in the mosq…

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El Dorado - Origins of the legend, Tribal ceremony, Expeditions, Metaphor

(Span ‘the gilded one’) A powerful early colonial Spanish-American legend of a ruler coated in gold, believed to exist in New Granada (now Colombia); by extension, a land of fabulous wealth. Raleigh organized two expeditions (1595 and 1617) in search of El Dorado. El Dorado (Spanish for 'the gilded one') is a legend that began with the story of a South American tribal chief who covered hi…

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El Greco - Early years and family, In Spain, Art, Works, Citations

Painter, born in Candia, Crete, Greece. He studied in Italy, probably as a pupil of Titian, and is known to have settled in Toledo, Spain, c.1577. He became a portrait painter whose reputation fluctuated because of the suspicion which greeted his characteristic distortions, such as his elongated, flamelike figures. His most famous painting is probably the ‘Burial of Count Orgaz’ (1586) in the Ch…

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El Paso - Overview

31°45N 106°29W, pop (2000e) 563 600. Seat of El Paso Co, W Texas, USA; port on the Rio Grande opposite Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; founded, 1827; airfield; railway; university (1913); cattle, cotton, vegetables; refined petroleum, copper, foods, clothing, machinery; tourism; part transferred to Mexico in 1963, after the settlement of the Chamizal border dispute. Beginning publication on May …

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El Salvador

Official name Republic of El Salvador, Span República de El Salvador El Carmen is a municipality in the La Unión department of El Salvador. …

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Elaine MacDonald

Dancer, born in Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. She trained at the Royal Ballet School, joining Western Ballet Theatre in 1964, and moving with the company to Glasgow when it became Scottish Ballet in the late 1960s. A dancer of international standard, she created many roles for the choreographer/director Peter Darrell, including Sun into Darkness (1966) and Mary Queen of Scots (1976). …

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Elaine Paige - Solo recordings, Solo recordings (compilations)

Actress and singer, born in London, UK. She joined the West End cast of Hair in 1969, but it was her performances in Jesus Christ Superstar (1972) and Billy (1974) that established her as a musical actress. She appeared at Chichester Festival Theatre, and at Stratford East, before she became a star as Evita in 1978. Later shows include Cats (1981), Chess (1986), Anything Goes (1989), Piaf (1993), …

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Elam - Etymology, History, Elamite language, The Elamite legacy, Elamite studies

The name given in antiquity to what is now SW Iran. Its main city was Susa, and at its zenith in the 13th-c BC it ruled an empire stretching from Babylonia in the W to Persepolis in the E. Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. It was preceded by what is known as the Proto-Elamite period, which began around 3200 BC when Susa (later capital of …

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elasticity (economics) - Mathematical definition, Examples, Importance

A measure of the ratio of the proportional change in one variable to the proportional change in another. Price elasticity compares the proportional change in quantity supplied or demanded to a proportional change in price. If this ratio is high, supply or demand is elastic; if it is small, supply or demand is inelastic. Cross-elasticity of supply or demand compares the proportional change in the q…

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elasticity (physics) - Modeling elasticity, Transitions to inelasticity

In solids, the property that a stressed material will return to its original size and shape when the stress is removed. It usually corresponds to a direct proportionality between stress and strain. In a metal bar, for example, up to a strain of about 1%, doubling the tension along the bar's length causes double the extension. Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of…

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Elba (Italy) - History, Trivia

pop (2000e) 11 000; area 223 km²/86 sq mi. Italian island in the Ligurian Sea, between the N Italian coast and Corsica, separated from the mainland by the 10 km/6 mi-wide Strait of Piombino; length 27 km/17 mi; width 18·5 km/11½ mi; chief town, Portoferraio; iron working, fisheries, fruit, wine, tourism; Napoleon lived here after his abdication (1814–15). Elba (Latin: Ilva) i…

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Elba (Nebraska) - History, Trivia

41º28N 98º56W, pop (2000e) 240. Village in Howard Co, Nebraska, USA; founded, 1882; birthplace of Grover Alexander. Elba (Latin: Ilva) is an island in Tuscany, Italy, 20 km from the coastal town of Piombino (42°44′N 10°22′E) . It is the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, and the third largest island in Italy after Sicily and Sardinia. Elba and other islands (Pianosa, C…

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Elbasan - History, Culture and religion, Economy

41º06N 20º04E, pop (2001e) 101 300. Industrial town and capital of Elbasan province, C Albania; 32 km/20 mi SE of Tiranë; transportation and agricultural centre in the fertile valley of the R Shkumbin; linked to Durrës by rail; bishopric (5th-c); Turkish fortress (15th-c); the fortified part is the old Christian quarter, the outskirts being Muslim; cigarettes, olive oil, canned fruit, wood…

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Elbert Henry Gary

Lawyer and financier, born near Wheaton, Illinois, USA. In 1871 he joined his brother's Chicago law firm, Gary, Cody & Gary, and prospered while specializing in corporate law. He served two terms as county magistrate (1882–90), and was thereafter always known as ‘Judge’ Gary. He was president of the Chicago Bar Association (1893–4). In 1898 he went to New York City to become president of the F…

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Elbert Hubbard - Lusitania, Posthumous renown, Trivia

Writer and craft colonist, born in Bloomington, Illinois, USA. Following years as a successful businessman, he established in 1893 the Roycrofters, a craft community in East Aurora, NY. Following the ideals of William Morris, the artisans produced mission-style furniture and Art Nouveau household accessories in metal and leather. He edited the Roycrofters' monthly The Philistine, in which appeared…

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Elbridge Gerry - Early life, Career, Legacy

US vice-president and politician, born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, USA. He served in the Continental Congress and signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He unsuccessfully ran for governor of Massachusetts four times before being elected in 1810. In 1812 he signed a bill for senatorial redistricting; the term ‘gerrymander’ arose from the salamander-like s…

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elder (botany) - People, Places, Nature, Fiction

A deciduous shrub (Sambucus nigra), growing to 10 m/30 ft, very widespread; bark furrowed, corky; leaves opposite, pinnate, leaflets toothed; flowers creamy, in large, flat-topped clusters 10–20 cm/4–8 in across; berries purplish-black. The flowers and berries are used in wines and preserves, but all other parts of the plant are poisonous. (Family: Caprifoliaceae.) Elder can refer to …

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elder (religion) - People, Places, Nature, Fiction

One who by reason of age or distinction is entrusted with shared authority and leadership in a community. In the ancient Biblical world, the elders of Israel exercised both religious and civil influence from the tribal period onwards; and city elders were active at a local level. Jewish synagogues were also governed by elders, but the title is reserved for scholars in the Mishnaic period. In the N…

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Eldridge Cleaver - Soul on Ice, Return to America, Quotes about Eldridge Cleaver

Social activist and writer, born in Wabbeseka, Arkansas, USA. Convicted on a marijuana charge (1954), he began a 12-year cycle of prison terms. During this time he obtained a high school diploma, converted to the Black Muslim faith, and began to write. He was a staff writer for Ramparts magazine (1966) and became a much-publicized college lecturer after the release of Soul on Ice (1968), a seminal…

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Eleanor (Alice Burford) Hibbert - As Jean Plaidy, As Philippa Carr, As Victoria Holt, Other Pseudonyms, links

Novelist, born in London, UK. She was a prolific writer of romantic novels, writing under several pseudonyms. She began with Eleanor Burford (Daughter of Anna, 1941), and under the name of Jean Plaidy wrote over 40 historical novels, beginning with Together They Ride (1945). Her other pseudonyms were Elbur Ford, beginning with The Flesh and the Devil (1950), Kathleen Kellow (Danse Macabre, 1952), …

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Eleanor (Florence) Rathbone - Family, Books

Feminist and social reformer, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. She read classics at Oxford, and became the dominant British advocate for family allowances. She was a leader in the constitutional movement for female suffrage, and as an independent member of Liverpool city council from 1909 she worked vigorously in the housing campaign between the wars. Elected as independent MP for th…

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Eleanor (Marie Cutri) Smeal - Early Life and Education, Political Activism, Recognition

Social activist, born in Astabula, Ohio, USA. The child of Italian immigrants, she grew up in Pennsylvania and attended Duke University, from which she graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1961. She married Charles Smeal (1963), and they settled in Pittsburgh where she worked in civic affairs, particularly the League of Women Voters. In 1970 she and her husband joined the National Organization for Women (N…

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Eleanor Bron

Actress and writer, born in Stanmore, N Greater London, UK. She studied at Cambridge, and from the early 1960s has made regular stage appearances, including a one-woman show, Desdemona - If You Had Only Spoken (1991). On television she became known in Not So Much a Programme, More a Way of Life (1964) and her films include Alfie (1966), Black Beauty (1994), A Little Princess (1995), and Wimbledon …

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Eleanor Farjeon - Partial bibliography

Writer, born in London, UK. She wrote fantasies and children's stories, and collaborated with her brother Herbert in Kings and Queens (1932). There is a Farjeon Award for outstanding work in children's books. Her father, Benjamin Farjeon, a writer of popular novels, encouraged her writing from the age of five; Often written under a pseudonym, her poems appeared in The Herald (To…

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Eleanor Holm

Swimmer and entertainer, born in Jamaica, Long Island, New York, USA. She began swimming off Long Island, NY at age 13, and at 15 she competed in the 1928 Olympics, coming 5th in the 100 m backstroke. In the 1932 Olympics she won the gold in the 100 m backstroke. Under contract to Warner Bros, she appeared in a few minor roles but quit when the studio asked her to swim in films (which would have…

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Eleanor Holmes Norton

Civil-rights activist, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. A lawyer by profession, as assistant director of the American Civil Liberties Union (1965–70) she defended both Julian Bond's and George Wallace's freedom-of-speech rights. Chairman of the New York Human Rights Commission (1970–7), she championed women's rights and anti-block-busting legislation. She then went to Washington to…

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Eleanor of Aquitaine - Background, Biography, In historical fiction

Queen consort of Louis VII of France (1137–52) and, after the annulment of this marriage (on the ostensible plea of consanguinity), of Henry Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou. When he became the Angevin king, Henry II of England (1154–89), the lands they claimed stretched from Scotland to the Mediterranean. She was imprisoned (1174–89) for supporting the rebellion of her sons against the king…

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Eleanor of Castile - Life, Legacy, Historical reputation, Children of Queen Eleanor and King Edward I

Queen consort of Edward I of England (1254–90), the daughter of Ferdinand (or Fernando) III. She bore her husband 13 children, accompanied Edward to the Crusades (1270–3), and is said to have saved his life by sucking the poison from a wound. She died at Hadby, Nottinghamshire, and the Eleanor Crosses at Northampton, Geddington, and Waltham Cross are the survivors of the 12 erected by Edward at …

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