Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 21

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Dogger Bank

A large sandbank forming the shallowest part of the North Sea, c.17–37 m/55–120 ft deep, 250 km/155 mi N of the Norfolk coast, England. It is an important breeding ground for North Sea fish. Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 km off the coast of the United Kingdom. During the War of Americ…

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dogwood

A deciduous shrub or small tree (Cornus sanguinea), growing to 6 m/20 ft, native to Europe, SW Asia, and North America; leaves oval, in opposite pairs, turning purple in autumn, veins prominent; flowers small, numerous, in flat-topped clusters; petal-like bracts, white, pink, red; berries black. Related ornamental species from China and North America have crimson young stems. (Family: Cornaceae.…

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Doha - History, Demographics, Economy, Education, Sports, Transport, Climate, Gallery

25º25N 51º32E, pop (2000e) 281 000. Seaport capital of Qatar, on the E coast of the Qatar Peninsula, in the Persian Gulf; reclamation of West Bay has created New Doha; chief commercial and communications centre; airport; university; oil refining, shipping, engineering, foodstuffs, refrigeration plant, construction materials; old Turkish fort (1850). Doha (Arabic: الدوحة;, Ad-Daw

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dolce stil novo

A poetic movement which developed in Florence at the end of the 13th-c and lasted until the beginning of the 14th-c. Its main exponents were Dante (who gave it its name in the Divine Comedy), Guido Guinizelli, Guido Cavalcanti, Lapo Gianni, and Cino da Pistoia. It was a new (novo) type of poetry, less provincial and more intellectual. Its principal theme is love, which is seen as a means of spirit…

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dolerite

A medium-grained basic igneous rock, dark-green in colour and composed mainly of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene crystals. It is the common rock of dykes and sills throughout the world. Dolerite (IPA: /ˈdɒlərʌɪt/, Greek: doleros, meaning "deceptive"), in petrology is the name given by Hauy to those basaltic rocks which are comparatively coarse grained. As may be inferred …

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dollar ($) - Synonyms and slang, Related names in modern currencies, National currencies called "dollar", Sources and references

A unit of currency in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and certain other countries. The US dollar is the world's most important currency. Much international trade is conducted in it, and prices of goods and commodities are often quoted in it (notably, the price of oil). Also, over half the official reserves of countries are held in US dollars. US domestic economic policy affects the value …

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dolly

A mobile platform for a film or video camera and its operator, allowing forward and sideways movement of the point of view during the action of the scene in addition to the pan and tilt of the camera itself. A dolly shot is a scene planned to make use of such camera movement. In science: In media: People called Dolly: Related to a wheeled platform: …

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Dolly (Rebecca) Parton - Discography

Country singer, songwriter, and actress, born in Locust Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Her early success was with Porter Wagoner (1927– ), on television and record; she later took country-based music into the pop mainstream, well-known hits including ‘Jolene’ (1974) and ‘Islands In The Stream’ (1984). She also wrote ‘I Will Always Love You’ (based on her relationship with Wagoner), a huge worldwide…

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Dolly Madison

US first lady, born in New Garden, North Carolina, USA. Her first husband having died, she married James Madison in 1794. Extremely popular as first lady, she was a great asset to Madison's political career. In 1814, she saved many state papers and a portrait of George Washington from the advancing British soldiers. In later life she retained a place in Washington society, and was granted a lifelo…

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dolomite - The dolomite problem, Uses

A mineral formed from calcium magnesium carbonate (Ca,Mg)CO3. The term is also applied to sedimentary carbonate rocks with more than 50% dolomite. It is usually formed by the alteration of calcite (CaCO3). Dolomite rock (also dolostone) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite. Limestone which is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone, or in old U.S. …

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Dolomites - Major Peaks, Major Passes, Photographs

Alpine mountain range in NE Italy; limestone formation of jagged outlines and isolated peaks, rising to 3342 m/10 964 ft at Marmolada; wooded upper slopes and upland meadows, lower levels arable land and pasture; major area for walking, climbing, winter sports, and health resorts; centres include Cortina d'Ampezzo and San Martino di Castrozza. …

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dolphin

A small, toothed whale. The name is usually used for species with a long slender snout (or ‘beak’) and streamlined body (though in some dolphins the beak is almost absent). Species with less streamlined bodies and blunt snouts are usually called porpoises (especially in genera Phocoena, Phocoenoides, and Neophocoena); worldwide. The name is also used for fresh water (or river) dolphins (family: …

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Dom

46°06N 7°52E. Highest mountain entirely in Switzerland, rising to 4545 m/14 911 ft NE of Zermatt in the Pennine Alps. DOM may refer to: …

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domain name system - History of the DNS, How the DNS works in theory, DNS in practice, Standards

The system which enables recognizable names (such as bbc.co.uk) to be associated with Internet locations (Internet Protocol numbers) that serve as routing addresses on the Internet. It is a directory organized in a hierarchy of levels, with each level separated by a dot. The top-level domain is the name which occurs at the top of the Internet domain-name hierarchy - the rightmost element of a doma…

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dome - Characteristics, Cupola, Famous domes, Xanadu House

Any curved termination to a building which is circular in plan; also called a cupola. The classic Renaissance dome is a slightly pointed hemisphere, as in St Peter's, Rome. Other shapes range from the flatter dish of the Pantheon in Rome to the bulging onion of St Mark's, Venice. The word also describes the whole architectural ensemble, including the cylindrical area (drum) below and the lantern a…

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Dome of the Rock - Religious significance, Construction

A masterpiece of Islamic architecture completed in AD 691 on Mt Moriah, Jerusalem. The shrine, which is built on an octagonal plan and surmounted by a gilded wooden cupola, encloses the holy rock where, according to tradition, Mohammed ascended to heaven and Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac. Coordinates: 31°46′40″N, 35°14′6″E The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد

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Domenichino - Late works and legacy, Attributed works

Painter, born in Bologna, N Italy. He trained under Ludovico Carracci and Denis Calvaert, and joined the Bolognese artists in Rome. His masterpiece is ‘The Last Communion of St Jerome’ (1614) in the Vatican. Domenico Zampieri (or Domenichino) (October 21, 1581–April 15, 1641), was a prominent high Baroque Italian painter of the Bolognese School, or Carracci School, of painters. Le…

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Domenico Alberti

Composer, born in Venice, NE Italy. His music is almost entirely forgotten, but he is remembered as the inventor of the Alberti bass, common in 18th-c keyboard music, in which accompanying chords are split up into figurations based upon each chord's lowest note. Domenico Alberti (around 1710 - 1740) was an Italian singer, harpsichordist and composer whose works bridge the Baroque and Classi…

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Domenico Cimarosa - Early career, Mid-life, Main works, Reference

Composer of operas, born in Aversa, S Italy. He studied music at Naples, and produced his first opera there in 1772. He was court musician at St Petersburg (1787) and Kapellmeister at Vienna (1791) succeeding Salieri, where his comic opera Il Matrimonio segreto (1792, The Secret Marriage) was a great success, then in 1793 he returned to Naples. He wrote many other works, including church and chamb…

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Domenico Fontana

Architect, born in Melide, S Switzerland (formerly Italy). He was papal architect in Rome, employed on the Lateran Palace, the Vatican Library, and St Peter's dome. He was afterwards royal architect in Naples. Domenico Fontana (1543 – 1607) was a Swiss architect of the late Renaissance. He was born at Melide on the Lake Lugano and died at Naples. He won the confidence …

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Domenico Ghirlandaio - First works in Florence and Rome, Later Works in Tuscany, Critical assessment and legacy

Painter, born in Florence, NC Italy. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith, a metal garland-maker or ghirlandaio. His main works were frescoes, in his native city, notably a series illustrating the lives of the Virgin and the Baptist in the choir of Santa Maria Novella (1490). Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449 - January 11, 1494) was a Florentine Renaissance painter, a contemporary of Botticelli and F…

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Domesday Book - Domesday Book, The survey, Purpose, Subsequent history, Bibliography

The great survey of England S of the Ribble and Tees rivers (London and Winchester excepted), compiled in 1086 on the orders of William the Conqueror; sometimes spelled Doomsday Book (though the dome refers to houses, not to doom). Information is arranged by county and, within each county, according to tenure by major landholders; each manor is described according to value and resources. Domesday …

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Domingo Ghirardelli

Chocolate manufacturer, born in Rapallo, NW Italy, the son of a leading chocolatier. In 1837 he travelled to South America, where he established a chocolate trade, eventually settling in Lima, Peru, and then moved on to San Francisco, where he supplied the 1849 gold rush miners with chocolate. He founded his chocolate company in the city, building it up into one of the largest stores in the W USA.…

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Dominic Behan - Biography, Works

Novelist and folklorist, born in Dublin, Ireland, the brother of Brendan Behan. He adapted old airs and poems into contemporary Irish Republican material, notably in The Patriot Game. Resentfully overshadowed for much of his life by the legend of his brother, he lived largely outside Ireland from 1947 as a journalist and singer. He ultimately settled in Scotland, where he won acceptance as a write…

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Dominic Dromgoole

Theatre director, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. Born into a theatrical family, he studied English at Cambridge University, began work as a part-time assistant director at London's Bush Theatre, and rose to become artistic director there (1990–7). He followed this with a spell at the Old Vic, where he directed new plays for Peter Hall's company, and then took over at the Oxford Stage Company (1…

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Dominick Argento - Operas

Composer, born in York, Pennsylvania, USA. After studies in the USA and Italy, he taught at the University of Minnesota from 1958. He is best known for his operas in a melodious, conservative style, including The Aspern Papers (1988). Dominick Argento (born 27 October 1927, York, Pennsylvania) is an American composer, best known as a leading composer of lyric opera. Argento has …

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Dominique De Menil

Art collector, philanthropist, and advocate for human rights, born in Paris, France. She studied at the University of Paris (1927 BA), then studied mathematics and physics. An heir to the Schlumberger fortune, she emigrated to the USA (1941) and began collecting art (1945), particularly contemporary African art, surrealist work, and antiquities. She and her husband, a wealthy Frenchman, establishe…

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Dominique You

Pirate, born either in Haiti or France. He may have served in the French navy. By 1810 he was prominent among a group of smugglers and pirates at Barataria Bay, just off the Louisiana coast, under Jean Laffite's leadership. He served with distinction in the American artillery at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and for this he was pardoned by President Madison. He settled in New Orleans (1817), a…

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domino theory - Conceptual roots, Background, Controversy, Al Qaeda and terrorism in the Middle East

A political theory first used by President Eisenhower in 1954, reflecting the view that, as neighbouring states are so interdependent, the collapse of one will spread to the others. The theory particularly relates to military collapse, but also covers insurgence, and is used to justify intervention in a country not immediately threatened, but whose neighbour is. It was an important element in the …

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dominoes - History, Domino tiles and suits, The ranks of domino pieces, Domino Sets, Common domino games

An indoor game which involves the matching of a series of marked blocks. It can be played in various forms by any number of players from two upwards (ideally, four). The dominoes are either wooden or plastic rectangular blocks, with the face of each block divided into two halves, each half containing a number of spots. No two dominoes have the same markings on them. In a double-six set of dominoes…

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Domitian - Early life, Emperor, Domitian and early Christianity

Roman emperor (81–96), the younger son of Vespasian, and the last of the Flavian emperors. An able but autocratic ruler, he thoroughly alienated the ruling class by his rapacity and tyrannical ways. Becoming paranoid about opposition after the armed revolt of Saturninus, the Governor of Upper Germany (89), he unleashed a reign of terror in Rome which lasted until his own assassination. Tit…

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Don (James) Larsen - Trivia

Baseball pitcher, born in Michigan City, Indiana, USA. He was known during his 21 years in organized baseball as a colourful, old-fashioned, fun-loving player of average major league abilities. But on 8 October 1956, in the fifth game of the New York Yankees-Brooklyn Dodgers World Series, with his 97th and final pitch of the day, he struck out Dodgers pinch-hitter Dale Mitchell and became the only…

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Don Banks

Composer, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He attended the Melbourne Conservatory (1947–9), then studied in London, Salzburg, and Florence. Having settled in England, he became music director of Goldsmith's College (1969–71). He returned to Australia in 1973, became head of Composition and Electronic Music Studies at Canberra School of Music in 1974, and head of the School of Compositi…

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Don Carlos - Characters, History, Highlights, Synopsis of the four act 'Milanese' version

Spanish pretender to the throne, the second son of Charles (Carlos) IV of Spain, born in Madrid, Spain. On the accession of his niece Isabella II (1830–1904) in 1833, he asserted his claim to the throne - a claim reasserted by his son, Don Carlos, Count de Montemolin (1818–61), and by the latter's nephew, Don Carlos (1848–1909). Carlist risings, whose strength lay in the Basque provinces, occur…

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Don Carlos Buell - Early life, Civil War, Postbellum

US soldier, born near Marietta, Ohio, USA. He trained at West Point (1841) and saw combat in the Mexican War, in which he was severely wounded. In mid-1861 he helped organize the Army of the Potomac, and took command of the newly formed Department of the Ohio later in the year. His unopposed entry into Nashville (1862) followed in the wake of Grant's victories at Forts Henry and Donelson. Buell's …

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Don Cupitt - See also, Books

Anglican clergyman and theologian. He studied at Cambridge, and was a curate in Salford (1959–62) before returning to Cambridge, where he became Dean of Emmanuel College (1966–91). His publications include Crisis of Moral Authority (1972), The Sea of Faith (1984) to accompany the television series of the same name, The New Christian Ethics (1988), and Solar Ethics (1995). He came to the B…

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Don John of Austria - The Don Juan legend, Other Don Juan literature

Spanish soldier, the illegitimate son of Charles V and Barbara Blomberg, born in Regensburg, SE Germany. He became a distinguished Spanish commander, defeating the Moors in Granada (1570), the Turks at Lepanto (1571), and capturing Tunis (1573). He was then sent to Milan, and in 1576 was appointed viceroy of The Netherlands by Philip II. He was received with suspicion and had to accept the Perpetu…

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Don Juan - The Don Juan legend, Other Don Juan literature

A legendary figure probably derived from Spanish literature sources. He is a philanderer who has no heart, and whose career is terminated by divine intervention. This comes in the shape of a stone statue, who insists on being Juan's guest and who carries him off to Hell. Mozart's opera Don Giovanni keeps to the traditional story, but more recently Spanish authors have offered psychological explana…

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Don Knotts - Biography, Trivia, Filmography, Television work

Television and film actor, born in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. His studies at West Virginia University were interrupted by World War 2 army service, where he entertained the troops, but he completed his degree in theatre studies in 1948. After working as a stand-up comedian, his break into showbusiness came with a regular spot on the Tonight Show, playing the type of nervous, highly-strung cha…

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Don Paterson - Works

Poet, writer, and musician, born in Dundee, E Scotland, UK. In 1993 he was appointed writer-in-residence at the University of Dundee and later moved to London (1995) as poetry editor at Picador publishing group, a position he still holds. Since 1998 he has lived in Scotland and works as a reviewer and columnist for several newspapers. His first poetry collection Nil Nil (1993) won the Forward Priz…

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Don Stephen Senanayake

First prime minister of Sri Lanka (1947–52), born in Colombo, W Sri Lanka. He studied in Colombo, then worked on his father's rubber estate. Entering the Legislative Council in 1922, he founded the co-operative society movement in 1923, and was elected to the State Council in 1931, where he was minister of agriculture for 15 years. Following independence, he became prime minister, as well as mini…

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Don(ald Scott) Drysdale

Baseball pitcher, born in Van Nuys, California, USA. A ferocious competitor, the tall right-hander won 209 games in 14 seasons with the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers (1956–69). He became a television broadcaster after retiring from the game and was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame (1984). Big D can refer to: …

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Donald (Campbell) Dewar - Biography

British statesman, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow, and practised law before entering parliament as Labour MP for Aberdeen South (1966–70) and then Glasgow Garscaddon (1978–2000). He served as opposition spokesman on Scottish affairs (1981–92) and then social security (1992–5) before becoming Labour chief whip (1995–7). In 1997 he became secretary of state for Scotland …

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Donald (Carl) Johanson - Bibliography, Quotes

Palaeoanthropologist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A graduate of Chicago University, he worked at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, where he became curator in 1974. His spectacular finds of fossil hominids 3–4 million years old at Hadar in the Afar triangle of Ethiopia (1972–7) generated worldwide interest. They include ‘Lucy’, a unique female specimen that is half complete, and the …

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Donald (Duart) Maclean

British diplomat and Soviet intelligence officer, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge at the same time as Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess, and Kim Philby, and was similarly influenced by Communism. He joined the diplomatic service in 1934, and was recruited by Soviet intelligence as an agent. During his diplomatic career he held the post of Head of Chancery at the British Embassy in Washington,…

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Donald (Eric) Broadbent

British psychologist. He joined the scientific staff of the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Research Unit in Cambridge after World War 2 (director, 1949–58). A major figure in post-war experimental psychology, he was the most influential British psychologist in the movement to import ideas from communication theory and cybernetics into cognitive psychology. In 1974 he became a membe…

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Donald (Harcourt) De Lue - Public monuments, Architectural sculpture, Images

Sculptor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied in Boston and Paris, established a studio in New York City (1938), and lived in Leonardo, NJ. He is known for his heroic and large sculptures, as in his bronze, The Rocket Thrower (1964–5). In 1941 De Lue won a competition to create sculpture for the Philadelphia Post Office and from then on he stopped being an assistant for other ar…

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Donald (Henry) Rumsfeld - Background and family, Career, Lawsuits

US Republican politician, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Princeton University (AB 1954), then served in the US Navy. He served three terms in the House of Representives (1962–9), then joined the Nixon administration as an assistant to the president (1969–72). He was chief-of-staff under Gerald Ford (1974–5), who also appointed him defence secretary (1975–7). He then became presi…

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Donald (Howard) Menzel - Biography, Menzel and UFOs

Astrophysicist, born in Florence, Colorado, USA. He studied at the universities of Denver and Princeton, then joined the staff of the Lick Observatory, CA, and was appointed director of the Harvard College Observatory (1954–66). He did valuable work on planetary atmospheres and on the composition of the Sun. He was one of the leading astronomers of his era, and also earned noteriety as an …

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Donald (James) Martino

Composer, born in Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. After studies at Princeton and in Italy, he taught at a number of institutions including Princeton and Harvard universities (from 1983). A leading exponent of serial compositional technique, he received the Pulitzer Prize in 1974 for his chamber work Notturno. Donald Martino (May 16, 1931–December 8, 2005) was a Pulitzer Prize winning America…

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Donald (John) Trump - Overview and business, Brand name, Trump Restaurants, Television and entertainment, Personal life, Books, Properties

Real estate developer, born in New York City, USA. The son of a New York City residential real estate developer, he took over the Trump Organization, and greatly expanded its holdings. He built increasingly grandiose buildings, including the Trump Tower, New York City (1982), and Atlantic City casinos. His high-profile political dealmaking and enthusiastic self-promotion made him a 1980s celebrity…

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Donald (Lawrence) Keene - Honorary degrees, Awards and commendations

Literary critic, translator, and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. A Columbia University PhD, he joined its faculty (1954) and became the leading Western expert on Japanese literature. His critical and historical studies and translations introduced Westerners to Japanese writing and earned him the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun (1976). Keene has been awarded eight honorary d…

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Donald (Malcolm) Campbell - Family, Water speed records, Land speed record attempt, Dual record holder, Final record attempt

Land and water speed-record contestant, born in Horley, Surrey, SE England, UK, the son of Sir Malcolm Campbell. An engineer by training, he sought to emulate his father's achievements. He set new world speed records several times on both land and water, culminating in 1964 with a water-speed record of 276·33 mph on L Dumbleyung in Australia, and a land-speed record of 403·1 mph at L Eyre salt…

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Donald (Olding) Hebb - Life, Work, Known Students

Psychologist, born in Chester, Nova Scotia, SE Canada. He spent most of his academic career at McGill University, Montreal, where he became an influential theorist concerned with the relation between the brain and behaviour. His most important book The Organization of Behavior (1949), was influential in the development of connectionism. Donald Olding Hebb (July 22, 1904 – August 20, 1985)…

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Donald (Richmond) Horne

Writer, academic, and arts administrator, born in Muswellbrook, Hunter Valley, New South Wales, SE Australia. He became associate professor of political science at the University of New South Wales in 1964 (emeritus, 1987). His best-known book is The Lucky Country (1964), the title of which has become a common Australian expression, used without the ironic sense originally intended. Other books in…

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Donald (Thomas) Regan - Early life, Reagan administration, Retirement

US Republican politician, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He studied English and economics at Harvard, served as a marine in World War 2, then joined Merrill Lynch, rising to become its president in 1968, and building the company into America's largest securities brokerage corporation. Appointed Treasury secretary in 1981, he became White House chief-of-staff in 1985, but was forced to resi…

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Donald Barthelme - Early life, First publications, Other works, Later life and death, Style and legacy, Awards

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He worked as a journalist and magazine editor before turning to fiction. Associated with the avant-garde movement of the 1960s, he was an experimentalist who rejected the traditions of the conventional novel form, as seen in Snow White (1967), The Dead Father (1975), and Paradise (1986). He also published many short stories.…

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Donald Judd

Minimalist artist, born in Excelsior Springs, Missouri, USA. He studied at the College of William and Mary, Columbia University, and at the Art Student's League. He had metal boxes manufactured to his specification, spray-painted one colour, and stood on the floor. He had therefore only ‘minimal’ contact with his work, which is deliberately non-imitative, non-expressive, and not ‘composed’ in …

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Donald McGill

Comic postcard artist, born in London, UK. A junior to a naval architect, he studied cartooning by correspondence course. In 1905 he sold his first comic card for six shillings to Asher's Pictorial Postcards - two million copies were sold. Famous for his outsize women in bathing costumes, paddling alongside weedy henpecked husbands, and for the double meanings in his captions, he did not receive c…

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Donald Neilson - Criminal beginnings, The sub-post offices, The abduction of Lesley Whittle, The grim discovery, Arrest

Convicted murderer and kidnapper, born near Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He was convicted of four murders, three of which occurred in 1974 when the victims interrupted him as he was robbing their houses. Because of the black hood he wore as a disguise, he became known as ‘the Black Panther’. Three murders were followed by a kidnapping. Seventeen-year-old Lesley Whittle was taken from…

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Donald Sutherland - Biography, External links

Film actor, born in St John, New Brunswick, E Canada. He studied at the University of Toronto, and for a time at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London. An actor of enormous versatility, he became known for his role in The Dirty Dozen (1967), following this with M*A*S*H (1970) and Klute (1971). Among his later films are Ordinary People (1980), A Time To Kill (1996), Instinct (1999), Uprising (2…

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Donald Swann - Autobiographies, Father's autobiography

Composer and lyricist, born in Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, SW Wales, UK. He began his writing career by contributing music to revues such as Penny Plain (1951), Airs on a Shoestring (1953), and Pay the Piper (1954). His long collaboration with Michael Flanders began in 1956, when he wrote the music, and Flanders the words and dialogue, for At the Drop of a Hat, followed by At the Drop of Another Ha…

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Donatello - Early years, Work in Florence, Later work

The greatest of the early Tuscan sculptors, born in Florence, NC Italy. He may be regarded as the founder of modern sculpture, as the first producer since classical times of statues complete and independent in themselves, and not mere adjuncts of their architectural surroundings. Among his works are the marble statues of saints Mark and George for the exterior of Or San Michele; and the tomb of Po…

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donation of Constantine

An apocryphal document attributed to Emperor Constantine I and addressed to Pope Silvester. It relates how the pope managed to convert the emperor and allegedly transfer power over Rome, Italy, and the W provinces to the papacy, who used it to justify its political and religious supremacy. Although dated 313, the document dates back to the 8th-c. Its authenticity had already been questioned by Ott…

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Donato Bramante - Urbino and Milan

High Renaissance architect, born near Urbino, WC Italy. He started as a painter, and worked in Milan (1477–99), where he executed his first building projects, such as Sta Maria delle Grazie. He was employed in Rome from 1499 by Popes Alexander VI and Julius II. He designed the new Basilica of St Peter's (begun in 1506), as well as the Belvedere courtyard, the Tempietto di Sta Pietro in Montorio (…

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Doncaster - Geography, demographics and regeneration, Roman Heritage, Early and Medieval History, Horse Racing

53°32N 1°07W, urban area pop (2001e) 286 900. Town in South Yorkshire, N England, UK; on R Don, 27 km/17 mi NE of Sheffield; founded as a fort 1st-c AD, later an important Roman station on road from Lincoln to York; birthplace of Lesley Garrett; railway; coal, nylon, rope, machinery, railway engineering; South Yorkshire industrial museum; St Leger Stakes, the oldest horse-race in England (Se…

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Donegal - History, Sport and media

pop (2000e) 130 000; area 4830 km²/1865 sq mi. County in Ulster province, N Ireland; bounded W and N by the Atlantic Ocean and E by N Ireland; watered by Finn and Foyle Rivers; Blue Stack Mts (W), Derry Eagh (NW), and Slieve Snaght (N) rising to 752 m/2467 ft at Errigal; capital, Lifford; tweed manufacture, agriculture, livestock; deposits of uranium; Station I on L Derg an important place…

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Donetsk - History, Administrative subdivisions, Demographics, Modern Donetsk, Transportation, Architecture, Footnotes and references

48°00N 37°50E, pop (2000e) 1 101 000. Industrial capital city of Donetskaya oblast, Ukraine; on the R Kalmius, in the Donbas coal basin; founded, 1870; airport; railway; university (1965); coal, metallurgy, engineering, machines, chemicals, foodstuffs; natural gas piped from Stavropol. Coordinates: 48°00′0″N, 37°48′0″E Donetsk (Ukrainian: Донецьк, translit.…

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Donna (Edna) Shalala - Early life, Teaching career, Secretary of Health and Human Services, University of Miami, Personal

Political scientist, educator, and cabinet officer, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Of Lebanese descent, she took her BA from Western College for Women (Oxford, OH) (1962), then spent two years with the Peace Corps in Iran. She then earned her MA and PhD (1970) from Syracuse, and while there participated in programmes that taught foreign students and Peace Corps staff. She taught at Bernard Baruch C…

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Donna Karan - Donna Karan International, Donna Karan, Inc. and LVMH, Biography, Donna Karan stores

Fashion designer, born in Forest Hills, New York, USA. She became chief designer with the Anna Klein sportswear company in 1974 , and with fellow designer Louis Dell'Olio won the Coty American Fashion Critic's Award in 1977and 1981. She launched the Donna Karan Co in 1984, and DKNY in 1988. In 2004, she received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America. An auto…

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Donna Summer - Personal life, Discography

Singer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. She secured the lead role in the musical Hair (1967) in Munich, Germany, staying with the production for over four years. She then undertook regular work as a session singer in the Munich Musicland Studios, before recording ‘Love to Love You Baby’ (1975), an erotic song with a strong disco beat, which reached number 2 in the US music charts. Her songs …

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doorbraak

The term used in The Netherlands after World War 2 for the proposed breaking down of the distinction between the confessional and non-confessional political parties. The idea was to replace them with a progressive/conservative system. The breakthrough movement aimed to put an end to the state of affairs created by A Kuyper known as the antithesis. The opposition of the confessional parties was too…

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dopamine - Biochemistry, Functions in the brain, Links to psychosis, Depression, Therapeutic use

A chemical compound (catecholamine) widely distributed in the brain and peripheral nervous system, a substance from which noradrenaline and adrenaline are formed, and a central nervous system transmitter. It is a hormone which inhibits the secretion of prolactin, and promotes the release of growth hormone from the front lobe of the pituitary gland. Dopamine is a base for the synthesis of two other…

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Dorado

A S constellation which includes the Large Magellanic Cloud; also known as ‘swordfish’ or ‘goldfish’. Dorado (IPA: /dəˈrɑːdəʊ/, Spanish: mahi-mahi or dolphin-fish) is a southern constellation. 36 Dor 4.65 …

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dorcas gazelle - Description, Breeding

A gazelle (Gazella dorcas), native to N Africa and S Asia; light brown with white underparts; dark smudge along flank and along side of face; short backward-curving horns ringed with ridges; also known as jebeer. The Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is not the smallest of the gazelles nor the most common, but it is pretty small and it is pretty common. The Dorcas gazelle is simil…

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Dorchester - Railways, Roads, History, 19th century, Hardy and Barnes

50°43N 2°26W, pop (2000e) 15 800. County town of Dorset, S England, UK; on the R Frome, 12 km/7 mi N of Weymouth; the Roman ramparts became known as ‘The Walks’ in the 18th-c; mint established here by King Athelstan; Judge Jeffreys' Bloody Assizes held here (1685); model for Casterbridge in Hardy's novels; railway; brewing; Dorset county museum, Dorset military museum, Maiden Castle prehis…

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Dordogne

area 9224 km²/3597 sq mi; Department of SW France in the Aquitaine region; capital, Périgueux; popular tourist area. …

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Dordrecht - History

51°48N 4°39E, pop (2000e) 117 000. River port and industrial city in S South Holland province, W Netherlands, 19 km/12 mi SE of Rotterdam; founded, 1008; Synod of Dort (meeting of the Reformed churches), 1618–19; railway; shipbuilding, engineering, chemicals; Grote Kerk (14th–16th-c). Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)) , or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of Sou…

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Dore Schary

Screenwriter, film producer, and director, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Originally an actor, he turned to screenwriting in 1932, sharing an Oscar for Boys Town (1938). After holding various posts with several film companies, he became Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's chief of production (1948–56), and after his dismissal he went to New York to write and produce the play Sunrise at Campobello (1956). In …

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Doric order - Examples

The earliest of the five main orders of classical architecture, characterized by a fluted shaft and plain capital. It is subdivided into Greek Doric and Roman Doric, the former having no base, as used for the Parthenon, Athens (447–438 BC). The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; The Greek Doric order was the earlies…

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Doris (May) Lessing - Literary Style, Bibliography

Writer, born in Kermanshah, W Iran. She lived on a farm in Rhodesia, and was married and divorced twice (Lessing is her second husband's name). Her first published novel was The Grass is Singing (1950), a study of white civilization in Africa, the theme of many early works. Her experiences of life in working-class London after her arrival in 1949 are described in In Pursuit of the English (1960). …

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Doris Day - Biography, Movie career, Box office queen and "world's oldest virgin", Compassion, Private Life

Singer and actress, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Borrowing her stage name from a song (‘Day by Day’), she sang with the Bob Crosby band and with Fred Waring, and gained national popularity after her recording of ‘Sentimental Journey’ with Les Brown's band (1944). Her singing was sweet, smooth, and intimate, and because she looked like everyone's ideal ‘girl next door’, she was soon making …

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Doris Humphrey

Dancer, choreographer, and teacher, born in Oak Park, Illinois, USA. She studied a range of dance forms before joining Ruth Saint Denis to learn an early form of modern dance. In 1928 she formed her own group with Charles Weidman, and toured with performances of her own choreography. Her dances were often concerned with form and based on musical structures, such as With My Red Fires (1935–6) and …

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dormancy - Animal dormancy, Bacterial dormancy, Plant dormancy

In biology, a state of relative metabolic inactivity in a plant or animal, such as is seen both in winter (hibernation) and summer (aestivation). The notion is particularly used for the state in which viable seeds and buds fail to germinate even under favourable conditions. Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when development is temporarily suspended. Dormancy tends to be close…

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dormouse

A mouse-like rodent of family Gliridae (10 species); native to Africa, Europe, and C Asia; intermediate between squirrels and true mice; most resemble mice, with long bushy tails. The name is also used for the desert dormouse of family Seleviniidae, and for oriental dormice of family Muridae (subfamily: Platacanthomyinae, 2 species). Dormice are Old World mammals in the family Gliridae, par…

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Dornford Yates

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and achieved great popularity with an entertaining series of fanciful escapist adventure fiction, such as Berry and Co (1921) and Jonah and Co (1922). Dornford Yates was the pseudonym of the British novelist, Cecil William Mercer (August 7, 1885 – March 5, 1960). He was born in 1885 at Walmer, Kent, and lived in Pau, France f…

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Dorothea (Lynde) Dix - Early life, Antebellum career, Final years

Reformer and nurse, born in Hampden, Maine, USA. She left an unhappy home at age 10 to live with her grandmother in Boston. Resourceful and determined, by age 14 she was on her own and teaching school in Worcester, MA. She established her own school in Boston, running it successfully (1821–34) until a tubercular illness, a recurring affliction, forced her to give it up. After a period of invalidi…

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Dorothea Jordan

Actress, born near Waterford, W Ireland. She made her debut in Dublin in 1777, and appeared with great success at Drury Lane in 1785. For nearly 30 years she kept her hold on the public, mainly in comic tomboy roles. Between 1790 and 1811 she was involved with the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV, by whom she had 10 of her 15 children. In 1814 she retired to Saint-Cloud, France. Blan…

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Dorothea Lange

Photographer, born in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. She studied at Columbia University, and established a studio in San Francisco in 1919. She is best known for her social records of migrant workers, share-croppers, and tenant farmers in the depression years from 1935, especially her study ‘Migrant Mother’ (1936). She later worked as a freelance photo-reporter in Asia, South America, and the Middle …

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Dorothy (Annie Elizabeth) Garrod

Archaeologist, born in London, UK. She studied at Cambridge, directed expeditions to Kurdistan (1928) and Palestine (1929–34), and took part in the excavations in the Lebanon (1958–64). An expert on the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age, she became the first woman to hold a professorial chair at Cambridge in 1939. Professor Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod (5 May 1892–18 December 1968) was a …

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Dorothy (Coade) Hewett - Early life, Career, Later years

Playwright, poet, and novelist, born in Perth, Western Australia. Her plays are mainly epic, Expressionist works that feature music and poetry; her first was the working-class drama This Old Man Comes Rolling Home (1967). Others include The Chapel Perilous (1971), her most widely performed play, which was banned by the West Australian government for many years, The Man from Muckinupin (1979), and …

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Dorothy (Stuart) Hamill - Navigation

Ice skater, born in Riverside, Connecticut, USA. In 1976 she won the world championship and a gold medal at the Olympics at Montreal, where her beauty and charisma won her worldwide acclaim. After her amateur career, she toured extensively with the Ice Capades. Dorothy Hamill (born July 26, 1956, Chicago, Illinois) is an American figure skater and 1976 Olympic champion. Hamill w…

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Dorothy Arzner - Further reading

Director and scriptwriter, born in San Francisco, California, USA. After working on a newspaper, she was hired as a stenographer at Famous Players, rising to the positions of film editor and scriptwriter. Promoted again to director, she made her debut with Fashions for Women (1927). She became Hollywood's only female director of the 1930s, directing 15 more films until 1943, and during World War 2…

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Dorothy Bellanca - Other

Labour leader and social reformer, born in Zemel, Latvia. Emigrating in 1900, she went to work in a factory at age 13 and became an organizer for the United Garment Workers of America, leading a strike of fellow buttonhole makers in 1912. A founder of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (1914) and member of its executive board (1916–18, 1934–46), she devoted 30 years to organizing campai…

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Dorothy Canfield Fisher

Writer, born in Lawrence, Kansas, USA. She studied Romance languages at Columbia University, then became a writer, publishing her early fiction and later non-fiction under her maiden and married names respectively. Among other contributions to education she popularized the Montessori teaching method in the USA in the 1910s. She was also a founding member of the Book-of-the-Month Club editorial boa…

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Dorothy Day - Awards and Recognition

Writer and radical social reformer, born in New York City, USA. A lifelong Socialist, she worked in the New York City slums as a probationary nurse. Converted to Catholicism in 1927, she co-founded the monthly Catholic Worker in 1933. Under the influence of the French itinerant priest, Peter Maurin, she founded the Catholic Worker Movement, which established ‘houses of hospitality’ and farm comm…

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Dorothy Draper

Interior decorator, born in Tuxedo Park, New York, USA. Starting her own company in 1925, she created flamboyant neo-baroque hotel and restaurant interiors, and wrote a syndicated newspaper column. Dorothy Draper (born 1889 in Tuxedo Park, New York, died 1969) was an influential and innovative American interior decorator of the early to mid 20th century. The two had similar styles and…

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Dorothy Fields - Biography

Lyricist, born in Allenhurst, New Jersey, USA. The daughter of Broadway comedian and producer Lew Fields, she taught dramatic arts and published poetry before working with composer Jimmy McHugh on her first hit, ‘I Can't Give You Anything But Love, Baby’, from the 1928 musical Blackbirds of 1928. They also wrote ‘On the Sunny Side of the Street’ (1930). She spent most of the 1930s in Hollywood…

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Dorothy Hayden Truscott

Bridge player and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Her parents taught her to play bridge at seven years of age. She studied mathematics at Smith College, then worked as a teacher of mathematics and as an insurance actuary. In 1959 she won the first of many national bridge titles, and in 1965 became only the second woman to compete for the US in the Bermuda Bowl world team championship…

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Dorothy Kirsten

Soprano, born in Montclair, New Jersey, USA. After studies at Juilliard and in Rome, she debuted with the Chicago Opera (1940) and at the Metropolitan (1945), singing her final performance there (as Tosca) in 1975. Among her noted roles was Mimi in La Bohème. The American soprano Dorothy Kirsten (July 6, 1910–November 18, 1992) was a well-known opera singer whose stage career spanned fro…

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Dorothy Mary Hodgkin

Chemist, born in Cairo, Egypt. She studied at Oxford and Cambridge, became a research fellow at Somerville College, Oxford (1936–77), and research professor at the Royal Society (1960–77). A crystallographer of distinction, she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1964 for her discoveries, by the use of X-ray techniques, of the structure of certain molecules, including penicillin, vitami…

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Dorothy Mendenhall - People, Other

Physician, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. A dedicated researcher and physician, she is best known for her early research on Hodgkin's disease and contributions to maternal and child health care while a medical officer at the United States Children's Bureau (1917–36). Her many articles greatly influenced the diet of pregnant women and children. …

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Dorothy Parker - Early life, The Round Table years, Hollywood and later life, Spoken word recordings

Journalist and short-story writer, born in West End, New Jersey, USA. Educated at a convent, in 1916 she sold some of her poetry to the editor of Vogue, and was given an editorial position on the magazine. She became drama critic of Vanity Fair (1917–20), and was at her most trenchant in book reviews and stories in the early issues (1927–33) of the The New Yorker, a magazine whose character she …

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Dorothy Thompson - Thompson on Grynszpan Affair, Quotations

Journalist, born in Lancaster, New York, USA. A foreign correspondent in Vienna and Berlin during the 1920s, she later wrote a syndicated column (1936–57) and espoused vehemently anti-Nazi views prior to World War 2. Her books include New Russia (1928) and Let the Record Speak (1939). She was married to Sinclair Lewis in 1928–42. See also Dorothy Thompson (disambiguation) Doro…

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Dorothy Wordsworth

Writer, born in Cockermouth, Cumbria, NW England, UK the sister of William Wordsworth, and his lifetime companion. Her Alfoxden Journal (1798) and Grasmere Journals (1800–3) show a keen sensibility and acute observation of nature in their own right, and as well as adding an important biographical perspective on her brother, gave inspiration to both him and Coleridge in their poems. In 1829 she su…

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Dorset - History, Physical geography, Demographics, Politics, Economy and industry, Dorset people, Settlements and communications

pop (2001e) 391 000; area 2654 km²/1025 sq mi. County of S England, UK; bounded S by the English Channel; extensive heathlands and chalk down, drained by the Frome and Stour Rivers; county town, Dorchester; chief towns include Bournemouth, Poole (both new unitary authorities from 1997), Weymouth; tourism, livestock, quarrying; setting for many of Hardy's novels. Dorset (pronounced 'DO…

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Dortmund - Sports, Traffic, History, Sister Cities Affiliations

51°32N 7°28E, pop (2000e) 619 000. Industrial, mining, and commercial city in Arnsberg district, W Germany; river port in the Ruhr valley, connected to the North Sea by the Dortmund–Ems Canal (272 km/169 mi); one of Germany's largest inland harbours; railway; university (1966); iron and steel, engineering, machinery, non-alcoholic drinks, textiles, brewing; sporting centre. Coordinat…

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DOS

Acronym for Disk Operating System, referring to the computer program - part of the operating system - which oversees the communication of data between the computer processor and its magnetic disks, as well as the management of files and programs on the disks. DOS may refer to: DoS may refer to: dos may refer to: …

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Dosso Dossi - Biography, Selected works, Literature

Religious painter, born near Mantua, N Italy. He was the leader of the Ferrarese school in the early 16th-c. Dosso Dossi (c.1490 - 1542) , real name Giovanni di Niccolò de Luteri, was an Italian Renaissance painter who belonged to the Ferrara School of Painting. Dossi was probably born in Venice. Dosso worked frequently with his brother Battista Dossi, who had trained in the Ro…

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Douai - Other colleges and universities, Births, Twin towns

50º22N 3º04E, pop (2001e) 42 600. Town in Nord department, N France; on the R Scarpe; probably a 4th-c Roman fortress; belonged to the counts of Flanders in the Middle Ages, received charter, 1228; birthplace of Jacques Aved, Giovanni da Bologna, Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, Charles Dutert; prosperous cloth trade declined; town passed to the dukes of Burgundy (1384), then to the Spanish Habsbu…

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Douai Bible - Origin, Style, Influence, Challoner Revision, Names of Books

An early English translation of the Bible by Roman Catholic scholars. The New Testament was first published at Reims in 1582; the Old Testament in 1609. It is sometimes called the Reims–Douai translation (the English college at Douai having moved to Reims in 1578). The Douai Bible, also known as the Rheims-Douai Bible or Douay-Rheims Bible and abbreviated as D-R, is a Catholic translation …

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double bass - Origins and history, Terminology, Design, Tone, Construction, Tuning, Pitch range, Playing posture, Bows, Modern playing styles

The largest and lowest in pitch of the orchestral string instruments. There are two basic types: the first, belonging to the viol family, has sloping shoulders and a flat back; the other, belonging to the violin family, has squarer shoulders and a slightly rounded (sometimes also flat) back. Both types have four strings, tuned in fourths: sometimes a fifth, lower string is added. There are similar…

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double exposure

The intentional combination of two or more images separately exposed on a single photographic record, either in the camera or by subsequent printing. The images may be superimposed so that one is seen through the other, or appear without overlapping by the use of masks or mattes to reserve specific areas. It is widely used for artistic effects and in trick photography. In film and photograp…

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double jeopardy - Double jeopardy by country

The legal doctrine (included in the Fifth Amendment to the US constitution) that no person can be convicted twice for the same crime, or for different crimes arising from the same set of facts unless the crimes involve substantially different wrongs. It also holds that no person having been acquitted of an offence should be subjected to a second trial for the same offence. Double jeopardy (…

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double star

A pair of stars that appear close together in our sky when viewed through a telescope. Some pairs are stars at very different distances that merely coincide from our vantage point. If the stars are close enough to be linked through their gravitational attractions, they constitute a binary star. When two stars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth that they appear to be a si…

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Douglas

54°09N 4°29W, pop (2000e) 23 700. Seaport capital of the Isle of Man; on the E coast, 80 km/50 mi W of Barrow-in-Furness; railway; tourism, brewing, light engineering; House of Keys, Manx National Museum, Castle Mona (1804), Tower of Refuge on Conister rock (1832), casino, steam railway. Douglas may refer to: People: In business: In fiction: …

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Douglas (Eaglesham) Dunn

Poet, born in Renfrewshire, W Scotland, UK. His early work, including Terry Street (1969) and Love or Nothing (1974), was noted for its registration of urban experience. Later volumes, such as Barbarians (1979), Elegies (1985), and Northlight (1988) have more emotional and more intellectual appeal. New Selected Poems 1964-2000 appeared in 2003. His short story collections include Secret Villages (…

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Douglas (John Nash) Bush - Major works

Scholar, literary historian, and educator, born in Morrisburg, Ontario, Canada. As an English professor at Harvard (1936–66), he trained generations of literary scholars and published widely on the classical tradition in Renaissance and Romantic literature. Douglas Bush (1896–1983) was a literary critic and literary historian. He taught for most of his life at Harvard University, where h…

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Douglas (Noel) Adams - Computer games and projects, The Dirk Gently series, Personal beliefs, Personal life, Death, Biographies, Works

Writer, born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, then worked as a writer, producing material for radio and television shows, and also for stage revues. He is known for his humorous science fiction novels, especially The Hitch-hiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1979, originally a radio series, 1978, 1980, later televised; filmed 2005). Later works included The Meaning o…

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Douglas (Robert) Jardine

Cricketer, born in Mumbai (Bombay), W India. He was captain of England during the controversial ‘bodyline’ tour of Australia (1932–3), where he employed Harold Larwood to bowl extremely fast at the batsman's body, the first use of intimidatory bowling in the game. The event almost caused England and Australia to sever diplomatic relations. He wrote a defence of his tactics in In Quest of the As…

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Douglas (Stuart) Moore - Music, List of works

Composer and educator, born in Greenport, Long Island, New York, USA. He had a long teaching career at Columbia University (1926–62) and is best known for his ‘Americana’ operas, especially The Ballad of Baby Doe (1956). Moore was born in Cutchogue, Long Island, New York, and his ancestors can be traced back to the fist settlers arriving to Long Island. In 1921, Moore went to Cleveland a…

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Douglas Dunn

Postmodern dancer and choreographer, born in Palo Alto, California, USA. While at Princeton he studied dance, moving to New York City and the Merce Cunningham studio. While working for the Merce Cunningham Dance Company (1969–73) he met Yvonne Rainer. As well as performing in her work, he joined her as one of the founders of the experimental dance group Grand Union, with which he was associated f…

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Douglas Hyde - Background, Conradh na Gaeilge, Senator, President of Ireland, Senility rumours, Decisions as President, Retirement and death

Writer, philologist, and first president of Ireland (1937–45), born in Frenchpark, Co Roscommon, WC Ireland. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and was the founder and first president (1893–1915) of the Gaelic League. Professor of Irish in the National University (1909–32), he wrote A Literary History of Ireland (1899), as well as poems, plays, works on history and folklore, in Irish and En…

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Douglas MacArthur - Early Life and Education, World War I, Inter-war years, World War II

Diplomat, born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA, the nephew of General Douglas MacArthur. As a diplomatic secretary to Vichy, France, he was imprisoned for 16 months by the Germans. He was a State Department counsellor and ambassador to Japan (1957–61), where he negotiated a second security pact between Japan and the USA. He served as ambassador to Belgium (1961–5), Austria (1967–9), and Iran (1…

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Douglas MacArthur - Early Life and Education, World War I, Inter-war years, World War II

US soldier, born in Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. The son of a Union army hero during the Civil War (they are the only father and son to win the Congressional Medal of Honor) and a mother ambitious for his success, he trained at West Point (1903), rose steadily in the army, and demonstrated his bravado on a secret mission to Mexico (1914). In World War 1 he commanded a brigade in combat in France (1…

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Douglas Wakiihuri

Athlete, born in Mombasa, SE Kenya. He went to Japan in 1983 to train under the late Kiyoshi Nakamura, and ran 2:16:26 in his debut marathon in 1986. He was the surprise winner of the 1987 World marathon title, and went on to compile a brilliant marathon career, taking a silver medal at the 1988 Olympic Games, and gold at the Commonwealth Games in 1990. Seemingly unconcerned about fast times, he l…

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Dounreay - Etymology, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, HMS Vulcan

Former nuclear research station, Caithness, Highland, N Scotland, UK; on the coast of the Pentland Firth, 13 km/8 mi W of Thurso; site of world's first experimental fast-breeder nuclear reactor. Dounreay (Ordnance Survey grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. It is famous as the site of five nuc…

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dove (ornithology)

A bird of the pigeon family. Usually the large-bodied species with rounded tails are called pigeons; the smaller-bodied one with longer slender tails are called doves. However, this distinction is not applied consistently. Pigeons and doves are some 300 species of near passerine birds in the order Columbiformes. doves Genus Columba (Old World pigeons) Genus Streptope…

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dove (politics)

In US foreign policy, someone who prefers to use diplomacy instead of reliance on military power to settle international problems. The term was first used in the period of the Kennedy and Johnson presidencies. Today it is probably used to describe anyone who takes a relatively soft line in foreign policy matters. A hawk represents the opposite position, favouring a tougher line. Doves are seen as …

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Dover (UK) - History, Education, Sport, Places of interest, Twin Towns, Location, Publications

51°08N 1°19E, pop (2001e) 104 500. Seaport in Kent, SE England, UK; principal cross-Channel port, the shortest link with France (35 km/21¾ mi); the largest of the Cinque Ports; railway; Dover Castle (13th–14th-c); 13th-c St Edmund's Chapel, the smallest chapel in England; Roman painted house (2nd-c AD). Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. At the 2001 census,…

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Dover (USA) - History, Education, Sport, Places of interest, Twin Towns, Location, Publications

39°10N 75°32W, pop (2000e) 32 100. Capital of state in Kent Co, C Delaware, USA; founded, 1683; state capital, 1777; city status, 1929; railway; university; trade in fruit and vegetables; air force base; Old Dover Days (May). Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. At the 2001 census, the town of Dover proper had a population of 28,156 inhabitants, while the populat…

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Down

pop (2000e) 404 000; area 2448 km²/945 sq mi. County in SE Northern Ireland, UK, divided into six districts (Ards, Banbridge, Castlereagh, Down, Newry and Mourne, North Down); the name is also used for one of these districts, pop (2000e) 64 000, and its administrative centre; bounded N by Belfast Lough, S by Carlingford Lough, and E by the Irish Sea; coastline indented (N–S) by Strangford…

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Downing Street - Who lives where, Downing Street gates

A street off Whitehall in C London, UK. Of the original terraced houses only numbers 10 (since 1735 the prime minister's official residence), 11 (used by the Chancellor of the Exchequer), and 12 (used by the party whip) remain. One side of the street has been replaced by the Foreign Office building. Downing Street is the street in Westminster, London, which has been the official residence f…

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Downing Street declaration

A joint agreement between the British and Irish governments, made in 1993, intended to provide the basis of a peace initiative in Northern Ireland. The declaration was made by British and Irish prime ministers John Major and Albert Reynolds, and recommended closer co-operation over Northern Ireland affairs, taking further the initiatives of the 1985 Anglo-Irish agreement. The Downing Street…

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Downpatrick - History, Places of interest, Transport, Sport, People, Education, 2001 Census, Geography

54°20N 5°43W, pop (2000e) 11 000. Town in Down district, County Down, SE Northern Ireland, UK, near the S end of Strangford Lough; a major centre of pilgrimage; St Patrick is said to have landed here in 432 and to have founded a church c.440; reputed burial place of Saints Patrick, Columbus, and Bridget of Kildare; textiles, agricultural trade; St Patrick's Cathedral (1798–1812), remains of I…

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Downs - Surname

Low-lying chalk hill ranges rising in Dorset and Hampshire and extending into Surrey, Kent, and East and West Sussex, S England, UK; North Downs extend from the chalk cliffs of Dover in the E, through Kent and into Surrey; separated from the South Downs by the Weald; South Downs stretch W to Beachy Head, running parallel to the S coast; North Downs rise to 294 m/964 ft at Leith Hill, South Downs…

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dowsing - History of dowsing, Possible explanations, Dowsing equipment

A technique in which a held rod, pendulum, or other indicator moves when it is brought near to a certain substance. This technique has been employed to search for a wide variety of substances, including water, oil, and mineral deposits, and maps have been constructed of old field boundaries. Although there are records of its use in Ancient Egypt, the medical applications of dowsing date only from …

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Draco (law-giver)

Athenian law-giver. Archon at Athens in 621 BC, he revised the laws of Athens with admirable impartiality; but the severity of his penalty - death for almost every offence - made the strict execution of his code unpopular (hence ‘draconian’), and it was superseded by that of Solon (594 BC). Only his ruling on homicide remained. Draco's code was later largely revised by Solon, in the early…

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drag - Culture, Places, Other

A force which impedes the motion of an object through a fluid. It results from both the friction between the object and the fluid flowing over it (viscous or frictional drag), and the pressure differences caused by the flow around the object (form or profile drag). Drag experienced by an object in an air stream is called air resistance. Drag may mean: …

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drag racing - Basics of drag racing, Drag racing in the 21st century, Racing organization, Drag racing performance facts

A specialized form of motor racing which is a test of acceleration. Large-engined ‘vehicles’ with big rear wheels and small front ones race normally two at a time on a 400 m/440 yd straight track, from a standing start. Parachutes are fitted to the machines to help with braking. The sport developed in California in the 1930s, and is now very popular in the USA. Speeds of over 400 kph/250 mph…

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dragonet - In aquaria

Any of a small family of fishes, widespread in coastal waters of tropical to warm temperate seas; includes European Callionymus lyra found from Norway to the Mediterranean, living on or in sand and shingle sediments; length up to 30 cm/1 ft, body rather flattened, pelvic fins broad, dorsal fin striped blue and yellow in male; gill openings small on top of head, eyes prominent. (Family: Callionym…

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dragonfly - Classification, Some common species of the Northern Hemisphere

A large, long-bodied insect with two pairs of slender wings held horizontally at rest; large compound eyes enable adults to catch insects in flight; larvae aquatic, broad-bodied, predatory. (Order: Odonata. Suborder: Anisoptera.) A dragonfly is any insect belonging to the order Odonata, the suborder Epiprocta or, in the strict sense, the infraorder Anisoptera. Dragonflies are th…

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drama - History of Drama, Today, Tool for education, Workshops, Slang

A representation of human action by actors impersonating characters on stage. One of the oldest literary forms, developing in different directions out of religious ritual, its origins are reflected in the frequent use of music, dance, and chorus. Drama was divided by Aristotle into tragedy and comedy, a distinction valid for classical times, with the strict separation of styles. But with the devel…

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draughts - General rules, Variants

A popular board game played on a standard chessboard containing 64 squares of alternate colours (normally black and white); known as checkers in the USA. Played by two players, each has 12 small, flat, round counters (known as pieces), one set normally being black, the other white. The pieces are lined on alternate squares on the first three rows at either side of the board. The object is to remov…

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Dravidian languages

A group of more than 20 languages, spoken mainly in S India. The principal ones are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam, which together have over 150 million speakers within the S states. The origin of this group of languages is obscure, but there is general agreement that they were once spoken throughout India, and were displaced from the N by the advance of the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-Europe…

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dreaming

Sensory perceptions experienced during sleep; specifically during the period of sleep associated with rapid movement of the eyes (REM sleep). Perceptions are usually visual, but sound, smell, taste, and touch can also be experienced. They may occur in a random fashion, or be guided by the emotional responses and subconscious thoughts of the dreamer. A Dreaming is commonly known among Indige…

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Dred Scott

Slave, born in Southampton Co, Virginia, USA. He made legal and constitutional history in the Dred Scott Case (1848–57), which sought to obtain his freedom on the ground that his master took him from Missouri (a slave state) to Illinois (a free state). The Supreme Court ruled against him, but the decision served to increase anti-slavery agitation in the North. He was soon emancipated, and became …

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Dresden - Geography, History, Culture and architecture, Infrastructure and economy, Twin cities, Dresden and fine arts, Further reading

51°02N 13°45E, pop (2000e) 512 000. Capital of Dresden county, E Germany; on R Elbe, SE of Berlin, close to the Czech frontier; former capital of Saxony; almost totally destroyed by bombing in 1945, now rebuilt; airport; railway; technical university (1828); restoration of Frauenkirche ‘Our Lady's Church’ (1743) completed, 2004; Dresden china now manufactured in Meissen; motor vehicles, elec…

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dressage - Breeds of Dressage horses, The arena, Competition, Olympic level, The Training Scale, Airs above the ground

An equestrian discipline which is a test of the horse's obedience skills, consisting of a series of movements at the walk, trot, and canter. Dressage can have its own competition or form part of a three-day event. Dressage (a French term meaning "training") is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. Its fundame…

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Dries (Andreas A M) van Agt

Dutch Catholic politician and lawyer, born in Geldrop, S Netherlands. Professor of criminal law in Nijmegen, he was appointed minister of justice (1971–7). In 1973 he became prime minister of the Christen-Democratisch Appèl (CDA)/Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD)coalition, in 1981 of the CDA/ Partij van de Arbeid (Pvd), Democraten '66 (D66) coalition, and later of CDA and D66, when h…

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drift

A geological term for glacial or glaciofluvial sedimentary deposits, generally unsorted and unstratified, with a wide range of particle sizes from boulders to clay. See also: …

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drill - History, Types, Related tools

A baboon (Mandrillus leucophaeus), native to W African forests; resembles the mandrill, but smaller, with a black face. Drills live to the N of the Sanaga R in Cameroon; mandrills live to the S. A drill is a tool with a rotating drill bit used for drilling holes in various materials. The drill bit is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill, and is pressed against the target m…

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Drogheda - History, Arts/Entertainment, Drogheda today, Local economy

53°43N 6°21W, pop (2000e) 25 000. Industrial seaport town in Louth county, NE Leinster, E Ireland; on R Boyne, N of Dublin; Irish parliaments met here until 1494; massacre of garrison by Oliver Cromwell, 1649; railway; brewing, textiles, chemicals; Neolithic passage graves, 7 km/4 mi W; remains of 5th-c monastery at Monasterboice, 8 km/5 mi N; Battle of the Boyne field (1690) 6 km/3¾ mi…

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drongo - Species of Dicruriniae, Trivia

A bird native to the Old World tropics; plumage usually glossy black; long forked tail; inhabits woodland; eats mainly insects; fearless in chasing other birds, including hawks. (Family: Dicruridae, 20 species.) The drongos are a subfamily of small passerine birds of the Old World tropics. In Australian slang, the word drongo is a synonym for a total loser or idiot. …

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dropwort

An erect perennial (Filipendula vulgaris), growing to 80 cm/30 in, native to Europe, W Asia, and N Africa; roots tuberous; leaves pinnate, with pairs of small leaflets lying between 8–20 pairs of large leaflets; flowers 6-petalled, sepals reflexed, cream tinged with purple, forming an irregular terminal mass; carpels straight. (Family; Rosaceae.) …

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drought - Definitions, Consequences, Famous droughts, Current significant droughts

An extended period of dry weather, generally associated with a blocking anticyclone in which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation, causing soil moisture deficits. Some regions, especially arid and semi-arid areas, are particularly prone to droughts, which can result in food shortages and human suffering. In the Sahel region on the S edge of the Sahara Desert, rainfall 1968–1972 was only 50% o…

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drug resistance

A state in which a patient does not respond to a therapeutic drug. Bacteria may acquire resistance through gene mutation to a particular antibiotic by its overuse or misuse; for example, the first class of antibiotics, the sulphonamides, fell out of use when many common strains of bacteria became resistant. Development of resistance to a range of modern antibiotics, combined with poor living condi…

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drum

A musical instrument consisting of a membrane of skin or plastic (rarely of other materials) stretched over a hollow resonator or frame, usually of wood or metal. Drums are normally played by striking the membrane with a stick or with the hands, and may be classified according to their shape (eg conical, cylindrical, ‘hourglass’, kettledrums) and whether they have a single membrane or are double…

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drupe

A fleshy fruit in which each of one or more seeds is enclosed by a stony layer. In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. Other fleshy fruits may have a stony enclosure that comes from the seed coat surrounding the seed. …

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Druze - Location, History of the Druze, The Druze today, Prominent Druze figures, Beliefs of the Druze

One of the dominant religious communities of Mount Lebanon. The Druze trace their origins to the 11th-c exodus of the followers of Fatimid caliph al-Hakim (996–1021), who left Egypt for Lebanon to avoid persecution for their heterodox views. A sect separate from Islamic orthodoxy, the community is divided between an elite of initiates and the majority who are not initiated. In the 19th-c many Dru…

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dry cleaning - History, Process, Solvent processing, Dry cleaning wastes, Solvents used

The cleaning of textiles using organic solvents rather than water. Soil (solid dirt) is held on to fabrics by oil and grease, which are removed by detergents during washing. In dry cleaning, the oil/grease is dissolved by the solvent, and the solid dirt falls away easily. Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water. Dry cleaning i…

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dry rot

A serious type of timber decay caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans; infected wood shows a surface growth of white filaments (mycelium); fruiting bodies leathery, bearing rust-coloured spores; common on structural timbers of buildings in damp, poorly ventilated conditions. (Subdivision: Basidiomycetes.) Dry rot is an almost oxymoronic term given to the decay of a substance without the pre…

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dryad

In Greek mythology, a being originally connected with oak-trees, but more usually referring to a wood-nymph, living in or among the trees. Dryads were usually friendly, but could frighten travellers. Dryads are female tree spirits in Greek mythology. …

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dryland farming

A system of agriculture adjusted to make the best use of limited rainfall in crop production in the drier regions of the world, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Successful dryland farming involves the careful selection of crops and cultivars, and of sowing date, to ensure that crop growth coincides with the availability of water. It may involve leaving some fields uncultivated for one or more…

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drypoint

A method of intaglio printing whereby the metal plate is incised by direct pressure using a steel point. The greatest master was Rembrandt, who often combined drypoint with straightforward etching. Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (typically copper, zinc, or plexiglas) by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp met…

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Du Fu - Life, Works, Influence, Translation

Poet, friend, and admirer of Li Bo. Born into a noble family near Changan (Xian) he became a minor official at the Tang court of Xuanzong despite failing the imperial examinations. Like Li Bo, he wrote lyrical poems on friendship and wine, but his Confucianism also inspired poems of human feeling, social criticism, political comment, and hostility to war. A prolific writer, his best work includes …

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dualism - Moral dualism, Ditheism/Bitheism, In Eastern mysticism, Mind/Matter and Mind/Body dualism

In philosophy, a theory which asserts the existence of two fundamental categories into which everything divides. Examples include Plato's distinction between temporal things and timeless forms, and Descartes' distinction between mind and matter. The notion contrasts with monism and pluralism. In a given domain of knowledge, dualism involves the existence of two fundamental principles (or co…

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dubbing

The combination of several separate sound recordings into the final composite sound track for a motion-picture or video production; sometimes known as mixing. The term also refers to the operation of replacing spoken dialogue of a completed sound track by its equivalent in another language, producing a dubbed version. Dub, Dubs, or Dubbing may refer to: People Film, …

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Dublin (city) - Name, History, Climate, Culture, Government, Sister Cities, Tourist Attractions, Additional reading

53°20N 6°15W, pop (2000e) 485 000 (county borough), 953 000 (including suburbs). County borough and capital of Ireland; at mouth of R Liffey where it meets the Irish Sea; on site of Viking settlement; first Sinn Féin parliament met here, 1919; airport; railway; ferries to Liverpool and to Holyhead (from both Dublin and Dun Laoghaire); two universities (1591, 1908); two cathedrals; trading po…

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Dublin (county) - Name, History, Climate, Culture, Government, Sister Cities, Tourist Attractions, Additional reading

pop (2000e) 1 038 000; area 922 km²/356 sq mi. County in Leinster province, E Ireland; bisected W–E by R Liffey and the Grand Canal; Wicklow Mts to the S, and Irish Sea to the W; capital, Dublin; agriculture, livestock, Dublin trade and industries. Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath) is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Ireland'…

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Dubrovnik - History, Climate, Miscellaneous, Notable people born in Dubrovnik, Images of Dubrovnik, Further reading

42°40N 18°07E, pop (2000e) 69 500. Port on the Dalmatia coast of Croatia; capital of Dalmatia; earthquake damage, 1979; badly damaged during siege by the Federal Army in the civil war, 1991; airport; car ferries to Italy and Greece; silk, leather, dairy products, liqueurs, tourism; mediaeval town walls surrounding the old town, a world heritage site; cathedral, Rector's palace; Dubrovnik Summe…

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Katherine Marjory Murray Duchess of Atholl

Conservative politician, born in Banff, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. She studied at the Royal College of Music, and was an accomplished pianist and composer. In 1899 she married the future 8th Duke of Atholl, John George Murray (1871–1942), becoming Duchess of Atholl in 1917. She became MP for Kinross and Perthshire in 1923, and was the first Conservative woman minister as parliamentary secret…

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Duchess of Cornwall - Literary references

Consort of Charles, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The daughter of Major Bruce (1917–2006) and Rosalind Shand (1921–1994), she grew up in Sussex and was educated at the Queen's Gate School in London before attending finishing school in Switzerland and France. She first met Prince Charles in 1970 and they became close friends. In 1973 she married cavalry of…

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(Bessie) Wallis Duchess of Windsor - Geography, Local government, History, Transport, Education, Sport and leisure

Wife of Edward VIII, born in Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania, USA. An extrovert socialite, in 1916 she married Lieutenant Earl Winfield Spencer of the US Navy, but in 1927 the marriage was dissolved. The following year, in London, she married Ernest Simpson, an American-born Briton. Well-known in London society, she met Edward, the Prince of Wales, at a country-house party in 1931. In 1936, the ye…

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Duchy of Cornwall - Duchy Estate, Duchy of Cornwall dispute, Discrepancies in the Great Charter translations

The oldest of English duchies, instituted by Edward III in 1337 to provide support for his eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince. Since 1503 the eldest son of the sovereign has inherited the dukedom; it consists of lands (totalling c.52 000 ha/130 000 acres) in Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and S London, including the Oval cricket ground. The present Prince of Wales pays one quarter of the revenue…

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Duchy of Lancaster

A duchy created in 1267 from estates originally given by Henry III to his son Edmund in 1265. It was attached to the Crown in 1399 when the last Duke of Lancaster became Henry IV. The duchy lands consist of some 21 000 ha/52 000 acres of farmland and moorland, mostly in Yorkshire, N England, UK; the revenue is paid direct into the Monarch's private allowance (the Privy Purse), so the duchy fun…

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duck - Etymology, Ducks and humans, Ducks and humor, Gallery

A smallish bird (the larger species are called geese or swans), primarily aquatic, with full webbing between the three front toes; relatively long neck; blunt flattened bill; male has penis (rare in birds). (Family: Anatidae.) Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. The word duck (from Anglo-Saxon dūce), meaning the bird, came from the v…

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Dudley - Places of interest, Transport, History, Local government, Neighbourhoods, Schools, Famous people, Trivia

52º30N 2º05W, pop (2001e) 305 200. Metropolitan borough in West Midlands, C England, UK; created in 1974 incorporating Dudley, Halesowen, and Stourbridge; 12 km/7 mi W of Birmingham; known as the capital of the Black Country in 19th-c; birthplace of William Angliss, Lenny Henry, Sir Maurice Wilkes; railway; castle (13th-c), Church of St Thomas the Apostle (1817–19); engineering, cables, cha…

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Dudley (Stuart John) Moore - Selected Filmography, UK chart singles, Further reading

Actor, comedian, and musician, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford. Small in stature but big in personality he was one of the successful Beyond the Fringe team (1960–64). He joined Peter Cook for the TV series Not Only ... but also (1964–70), and starred in several films including 10 (1979), Arthur (1981), Santa Claus - The Movie (1985), Arthur 2 - On the Rocks (1988), Crazy People (1990), …

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Dudley Buck

Organist and composer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. After studies in the USA and Europe he held a series of distinguished church-organist posts, meanwhile teaching and composing with equal success. Dudley Buck (March 10, 1839 – October 6, 1909) was an American musical composer. He was born in Hartford, Connecticut, the son of a merchant who gave him every opportunity fo…

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due process - Due Process in the United States, History prior to U.S. Bill of Rights

A legal principle which states that no one should be deprived of life, liberty, or property except by proper legal proceeding. The principle is enshrined in the 39th clause of Magna Carta (1215) which provides that ‘no freeman shall be arrested or imprisoned or deprived of his freehold or outlawed or banished or in any way ruined, nor will we (ie the monarch) take or order action against him, exc…

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Dufourspitze

45°57N 7°53E. Mountain peak in Switzerland; highest peak of the Monte Rosa group of the Pennine Alps, on the Italian–Swiss border; second highest Alpine peak; height 4634 m/15 203 ft. Dufourspitze (in German), Pointe Dufour (in French) or Punta Dufour (in Italian), is located in the Pennine Alps, on the watershed between Italy and Switzerland. …

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Dugald Stewart - Life and works

Philosopher, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Edinburgh, where his father was professor of mathematics, and at Glasgow under Thomas Reid. He succeeded to his father's chair in 1775, then was professor of moral philosophy at Edinburgh (1758–1810). Much influenced by Reid's ‘common sense’ philosophy, he became the leader of the Scottish school. A prolific author, his major work w…

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Dugald Sutherland MacColl

Painter and art historian, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied at London and Oxford, and after travelling Europe studying works of art, established a reputation as a critic, and brought out his Nineteenth Century Art in 1902. As keeper of the London Tate Gallery (1906–11) and of the Wallace Collection (1911–24), he instituted many reforms and improvements. Dugald Sutherland MacCol…

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dugong - Distribution

A marine mammal (Dugong dugon), native to tropical coasts of the Old World; streamlined, with a short broad head; male with short tusks hidden beneath fleshy cheeks; front legs are flippers; hind legs absent; tail with pointed horizontal blades (like the tail of a whale); inhabits shallow waters; eats underwater plants. (Family: Dugongidae. Order: Sirenia.) Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are the sm…

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duiker

A small African antelope; both sexes with arched back and short horns separated by a tuft of long hairs; two types: the common (grey, savanna, or bush) duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), and the forest duiker (genus: Cephalophus, 16 species). The name is Afrikaans for ‘diver’, because they dive into undergrowth when disturbed. A duiker is any of about 19 small to medium-sized antelope species n…

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Duisburg - Geography, History, Economy and infrastructure, Culture, Buildings and Constructions, Twin cities

51°27N 6°42E, pop (2000e) 552 000. Industrial and commercial city in Düsseldorf district, W Germany; river port on W edge of R Ruhr, at confluence of Ruhr and Rhine; largest inland port in Europe; badly bombed in World War 2; railway; university (1972); steel, copper, zinc, heavy equipment, plastics, oil refining, brewing, river craft; home of Gerhard Mercator; international rowing regattas a…

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duke (Italy) - History, Equivalents in other European languages, Royal dukes, France, Iberian peninsula

In the Byzantine empire, the military head of a district; in Italy, the governor with civil and military powers. Among the Lombards, the dukes were war-chiefs who acquired jurisdictional and administrative powers. The duke is not present among the Carolingians, but the collapse of the empire saw the emergence of the duchies of Normandy, Saxony, Austria, etc. In the 14th-c, the title came to denote…

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Duke (Paoa) Kahanamoku

Swimmer and surfer, born in Hawaii, USA. He revolutionized sprint swimming by introducing the flutter kick, and for 20 years was an international freestyle champion. A member of Olympic teams from 1912 to 1932, he won gold medals in 1912 and 1920. In addition, he is generally regarded as having introduced surfboarding (practised for centuries by Pacific islanders) to the West, starting with Austra…

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duke (UK) - History, Equivalents in other European languages, Royal dukes, France, Iberian peninsula

In the UK, a nobleman of the highest order. A royal duke is a son of the sovereign who has been given a dukedom, such as Queen Elizabeth's son Andrew, Duke of York. Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is a royal duke, but not a duke of the blood royal, since he is not a descendant of a British sovereign in the male line. Duke is a title of nobility (customarily hereditary in nature) which in many ca…

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Duke Ellington - Early life, Early career, Ellington in the 1940s, Revival of his career, Last years

Composer, orchestra conductor, and jazz musician, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. Raised in a moderately well-to-do family (his father was a White House butler and later a blueprint-maker for the US Navy), he studied piano and painting from age six, and acquired his nickname from a boyhood friend. He began standing in for ragtime pianist Lester Dishman at a Washington cafe in 1914, …

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Duke Snider

Baseball player, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. During his 18-year career (1947–64), primarily with the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers, he established himself as one of the game's great centre fielders as well as a powerful hitter. In five consecutive seasons (1953–7) he hit 40 or more home runs, a National League record. A broadcaster after retiring from baseball, he was elected to the…

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duma - Seats held in Imperial Dumas, State Duma in modern Russia

A political assembly in pre-revolutionary Russia, such as the mediaeval ‘Boyars' Council’. Municipal dumas (town councils) similar to the rural zemstvos were introduced as part of local government reforms in 1870. After the 1905 revolution the State Duma, a quasi-parliamentary body, was established with limited constitutional powers. Four State Dumas were elected between 1906 and the 1917 revolu…

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Dumas Malone

Historian, born in Coldwater, Mississippi, USA. He received his doctorate from Yale University (1923) and began teaching there. He was editor (1929–31) and editor-in-chief (1931–6) of the Dictionary of American Biography and editor-in-chief of Harvard University Press (1936–43). The fifth volume of his great six-volume work, Jefferson and His Time (1948–81), received the Pulitzer Prize in 1975…

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Dumbarton - History, Shipbuilding, Whisky, Local government, Miscellaneous, Areas of Dumbarton

55°57N 4°34W, pop (2000e) 23 500. Administrative centre of West Dunbartonshire, W Scotland, UK; at confluence of Leven and Clyde Rivers, 22 km/14 mi NW of Glasgow; railway; distilling, electronics; Dumbarton castle. Dumbarton (Dùn Breatainn in Scottish Gaelic) is a burgh in Scotland, lying on the north bank of the River Clyde where the River Leven flows into the Clyde estuary. …

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Dumfries - Visiting Dumfries, History, Local Economy, Local Authority, Areas of Dumfries, Education, Dumfries and Galloway

55°04N 3°37W, pop (2000e) 31 000. Market town and administrative centre of Dumfries and Galloway, SW Scotland, UK; on R Nith, 97 km/60 mi SE of Glasgow; railway; light engineering, textiles; Burns's House and Mausoleum, Old Bridge House (1662), Devorgilla's Bridge; Dumfries and Galloway arts festival (May). Dumfries ((IPA: [dʌm' friːs]) pronounced dum-freece, not dum-fries) (Dùn Ph…

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Dumfries and Galloway - Towns and villages, Places of interest, Council political composition

pop (2000e) 149 500; area 6370 km²/2459 sq mi. Local government council in SW Scotland, UK; bounded SE by England, S by the Solway Firth, Wigtown Bay, and Luce Bay; Rinns of Galloway peninsula (W); drained by the Cree, Dee, Nith, and Annan Rivers; capital, Dumfries; other chief towns, Kirkcudbright, Stranraer; sheep and cattle, agriculture, forestry, tourism; Stranraer linked by ferry to Lar…

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Dunblane - History, Schools, Recent developments, The Dunblane Massacre, Famous residents, Sources

Town near Stirling, Perthshire, Scotland, UK, the scene (13 March 1996) when 16 children and their teacher were killed by gunman Thomas Hamilton, who then killed himself. One of the consequences was a major national movement directed towards the stricter control of firearms, as well as various measures aimed at improving school security. Dunblane is a small town north of Stirling in the Sti…

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Duncan (Clinch) Phillips - Personal life, Outside the Newsboys

Art collector and museum founder, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. His maternal grandfather was one of the founders of the Jones & Laughlin steel company. He worked as an essayist, book reviewer, and art lecturer. To display his art collection, in 1918 he founded the Phillips Memorial Gallery in Washington, DC (now the Phillips Collection) in honour of his father and brother. He directed the…

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Duncan (James Corrow) Grant

Painter, born in Rothiemurchus, Highland, N Scotland, UK. He studied at the Westminster and Slade Schools, in Italy, and in Paris, and was associated with Fry's Omega Workshops, and then with the London Group. His works were mainly landscapes, portraits, and still-life, and he also designed textiles, pottery, and stage scenery. Duncan James Corrowr Grant (21 January 1885 - 9 May 1978) was a…

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Duncan Hines - Trivia

Publisher and writer, born in Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA. A travelling salesman, he published his notes on eating out, collected over many years, in Adventures in Good Eating (1936). This pioneering restaurant guide promoted higher standards of food preparation and hygiene in American restaurants, and launched him as a guide and cookbook publisher and sponsor of the packaged food products by whi…

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Duncan Phyfe - External Links

Furniture maker, born in Loch Fannich, Highland, N Scotland, UK. With his family, he emigrated to Albany, NY (c.1783), where he apprenticed to a cabinet-maker. He moved to New York City (1792) and by 1815 his workshops occupied three buildings. A master of design who specialized in mahogany, his early works took their inspiration from English Sheraton and French Directoire furniture, evolving into…

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Dundalk - History, Overview, Natives and residents of note

54°01N 6°25W, pop (2000e) 30 000. Capital of Louth county, Leinster, NE Ireland; on R Castletown near its mouth on Dundalk Bay; railway; brewing, cigarettes, food processing, textiles, printing, chemicals, livestock trade; Dun Dealgan mound 3 km/1¾ mi W (birthplace of Cuchulain); Maytime theatre festival. Dundalk (Irish: Dún Dealgan) is the county town of County Louth in Ireland, cl…

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Dundee - History, Geography, Demographics, Government and politics, Economy, Transport, Culture, Education

56°28N 3°00W, pop (2000e) 170 700. Port and (since 1996) local council (Dundee City), E Scotland, UK; on N side of the Firth of Tay, 29 km/18 mi E of Perth; royal burgh since 12th-c; airfield; railway; university (1881); jute, textiles, paper, confectionery, oil-related industries, electronics; Barrack Street natural history museum, Caird Hall (1914–23), Broughty Castle Museum, Claypotts Ca…

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Dunedin - History, Modern Dunedin, Geography, Events, Prominent Dunedin buildings and landmarks, Twinning, More information

45°52S 170°30E, pop (2000e) 119 000. City in Otago, SE South Island, New Zealand; on the E coast at the S end of Otago peninsula; seaport at Port Chalmers, 13 km/8 mi NE; founded by Scottish settlers, 1848; airfield; railway; university (1869); wool, footwear, clothing, agricultural machinery, trade in wool, meat, fruit, and dairy produce; Scottish influence in buildings, parks, and statues;…

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Dunfermline - History, Political subdivisions, Town twinning, Notable People, Sport

56°04N 3°29W, pop (2000e) 51 900. City in Fife, E Scotland, UK; 27 km/17 mi NW of Edinburgh; royal burgh since 1588; ancient residence of Scottish kings and the burial place of several, including Robert the Bruce; birthplace of Charles I and Andrew Carnegie; railway; textiles, clothing, metal products, electronics; Dunfermline Abbey and Palace (11th-c foundation). The Royal Burgh of D…

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dung beetle - Appearance, Ecology and behavior, Benefits and uses, Scarab in Ancient Egypt, In literature

A shiny, dark coloured beetle; lives under dung, on fungi, and in other rotting materials; digs vertical holes beneath dung, placing a single egg on a plug of dung. The adults and larvae produce sound by vibration (stridulation). (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Geotrupidae.) Dung beetles refer to those beetles which feed partly or exclusively on feces. As most species of Scarabaeinae feed exclu…

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Dunkirk - Administration

51°02N 2°23E, pop (2000e) 74 300. Seaport in Nord department, NW France, at the entrance to the Straits of Dover; third largest port of France, with extensive docks and quays; ferry connections to Dover and Harwich; during World War 2, the retreating British Expeditionary Force was rescued from the beaches near the town; railway; shipbuilding, oil refining, fishing equipment, cotton spinning. …

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dunlin

A small wading bird (Calidris alpina), native to the N hemisphere; mottled brown plumage with pale underside; slender probing bill; inhabits shoreline or open areas near water; forms large flocks. (Family: Scolopacidae.) The Dunlin, Calidris or Erolia alpina, is a small wader. This bird is one of the commonest and best-known waders throughout its breeding and wintering ranges, a…

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Dunnet Head - Dunnet Head Lighthouse, Angling, Information centre

58°41N 3°22W. Cape in NE Highland, NE Scotland, UK; at W end of Pentland Firth, 13 km/8 mi NE of Thurso; northernmost point of the British mainland. Dunnet Head (Scottish Gaelic: Ceann Dùnaid) is a peninsula that includes the most northerly point of the mainland of Great Britain. Dunnet Head can be seen also as the western limit of the Pentland Firth on the firth's southern or Ca…

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dunnock - Gallery, Reference

A small, grey-brown, ground-feeding bird with short slender bill (Prunella modularis); native to Europe and W Asia (N Africa in winter); inhabits woodland, scrubland, and gardens; eats invertebrates; also known as (European) hedge sparrow or hedge accentor. (Family: Prunellidae.) The Dunnock, Prunella modularis, is a small passerine bird found throughout temperate Europe and into Asia. …

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Dunstable - History, Places of interest in and around Dunstable, Famous people who have lived in Dunstable

51°53N 0°32W, pop (2000e) 50 300. Town in Bedfordshire, SC England, UK; at N end of the Chiltern hills, 7 km/4 mi W of Luton; at the junction of the Roman Watling Street and the earlier Icknield Way; engineering, paper; Whipsnade Zoo nearby; London Gliding Club headquarters on Dunstable Downs. Dunstable is a town in the county of Bedfordshire, with a population of 33,805 (2001 census)…

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duodenum - Function, Sections, Additional images

A region of the alimentary canal in vertebrates, important in digestion. In humans it is the C-shaped first part of the small intestine, continuous with the stomach at the pylorus, and continuing as the jejunum. It receives secretions from the liver (bile) and the pancreas (digestive enzymes) via ducts which pierce its wall, and itself secretes important enzymes and hormones concerned with digesti…

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Dura-Europos - Hellenistic Era, Archaeology

In Roman times, a major caravan city on the middle Euphrates, and a flourishing frontier town until its sack by the Sassanids in AD 256. The wall paintings from its 3rd-c synagogue form an important link between Hellenistic and early Christian art. Dura-Europos ("Fort Europos") was a Hellenistic and Roman walled city built on an escarpment ninety meters above the banks of the Euphrates rive…

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Duralumin - Applications

The trade name for an alloy of aluminium (over 90%) with copper (about 4%) and minor amounts of magnesium and manganese. It is used in the aircraft industry. Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains (in wt.%) 4.4%…

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Durango

24°01N 104°40W, pop (2000e) 448 000. Capital of Durango state, NWC Mexico; 903 km/561 mi NW of Mexico City; altitude 1889 m/6197 ft; founded, 1563; railway; university (1957); timber, iron ore, textiles, farming; cathedral (1695); famous for its iron-water spring. …

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duress

Violence or threats of violence against a person for the purpose of causing that person to act in a particular way, such as to commit a crime, which may amount to a defence or a mitigating factor. Scotland has a similar defence called coercion. The developing area of economic duress refers to a situation where a contract may be entered into or, more usually, altered as a result of improper pressur…

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Durham (city) - Economy, Geography, History, Historic architecture, Famous residents, Town twinning, Sister Cities

54°47N 1°34W, pop (2001e) 87 700. City and administrative centre of County Durham, NE England, UK; on the R Wear; founded in the 10th-c by monks who had fled from Lindisfarne; university (1832); railway; textiles, clothing, coal mining, engineering, carpets; Norman cathedral (1093) and castle (11th-c) designated a world heritage site; Gulbenkian Museum, Durham Light Infantry museum; Durham Row…

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Durham (county) - Economy, Geography, History, Historic architecture, Famous residents, Town twinning, Sister Cities

pop (2001e) 493 500; area 2436 km²/941 sq mi. County in NE England, UK; bounded E by the North Sea, rising to the Pennines in the W; drained by the Tees, Derwent, and Wear Rivers; county town, Durham; chief towns include Darlington (new unitary authority from 1997), Chester-le-Street, Bishop Auckland; coal, engineering, chemicals, agriculture. Durham (IPA: [ˈdɜɺəm] locally, [ˈdʌ…

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durian - Species, Availability, Flavour and odour, History, Uses, Durian customs, Cultural influence

An evergreen tree (Durio zibethinus) native to Malaysia; pink or white flowers growing directly from trunk and main branches; fruit a large spiny capsule, with delicate-tasting but evil-smelling flesh considered to be a delicacy. (Family: Bombacaceae.) The durian (IPA: [duɾiɑn]) is the fruit of trees of the genus Durio. The durian fruit is distinctive for its large size, unique odour (ove…

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Durmitor - National park

43°08N 19°01E. Highest mountain in Montenegro; in the Dinaric Alps, rising to 2522 m/8274 ft; in a national park, which is a world heritage site. Durmitor is a mountain and the name of a national park in Montenegro. The Durmitor National Park, created in 1952, includes the massif of Durmitor, the canyons of Tara, Sušica and Draga rivers and the higher part of the canyon pla…

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durum

A wheat (Triticum durum) with a high protein content, whose flour is used to make pasta. The flour is harder than that produced by other varieties of wheat, used in bread-making. …

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Dushanbe - History, Economy, Government, Buildings and attractions, Relations

38°38N 68°51E, pop (2000e) 743 000. Capital city of Tajikistan, on the R Dushanbe; airfield; railway; university (1948); electrical engineering, metalworking, machines, textiles, silk, foodstuffs. Dushanbe (Tajik: Душанбе, دوشنبه), population 562,000 people (2000 census), is the capital of Tajikistan. Although archaelogical remnants dating to the 5th century BC …

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Dust Bowl - Background, Further reading

The semi-arid area of the US prairie states from Kansas to Texas, which suffers from dust storms. In the 1930s, after several years of good crop yield overcultivation, strong winds and dry weather resulted in major dust storms and soil erosion. The Dust Bowl was the result of a series of dust storms in the central United States and Canada from 1931 to 1939, caused by decades of inappropriat…

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Dustin Hoffman

Actor, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. A student at the Pasadena Playhouse, he pursued a career on stage and television in New York City, making his Broadway debut in 1961. His first leading film role was The Graduate (1967), and this was followed by a number of similar ‘anti-hero’ roles: Midnight Cowboy (1969), Little Big Man (1970), and Marathon Man (1976). He found wider scope in All th…

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Dusty Springfield - Early Life and Group Career, Solo Success, The Seventies and Eighties: "The Lost Years"

Pop singer, born in London, UK. She was originally part of The Springfields, a vocal/guitar trio singing folk and country music. Her debut solo single ‘I Only Want To Be With You’ (1964) was a UK hit, and marked a move towards a Motown-influenced style; it was the first record to be played on BBC's television show ‘Top Of The Pops’. Her debut album, A Girl Called Dusty (1964), reached number 6…

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Dutch

A member of the W Germanic family of languages, spoken by c.20 million in The Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname, and the Antilles. It is the official language of The Netherlands, and is also spoken in Belgium, where it is called Flemish; both dialects are officially referred to as Nederlands. Dutch usually refers to: Other: …

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Dutch art - Golden Age, Nineteenth century, Twentieth century

The art of the mainly Protestant Dutch Republic (the United Provinces), one of the glories of 17th-c European civilization. The greatest achievements were in painting (Hals, Rembrandt, Steen, Ruysdael, Vermeer) which combined the realistic vision and fine craftsmanship inherited from the early Netherlandish tradition (van Eyck, Bosch) with a new feeling for light and space derived from Renaissance…

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Dutch elm disease - Disease range, Treatment, Resistant trees, Possible earlier occurrences

A disease affecting all species of elm (genus: Ulmus) caused by the fungus Ceratocystis ulmi; symptoms include wilting, yellowing of foliage, and eventually death; transmitted from tree to tree by elm-bark beetle. (Order: Eurotiales.) Dutch elm disease is a fungal disease of elm trees which is spread by the elm bark beetle. Although believed to be originally native to Asia, it has been acci…

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Dutch literature - Earliest stages (500–1550), Renaissance and the Golden Age (1550–1670), Decline (1670–1795)

Literature written in Dutch, relating to both the Netherlands and Flemish-speaking Belgium, as well as writers coming from former Dutch colonies, such as Suriname and Indonesia. In this database, individual writers have all been given Dutch literature as a cross-reference. This article deals with the forms of literature written in the Dutch language. Just as English literature is not restri…

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Dutch Reformed Church - History, Protestant Church in the Netherlands, Dutch Reformed churches abroad

The largest Protestant Church in Holland, stemming from the Calvinist Reformation in the 16th-c. Its leaders and scholars have been influential in Dutch life, in former Dutch colonies, and also in Reformed theology. The Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (totally separated from the Church in Holland) was the official Church of dominant white Afrikaans-speaking nationals, accused in 1982 by the …

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Dutch West India Company

The organization of Dutch merchants responsible for the settlement of New Netherland, now New York. The Company was established in 1621, and was dissolved in 1674. It was later reorganized as a trading venture. Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West In…

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dwarfism - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Insular dwarfism, Problems faced by dwarfs, Terminology

A disorder of slowed growth in children. It may be due to a variety of factors, including genetic effects (eg achondroplasia) and hormone imbalances, especially deficiencies of thyroid and growth hormones, but also increased secretion of testosterone, which causes premature closure of the growing ends of bone, arresting their linear growth. It may also be due to nutritional deficiencies such as ma…

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Dwayne (Orville) Andreas

Corporate executive, born in Worthington, Minnesota, USA. He spent 36 years (20 as chairman and chief executive officer) with Honeymead Products, Cedar Rapids, IA (later National City Bancorp). He was later chairman and chief executive officer of the commodities company, Archer Daniels Midland in Decatur, IL (1970), which he expanded into international markets. As a government adviser on internati…

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Dwight (Le Merton) Bolinger

Linguist, born in Topeka, Kansas, USA. He was professor of English and Spanish languages and literature at the universities of Southern California (1944–60) and Colorado (1960–73), and emeritus professor at Harvard (1973). He advanced many linguistic theories, including several on the interconnectedness of intonation and gesture in speech. Among his more popular writings on English is Language -…

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Dwight (Whitney) Morrow

Lawyer, banker, and diplomat, born at Huntington, West Virginia, USA. US ambassador to Mexico (1927), US senator from New Jersey (1930–1), financial and legal adviser to presidents and generals, he was also the father of Ann Morrow, who shared her husband Charles Lindbergh's love of flying. A governmental backer of aviation, he chaired a presidential study of aeronautics and its application to na…

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Dwight MacDonald

Essayist and critic, born in New York City, New York, USA. Entering journalism after graduating from Yale, he eventually became a staff writer for the New Yorker (1951–71). His essays and political, social, and literary criticism, renowned for their ironic wit, were collected in several volumes including The Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1957) and Against the American Grain (1962). A lifelong left-…

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dye laser - Construction, Chemicals used

A laser in which the lasing medium is a liquid organic dye. It can be made to produce laser light of virtually any frequency, either by altering slightly the chemical composition of the dye, or by including a tuning device within the laser cavity that exploits the unusually broad absorption and emission spectrum of dyes. A dye laser is a laser that uses an organic dye as a lasing me…

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Dyfed

pop (2000e) 357 500; area 5768 km²/2227 sq mi. Former county in SW Wales, UK; created in 1974, and replaced in 1996 by Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, and Pembrokeshire counties. The Lord Lieutenant of Dyfed had previously been the Lord Lieutenant of Pembrokeshire, with the Lord Lieutenant of Cardiganshire and Lord Lieutenant of Carmarthenshire becoming Lieutenants. …

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dyke (geography)

A ditch or natural watercourse. The term is also used to describe a long ridge or embankment constructed to prevent flooding, such as those in the Netherlands made to hold back the sea. Low-lying areas of flat land such as the Fens and Broads have many dykes. Dyke, and its plural, may also refer to: …

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dyke (geology)

A sheet-like igneous body cross-cutting the bedding planes of country rock, injected under pressure while molten. Radial dyke swarms may be associated with doming because of a large igneous intrusion, and parallel dyke systems occur as a result of tension at mid-ocean ridges. Usually composed of basic igneous rock (typically dolerite), they vary in thickness from centimetres to tens of metres, and…

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Dylan (Marlais) Thomas - Biography, Thomas memorials, Bibliography, Discography, Filmography

Poet, born in Swansea, SC Wales, UK. He worked as a journalist, and established himself with the publication of Eighteen Poems in 1934. He married Caitlin Macnamara (1913–94) in 1936, and published Twenty-Five Poems the same year. His Collected Poems appeared in 1953, and he then produced his best-known work, the radio ‘play for voices’, Under Milk Wood (published in 1954). He also wrote an unf…

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dynamite - Etymology, Uses and composition, History, Dynamite in popular culture

Once a specific name, now a general term for industrial high explosives consisting of nitroglycerine absorbed on some porous or granular non-explosive substance (such as the kieselguhr porous earth of Nobel's first invention) to minimize its vulnerability to shock. Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorben…

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dyne

Obsolete CGS unit of force superseded by the SI unit, newton. …

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dysarthria

A speech disorder caused by a weakness or paralysis of the vocal organs, due to damage or disease of the nerves that supply them. The voice is indistinct, strained, and imprecise. The effects can range from mild to severe - from a slight slurring to total unintelligibility; its more severe forms are sometimes referred to as anarthria. Dysarthria is a speech disorder resulting from neurologi…

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dysentery - Etiology, Symptoms, Treatment, Cultural significance

Intestinal infection leading to profuse diarrhoea, with the passage of blood and mucus in the stool. Bacillary dysentery is caused by Shigella; the disease is usually mild and short-lived. Amoebic/amebic dysentery is caused by a protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica, and is more serious, there is more severe and persistent diarrhoea, and the involvement of the liver, with the formation of amoebic absce…

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dysgraphia - Types of dysgraphia, Symptoms of dysgraphia, Common problems that are often associated with dysgraphia, Treatment

A disorder affecting a person's ability to write and spell; also called agraphia. In adults, it is often associated with damage to the language areas of the brain, for example following a stroke or tumour. The writing may contain badly formed lines and letter shapes, and letters may be misplaced, omitted, or repeated. In particular, several types of spelling disability have been noted, and many pa…

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dyslexia - Dyslexia definitions, Biological bases of dyslexia, Facts and statistics, Treatment, Physiology, Characteristics, Public support, Controversy

Reading disability, in people with apparently adequate intellectual and perceptual abilities and adequate educational opportunities; sometimes called alexia. Developmental dyslexia is the term applied to people who have experienced difficulty in learning to read. Acquired dyslexia describes those who could once read, but who have lost this ability as a result of brain damage. Further distinctions …

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dyspareunia - Symptoms, Causes, Differential Diagnosis of Dyspareunia, Treatment

Discomfort or pain experienced by women during sexual intercourse. The most frequent cause is insufficient vaginal lubrication, often as a result of insufficient foreplay prior to sexual intercourse. It may also result from spasm of the vaginal muscle, vulvar infections, or more deeply-sited pelvic disorders. Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes.…

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dysphonia - Common types of dysphonia, Associated conditions (incomplete list)

A speech disorder in which the voice has an abnormal quality; known as aphonia when the voice is completely absent. Voice pitch, loudness, and timbre may be so inefficient that speech can be largely unintelligible; but even when the speech can be understood, the voice quality interferes with communication by drawing attention to itself (eg by being noticeably hoarse or nasal). The condition may ar…

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dysplasia - Dysplasia vs carcinoma in situ vs invasive carcinoma

A malformation of bone or other body tissue. Cells divide more quickly than normal and do not mature properly, thereby affecting their function. It is a normal finding in damaged tissue while it is repairing. It may also occur in any part of the body for genetic reasons or as a result of adverse environmental stimuli. In some parts of the body (eg the cervix) the dysplastic cells are a precursor o…

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E(dmund) C(lerihew) Bentley

Journalist and novelist, born in Shepherd's Bush, London, UK. He is chiefly remembered as the author of Trent's Last Case (1913), which is regarded as a milestone in the development of the detective novel. A close friend of G K Chesterton, he originated and gave his name to the type of humorous verse-form known as the clerihew, a four-line verse consisting of two couplets which are often witty and…

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E(dward) B(ouverie) Pusey

Theologian, born in Pusey, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became professor of Hebrew in 1828, retaining the position until his death. His main aim was to prevent the spread of Rationalism in England, and he joined Newman in the Oxford Movement (1833), contributing several tracts, notably those on baptism and the Eucharist. After Newman's conversion, he became the leade…

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E(dward) F(rederic) Benson

Scholar, novelist, and sportsman, born at Wellington College, Berkshire, S England, UK. He studied at King's College, Cambridge and, after a brief period at the British School of Archaeology in Athens, took up a life-long career as man-of-letters. His first successful novel, Dodo, appeared in 1893, and from the 1890s he published over 100 books, including 70 novels as well as biographies of Charlo…

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E(dward) M(ills) Purcell

Physicist, born in Taylorville, Illinois, USA. He studied at Purdue, Karlsruhe, and Harvard universities, worked on microwave radar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology during World War 2, and was appointed professor of physics at Harvard (1949). He developed nuclear magnetic resonance methods of analysis which have become a major tool in chemistry, and was the first to detect the interstellar…

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E(rnst) T(heodor) W(ilhelm) Hoffmann - Plot, Historicity, Production, Differences between the Play and movie

Writer, composer, music critic, and caricaturist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). Trained as a lawyer, he had an unsettled career until 1816, when he attained a high position in the Supreme Court in Berlin. His shorter tales were mostly published in the collections Phantasiestücke (1814), and Nachtstücke (1817, trans Hoffman's Strange Stories), which was an inspiration fo…

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Eadweard Muybridge - Early life and career, Photographing the West, Stanford and the gallop question, Murder acquittal, Influences

Photographer and inventor, born in Kingston-on-Thames, SW Greater London, UK. He emigrated to California in 1852, and became a professional photographer, then chief photographer to the US government. He was commissioned to take a series of action photographs to prove that a trotting horse has all its feet off the ground at times. This he achieved in 1877 when faster photographic plates became avai…

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eagle

A large-bodied bird of prey that kills its own food (smaller birds of prey - buzzards, falcons, hawks, harriers, or kites). True or booted eagles have fully feathered, not partly bare, legs. (Family: Accipitridae, 30 species.) …

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Ealing Studios - Ealing Studios Films, Documentaries, BBC TV Productions

An English motion-picture studio based at Ealing, Greater London, UK. Founded in 1929 by the film producers Basil Dean and Reginald Baker with the financial support of the Courtauld family, the company produced several vaudeville-style musical comedies as well as serious feature films during the 1930s. In World War 2 it created propaganda films for the British Ministry of Information. In the decad…

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ear - Introduction to ears and hearing, The Human ear, Non-vertebrate hearing organs

A compound organ concerned with hearing and balance, situated on the side or (in some animals) the top of the head. The external ear consists of the pinna (commonly referred to as ‘the ear’) and the external acoustic meatus (or auditory canal), a tube leading to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). In many animals (eg dogs, horses), the pinna can be moved to scan the environment to locate sounds. Th…

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earl - History, Etymology, Forms of address

In the UK, a member of the third most senior order of noblemen, and the most ancient title, dating from before the Norman Conquest (Old Norse jarl). The wife of an earl is a countess. An Earl or Jarl was an Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian title, meaning "chieftain" and it referred especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a king's stead. Today, an earl is a member of the …

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Earl (Christian) Campbell

Player of American football, born in Tyler, Texas, USA. At the University of Texas, he was the 1977 Heisman Trophy winner after leading the nation in rushing and scoring. He was then the National Football League's leading rusher for three straight years (1978–80). Earl Christian Campbell (born March 29, 1955 in Tyler, Texas) is a former professional American Football running back and is a …

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Earl (Eugene) Scruggs - Discography

Banjo player, born in Flint Hill, North Carolina, USA. He pioneered a three-finger form of banjo playing that quickly gained popularity and was soon adopted by other established players. Along with singer-guitarist Lester Flatt, he joined Bill Monroe's Blue Grass Boys in 1945. Scruggs and Flatt left in 1948 to form their own band, The Foggy Mountain Boys, and continued to develop and popularize bl…

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Earl (Kemp) Long - Bill Dodd analyzes Earl Long, Eccentricity and hospitalization, Trivia

US governor, born in Winnfield, Louisiana, USA, the brother of Huey Long. A salesman (1912–27) and tax attorney, he served as his brother's campaign strategist and lobbyist, but became a bitter foe when Huey would not pick him as the candidate for lieutenant-governor of Louisiana. A Democrat, he got himself elected lieutenant-governor on his own (1936), then moved up to governor (1939–40) becaus…

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Earl (Kenneth) Hines - Early life, Chicago years, Rediscovery

Jazz pianist and bandleader, born in Duquesne, Pennsylvania, USA. He worked under such leaders as Erskine Tate and Carroll Dickerson, then in association with trumpeter Louis Armstrong (1927–9), with whom he made several recordings now considered jazz classics, notably ‘Weather Bird’ and ‘West End Blues’. Hines formed his own band in 1928, expanding it to a large orchestra resident at the Gra…

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Earl (Russell) Browder - Early years, CPUSA leadership, Expulsion from the CPUSA, Espionage Activities, Further reading

Writer and communist leader, born in Wichita, Kansas, USA. After an elementary schooling he entered trade-union and socialist politics. He was general secretary of the US Communist Party (1930–44) but was expelled in 1946 for his views supporting the peaceful coexistence of socialism and capitalism. He served several prison sentences for his beliefs and activities. Earl Russell Browder (Ma…

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Earl (Sidney) Weaver

Baseball manager, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. During his 17-year career as a tempestuous manager of the Baltimore Orioles (1968–86), he won four league championships and a World Series in 1970. He holds the record for ejections from games (98). Earl Sidney Weaver (born August 14, 1930 in St. Louis, Missouri) is a former Major League Baseball manager. Between his stints as manager Weav…

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Earl Derr Biggers - The Charlie Chan series, Other works

Writer, born in Warren, Ohio, USA. He studied at Harvard, became a journalist in Boston, and achieved widespread popularity with his mystery novel, Seven Keys to Baldpate (1913), later adapted for a successful play. His enduring fame rests on his creation of the Hawaiian detective Charlie Chan, the patient, aphoristic hero of six novels, beginning with The House Without a Key (1925). The character…

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Earl Marshal - Ireland, Lords Marshal of England, 1135-1397

In the UK, the hereditary post held by the Howard Dukes of Norfolk. One of the great officers of state, the Earl Marshal is head of the College of Arms and is also responsible for organizing state ceremonies. In a declaration made on the 16 June 1673 by Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, the Earl of Anglesey and Lord Privy Seal, in reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority o…

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Earl Monroe - Career, Legacy, Trivia

Basketball player, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After playing at Winston-Salem State University (1964–7), he played as a guard for the Baltimore Bullets and then for the New York Knicks (1971–80), leading the team to a National Basketball Association championship in 1973. Vernon Earl Monroe (born on November 21, 1944, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American forme…

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Earl Sande

Jockey, born in Groton, South Dakota, USA. He won the Kentucky Derby three times, the Belmont Stakes five times, and in 1930 he rode Gallant Fox to a Triple Crown. Born in Groton, South Dakota, he started out as a broncobuster in the early 1900's but then became a successful quarter horse rider and advocate before switching to thoroughbred racing in 1918. During his thoroughbred racin…

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Earl Van Dorn

US soldier, born near Port Gibson, Mississippi, USA. He trained at West Point (1842), and saw considerable action in the Mexican War, the Seminole War, and against the Indians (he was wounded four times in one engagement). As a major-general of the Confederate cavalry, he was defeated at Pea Ridge, AR (Mar 1862) and Corinth, MS (Oct 1862). He retrieved his military reputation leading Confederate c…

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Earl Warren - Education and early career, Political career, Supreme Court, Family, Fictional appearances

US Republican politician and judge, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He studied at the University of California, practised law, and served successively in California as state attorney general and governor (1943–53). He was then appointed chief justice of the US Supreme Court (1953–69). He led a number of notably liberal decisions, such as ending segregation in schools (Brown v. Board of Edu…

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Earle Brown - Open form, December 1952

Composer, born in Lunenburg, Massachusetts, USA. In the 1950s he began to write highly influential avant-garde works in ‘open form’, giving performers wide choices, the scores sometimes being noteless diagrams. His music later came to incorporate a balance between open form and fixed notation, as in Tracking Pierrot (1992). Also an active teacher, he was professor of composition and composer-in-…

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Earth - History, Shape, Composition, Internal structure, Tectonic plates, Surface, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Climate, Pedosphere, Land use, Human geography

The third major planet from the Sun, having the following characteristics: mass 5·97 × 1024kg; orbital period 365·26 days; radius (equatorial) 6378 km/3963 mi; obliquity 23°27?; mean density 5·52 g/cm3; orbital eccentricity 0·017; equatorial gravity 978 cm/s2; mean distance from the Sun 149·6 × 106 km/93 × 106 mi; rotational period 23 h 56 min 4 s. It has one large natural …

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Earth Summit

The name given to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. 178 governments were represented at the conference, which brought together more heads of state (114) than had any previous conference on any topic. In addition to government representatives, over 500 interest groups also attended the conference, which attracted a total of 30

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Eartha (Mae) Kitt - Biography, Works, Trivia

Entertainer and singer, born in North, South Carolina, USA. She studied at the New York School of the Performing Arts, and made her New York debut as a member of Katherine Dunham's dance troupe in 1945. She toured throughout Europe, and was cast by Orson Welles in his production of Dr Faustus (1951). Her vocal vibrancy, fiery personality, and cat-like singing voice made her a top international cab…

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earthquake - Types of earthquakes, Measuring earthquakes, Size and frequency of occurrence, Effects/impacts of earthquakes

A series of shock waves generated at a point (focus) within the Earth, and caused by the movement of rocks on a fault plane releasing stored strain energy. The point on the surface of the Earth above the focus is the epicentre. Major earthquakes are associated with the edges of plates that make up the Earth's crust, and along mid-oceanic ridges where new crust is forming. The greatest concentratio…

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earthworm

A terrestrial segmented worm found in soil, feeding mainly on decomposing organic matter; head simple, without sensory appendages; body cylindrical, length up to 4 m/13 ft; hermaphrodite; when breeding, develops a saddle (clitellum) which secretes material for use during mating and in production of egg cocoon. (Phylum: Annelida. Class: Oligochaeta.) …

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earwig - Etymology, Physiology, Pest control

A slender insect with large pincers at rear end of body, used for courtship, defence, grooming, or predation; forewings small and hard; hindwings membranous; c.1500 species, most abundant in tropics. (Order: Dermaptera.) Earwig is the common name given to the insect order Dermaptera characterized by membranous wings folded underneath short leathery forewings (hence the literal name of the o…

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