Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 20

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Delphinus - Notable features, Stars

A small N constellation. Delphinus (IPA: /ˌdɛlˈfʌɪnəs/, Latin: dolphin), is a rather small (ranked 69th) northern constellation very close to the celestial equator. Here are some of its stars: …

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delta - Abbreviations, People, Places

A fan-shaped body of alluvium enclosed within the bifurcating channels at the mouth of a river. It is formed when a river deposits sediment as its speed decreases, and the coastal processes of erosion are not sufficiently strong to carry the material away. Deltas may take many forms, depending on the environmental factors at the river mouth, but in all cases the coarse sediment is deposited first,…

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Demades

Athenian orator and politician. A bitter enemy to Demosthenes, he supported Philip II of Macedon, and after the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) secured an honourable peace. In 332 BC, after Antipater had crushed a revolt against Macedonian rule, Demades procured the death of Demosthenes and his followers, but was himself executed by Cassander, the son of Antipater. Demades (c. He w…

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dementia - Etiology, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Types, Treatment

A decline in intellectual capacity as a result of an alteration of brain functioning which leads to impaired social or occupational abilities. It is commonly due to cerebrovascular disease and the ageing process, in which brain cells are destroyed and brain size is markedly reduced. Features include loss of memory, alteration of personality, impaired judgment, and poor impulse control. There is di…

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Demeter - Titles and functions, Demeter and Poseidon

The Greek goddess of agriculture, especially corn, so that a basket or an ear of corn is her symbol. She is the mother of Persephone, for whom she searched through the world, and is also connected with the Mysteries at Eleusis. Dêmêtêr (or Demetra) /də'miː.tɚ/ (Greek: Δημήτηρ, "mother-earth" or perhaps "distribution-mother", perhaps from the noun of the Indo-European mother-ear…

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Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin

Priest, born in The Hague, The Netherlands. He became a Roman Catholic in 1787, emigrated to the USA in 1792, and was ordained a priest in 1795. Sent as a missionary to Cambria County, PA, he founded the town of Loretto (1799). He was vicar-general for W Pennsylvania, and wrote several tracts defending his faith against Protestant attack. Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin (1770-1840), was a Rom…

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Demi Moore - Selected filmography

Film actress, producer, and director, born in Roswell, New Mexico, USA. She worked in television before making her film debut in Choices (1981), but her major breakthrough came with St Elmo's Fire (1984). Later films include Ghost (1990), Indecent Proposal (1992), The Scarlet Letter (1995), Striptease (1996), G.I.Jane (1997), and Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003). She co-founded a production …

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democracy - Varieties, History, Theory, Criticism, Beyond the state level

From Greek demos (‘people’) and kratia (‘authority’), hence ‘rule by the people’; contrasted with rule by the few (oligarchy) or by one (monarchy or tyranny); also known as a liberal democracy. Since the Greeks first introduced demokratia in many city states in the 5th-c BC, there has been disagreement about what constitutes the essential elements of democracy. One debate concerns who should…

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Democratic Labor Party (DLP) - History, A New DLP

An Australian political party, formed in 1957 from anti-communist groups which had formerly been part of the Australian Labor Party (ALP). The DLP was largely centred in Victoria, and drew most of its support from parts of the Catholic section of Australian society. At its height, in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, its importance lay in its ability to prevent the ALP from winning national go…

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Democratic Party

One of the two major parties in contemporary US politics. It was originally composed in the late 18th-c of those opposed to the adoption of the US Constitution, and was called the Democratic Republican Party until 1828. The Party's first presidential candidate was Thomas Jefferson; and in the early 1800s it dominated its opponent, the Federalist Party. The Party was split over slavery and secessio…

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Democrazia Cristiana (DC) - Political viewpoints, History of Christian Democracy, Christian Democracy around the world, Famous Christian Democrats

The Catholic Italian party, founded in 1942 in Milan by former members of the Partito Popolare, the Catholic lay movement, Azione cattolica, and FUCI, the association of Catholic university students. In 1944 the party, led by Alcide De Gasperi, joined the Badoglio government. Its different components - big industry, the lower middle classes, landowners - were united in their fear of a left-wing ta…

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Democritus - Democritus' life, Democritus' teaching

Greek philosopher, born in Abdera, Thrace. He travelled in the East, and was by far the most learned thinker of his time. He wrote many physical, mathematical, ethical, and musical works, but only fragments survive. His atomic system assumes an infinite multitude of everlasting atoms, from whose random combinations springs an infinite number of successive world-orders in which there is law but not…

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demography - Important concepts, History, The demographic transition

A branch of sociology which studies the population patterns of the past, present, and future. Demography has been very important in estimating future trends in population growth in order to calculate the pressures on global resources. Demography is the scientific study of human population dynamics. Formal demography limits its object of study to the measurement of populations processes, whi…

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demonology - Christian demonology, Islam, Judaism and Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Hinduism, Tartaric Demonology

An outmoded branch of theology relating to the Devil and demons, elaborated from the later Middle Ages particularly in association with belief in witches and their power to do harm. The best known and most influential work of demonology is the Malleus maleficarum (Hammer of the Witches) by the Dominicans Kramer and Sprenger, published at Cologne in 1484. This was the main source of the idea that w…

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Demosthenes - Early years (384 BC–355 BC), Early politics (354 BC–350 BC), Confronting Philip

Athenian soldier. During the Peloponnesian Wars (431–404 BC) he captured Anacterium (425 BC) and helped Cleon to reduce Sphacteria, but failed to conquer Boeotia the next year. In 413 BC, having been sent to Sicily to the relief of Nicias, he was captured by the Syracusans and put to death. Demosthenes (384–322?BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator o…

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Demosthenes - Early years (384 BC–355 BC), Early politics (354 BC–350 BC), Confronting Philip

The greatest of the Greek orators, the son of a rich Athenian arms manufacturer. After studying rhetoric and legal procedure, he took up the law as a profession, becoming first a speech-writer, then an assistant to prosecutors in public (state) trials. In c.354 BC he entered politics, but did not gain prominence until 351 BC, when he delivered the first of a long series of passionate speeches (the…

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Denbighshire - Formation, Population, Economy

pop (2001e) 93 100; area 844 km²/326 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in NC Wales, UK; drained by R Clwyd; administrative centre, Ruthin; other chief towns, Rhyl, Prestatyn, Denbigh, St Asaph; tourism on coast; St Asaph cathedral (founded 573); music festival at St Asaph (Sep); international eisteddfod at Llangollen (Jul). Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a principal a…

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dendrochronology - Overview, More detail, Scientific value

The construction of archaeological chronologies from annual tree-ring sequences. Rings vary in width and structure from year to year, depending on the prevailing climatic conditions; overlapping patterns observed in preserved timbers can therefore be matched and linked to form an accurate and absolute chronology extending back unbroken from the present day. Notable sequences derived from the long-…

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Deng Xiaoping - Background, Early career, Ascension and Purges, Reemergence of Deng, Opening up, "Socialism with Chinese characteristics"

Leader of the Chinese Communist Party, after 1978 the dominant figure in Chinese politics, born in Sichuan province, C China. He studied in France, where he joined the Communist Party, and in the Soviet Union, and became associated with Mao Zedong during the period of the Jiangxi Soviet (1928–34). In 1954 he became secretary-general of the Chinese Communist Party, but reacted strongly against the…

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Denholm Elliott - Selected filmography

Actor, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, prior to service in the RAF during World War 2, when he spent three years in a prisoner-of-war camp. A prolific performer in all media, and an inveterate scene-stealer, he won awards for both stage and screen, including British Film Awards for Trading Places (1983), A Private Function (1984), and Defence of the Rea…

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denim - Denim and modern culture

A popular clothing fabric made originally by filling indigo-dyed warp yarns with undyed cotton weft to give a twill structure. The indigo slowly leaches out of the fabric, causing a characteristic lightening of the blue colour. The fabric is hard-wearing, and was used for working clothes, but from the 1950s acquired a fashionable cult status. Denim denotes a rugged cotton twill textile, in …

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Denis (Charles Scott) Compton

Cricketer, born in London, UK. He played cricket for England 78 times, and scored 5807 runs at an average of 50·06. His county team was Middlesex. In the 1947 season he scored a record 3816 runs, including a record 18 centuries. During his career (1936–57) he made 38 942 runs and took 622 wickets. A winger at soccer, he won an England cap during the war years. His career was spent with Arsenal,…

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Denis Auguste Affre

Prelate, born in St Rome-de-Tarn, S France. He succeeded Archbishop Quéten as Archbishop of Paris (1840–8) and established the École des Carmes (1845), which later became the Institut Catholique de Paris (1875). He was shot by a stray bullet while on the barricades in the Faubourg St Antoine during the insurrection of 1848, and died of his injuries. His works include Introduction philosophique …

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Denis Calvaert

Flemish Mannerist painter. He studied in Antwerp and then in Bologna under Prospero Fontana, and while a student he worked on frescoes in the Vatican. Later, he set up a school in Bologna where his pupils included Guido Reni and Domenichino. Much of his work is in the churches and national museum of Bologna. After studying landscape-painting for some time in his native city (the Antwerp "Re…

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Denis Diderot - Life, Quotations, Bibliography

Writer and philosopher, born in Langres, NE France. Trained by the Jesuits, he became a tutor and bookseller's hack (1733–44), before beginning as a writer. Always controversial, his Pensées philosophiques (1746, Philosophical Thoughts) was burned by the Parliament of Paris for its anti-Christian ideas, and he was imprisoned for his Lettre sur les aveugles (1749, trans Essay on Blindness). For 2…

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Denis Law - Growing up, Manchester City, Manchester United, Final season (1973-74), After football, Career summary

Footballer, born in Aberdeen, NE Scotland, UK. He never played at senior level in Scotland, his career being spent almost entirely in England. He began his career as a forward with Huddersfield Town in 1956, made his international debut when only 18 years old, and shortly afterwards moved to Manchester City. After a disappointing spell in Italy with Turin, he joined Manchester United (1962), the c…

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Denis Norden

Scriptwriter and broadcaster, born in London, England, UK. He was educated in London, and with Frank Muir formed a comedy scriptwriting duo (1947–64). They contributed to many shows, including Take It From Here (1947–58) and Bedtime with Braden (1950–4). They were resident on many panel shows, such as My Word (from 1956) and My Music (from 1967), and co-operated in writing a number of books. Fr…

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Denis Papin - Life in France, First visit to London, Germany, Return to London

Physicist, born in Blois, C France. He helped Christiaan Huygens and then Robert Boyle in their experiments. He invented the steam digester (1679), forerunner of the domestic pressure cooker, and in c.1690 made a working model of an atmospheric condensing steam engine, on principles later developed by Thomas Newcomen and James Watt. Born in Blois, (Loir-et-Cher, Centre Région), Papin atten…

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Denise Levertov - Political war poetry, Religious influences, Religious themes, Accomplishments, Anthologies

Poet, born in Ilford, E Greater London, UK. Educated at home, she emigrated to the USA in 1948, and became a US citizen in 1955. She was appointed poetry editor of The Nation in 1961. Her first collection of verse was published in 1946, and others have appeared steadily. She had been outspoken on many issues, particularly Vietnam and feminism, and her poetry is similarly questioning - notably With…

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Denmark - Etymology, Geography, Administrative divisions, Economy, Demographics, Education

official name Kingdom of Denmark, Dan Kongeriget Danmark The Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Kongeriget Danmark IPA: ['dɑnmɑɐ̥g̊]) is the smallest and southernmost of the Nordic countries. Located north of Germany (its only land neighbor), southwest of Sweden, and south of Norway, it is in Scandinavia in northern Europe, but not on the Scandinavian Peninsula. Denmark bord…

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Denmark Vesey - Early Life, The Vesey Conspiracy, In Fiction

Insurrection leader, probably born on St Thomas, West Indies. The property of Captain Vesey, a Charleston, SC slave trader and planter, he spent 20 years sailing with his master. In 1800 he purchased his freedom (allegedly having won a lottery), took up carpentry in Charleston, and prospered at his trade. By 1818 he was preaching to slaves at plantations throughout the region and, drawing on the B…

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Dennis (Christopher George) Potter - Television work, Psoriasis, Last interview, Final works, Criticism, Listen to

Playwright, born in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was a journalist and TV critic before he began writing plays. Although he wrote for the stage (Sufficient Carbohydrate, 1984), he was primarily a television dramatist. His first success was Vote, Vote, Vote for Nigel Barton (1965). Other plays include Brimstone and Treacle (1976), Blue Remembered Hi…

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Dennis (Keith) Lillee - Early career, Comeback from injury, Later career, After retirement, Teams, Career highlights, Controversy

Cricketer, born in Perth, Western Australia. A renowned fast bowler, he epitomized the move towards the more combative approach to international cricket. He took 355 wickets in 70 Tests, and his attempts to introduce a metal bat (illegal) into Test matches led to well-publicized clashes with the Australian cricketing authorities. In the early part of his career Lillee was an extremely quick…

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Dennis (Keith) Rodman - Career, Other work, Recent actions

Eccentric, abrasive basketball player, born in Trenton, New Jersey, USA. He started his professional career with the Detroit Pistons, winning two championships (1989–90) with them before joining the Chicago Bulls, winning consecutive championships in 1996–8. He led the NBA in rebounding for seven consecutive seasons (1992–8). He signed for the LA Lakers in 1998, but was waived by the club after…

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Dennis (Leslie) Amiss - England Career

Cricketer, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He played with distinction for Warwickshire, and won admiration by the way he endured a battering by West Indian bowlers in 1976, which re-established his place in first-class cricket. He made 50 appearances in Test matches for England, and scored 11 centuries. He played cricket for both Warwickshire County Cricket Club and Englan…

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Dennis (Yates) Wheatley - Early Life, Military Service, Writing, Politics

Novelist, born in London, UK. He inherited the family wine business, but sold up in 1931 to concentrate on novel writing. He produced an enormously popular mix of satanism and historical fiction. Indicative titles in a lurid oeuvre are The Devil Rides Out (1935), The Scarlet Impostor (1942), and The Sultan's Daughter (1963). His three-volume autobiography was published posthumously (1978–80). …

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Dennis Banks

Ojibwa activist, born in Leech Lake, Minnesota, USA. Educated in Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools, he co-founded, with George Mitchell, the American Indian Movement (1968). He was a leader in such protest actions as the Trail of Broken Treaties (1972) and the occupation of Wounded Knee (1973). Convicted in 1975 on charges stemming from a South Dakota demonstration, he was granted asylum b…

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Dennis Brain - A Family Tradition, Musical Career, A Horn Literature Renaissance, A Premature End

Horn player, born in London, UK. He studied under his father Aubrey Brain (1893–1955) at the Royal Academy of Music, also becoming an organist, then worked with the Royal Philharmonic and Philharmonia Orchestras as chief horn player. Amongst the composers who wrote works especially for him were Britten, Hindemith, and Malcolm Arnold. Dennis Brain (1921 – 1957) was a very distinguished Br…

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Dennis Chavez - Early life, Early political career, Senate career, Death, Legacy, Monuments and memorials

US representative and senator, born in Los Chavez, New Mexico, USA. Although he never finished high school, he worked as a clerk in the US Senate and graduated from Georgetown University Law School (1920). He served in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, New Mexico, 1931–5) and in the US Senate (1935–62). An advocate of integrating minorities, he opposed Navajo Indian autonomy and propose…

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Dennis Gabor

Physicist, born in Budapest, Hungary. After obtaining a doctorate in engineering in Berlin (1927) he worked as a research engineer, but left Germany in 1933. In 1948 he joined Imperial College, London, and was appointed professor of applied electron physics (1958–67). He is credited with the invention in 1947 of the technique of holography, a method of photographically recording and reproducing t…

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Dennis Hart Mahan

Military theorist, born in New York City, New York, USA, the father of Alfred Thayer Mahan. He trained at West Point (1824), then went to France to study in an army school, and returned to West Point (1832) where he spent the rest of his career as a professor of civil and military engineering. He was known for his books on fortifications and other aspects of military engineering, but it was his th…

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Dennis Hopper - External links

Film actor and director, born in Dodge City, Kansas, USA. Rebel Without A Cause (1955) is cited as his film debut, although he is credited with an appearance in Johnny Guitar (1954). He caused a sensation with the anti-establishment Easy Rider (1969), the archetypal ‘road’ film in which he directed and starred. Hoosiers (1986) earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actor. Later films…

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Dennis Nilsen - Early life and leadup to murders, Aspects of the murders and arrest

British convicted murderer. He admitted the murder and mutilation of between 12 and 16 young men in England between 1978 and 1983. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, with a recommendation that he serve a minimum of 25 years on six counts of murder and two of attempted murder. Dennis Andrew Nilsen (born November 23, 1945) is a Scottish serial killer who lived in London. Nilse…

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Dennis Quaid - Biography, Filmography, Quotes

Film actor, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He appeared in a number of small films before The Right Stuff (1983) established him as a leading man. He proved his versatility in such films as Innerspace (1987), The Big Easy (1987), and Postcards from The Edge (1990). Later films include Wyatt Earp (1994), The Parent Trap (1998), Any Given Sunday (1999), Far From Heaven (2002), and Cold Creek Manor (200…

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Dennis Tito

American multimillionaire businessman. Before moving into a highly successful business career, he was a rocket scientist at the US space agency NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, CA. On 28 April 2001, he made history as the world's first ‘space tourist’, having completed nine months training for the mission at a military base near Moscow. Paying a reputed $20 million (£14 million) to…

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density (physics)

The mass of a substance divided by its volume; symbol ?, units kg/m3. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3. An object placed in a liquid more dense than itself will float, whereas an object more dense than the liquid will sink. Density is measured using a hydrometer. A table of masses of various substances: Note the low density of aluminium compared to most other metals. …

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dentistry - General Dentistry (Aesthetic or Cosmetic Dentistry), Specialties, Related dental topics, Organizations

The treatment and prevention of diseases of the mouth and teeth; with medicine and nursing, one of the major health professions. Dentistry was studied at the Chinese Imperial Medical College from 620, and toothbrushes and toothpaste were known by Song times (10th–13th-c). In the West, it was first practised by barber surgeons. Surgeon dentists first formed a separate guild in France in the reign …

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Denzel Washington

Actor, born in Mount Vernon, New York, USA. He won a scholarship to the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco, and afterwards worked with the Shakespeare in the Park ensemble. He appeared in a number of off-Broadway productions and in television movies before making his feature-film debut in the comedy A Carbon Copy (1981). He had a starring role in the television medical drama St Elsewhe…

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deoxyribose - Biological importance of deoxyribose

C5H10O4. A 5-carbon sugar, particularly important for its role in the genetic material DNA. The atoms marked * in the illustration are connected to phosphate groups in DNA. Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. It is derived from the pentose sugar ribo…

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depersonalization - Symptoms, Connection with psychological trauma, Treatment

A sensation in which the individual feels unreal and not in the living world. It includes feelings of part of the body changing in size or not belonging to the self, or a sense of looking at oneself from the outside. It can be a normal phenomenon, as when associated with extreme fatigue, and appears frequently as a symptom in a variety of psychiatric disorders. Sufferers of depersonalizatio…

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depreciation - Recording depreciation, Methods of depreciation, Economics

An accountancy term measuring the loss of value of an asset due to age, wear and tear, and obsolescence. Straight-line depreciation assumes that the asset loses value evenly over its life, by the same amount each year. Reducing balance depreciation assumes that an asset loses a constant proportion of its remaining value each year until it is finally scrapped, when the rest disappears. Depre…

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depression (economics)

An economic situation where demand is slack, order-books are low, firms dispense with staff, and profits are poor or absent. The Great Depression of the early 1930s (often referred to as the slump), which began in the USA, saw many bankruptcies and many millions of people out of work. A less severe form is a recession. Depression may refer to: …

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depression (meteorology)

A meteorological term for a low pressure system at high and mid-latitudes; also known as a cyclone at low latitudes. The system generally passes through a number of well-defined stages, each of which is accompanied by characteristic weather patterns, although not all depressions follow the idealized cycle. A depression is initiated when a wave develops on a front (a boundary between cold and warm …

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depression (psychiatry)

A mental condition or state in which there are feelings of low mood, despondence, self-criticism, and low esteem. It may be associated with a change (up or down) in appetite for sleep, food, or sex. The term has been used in a variety of ways: in lay use, it may mean little more than common sadness; in psychiatric use, it may refer to specific conditions, such as melancholia or manic-depressive il…

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depth charge - Delivery Mechanisms, Effectiveness, Later Developments

A munition used by surface warships as a means of destroying submarines, typically an explosive-packed container dropped over the stern of a warship, armed by a fuse primed to detonate when it senses the water-pressure at a predetermined depth. From the middle of World War 2 the depth charge was supplanted by weapons which threw the explosive munition ahead of the anti-submarine warship. From the …

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depth psychology

A group of psychological treatments which emphasize unconscious mental processes as the cause of neurotic illnesses; opposed to behavioural forms of psychology. In psychoanalytic forms of depth psychology, Freudian concepts of id, ego, and superego would be considered, whereas in analytical psychology described by Jung, the collective unconsciousness is considered paramount. Depth psycholog…

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Derby - Status, History, Landmarks, Economy, Transport, Education, Trivia, Districts of Derby, Places of interest, Famous residents

52°55N 1°30W, pop (2001e) 221 700. City and unitary authority (from 1997) in Derbyshire, C England, UK; on the R Derwent, 56 km/35 mi NE of Birmingham; chartered in 1637; railway; first silk mill (1719); porcelain centre in 18th-c (Derby ware); aero engines, railway engineering; lawnmowers, sugar refining, textiles, chemicals, plastics, china; Cathedral of All Saints (1525), old silk mill in…

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Derbyshire - Economy, Settlements, Places of interest, Emblems

pop (2001e) 734 600; area 2631 km²/1016 sq mi. County of C England, UK; rises to The Peak at 636 m/2086 ft; drained by Derwent, Dove, Wye, and Trent Rivers; county town, Matlock; chief towns include Derby (new unitary authority from 1997), Chesterfield, Glossop; the Derwent Valley Mills is a world heritage site; sheep and dairy farming, coal, textiles, iron smelting, engineering. In…

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Dereham

52º41N 0º56E, pop (2000e) 15 300. Town in Norfolk, E England, UK; 25 km/15 mi NW of Norwich; birthplace of Brian Aldiss, George Borrow, William Hyde Wollaston; Church of St Nicholas with 16th-c bell tower and the tomb of William Cowper; reputedly St Withburga (d.743) was buried in the churchyard, her relics stolen (10th-c), and a healing spring appeared at the site; Bishop Bonner's cottage (…

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Derek (Alton) Walcott - Walcott as playwright and theorist, Works, Further reading

Poet and playwright, born in Castries, St Lucia, West Indies. He studied at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, and has lived mostly in Trindad, where he founded the Trindad Theatre Workshop in 1959. He produced three early but assured volumes, In A Green Night (1962), The Castaway (1965), and The Gulf (1969). Later works include Collected Poems 1948–84 (1986), the epic Omeros (1990), The…

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Derek (Curtis) Bok

University president, born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA. He taught labour and anti-trust law at Harvard Law School, where he was also a reformist dean (1968–71), before becoming president of Harvard University (1971–90). His books include Beyond the Ivory Tower (1982), Higher Learning (1986), and Universities and the Future of America (1990). Derek Curtis Bok (born March 22, 1930) is a…

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Derek (Ernest) Denny-Brown - Notable Links

Neurologist, born in Christchurch, New Zealand. He trained at the University of New Zealand and at Oxford, where he worked with Charles Sherrington. After clinical work in London, he went to Harvard in 1941, where he remained. He was particularly interested in the diseases of the basal ganglia and of the muscles. Derek Denny-Brown, a software developer formerly with the Microsoft Corporatio…

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Derek (John Harford) Worlock

Roman Catholic clergyman. He studied at St Edmund's College, Hertfordshire, was ordained in 1944, and became secretary to the Archbishop of Westminster (1945–64), and Bishop of Portsmouth (1965–76). Appointed Archbishop of Liverpool in 1976, he developed a close working relationship with the Anglican Bishop of Liverpool, speaking out with him on matters of social concern. He was made a Companion…

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Derek (Leslie) Underwood

Cricketer, born in Bromley, S Greater London, UK. An unorthodox slow left-arm bowler, very effective on wet pitches before the introduction of full covering, he took 297 wickets in 86 Tests for England, and this total would have been much larger had he not suffered two bans, first for defecting to World Series Cricket in 1977, and later for playing unauthorized matches in South Africa. Forty-seven…

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Derek Jarman - Life, Films, Other works, Filmography

Painter and film maker, born in Northwood, NW Greater London, UK. He studied at London University and the Slade School of Art, London, then worked in costume and set design for the Royal Ballet and the film industry. He directed his first feature film, Sebastiane, in 1976, and his later (often controversial) works included Jubilee (1977), Caravaggio (1985), and The Last of England (1987). The Gard…

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Derek Mahon - Biography, Style, Bibliography

Poet, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He was educated at Belfast Institute and Trinity College, Dublin, and was a teacher before turning to journalism and other writing. Drawn to squalid landscapes and desperate situations, his acknowledged influences are Louis MacNeice and W H Auden. Twelve Poems was published in 1965, since when there have been a number of others, including The Hunt by…

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Derek Ratcliffe - Publications

British conservationist. He joined the Nature Conservancy in 1956, becoming its chief scientist (1973–89). His main work is the Nature Conservation Revue (1977), cataloguing the prime examples of habitat in the British Is in need of protection. He was also responsible, through his study of the effects of pesticides on the peregrine falcon, for the restriction and eventual ban on the use of organo…

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derivation

A major process of word formation. In derivational modification, new words are formed which often belong to a different word class from the base form, as with truth (noun), truth-ful (adjective), false (adjective), false-hood (noun). This contrasts with inflection, a process of modification where the word class of the form is never altered, but its grammatical status is changed (eg singular to plu…

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dermatitis - Specific types of dermatitis

The commonest skin disorder, involving an allergic reaction in the skin; also known as eczema. It may be provoked by chemical and physical irritants (eg detergents, watch straps), or ingested food and drugs. There is a hereditary element, in that affected individuals often have a family history of dermatitis and other allergic disorders such as hay fever and asthma. The initial reaction in the ski…

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dermatology - Scope of the field, Training Program, Diagnosis, Therapy, Research, Dermatological diseases

The scientific study of the structure and function of the skin and of its diseases. It is a specialized branch of medical practice. Dermatology (from Greek derma, "skin") is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc). Dermatologists are physicians (medical doctors) specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and tumo…

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Dermot MacMurrough - Early Life and Family, King of Leinster, Exile, Return and Death, Sources, Source for Genealogy

King of Wexford and Leinster, E Ireland (1126), who asserted his rule over neighbouring Waterford and Ossory in the 1130s. He ravaged the country with great cruelty, and abducted Dervorgill, wife of the Lord of Breifne (1152). In 1166 he was defeated by a combined force of chieftains. His enemy Tiernan O'Rourke formed an allegiance with the high king Rory O'Connor and the Dublin Normans to drive M…

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Derrick Henry Lehmer - Early life, Marriage, Career, Death

Mathematician, born in Berkeley, California, USA. A Cambridge University professor (1940–72) and professor emeritus of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley (1972), he was known for work in numbers theory, computing devices, mathematical tables, and other aids to computation. Derrick Henry "Dick" Lehmer (February 23, 1905–May 22, 1991) was an American mathematician who re…

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Derry (city) - Name, Climate, Economy, Transport, Sport, 2001 Census, Events, Education

55°00N 7°19W, pop (2000e) 77 600. City in Derry district, County Derry, NW Northern Ireland, UK; on a hill above the R Foyle, 8 km/5 mi above its mouth into Lough Foyle; monastery founded by St Columba, c.546; James I proclaimed the city to be part of the Corporation of London, 1613; renamed London-Derry, and settled by a Protestant colony; resisted a siege by James II for 105 days, 1689; ra…

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Derry (county) - Name, Climate, Economy, Transport, Sport, 2001 Census, Events, Education

pop (2000e) 227 300; area 2067 km²/798 sq mi. County in N Northern Ireland, UK, divided into four districts (Coleraine, Derry, Limavady, Magherafelt); the name is also used for one of these districts, pop (2000e) 102 000, and its administrative centre; bounded N by Lough Foyle and the Atlantic Ocean, SE by Lough Neagh, and NW by the Republic of Ireland; hilly, with part of the Sperrin Mts …

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dervish - Religious practice

A member of an Islamic ascetic or mystical fraternity. Since the founding of the Qadiriya order in the 12th-c, numerous orders with lodges situated across the Muslim world have been established, each with its own ethos and rituals. One of the most famous orders is the Mevlevi, or whirling dervishes of Turkey who practice trans-inducing ecstatic dances. The word Dervish, especially in Europe…

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desalination - Methods, Considerations, Experimental techniques and other developments

The removal of salt from sea-water or brine to produce water that is potable, industrially or agriculturally usable, or suitable for ships' boilers. Distillation is the oldest process and, in revised efficient forms, still one of the most widely used. Membrane processes are useful with weak brackish water, the brine being forced under pressure against a membrane to produce a reverse osmosis, fresh…

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descant

A melody sung or played above another well-known one, such as a hymn tune. The term (often as discant) is also used for a type of mediaeval polyphony, and to distinguish the highest-pitched member of a family of instruments (eg the descant recorder). Descant or discant can refer to several different things in music, depending on the period in question; A discant (occasionally, p…

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descent

In anthropology, the tracing of an individual's ancestry in the male line only (patrilineally), in the female line only (matrilineally), or through both males and females. Descent may be traced for various purposes, most commonly in order to regulate inheritance, or succession to office, or to define rights to the membership of groups. Some social groups may be defined by common descent. Anthropol…

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deschooling

The notion proposed by Ivan Illich in his book Deschooling Society (1973) that formal schooling should be abolished. Children and adults should learn from each other outside the structure of an institutionalized education system. Deschooling is a term used by both education philosophers and proponents of alternative education and/or homeschooling, which refers to different things in each co…

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desensitization - In medicine, In psychology, In animals

An experimental treatment designed to prevent allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. It involves small repeated subcutaneous injections of the allergen believed to be responsible for the reaction. This is believed to train the body not to respond to the allergen. The basis of the treatment is that the antibody produced in response to the injections coats tissue cells, and blocks the access o…

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desert - Etymology, Types of desert, Desert features, Mineral resources, Trivia

An arid and empty region of the Earth, characterized by little or no vegetation, and meagre and intermittent rainfall, high evaporation rates, and low humidity and cloud cover. Low-latitude deserts such as the Sahara are hot and dry, caused by high pressure air masses which prevent precipitation. Mid-latitude deserts such as the Gobi are cold and dry, and are related to mountain barriers which sea…

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Desert Orchid - Early career, Steeplechase career, Retirement

English racehorse. He won the National Hunt Horse of the Year Award a record four times. Out of 70 career races he had 34 wins, 11 seconds, and 8 thirds. Wins include the Cheltenham Gold Cup (1989), King George VI Chase (1986, 1988, 1989, 1990), Racing Post Chase (1990), Cheltenham Gold Cup (1989), Whitbread Gold Cup (1988), and Irish Grand National (1990). He retired in 1991, and died in 2006 at …

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desertification - Causes, Prehistoric patterns, Historical and current desertification, Countering desertification, Trivia, External links and references

The environmental degradation of arid and semi-arid areas through overcultivation, overgrazing, deforestation, and bad irrigation practices. Changing climatic patterns are also implicated. The land loses its fertility, and is no longer able to support its population. The problem is worsened in many regions by climatic instability (particularly drought), by rapidly-growing populations, and by cash …

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Desiderio da Settignano - Biography, Selected works

Sculptor, born in Settignano, NC Italy. He worked in the early Renaissance style, influenced by Donatello and Della Robbia, producing many notable portrait busts of women and children. He came from a family of stone carvers and stone masons in Settignano, near Florence. In 1450-55 he finished a frieze with cherubims in the Pazzi Chapel of Santa Croce in Florence. Of circa 1455 i…

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Desiderius Erasmus - Biography, Writings, Legacy, Trivia, Selected works, Representations of Erasmus

Humanist, born in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. After six years in an Augustinian monastery, he became private secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, and a priest (1492). He went to Paris, where he lived as a teacher, then moved to England in 1498, and became professor of divinity and of Greek at Cambridge. Here he wrote his satire, Encomium moriae (1509, The Praise of Folly). After 1514 he lived alter…

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desman

An insectivore of the mole family (2 species), native to the Pyrenees and W Asia; red-brown; long mobile snout; webbed hind feet; long tail flattened from side to side; lives in streams and pools; eats aquatic animals. The Desmans or Desmaninae are one of three subfamilies of the mole family Talpidae, the others being Talpinae and Uropsilinae. …

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Desmond (John) Morris - Selected books

Zoologist, writer, and painter, born in Purton, near Swindon, Wiltshire, S England, UK. While a pupil at Dauntsey's School in Wiltshire, he developed his interests in zoology and painting. He later held his first one-man exhibition in Swindon (1948) and has since gone on to gain international recognition for his Surrealist works. He studied zoology at Birmingham University (1948) and Oxford (1951

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Desmond (Mpilo) Tutu - Background, Political work, Political views, Views on Israel, Jews, and Judaism, Bibliography

Anglican clergyman, born in Klerksdorp, N South Africa. He studied at the universities of South Africa and London, was briefly a schoolteacher, then became an Anglican parish priest (1960). He rapidly rose to become Bishop of Lesotho (1977), secretary-general of the South African Council of Churches (1979), the first black Bishop of Johannesburg (1984), and Archbishop of Cape Town (1986), retiring…

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destroyer - Genesis of the destroyer, World War I, Inter-war, World War II, Post-war

A small fast warship designed in the late 19th-c to destroy enemy torpedo boats. It has undergone much development and adopted many other roles: submarine hunting, evacuation, invasion, assault support, and convoy escort, as well as providing a battleship screen in both world wars. Modern destroyers are usually guided-missile carriers and pack immense fire power compared to their ancestors. They a…

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detective story - The Whodunit, The private eye novel, English Golden Age detective novels, Police procedural, Other subgenres

A story turning on the committing of a crime (usually a murder) and the discovery by a detective of the culprit. It is this element of mystery which makes it distinct from the crime novel. Although Voltaire's Zadig (1747) and Godwin's Caleb Williams (1794) contain precursive elements, the first true detective stories were Poe's Murders in the Rue Morgue (1841) and The Purloined Letter (1845), feat…

1 minute read

detergent - Composition, Sources, Eternal link

A material which lowers the surface tension of water, and makes it mix better with oils and fats. Most detergents contain molecules or ions with a combination of polar (water-seeking) and non-polar (oil-seeking) parts, which serve to bind oil and water together. Soaps are examples of (an)ionic detergents, containing a charged (water-seeking) group bonded to an alkyl (fat-seeking) group. Commercial…

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determinant - Determinants of 2-by-2 matrices, Determinants as a wedge product, Applications, Quick Reference

In mathematics, a number determined by the elements of a square matrix. For a 2 × 2 matrix , the determinant is defined as ad ? bc. If the matrix is represented by A, the determinant of A is written det A or In algebra, a determinant is a function depending on n that associates a scalar, det(A), to every n×n square matrix A. A determinant of A is also sometimes denoted …

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determinism - Philosophy of determinism, The nature of determinism, A multi-deterministic position, Modern perspectives on determinism

Causal determinism is the philosophical thesis that every event has a cause, so that, given the laws of nature and the relevant previous history of the world, the event could not have failed to occur, and could in principle have been predicted. Philosophers have disagreed about whether causal determinism is compatible with free will or is undermined by quantum theory. Logical determinism is the st…

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Detlef Lienau

Architect, born in Utersen, Germany. He emigrated to New York (1848), where he introduced the French Second Empire style and espoused Neoclassicism throughout the mid-19th-c. He helped found the American Institute of Architects (1857). Detlef Lienau (February 17, 1818 – August 29, 1887) was a Danish architect. Lienau was recognized by clients and colleagues alike as one of the most creati…

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Detlev Karsten Rohwedder

German politician and industrialist, born in Gotha, C Germany. He joined the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) and served as Staatssekretär im Bundeswirtschaftsministerium (1969–78). As chairman of Hoesch AG (from 1980) he was successful in the restructuring of the steel conglomerate. Also chairman of the Treuhandanstalt, he played an important part in the transfer of the nationalize…

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Detlev von Liliencron

Writer, born in Kiel, N Germany. An officer in the Prussian army, he retired from active service and spent some time in the USA before returning to Germany as a civil servant. A pioneer of Naturalism, he wrote melodious nature poetry and love poetry full of vivid imagery, notably Adjustantenritte und andere Gedichte (1883), Gedichte (1889), and Bunte Beute (1903), employing a variety of technical …

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detonator - Electrical Detonators, Non Electric Detonators

A sensitive explosive (eg mercuric fulminate, lead azide) used in a small quantity to initiate the function of larger quantities of principal explosive. By extension, the term is used for any device containing a detonating explosive actuated by heat, percussion, friction, or electricity. A detonator is a device used to trigger an explosive device. Detonators can be chemically, m…

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Deucalion

In Greek mythology, a son of Prometheus. When Zeus flooded the world, Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha built an ‘ark’ which grounded on the top of Parnassus. As the only survivors, they asked how the human race was to be restored; an oracle told them ‘to throw their mother's bones over their shoulders’. They correctly interpreted this oracle, and threw stones which turned into human beings. …

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deuterium - Chemical symbol, occurrence, and properties, Applications, Anti-deuterium, Appearances in pop culture

A heavy isotope of hydrogen, in which the nucleus comprises a proton and a neutron rather than a proton alone (as for common hydrogen); symbol D or 2H. It forms 0·015% of naturally occurring hydrogen. Water made with deuterium is called heavy water, with a density of 1·1 g/cm3, and is used in some nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also important in nuclear fusion. Deuterium, also called hea…

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Deutsche Bundesbank - History

The German Federal Reserve Bank, located in Frankfurt am Main. Created in 1957 by the amalgamation of the central banks of the Länder (Landeszentralbanken) and the Bank deutscher Länder, its main functions are the regulation of monetary circulation, the issue of bank notes, and the safeguard of currency. The Deutsche Bundesbank (German for German Federal Bank) is the central bank of the F…

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Deutsche Christen - Introduction, Religion in Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, Links and Other Information

Religio-political movement characterized by the association of Christian and national ideas and the racially motivated dismissal of the Old Testament. The Kirchenbewegung Deutscher Christen, formed in 1927, saw in National Socialism a sign of God's guiding hand. With the formation of the Glaubensbewegung Deutscher Christen an attempt was made to create a Reichskirche and thus unify the various Pro…

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Deutsche Reichspartei (DRP)

A right-wing party, founded in 1946, and from 1952 the largest right-wing organization in the German Federal Republic (BRD), with bases in Niedersachsen and Rheinland-Pfalz. In 1964 its c.10 000 members merged with Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands. This series is linked to the Politics and Elections series …

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Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis

In Germany, a prize for youth literature, awarded annually since 1956 by a jury appointed by the Munich-based Arbeitskreis für Jugendliteratur. Until 1980 it was known as the Deutscher Jugendbuchpreis. It is supported by the Bundesministerium für Frauen und Jugend (Federal Ministry for Women and Youth). The Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis is an award donated since 1956 by the Federal Minis…

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Deutscher Katholikentag - Katholikentag in Germany, Katholikentag in other countries

In Germany, the name given to a conference of German Catholics. Between 1848 and 1950 it took place annually (with some interruption) and since then every two years, alternating with the Deutscher Evangelischer Kichentag. It serves as a forum for the discussion of religious, political, and social questions. Katholikentag (lit. Catholics Day) is a festival-like gathering in German-speaking c…

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devaluation - Historical usage

A fall in the amount of foreign currency which can be obtained per unit of a country's own currency. For example, if the £ has been selling for $1·60 and falls to $1·40, it is devalued. Devaluation makes a country's exports cheaper abroad and its imports dearer at home, as long as domestic prices do not change. This tends to improve the balance of payments. Rises in import costs tend to create …

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development economics - Topics of Research, Recent developments

The branch of economics concerned with less developed countries. Its main difference from economics as applied to advanced economies is a need to attend more to problems such as lack of infrastructure - power systems, transport and communications, clean water supply, etc. There are also problems with low educational standards, population pressure, poor agricultural practices and soil erosion, unde…

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developmental psychology - Theory, History of developmental psychology, Stages of development, Schools of psychology, Research methods

A branch of psychology which examines the biological, social, and intellectual development of people from before birth throughout the life-course. Most attention has been paid to young children, in whom shifts in understanding appear more obvious. While some psychologists study individual patterns of development, most focus upon the developmental function - the changes which are common to all peop…

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Devil - Etymology, Concept of the devil in world religions, Social and Political Uses of the Devil Concept

A supernatural evil agent thought to influence human behaviour, in many religious beliefs; when referring to a specific character in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, the chief of the evil spirits or fallen angels; also known as Satan. Devil is a rare term in the Hebrew Scriptures (where Satan is more common), but more frequent in the New Testament, where the Devil is sometimes represented as a serp…

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devil ray

Any of the giant rays widespread in surface waters of tropical and warm temperate seas; pectoral fins forming large triangular wings; body width up to 6 m/20 ft; sides of head prolonged as fleshy ‘horns’; tail whip-like; young are born live; feed on plankton and small fishes. (Genera: Mobula, Manta. Family: Mobulidae.) Devil ray may refer to: …

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devolution - United Kingdom, United States, Movements calling for devolution, List of unitary states with devolution

The delegation of authority from a country's legislature or government to a subordinate elected institution on a more limited geographical basis. Devolution is distinguished from federalism, where the powers of the central government and the federal bodies are set out in the constitution. Under devolution, the subordinate body receives its power from the government, which retains some right of ove…

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Devon - History, Geology, landscape and ecology, Politics and administration, Cities, towns and villages

pop (2001e) 704 500; area 6711 km²/2591 sq mi. County of SW England, UK; bounded NW by the Bristol Channel and Atlantic and S by the English Channel; rises to Dartmoor in SW and Exmoor in NE; drained by the Exe, Dart, Torridge, and Taw Rivers; county town, Exeter; chief towns include Plymouth, Torquay, Barnstaple; Plymouth and Torbay new unitary authorities from 1998; tourism, especially on …

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dew - Formation, Occurrence, Measurement, Significance

The deposit of moisture on vegetation and ground surfaces. It occurs at night when terrestrial radiation cools the Earth's surface, and the layer of air closest to the ground, to below the dew point temperature, resulting in condensation. Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. When temperatures are low enough dew tak…

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Dewsbury - History, Origin of the Name, Geography and Location, Demographics and economy, Sport and culture, Education

53º42N 1º37W. Town in West Yorkshire, N England, UK; on the R Calder, 12 km/7 mi SW of Leeds; birthplace of Sir Thomas Allbutt; prosperous 19th-c woollen trade and coal-mining; railway; town hall (1889); textiles, carpets, leather. Dewsbury is a town in the county of West Yorkshire, England, to the west of Wakefield, in the borough of Kirklees. After undergoing a period of major growth …

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Dexter (Keith) Gordon - Life and works, Notable works, Trivia

Jazz musician, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He was an influential saxophonist and the leader of his own groups from 1945. He won acclaim for his portrayal of a jazz musician in the 1986 film Round Midnight. Dexter (Keith) Gordon (February 27, 1923 - April 25, 1990) was a United States tenor saxophone musician. From 1940 to 1980, he played with such jazz greats as Lionel Hampton, Ta…

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dextrin

A complex sugar, a mixture of glucose polymers, obtained from starch which has been broken down enzymatically or by gentle heat. Dextrins are used as thickening agents in foods, as well as adhesives and glazes in paper and textiles. However, their main use is to improve the palatability of starchy foods, and to reduce the osmotic load on the stomach in convalescent drinks. Dextrins are a gr…

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Dhaka - History, Geography and climate, Civic administration, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Transport, Education, Sports

23°42N 90°22E, pop (2000e) 7 137 000. Capital city of Bangladesh, in Dhaka region, W of the R Meghna, on a channel of the R Dhaleswari; former French, Dutch, and English trading post; capital of Mughal province of East Bengal (1608–1704); capital of British province of East Bengal and Assam (1905–12); small university town before 1947; major expansion since becoming capital of East Pakistan…

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dharma - Meanings and origins of the word Dharma, Dharma in Hinduism, In Buddhism, In Sikhism, In Jainism

In Hinduism, a Sanskrit word with various levels of meaning. Basically, it is the universal law that applies to the universe, human society, and the individual. As the moral law, it is both a general code of ethics applicable to all, and a moral law specific to an individual's station in life. In Buddhism (Pali, dhamma) the word also has several levels of meaning, referring to the teaching of the …

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dhole - Habitat, Geographical range, Physical description, Diet, Dentition, Hunting, Behavior, Population pressures, Subspecies, Fictional appearances

A member of the dog family (Cuon alpinus), native to S and SE Asia; red-brown, with white underneath; black tip to tail; inhabits woodland or open country; hunts large mammals in packs; runs prey to exhaustion; also known as Asiatic wild dog or Indian wild dog. The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. Within the canid family, the dhole is placed i…

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diabetes insipidus - Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Treatment

An uncommon disorder in which a large volume of dilute urine is produced daily, independently of the volume of fluid ingested. It is caused by the absence or inadequate production of anti-diuretic hormone by the pituitary gland, or by conditions (eg potassium depletion) which reduce the sensitivity of the kidneys to its action. As a result, the kidneys fail to reabsorb water and concentrate the ur…

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diabetes mellitus - History, Diagnosis, Treatment and management, Curing diabetes, Prevention, Public health and policy, Epidemiology and statistics

A common metabolic disorder in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin in the amounts needed to control sugar metabolism. The blood sugar level rises above normal values (hyperglycemia) and spills over into the urine, causing large volumes to be produced (polyuria). In Type I diabetes, the deficiency of insulin is primary, caused by auto-immune damage to the pancreas; onset tends to be in chil…

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diagenesis - The role of diagenesis in hydrocarbon generation

The physical and chemical processes whereby an unconsolidated sediment is changed to a solid rock. It includes compaction and partial dewatering, followed by cementation and low temperature re-equilibration to a more stable chemical and textural state. It excludes metamorphism. In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment af…

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diagnosis - Relationship of diagnosis to medical practice, Diagnostic procedure, History of medical diagnostics

In medicine, the determination by a medical practitioner of the nature of a disease in a patient. A diagnosis is reached by first taking a history of the patient's current symptoms, previous complaints, illnesses in the family, and social circumstances; then by conducting a physical examination to look for signs of disease; and finally by using additional investigations such as blood tests and X-r…

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Diahann Carroll - Theatre and Stage, Filmography

Actress and singer, born in New York City, New York, USA. A nightclub singer and model, once married to Vic Damone, she first appeared on Broadway in The House of Flowers (1954), and made a number of films during the 1950s. She starred in No Strings (1962), and also appeared in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1979). When she appeared in Julia (1968–71) and Dynasty (1984–7), she was the first Af…

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dialectic - In philosophy, Dialectical biology

A philosophical term, originally (for Socrates) a conversational mode of argument through question and answer. It is used in different, more technical senses by Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Hegel, and Marx. In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing a…

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dialectical materialism - A brief history of dialectical materialist thought, Marxist criticisms of dialectical materialism, Materialism in dialectical materialism

A central doctrine of Marxism, which combines Hegel's idea of dialectic with a thoroughgoing materialism directly opposed to idealism. Its claims are that quantitative changes in matter yield qualitative changes (eg the emergence of mind); that nature is a unity of contradictory opposites; and that the result of one opposite (thesis) clashing with another (antithesis) is a resolution (synthesis) t…

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dialectology - History

The study of varieties of a language (dialects) which are regionally or socially distinctive. Dialects are marked by having distinctive words, grammatical structures, and pronunciations. They are studied by wide-ranging questionnaires which gather information about the same linguistic features over the whole geographical area of a language. The result is a dialect atlas, which shows dialect areas …

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dialysis - Principle, Types, Starting indications

A means of separating dissolved substances (solutes) of different molecular weights by using the differences in their rates of diffusion across thin layers of certain materials (eg cellulose, peritoneal membranes). Artificial kidney machines (dialysers) perform haemodialysis, whereby waste products (such as urea or excess salts) are removed from the patient's blood, while blood cells and protein a…

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diamagnetism - Diamagnetic levitation

A magnetic effect, measurable in many materials (eg water, copper), in which individual atomic magnetic moments induced within the material align in opposition to an applied magnetic field. The material is repelled by the source of the magnetic field; for sufficiently strong fields objects can be floated above magnets (diamagnetic levitation). Diamagnetism is characterized by negative magnetic sus…

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diamond - Material properties, Natural history, Gemological characteristics, History, The diamond industry, Symbolism

A naturally occurring form of crystalline carbon formed at high pressures and temperatures deep in the Earth's crust. It is found in volcanic pipes, called kimberlites, and in alluvial deposits. Major mines near Kimberley, South Africa (1871–2005), and in Kimberley, NW Australia. Diamond is the hardest natural substance known, and is the most precious of gemstones. Diamonds may be clear and trans…

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diamondback

North American rattlesnake with bold diamond-shaped markings along back; also known as diamondback rattlesnake; two species: the Eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), the most venomous snake in North America (bite can kill in one hour); and the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Diamondback can refer to: …

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Dian Fossey - Career, Death, Legacy, Citation

Primatologist, born in San Francisco, California, USA. She was interested in animals from childhood, but changed college courses from pre-veterinary studies to occupational therapy. She moved to Louisville, KY to be director of the Kosair Crippled Children's Hospital occupational therapy department (1955–6), but felt compelled to satisfy her long-standing desire to visit Africa. On her first trip…

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Diana

Roman goddess, associated with the Moon, virginity, and hunting. She was considered to be equivalent to the Greek Artemis, whose cult was primarily at Ephesus; hence the cult of ‘Diana of the Ephesians’, who was a fertility-goddess. Diana can refer to: In royalty: In mythology: People bearing the name: In music: In fictio…

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Diana (Dalziel) Vreeland

Fashion journalist, born in Paris, France. The daughter of wealthy parents, she moved to New York as a teenager. She dispensed extravagant advice to snobs in her famous ‘Why Don't You...’ in Harper's Bazaar (1936). As fashion editor of Harper's (1937–62), she became ‘the high priestess of style’, a trend-setter who coined the term ‘beautiful people’ and cultivated her reputation for wit. Sh…

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Diana Ross - Biography, Solo discography, Autobiographies

Popular singer and film actress, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Lead singer of the extremely successful trio, the Supremes, she went solo in 1969, recording the hits ‘Reach Out and Touch Somebody's Hand’ and ‘Ain't No Mountain High Enough’ in 1970. She portrayed singer Billie Holliday in the film Lady Sings the Blues (1972) and by the late 1970s achieved superstar status with live and televis…

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Diane (Julie) Abbott - Early life and career, Journalism, External links/References

British politician, born in London, UK. She studied at Cambridge, and was an administration trainee in the civil service before working for the National Council for Civil Liberties, the Greater London Council, and Lambeth Borough Council. She joined the Labour Party in 1981, and served on the Westminster City Council 1982–6. Elected to parliament as MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington in 198…

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Diane Arbus - Early life, Photography career, Famous photographs, Arbus quotes, In Popular Culture

Photographer, born in New York City, USA. She sought to portray people ‘without their masks’, achieving fame in the 1960s with her ironic studies of social poses and the deprived classes. She married fellow photographer Allan Arbus in 1941, but they divorced in 1969, and she later took her own life. Diane Arbus (born Diane Nemerov) (March 14, 1923 – July 26, 1971) was an American photog…

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Diane de France

Duchess of Angoulême, born in Paris, France, a natural daughter of Henry II of France and a Piedmontese (according to others, of Diane de Poitiers). Formally legitimized, she married Orazio Farnese (1553) but was widowed the same year; she married François de Montmorency in 1559. Widowed again 1579, she became a favourite of Henry III who gave her the estate of Angoulême. She enjoyed great infl…

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Diane de Poitiers - Early life and marriage, Life as a courtesan, King's death, her downfall

Mistress of Henry II of France. She was married at 13, and left a widow at 32. She then won the affections of the boy dauphin, already wedded to Catherine de' Medici. On his accession (1547) Diane became a friend and patron of poets and artists, and enjoyed great influence. She was made Duchess of Valentinois and, after the king's death (1559), retired to her Château d'Anet. Diane de Poiti…

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Diane Keaton - Early life and education, Career, Personal life, Selected filmography

Film actress and director, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. She played opposite Woody Allen in the Broadway production of Play It Again, Sam (1969), then went on to star in several of his films, such as Annie Hall (1977, Oscar) Manhattan (1979), and Manhattan Murder Mystery (1993). Other films include The Godfather (1972), Reds (1981), Baby Boom (1987), First Wives Club (1996), Marvin's Room …

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Diane Ravitch - Published Works

Educator and historian, born in Houston, Texas, USA. An educational historian at Teachers College, Columbia (from 1975), she was appointed assistant secretary of education in 1991. She helped define the neo-Conservative agenda for school reform in such works as The Troubled Crusade (1983) and What Do Our Seventeen-Year Olds Know? (co-authored, 1987). Diane Ravitch is a historian of educatio…

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Diane Sawyer - World News Tonight, Cultural references

Journalist, and television correspondent and presenter, born in Glasgow, Kentucky, USA. Hired as ABC WLKY-TV's weathergirl in 1967, she then became a reporter in Louisville, KY. Coming to Washington as a Nixon press aide (1970), she stayed on after Watergate to help with Nixon's memoirs. A CBS news reporter (1978–81), she co-hosted the Morning News with Charles Kuralt (1981–4), and became the fi…

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Diane Wakoski

Poet, born in Whittier, California, USA. She studied at the University of California, Berkeley (1960 BA), taught in New York City (1963–6), then at several colleges, notably Michigan State University (1976). She is known for her literary criticism and her autobiographical poetry, as in The Collected Greed: Parts I–XIII (1984). Diane Wakoski (born 1937) is an American poet who is associate…

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diaphragm (anatomy) - Anatomy, Optics and photography, Acoustics, Other

A sheet of muscle and tendons separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The convex thoracic surface is lined by the pleura; the abdominal surface by the peritoneum. There are major openings for the passage of structures between the two cavities, such as the aorta, inferior vena cava, and oesophagus. The diaphragm is the principle muscle of respiration, and is also an important muscle used in…

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Diaspora - List of notable diasporas, Notable Population Dispersements

The Jews scattered in the world outside Palestine from either voluntary or compulsory resettlements, such as the Assyrian and Babylonian deportations in the 8th-c and 6th-c BC, or later dispersions in the Graeco-Roman period; also known as the Dispersion. The Babylonian Talmud and the Septuagint were important literary products of those Jews that had settled ‘abroad’. The academic field o…

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diathermy - Heating uses, Surgical uses

The application of heat to muscles or joints for the relief of pain. The heat is produced by means of high-frequency electric current, high-frequency electromagnetic short-wave radiation, or ultrasound. In the natural sciences, the term diathermy means "electrically induced heat" and is commonly used for muscle relaxation. It is also a method of heating tissue electromagnetically or u…

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diatom - General biology, Ecology, Collection

A microscopic, single-celled green alga common in marine and freshwater habitats; possesses an often ornate, external shell (frustule) containing silica, and consisting of two separate valves; commonly reproduces by splitting in two (binary fission); green colour derived from chlorophyll pigments. (Class: Bacillarophyceae.) Diatoms (Greek: διά (dia) = "through" + τέμνειν (temnein)…

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dice - Ordinary dice, History, Materials, Terms, Variants, Use of dice for divination

A six-sided cube, each side generally numbered between 1 and 6, with opposing faces totalling 7; the older singular form, die, is now rare. It is used in games of chance and in many children's games, such as snakes-and-ladders. Other forms of dice include poker dice, which contain the pictures of the six highest value cards (9 to Ace); poker hands have to be formed as a result of a random throw. A…

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dichotic listening

An experimental technique used in psychology and psycholinguistics to determine which side of the brain is dominant in its ability to process particular kinds of sound. It can be tested by feeding different stimuli into both ears at the same time, and identifying the brain's involvement by the accuracy with which the input to the ear is reported by the subject. Generally, people have a right-ear a…

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Dick Button - Competitive highlights, Navigation

Ice skater, born in Englewood, New Jersey, USA. He was five times world champion (1948–52), and gold medal winner in the 1948 and 1952 Olympics. As an innovative competitor and as a commentator for ABC television he was instrumental in popularizing the sport in the USA. Richard "Dick" Button (born July 18, 1929 in Englewood, New Jersey) is an American former figure skater and a well-known …

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Dick Cavett - Childhood, Early career, Yale, The Tonight Show, Stand-up comic

Television host, born in Gibbon, Nebraska, USA. He studied drama at Yale, then moved to New York where he had various jobs before gaining work as a comedy scriptwriter. His success brought him work as the host of ABC's This Morning (1968) and then for ABC television's late night show (1969–74). Despite critical acclaim, he ran third in the ratings behind Johnny Carson and Merv Griffin, which resu…

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Dick Cheney - Early life and family, Cheney and the draft, Political career, Health problems

US Republican politician, born in Lincoln, Nebraska. After a short time at Yale, he studied political science at the University of Wyoming (BA 1965; MA 1966), went to Washington as a congressional intern, and became special assistant to Donald Rumsfeld in the Nixon administration (1969–70). Appointed Gerald Ford's chief-of-staff (1975–6), he was the youngest man to have held that post. He then w…

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Dick Fosbury

Athlete, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. He pioneered a new technique in high jumping which revolutionized this event after he won the Olympic gold medal at Mexico City in 1968 with a jump of 2·24 m (7 ft 4 in), using what came to be known as the Fosbury Flop, where the bar is jumped head-first and backwards. Richard Douglas ("Dick") Fosbury (born March 6, 1947) is an American athlete wh…

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Dick Francis - Books

Jockey and novelist, born in Lawrenny, South Wales, UK. Starting as an amateur National Hunt jockey he turned professional late, at the age of 28. As a rider, he is probably best remembered for the occasion, during the Grand National (1956), when he was riding the Queen Mother's horse Devon Loch and winning until the horse collapsed 50 yd from the post. He retired the following year, became a rac…

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Dick Gregory - Books, Filmography

Comedian, civil-rights activist, and nutritionist, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. Known for his ground-breaking use of socially conscious racial humour, he overcame his origins in extreme poverty to become the first African-American comedian to perform for white audiences. After attending Southern Illinois University on an athletic scholarship and serving in the US Army (1953–6), he rose to nat…

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Dick Kazmaier

Player of American football, born in Toledo, Ohio, USA. One of the last single-wing tailbacks, ‘Kaz’ starred at Princeton (1949–51), earning unanimous All-America honours and the Heisman Trophy in 1951. Dick Kazmaier (born November 23, 1930) played tailback for Princeton University from 1949 through 1951, winning the Heisman Trophy and the Maxwell Award at the end of his senior year. …

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Dick Lester - Education and early career, Film career, Later years

Film director, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania, and first worked as a television director for CBS (1951–4). He came to Britain and gained success with two feature films starring The Beatles, A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965). Later film credits include The Knack (1965), How I Won the War (1967), Juggernaut (1974), Superman II and its …

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Dick Spring - Political Career

Irish statesman, born in Tralee, Co Kerry, SW Ireland. He studied at Trinity College Dublin, and was called to the bar in 1975. He became a member of the Dáil in 1981, and quickly rose to be leader of the Labour Party (1981–97) and deputy prime minister (1982–7, 1993–7). He was minister of state in the departments of justice (1981–2), the environment (1982–3), and energy (1983–7), and becam…

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Dick Turpin - Early life, Beginning of criminal activities, The life of a fugitive, In with the Gregory Gang

Robber, born in Hempstead, Essex, SE England, UK. He was a butcher's apprentice, smuggler, housebreaker, highwayman, and horse thief. He entered into partnership with Tom King, whom he accidently killed while firing at a constable (or innkeeper). He was hanged at York for horse stealing. The legendary ride from London to York, attributed to him, was probably actually carried out by ‘Swift John Ne…

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Dick Van Dyke - Early days, Movies, Dramatic roles and career comeback, Influence, Other interests, Personal life

Popular entertainer, born in West Plains, Missouri, USA. A radio announcer in the US air force during World War 2, he later toured with the nightclub act The Merry Mutes, and as half of ‘Eric and Van’. He acted as master of ceremonies on such television programmes as The Morning Show (1955) and Flair (1960). His Broadway debut in 1959 was followed by Bye, Bye Birdie (1960–1), which won him a To…

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Dick Whittington

English merchant, supposed to have been the youngest son of Sir William Whittington of Pauntley in Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK, on whose death he set out at 13 for London, where he found work as an apprentice. He became an alderman and sheriff, and thrice Lord Mayor of London (1397–9, 1406–7, 1419–20). The legend of his cat is an accepted part of English folklore. Dick Whittington (…

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Dickey Chapelle - Early life, Later life, Books and papers by Dickey Chapelle, Awards, Trivia

Pioneer pilot, adventurer, and journalist, born in Shorewood, Wisconsin, USA. After attending Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a year, she acquired expertise as a barnstorming pilot and photojournalist, and worked as a war correspondent in World War 2. After a spell as an editor of Seventeen (1946–7), she and her husband, photographer Tony Chapelle, spent six years documenting the devast…

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dictator - Classical era, Modern era, Modern use in formal titles, “The benevolent dictator”, Dictators in game theory

In strict terms, an absolute ruler, especially one who has seized power unconstitutionally, and who enjoys authority by virtue of some personal characteristic, ie an autocrat. In practice, a dictatorship often refers to rule by several people, who are not subject to re-election and who are authoritarian in character, such as a military dictatorship. Personal dictatorships are now very rare. Not al…

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dictionary - Word order, Coverage, Special-purpose dictionaries, Variations between dictionaries, History, List of major English dictionaries

A work of reference, traditionally in the form of a book, and now often available as a computational database, giving linguistic information about the words of a language, arranged in alphabetical order under headwords (or catchwords). Dictionaries may be bilingual or multilingual, giving only lists of word correspondences between the languages, or they may provide information about the senses, pr…

1 minute read

Didache - Discovery, Early references, Contents, Date of the Didache

The short title for ‘The Teaching of the Lord through the Twelve Apostles’, dated near the beginning of the 2nd-c AD. It consists of a short manual of Christian moral teaching and church order, overlapping somewhat with the canonical Gospels, but also important for its description of early Christian ministry and sacramental practices. The Didache (Διδαχὴ, Koine Greek for "Teaching"…

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didgeridoo - The name, Construction and play, Physics and operation, Cultural significance, The modern didgeridoo industry, Modern versions

A primitive trumpet of the Australian aborigines, made from a hollow eucalyptus branch about 120–150 cm/4–5 ft long. It is used, with a wide variety of playing techniques, to accompany singing and dancing. The didgeridoo (or didjeridu) is a wind instrument of the Indigenous Australians of northern Australia. A didgeridoo is usually cylindrical or conical in shape and can mea…

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Did

Footballer, born in Campos, SE Brazil, and always known by the affectionate diminutive. Despite a slightly crippled right leg, he was the master strategist of the Brazil side which won the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, he captained the side again when they won in 1960. A spell with Real Madrid was unsuccessful, but he later managed the Peruvian national side which reached the quarter-finals of th…

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Didier Auriol

French rally driver, born in Millau, SW France. He was the first Frenchman to become world champion. Three times French champion (1986–8), he has won the Tour de Corse four times and the Monte-Carlo Rally three times. Didier Auriol (born August 18, 1958 in Montpellier) is French former car racer. Born in Montpellier, Auriol made his name as a French rally driver in the World Ra…

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Didier Ratsiraka

President of Madagascar (1975–93, 1997– ), born in Vatomandry, E Madagascar. He studied in Madagascar and France, served in the navy (1963–70), and was military attaché in Paris. Following independence (1960) there were frequent clashes between the country's two main ethnic groups, the highland Merina and the coastal Cotiers, and in 1972 the army, representing the Merina, took control. Martial…

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Dido - Early accounts, Virgil's Aeneid, Later Roman tradition, Continuing tradition, An alternative viewpoint

In the Aeneid, the daughter of the King of Tyre, who founded Carthage. Aeneas was diverted to Africa by storms, and told her his story. They fell in love, but when Aeneas deserted her she committed suicide by throwing herself upon a pyre. In Greek and Roman sources Dido or Elissa appears as the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia). The name Elissa is proba…

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Diego de Almagro - First years, Arrival in America, Conquest of Peru, Break up with Pizarro, Dismayed in Chile

Conquistador, born in Almagro, SC Spain. He was on the first exploratory expedition from Peru against the Incas led by Francisco Pizarro (1524–8). In the second expedition (from 1532), he joined Pizarro in 1533 at Cajamarca, and occupied the Inca capital of Cuzco. In 1535–6 he led the conquest of Chile, but came back to Cuzco in 1537 and, after a dispute with Pizarro, occupied it by force, thus …

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Diego Maradona - Football style, Early years, Club career, International career, Retirement and honours, Personal agents, Personal life

Footballer, born in Lanus, E Argentina. He became Argentina's youngest ever international in 1977, transferred to Boca Juniors for £1 million as a teenager, and in 1982 became the world's most expensive footballer when he joined Barcelona for £5 million. He broke the record again in 1984 when the Italian club Napoli paid £6·9 million for him. He captained Argentina to their second FIFA World C…

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Diego Rivera - Early career in Europe, Career in Mexico, Personal life

Painter, born in Guanajuato, SC Mexico. In 1921 he began a series of murals in public buildings depicting the life and history of the Mexican people. He also executed frescoes in the USA (1930–4), mainly of industrial life. His art is a blend of folk art and revolutionary propaganda, with overtones of Byzantine and Aztec symbolism. He married Frida Kahlo in 1928. Diego Rivera (December 8, …

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dielectric - Explanation, Dielectrics in Parallel-Plate Capacitors, Applications, Some practical dielectrics

A non-conducting material whose molecules align or polarize under the influence of applied electric fields. The degree is indicated by the dielectric constant, the ratio of the charge stored by a capacitor with dielectric material between the plates to that stored by a capacitor having a vacuum between the plates. Dielectrics are an essential constituent of capacitors. A dielectric, or elec…

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diencephalon - Organization

The midline part of the forebrain which lies deep between the cerebral hemispheres, consisting of several component parts (the thalamus, metathalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus). The thalamus is the largest part, whose diverse functions include various motor, sensory, intellectual, and emotional responses. Each metathalamus consists of two major parts concerned with certain auditory and visual…

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Dierick Bouts

Painter, born in Haarlem, The Netherlands. He is usually placed with the Flemish school. He worked at Louvain and Brussels, coming under the influence of Rogier van der Weyden, and produced austere religious paintings, with rich and gem-like colour. Dirk is a Scots word for a long dagger; sometimes a cut-down sword blade mounted on a dagger hilt, rather than a knife blade. In Br…

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diesel engine - Early history timeline, How diesel engines work, Fuel injection in diesel engines, Types of diesel engines

An internal combustion engine, working upon the diesel cycle, which ignites its fuel/air mixture by heating it to combustion point through compression. Because of this, the diesel engine is classed as a compression-ignition engine. The Diesel Engine is a type of internal combustion engine. It is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel ignites as it is injected into the engine. By c…

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diet

The combination of foods which provide the necessary nutrients for the body. Diets may be rated in quality depending on the balance of nutrients consumed, and not primarily on the type of food eaten. Often a ‘diet’ is used to imply a restriction of calories for slimming: strictly speaking this is a ‘low-calorie’ diet, just as there are low-fat diets, low-salt diets, or high-fibre diets. The li…

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Dieter Rams

Product designer, born in Wiesbaden, WC Germany. Although he trained and worked as an architect, he is best known as the chief designer for Braun AG (since 1955). In association initially with Hans Gugelot, of the Hochschule für Gestaltung (‘High School for Design’) in Ulm, he transformed the company's product range. His food mixers, record players and radios, shavers, hair driers, and clocks a…

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Dietrich Bonhoeffer - Family and youth, Return to Germany, Works, Works about Bonhoeffer

Lutheran pastor and theologian, and opponent of Nazism, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied at Tübingen and Berlin, and left Germany in 1933 in protest against the Nazi enforcement of anti-Jewish legislation. He worked in London until 1935, then returned to Germany to combat anti-Semitism, becoming head of a pastoral seminary of the German Confessing Church until it…

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Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau - Early years, Singing career, Personal life, Partial discography, Books

Baritone, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied under Georg Walter and Hermann Weissenborn, making his professional debut at Freiburg in 1947, and joined the Berlin Municipal Opera as a principal baritone. He became one of the foremost interpreters of German Lieder, particularly the song-cycles of Schubert, and has also appeared in a wide range of operatic roles. He performed in the premier of Britt…

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diffraction - Explanation, Diffraction of particles, History, General facts about diffraction, Mathematical description, Other cases

An interference effect, a property of waves, responsible for the spreading of waves issuing from a small aperture (eg sound waves from a public address loudspeaker). Diffraction causes the waves to ‘bend round’ objects, which in light produces shadows surrounded by tiny light and dark bands (diffraction fringes). Atoms in crystals cause the diffraction of incident X-rays, electrons, or neutrons …

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diffusion (anthropology) - Mechanisms for inter-cultural diffusion, Diffusion theories, The theory applied to Middle Ages Europe

The spread of one or several cultural traits from one group to another. Diffusionism, which dominated 19th-c German anthropology, is the notion that cultural similarities are a result of diffusion, and in its extreme form, that all cultures have a common origin. The term 'diffusion' or diffusionism is used in cultural anthropology to describe the spread of cultural items — such as ideas, …

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diffusion (photography) - The nature of diffusion, Types of diffusion, Isotope separation

The scattering of light by a translucent medium; in studio lighting, a sheet of metal gauze, tracing paper, or etched plastic placed in front of a lamp to give softer and less directional illumination. Diffusion discs or nets of very fine fabric can also be placed in front of a camera lens to reduce the sharpness of the image. The different forms of diffusion can be modeled quantitatively u…

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diffusion (science) - The nature of diffusion, Types of diffusion, Isotope separation

In physics and chemistry, the movement of atoms or particles through bulk material via their random collisions. For example, ions diffuse through solids, and atoms of a gas introduced into a volume of still air will become evenly distributed through it by diffusion. Molecules diffuse at rates inversely proportional to their molecular weights. The different forms of diffusion can be modeled …

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digestion - Overview, Human digestion process, Significance of pH in Digestion, Specialized organs, Digestive hormones, Digestion Chemistry

The physiological process of animals in which complex foodstuffs are broken down by enzymes into simpler components (monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and other substances) which can be absorbed into the body and used by body cells. In certain animals (eg protozoa, porifera), digestion is entirely intracellular: food is taken up and digested, simple molecules are formed, and waste product…

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digger wasp

A hunting wasp that stings and paralyses prey for use in provisioning its nest. In the primitive family Ampulicidae, females typically catch the prey before preparing a nest in a shallow scrape in soil. In the family Sphecidae, they dig nests in soil or wood, place the prey in a cell, and lay eggs in each cell. Adults feed on nectar or honeydew. (Order: Hymenoptera.) …

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digital - Digital noise, Symbol to digital conversion, Historical digital systems

Descriptive of any method of representing information (numbers, strings of characters, sounds, pictures) by a sequence of electronic pulses of fixed duration. The existence of a voltage denotes a ‘1’ and the absence denotes a ‘0’. This allows all numbers to be represented by their binary equivalents. Other forms of information are first represented as a set of numbers and then those numbers ar…

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digital media - History, Digital and analog data, Working with digital media, Examples of digital media

The use of digital recording to store media on computers and allow them to be processed by computer software. Different standards have been developed for the compression and storage of images, audio recordings, and video recordings: GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a standard for the storage of still images; JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a standard for the compression and storage …

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digitalis - Medicinal use, Toxicity, Molecular Biology Use: Digoxigenin, Gallery, References and external links

An extract of Digitalis purpurea (the foxglove) which has been used for the treatment of heart failure and oedema (‘dropsy’) for at least 800 years. The extract contains cardiac glycosides as active ingredients. Purified cardiac glycosides (eg digoxin) are today's first-line treatment for heart failure. All are toxic at doses only slightly higher than therapeutic doses. Digitalis is a gen…

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diglossia - Chinese

A situation in which a language community uses distinct varieties for specific social functions. The varieties are generally distinguished as high (used for education, religion, and other public functions, and the one accorded highest prestige) and low (used for family interaction, talk with servants, joke-telling, and other everyday functions). Arabic, Modern Greek, and Swiss German are examples …

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Digne-les-Bains

44º05N 6º12E, pop (2001e) 16 000. Capital of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department, SE France; situated among hills in the Bleone R valley; birthplace of Alexandre Arnoux; railway; a thermal station noted for the treatment of rheumatism. …

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Dijon - Food and drink, Miscellaneous, Photo Gallery

47°20N 5°00E, pop (2000e) 153 000. Industrial and commercial city and capital of Côte d'Or department, E France; at confluence of rivers Ouche and Ruzon; railway; bishopric; university (1722); historic capital of Burgundy; famous for its restaurants and its mustard; cars, foundries, foodstuffs, centre of wine trade; Palais des Ducs de Bourgogne, Gothic Church of Notre-Dame, Church of St Miche…

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dik-dik - Habitat, Predators, Classification

A dwarf antelope, native to Africa; small (height, up to 40 cm/16 in); large ears, elongate nose; male with short straight horns and pronounced secretory gland in front of eye. (Genus: Madoqua, 3 species.) Dik-diks, named for the sound they make when alarmed, are small antelopes of the Genus Madoqua that live in the bush of southern and eastern Africa. Dik-diks prefer habitats…

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dill

An aromatic annual (Anethum graveolens), growing to 60 cm/2 ft, native to India and SW Asia; leaves feathery, finely divided into narrow linear lobes; flowers yellow, in umbels up to 15 cm/6 in across; fruit ellipsoid, strongly compressed, dark brown with a paler wing. It is cultivated as a culinary herb; the leaves and the seeds are used as flavouring. (Family: Umbelliferae.) …

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Dilwara Temples - Five Unique Temples of Dilwara

A group of five Jain temples near Mt Abu, Rajasthan, India. Built during the 11th–13th-c, they are renowned for the profusion and delicacy of their sculpture. The Jain Dilwara temples of India are located about 2½ kilometers from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station. These temples dating back from the 11th to the 13th century AD are world famous for their stunning use of marble.…

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dimensional analysis - Introduction

The analysis of mathematical expressions representing physical theorems in terms of dimensions, using M for mass, L for length, T for time. For example, velocity has dimensions [v] = LT?1, force [F] = MLT?2, where square brackets denote dimensions. Both sides of an equation must have the same dimensions, as must all terms separated by addition and subtraction signs. It is a powerful technique …

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dimer - Chemistry, Biochemistry

A compound formed when two units (monomers), react together, either by addition or by condensation. In chemistry, a dimer refers to a molecule composed of two similar subunits or monomers linked together. Its more common usage refers to dimers as certain types of sugar: sucrose, for example, is a dimer of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule. A physical dimer is a te…

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diminished responsibility - Discussion, English law, Scottish law, Australia and India

A limited defence to a charge of murder which reduces the crime to one of manslaughter (England and Wales) or culpable homicide (Scotland), thereby avoiding the mandatory sentence of life imprisonment. It relates to a state of mind, whether as a result of illness, injury, or any other cause, which substantially impairs a person's mental responsibility and which, while not amounting to insanity, bo…

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Dimitri Tiomkin - Awards and nominations

Composer, born in Russia. A piano virtuoso, he toured Europe and the USA in the 1920s. In 1930 he began writing theme music for Hollywood films, eventually earning Oscars for the background music to High Noon (1952), The High and the Mighty (1954), and The Old Man and the Sea (1958). His last film was the Soviet-produced Tschaikowsky (1970), for which he scored the composer's music. …

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Dinah Washington - Early Life, Rise to Fame, Queen of the Blues, Discography

Jazz vocalist, born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. An original stylist rooted in gospel music, she began with the Sara Martin Singers and was featured with Lionel Hampton between 1943–6. Despite her turbulent personal life and premature death, she developed a successful solo career, and was a pervasive influence on female soul and rock singers beginning in the 1950s. Dinah Washington (August…

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Dinah Washington - Early Life, Rise to Fame, Queen of the Blues, Discography

Singer, born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. With her unique phrasing, gospel music background, and feeling for the blues, she soon became known as ‘Queen of the Blues’. She began with the Sara Martin Singers, then sang with the Lionel Hampton Band (1943–6). Her hit songs include ‘Baby, Get Lost’ (1949) and ‘This Bitter Earth’ (1960), and her albums Unforgettable (1961) and Dinah (1962). …

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Dinaric Alps - Geology, Human activity in the Dinarides, Mountains in the Dinaric Alps

Mountain range following the Adriatic coast of Croatia and NW Albania; linked to the main Alpine system via the Julian Alps; rises to 2522 m/8274 ft at Durmitor; limestone ranges in the Karst region (NW). The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides (Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Serbian: Динарско горје or Динариди; Italian: Alpi Dinariche) form a mountain …

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dingo - Characteristics, Origin, Relationship with humans, Potential extinction

An Australian subspecies of domestic dog (Canis familiaris dingo), descended from dogs introduced thousands of years ago with aboriginal settlers; tawny yellow; cannot bark; eats kangaroos (and now rabbits and sheep); persecuted as a pest. The dingo (plural dingoes or dingos), Canis lupus dingo, is a type of wild dog, probably descended from the Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes). Another n…

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Dinka - Pastoral Strategies of the Dinka, Religious beliefs, War with the north and status as refugees

E Sudanic-speaking transhumant cattle herders of the Upper Nile in the Sudan Republic, occupying a vast area of low-lying and often swampy country. Without centralized political authority, they comprise many subgroups recognizing only the authority of religious chiefs. The Dinka are a group of tribes of south Sudan, inhabiting the swamplands of the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, J…

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Dino Buzzati - Life, Works summary, Bibliography

Writer, poet, and journalist, born in Belluno, Veneto, NE Italy. He wrote a number of novels combining surrealistic elements, science fiction, allegories, and news items, including Barnabo delle montagne (1933), Il segreto del bosco vecchio (1935), and Il deserto dei tartari (1940). Also central to his work is a magic ambience and the feeling of being powerless against fate. He also wrote short st…

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Dino Campana - Biography

Poet, born in Marradi, NC Italy. His life was blighted by a serious mental illness which forced him to spend long periods of time in mental hospitals, where he eventually died. His work greatly influenced modern Italian poetry, and he is considered a forerunner of the Ermetismo movement. His Canti orfici (1914), a collection which combines verse and poetic prose, is characterized by an intensely l…

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dinoflagellate - Morphology, Life-cycle, Ecology and fossils, Cautions, Classification

A microscopic, single-celled organism classified either as an alga (Class: Dinophyceae) or as a flagellate protozoan (Phylum: Mastigophora); sometimes containing chlorophyll pigment for photosynthesis; characterized by two whip-like organelles (flagella), one lying in a groove around the cell; most species enclosed in a rigid shell (test) encrusted with silica. The dinoflagellates are a lar…

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dinosaur

A member of a group of reptiles (Subclass: Archosauria) that dominated life on land for 140 million years from the late Triassic period until their extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period, 64 million years ago. Dinosaurs are distinguished from other reptiles by the way they stood with their limbs held vertically beneath the body, rather than sticking out sideways. This posture allowed them …

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Dinosaur Provincial Park - Geology, Paleontology, See also

A provincial park in Alberta, SW Canada; a world heritage site. The park is noted as a region of severe erosion and fossil deposits; in the early 20th-c the fossil remains of some 60 different species of dinosaur were discovered here. Dinosaur Provincial Park is located about 2 hours drive east of Calgary, Alberta, Canada or 48 kilometres northeast of the community of Brooks. Th…

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Dinu Lipatti - Biography, Technique, Legacy

Pianist and composer, born in Bucharest, Romania. He studied in Paris with Cortot and Boulanger, and after World War 2 established an international reputation as a gifted pianist, especially in the works of Chopin. His compositions include a Symphonie concertante for two pianos and strings, and a concertino for piano and orchestra. His career was cut short when he died of a rare form of cancer. …

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Dio Cassius - Biography, Roman History, Literary style

Roman senator and prominent man of affairs, from Bithynia in Asia Minor, who wrote a comprehensive history of Rome in Greek, extending from the foundation of the city down to his own day (229). Large parts still survive, either in full or an abbreviated form, and are an invaluable source, particularly for historians of the early Roman empire. Cassius Dio Cocceianus (c. 155– after 229), kn…

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Diocletian - Legacy, Diocletian in the arts

Roman emperor (284–305), a Dalmatian of humble birth, born in Diocles. He rose through the ranks of the army to become the greatest of the soldier emperors of the 3rd-c. He saw the answer to the empire's problems in a division of power at the top and a re-organization of the provincial structure below. In 286 the empire was split in two, with Diocletian retaining the East, and Maximian, a loyal f…

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diode - History, Thermionic or gaseous state diodes, Semiconductor diodes, Types of semiconductor diode, Related devices, Applications, Additional

An electronic valve having two electrodes (an anode and a cathode); invented in 1904 by British physicist John Ambrose Fleming. It permits current flow in only one direction, and is thus widely used as a rectifier, changing alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). Early diodes included "cat's whisker" crystals and vacuum tube devices (called thermionic valves in British English). …

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Diodorus Siculus

Greek historian, born in Agyrium, Sicily. He travelled in Asia and Europe, and lived in Rome, collecting for 30 years the materials for his immense Biblioth?k? Historik?, a history of the world in 40 books. The first five books are extant entire; the next five are lost; the next 10 are complete; and there are only fragments of the remainder. Jerome writes that Diodorus flourished in 49 BC (…

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Diogenes La - Quotation

Greek writer, born in Laërte, Cilicia. He is remembered for his Lives, Teachings and Sayings of the Great Philosophers, in 10 books, a compilation of excerpts. Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης ὁ Λαέρτιος), the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of …

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Diogenes of Sinope - Life, Ideas, Art and popular culture

Cynic philosopher, born in Sinope, Pontus. He moved to Athens and became a student of Antisthenes, with whom he founded the Cynic sect. The Cynics preached an austere asceticism and self-sufficiency, and Diogenes became legendary for his ostentatious disregard of domestic comforts and social niceties. His unconventional behaviour (eg looking with a lantern in daylight for an honest man) was intend…

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Diomedes - Early myths, Trojan War, Aftermath, Death, The Troilus and Cressida legend

A Greek hero who fought in the Trojan War, even taking on the gods in battle; also a wise counsellor, the partner of Odysseus in various schemes. In the mediaeval version of the story, he became the lover of Cressida. Prior to his adventures in Troy, Diomedes is remembered for being one of the Epigonoi, the sons of the warrior-kings who fell on the Seven Against Thebes. Even as a permanent …

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Dion Boucicault - Selected works

Playwright, actor, and theatre manager, born in Dublin, Ireland. A versatile theatrical personality, he wrote or adapted some 130 plays, including London Assurance (1841) and The Poor of New York (1857), becoming one of the most popular playwrights of his era. Most of his plays are now forgotten, but The Octoroon (1860) is notable for its condemnation of slavery. He moved to America in 1853, where…

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Dionne Warwick - Singles Discography

Popular and soul singer, born in East Orange, New Jersey, USA. She sang in a gospel trio before recording her first hit songs on Scepter, including ‘Walk On By’ (1964) and ‘I Say a Little Prayer’ (1967). After a lull in her career in the 1970s, her album Dionne (1979) sold a million copies. She went on to release the albums Heartbreaker (1982) and How Many Times Can We Say Goodbye? (1983). …

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Dionysia - Rural Dionysia, City Dionysia, Notable winners of the City Dionysia, Sources

Festivals in honour of Dionysus, the Greek god of fertility, ecstasy, inspiration, drama, and wine. At Athens, the Great Dionysia was the main occasion for dramatic contests. The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. The Dionysia actually comprised two related f…

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Dionysius Exiguus - Anno Domini, Easter tables

Scythian Christian scholar, abbot of a monastery in Rome. One of the most learned men of his time, he fixed the dating of the Christian era in his Cyclus Paschalis (525). Dionysius is best-known as the inventor of the Anno Domini era, which is used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar. He used it to identify the several Easters in his Easter table…

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Dionysius Lardner - Further information, Bibliography

Scientific writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. He attracted attention by his works on algebraic geometry (1823) and the calculus (1825), and was elected professor of natural philosophy and astronomy at London University in 1827. He is best known as the originator and editor of Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia (133 vols, 1829–49). Dionysius Lardner (April 3, 1793 - April 29, 1859), Irish scientif…

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Dionysius of Halicarnassus

Influential Greek critic, historian, and rhetorician, from Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, who lived and worked in Rome at the time of Augustus. Much of his writing survives, including about half of his masterpiece, Early Roman History. Extending from earliest times to the outbreak of the First Punic War (264 BC), it is a mine of information about early Roman society. Dionysius of Halicarnassu…

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Dionysius the Areopagite

Greek Church leader, one of the few Athenians converted by the apostle Paul (Acts 17.34). Tradition makes him the first Bishop of Athens and a martyr. The Greek writings bearing his name were probably written by an Alexandrian. They are first mentioned in 533, from which time they were generally accepted as genuine, and had a great influence on the development of theology. Dionysius the Are…

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Diophantus

Greek mathematician, who flourished in Alexandria c.250. Of his three known works, only six books of Arithmetica, the earliest extant treatise on algebra, have survived. His name was later given to that part of algebra which treats of the finding of particular rational values for general expressions under a surd form (Diophantine analysis). Diophantus of Alexandria (Greek: Διόφαντο

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diorite

A coarse-grained intermediate igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase feldspar and ferromagnesian minerals, with up to 10% quartz. Diorite (IPA: /ˈdʌɪərʌɪt/) is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine), hornblende, and/or pyroxene. The presence of quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite or ton…

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dioxin - Chemical structure, Sources of dioxin, Health effects, Studies of dioxins effects in Vietnam, Dioxin exposure incidents

A highly toxic contaminant of the chlorphenoxy group of herbicides whose level is currently regulated at 0·1 parts per million or less. It causes a severe form of skin eruption (chloracne), and in laboratory animals causes cancer and damages the fetuses of mothers exposed to it. Dioxin seems to be less toxic in humans than in animals. The jungle defoliant Agent Orange used in Vietnam contained hi…

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diphtheria

A disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The bacterium infects the nose and throat, and occasionally wounds on the skin. The illness is severe and potentially lethal. Infection of the throat and larynx results in considerable swelling of the tissues, which may obstruct the airways. Toxin secreted by the bacteria may seriously damage the heart and nerves leading to heart failure, muscle par…

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diphthong - Czech, Dutch, English, Faroese, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Norwegian, Romanian, Spanish

A vowel in which there is a change in auditory quality during a single syllable, as in my, how. The term is also used for a sequence of two written vowels within the same syllable, eg fear, weight. Falling diphthongs start with a vowel of higher sonority and end in a vowel with less sonority, like /aɪ̯/ in "eye", while rising diphthongs begin with a vowel with less sonority and end …

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diplomatics

The study of legal and administrative documents, to determine their authenticity. The evidence is gathered by an analysis of the writing styles of scribes at different periods in history, the linguistic features characteristic of a period or of an individual scribe, and the nature of the writing materials used. Specifically, diplomatics is a branch of study that seeks clues as to the proven…

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dipole - Torque on a dipole, Physical dipoles, point dipoles, and approximate dipoles, Molecular dipoles

A separation of charge. Diatomic molecules have dipoles when the atoms have different electronegativities, the more electronegative atom having a partial negative charge. In polyatomic molecules, dipoles add as vectors, so the bent molecule H2O has a dipole, but the linear CO2 (O=C=O) does not. Dipoles can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity. For the simple electric d…

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dipper

A starling-like bird, native to mountains of Eurasia and the W New World; inhabits fast-flowing streams; not obviously modified for aquatic lifestyle, but swims underwater using wings; eats small aquatic animals. (Genus: Cinclus, 4 species. Family: Cinclidae.) Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the bird family Cinclidae. …

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diptych

A picture consisting of two panels, hinged like the pages of a book. Small portable devotional pictures and altarpieces sometimes took this form in the late Middle Ages. A diptych is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge. Note: This article discusses diptyches in the first sense. Traditional diptychs are boxwood, with stamped hour lines and lacquered or…

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Dirac equation - Introduction, Details, Derivation of the Dirac equation, Nature of the wavefunction, Energy spectrum, Hole theory

The basic equation of relativistic quantum mechanics; stated by Paul Dirac in 1928. It expresses the behaviour of electron waves in a way consistent with special relativity, requiring that electrons have spin ½, and predicting the existence of an antiparticle partner to the electron (the positron). In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated…

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direct action - History, Nonviolent direct action, Direct action and anarchism

Activity taken by a group which is intended to achieve some reform or to promote a particular cause. As the term ‘direct’ implies, the action is not pursued through the formal government and political channels. Instead, action is carried out on a broader front by individuals and influential groups, and is designed, among other things, to build support and influence opinion among members of socie…

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director

The person who has the primary responsibility for making a theatrical production, cinema film, or television programme. The director approves the script, decides on the production team and artists, and controls the actors' performances through rehearsals. The director's visualization is also the basis for the designer. In films, when shooting is complete, it is the director's concept that the edit…

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Dirk Jan de Geer

Dutch politician, prime minister (1926–9, 1939–40), and lawyer, born in Groningen, N Netherlands, a descendant of the de Geer family painted by Rembrandt. He supported the Christian Historical Union (CHU) in parliament (1907–21, 1933–9). He was finance minister (1921–3, 1929–33), minister of internal affairs (1925–6), and twice prime minister. In 1939 he led the ‘war’ cabinet, and in May …

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disaccharide - Chemistry, Common disaccharides

A carbohydrate consisting of two simple sugars joined together, condensed with the elimination of water. The most abundant in nature are sucrose (table sugar) which combines one glucose and one fructose molecule, and lactose, the sugar of milk, which is a combination of glucose and galactose. Fructose, glucose, and galactose are single-unit sugars, classed as monosaccharides. A disaccharide…

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discounted cash flow (DCF) - Mathematics, Example DCF, History

A notion used in business to assess if a capital expenditure proposal will generate an adequate return on the investment (ie sufficient profit). It is useful where projects are expected to last several years, recognizing the ‘time value’ of money - a given sum received next year is better than the same sum received in three years' time. The expected sums of cash flowing in and out are discounted…

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discourse analysis - Topics of interest, Perspectives

The systematic study of stretches of language, whether in speech or writing, to discover the regularities which govern them. An example is the use of grammatical criteria to link certain sequences of text, creating cohesion, as in the use of pronouns He and it in the sequence John went to the play last night. He didn't think much of it. This approach is usually distinguished from conversation anal…

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discriminant - Discriminant of a polynomial, Discriminant of a conic section, Discriminant of a quadratic form

A mathematical expression which shows whether a quadratic equation has real distinct roots, equal roots, or no real roots. The discriminant of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is b2 ? 4ac. If b2 ? 4ac > 0, the quadratic has real distinct roots; if b2 ? 4ax = 0, it has equal roots; and if b2 ? 4ac < 0, it has no real roots. The roots are then expressed in terms of complex…

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discus throw - Top 10 performers

An athletics field event using a circular disc of wood with metal plates, weighing 2 kg/4·4 lb for men and 1 kg/2·2 lb for women. The competitor throws the discus with one hand from within the confines of a circle 2·5 m/8·2 ft in diameter, with the aim of achieving a greater distance than anyone else. In competition, six throws are allowed. The current world record for men is 74·08 m/2…

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disintermediation - History, Impact of Internet-related disintermediation upon various industries

The practice of companies borrowing directly from the public rather than from financial intermediaries such as banks. This has the advantage of saving the administrative costs and profit margins of financial intermediaries. Disintermediation is used mainly by large firms, with good reputations and names which are household words. It suits relatively rich investors, who can afford to make loans to …

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dislocation (medicine)

The displacement of a bone from its joint with another bone by force. Ligaments within or around the affected joint (capsule) binding adjacent bones together are torn or otherwise damaged. The result is pain, swelling, and deformity over the joint. Most dislocations can be restored manually. Joint dislocation (Latin: luxatio) occurs when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned. …

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dispersion

The spreading out of some quantity. Examples include the spread by diffusion and convection of ink introduced into water, or the separation of light into component colours upon passing through a prism. …

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distance education - Types of distance education courses:, Origins, Methods, Delivery systems, Testing and Evaluation

Teaching people, usually at home or in their place of work, by means of correspondence units, radio, cassettes, telephone, television, microcomputer, electronic mail, or satellite, rather than through face-to-face contact. Often, though not always, a tutor may be involved to give advice or mark written work, either at a distance or through occasional meetings. Distance education has been particula…

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distillation (chemistry) - History, Applications of distillation, Theory, Laboratory scale distillation, Industrial distillation, Distillation in food processing, Gallery

The chemical procedure of evaporating a liquid from one container and recondensing it into another container; first recorded in 8th-c China. In the purification of water, dissolved gases will vaporize and not recondense, while solids will not evaporate. Liquids of varying volatility can be separated. In particular, distillation of a mixture of water and ethanol will produce a vapour rich in ethano…

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Distinguished Service Order (DSO)

In the UK, a decoration instituted in 1886 which recognizes special service by officers of the army, navy, merchant navy, and airforce. The ribbon is red edged with blue. The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces dur…

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district attorney - History

In the USA, the state or county prosecutor, who acts on information supplied by the police or a member of the public, and decides whether to initiate a prosecution; also called a public prosecutor, when employed by local government; an attorney general, when employed by the state; and a US attorney, when working federally. Although federal prosecutors have an interest in certain crimes, the distri…

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district court - Australia, Austria, Finland, Hong Kong, Scotland, United States of America

The lowest criminal court in Scotland, since 1975, dealing with minor summary cases presided over by non-legally qualified justices of the peace, assisted by a legally qualified clerk, or in some cases, by a stipendiary magistrate. In the USA, district courts are the lowest federal courts, and deal with the majority of both criminal and civil cases arising out of federal rather than state legislat…

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diver

A large diving bird native to N waters of the N hemisphere; eats mainly fish; only comes ashore to breed; plumage with fine contrasting patterns, usually black and white; also known in the USA as the loon. (Genus: Gavia, 5 species. Family: Gaviidae.) With an ending S (but not plural): …

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diverticulosis - Causes, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Testing, Complications, Treatment

A disorder of the large bowel that affects older people. Small pouches form in the lining of the bowel that penetrate the muscle coat of the gut at points of weakness. Many patients suffer no symptoms, but the pouches are prone to inflammation (diverticulitis). This results in abdominal pain and may lead to complications including bleeding, abscesses, and narrowing or obstruction of the colonic ca…

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dividend - Overview, Forms of payment, Dates, Dividend-reinvestment plans, Reasons companies don't pay dividends

An allocation of the profits of an enterprise to its shareholders. Companies may pay out all profits as dividends, retain a proportion, or pay out nothing. There is no legal obligation to pay; the distribution depends on the level of profits and the company's financial needs. Dividend cover is the profit per share divided by the dividend per share; this shows the proportion of profit distributed. …

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divination - Categories of divination, Divination and science, Theories, Common methods of divination

A term applied to several traditional methods of attempting to acquire information by alleged paranormal means. The information to be interpreted is conveyed by some physical source, such as dowsing or palm reading. Divinatory practices are found in many cultures, both past and present. Divination (Greek μαντεια, from μαντις "seer", anglicized in the suffix -mancy, see also man…

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Divine Right of Kings - The concept, Stuarts, Additional information on theory

The concept of the divinely-ordained authority of monarchs, widely held in the mediaeval and early modern periods in part as a reaction to papal intrusions into secular affairs. It is often associated with the absolutism of Louis XIV of France and the assertions of the Stuarts, Charles I being executed for refusing to accept parliamentary control of his policies. The Divine Right of Kings i…

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diving - Competitive Diving, Diving and Other Sports, Diving Venues, Famous Divers, Non-competitive Diving, Diving Links

Any method of descending under water. The most common form in competition is jumping from an elevated board into a swimming pool. The board can be rigid or sprung, and competitors perform a variety of twists and somersaults. Marks are gained for style, and for successfully completing the dive, based on the level of difficulty of each attempt. Springboard events take place from a board 3 m (9 ft …

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diving duck

A duck which obtains food by diving beneath the water surface. There are two groups: the inland species favours shallow lakes, and eats vegetation; the marine species (sea ducks) dives deeper, and eats fish and invertebrates. The name is sometimes restricted to ducks of genera Aythya and Netta. The 15 or so living species of diving duck, commonly called pochards or scaups, are part of the d…

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division of labour - Plato, Xenophon, William Petty, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Durkheim, Von Mises, Modern debates

The system by which production is carried out by co-operation between individuals who each perform different functions. This has two main advantages over a system in which individuals are self-sufficient. First, individuals differ in their natural abilities: some are strong, some are intelligent, some have quick reactions, and others are patient; each type can be allocated tasks suited to their ab…

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divorce - Statistics, History, Causes, Who initiates divorce?, 21st Century divorce, Emotional implications, Financial implications

The termination by court order of a valid marriage, the criteria for which vary greatly between countries and jurisdictions. English and Scottish courts now recognize only one ground for divorce: the irretrievable breakdown of marriage. In England and Wales, the Family Law Act (1996) which reformed the law on divorce, is being implemented gradually. Its aim is to remove the acrimony of divorce pro…

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Diwali - Dates in various calendars, Significance in Hinduism, Diwali in Sikhism, Diwali in Jainism, Melas

The Hindu festival of lights, held in October or November (Asvina K 15) in honour of Lakshmi, goddess of wealth and luck, and Rama, an incarnation of the god Vishnu; lamps are lit and gifts exchanged. Sikhs associate Diwali with the sixth Guru's release from prison. Diwali is also a Jain religious festival. Diwali, also called Deepavali (Sanskrit: दीपावली) is a major Hindu fes…

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Dixie Dean - Achievements

Footballer and record goal-scorer, born in Birkenhead, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He turned professional with Tranmere Rovers at the age of 16, then joined Everton in 1925, and scored 349 goals in 399 games. In 1938 he played for Notts County for one season before injury ended his career. He still holds the remarkable scoring record of 60 League goals in one season. William Ralph Dean (Jan…

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Dixieland - History, Modern Dixieland, Partial List of Dixieland Musicians, Festivals

A style of jazz associated with the ‘classic’ New Orleans school, and especially with white musicians who based their music on that of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band in the early 1920s. Dixieland music is a style of jazz. Dixieland developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s, and was, for a pe…

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Dixon

41º84N 89º47W, pop (2000e) 15 900. Town in Lee Co, Illinois, USA; located in the R Rock valley, 80 km/50 mi SW of Rockford and 160 km/100 mi W of Chicago; first known as Dixon's Ferry (1830) after settler John Dixon, who operated a ferry across the R Rock; later unofficially known as Fort Dixon when a command post was established here during the Black Hawk War; Dixon Dam built 1851, replac…

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Dixon Denham

British soldier, and African traveller, born in London, UK. Educated at Merchant Taylor's School, he served with distinction in the Napoleonic wars. He was sent as expedition leader to join Hugh Clapperton and Walter Oudney on an expedition to discover the source of the Niger. They reached L Chad in 1823, and he explored the shores of the lake while Clapperton and Oudney pushed further W; he retur…

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Dixon Hall Lewis

US representative and senator, born in Dinwiddie Co, Virginia, USA. He practised law in Alabama and as member of the House of Representatives (Democrat, Alabama, 1829–44) he championed states' rights. In the Senate (1844–8) he opposed the United States Bank. A man of extraordinary weight, he required special arrangements to travel and to sit in assemblies. Dixon Hall Lewis (August 10, 180…

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Dizzy Dean - Ace of the Gashouse Gang, Injury-shortened career, Accomplishments, Career statistics

Baseball player and broadcaster, born in Lucas, Arkansas, USA. One of baseball's most memorable personalities, he won 30 games and the Most Valuable Player award in 1934 as a (right-handed) pitcher for the world champion St Louis Cardinals. When his career ended (1947), he became a baseball broadcaster and was known for his colourful use of the English language. He was elected to the Hall of Fame …

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Dizzy Gillespie - Biography, Discography, Samples

Jazz trumpeter and composer, born in Cheraw, South Carolina, USA. He worked in prominent swing bands (1937–44), including those of Benny Carter and Charlie Barnet. As a bandleader, often with Charlie Parker on saxophone, he developed the music known as bebop, with dissonant harmonies and polyrhythms, a reaction to swing. His own big band (1946–50) was his masterpiece, affording him scope as both…

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Django Reinhardt - Biography, Trivia, Discography

Jazz guitarist, born in Liverchies, Belgium. He was born in the family caravan in a Rom (Gypsy) community, and taught himself the guitar. At 18, injury in a fire caused the fusing of the fourth and fifth fingers of his left hand, but he simply devised a new chording method for his guitar, and continued to play. He played in the Quintet of the Hot Club of France with Stephane Grappelli (1934–9), p…

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Djibouti (city) - Geography, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

11°36N 43°08E, pop (2000e) 380 600. Free-port capital of Djibouti, NE Africa; on a coral peninsula 565 km/351 mi NE of Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); NE terminus of railway from Addis Ababa; built 1886–1900 in Arab style; official port of Ethiopia, 1897 (trade declining in recent years); airport; commercial port trade, fishing, tourism. The regions include: Districts: see Distri…

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Djibouti (country) - Geography, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

official nameRepublic of Djibouti The regions include: Districts: see Districts of Djibouti Djibouti is in Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia. See also: Music of Djibouti, List of writers from Djibouti Djibouti?• Eritrea?• Ethiopia?• Kenya?• Somalia?• Tanzania?• Uganda …

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Djuna (Chappell) Barnes - Early Life and Greenwich Village, Paris, Nightwood, New York, Quotes by and about Barnes, Works

Writer and illustrator, born in Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, USA. She began her career as a reporter and illustrator for magazines, then became a writer of one-act plays and short stories, published in a variety of magazines and anthologies. Her works include the novel Nightwood (1936) and a blank-verse tragedy The Antiphon (1958). Djuna Barnes (June 12, 1892 – June 18, 1982) was an Amer…

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Dmitri - Others, In literature

Russian prince, the youngest son of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. He was murdered by the regent Boris Godunov, but about 1603 was impersonated by a runaway Moscow monk, Grigoriy Otrepieff, the ‘false Dmitri’, who was crowned tsar by the army in 1605 but killed in 1606 in a rebellion. A second and a third ‘false Dmitri’ arose within the next few years, but their fate was no better. …

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dobsonfly

A large, soft-bodied insect; adult wingspan up to 16 cm/6¼ in, but flight clumsy and fluttering; found near streams; larvae voracious predators, found in streams and under stones. (Order: Megaloptera. Family: Corydalidae, c.200 species.) The name dobsonfly refers to any species of the genus Corydalus (family Corydalidae). …

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Doc Blanchard

Player of American football, born in McColl, South Carolina, USA. A powerful fullback, he paired with halfback Glenn Davis to lead West Point teams to undefeated seasons (1944–6), while earning All-America honours and the 1945 Heisman Trophy. Felix Anthony "Doc" Blanchard (born December 11, 1924, raised in Bishopville, South Carolina) is best known as the Army football player who won the 1…

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Doc Holliday - Genealogy and education, The dedicated gambler, gunman reputation, Tombstone, Arizona Territory, Earp vendetta ride

Gambler, gunslinger, and dentist, baptised at Griffin, Georgia, USA. After attending the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery (1872), he moved to Dallas, but soon adopted a life of gambling, drinking, and gunfighting. He drifted his way through the West, and in Dodge City befriended Wyatt Earp, later becoming involved in the famous gunfight at the OK Corral, Tombstone (26 Oct 1881), between the …

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Doc Severinsen - Trivia

Musician, born in Arlington, Oregon, USA. A trumpeter, he began as a band member with Ted Fio Rito in 1945. He subsequently worked in the big bands of Charles Barnet (1947–9), and intermittently with Tommy Dorsey (1949–55). He became a staff musician at National Broadcasting Company–TV (1954), appeared in the series, The Subject Is Jazz (1958), and became a member of the Tonight Show orchestra …

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Docetism

The belief, arising in early Christianity, that the natural body of Jesus Christ was only apparent (Gr dokeo, ‘appear, seem’) and not real, thereby stressing the divinity of Christ and denying any real physical suffering on his part. It was especially prevalent amongst 2nd-c gnostics, but was also perhaps a problem encountered in 2 John 7. In Christianity, Docetism (from the Greek δοκ

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dock (botany)

A perennial N temperate herb with strong roots; leaves large, oval, oblong or spear-shaped; flowers tiny, in long, loose, branched inflorescences, three sepals, three petals; fruit a 3-sided nut enclosed in papery, often reddish valves. Some species are persistent weeds. (Genus: Rumex, c.200 species. Family: Polygonaceae.) Dock may refer to: In transportation: In nat…

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dock (shipping)

A basin in which ships may load cargo, take stores, or be repaired, with or without gates depending on the tidal range. Exceptionally the term has been applied to a straight length of quay side, such as the New Docks (1934) at Southampton, UK. A dry dock (or graving dock) is one in which the ship can be placed on blocks as the water is pumped out, so that work can be performed on the underwater pa…

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Doctor Who - History, Format, Public consciousness, The Doctor, Companions, Adversaries, Music, Viewership, List of episodes and serials

A science-fiction series first broadcast on BBC television in 1963. Eleven actors have portrayed the character of the Doctor: in the television series these were William Hartnell (1963–6), Patrick Troughton (1966–9), Jon Pertwee (1970–4), Tom Baker (1974–81), Peter Davison (1982–4), Colin Baker (1984–6), and Sylvester McCoy (1987–9). In addition, Peter Cushing appeared as the Doctor in two …

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Dodecanese - Municipalities and communities

area 2000 km²/1000 sq mi. Group of 12 main islands and several islets in the SE Aegean Sea, Greece, off SW coast of Turkey; part of Greece since 1947; chief islands include Cos, Patmos, and Rhodes, the largest island; ancient sites include the Asklepieion on Cos, the Acropolis of Rhodes, and the Acropolis of Lindos; several major tourist centres. The Dodecanese (Greek: Δωδεκάνη

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Dodie Smith - Trivia

Playwright, novelist, and theatre producer, born in Whitefield, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. Educated in London, she studied at the Royal Academy of Drama and Art. She started as an actress, but turned to writing, producing such successful plays as Dear Octopus (1938). She is also known for her children's book The Hundred and One Dalmatians (1956), made into a popular Disney cartoon film (1…

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dodo - Dodo biology, Dodos and humans

An extinct bird related to pigeons; native to high forests in Mascarene I, E of Madagascar; turkey-like with large bill and rudimentary wings. The probable dates of extinction were: the common dodo (Raphus cucullatus = Didus ineptus) from Mauritius, 1665–70; the Rodriguez solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), c.1761; and the Réunion solitaire (Ornithaptera solitaria), 1715–20. The white dodo (Vict…

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Dodoma - Geography, History, Infrastructure, Education

6°10S 35°40E, pop (2000e) 270 000. Capital of Tanzania, E Africa; altitude 1120 m/3674 ft; replaced Dar es Salaam as capital in 1974, after a 10-year transfer plan; administration, trade in live and stuffed birds. Dodoma [translation: "It has sunk"], population 324,347 (2002 census), is the national capital of Tanzania, third biggest city in the country, and also the capital of the Do…

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dog

A carnivorous mammal (Canis familiaris), probably evolved from the wolf; first animal to be domesticated; c.400 modern domestic breeds (though classifications vary, with some recognizing far fewer breeds), sometimes classed as working, sporting, hound, terrier, non-sporting, and toy. The name is also used for some mammals of other families (eg the prairie dog). The male of several mammal species i…

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dog's mercury

A perennial (Mercurialis perennis), native to Europe and Asia, 15–40 cm/6–15 in, with creeping rhizomes; leaves opposite, elliptical, toothed; flowers tiny, greenish, with three sepals, males forming long drooping spikes, female in clusters; very early-flowering herb, often dominating woodland floors. (Family: Euphorbiaceae.) …

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doge

The highest official in the republic of Venice,and later in Genoa and Pisa. At first an imperial official with civil powers, from the 8th-c the office added military power, eventually becoming the highest level of the oligarchy. From 1772 its administrative prerogatives started to decrease, as election was transferred to the Maggior Consiglio, until its authority became purely formal (though still…

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Doge's Palace

The residence of the former Doges of Venice. Although parts of the structure date from the 12th-c, the loggias and marble facade of the present-day building are Renaissance additions. It is the repository of many art treasures. The Doge's Palace (Italian Palazzo Ducale) is a gothic palace in Venice. The current palace was largely constructed from 1309 to 1424 on 9th century orig…

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