Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 19

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Dame Laura Knight

Artist, born in Long Eaton, Derbyshire, C England, UK. Trained at Nottingham, she produced a long series of oil paintings of the ballet, the circus, and Gypsy life, in a lively and forceful style, and also executed a number of watercolour landscapes. She was made a dame in 1929. …

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Dame Millicent Fawcett

Women's rights campaigner, born in Aldeburgh, Suffolk, E England, UK, the sister of Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. Keenly interested in the higher education of women and the extension of the franchise to her sex, she was made president of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (1897–1919). Garrett is a surname, and may refer to: Variant Garratt: Geograpical L…

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Damien Hirst - Life, Career, Work philosophy, Critical response, Restaurant ventures, Artworks

Avant-garde artist, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He studied art at Goldsmith's College, London, produced several paintings and mixed-medium sculptures, then became known for his works which made use of parts or all of dead animals, preserved in formalin, such as ‘Mother and Child Divided’ - four tanks contained the severed halves of a cow and calf. Considerable controversy surrounded the sho…

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Damien Parer - Early life, Career, Filmography

News photographer, born in Malvern, Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. Trained for the priesthood, he developed an interest in cinematography. In 1940 he became an official cameraman with the 2nd Australian Imperial Forces and went to the Middle East, filming the action at the siege of Tobruk, and later worked in Greece, Syria, and New Guinea. He shot a number of documentary films in the heat of b…

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Damocles

Legendary courtier of the elder Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse (405–367 BC). He extolled the happiness of royalty, but the tyrant showed him the precarious nature of fortune in a singular manner. While seated at a richly-spread table, Damocles looked up to see a keen-edged sword suspended over his head by a single horse-hair. Damocles was an excessively flattering courtier in the court of D…

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Damon (Graham Devereux) Hill - Personal and early life, Career, Complete Formula One results, Further reading

Motor-racing driver, born in Hampstead, London, UK, the son of Graham Hill. He joined the Williams Formula One team as a test driver in 1991, and drove for Brabham in his first Grand Prix at Silverstone in 1992. He won over 20 grands prix in the next four years, succeeding Nigel Mansell on the Williams team. He took third place in the world championship in 1993, was runner-up in 1994, and won in 1…

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Damon and Pythias - The legend, Works based on the legend

Two Pythagoreans of Syracuse, remembered as the models of faithful friendship. Condemned to death by the elder Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse (405–367 BC), Pythias begged to be allowed to go home to arrange his affairs, and Damon pledged his own life for his friend's. Pythias returned just in time to save Damon from death. Struck by so noble an example, the tyrant pardoned Pythias, and desired to …

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damping - Example: mass-spring-damper

Reduction of the size of oscillations by the removal of energy. For example, the indicator needles of gauges are often immersed in oil to give frictional damping; and resistive circuit components reduce electrical oscillations. Damping is any effect, either deliberately engendered or inherent to a system, that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations of an oscillatory system. …

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damselfish - Damselfish in movies

Any of the family Pomacentridae; small brightly coloured marine fishes widespread in tropical and temperate seas around reefs and rocky shores; body length 10–25 cm/4–10 in; includes anemonefish, which lives in close association with sea anemones. (7 genera, including Chromis and Pomacentrus.) Damselfish can refer to any of the following: Many species of damselfish are kept …

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damselfly - Gallery

A large, long-bodied insect with two pairs of slender wings typically held together over the abdomen at rest. Damselflies are powerful predators, both as aquatic larvae and as flying adults. (Order: Odonata. Suborder: Zygoptera, c.3000 species.) The Damselfly (Suborder Zygoptera) is an insect in the Order Odonata. Mating Damselflies …

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damson

A type of plum (Prunus domestica, subspecies institia) in which the small, ovoid fruit is purplish with a waxy bloom; thought to be a cultivated form of bullace. (Family: Rosaceae.) The Damson is an edible drupaceous fruit, a cultivated variety of the plum tree, Prunus domestica var. This latter point has been proven, as remnants of damsons are often found during archaeological digs o…

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Dan (Irvin) Rather - Biography, Journalistic history and influence, Awards, Criticisms of Rather, Notable incidents, "Ratherisms", Pop culture figure

Television news presenter and writer, born in Wharton Texas, USA. Educated at Sam Houston State Teachers College, he became a television journalist for CBS in Dallas, then White House correspondent and London bureau chief (1963–74), becoming nationally known for his reports on such major events as the Kennedy assassination, Vietnam, and the Watergate affair. His national profile grew when he beca…

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Dan Aykroyd - Biography, Filmography, Trivia

Actor, born in Ottawa, Canada. He studied at Carleton University, Ottawa, joined the Second City Comedy improvisation group in Toronto, made a name for himself as a stand-up comedian, then joined the cast of the anarchic television show Saturday Night Live (1975–9). He wrote the screenplay for and starred in The Blues Brothers (1980), appeared in Ghostbusters (1984), and earned a Best Supporting …

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Dan Brown - Early life, Songwriter and pop singer, New England teacher, Author, Future projects

Novelist, born in Exeter, New Hampshire, USA. He studied at Amherst College and Phillips Exeter Academy (1982), later moving to Los Angeles where he pursued a career as a composer and musician. He then studied art history in Seville for a time. In 1993 he returned to New Hampshire to teach English at his former Academy before turning to writing full-time. He gained success with his first novel, Di…

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Dan Jacobson - Works

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Johannesburg, South Africa. He studied at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, then spent some time on a kibbutz in Israel before settling in Britain in 1958. He began writing in the 1950s, with The Trap (1955), later novels including The Beginners (1966), The Wonder-Worker (1973), Her Story (1987), The God-Fearer (1993), and All For Love (2005)…

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Dan Leno - Life and career, Legacy

Comedian and music-hall star, born in London, UK. He began his career as an entertainer at the age of four, and by 18 had become a champion clog-dancer. Ten years later he joined the Augustus Harris management at Drury Lane, where he starred for many years in the annual pantomime as an actor, singer, dancer, and mime, parodying the petty-bourgeoisie and provincial types. He was particularly succes…

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Dan Marino - Early years, College career, Professional career, NFL records set by Dan Marino, Additional statistics

Player of American football, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. An outstanding quarterback with the Miami Dolphins, in the 1984 season he gained 5084 yards passing, and passed for 48 touchdowns, both National Football League (NFL) records. His career totals of 58 913 yards and 408 touchdown passes are both NFL records, but he went into the 1999 season, his 17th, still looking for a Super Bowl…

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Dan Rice - Biography, Expressions

Clown, born in New York City, New York, USA. Originally a stableboy and jockey, his act featured his trick horse, Excelsior, weight lifting feats, and homespun orations during his heyday in the 1860s–1870s. His crackerboy commentaries on the contemporary scene prefigured many later comedians' routines. Dan Rice (1823-1901), was an American entertainer of many talents, most famously as a cl…

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Dan(iel Carter) Beard - Scouting, Bibliography

Illustrator and youth leader, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He was a surveyor (1874–8) before he became an illustrator. He wrote What to Do and How to Do It: The American Boy's Handy Book (1882), the first of his 16 books on handicrafts, and was praised by Mark Twain for his illustrations in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889). To promote magazines that he edited, he organized the…

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Dan(iel) Andersson

Poet and novelist, born in Skattlösberget, SC Sweden. One of Sweden's foremost writers of his time, he treated religious and metaphysical themes in his novels, such as the autobiographical De tre hemlösa (1918, Three Homeless Ones). His poems about traditional charcoal-burners in Kolarhistorier (1914) and Kolvaktarens visor (1915) turned them into national folk-figures. …

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dance notation - Notation and Computers, Further reading

The recording of dance movement through symbols. More than 100 systems have been created, using letter abbreviations (15th-c), track drawings (18th-c), stick figure and music note systems (19th-c), and abstract symbol systems. Three are in current use; Benesh, Eshkol, and Labanotation. Labanotation is the most widely used system outside the UK; Benesh is used chiefly by the Royal Ballet (London). …

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dandelion - Description, Name, Seed development and genetics, Uses, False dandelions

A perennial, native to Europe and W Asia; leaves in a basal rosette, entire or variably lobed and toothed; flower-heads solitary, borne on leafless hollow stems, florets yellow; fruits with a parachute of white hairs attached by a long stalk, the whole fruiting head forming the familiar ‘clock’. Many dandelions reproduce from fruits formed without fertilization having taken place, resulting in m…

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dandruff - Causes, Treatment

Fine dry scales which fall from an eruption of the skin of the scalp, usually noticed when the scales fall on to clothing around the shoulders. It possibly results from infection with the fungus Pityrosporum. Dandruff (also called scurf; Most cases of dandruff can be treated with specialized shampoos or common household remedies. Dandruff can also be a symptom of seborrhoeic der…

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Danelaw - Geography of the Danelaw, History of the Danelaw, Legal concepts of the Danelaw

That part of England where Danish conquest and colonization in the late 9th-c left an imprint not only on legal and administrative practices, but on place-names, language, and culture. Danish-derived customs survived even the Norman Conquest, and in the 12th-c all E England from the Thames to the Tees was so designated. The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an …

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Daniel (Clement) Dennett

Philosopher, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Oxford (1965), then taught at the University of California (1965–71), and became a professor at Tufts, specializing in philosophy of mind and of the social sciences. He won prominence for such studies as Consciousness Explained (1991). …

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Daniel (Edgar) Sickles - Early life and politics, Civil War, Postbellum career, In popular media

US soldier and US representative, born in New York City, New York, USA. A lawyer and active Democrat, he twice served New York City in the US House of Representatives (1857–61, 1893–5) but his colourful and controversial career lay elsewhere. During his first term in Washington, he killed Barton Key, the son of Francis Scott Key, in a duel (1859), but was acquitted in a trial in which he was the…

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Daniel (Jacob) Radcliffe

Actor, born in London, England, UK. He began performing in school productions as a boy and gained his first television role in David Copperfield (1999), playing the young David. His film debut was in The Tailor of Panama in 2001, and later that year he was cast as Harry Potter in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone to great success. He continued the role in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Sec…

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Daniel (Louis) Schorr - Birth and early years, Journalism during the Cold War, The '70s

Broadcast journalist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He started writing for newspapers in high school, and by 1941 he was New York news editor for the Netherlands News Agency, rejoining them in Holland after his army service (1943–5). Recruited by Edward R Murrow in 1953, he was CBS News diplomatic correspondent until the late 1960s, when he began covering American politics. A hard-nosed r…

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Daniel (Wroughton) Craig - Selected filmography

Actor, born in Chester, Cheshire, NW England, UK. He took up acting while at school and in 1984 successfully auditioned for the National Youth Theatre, subsequently moving to London where he was accepted into the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (1988–91). His film debut was in The Power of One (1992), and later films include Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001), Road to Perdition (2002), Layer Cake…

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Daniel Appleton

Publisher, born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, USA. Starting as a dry goods merchant, he became increasingly involved in bookselling. In 1831 he began publishing books, eventually under the name D Appleton & Co, which he passed on to his sons. Daniel Appleton (December 10, 1785 - March 27, 1849) was an American publisher. He was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, where he entered t…

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Daniel Arap Moi - Early life and entry into politics, Vice-Presidency, Presidency, Criticism and corruption allegations

Kenyan politician and president (1978–2002), born in the Rift Valley Province, Kenya. He was educated at mission schools, then worked as a teacher (1949–57). In 1957 he was elected to the Legislative Council as a member of the Kenya African Democratic Union. He served as a minister from 1961, and became vice-president under Kenyatta in 1967. When Kenyatta died in 1978, few people expected him to…

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Daniel Auteuil - Films

Actor, born in Algiers, Algeria. A deep, thoughtful actor with unconventional looks, his first cinema role was in L'Aggression (1975). Several films followed in which he demonstrated his acting skills, but he achieved national and international acclaim with his role of Ugolin in C Berri's Jean de Florette and Manon des Source (both 1986). Since then he has starred in many films, including Romuald …

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Daniel Barenboim - Marriages, Career, His Music, Conducting Wagner in Israel, Sympathies, Wolf Prize, Awards and Recognitions

Pianist and conductor, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Educated at Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome, he studied with his father, then with Nadia Boulanger and others. He made his debut with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in 1953. A noted exponent of Mozart and Beethoven, he gained his reputation as pianist/conductor with the English Chamber Orchestra. He was musical director of the Orchestre de P…

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Daniel Bell

Sociologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. A radical journalist in the late 1930s, he became a moderate liberal spokesman of distinctive intellectual power and breadth. He was labour editor of Fortune (1948–58), and spent most of his academic career at Columbia University (1952–69) and Harvard (1969–90). Of his many books, The End of Ideology (1960) and Cultural Contradictions of Capita…

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Daniel Berkeley Updike

Printer and scholar, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. In 1893 he founded Merrymount Press, which printed finely made books, mostly for other publishers, and greatly influenced development of the graphic arts. A scholar of printing, he wrote Printing Types: Their History, Forms, and Use (1922). Daniel Berkeley Updike (14 February, 1860 — 29 December 1941) was an American printer and …

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Daniel Bernoulli

Mathematician, born in Groningen, The Netherlands, the son of Johann Bernoulli. He studied medicine and mathematics, and became professor of mathematics at St Petersburg in 1725. In 1732 he returned to Basel to become professor of anatomy, then botany, and finally physics. He worked on trigonometric series, mechanics, vibrating systems, and hydrodynamics (anticipating the kinetic theory of gases),…

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Daniel Boone - Youth, Hunter, husband, and soldier, Kentucky, Businessman on the Ohio, Missouri

Frontiersman, born near Reading, Pennsylvania, USA. His parents were Quakers, and he learned to hunt and trap by the age of 12. He moved with his family to North Carolina (1750–1) and in 1755 took part in General Braddock's diasastrous campaign, where he met John Finley, a hunter who told him stories of the Kentucky wilderness. He explored Kentucky (1767–8, 1769–71), led the first settlers ther…

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Daniel Bovet

Pharmacologist, born in Neuchâtel, W Switzerland. He studied chemistry at Geneva, and conducted research at the Pasteur Institute in Paris (1929–47), where he developed the first antihistamine drug and the first synthetic muscle-relaxants, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In 1947 he emigrated to Italy, where later he was appointed professor of psychology …

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Daniel Chester French - AAAS members, Notable works, Other works, Architectural Sculpture, Publications, Reference

Sculptor, born in Exeter, New Hampshire, USA. He grew up in Cambridge and Concord, MA, and studied anatomy with William Rimmer in Boston (early 1870s) and drawing with William Morris Hunt. He also studied briefly in New York City with John Quincy Adams Ward and then in Italy (1874). He returned to Washington, DC (1876) and became the most popular American sculptor of the period, known for his eleg…

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Daniel Coit Gilman

Geographer and university administrator, born in Norwich, Connecticut, USA. A graduate of Yale (1852), he returned to help create Yale's Sheffield Scientific School (1856), later becoming professor of physical and political geography there (1863–72). He then became president of the University of California, Berkeley (1872–5). At the recommendation of the presidents of Harvard, Cornell, and Michi…

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Daniel David Palmer - Palmer's fundamental idea, Palmer's mysticism, Historical quotes, Further reading

Founder of chiropractic, born near Toronto, Canada. He moved to Iowa c.1880. Largely self-taught, he was a small businessman who became interested in alternative forms of medicines such as magnetic healing, osteopathy, and vertebral manipulation. In 1898 he founded the Palmer School of Chiropractic in Davenport, IA, the first school to train chiropractors by his system. (Chiropractic - from Greek …

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Daniel Day-Lewis - Early life, Career, Personal life, Selected filmography, Academy Award and nominations

Film actor, born in London, UK, the son of C Day-Lewis. He trained at the Bristol Old Vic and, after several small roles on stage and television, became well known for My Beautiful Launderette (1985) and Room With A View (1985). He won awards for his portrayal of handicapped Irish writer Christy Brown in My Left Foot (1989, Oscar, BAFTA). Later films include The Last of the Mohicans (1992), In the…

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Daniel De Leon

Socialist advocate, born on the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. He studied in Europe before emigrating to New York City (1874), becoming a lawyer (1878) and lecturer on Latin-American diplomacy at Columbia University (1883–6). Joining the Socialist Labor Party (1890), he was named its national lecturer (1891) and editor of its organ, The People (1892), and was an unsuccessful candidate …

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Daniel Defoe - Biography, Novels and other works, Defoe and the Anglo-Scottish Union of 1707, Quotations, Bibliography

Writer, born in London, UK. The son of a butcher, he was educated at a dissenting academy, travelled widely in Europe, and set up in the hosiery trade. In 1688 he joined William III's army, and strenuously supported the King's party. In 1702 his satire The Shortest Way with the Dissenters raised much anger with Dissenters and High-Churchmen alike, and he was imprisoned at Newgate for seditious lib…

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Daniel Drake

Physician and writer, born near Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. He studied medicine in Cincinnati, OH and spent most of his life in practice and teaching there. He founded the Ohio Medical College in Cincinnati (1819) and served as its president on occasion. He is chiefly known for his encyclopedic work A Systematic Treatise, Historical, Etiological and Practical, on the Principal Diseases of the Int…

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Daniel Drew

Capitalist, born in Carmel, New York, USA. He moved rapidly from a successful cattle-driving business (1829) to competing against Cornelius Vanderbilt (1834) in the steamboat business, to opening the brokerage firm of Drew, Robinson & Co on Wall Street (1844). A millionaire, he earned a reputation for being unscrupulous during the ‘Erie War’ with Cornelius Vanderbilt (1866–8) over control of th…

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Daniel Frohman

Theatre manager, born in Sandusky, Ohio, USA. The brother of Charles Frohman, he managed a number of New York theatres, including the Madison Square, the Lyceum, Daly's, and his own 1902 reconstruction of the Lyceum, where he had a stock company. He was also one of the first producers of moving pictures. Daniel Frohman (August 22, 1851 - December 26, 1940) was an American theatrical produce…

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Daniel Garrison Brinton - Works

Physician and cultural anthropologist, born in Thornbury, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Yale (1858), took a medical degree (1861), and studied abroad for a year before returning to serve as a Union army surgeon (1862–5). He retired from medical practice in 1887 to pursue anthropological research full time. His American Race (1891) was the first systematic classification of the aboriginal langu…

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Daniel Hale Williams

Surgeon and medical educator, born in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, USA. One of the first African-Americans to graduate from medical school (Chicago Medical College, Northwestern University, 1883), he organized Provident Hospital in Chicago (1891), establishing training programmes for the medical education of African-American men (interns) and women (nurses). While there he performed the first succ…

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Dani

Poet and scholar, born in Gent, NW Belgium. He studied law and became professor in poetry at Leiden University, writing Latin verse, emblemata, historical works, and satire. He was the first Dutch poet to write in the classicist tradition, thus becoming a precursor of the literature of the 17th-c. His son Nicolaas (1620–81) and his grandson Nicolaas jr (1656–1718) were also literary scholars. Hi…

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Daniel Horsmanden - Bibliography

Jurist, born in Purleigh, Essex, SE England, UK. Admitted to the Middle Temple in London (1724), he had emigrated to New York by 1731. He used contacts from England to obtain a seat on the New York Supreme Court. Known as a ‘political jurist’, he lost all his offices in a shift of political fortune in 1747. He recovered lost ground, however, and returned to the New York Supreme Court (1753), bec…

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Daniel Jones

Phonetician, born in London, UK. He was called to the bar in 1907, when he was also appointed lecturer in phonetics at University College London (professor 1921–49). He collaborated with others in compiling Cantonese (1912), Sechuana (1916), and Sinhalese (1919) phonetic readers. He wrote An Outline of English Phonetics (1916), and compiled an English Pronouncing Dictionary (1917, 15th edn 1997).…

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Daniel Kahneman - Notable contributions

Economist, born in Tel Aviv, Israel. He studied at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1954 BA) and the University of California at Berkeley (1961 PhD), later joining Princeton University. He holds dual citizenship, of Israel and the USA. He shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Economics for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment…

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Daniel Kirkwood

Astronomer and mathematician, born in Harford, Maryland, USA. He became professor of mathematics at Delaware (1851) and at Indiana (1856). He explained the unequal distribution of asteroids in the asteroid belt as a result of the influence of Jupiter. These interruptions became known as Kirkwood gaps. Born in Harford County, Maryland, he graduated in mathematics from the York County Academy…

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Daniel Maclise - Reference

Painter, born in Cork, Co Cork, S Ireland. He trained at the Cork School of Art and at the school of the Royal Academy in London. He is noted for the frescoes in the Royal Gallery of the House of Lords: ‘The Meeting of Wellington and Blücher’ (1861) and ‘The Death of Nelson’ (1864). He was also known as an illustrator of books for Tennyson and Dickens. His sketches of contemporaries in Fraser…

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Daniel Mannix

Roman Catholic clergyman, born at Ráth Luirc, Co Cork, S Ireland. Ordained at Maynooth in 1890, he became president of the college in 1903. He went to Australia in 1913 as coadjutor in Melbourne, succeeding as archbishop in 1917. He opposed conscription, and attacked the government for lack of aid to Church schools. Despite the controversy this caused, he was responsible for establishing nearly 2…

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Daniel Morgan - Early years, French and Indian War, Civilian life, American Revolution, After the Revolution, Trivia

American soldier, probably born in Hunterdon Co, New Jersey, USA. The son of an ironmaster who had settled in the Shenandoah Valley, VA, he had served with the British forces in the French and Indian War and against Pontiac's rebellion (1763–4). He joined the Revolutionary forces on the outbreak of war and fought at Quebec (Dec 1775), where he was captured. Exchanged in 1776, he led a crack regim…

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Daniel Nathans

Microbiologist, born in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. He studied at the University of Delaware and at Washington University, St Louis, and became professor at Johns Hopkins University from 1962. He pioneered research on the use of restriction enzymes which had been isolated by Hamilton Smith to fragment DNA molecules, and they shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Daniel Nath…

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Daniel O'Connell - Early life, Campaigning for Catholic Emancipation, Campaign for "Repeal of the Union"

Irish Catholic political leader, born near Cahirciveen, Co Kerry, SW Ireland. He became a lawyer, and in 1823 formed the Catholic Association, which successfully fought elections against the landlords. His election as MP for Co Clare precipitated a crisis in Wellington's government, which eventually granted Catholic Emancipation (1829), enabling him to take his seat in the Commons. In 1840 he foun…

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Daniel Ortega (Saavedra) - Personal Life, The Sandinista Revolution (1979-1990), Interim years, Current activities

Nicaraguan guerrilla leader and president (1984–90, 2006– ), born in La Libertad, C Nicaragua. He studied at the University of Central America, Managua, and joined the Sandinista National Liberation Front in 1963, becoming national director in 1966. He was imprisoned for seven years for urban guerrilla bank raids, and played a major part in the overthrow of Anastasio Somoza in 1979, becoming pre…

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Daniel P(atrick) Moynihan - Education, Public service, Commission on Government Secrecy, Academe and authorship

Academic and politician, born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. He studied at the City College of New York and Tufts University, then taught at Syracuse, Harvard, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served in the administrations of Presidents Johnson and Nixon, acquiring notoriety as the author of The Negro Family: the Case for National Action (1965), which held that many of the educational p…

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Daniel Read - Life and work, Example

Composer, born in Attleboro, Massachusetts, USA. He was a singing teacher in New Haven and a writer-collector of some 400 hymn tunes that he published in several collections. Daniel Read (November 16, 1757 – December 4, 1836) was an American composer of the First New England School, and one of the primary figures in early American classical music. Read, along with his contempo…

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Daniel Shays

US soldier and insurrectionary, probably born in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. His origins were humble and little is known of his early life. He fought at Bunker Hill (1775) and at Saratoga (1777), then resigned from the army (1780) and settled in Pelham, MA where he held several town offices. He led the insurrection in W Massachusetts (1786–7) that grew out of a severe economic depression. Arme…

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Daniel Webster - Early life, Rise to prominence, Notable Supreme Court cases, Return to politics, Senate

US representative, senator, and orator, born in Salisbury, New Hampshire, USA. He studied at Dartmouth College and taught at schools while studying law. Admitted to the bar in 1805, he gained a local reputation as an orator and came to wider notice as an opponent of the USA undertaking the War of 1812. He was then elected to the US House of Representatives (Federalist, New Hampshire, 1813–17), wh…

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Daniel Yankelovich - Education, Founds research firm, Landmark Education study

Sociologist and public-opinion analyst, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard and the Sorbonne, Paris, and was president (1958–81) and chairman (1981) of the New York public polling firm that became Yankelovich, Skelly & White/Clancy Shulman, Inc. He specialized in measuring social and cultural trends and analysing their effect on government and industry, and established the i…

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Daniele Manin - Biography

Italian patriot and politician, born in Venice, Veneto, NE Italy. He was arrested by the Austrians in January 1848 but freed in March when a popular insurrection established the Republic of San Marco. He was appointed president and promoted a number of reforms. After the Piedmontese defeat at Custoza he organized the city's resistance, and when Venice was forced to surrender to the Austrian army (…

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Danielle (Fernande Schuelein) Steel - Biography, Bibliography

Writer, born in New York City, USA. She studied in New York and at the Lycée Français in Paris, then enrolled at the Parsons School of Design in New York, later working in public relations and advertising. A best-selling writer of romantic fiction, she achieved success with her fourth novel, The Promise (1978), and now has over 125 million books in print worldwide. She has also published several…

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Daniello Bartoli

Scholar, born in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, NE Italy. A Jesuit, he wrote the Society's official history Istoria della Compagnia di Gesù (1650–73). He also wrote a number of scientific works in support of Galileo, and rhetorical treatises against the Academy of the Crusca's intransigence, including L'uomo di lettere difeso ed emendato (1645). Daniello Bartoli (1608 - 1685), Italian Jesuit pr…

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Danish literature - Middle Ages, The 16th and 17th Centuries, 18th century, 19th century, 20th century

The first written evidence of Danish may be found in runic transcriptions dating from 800 to 1100. The important Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) was written in Latin by Saxo Grammaticus in the 12th-c. There was an oral tradition of epic balladry (13th–15th-c) but Danish literature begins with the translation of the Bible in 1550. Classical imitations marked the 17th-c, and the influence of Eng…

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Dannie Abse

Writer and physician, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. He studied at the Welsh National School of Medicine, King's College London, and Westminster Hospital, becoming senior specialist in the chest clinic at the Central Medical Establishment, London, in 1954. His literary output includes several volumes of poetry, four novels, and a number of plays. His autobiographical volumes are A Poet in the Famil…

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Danny Blanchflower

Footballer, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. Studious, cultured and articulate when off-field, he was a powerful influence in the Northern Ireland side which reached the World Cup quarter finals in 1958. Transferring from Aston Villa to Tottenham Hotspur, he masterminded the London club's double success in the League and the FA Cup (1960–1). Robert Dennis Blanchflower, known as Da…

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Danny Boyle - Road to Success, Trivia

Director, born in Bury, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He was artistic director of London's Royal Court Theatre Upstairs (1982–7), an experimental venue for new writing, then moved into television directing, where he made his name with Mr Wroe's Virgins, a period drama. His directorial film debut was Shallow Grave (1994), which won a BAFTA award for Best British Film. His next film, Trainspo…

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Danny Glover - Early life, Acting and directing career, Political and social activism, Trivia, Filmography

Actor, born in San Francisco, California, USA. After attending San Francisco State, he appeared on the stage. He made his film debut in Places in the Heart (1984) but gained his first major success in The Color Purple (1985). A versatile actor, he played villains and heroes in all types of films including Lethal Weapon (1987) and its sequels (1989, 1992, 1998). In March 1998 he was appointed a Uni…

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Danny Kaye - Biography, Trivia, Filmography

Comic actor and entertainer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Dropping out of school at age 13, he began as a comic in the ‘Borscht Circuit’ in the Catskills, then worked as a singer and dancer in nightclubs and vaudeville until he made his Broadway debut in 1939. With his genius for mimicry, controlled slapstick, and patter song delivery, he made his film debut in 1937, and appeared in a s…

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Dante (Alighieri) - Life, Works, Cultural references

Poet, prose writer, literary theorist, philosopher, and political thinker, born in Florence, NC Italy. A lawyer's son, he was baptized Durante, later contracted into Dante. In 1274, when he was nine, a meeting with Beatrice (c.1265–90), possibly the daughter of the Florentine aristocrat Folco Portinari, influenced the rest of his life. His platonic devotion to her continued despite her marriage, …

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Dante Gabriel Rossetti - Additional images, Sources

Poet and painter, born in London, UK, the son of Gabriele Rossetti. He trained at the Royal Academy in London, and helped to form the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (c.1850), which aimed to return to pre-Renaissance art forms involving vivid colour and detail. His early work was on religious themes, such as ‘The Annunciation’ (1850, Tate, London); his later manner became more secular, and more ornat…

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Danville (Kentucky)

37º42N 84º46W, pop (2000e) 15 500. Town in Boyle Co, Kentucky, USA; founded in 1782 by John Crow as Crow's Station; renamed Danville by Walker Daniel (1783); site of Kentucky's first post office (1792); a series of conventions held here (1784–92) produced the first constitution for the Commonwealth of Kentucky; birthplace of James Gillespie Birney; Constitution Square State Historic Site cove…

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Dar es Salaam - Geography, History, Economy and infrastructure, City Life, Culture, Education, Trivia

6°51S 39°18E, pop (2000e) 1 800 000. Seaport and capital of Dar es Salaam region, E Tanzania; on the Indian Ocean, 45 km/28 mi S of Zanzibar; founded, 1882; occupied by German East Africa Company, 1887; capital of German East Africa, 1891; occupied by the British in World War 1; capital of Tanganyika, 1916–64; capital of Tanzania until 1974; chief port and industrial, commercial, and finan…

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Darcey (Andrea) Bussell

Ballerina, born in London, UK. She studied at the Arts Educational School and the Royal Ballet School, joining Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet (now Birmingham Royal Ballet) in 1987. The following year she moved to the Royal Ballet as soloist, becoming first soloist (1989), then principal dancer (1989). Kenneth MacMillan created roles for her, such as Masha in Winter Dreams (1991). Twyla Tharp created …

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Darci Kistler

Ballet dancer, born in Riverside, California, USA. Determined to be a dancer from age five, she studied with Irina Kosnovsha in Los Angeles, then went to New York City Ballet at age 14 to become the last of George Balanchine's great ballerinas, and at age 17 she became the youngest principal dancer in that company's history. During 1982–5 she was inactive due to a fractured ankle, but by 1989 she…

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Dari

pop (2000e) 51 000; area 16 803 km²/6486 sq mi. Province of E Panama, bounded SE by Colombia and W by the Gulf of Panama; capital, La Palma; chief towns, Yaviza and El Real; attempted settlement by the Scots in the 1690s (the Darién Scheme) is still remembered in local place-names such as Punta de Escoces and Caledonia Bay. Darien may refer to: In or associated with the …

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Dario Fo - Biography, Creative Inspiration, Selected works, Selected bibliography in Italian and in English

Playwright, designer, and actor, born in San Giano, N Italy. After working in radio and TV he founded, along with his wife, Franca Rame, a radical theatre company in 1959. His populist plays use the comic traditions of farce and slapstick, as well as surreal effects; best known are Morte accidentale di un anarchico (1970, Accidental Death of an Anarchist), Non si paga, non si paga (1974, Can't Pay…

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Darius Milhaud - Works, Location of Original Source Material Relating to Darius Milhaud

Composer, born in Aix-en-Provence, SE France. He studied under Widor and d'Indy at the Paris Conservatoire. While attached to the French Embassy at Rio de Janeiro (1917–18), he met the playwright Paul Claudel, with whom he frequently collaborated, as on the opera Christopher Columbus. Returning to France, he was for a while a member of Les Six. He was professor of music at Mills College, Californ…

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Dark Ages - The Dark Ages concept after the Renaissance, Modern academic use, Modern popular use

A term once used to describe the period of Western European history from c.500 to c.1000, but misleading because of its negative implications, probably due to the fall of the Roman empire, the subsequent migrations and invasions by Goths and other peoples, and the supposed lack of learning during the period. Knowledge from the ancient Romans survived only in a few monasteries and cathedral schools…

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dark matter - Observational evidence, Dark matter composition, Alternative explanations, Dark matter in popular culture

Material in space which does not emit light, and which therefore cannot be seen with conventional astronomical instruments; also known as the missing mass. Over 95% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. According to one view, most of this matter consists of machos (massive compact halo objects) - large structures which do not emit light (such as black holes and brown dwarfs). A…

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darkling beetle - Characteristics, Notable species, Rearing mealworms into adult beetles

A small to medium-sized ground beetle; most species brown or black; many flightless with vestigial wings; well-adapted for living in dry conditions; feeds mostly on plant material, including stored products such as flour. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Tenebrionidae, c.25 000 species.) Darkling beetles are a family of beetles found worldwide. This family of beetles may be identifi…

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Darling River

Longest tributary of the Murray R; formed by the Dumaresq and Macintyre Rivers at the New South Wales–Queensland border; flows generally SW to join the Murray R; length 3070 km/1908 mi; major tributaries the Gwydir, Namoi, Castlereagh, Macquarie, Bogan, and Warrego Rivers; used for irrigation in New South Wales. The Darling River is the longest river in Australia, flowing 2,739km from no…

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Darmstadt - History, Sights, Institutions, Sons and Daughters of the City, Military, Trivia, Twinning

49º51N 8º40E, pop (2001e) 136 900. City in Hesse province, WC Germany; 27 km/17 mi S of Frankfurt; lies on the edge of the Upper Rhine plain amid the N foothills of the Odenwald; gained city status, 1330; birthplace of Alexandra Feodorovna, Kasimir Edschmid, August Kekulé von Stradonitz, Justus Liebig; aerospace centre; technical university (1895); railway; plastics, cosmetics, chemicals, e…

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darter - Range:, Diet:, Breeding:, Systematics and evolution

A slender bird native to warm regions worldwide; spears fish underwater with long pointed bill; swims with only head and long neck out of water; inhabits still water; called anhinga in the New World, darter in the Old World; also known as snake bird and water turkey. (Genus: Anhinga, 1 or 2 species; experts disagree. Family: Anhingidae.) The darters or snake-birds are birds in the family An…

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Dartford - Geological history, History, Employment, Education, Transport, Dartford Heath, Notable residents, International links

51º27N 0º14E, pop (2002e) 59 000. Market town in Greater London urban area and Dartford district, Kent, SE England, UK; located on the R Darent, 24 km/15 mi WNW of Chatham; linked to Essex by the Dartford Tunnel; birthplace of Peter Blake and Mick Jagger; railway; paper, engineering, pharmaceuticals, cement. Dartford is the principal town in the borough of Dartford. The to…

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Dartmoor - Geographical information, History, Myths and literature, Ownership and access, Preserving Dartmoor, Towns and villages, Features, Letterboxing

National park in Devon, S England, UK; area 913 km²/352 sq mi; established in 1951; noted for its granite tors and hanging oak woods; highest point, High Willhays, 621 m/2039 ft; several Bronze and Iron Age settlements; prison (1806–13); popular area for walking and riding. Coordinates: 50°34′N 4°0′W Dartmoor is an area of moorland in the centre of the English count…

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Dartmoor pony - Breed Characteristics, History of the Dartmoor Pony, The Dartmoor Today

A small pony, developed on Dartmoor, England; tough and sure-footed; calm-natured; height, up to 12·2 hands/1·3 m/4 ft 2 in; usually brown or black; slim legs, long bushy tail and mane, short erect ears. The Dartmoor pony roams wild in Dartmoor National Park, Devon, in the United Kingdom. The Dartmoor has lived in southern Britain for centuries. The Dart…

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darts - Dart boards, Soft tip boards and darts, Playing darts, Famous players

An indoor game played by throwing three darts (or ‘arrows’) at a circular board. The throwing distance is normally 8 ft (2·4 m), and the height from the floor to the centre of the board (known as the bull) is 5 ft 8 in (1·7 m). The standard dartboard is divided into 20 segments, numbered 1–20, but not in numerical order. Within each segment are progressively smaller segments which either…

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Darwin (Australia) - Other uses

12°23S 130°44E, pop (2000e) 86 300. Seaport capital of Northern Territory, Australia, on the Beagle Gulf, Clarence Strait; an important communications centre serving Arnhem Land (E) and the surrounding mining districts; first European settlement (1869) destroyed by hurricane in 1879; bombed by the Japanese, 1942; destroyed by cyclone Tracy, 1974; airport; railway; university (1989); Government…

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Darwin (Falkland Is) - Other uses

51°48S 58°59W. Settlement on East Falkland, Falkland Is; at the head of Choiseul Sound, on the narrow isthmus that joins the N half of East Falkland to Lafonia in the S; c.70 km/43 mi from Stanley. Darwin most commonly refers to: Darwin may also refer to: …

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Darwin's finches - The finches and Darwin's theory, The finch species

A closely related group of birds, native to the Galápagos Is (off Ecuador); also known as Galápagos finches. Thought to have evolved from one ancestral species, 14 species are now recognized, differing in diet (and related bill shapes), habitat preferences, and distribution. The classification of the group is currently uncertain; they may be put in the family Fringillidae (finches) or the family…

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Darwinism - Darwinism and other -isms, Classical Darwinism, Darwinism as selectionism, Darwinian processes

The theory of evolution proposed jointly by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, and later expanded upon by Darwin in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Individuals of a species show variation. On average, more offspring are produced than are needed to replace the parents, but population size remains more or less stable in nature. There must therefore be competition for s…

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data - Etymology, Usage in English, Uses of data in computing, Meaning of data, information and knowledge

In computing, the stored facts and figures on which computers operate in order to perform their assigned task. For example, in a payroll operation the data would be the employee details, the details of the hours worked, absences, etc, and the national insurance, pension, and taxation rules to be applied. The task of taking facts (eg names, addresses) and figures from a form and entering them into …

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data processing (DP)

A general term used to describe various uses of computers in business. These include clerical functions (eg scheduling and stock control), financial functions (eg salaries and budget management), and many other aspects of business management and planning. Data processing is any computer process that converts data into information. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actuall…

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database - History, Database models, Database internals, Applications of databases

A file of computer data structured in such a way that it can be of general use and is independent of any specific application. This information can be managed by a database management system (DBMS), a software system or program which allows data to be modified, deleted, added to, and retrieved from one or more databases. The central concept of a database is that of a collection of records, …

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Daughters of the American Revolution - Eligibility, Marian Anderson controversy, Partial list of famous DAR members, Further reading

A patriotic society organized in the USA in 1890. Members must be directly descended from soldiers or patriots of the Revolutionary period. The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a "lineage membership organization" dedicated to promoting historic preservation, education, and patriotism. DAR chapters are involved in raising funds for local scholarships and educational awards…

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Dauphin - List of Dauphins, 1349-1830, In Literature, Modern Uses of the Term

The title of the eldest son of the reigning French monarch in the period 1350–1830, acquired in 1349 when the future King Charles V purchased the lands known as Dauphiné. The Dauphin was the heir apparent to the throne of France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. In Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professi…

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Dauphin

Former province in SE France, now occupying the departments of Drôme, Isère, and Hautes-Alpes; part of Holy Roman Empire; passed to Philip V of France in 1349, both lands and title becoming the property of the king's eldest son. Dauphine is the female form of the particular French feudal (comital or princely) title of Dauphin (also anglicized as Dolphin), applied to the wife of a Dauphin …

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Dave Brubeck - History, Web sources, Notes and references, Media

Pianist, composer, and bandleader, born in Concord, California, USA. He studied music at the College of the Pacific, CA, leading a 12-piece jazz band and at the same time studying composition under Darius Milhaud. Towards the end of World War 2 he was stationed in Europe, leading a service band, but in 1946 he began to make his reputation as an experimental musician with his Jazz Workshop Ensemble…

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Dave Garroway

Television host, born in Schenectady, New York, USA. Originally a disc jockey on Chicago radio, he appeared in his own variety show, Garroway-at-Large (1949–51) on National Broadcasting Company (NBC) television. The first host of the Today show (1952–61), he later hosted Wide, Wide World (1955–8), also on NBC. Retiring after his wife's death, he later worked on National Educational Television's…

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Davenport

41º32N 90º35W, pop (2000e) 98 400. Seat of Scott Co, E Iowa, USA; on the Mississippi R, opposite Rock Island, IL; incorporated, 1839; developed after the building of the first railway bridge across the Mississippi (1856); birthplace of Samuel Franklin Cody, Bix Beiderbecke, Susan Glaspell; municipal airport; railway; heavy industry, agricultural equipment. Davenport could refer to: …

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David - Scriptural account of David's life, David's family, "Descendants" of David

Second king of Israel, and the first of the dynasty that governed Judah and Israel until the exile, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem. According to Jewish tradition he is the author of several of the Psalms, and according to some Christian traditions he is the ancestor of Jesus. He was a warrior under King Saul (and his son-in-law), but his successes against the Philistines (including the kil…

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David (Alan) Mamet - Family, Filmography, Plays, Books

Playwright, screenplay writer, and film director, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Goddard College, VT, then became an actor in New York City. His plays, such as American Buffalo (1976) and Speed the Plow (1987), address the psychological and ethical issues that confront modern urban society. Other works include the plays The Woods (1977), The Cryptogram (1994), and Romance (2005), th…

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David (Andrew) Platt

Footballer, born in Chadderton, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. A midfielder, he played for Crewe Alexandra, Aston Villa, Bari, Juventus, and Sampdoria, before moving to Arsenal (1995–8). A former England captain (1994–6), he won 62 caps for England. He was the Professional Footballers' Association Player of the Year in 1990. Retiring as a player in 1998, he became coach of Sampdoria, but re…

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David (Andrew) Seaman - End of Career, Honours

Footballer, born in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. A goalkeeper, he played for Peterborough, Birmingham, and Queens Park Rangers, before joining Arsenal in 1989. He established himself as the England goalkeeper under Terry Venables, playing in the teams for Euro 96, World Cup (1998, 2002), and Euro 2000, and by the end of the 2003 season had won 75 caps. He moved to Manchester City for…

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David (Bremner) Henderson

US representative, born in Old Deer, Moray and Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. Emigrating to the USA as a child, he grew up on a farm in Iowa and left college to serve as a private in the Union Army. A leg amputation ended his military career in 1863 and he became a lawyer in Dubuque, IA (1866–82). A Republican congressman (1883–1903), he served as Speaker of the House for two terms (1899–1903)…

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David (Burman) Edgar

Playwright and teacher, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied drama at Manchester University, and was a journalist before turning to the stage, writing numerous agitprop plays during 1971–4. With Destiny (1976) he began to portray current political issues in a more complex theatrical language. His plays include Saigon Rose (1976), an eight-hour adaptation of Nicholas Nickle…

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David (Christopher) Kelly - Biography, Involvement with the WMD dossier, Contact with Andrew Gilligan, Appearance before House of Commons committees

British microbiologist and consultant on arms control, born in the Rhondda Valley, S Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford, and specialized in biological pesticides, joining the chemical research centre at Porton Down, Wiltshire, where he became head of microbiology (1984). He was the Ministry of Defence's chief scientific officer and senior adviser to the proliferation and arms control secretariat, and…

less than 1 minute read

David (Desire Marc) Ginola

Footballer, born in Gassin, near St Tropez, SW France. He played for Paris St Germain, moving to the UK to join Newcastle United (1995), Tottenham Hotspur (1997), Aston Villa (2000), and Everton (2002–3), where he finished his playing career. He won 17 caps for France, and in 1994 was voted French Footballer of the Year, but he lost his place in the national team after France failed to qualify in…

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David (Edward) Hughes

Inventor, born in London, UK. He was brought up in Virginia and became professor of music at Bardston College, Kentucky (1850–3). In 1855 he invented a telegraph typewriter which was widely used throughout the USA and Europe, even up to the 1930s, and in 1878 a carbon microphone, important for telephony, and the precursor of modern carbon microphones. He left a large fortune to London hospitals. …

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David (Edward) Jenkins

Theologian and clergyman, born in Bromley, S Greater London, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was a lecturer in Birmingham and Oxford before being appointed director of Humanum studies at the World Council of Churches, Geneva (1969–73). He then became director of the William Temple Foundation, Manchester (1973–8), and professor of theology at Leeds (1979–84). He was appointed Bishop of Durham (198…

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David (Eli) Lilienthal - Hoosier childhood, Higher education, Lilenthal and the Tennessee Valley Authority, David Lilienthal, controversial figure

Lawyer and government official, born in Morton, Illinois, USA. A Chicago lawyer, he rewrote Wisconsin's public utility statutes (1931–3). As the most visible and active official of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (board member from 1933, chairman 1941–6), he enlisted local support for centralized regional planning, fought to keep the TVA free of political ties, and tried to combine sound co…

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David (Emery) Gascoyne - Early Life and Surrealism, Politics, Later Life and Works, Gascoyne's Reputation, Bibliography

Poet, born in Harrow, NW Greater London, UK. His first book of poems Roman Balcony and Other Poems (1932) appeared when he was just 16 years of age, followed the next year by his only novel Opening Day. Deeply influenced by the French Surrealist movement of the 1930s, his work A Short Survey of Surrealism (1935) and his poetry Man's Life Is This Meat (1936) were milestones of the movement in Engla…

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David (Fyodorovitch) Oistrakh - Early years, In Moscow, Awards, During WWII, International travel, Older Years

Violinist, born in Odessa, S Ukraine. He studied at Odessa Conservatory, graduating in 1926. In 1928 he went to Moscow, and began to teach at the Conservatory there in 1934, being appointed professor in 1939. He made concert tours in Europe and America, and was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1945 and the Lenin Prize in 1960. His son Igor Davidovitch Oistrakh (1931– ), born in Odessa, is also a noted…

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David (Glasgow) Farragut - Early life and naval career, Civil War, European Squadron and death, In memoriam, In popular culture

US naval officer, born near Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. After being adopted by Commander David Porter, he became a midshipman at the age of nine. His naval career progressed slowly until 1861, when he was chosen to command the West Gulf blockading squadron. He ran his ships past Confederate forts and captured New Orleans (1862), the victory making him the outstanding leader of the Union navy. He bl…

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David (Graham) Phillips - Bibliography

Journalist and novelist, born in Madison, Indiana, USA. After graduating from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), he became a journalist, eventually on the New York World (1893–1902), where he wrote editorials for publisher Joseph Pulitzer and went on special assignments, such as covering the Greco-Turkish War (1897). After the success of his first novel, The Great God Success (1901), he…

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David (Henry Peter) Maybury-Lewis - Major Publications, Awards

Cultural anthropologist, born in Hyderabad, Pakistan. He served in the British army (1947–8) before going to Oxford (1952 BA) and Cambridge (1956 PhD). Pursuing the career of a cultural anthropologist, he emigrated to the USA (1960) to join the Harvard faculty. In 1972, with Harvard colleagues, he founded Cultural Survival, Inc, a private organization that aims to protect historical and cultural …

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David (Ian) Campese

Rugby union player, born near Queanbeyan, New South Wales, SE Australia. A fast, flamboyant wing, between 1982–96 he set a world record 64 tries as an international, and an Australian record for the most matches played, 101. The star of Australia's 1991 World Cup victory, he was one of the early year-round players, spending the southern winter in the Sydney club competition and the northern winte…

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David (Ivon) Gower

Cricketer, born in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, SE England, UK. He came to the fore chiefly because of the elegance of his left-handed stroke play. He was captain of England (1984–6, 1989), leading them to the Ashes in 1985 with 715 runs, the most by an England captain in a series against Australia. He became the leading Test run-scorer in 1992, with 8231 runs in 117 matches, at an average of 44·25, b…

less than 1 minute read

David (James) Bellamy - Background, Career, Views on global warming, Recognition, Bibliography

Botanist, writer, and broadcaster, born in London, England, UK. He studied at London University, taught at Durham (1960–80), and became a professor at Nottingham in 1987. He established the Conservation Foundation in 1988. The writer of numerous conservation-oriented books, he is best known for his eccentric manner in TV programmes designed to create a greater awareness and understanding of the n…

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David (John) Mellor - Scandal, After Parliament

British statesman. He studied at Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1972. He was elected Conservative MP for Putney in 1979, and after holding various junior posts became minister of state at the Home Office (1986–7, 1989–90), Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1987–8), and the Department of Health (1988–9). He was minister for the arts in 1990, then chief secretary to the Treasury (1990–2…

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David (Joseph) Herlihy

Historian, born in San Francisco, California, USA. After receiving his doctorate from Yale University (1956), he became the first prominent medievalist to write about women's roles in mediaeval history. He taught for over 30 years and held professorships at the universities of Wisconsin, Harvard, and Brown. His books include The Tuscans and Their Families (1984) and Women and Work in Medieval Euro…

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David (Keith) Williamson - Biography

Playwright, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He studied mechanical engineering at Monash University, Melbourne, then turned to writing plays and scripts for films and television. His first works to receive recognition were The Removalists and Don's Party in 1971, and other successes included The Club (1977) and The Perfectionist (1982). He wrote the scripts for the successful Australian …

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David (Leo) Lawrence

Mayor, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. After working for William J Brennan, Democratic chief of Allegheny Co, he became active in state and national Democratic Party affairs. He went on to serve an unprecedented four terms as mayor of Pittsburgh (1946–59). In concert with Richard K Mellon and other civic leaders, he helped clean and build up the city, and became the first Catholic governor…

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David (Lewis) Jacobs

British radio and television broadcaster. He began his career as an announcer with the Forces Broadcasting Service (1944–7), and joined the BBC in 1947. He has been a part of British radio and television since then, introducing shows, chairing panel games, and presenting many light and popular music programmes. He was voted top disc jockey on six occasions. David Henry Jacobs (April 30, 18…

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David (Mackenzie) Ogilvy - Works

Advertizing executive, born in West Horsley, Surrey, S England, UK. He settled in New York City (1939) and after a varied early career, he founded (1948) the advertising agency that became Ogilvy & Mather, a top creative shop whose trademark snob appeal was exemplified by its Hathaway shirt and ‘man from Schweppes’ campaigns. He retired to France (1973), resigning the chairmanship of Ogilvy & Ma…

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David (Malcolm) Storey - Style

Novelist and playwright, born in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at the Slade School of Art, London. The action of This Sporting Life (1960), his first novel, is set in the world of rugby league, and the characters of his play The Changing Room (1972) are footballers. The play Life Class (1974), is set in an art college. Other novels, such as Saville (1976, Booker), use autobi…

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David (Robert Joseph) Beckham

Footballer, born in Leytonstone, Greater London, UK. A midfield player, he joined Manchester United in 1993, and the England team in 1996. He was a member of the 1998 World Cup team and the 2000 and 2004 Euro competitions, and was made England captain in the lead-up to the 2002 World Cup. He gained his 94th cap during the 2006 World Cup campaign, and relinquished the captaincy after his country's …

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David (Royston) Bailey - Books

Photographer, born in London, UK. Originally specializing in fashion photography as a freelance from 1959, his creative approach soon extended to portraits expressing the spirit of the 1960s and to some outstanding studies of the nude. He writes extensively on all aspects of his craft and has been a director of televison commercials and documentaries since the 1970s. His publications include Nudes…

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David (Russell) Lange - Early life, Political career, International affairs, Post-resignation, Personal life, Quote

New Zealand politician and prime minister (1984–9), born in Otahuhu, Auckland, New Zealand. After qualifying in law at Auckland University (1966), he went to London where he worked for an insurance company and a bank. He became influenced by the ideas of Methodist minister Donald Soper and often visited his West London mission. In 1968 he returned to New Zealand and spent several years teaching a…

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David (Walter) Del Tredici

Composer, born in Cloverdale, California, USA. After studies at Princeton he taught at Harvard and Boston University. He is best known for his series of neo-Romantic orchestral works based on Alice in Wonderland. His early work drew from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for inspiration, covering a wide variety of musical styles and forms. Themes of his later works include …

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David (William Donald) Cameron - Family life and early career, The 2005 party leadership election, Cameron's politics, Criticism

British statesman, born in Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. Raised near Wantage in Oxfordshire, he studied at Eton and Brasenose College, Oxford. He began his political career in the Conservative Party research department (1988), before becoming special adviser to chancellor Norman Lamont (1992) and to home secretary Michael Howard (1993). After a period (1994–2001) as director of corporate communica…

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David Alfaro Siqueiros

Mural painter, born in Chihuahua, N Mexico. He helped to launch the review El Machete in Mexico City in 1922, and was imprisoned for revolutionary activities (1930). He was later expelled from the USA, and during the 1930s worked in South America. One of the principal figures in 20th-c Mexican mural painting, he was notable for his experiments with modern synthetic materials. David Alfaro S…

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David Allan

Genre and portrait painter, known as the ‘Scottish Hogarth’, born in Alloa, Clackmannanshire, C Scotland, UK. He studied in Glasgow and in Rome, went to London (1777–80) to paint portraits, and became director of the Edinburgh Academy of Arts in 1786. He illustrated Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd and some of Robert Burns' poems. David Allan (February 13, 1744 - August 6, 1796) was a Scot…

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David Alter - Inventions, Biography

Physicist, born in Westmoreland Co, Pennsylvania, USA. He was one of the earliest investigators of the spectrum, and pioneered the use of the spectroscope in determining the chemical constitution of a gas or vaporized solid. David Alter (born December 3, 1807 - died September 18, 1881) was a prominent American inventor and scientist of the 19th century. Dr. David Alter is credit…

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David Amram - Discography, Bibliography, Reference

Composer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. His career has involved extensive playing, mostly on French horn, and composing in both classical and jazz styles. His music is eclectic and relatively conservative, with elements of jazz and various ethnic musics. David Amram (born November 17, 1930) is an American composer, musician, and writer. His eclectic use of jazz, ethnic and folk m…

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David Baltimore

Virologist and geneticist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was a research fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (1963–4) and Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1964–5), then moved to the Salk Institute of Biological Studies (1965–8), where he began investigations of RNA viruses. He returned to MIT (1968–90), where he discovered a tumor virus enzyme he termed ‘re…

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David Bedford - Trivia

Distance athlete, born in London, UK. An athlete of great stamina, he set the 10 000 m world record in 1972 (27:3 David Vickerman Bedford (born August 4, 1937) is a British composer and musician. Bedford was born in London. Through Ayers, he met Mike Oldfield, then The Whole World's bass guitarist. Bedford subsequently made a number of records for Virgin, some usin…

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David Belasco

Actor, manager, and playwright, born in San Francisco, California, USA. The son of a Portuguese-Jewish family, he appeared on stage as a child. His earliest successes as a stage manager in the 1880s were with melodramas in both New York and California. He built a reputation for total theatricality, including a highly flamboyant private life. One of his great interests was in extreme realism on sta…

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David Ben-Gurion - Early life, Zionist leadership, Prime Ministership, Trivia

Israeli statesman and prime minister (1948–53, 1955–63), born in Plonsk, C Poland. Attracted to the Zionist Socialist movement, he emigrated to Palestine in 1906, working as a farm labourer and forming the first Jewish trade union in 1915. Expelled by the Ottomans for pro-Allied sympathies, he helped to raise the Jewish Legion in America and served in it in the Palestine campaign against Turkey …

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David Berkowitz - Biography, References in popular culture

Convicted US murderer, who dubbed himself ‘Son of Sam’ in a note to the New York Police Department. He terrorized the city for a year (1976–7), preying on courting couples and lone women. He was finally caught because of a parking ticket: he watched as it was stuck on his car, and then went and tore it to pieces. A woman witnessed this, noticed a strange smile on his face, and reported him to t…

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David Blaine - Magic career

Illusionist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. Interested in magic tricks from a young age, he worked as a street magician in New York and got his break into showbusiness when he sent a tape to ABC TV, who offered him his own show (1997). Modelling himself on Harry Houdini, he began to perform seemingly impossible feats of endurance. In 1999 he was buried alive for one week beneath a glass tank fil…

1 minute read

David Blunkett - Early life, Rise in politics, As Education Secretary, As Home Secretary, First resignation

British statesman, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He received his early education in special schools for the blind, and went on to study at Sheffield University, then to lecture in industrial relations and politics at Barnsley College of Technology (1973–81). A member of Sheffield City Council (1970–88), he became an MP in 1987. He was opposition spokesman for the environment…

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David Bomberg

Painter, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He trained as a lithographer before studying painting in London, and was a founder member of the London Group (1913). In Paris he met avant-garde artists including Modigliani, Derain, and Picasso, and their influence is clear in such large compositions as ‘The Mud Bath’ and ‘In the Hold’ (1913–14), which combine abstract and Vorticist…

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David Bowie - Career overview, Discography, Acting career

Rock singer, born in Brixton, London, UK. He changed his name in 1966 (‘Bowie’, a Western knife) to avoid confusion with another pop singer (David Jones of the Monkees). His early career was undistinguished and he came close to becoming a Buddhist monk before the success of ‘Space Oddity’ (1969) - a song derived from the Kubrick film 2001: a Space Odyssey. His career blossomed throughout the 1…

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David Brainerd - Additional Reading

Protestant missionary, born in Haddam, Connecticut, USA. An emotional, sickly child, he achieved a religious conversion after much anguish in 1739. He was expelled from Yale in 1742 for making derogatory remarks about a tutor, but he obtained a licence to preach and ministered to Indian tribes in Massachusetts, PA and New Jersey. Poor health forced him from the field in early 1747, and he died sho…

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David Bushnell

Inventor and physician, born in Saybrook, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Yale, then built the first US submarine, Bushnell's turtle, which was tried unsuccessfully against British ships. He was a continental army engineer (1779–83), then spent several years in France, returning to the USA in 1795 to teach and practise medicine in Georgia. David Bushnell (1742 - 1824) of Saybrook, Connecti…

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David Cannadine

Historian, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge and Oxford universities, and became a fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge (1977). In 1998 he was appointed professor of history at Columbia University, New York, and also became director of the Institute of Historical Research at London University. His books include The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocrac…

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David Cronenberg - Trivia, Filmography, Further reading

Film director and screenplay writer, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied at the University of Toronto, and went on to become one of the most prolific and acclaimed exponents of the horror film genre to have emerged in recent years. His work is often stylish and experimental, with plots typically concerning the aftermath of some disastrous biological mishap, as in the highly successful …

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David Crystal - Work

Linguist and encyclopedist, born in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK. Brought up in Holyhead, N Wales, and Liverpool, he studied English at University College London, then taught linguistics at Bangor (1963–5) and Reading (1965–84) universities. In 1984 he left full-time university work, becoming an independent academic working from his home in Holyhead, while holding an honorary affiliation to the…

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David Daiches

Academic, born in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. The son of Rabbi Salis Daiches, an immigrant from Lithuania, he was raised in Edinburgh and developed a lifelong long of Scotland. He studied at Edinburgh and Oxford universities, and taught at Edinburgh before moving to the USA as professor of English at Chicago (1939–43) and Cornell (1946–51), then returning to Cambridge (1951–6). I…

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David Davis

Judge, born in Cecil Co, Maryland, USA. A close friend to Abraham Lincoln, he served as a circuit court judge in Illinois (1848–62) until President Lincoln named him to the US Supreme Court (1862–77). A presidential hopeful in 1872, he stepped down from the court to serve the US Senate (Democrat, Illinois, 1876–83). David Davis, the name of several people, may refer to: …

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David Dellinger - Quote, See further

Pacifist, peace activist, editor, and writer, born in Wakefield, Massachusetts, USA. A descendant of old New England families, he studied at Yale University (1936) and Oxford University, Yale Divinity School, and Union Theological Seminary (1939–40). His passionate pacifism would lead him to the forefront of militant, nonviolent activism. Twice jailed (1940, 1943) for draft resistance, upon his r…

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David Deutsch - Summary of views

British theoretical physicist, born in Haifa, NW Israel. Educated at Cambridge and Oxford universities, in 1978 he took up a position at the University of Texas at Austin, and in 1985 returned to Oxford. His reseach interests include quantum information processing, quantum non-locality, the quantum theory of time travel, and the foundations of quantum mechanics and probability. He pioneered the th…

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David Dimbleby - Education, TV presenter, Family

Broadcaster, born in London, UK, the son of Richard Dimbleby. He studied at Oxford, joined the BBC as a reporter (1960–1), and became a leading presenter and interviewer on BBC television current-affairs programmes, such as Panorama (1974–77, 1980–2, 1989– ) and Election and Results (1979, 1983, 1987, 1992, 1997). He is also chairman of the BBC's Question Time (from 1994). In 2005 he presented…

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David Dinkins - Political Career, Mayoralty, Economic Policy, 1993 Election, Citywide Tickets Mayor Dinkins Ran On, External Links

US politician, born in Trenton, New Jersey, USA. He attended Howard University and Brooklyn Law School (1953). After election to the New York state assembly (1965), he served as city clerk (1975–85). In his bid to become mayor of the city, he first won the Democratic Party primary. His policy of racial harmony was popular among black and white voters, and he was elected New York's first black may…

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David Dixon Porter - Pre-Civil War career, Civil War service, Post-war career, Publications, Legacy

US naval officer, born in Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. He went to sea at age 10, and served as a midshipman in the Mexican navy (1826–9) before he joined the US Navy (1829). He served as a lieutenant in the Mexican War, and after a furlough (1849–55) he returned to active service and became a commander in the Union navy (1861). He helped to plan a naval offensive against New Orleans and received …

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David Douglas Duncan - Childhood and Education, Career

Photographer and writer, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. He studied at the University of Miami, Florida (1938), and became a photo-journalist, then spent some years abroad. During World War 2 he served with the US Marines as a combat photographer (1943–6), then joined Life magazine as a staff photographer (1946–56), becoming noted for his powerful pictures of soldiers in combat during the Ko…

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David Dubinsky - Years in Poland, Early days in the rag trade and the union, Battles with the left

Labour leader, born in Brest-Litovsk, SW Belarus. Beginning his labour activism in Russia, for which he was exiled to Siberia, he escaped and emigrated to the USA in 1911. He joined the International Ladies’ Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) in New York City as a cloak-cutter, and was elected its president (1932–66). Under his leadership the ILGWU became one of the most successful unions in America…

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David Duchovny - Filmography

Actor, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Princeton and Yale, became an actor, and took a range of parts in low-budget films, becoming known in his role as Jake, the narrator in the Red Shoe Diaries (1992–7). He achieved star success when he was given the role of Fox Mulder in the cult television series The X-Files (1993–2002), for which he received a Golden Globe Best Actor award in 1997…

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David Dunbar Buick

Inventor and manufacturer, born in Arbroath, Angus, E Scotland, UK. His family came to Detroit, USA (1856), and he went on to form Buick and Sherwood (1884), manufacturers of plumbing equipment. He began making gasoline engines and formed the Buick Manufacturing Co (1902); its automobiles were the first to have windshields and a valve-in-head engine. The company failed and merged with another to f…

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David Einhorn

Rabbi, born in Dispeck, Germany. He went to the USA in 1855, and was minister to congregations in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. Active in the anti-slavery movement, he was the leading theologian of the extreme Reform wing of Judaism of the time, but because he preached in German, his influence was limited. David Einhorn (November 10, 1809–November 2, 1879) was a German rabbi…

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David Eugene Smith

Mathematician, born in Cortland, New York, USA. An early career in law (1881–4) was abandoned for mathematics. Teaching longest at Columbia University (1901–26), he was librarian of the American Mathematical Society (1902–20), editor of several mathematical journals and encyclopedias, author of over 40 mathematics texts, and an extensive traveller and book collector. …

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David Fabricius

Astronomer and clergyman, born in Esens, NW Germany. In 1586 he discovered the first variable star (Mira, in the constellation Cetus). He was pastor at Resterhaave and Osteel in East Friedland, where he was murdered. His son, Johannes Fabricius (1587–1615), discovered the Sun's spots and its revolution. David Fabricius (March 9, 1564, Esens - May 7, 1617, Osteel) was a German theologian wh…

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David Garnett - Works, Reference

Novelist, born in Brighton, East Sussex, SE England, UK, the son of Edward and Constance Garnett. He studied botany at the Royal College of Science, and after World War 1 started a bookshop in Soho, and became associated with the Bloomsbury Group, to some of whose members he was related. His first book, Lady into Fox (1922), was highly acclaimed, and followed by A Man in the Zoo (1924), The Grassh…

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David Garrick - Early life, Acting at Drury Lane, Managing Drury Lane, An easy, natural manner

Actor, theatre manager, and playwright, born in Hereford, Herefordshire, WC England, UK. His first play was performed at Drury Lane in 1740, and the following year he won acting fame as Richard III. As an actor, Garrick was opposed to the declamatory and elaborate style fashionable at the time, and developed a more natural way of speaking. As a manager he introduced concealed stage lighting and na…

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David Gordon - Publications, Source

Choreographer, born in New York City, USA. He studied painting before he began dancing with James Waring's company in New York City (1958–62). In 1974 he formed his own Pick-Up Company. One of the early postmodernists, he was closely linked with the Judson group of Trisha Brown and Yvonne Rainer. Several of his works are in the repertories of major US and British classical and modern dance compan…

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David Guterson - Bibliography

Writer, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. He was a postgraduate student at the University of Washington. After moving to Bainbridge I in Puget Sound he taught English at a local high school and starting writing for Sports Illustrative and Harpers magazines. His works include a collection of short stories, The Country Ahead of Us, The Country Behind (1996), Family Matters: Why Home Schooling Makes …

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David Hall

US governor, born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. An air-force veteran and lawyer, he served as Tulsa County attorney (1962–6), becoming a University of Tulsa law professor in 1968. As Democratic governor of Oklahoma (1971–5), he reorganized the grand jury system and built new state agency offices. Convicted in 1975 for extortion and bribery while in office, he served a three-year prison senten…

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David Harvey

Geographer, born in Gillingham, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, taught at Bristol University (1961–9), was professor of geography at Johns Hopkins University (1969–86), and professor at Oxford (1987–93), returning to Johns Hopkins as professor of geography and environmental engineering in 1993. He was a founder member of the so-called ‘positivist’ school, and his book, Explanat…

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David Helfgott - Awards

Pianist, born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. After many competition successes as a child, in 1966 he obtained a place at the Royal College of Music, London, where he is remembered for his acclaimed performance of Rachmaninov's third piano concerto in 1969. Following a nervous breakdown, he spent the next few years in psychiatric hospitals in England and Australia. Since leaving institutional c…

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David Hempleman-Adams

British explorer and expedition leader, born in Swindon, Wiltshire, S England, UK. He studied in Manchester and Bristol, and is one of the few British explorers with a non-military background. In 1998, he completed the explorer's ‘Grand Slam’, having reached the North and South Geographic and Magnetic Poles (in 1996) and climbed the highest mountain on each continent, including Mount Everest in …

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David Hilbert - Life, The finiteness theorem, Axiomatization of geometry, The 23 Problems, Formalism, The Göttingen school, Functional analysis

Mathematician, born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He studied at Königsberg and became professor there (1893). He moved to Göttingen in 1895, where he critically examined the foundations of geometry. He made important contributions to the theory of numbers, the theory of invariants and algebraic geometry, and the application of integral equations to physical problems. He late…

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David Hockney - Career, Public

Artist, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He studied at Bradford School of Art and the Royal College of Art, London, and was associated with the Pop Art movement from his earliest work. He taught at the University of California, Los Angeles (1965–7), and it was a visit to California that inspired his ‘swimming pool’ paintings, prompted by his fascination with the representation o…

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David Hume - Life, Legacy, Perspectives of Hume, Works, Further reading, Footnotes and references

Philosopher and historian, born in Edinburgh, EC Scotland, UK. A leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, he studied at Edinburgh, took up law, and in 1734 went to La Flèche in Anjou, where he wrote his masterpiece, A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40), consolidating and extending the empiricist legacy of Locke and Berkeley. His views became widely known only when he wrote two volumes of Es…

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David Ignatow - Life, Bibliography

Poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. He graduated from high school and worked in his family's butcher shop before working in a book bindery that he later owned and managed. From 1932 he was a journalist for the Works Progress Administration (WPA). He began his teaching career at the New School for Social Research (1962–4), and went on to teach at such institutions as Vassar College (1967–…

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David Irving - Early life, Student years, The Destruction of Dresden

Historian, born in Essex, SE England, UK. He studied at University College London, then joined August Thyssen as a steelworker in the Ruhr, Germany (1959), and worked as a clerk with the US Strategic Air Command near Madrid (1960). His Holocaust revisionist agenda began with his best-selling 1977 book, Hitler's War, and was followed by a number of publications including Goebbels; Mastermind of the…

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David J(osiah) Brewer

Judge, born in Smyrna (now Izmir), Turkey. His American missionary parents brought him to the USA at age one. President Benjamin Harrison named him to the US Supreme Court (1890–1910), where he strictly adhered to the limits of federal power as outlined in the US Constitution. David Josiah Brewer, LL.D (January 20, 1837-March 28, 1910), was an American jurist. Brewer read law for one year,…

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David Jayne Hill - Works

College administrator and diplomat, born in Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. As president of Bucknell University (1879–88) and the University of Rochester (1888–95), he increased the endowment of both institutions. He was assistant secretary of state (1898–1902) and ambassador to Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Germany (1903–11), and opposed the League of Nations and the World Court. His best kn…

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David K(ellogg) Lewis - Early Life and Education, Early Work on Convention, Work on Counterfactuals, Later Life and Death

Philosopher, born in Oberlin, Ohio, USA. Receiving a Harvard doctorate (1967), he taught at the University of California, Los Angeles (1966–73) and then at Princeton. He made important contributions to semantics and the philosophy of science. David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) is considered to have been one of the leading analytic philosophers of the latt…

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David Keilin

Biochemist, born in Moscow, Russia. He studied in Warsaw, Liège, and Paris, then spent his career in Cambridge, where he was director of the Molteno Institute from 1931, and professor of biology. His ingenious studies of enzymes and animal pigments led to his major discovery, the pigment cytochrome, which occurs in plant and animal cells and has a key role in biochemical oxidation. David K…

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David Koresh - Early life, Ascent to leadership of the Branch Davidians, Accusations of rape, Return to Earth

Cult leader, born in Texas, USA. He was the charismatic leader of a heavily armed group of Branch Davidians (a sect which had split away from the Seventh Day Adventist Church in 1959) who were put under siege by federal agents at a ranch in Mount Carmel, Waco, TX, between February and April 1993. The siege ended after a devastating fire in which Koresh and many of his followers were killed. …

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David Kossoff

Actor, writer, and illustrator, born in London, UK. He trained as a commercial artist, worked as a technical illustrator, and became an actor in 1943, joining the BBC Repertory Company (1945–51). He became especially known on stage and film for his portrayal of Jewish characters, such as the tailors in Wolf Mankowitz's films A Kid for Two Farthings (1955) and The Bespoke Overcoat (1956), and for …

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David Letterman - Early career, Late Show

Television comedian, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. He studied radio and television at Ball State University (Muncie, IN) (1970 BA), then worked as a television weatherman and radio talk-show host in Indiana before going to New York to write comedy material for several major television comedians and specials. He became well known as a brash guest host for Johnny Carson on the Tonight Show dur…

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David Lewis

Sailor and writer, born in New Zealand. He studied at Leeds University, and practised medicine until the 1960s, when he devoted himself to sailing. In particular, he sought to rediscover the traditional sailing methods of the ancient Polynesians, and to vindicate their reputation as master mariners. He has written numerous books, including We the Navigators (1976) and The Voyaging Stars (1978), an…

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David Livingstone - Early life, Zambezi expedition, Source of the Nile, Illness, pain and death, Legacy

Missionary and explorer, born in Blantyre, South Lanarkshire, WC Scotland, UK. After studying medicine in London, he was ordained under the London Missionary Society in 1840, and the next year arrived in Cape Town to begin exploration in Africa. In 1852–6 he was the first European to discover L Ngami, and the Victoria Falls (1855) of the Zambezi. He was welcomed home as a hero, and published his …

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David Lubin

Agriculturalist, born in Klodowa, C Poland (formerly Russia). His family settled in New York City in 1855. In 1884, on a visit to Palestine, he had a vision that his life should serve justice. He took up the cause of agriculture, and fought the railroads over practices that benefited the middlemen over the growers. In 1896, at the International Agricultural Congress in Budapest, he realized that j…

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David Lynch

Film director, born in Missoula, Montana, USA. He studied at the Corcoran School of Art, Washington, DC, took up painting in Boston and Philadelphia, then studied at the American Film Institute in Los Angeles. His first film, Eraserhead (1977), gained him recognition and a reputation for the bizarre. This was followed by The Elephant Man (1980, BAFTA Best Film) and Blue Velvet (1986), one of the s…

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David Malouf - Books

Novelist, born in Brisbane, Queensland, NE Australia. He studied at Queensland University, teaching there and at Sydney. Previously concentrating on poetry, his first novel was Johnno (1975). He became a full-time writer in 1978, and in 1979 was awarded the New South Wales Premier's Literary Award for An Imaginary Life (1978). Other novels include Fly Away Peter (1982), Harland's Half Acre (1984),…

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David McTaggart

Canadian conservationist. A former businessman, he volunteered to sail his yacht into the French nuclear-testing area in the Pacific on behalf of Greenpeace, a Vancouver-based conservation group, to prevent a nuclear weapon test taking place. He subsequently took an active part in other Greenpeace campaigns, and formed Greenpeace International (1979) as an alliance of national Greenpeace groups. …

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David Mercer - Works

Playwright, born in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He left school at 14, coming back to study painting, then took a degree in fine arts at Durham (1953). After a period as a teacher, he became a full-time writer in the early 1960s. Winner of the 1965 Evening Standard Award for most promising playwright, his stage work includes Ride a Cock Horse (1965) and Cousin Vladimir (1978). His scr…

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David Niven - Biography, Filmography

Actor, born in Kirriemuir, Angus, E Scotland, UK. He trained at Sandhurst Military Academy, served in the army, and had a variety of jobs before he arrived in Hollywood, where he joined the social set led by Errol Flynn and Clark Gable, and worked as an extra in Mutiny on the Bounty (1935). Signed by Samuel Goldwyn, he developed into a polished light comedian and gallant hero in such films as The …

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David Octavius Hill - Early life, Free Church of Scotland, Photography studio, Source

Photographer and painter, born in Perth, Perth and Kinross, E Scotland, UK. In 1843 he was commissioned to paint a commemorative scene of the founding of the Free Church of Scotland, and in order to get accurate details of the many founders, decided to take photographs of them. In this he was helped by the Edinburgh chemist, Robert Adamson, who had experience of the calotype process. The results o…

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David Packard

Electrical engineer, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard (HP), born in Pueblo, Colorado, USA. He and his friend William Hewlett (1913–2001) were fellow-students at Stanford University under Fred Terman, and with his encouragement set up an electronics business in a garage in Palo Alto (1938), manufacturing a wide range of specialized measuring equipment. Their hand-held scientific calculator, the HP-35…

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David Rabe - Works, External Links

Playwright, born in Dubuque, Iowa, USA. After returning from military service in Vietnam, he wrote several plays based on that war, including The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel and Sticks and Bones, both produced in 1971 at the New York Shakespeare Festival. He is best known for his loose trilogy of plays drawing on his experiences as an Army draftee in Vietnam, Sticks and Bones (1969), the…

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David Ricardo - Personal life, Ideas, The Theory of Wages, Publications

Political economist, born in London, UK. He set up in business as a young man, and by 1814 had made a fortune. In 1817 appeared the work on which his reputation chiefly rests, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. The founder, together with Adam Smith, of British classical economics, he made important contributions to the labour theory of value, the theory of rents, and the theory of compa…

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David Rice Atchison - Early life and Senate career, "President for One Day"

US senator, born in Frogtown, Kentucky, USA. Moving to Missouri to practise law, he served briefly as a federal judge (1841–3), and was appointed and then elected to the US Senate (Democrat, Missouri, 1843–55). A supporter of slavery, he helped frame the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). After losing his seat in the Senate, he went back to Missouri and supported those who attacked the anti-slavery set…

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David Rittenhouse - Biography, Notable events, Rittenhouse Square

Instrument maker, inventor, and astronomer, born in Paper Mill Run, Pennsylvania, USA. Largely self-taught, he was a mathematical prodigy and showed a talent for mechanics. By the age of 19 he was an innovative clockmaker, and during his early twenties he was making telescopes, credited with being the first to introduce the use of cross hairs (spider web) in transit telescopes. Using his own instr…

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David Rizzio

Courtier and musician, born in Pancalieri, NW Italy. After travelling to Scotland with the Duke of Savoy's embassy, he entered the service of Mary, Queen of Scots (1561), became her favourite, and was made her French secretary in 1564. He negotiated her marriage with Darnley (1565), who became jealous of his influence, and plotted his death with a group of nobles, including Morton and Ruthven. Riz…

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David Salle

Artist, born in Norman, Oklahoma, USA. The son of Russian immigrants, raised in comfortable circumstances in Wichita, KS, he studied at the California Institute of the Arts and began presenting one-man shows in 1975. His large multi-media paintings, characterized by startling juxtapositions, drew mixed critical reception from the start. He became something of a celebrity during the 1980s. D…

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David Sarnoff - Early years, 1891-1919, Later years, 1956-1971

Broadcast pioneer and executive, born in Uzlian, Russia. He emigrated to New York City with his family at age nine and studied electrical engineering at the Pratt Institute. He gained national recognition in 1912 as a Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co operator by reporting on the sinking of the Titanic and then staying at his station for 72 hours to help direct ships to the sinking liner. When the new…

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David Schwimmer - Early life, Filmography

Actor and director, born in New York City, USA. He studied theatre and speech at Northwestern University, then co-founded Chicago's Lookingglass Theatre Company, where he has directed a number of productions. He played several small roles in television series, eventually becoming well known for his role as Ross Geller in the acclaimed television series Friends (1994–2004). Roles in feature films …

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David Starr Jordan - Notable works, Eponymy

Biologist and educator, born near Gainesville, New York, USA. He was the first president of Stanford University (1891–1913), and as a prominent advocate of world federalism and peace, was president of the World Peace Congress (1915). He formulated ‘Jordan's Law’ on the geographical distribution of species and published widely on biology, education, and peace. David Starr Jordan, Ph.D., L…

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David Susskind - External links

Television, stage, and film producer, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. Forming Talent Associates (1947) to package creative personnel, he produced live television dramas, such as Armstrong Circle Theatre during the 1950s, and Broadway plays, including Rashomon (1959). In 1958 he launched Open End, an issue-oriented panel television programme, and he also produced films including Raisin in th…

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David Thompson

Fur trader and explorer, born in London, UK. Apprenticed to the Hudson's Bay Co of Canada, he spent 13 years working as a fur trader, before becoming a surveyor mapping the Saskatchewan, Hayes, Nelson, and Churchill rivers, and a route to L Athabasca. In 1797 he joined the rival North-West Co, surveying the course of the Columbia R. He settled in Montreal in 1812, and mapped W Canada. There…

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David Trimble - Education and Early Career, Leadership of Ulster Unionist Party, First Minister of Northern Ireland, Death Threats

Northern Ireland politician, born in Bangor, NE Northern Ireland. He studied at Queens University, Belfast, was called to the bar, then became a lecturer at Belfast. He was elected MP for Upper Bann in 1990, and leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in 1995. He came to prominence for his role in the peace negotiations of the mid-1990s, and shared the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize with John Hume for h…

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David Tudor

Pianist and composer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A formidable technician, he gravitated to music on the edge of the avant-garde, and is best known for performing John Cage's music. David Eugene Tudor (January 20, 1926 - August 13, 1996) was an American pianist and composer of experimental music. Tudor was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Tudor also gave early pe…

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David Walker

African-American leader, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, USA. Born a free man in the South, he travelled widely and became greatly concerned over the conditions of his fellow blacks. Moving to Boston (1827), he established a second-hand clothing business. In 1829 he issued Walker's Appeal, an anti-slavery pamphlet that urged slaves to rise up against their oppressors, and slaveholders to repen…

less than 1 minute read

David Walliams - Biography, Career, Personal life, Swimming the English Channel, Selected Filmography, Trivia

Actor and comedian, born in Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied drama at Bristol University, and appeared in many stage productions with the National Youth Theatre, where he met Matt Lucas (1974– ) in 1990. In 1995 they teamed up to take their ‘Sir Bernard Chumley and Friends’ show to the Edinburgh Festival, returning with new Chumley shows in 1996 and 1997, and embarked on a sell-out UK tour in…

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David Wechsler - Biography, Intelligence scales

Psychologist, born in Lespedi, Romania. He studied at the City College of New York and Columbia University (1925), and went on to serve as chief psychologist at Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital (1932–67). He developed the Wechsler–Bellevue Intelligence Scale (1939), devised for testing adult intelligence, and later adapted for children. The tests have been widely used and periodically revised. …

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David Wilmot - Sources

US representative and senator, born in Bethany, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of a prosperous merchant, he was a lawyer and became a congressman (Democrat, Pennsylvania, 1845–51). For an 1846 bill to appropriate money for settling the war with Mexico, he drew up an amendment that would prohibit slavery in any territory acquired by federal funds. Known as the Wilmot Proviso, this amendment was contin…

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Davis Cup - Davis Cup winners, Recent finals

An annual tennis competition for international male teams, first held in 1900, named after the US public official, Dwight Filley Davis (1879–1945), who donated the trophy. It was held on a challenge basis up to 1971, but since then has been an elimination tournament. …

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Davos

46°54N 9°52E, pop (2000e) 11 100. Fashionable summer and winter resort town in Graubünden canton, E Switzerland; in a high valley crossed by the R Landwasser, surrounded by forest-covered mountains, SE of Chur; altitude, 1560 m/5118 ft; railway; noted health resort and winter sports centre; Parsenn ski-run nearby; International Ice Hockey Tournament (Dec). Coordinates: 46°48′N 9°…

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Davy Crockett - Political career, Texas Revolution, Death, Funeral, Legacies, Crockett in media, Trivia

Frontiersman and US representative, born near present-day Rogersville, Tennessee, USA. He was a poor farmer but an excellent hunter and scout, and served under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War (1813–14). He was a justice of the peace and a Tennessee legislator, and served in the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Tennessee, 1827–31; Whig, Tennessee, 1833–5). With little formal educat…

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Dawes Plan - Results of the Dawes Plan

A report on Germany's economic problems issued in 1924 by a committee presided over by US banker Charles Dawes. The plan laid down a schedule of annual German payments of reparations, outlined the reorganization of the German Reichsbank, and recommended a large foreign loan for Germany. German nationalists rejected it as economically too restricting. French and Belgian forces occupying the industr…

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Dawn Fraser - Swimming achievements

Swimmer, born in Balmain, Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. She is the only swimmer to take the same individual title at three consecutive Olympics, winning the 100 m freestyle in 1956, 1960, and 1964. She also won a gold medal in the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay in 1956, totalling eight Olympic medals, the most by an Australian. She took six Commonwealth Games gold medals, and set 27 world…

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Dawn French - Biography, Personal life, Bibliography, Film and television

Comedy writer and actress, born in Holyhead, Anglesey, NW Wales, UK. After leaving school she won a debating scholarship to study in New York City, then attended the Central School of Speech and Drama in London, where she met Jennifer Saunders. They formed a comedy partnership, moving from clubs to theatre and into television, becoming widely known with Girls On Top (1985–6) and French and Saunde…

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Daylight Saving Time - Observation of DST, Rationales for DST, Criticism of DST, Mnemonic, Associated practices, Computing, Name, Hour interchange

A means of making fuller use of the hours of daylight over the summer months, usually by putting clocks forward one hour so that daylight continues longer into the evening. This idea was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin, and later by William Willett, an English builder. Adopted during World War 1 by Germany in 1917, it was retained after the war by the UK, where it is known as (British) Summer …

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Dayton

39º45N 84º12W, pop (2000e) 166 200. Seat of Montgomery Co, W Ohio, USA; at the confluence of the Stillwater and Miami rivers, 75 km/47 mi N of Cincinnati; founded, 1796; birthplace of Irving Babbitt, Orville Wright, Ed Moses, Martin Sheen; two universities (1850, 1964); railway; airfield; aviation and aeronautical research centre; Carillon Historical Park; Dayton Airshow (Jul). Dayton…

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Dazzy Vance

Baseball pitcher, born in Orient, Iowa, USA. During his 16-year career (1915–35), mostly with the Brooklyn Dodgers, he won 197 games and the Most Valuable Player Award in 1924, yet he did not win his first major league game until age 31. A right-hander with an exceptional fastball, he led his league in strikeouts for seven consecutive seasons, a National League record. He was elected to the Baseb…

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DDT - Properties, History, Environmental impact, Impact on human health

A chemical mixture, largely consisting of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. One of the earliest successful insecticides, it has now been largely abandoned both because new strains of insects have developed immunity to it and because its decomposition products are harmful to other organisms, and are not readily decomposed to harmless materials in nature. DDT was the first modern pesticide and…

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deacon - Roman Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Methodism / Wesleyanism, Other Traditions, Cognates

An official of the Christian Church appointed to assist the minister or priest in administrative, pastoral, and financial affairs. The office developed into a third order of ministry after bishops and priests. In the late 20th-c, ecumenical factors revived interest in an order of deacons (the diaconate). In many churches, deaconesses are a separate order of parish assistants. Deacon is a ro…

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Dead Sea

Inland lake in the Great Rift Valley on the Jordan–Israel border; lowest point on Earth, 400 m/1312 ft below sea-level; fed by Jordan R (N), but no outlet; one of the most saline lakes in the world, containing magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium salts; potash and magnesium bromide exploited since 1921; sea level falling because water from the R Jordan used for irrigation and home supply; …

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Dead Sea Scrolls - Interpretations, Discovery, Significance

Parchment scrolls found accidentally in 1947 and 1952–5 concealed in pottery jars in 11 caves near Qumran on the Dead Sea. Many represent books of the Old Testament, 1000 years older than previously known copies. Written mainly in Hebrew and Aramaic, they are thought to represent the library of an ascetic Jewish sect, the Essenes, concealed when their settlement was overrun by the Roman army in A…

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deadly nightshade - Description, Toxicity, Uses, Popular culture

A stout, large-leaved perennial (Atropa belladonna) up to 1·5 m/5 ft high, native to limestone and chalk areas of Europe, W Asia, and N Africa; dull flowers 2·5–3 cm/1–1¼ in, solitary in leaf-axils; tubular, 5-lobed corolla, brownish-violet; berry 1·5–2 cm/0·6–0·8 in diameter, shiny black and cupped by the green sepals. All parts of the plant are narcotic and highly poisonous becau…

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deafness - Categories of deafness and hearing impairment

Inability or reduced capacity to hear external sounds. Conductive deafness is caused by blockage of the entry of sound to the external canal of the ear (eg through wax in ear), or by abnormalities of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) or bones (ossicles) in the middle ear (eg through middle-ear infection). All sounds irrespective of their pitch are heard with difficulty, and if they are sufficiently …

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dean

Originally, in a monastery, a monk in charge of 10 novices. Later, the term denoted a senior clergyman (after the bishop) in a cathedral chapter or diocese. In lay terms, it is used for a head of a university or college faculty. In television and film: In sports: In music: In geography: In politics: In other fields: …

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Dean (Bartlett) Cromwell - Reference

Track and field coach, born in Turner, Oregon, USA. As a track and field coach for the University of Southern California (1909–48), he trained athletes who won gold medals in every Olympiad between 1912 and 1948. …

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Dean (Gooderham) Acheson - Early life and career, Economic diplomacy, "The Attack of the Primitives", Return to private life

US statesman, diplomat, and lawyer, born in Middletown, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Groton School and Yale, and received his law degree from Harvard (1918). He served in the navy during World War 1, then as private secretary to Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis (1919–21). After serving briefly as under-secretary of the treasury under Franklin D Roosevelt (1933), he returned to private prac…

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Dean Dixon

Conductor, born in New York City, New York, USA. As a talented African-American child, he was helped by Eleanor Roosevelt. Although he studied at Juilliard and Columbia University, and founded the American Youth Orchestra in 1944, racial conditions in the USA led him to concentrate on a career in Europe, where he was widely admired. Dean Dixon (January 10, 1915, New York City - November 3, …

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Deanna Durbin - Filmography

Entertainer, born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, C Canada. When the family moved to California, her singing voice attracted the attention of talent scouts and she appeared in the short film Every Sunday (1936), becoming a star with the release of Three Smart Girls (1936). Her adult work included It Started With Eve (1941), Christmas Holiday (1944), and Lady on a Train (1945). She made her last film in 194…

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death - Determining when death actually occurs, Causes

The exact definition of death is controversial, and varies among legal systems, although it can be regarded as the cessation of all vital cellular activity. It is no longer enough to rely solely on criteria such as the absence of heartbeat or respiration, since medical science can sometimes revive people who have temporarily lost these functions. This matter is of particular importance when faced …

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Death Valley - Geography, Native population, In Popular Culture

SE California, USA; ancient rift valley lake bed beside the Nevada border; a deep and arid desert basin; one of the hottest places in the world; contains the lowest point in North America (the Badwater River, altitude ?86 m/?282 ft); 225 km/140 mi long; 6–26 km/3¾–16 mi wide; set in a National Monument, area 8400 km²/3250 sq mi; highest point Telescope Peak (3367 m/11 046 ft); less…

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debenture - Debenture holders, Nomenclature

A loan raised by a company, usually with a fixed interest rate and possibly a definite redemption date. Debenture holders have no control over the company as long as their interest is paid, but if it is not they can take over control. They rank first among owners in the event of liquidation. Convertible debentures carry a right to exchange them for equity at some future date. The advantage …

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Deborah Kerr - Filmography, Oscar nominated performances

Actress, born in Helensburgh, Argyll and Bute, W Scotland, UK. She trained as a dancer, but took up acting and made her film debut in Contraband (1940). Successes in British films The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943) and Black Narcissus (1947) brought her a Hollywood contract. Invariably cast in well-bred, lady-like roles, she played numerous governesses and nuns, sensationally straying from…

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Deborah Sampson - Books:

Revolutionary soldier and lecturer, born in Plympton, Massachusetts, USA. After a youth as a domestic servant and a few months as a teacher, she left town in 1782 to enlist in the American Revolution by disguising herself as a man and adopting the name Robert Shurtleff (or Shirtliff). She concealed her identity while participating in several battles, including one near Tarrytown, NY, where she was…

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Debra Winger - Biography, Academy Awards nominations

Film actress, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. She appeared in the television series Wonder Woman (1976–7) and made her film debut in Slumber Party '57 (1977), but it was the film Urban Cowboy (1980) which launched her film career. She received Oscar nominations for An Officer and a Gentleman (1982) and Terms of Endearment (1985), and her later films include Shadowlands (1993), Forget Paris (1995), …

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Debrecen - Location and transport infrastructure, Education, Famous people, Sister cities

47°33N 21°42E, pop (2000e) 207 000. Capital of Hajdú-Bihar county, E Hungary; economic and cultural centre of the Great Plain; third largest city in Hungary; Kossuth proclaimed independence in the great church, 1849; railway; three universities (1868, 1912, 1951); commercial centre for agricultural region; tobacco, pharmaceuticals, agricultural machinery. Coordinates: 47.52997° 21.639…

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debt - Payment, Types of debt, Accounting debt, Debt, inflation and the exchange rate

Borrowing by individuals, companies, or governments. Interest is normally payable. This may be at fixed rates, or index-linked to a price index, or at ‘floating rates’, ie linked to a fixed margin above some market rate such as LIBOR (London Inter-Bank Offered Rate). Companies with high debts are ‘highly geared’, or ‘highly leveraged’, and face financial difficulties if their profits fall or…

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decadence - Leninist use, Further reading

A state of cultural decline - often in reaction to the rule of morality and order - where intellectual and moral licence is reflected in artistic sophistication and excess. Themes are morbid and perverse; treatment is sensational and self-indulgent. In modern times, it is used of the late 19th-c symbolist movement in France, especially in French poetry. Notable figures who expressed this aesthetic…

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Decadents - Leninist use, Further reading

Specifically, a group of French writers in the late 1880s whose journal La Décadent appeared briefly at that time: the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud, and Mallarmé, and the novelist Huysmans. More generally, any writers exhibiting decadent tendencies, such as Poe in the USA in the 1840s; the poet Swinburne, the playwright Oscar Wilde, and the artist Aubrey Beardsley in England in the 1890s;…

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Decapoda

A large order of mostly marine crustaceans characterized by three pairs of thoracic legs modified as pincers (maxillipeds) for feeding, and five pairs of walking legs; horny covering (carapace) fused along back to form gill chamber above leg bases; contains c.10 000 living species, including crabs, lobsters, and shrimps. (Class: Malacostraca.) …

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decathlon - World Records, Other multiple event contests, Top 10 performers

A multi-event track-and-field discipline for men, consisting of 10 events, held over two consecutive days. The events, in order, are: (first day) 100 m, long jump, shot, high jump, and 400 m, and (second day) 110 m hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin, and 1500 m. Points are awarded in each event based on individual performance. The world record of 9026 points was set by Roman Sebrle of the Cz…

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decibel - History of bels and decibels

Unit of sound level intensity; symbol db; named after Alexander Graham Bell; defined as 10log10 (I/Io), where I is the sound level intensity in question and Io is defined as 10?12W/m2, roughly equal to the faintest audible sound; a decibel is a tenth of a bel. The decibel (dB) is a measure of the ratio between two quantities, and is used in a wide variety of measurements in acoustics, physi…

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Decimus Burton - Regent's Park, Other Burton projects, Death

Architect, born in London, UK. At the age of 23 he planned the Regent's Park colosseum, an exhibition hall with a dome larger than that of St Paul's, and in 1825 designed the new layout of Hyde Park and the triumphal arch at Hyde Park Corner. He designed the Palm House at Kew Gardens (1844–8) with engineer Richard Turner. Decimus Burton (30 September 1800 - 14 December 1881) was a prolific…

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decision support system - Definitions, Taxonomies, Architectures

A computer system designed to provide support to managers when making tactical or strategic business decisions. It makes use of extensive data from both inside and outside the organization, including evidence of the effects of previous related decisions. Decision support systems are a class of computer-based information systems including knowledge based systems that support decision making …

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decision theory - Normative and descriptive decision theory, What kinds of decisions need a theory?, Complex decisions

A set of principles designed to enable an agent to make rational choices of self-interest in situations of uncertainty where there are various options, each of whose probable consequences must be assessed. It is used most often in economics and management studies. Decision theory is an interdisciplinary area of study, related to and of interest to practitioners in all branches of science, e…

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Decius - Early life and rise to power, Political actions, Persecutions of Christians, Military actions and death

Roman emperor, born in Lower Pannonia. He was sent by Emperor Philip the Arab (ruled 244–9) to reduce the rebellious army of Moesia (249). The soldiers proclaimed him emperor against his will, and he defeated and killed Philip near Verona. Decius' brief reign was one of warring with the Goths, and he was killed near Abricium in 251. Under him the Christians were persecuted with great severity. …

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Declaration of Independence - List of Declarations of Independence, Independence without a Declaration of Independence

The document adopted by the Continental Congress in 1776 to proclaim the separation of the 13 colonies in America from Britain. Written mainly by Thomas Jefferson, it announced the right of revolution and detailed the Americans' reasons for the break. The date of its official adoption, July 4, is celebrated as a national holiday. A declaration of independence is a proclamation of th…

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declarative programming - Domain-specific languages, Examples

A way of writing programs for computers in which the relationships between the variables of the program are declared, and the outcome of the program is determined by evaluating those relationships. According to a different definition, a program is "declarative" if it is written in a purely functional programming language, logic programming language, or constraint programming language. The …

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declension

In linguistics, the scheme of inflections for case contrasts in the noun, seen in a well-developed form in inflected languages, such as Greek or Latin. A language may have several declensions classified according to the particular vowels or consonants which figure in the case forms; for example, in Latin there are many nouns where the a vowel is the main feature, as can be seen in puella (‘girl’…

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declination - Varying declination

A co-ordinate which together with right ascension specifies the location of celestial objects on the sky, or celestial sphere. Analogous to latitude, it is measured in degrees, positive to the N of the celestial equator and negative to the S. A celestial object that passes over zenith, has a declination equal to the observer's latitude, with northern latitudes yielding positive declinations…

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decomposition - Plant Decomposition, Animal Decomposition

The breaking down of the complex organic molecules of dead plant and animal matter into simple organic and inorganic molecules which may be recycled as nutrients for primary producers. In natural systems, most decomposition is carried out by bacteria and fungi. The body of a living organism begins to decompose shortly after death. Historically, the progression of decomposition o…

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decompression sickness - History, Predisposing factors, Treatment, Common pressure reductions that cause DCS

An occupational disease which occurs when individuals who have been working under higher than atmospheric pressure, such as in underwater exploration, return to normal atmospheric pressure too quickly. In these circumstances, nitrogen comes out of solution in the blood and tissues and forms tiny bubbles. These cause damage to the tissues, especially if they lodge in small blood vessels and cut off…

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deconstruction - The difficulty in defining deconstruction, Logocentrism and the critique of binary oppositions, Text and deconstruction, Undeconstructibility

An approach to literary criticism, also known as post-structuralism, which takes the insights of structuralism to their logical conclusion (or point of a-logical inconclusiveness) by emphasizing not only the arbitrariness but also the radical instability existing between sign and referent, and therefore the impossibility of ‘meaning’ in any simple sense. Jacques Derrida demonstrated in several b…

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Deep Space Network (DSN) - History, General information, Antennas

A NASA tracking and telecommunications system used to operate interplanetary spacecraft. Stations are located at three widely spaced locations around the world (Goldstone, California; Canberra, Australia; Madrid, Spain) to provide a continuous communications capability in all parts of the Solar System. Each station operates one 70-m/230-ft diameter radio antenna and two 34-m/112-ft antennas, capab…

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deep structure

In grammatical theory, the abstract grammatical relationships which underlie the structure of sentences, and which people use to interpret what is said. At this level of analysis, it is possible to identify the correspondences between such pairs of sentences as statement and question, or negative and positive, or active and passive - for example, the identity of meaning between active voice the do…

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deer - Names, Habitat, Physical Characteristics, Taxonomy, Antlers, Economic significance, Literature

A type of hoofed mammal of families Cervidae (true deer, 36 species), Moschidae (musk deer), and Tragulidae (mouse deer); an artiodactyl; only true deer have antlers; male musk deer and mouse deer have long prominent canine teeth; true deer found worldwide except Africa and Australasia; usually found in or near woodland; male called a stag or buck, female a hind or doe, young a fawn or kid (names …

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defendant

In law, the person who is called on to answer proceedings brought against him or her by some other person, called the plaintiff. In criminal cases the defendant is the accused; in civil cases, the person who is sued. The term defender is used in Scotland to denote the party against whom a civil action is brought. A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint o…

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deforestation - Impact on the Environment, Characterization, Historical causes, Deforestation today, Environmental effects, Controlling deforestation

The removal of forest areas, either to make use of the wood or to clear the land for agricultural, industrial, or urban purposes. In W Europe the first major phase occurred about 5000 years ago with the spread of agriculture in the Neolithic period. Today, huge areas of forest, most of it tropical, are being cleared. In South America the Amazon rainforest, the world's largest, is particularly unde…

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degaussing - Degaussing ships, Degaussing monitors, Degaussing magnetic data storage media

The neutralizing of an object's magnetic field using current-carrying coils to produce an opposing magnetic field of equal strength. The process is applied to ships, to protect them from magnetically activated mines. Degaussing is the process of reducing or eliminating an unwanted magnetic field. Due to magnetic hysteresis it is generally not possible to reduce a magnetic field completely t…

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degree (education)

The award given at the conclusion of a course in higher education. Most countries use the terms Bachelor to denote a first degree, Master to signify a higher degree at postgraduate level, and Doctor for those who have successfully undertaken a significant piece of original research. The doctorate was originally intended as the licence to teach in higher education. Degree may refer to: …

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degree (mathematics) - Degree of a polynomial, Degree of a field extension, Degree of a vertex in a graph

One 360th part of a complete revolution, usually symbolized by °. 90° = 1 right angle. 180° = ? rad; 90° = 100 grad. The degree of a term of a polynomial in one variable is the exponent on the variable in that term; For polynomials in two or more variables, the degree of a term is the sum of the exponents of the variables in the term; Given a field exte…

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dehydration - Medical causes of dehydration in humans, Symptoms and prognosis, Treatment, Avoiding dehydration

Literally, ‘loss of water’; but in medicine, the process of salt depletion as well as water loss. Pure water loss occurs in those who do not or cannot drink water, and results in great thirst and, when severe, mental confusion, and coma. Loss of salt-containing fluids occurs after severe vomiting, diarrhoea, excessive sweating, burns, or excessive urination (as in untreated diabetes mellitus). I…

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deism - Overview, Historical Background, Features of Deism, The History of Deism, Deism Today, Bibliography

Originally, belief in the existence of a god or gods; today, belief in the existence of a supreme being who is the ground and source of reality but who does not intervene or take an active interest in the natural and historical order. It also designates a largely British 17th-c and 18th-c movement of religious thought emphasizing natural religion as opposed to revealed religion, and seeking to est…

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Delariviere Manley - Fiction, Literature, Television and film, Boating, Royalty, Other

Writer, born in Jersey, Channel Is. After her first marriage to Sir Roger Manley (d.1687), she was unsuspectingly lured into a bigamous marriage with her cousin, John Manley of Truro, MP, who soon deserted her. She went to England, where she had success with the publication of her letters. In 1696 she wrote plays, and chronicles disguised as fiction, especially the scandalous anti-Whig The New Ata…

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Delaware - Geography, History, Demographics, Economy, Transportation, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, Miscellaneous topics

pop (2000e) 783 600; area 5296 km²/2045 sq mi. State in E USA, divided into three counties; the ‘First State’, ‘Diamond State’, or ‘Blue Hen State’; the original Swedish settlers were supplanted (1655) by the Dutch, who were in turn supplanted by the British (1664); part of Pennsylvania until 1776; one of the original states and first to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1787; capital, …

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Delaware River - Flooding, New York City Water Supply, Crossings

River in E USA; rises in the Catskill Mts, New York, and empties into Delaware Bay; length 450 km/280 mi; marks part of the state frontiers of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey; navigable to Trenton. The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The Delaware River constitutes in part the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, the entire bo…

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delegated legislation - United Kingdom, United States, Ireland

In the UK, provisions in an act of parliament whereby government ministers, local authorities, or other designated persons may supplement the legal rules in the parent act. The person to whom powers are delegated must operate within the powers conferred by the act; action which goes beyond this may be challenged in the courts. Delegated legislation has the advantage of permitting details to be add…

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Delft - Culture, Education, Recreation, Famous people, Sister Cities

52°01N 4°22E, pop (2000e) 94 000. Ancient city and municipality in W South Holland province, W Netherlands, on the R Schie; famous for linen-weaving (14th-c), pottery and porcelain (16th-c); William the Silent assassinated here, 1584; railway; technical university (1863); vehicles, machines, pharmaceuticals, yeast, alcohol, consumer products, electrical engineering, building materials, paper, …

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Delftware

The Dutch and English version of faience, named after the town of Delft where it was made in large quantities in the 17th-c. Typically blue and white, much of its decoration was copied from Chinese and Japanese porcelain. Delftware, or Delft pottery, is blue and white pottery traditionally made in and around Delft, the Netherlands. Delftware is part of the tin glaze style of pot…

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Delhi - Etymology, History, Geography, Government and politics, Economy, Transport, Demographics, Culture, Education, Media

28°38N 77°17E, pop (2001e) 13 783 000. Capital of India and administrative centre of Delhi union territory, NC India, 1190 km/739 mi NE of Mumbai; second largest city in India; Old Delhi, enclosed within the walls built by Shah Jahan in 1638, on R Yamuna; Mughal architecture and thronged bazaars contrast with formal architecture and wide boulevards of New Delhi to the S, largely designed by…

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Delhi Sultanate - Sultans of Delhi, Literature

The principal N Indian Muslim kingdom between the 13th-c and 16th-c, in which Sultan Iltutmish (1211–36) made his permanent capital at Delhi. It became an imperial power under the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), but its power was much reduced under the Saiyid and Lodi dynasties, and the Sultanate was destroyed by Babur at Panipat in 1526. The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sultanat-e…

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Delia Smith - Chef, author and TV personality, Business and football, Publications

Television chef and writer, born in Woking, Surrey, SE England, UK. She left school aged 16 years and worked as a hairdresser, travel agent, dishwasher, and waitress before learning to cook in a London restaurant. She was a columnist for the Sunday Mirror magazine (1969) and the Evening Standard (1972–84). In 1973 she published her first cookery book, How to Cheat at Cooking, and her popularity i…

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Delian League

The association of Greek city-states under Athenian leadership that was formed after the Persian Wars (478–477 BC) for the continuing defence of the Aegean area against the Persians. It was so called because the treasury of the League was initially on the island of Delos. The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. Because many of …

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Delilah

Biblical character, who at the instigation of the Philistines enticed Samson to reveal the secret of his great strength - his uncut hair, according to his Nazirite vow of separation. She contrived to cut his hair to weaken him (Judges 16). Delilah or Dlila (דְּלִילָה, Standard Hebrew meaning "[One who] weakened or uprooted or impoverished" from the root dal meaning "weak or poor". …

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deliquescence - History, Building physics, Biology, Deliquescence

In chemistry, the state of dissolving gradually after taking up water from the atmosphere. Some salts, such as calcium chloride, will absorb enough water from a damp atmosphere to dissolve in the water absorbed. A hygroscopic substance absorbs water from its surroundings; a deliquescent substance absorbs water from its surroundings, then dissolves in that water. A hygroscopic substance is o…

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delirium - Common usage of the term verses medical usage, Causes, Commonly concuring mental symptoms, Duration, Causation

An acute and reversible alteration of attention and consciousness associated with impaired memory and impaired orientation, usually the result of organic causes. It may incorporate hallucinatory and delusional experiences, as well as restlessness and irritability. In earlier usage, it was a general term referring to madness of any form. Delirium itself is not a disease, but rather a clinica…

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delirium tremens - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Cultural References

A form of delirium which occurs following withdrawal of alcohol from alcoholics. Hallucinations often take the form of a sensation of insects crawling on the skin, or visions of Lilliputian individuals or objects. It is usually associated with other features of alcoholic brain damage, notably tremor of the hands and arms. Delirium tremens (colloquially, the DTs, "the horrors", "the shakes" …

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Dell (Hathaway) Hymes - Influences on his work, Significance of his work

Sociolinguist, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. He studied at Reed College (1950), took a PhD at Indiana University (1955), and taught at Harvard and Berkeley before becoming professor of folklore and linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania (1972). He accepted a professorship of anthropology and English at the University of Virginia in 1987. An authority on the use and functions of language, h…

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Delmore Schwartz - Published works

Poet and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Wisconsin (1931), New York University (1933–5), and Harvard (1935–7). He taught at many institutions, notably Harvard (1941–7), and was the editor of the Partisan Review (1941–55), but he spent his final years as an increasingly erratic and reclusive bohemian and he died of a heart attack while living in a T…

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Delphi - Location, Apollo, Oracle, Treasuries, The "Delphic Sibyl", Modern Delphi

38°29N 22°30E. Village and ancient site in Fokis department, Greece, on the slopes of Mt Parnassos, 176 km/109 mi from Athens; altitude 520–620 m/1706–2034 ft; renowned throughout the ancient Greek world as the sanctuary of Apollo and the seat of his oracle; remains of the temple and precincts were excavated in the 19th-c. Delphi (Greek Δελφοί — Delphoi) is an archaeological…

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delphinium

A tall perennial, native to the N hemisphere; leaves palmately lobed or finely divided; flowers blue, rarely pink or white, each with a conical spur and borne in long showy spikes. A popular garden ornamental, it contains poisonous alkaloids including delphinin. (Genus: Delphinium, 250 species. Family: Ranunculaceae.) …

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