Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 18

Cambridge Encyclopedia

cosmological argument - Origins of the argument, The argument, Counterarguments and objections, Scientific positions

One of the traditional arguments for the existence of God, championed especially by Aquinas. The basic argument is that the existence of the universe cannot be explained by things in the universe, and that there must be one first cause, itself uncaused. The cosmological argument is an argument for the existence of God, traditionally known as an "argument from universal causation," an "argum…

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cosmological constant - Cosmological constant problem

A constant introduced by Einstein into equations of general relativity to give a static model of the universe, later claimed by him to be a mistake; symbol ?; sign unknown; size uncertain, but less than 10?25 kg/m3; often assumed to be zero. In cosmology, the value and sign are related to the expansion or contraction of the universe. The cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek …

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cosmology - Disciplines, Physical cosmology, Metaphysical cosmology, Religious cosmology, Esoteric cosmology

The study of the universe on the largest scales of length and time, particularly the propounding of theories concerning the origin, nature, structure, and evolution of the universe. A cosmology is any model said to represent the observed universe. The currently favoured cosmological model is the ‘big bang’ hypothesis. The study of the origin and mode of formation of various celestial objects is …

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Costa Blanca

The coastal resort regions of Murcia, Alicante, and part of Almería provinces, E Spain; on the Mediterranean coast extending S from Cabo San Antonio to the Punto Almerimar; summer and winter tourism; the name means ‘white coast’. …

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Costa Brava - External links

The Mediterranean coastal resort region of Catalonia, E Spain, between Barcelona and the French border; the name means ‘wild coast’. In the 1950s the Costa Brava was identified by Spain’s Franco government as being suitable for substantial development as a holiday destination, mainly for tourists from Northern Europe and especially the United Kingdom. Whilst part of th…

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Costa del Sol

Mediterranean coastal resort region, Andalusia, S Spain, extending from Punto Almerimar to the most S point in Spain at Tarifa; the name means ‘coast of the sun’. It includes the towns of Málaga, Torremolinos, Benalmádena, Fuengirola, Mijas, Marbella, San Pedro de Alcántara, Vélez-Málaga, Nerja, Torrox, Puerto Banús and Estepona. Settlement in the region dates back to th…

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Costa Rica - History, Geography, Politics, Famous Costa Ricans, Administrative divisions, Economy, Foreign affairs, Flora and fauna, Demographics

Official name Republic of Costa Rica, Span República de Costa Rica Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica, IPA: [re'puβlika ðe 'kosta 'rika]), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the south-southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Costa…

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cotinga

A bird native to the New World tropics; inhabits woodland. Most species eat fruit; some catch insects in flight. (Family: Cotingidae, 65 species.) …

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cotoneaster

A deciduous or evergreen shrub or small tree, native to N temperate regions; variable in size and shape, branches arching, spreading or erect; leaves oval to rounded, often with bright autumn colours; flowers usually in clusters, 5-petalled, white or pink; berries yellow, red, or black. They are widely used as ornamental and amenity plants. (Genus: Cotoneaster, 50 species. Family: Rosaceae.) …

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Cotonou - Transportation and Economy

6°24N 2°31E, pop (2000e) 831 800. Port in Ouémé province, S Benin, W Africa; on a sandspit between the Bight of Benin and L Nokoué; largest city in Benin, and its political and economic centre, though not the official capital; seat of the Presidency, most ministries, the National Assembly, and all embassies; centre for most commercial activities; airport; railway; university (1970); vegetab…

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Cotopaxi - External links and references

0°40S 78°26W. Active Andean volcano in NC Ecuador; 48 km/30 mi S of Quito; height 5896 m/19 344 ft; national park, area 340 km²/131 sq mi established in 1975; llama breeding station and Clirsen satellite tracking station nearby. Cotopaxi is a volcano located about 50 km south of Quito, Ecuador. …

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Cottian Alps - Peaks, Passes

Division of the W Alps in SE France along the French–Italian frontier, from the Alpes Maritimes at Maddalena Pass to the Alpes Graian at Mont Cenis; highest peak, Monte Viso (3851 m/12 634 ft). The chief peaks of the Cottian Alps are: The chief passes of the Cottian Alps are: …

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cotton - Cultivation, Cotton plant, History, Research and promotion, Uses, Pests, Fair trade, Old British cotton yarn measures

The name of both a plant and the fibre it produces. Cotton is related to mallows, hollyhocks, and hibiscus, all members of the mallow family (Malvaceae). They include annuals and perennials, many shrubby and growing up to 6 m/20 ft high, though usually much less in cultivation. The leaves are palmately lobed; the funnel-shaped flowers, up to 5 cm/2 in diameter, with creamy-white, yellow, or re…

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cotton gin - Invention, Operation, Social effects

A machine, reputedly invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney in the USA (a cotton gin was used in 11th-c China), which separated the seeds from the cotton boll quickly and efficiently. It greatly increased productivity, meant that the short staple cotton grown in the USA could be used, and provided a large, cheap supply of raw cotton for the world. The cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easil…

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Cotton Mather - Background, Mather's Major Works By Date, Bibliography, Fiction

Clergyman and writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the son of Increase Mather. He entered Harvard at age 12, graduated when he was 15, was ordained (1685), and held office at Boston's Second Church for the rest of his life (as his father's colleague until 1723). In 1689 he advocated rebellion against the unpopular Sir Edmund Andros with his political writings. He supported the new Massachus…

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coulomb - SI multiples, Conversions

SI unit of electric charge; symbol C; named after Charles Coulomb; defined as the quantity of electricity transported by a current of 1 ampere in 1 second. …

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Coulomb's law

In physics, a law expressing the force F between two electrical charges p and q separated by a distance d as , where ?o is the permittivity of free space, 8·854 × 10?12C2/(N.m2); stated by Charles Coulomb in 1785. The direction of force is along the line joining the charges, and is repulsive for like charges, attractive for opposite charges. In physics, Coulomb's law is an inverse-squar…

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council

A political body appointed or elected to perform specific functions or provide services, whose powers may be advisory or executive. It may be locally, nationally, or internationally based; for example, at local level, county and district councils exist in England and Wales, while Scotland has only district councils. Civic or civil use: Ecclesiastical use: Internation…

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Council of Europe - Founding, Aims, Institutions, Symbols, Membership

A loose association now including most of the states of Europe, established in 1949. Membership was originally limited to Western Europe (including Scandinavia), but since the collapse of communism (1991) it has been extended to Central and Eastern Europe, including Russia. The Council's institutions include a Committee of Ministers and a representative at the parliamentary assembly, whose role is…

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count (textiles) - Equivalents

In spinning, a numerical system indicating the fineness of yarn. The tex unit (from textile), is the weight mass in grams of one kilometre of yarn, and is gradually replacing older systems such as ‘cotton count’ and ‘denier’. Apart from all these, a few unusual titles have been of comital rank, not necessarily to remain there. after the 16th century all new peerages were always duchies …

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Count Basie - Early life, Legacy

Jazz musician, born in Red Bank, New Jersey, USA. He received his first piano lessons at age six from his mother, and worked as an accompanist to silent films while still in high school. He studied organ informally with Fats Waller, whom he replaced in a New York vaudeville act called Katie Crippin and Her Kids. During 1924–7 he toured on the Keith Circuit with the Gonzelle White vaudeville show …

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Count

Poet, born in New York City, USA. Raised by foster parents, he studied at New York University (1925 BA) and Harvard (1926 MA). Having achieved some recognition for his poetry while still a student, as an African-American he was regarded as contributing to the so-called Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, but his particular style, as seen in such works as Color (1925) and Copper Sun (1927), was more d…

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Counter-Reformation - The Council of Trent, Reform, The orders, Spiritual Movements, Church music

A general movement of reform and missionary activity in the Roman Catholic Church from the mid 16th-c, stimulated in part by the Protestant Reformation. It included the revival of the monastic movement (eg Capuchins, 1528; Oratorians, 1575), especially the creation of the Jesuit Order. It provided for the enforcement of disciplinary measures by the Roman Inquisition; its doctrinal formulations wer…

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counterpoint - General principles, Development, Species counterpoint, Contrapuntal derivations, Dissonant counterpoint, Counterpoint in American Popular Music, In literature

In music, the simultaneous combination of two or more melodic strands; distinct from ‘harmony’, which implies (in general terms) a chordal texture accompanying one or more melodic lines. In invertible counterpoint, any of the melodic strands can form a satisfactory bass line for the others. In music, counterpoint is a texture involving the simultaneous sounding of separate melodies or lin…

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countertenor - The Countertenor Voice, List of Countertenors

The falsetto voice of the adult male, trained and developed to sing alto parts, especially in sacred polyphony. The revival of interest in the countertenor as a solo voice has been largely due to the artistry of Alfred Deller. A countertenor is an adult male whose voice is comparable to the female vocal ranges, alto, mezzo and Soprano (also known as a Sopranist). This voice is achieved eith…

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Selina Hastings Countess of Huntingdon

Methodist leader, born in Staunton Harold, Leicestershire, C England, UK. In 1728 she married the Earl of Huntingdon, but was widowed in 1746. Joining the Methodists in 1739, she made Whitefield her chaplain, and assumed a leadership among his followers, who became known as ‘the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion.’ She built a training school for ministers, and many chapels. Shirley is th…

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Edwina (Cynthia Annette) Mountbatten Countess of Mountbatten

Wife of Louis, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, whom she married in 1922. She rendered distinguished service during the London blitz (1940–2) to the Red Cross and St John Ambulance Brigade, of which she became superintendent-in-chief in 1942. As Vicereine of India (1947), her work in social welfare brought her the friendship of Gandhi and Nehru. She died suddenly on an official tour of Borneo for the S…

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country dance - Types, Instruments, Locations, Media, Present

Historic social dances based on John Playford's The English Dancing Master (1651). They spread across Europe, taught by travelling dancing masters, adding 19th-c forms such as the waltz, quadrille, and polka. The emphasis was on spatial design, with couples in long or circular sets, using simple walking steps. Their decline is associated with the Industrial Revolution and the growth of towns. In a…

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Country Women's Association (CWA)

Australia's largest and oldest women's organization. Based on Canadian (1890s) and British examples (1913), the CWA began in New South Wales and spread to the other States. Non-sectarian and non-political, its aims are to improve welfare of rural women and children. Its many achievements include rest rooms and baby health centres in country towns. The CWA is represented at three-yearly conferences…

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county council - British Isles, United States

The body elected to carry out such responsibilities as may be statutorily determined, within a defined geographical boundary. In areas of England and Wales without all-purpose local authorities, it is the higher in a two-tier local government system whose powers are delegated by parliament. Actions beyond these powers may be declared by the courts to be ultra vires (outside its authority). …

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County Court - England and Wales, Australia

A court system of England and Wales, concerned with civil disputes, established in 1846. The County Courts deal with cases of contract and tort, landlord and tenant disputes, and matrimonial cases (including divorce) also come within its jurisdiction, as does the relatively informal small-claims procedure, where the sum in dispute generally does not exceed £1000. The County Court ranks lower in t…

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courante

A Baroque dance in triple metre; it became a standard movement of the instrumental suite. The courante, corrente, coranto and corant are just some of the names given to a family of triple metre dances from the late Renaissance and the Baroque era. Modern usage will sometimes use the different spellings to distinguish types of courante (Italian spelling for the Italian dance etc.), but…

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Courbevoie

48º54N 2º15E, pop (2002e) 69 000. Industrial and residential NW suburb of Paris, Hauts-de-Seine department, NC France; birthplace of Michel Blanc; petrol products, ceramic fibres, food and dietary products. …

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coursing

A blood sport involving greyhounds, which seek out their prey by sight and not scent. The dogs pursue in pairs, as opposed to being in packs, and the performance of one dog against another is judged. The most popular coursing event is the Waterloo Cup at Altcar, near Formby, Merseyside. First held in 1836, it takes its name from the nearby Waterloo Hotel. Animals coursed include hares, rabb…

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Court of Session - The Outer House, The Inner House

The supreme civil court in Scotland, which sits in Edinburgh, and which deals primarily with civil appeals and some civil trials. It has an Outer House and a more senior Inner House, headed by the Lord President, Scotland's senior judge. Appeal lies to the House of Lords on matters of law. The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. It is both a court of first instance and …

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Courteney Cox (Arquette) - Career, Private life, Filmography, Television work

Actress, born in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. She studied architecture for a year at Mount Vernon College, became a model in New York City, then took a range of parts in films and television, and became well known through her role as Monica Geller in the acclaimed television series Friends (1994–2004). Roles in feature films began with Down Twisted (1986), and include Ace Ventura: Pet Detective (199…

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courtly love - Background, Stages of Courtly Love, Further reading

The conception of an ideal and exalted relation between the sexes, which developed in the West in mediaeval times from sources as various as Plato's Phaedrus, Ovid's Ars Amatoria, and the cult of the Virgin Mary. Before the 12th-c women were for the most part considered inferior to men, but courtly love idealized women, placing them on a pedestal, and the lover's feelings for his mistress were sup…

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Courtney (Hicks) Hodges - Early life and military career, World War I and postwar years, World War II

US soldier, born in Perry, Georgia, USA. The son of a newspaperman, he enlisted in the US Army (1906), received a commission (1909), and served with great distinction in World War 1. During the next two decades he rose in rank as he moved up through the standard staff and command posts. In World War 2 he took command of the US First Army from General Omar Bradley and led it across France to the li…

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covariance - Properties, Covariance matrices

A term describing mathematical equations whose form is identical in different co-ordinate systems; also called form invariance. It is an essential property of the equations of theories of gravitation and nuclear forces. In probability theory and statistics, the covariance between two real-valued random variables X and Y, with expected values E(X) = μ and E(Y) = ν is defined as: …

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covenant (law) - Historical Covenants, Legal Covenants

A term used in certain legal systems (eg in England and Wales, but not in Scotland) for a written document under seal; also known as a deed. It contains a promise to act in a certain way, which is signed, sealed, and takes effect on delivery (in the USA, the requirement of seal is now largely abolished). A transfer of property may be made by deed. In England and Wales, most documents transferring …

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covenant (scripture) - Historical Covenants, Legal Covenants

In the Hebrew Scriptures, the agreement between God and his chosen people which was the basis of Jewish religion; especially identified with the giving of the law to Moses on Mt Sinai, but preceded by covenants with Noah and Abraham. Some New Testament writers portray the death of Jesus as a ‘new covenant’. More specifically, a covenant, in contrast to a contract, is a one-way agreement w…

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Covent Garden - Other information

A square in C London, UK, known for the fruit and vegetable market that operated there for nearly three centuries; it also gives its name to the Royal Opera House close by. Once the garden of a convent in Westminster, the site was developed in the 17th-c. It was initially a fashionable area, but with the growth of the market wealthy families moved away, and cheap coffee houses and lodging houses s…

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Coventry - Places of interest, Venues, Sport, Famous Coventrians, Transport, Waste management, Politics

52°25N 1°30W, pop (2001e) 300 800. Modern industrial city in West Midlands, C England, UK; 150 km/93 mi NW of London; Benedictine priory founded in 1043, around which the town grew; important centre of clothing manufacture from 17th-c; University of Warwick (1965); Coventry University (1992, formerly Polytechnic); railway; vehicles, machine tools, agricultural machinery, telecommunications e…

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Coventry (Kersey Dighton) Patmore - Trivia

Poet, born in Woodford, Essex, SE England, UK. He was assistant librarian at the British Museum, and associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His major work, The Angel in the House (1854–62), describing married love, was followed by the death of his wife Emily in 1862, and his conversion to Catholicism under the influence of Marianne, who became his second wife. Thereafter he wrote mainly …

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cover crop - Soil Fertility Management, Soil Quality Management, Water Management, Weed Management, Disease Management, Pest Management

A crop which protects the crop planted beneath it. Cereals are often used as a cover crop for newly sown grass and clover seeds. The term may also refer to crops, such as kale, which provide cover for game birds. Broadly defined, a cover crop is any annual, biennial, or perennial plant grown as a monoculture (one crop type grown together) or polyculture (multiple crop types grown together),…

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cow parsley

A biennial or perennial (Anthriscus sylvestris), growing to 1·5 m/5 ft, native to Europe, temperate Asia, and N Africa; stems hollow, grooved; leaves divided, leaflets with toothed oval segments; flowers small, white, in umbels 2–6 cm/¾–2½ in across; fruit 7–10 mm/0·28–0·39 in, smooth; also called Queen Anne's lace and keck. It is often the most common and early flowering of the umb…

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cowbird

A strong-billed bird, native to the Americas; eats seeds and insects; may seek food by using bill to lift stones or cow dung. Few species build nests; most lay eggs in the nests of unrelated birds. (Family: Icteridae, 7 species.) Cowbirds are birds belonging to the genus Molothrus in the family Icteridae. The genus Molothrus includes: It excludes the non-brood parasi…

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Cowes - Transport Links, History, Famous residents, Quotes and jokes

50°45N 1°18W, pop (2000e) 17 500. Town in the Isle of Wight, S England, UK; on R Medina estuary; a notable yachting centre; ferries and hydrofoil to Southampton; boat and hydrofoil building, radar, tourism; Osborne House (East Cowes), summer residence of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; Cowes Castle, built by Henry VIII (1543), home of the Royal Yacht Squadron; Cowes Week (Aug). Cowes …

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coyote - Anatomy, Behavior, Character in mythology

A member of the dog family (Canis latrans), native to North and Central America; inhabits grassland and open woodland; eats hares, rodents, other animals, berries; also known as prairie wolf, barking wolf, little wolf, or (in fur trade) cased wolf. Coyotes have been subject to bounties, and are still often hunted by ranchers and farmers. The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning "barking dog") als…

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crab

A typically marine crustacean with a front pair of legs specialized as pincers (chelipeds) and used for food capture, signalling, and fighting; usually walks sideways, using four pairs of walking legs; also capable of swimming; body broad, flattened, with a hard outer covering (carapace); abdomen permanently tucked up beneath body; eyes usually movable on stalks; some species terrestrial, some fou…

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Crab nebula - Origins, Physical conditions, Central star, Transits by solar system bodies

The remnant of a star seen by Chinese astronomers to explode spectacularly on 4 July 1054 (unrecorded in the West). The nebula itself was named in 1848 by the 3rd Earl of Rosse. Photographs show a tangled web of filaments threading a luminous nebula. The explosion which triggered the nebula was a supernova, which expelled its outer layers and left a dense neutron star at the centre, now observed a…

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crack

The free base of cocaine, produced by mixing with baking powder and water. The cocaine hardens to white cinder chunks which can be smoked in a small pipe. The effect is immediate. This form of cocaine is held to be extremely addictive. Crack may refer to: …

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Craig (Anthony) Raine

Poet, born in Shildon, Co Durham, NE England, UK. He studied at Oxford University and lectured there before becoming poetry editor at Faber and Faber (1981–91). He published his first book, The Onion, Memory, in 1978. Later books include Rich (1984), Selected Poetry (1992), Clay: Whereabouts Unknown (1996), Collected Poems (1999), and A la recherche du temps perdu (2000). He also wrote the libret…

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Craig Claiborne - Personal life, The $4000 Meal, Books, Quote

Chef and writer, born in Sunflower, Mississippi, USA. A lover of food, accomplished cook, and trained journalist, he became food editor of the New York Times in 1957, and his stylish but impartial restaurant reviews set a new standard for food reporting. His cookbooks include the best-selling New York Times Cook Book (1961) and Craig Claiborne's Southern Cooking (1987). Craig Claiborne (Sep…

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cramp - Causes and treatment, Nocturnal leg cramps, Smooth muscle, Skeletal muscle

The involuntary spasm of a muscle, or a group of skeletal muscles, which causes pain. Cramp tends to occur in the elderly and in pregnancy. The calf muscles are particularly affected. Cramps are unpleasant sensations caused by contraction, usually of muscles. see Delayed onset muscle soreness There are two basic causes of cramping. Cramps from poor oxygenation can be improved by…

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cranberry - Etymology and history, Cultivation and uses, Marketing and economics, Nutrition

A dwarf, creeping, evergreen shrub (Vaccinium oxycoccos), native to N temperate regions on boggy, acid soils; stems very slender, rooting; leaves 4–8 mm/0·15–0·3 in, oblong-oval, pointed, bluish beneath, margins inrolled; flowers on long, slender stalks, 5–6 mm/0·2–0·25 in, pink, four petals, curling backwards; berry round or pear-shaped, red- or brown-spotted, edible. (Family: Ericace…

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crane (engineering)

A machine which can lift and position loads. It essentially consists of an arm (or jib) carrying a pulley, attached to a post round which it can rotate, and with a rope which can be wound round a barrel. In antiquity, cranes might lift 5 tons, and be worked by a treadmill. Steam cranes in the later 1800s could often lift 20 tons, and some very large floating cranes now can lift 200 tons. They are …

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crane (ornithology)

A long-legged, long-necked bird, height 0·6–1·5 m/2–5 ft; worldwide except South America, New Zealand, and the Pacific; adult usually with head partly naked; inhabits flat wetlands and wet plains; eats small animals, grain, and other plant material. (Family: Gruidae, 15 species.) Crane or cranes may be: Crane may be a surname: see Crane (surname) Of a fictional…

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cranesbill

An annual or perennial of the genus Geranium, native to temperate regions; leaves with lobes radiating from central point; flowers usually white to purple or blue, 5-petalled; fruit with long beak resembling a bird's bill, exploding when ripe, the beak of each seed rolling up and flicking seed away; many of the so-called geraniums of horticulture belong to the genus Pelargonium. (Genus: Geranium, …

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craps - The basic game, Types of craps bets, Odds, Optimal betting, Systems

A casino dice game of American origin, adapted from the game hazard by Bernard de Mandeville in New Orleans in 1813. Using two dice, a player loses throwing on the first roll 2, 3, or 12 (craps), but wins with 7 or 11. If the player's first throw makes 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10, this number is called the point; the player then continues to throw until the same number is rolled again (making the point),…

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Crater Lake (USA)

Circular crater lake in SW Oregon, USA, in the Cascade Range; 9·5 km/6 mi across; area 52 km²/20 sq mi; 604 m/1982 ft deep; altitude 1879 m/6165 ft; in a large pit formed by the destruction of the summit of a prehistoric volcano. A crater lake is a lake that forms in volcanic calderas or craters after the volcano has been inactive for some time. Some crater lakes are acidic, howev…

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Cratinus

Greek comic poet. Next to Aristophanes, he best represents the Old Attic comedy. He limited the number of actors to three, and was the first to add to comedy the interest of biting personal attack. Of his 21 comedies, only some fragments are extant. A younger Cratinus, a contemporary of Plato, belonged to the Middle Comedy. Cratinus (Greek Κράτινος, ca. Cratinus was vict…

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Crawford (Williamson) Long

Surgeon and anaesthetist, born in Danielsville, Georgia, USA. Practising in rural Georgia, he was the first doctor to use sulphuric ether as an anesthetic in an operation (1842), when he was removing a tumour from a patient's neck. Although he operated several more times with ether before 1846, he was apparently unaware of its full significance, and did not publish a description of his procedure u…

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crayfish

A typically freshwater, lobster-like crustacean with a well-developed abdomen and front pair of legs modified as powerful pincers (chelipeds); many species exploited commercially for food. (Class: Malacostraca. Order: Decapoda.) …

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Crazy Horse - Early life, Little Bighorn Campaign, Final years, Controversy over his death, Crazy Horse Memorial, Photo Controversy

Oglala Sioux chief, born near the Black Hills, present-day South Dakota, USA. His mother was a sister of Brulé Chief Spotted Tail and his father was an Oglala medicine man who often spoke of the need for a leader to unite the Sioux and drive out the whites. As a youth, Crazy Horse was solitary and meditative (the Sioux called him ‘Strange One’) but also an accomplished hunter and fighter. He fo…

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creacionismo

An avant-garde movement which appeared almost simultaneously in France (Pierre Reverdy) and in the Spanish-speaking world (Vicente Huidobro) c.1916. Besides Huidobro, the main practitioners of creacionismo have been Gerardo Diego and Juan Larrea. The movement initiated a renewal of poetic vocabulary, and its enrichment by more daring juxtapositions of images and metaphors, arising out of the poet'…

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creationism - Overview, Political context, History of the concept of creation, Types of creationism, Jewish creationism

Originally, the belief that God creates a soul for each human individual at conception or birth. It is now commonly applied to the belief that the Genesis account of creation in the Bible accurately describes the origins of the world and humanity. It is opposed to the theory of evolution, and some evangelical conservative Christians claim there is scientific evidence to support creationism, though…

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credibility

An element in strategic defence strategies, in particular deterrence, originating in the USA. It was designed to demonstrate to the East that the West had a sufficient number of accurate and dependable weapons which it would be prepared to use in the event of a first strike by the other side. In public speaking, Aristotle considered the credibility of the speaker, his character, to be one o…

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credit card - How they work, Features, Security, Profits and losses, Neutral consumer resources, History, Controversy, Credit card numbering

A plastic card which is used instead of cash or cheque to pay for goods or services. Card holders present their card when making a payment. The credit-card company sends a statement of account monthly to each account holder, listing their purchases and showing the sum of money owed. If the statement is settled in full by a specified date, no interest is payable. The best-known companies are Visa, …

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credit insurance - History

An insurance taken out where a business sells on credit terms (ie asks for payment at a later date). In this way the insurer provides a safeguard against the possibility of a customer not paying, thus creating a ‘bad debt’. Trade Credit Insurance is purchased by business entities to insure their accounts receivable from loss due to the insolvency of the debtors or other factors. Ironicall…

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credit rating - Personal credit ratings, Corporate credit ratings, Sovereign credit ratings, Credit rating agencies

A system used to assess the ability of a company (or individual) to pay for goods and services, or the ability to borrow and repay. Some rating firms suggest a maximum amount of credit to be allowed. Popular rating systems in the USA are Moody, Standard and Poor, and Dun & Bradstreet. All companies are assigned a rating code: the highest is AAA, next is AA, and so on. A credit rating assess…

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credit union - Membership restrictions, Credit Union Leagues and Associations, Corporate credit unions, History, North American statistics

A co-operative venture where members save together and lend to each other, mainly short-term consumer loans. The system is popular in North America, where there are some 50 000 credit unions. A credit union differs from a traditional financial institution (banks, savings and loan, etc.) in that the members who have accounts in the credit union are the credit union's owners. The lower…

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Cree - The Cree in Canada, Cree beliefs, Cree facts, A brief timeline of the James Bay Cree

A North American Algonkin Indian group from the Canadian Subarctic region, originally hunters and fishermen. With guns acquired from French fur traders in the 17th-c, they began to expand: one group, the Plains Cree, moved W, adopting the culture of the Plains Indian; the Woodland Cree remained in forested areas, where they continued to hunt. The Cree are an indigenous people of North Ameri…

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cremation - Cremation process, Ways of keeping or disposing of the cremated remains, History, Reasons for choosing cremation

Burning the remains of a dead person. The practice was recorded in ancient Greece for soldiers killed in battle, and was later adopted by the Romans. Discouraged in the past by Christians because of its pagan associations, it is the regular form of disposal by Hindus. Today cremation is becoming more common in many countries, because of lack of space in cemeteries. Cremation is the practice…

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Cremona - History, Economy, Music, Sport, Main monuments, Notable people born in Cremona

45º08N 10º01E, pop (2001e) 71 600. Capital town of Cremona province, Lombardy region, N Italy; on the N bank of the R Po; an inland port on the Milan-Po Canal; noted for the violin makers who worked here during the 16th–18th-c, including Amati, Guarnieri, Stradivari; birthplace of Giulio Campi, Claudio Monteverdi, Stradivari; railway; cathedral in Lombard Gothic style (1107–90), Gothic town …

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creole - Creoles and Patois

A pidgin language which has become the mother-tongue of a speech community, as has happened with Jamaican creole. A creole develops a wider range of words, grammatical structures, and styles than is found in a pidgin. The word Creole, a word of Spanish origin which came into English from French between 1595 and 1605, (and its cognates in other languages, such as criollo, crioulo, cré…

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creosote - Wood creosote, Coal tar creosote

A fraction of coal tar, boiling point c.250°C, containing a variety of toxic aromatic compounds giving it strong antiseptic and preservative properties. Creosote is the name used for a variety of products: wood creosote, coal tar creosote, coal tar, coal tar pitch, and coal tar pitch volatiles. Wood creosote is a colorless to yellowish greasy liquid with a smoky odor and burned…

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cresol

(CH3)C6H4(OH), three isomeric compounds: 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxytoluene, oils with boiling point c.200°C. They are ingredients of coal tar, and are important raw materials for plastics. …

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Cressida

In mediaeval accounts of the Trojan War, the daughter of Calchas, a Trojan priest; probably the story was a misunderstanding of Calchas and Chryseis in the Iliad. Beloved by Troilus, a Trojan prince, she deserted him for Diomedes when transferred to the Greek camp. Cressida is a character who appears in many Medieval and Renaissance retellings of the story of the Trojan War. She is a Trojan…

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crested tit

A small bird (Parus cristatus), native to Europe and E to the Urals; inhabits coniferous and mixed woodlands; often found with coal tits. (Family: Paridae.) …

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Crete - History, Geography, Climate, Economy, Famous Cretans, Cities, Political organization, Tourism

pop (2000e) 561 000; area 8336 km²/3218 sq mi. Island region of Greece, in the Mediterranean Sea, S of the Cyclades island group; length 256 km/159 mi; width 14–60 km/9–37 mi; largest of the Greek islands and fifth largest in the Mediterranean; White Mts (W) rise to 2452 m/8044 ft; Idhi Oros (C) rise to the highest point of the island, Psiloritis (2456 m/8058 ft); N coastline deepl…

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cretinism - Etymology and usage of the term, Cretinism due to congenital hypothyroidism, History, Parliamentary cretinism

A condition affecting children who suffer from inadequate production of thyroid hormones (thyroxine). The thyroid gland is enlarged in some forms only. There is failure of normal growth and development, with short stature, puffiness of the skin, notably of the face, enlarged tongue, hairloss, and mental deficiency. Infants can be screened shortly after birth to ensure they are producing adequate t…

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Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease - Causes, Incidence and prevalence, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), Treatment, Transmission

A prion disease involving degeneration of the nervous system; named after German neuropathologists Heinz Creutzfeldt and Andreas Jakob. Hereditary and sporadic cases have been documented since the 1920s, characterized by an onset between 45 and 60 years of age, and neurological symptoms including dementia, problems with speech and balance, abnormal movements, and paralysis. There are typical elect…

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cribbage - Tactics, Statistics

A card game popular in public houses in the UK, played by two, three, or four people with a standard pack of 52 cards and a holed board known as the cribbage board or peg board. The number of cards dealt to each player varies according to the number of players, but will be five, six, or seven. Cards are discarded into a dummy hand, which each player has in turn. Points are scored according to card…

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cricket (entomology) - Objective and results, Laws of cricket, Forms of cricket, International structure

A large, grasshopper-like insect; forewings box-like and bent down round sides of body; female egg-laying tube (ovipositor) cylindrical; many species have a well-developed sound-producing mechanism for auditory communication; c.2000 species, including some pests. (Order: Orthoptera. Family: Gryllidae.) Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. A player from th…

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cricket (sport) - Objective and results, Laws of cricket, Forms of cricket, International structure

A bat-and-ball team game of 11-a-side. A wicket consisting of three stumps surmounted by a pair of bails is placed at each end of a grassy pitch 22 yd (2 1 m) in length. Each team takes it in turn to bat and bowl. The aim of the batting team is to defend the two wickets while trying to score as many runs as possible before being dismissed. Each member of the team must bat, and two batsmen (or, i…

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Crime Writers' Association - Other awards

A British literary association open to all published writers who write about crime - fiction or non-fiction - with the aim of promoting the prestige and appreciation of crime writing. The first meeting was convened by John Creasey in 1953, and past chairs include HRF Keating, PD James, Lady Antonia Fraser, Dick Francis, and Ian Rankin. Annual awards include the categories of Gold Dagger for the be…

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Crimea - Etymology of the name, History, Government and politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics

area 25 900 km²/10 000 sq mi. Peninsula in S Ukraine; bounded S and W by the Black Sea, and E by the Sea of Azov; separated from the mainland (N) by the narrow Perekop Isthmus, and from the Taman Peninsula (E) by the Kersh Strait; length 320 km/200 mi; Greek colonization, 7th-c BC; invaded by Goths (AD 250), Huns (373), Khazars (8th-c), Byzantine Greeks (1016), Kipchaks (1050), Tatars (13t…

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Crimean War - Buildup to war, The Crimean War begins, Characteristics of the war, Major events of the war

(1854–6) A war fought in the Crimean peninsula by Britain, France, Turkey, Piedmont, and Austria against Russia, whose origins lay in Russian successes against the Turks in the Black Sea area, and the British and French desire to prevent further westward expansion by the Russians, which threatened the Mediterranean and overland routes to India. Major battles were fought in 1854 at the R Alma (20 …

1 minute read

criminal law - Origins of criminal law, Functions of criminal law, Criminal law in the United States

A branch of law which deals with offences against society generally. A crime may also constitute a breach of the civil law. Investigation of breaches of the criminal law is generally the responsibility of the police. The responsibility for prosecution varies between jurisdictions: for example, in England and Wales, it belongs to the Director of Public Prosecutions and the Crown Prosecution Service…

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criminology - Schools of thought, Theories of crime, Types and definitions of crime

The scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, including its causes, prevention, types, consequences, and punishment, and its relationship to other forms of deviant behaviour such as alcohol addiction or drug abuse. It emerged during the 19th-c as part of a humanizing movement in which people tried to understand the nature of crime and to devise more effective methods of deterrence and trea…

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crinoid - Aliases

A primitive marine invertebrate (echinoderm), typically attached to the sea bed by a long stalk; occasionally base-attached (sessile) or free-swimming; mouth and arms on upper surface; most feed on suspended particles transported to the mouth via food grooves on arms; long fossil record; c.650 living species found from shallow waters to deep sea; also known as sea lilies and feather stars. (Phylum…

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crisis management - In management

A term first employed by Robert McNamara shortly after the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. It implies, given the limited availability of information about other actors, and their unpredictability, that long-term strategic planning cannot provide the basis for action. Crises between states can be resolved only by managing them as they arise. Crisis management involves identifying a crisis, planni…

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Crispus Attucks - What is known, Clues that may be relevant, His legend, His Legacy

Revolutionary figure, birthplace unknown. Little or nothing is known for sure of his exact origins, but it is generally believed that he was a mulatto, and that he was either an escaped or freed slave. (In 1750 a notice for a runaway slave named ‘Crispus’ appeared in a Boston newspaper.) He may have been a sailor on a whaling ship or at least he worked around the Boston wharfs. He was later desc…

1 minute read

criterion-referenced test - Alternative views

A test which requires the candidate to meet a set of criteria, as opposed to a norm-referenced test which simply ranks students alongside others. Thus a criterion-referenced test in mathematics might list for each grade what a student must do to obtain that grade, eg be able to convert a fraction to a decimal, or multiply two three-digit numbers. A criterion-referenced test is one that prov…

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Critias

Athenian orator and politician, a pupil of Socrates. In 411 BC he took part in the oligarchical revolution that set up the government of Four Hundred. Exiled in 406 BC, he returned two years later, and as a strong supporter of Sparta became one of the Thirty Tyrants set up by the Spartans after their defeat of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC). He had a high reputation as an…

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critical mass - Critical mass of a bare sphere

The smallest mass of material of a given type and formed into a given shape able to sustain a nuclear-fission chain reaction. For a mass of material greater than the critical mass, large amounts of energy are released via the fission-chain reaction in a small fraction of a second. For a sphere of uranium-235, the critical mass is 52 kg/114·6 lb, corresponding to a radius of 8·7 cm/3·4 in. …

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critical phenomena - The critical point of the 2D Ising model, Divergences at the critical point

The physical properties of systems at their critical points, ie at the temperature where the distinction between two phases vanishes. They are typified by dramatic changes in the parameters used to describe the system; for example, the spontaneous magnetization of iron is reduced to zero when its temperature is raised beyond the critical temperature (the Curie point). Critical phenomena are observ…

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Crittenden Compromise - Summary of the Compromise

(1860) In the months preceding the American Civil War, an attempt by Senator John J Crittenden of Kentucky to resolve the crisis between North and South by formally recognizing slavery in territories S of 36º30. This proved unacceptable to Abraham Lincoln, whose election as president was causing secession by the slave-holding South. The compromise was popular among Southern delegates in th…

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Croatia - History of Croatia, Politics, Administrative divisions, Economy, Culture

Official name Republic of Croatia, Serbo-Croatian Republika Hrvatska Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatska listen?(help·info)), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country in Europe at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. A tribe of Croats came to the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia in the 7th century and was ultima…

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crocodile - Appearance and physical traits, Biology and Behaviour, Crocodile blood, Crocodile as food, Trivia, In popular culture

A reptile native to tropical rivers and estuaries worldwide (estuarine species sometimes cross open sea); length, up to 7·5 m/25 ft; fourth tooth from the front on each side of the lower jaw is visible when the jaws are closed (unlike the alligator); snout long and slender, or short and broad; eats a range of vertebrate prey; eggs have hard shells (like birds' eggs). Crocodilians (crocodiles, a…

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crocus

A perennial producing corms, native to Europe and Asia; leaves grass-like with distinctive silvery stripe down centre; stalkless flowers, goblet-shaped with long, slender tube, mainly white, yellow, or purple, closing up at night; many cultivated for ornament. The autumn-flowering species produce flowers before leaves appear in the spring. They are often attacked by birds, which prefer the yellow …

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Croesus - Life

The last king of Lydia (c.560–546 BC), who succeeded his father, Alyattes. He made the Greeks of Asia Minor his tributaries, and extended his kingdom E from the Aegean to the Halys. His conquests and mines made his wealth proverbial. Cyrus II defeated and imprisoned him (546 BC), but his death is a mystery. Croesus (IPA pronunciation: [ˈkɹisəs], CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/…

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Crohn's disease

A persisting but fluctuating disorder affecting any part of the alimentary canal. The lining of the mouth, stomach, and especially the small intestine becomes inflamed and ulcerated. Affected individuals suffer chronic diarrhoea and weight loss, with episodes of abdominal pain and fever. It is named after US physician Burrill Crohn (1884–1983). …

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cr

In Spain, those histories, normally written by eyewitnesses or drawn from contemporary accounts, usually lacking critical or analytical value but consisting of a partial and often panegyric view of events, not always devoid of legendary or fictitious elements meant to aggrandize the hero(es). The earliest extant work of prose is one of a group of brief chronicle writings in Navarro-Aragonese found…

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Cronus - In Greek mythology and early myths, In Roman mythology and later culture, In popular culture

In Greek mythology, the second ruler of the universe, a Titan, the youngest son of Uranus, who rebelled against his father. During his rule people lived in the Golden Age. Because it was foretold that one of his own children would dethrone him, he devoured them all as soon as they were born - with the exception of Zeus, who escaped because of a trick played by his mother, Rhea. Probably a pre-Gree…

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crop rotation - Method and purpose, History

A system of farming which involves growing crops in sequence. The aim is to control pests and weeds, and to maintain fertility. Modern sprays and chemical fertilizers now make it possible to farm successfully with intermittent or even no rotations, but soil structure may suffer. Most farmers still practise some form of rotation, but it is not usually as rigid as the famous 18th-c Norfolk four-cour…

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croquet - Competitive croquet, Croquet terms, Association croquet, Golf croquet, American six-wicket croquet, Backyard croquet

A ball-and-mallet game for two to four players, played on a lawn 32 m/35 yd long and 25 m/28 yd wide, on which have been arranged six hoops and a central peg. The four balls are coloured blue, red, black, and yellow. The object is to strike your own ball through the hoops in a prescribed order before finally hitting the central peg. Croquet is a recreational game and, latterly, a compet…

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cross - As emblems and symbols, In heraldry

The main symbol of Christianity, but a widespread religious symbol even in pre-Christian times. For Christians, it signifies the execution of Jesus by crucifixion, an especially demeaning ancient Roman form of capital punishment which was closely associated with the display of corpses or heads of enemies on poles. Many popular variations of the cross-symbol have appeared in Christian worship and a…

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Cross Fell - Local Geography, Routes to Cross Fell summit, Views of Cross Fell, Picture Gallery

Highest peak of the Pennine Chain in Cumbria, NW England, UK; rises to 893 m/2930 ft, 32 km/20 mi SE of Carlisle. At 893 m, Cross Fell is the highest point in the Pennine hills of Northern England. The summit is a stony plateau being part of a 20?km long ridge running North West to South East, which also incorporates Little Dun Fell (842?m) and Great Dun Fell (849?m). …

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cross-bencher

The name given to a member of the House of Lords who sits as an independent peer rather than accepting a party whip. The name comes from the position in the Lords chamber of the benches upon which this group of peers sit. A cross-bencher is a member of the British House of Lords who is not aligned to any particular party. …

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crossbill - Feeding behavior

A finch native to the N hemisphere, especially N regions; inhabits coniferous forests. The tips of its bill cross over, an adaptation for extracting seeds from pine cones. (Genus: Loxia, 4 species. Family: Fringillidae.) The crossbills are birds in the finch family Fringillidae. The different species are each adapted to specialising in feeding on different conifer species, with …

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crossbow - History and technology of crossbows, History of the use of crossbows, Modern crossbows

A form of bow mounted in a stock, with a crank to wind back and tension the bow itself, and a trigger to discharge the arrow, or ‘bolt’. Crossbows were fired more slowly than longbows, but were especially useful in sieges. They were much used in the Crusades and by troops of mercenary expert bowmen. China had crossbows before the 4th-c BC. A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounte…

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Crotone - History, Transportation, Museums

39º05N 17º07E, pop (2001e) 59 700. Port town, capital of Crotone province, Calabria region, S Italy; lies along the Gulf of Taranto NW of the Cape of Colonne, and ENE of Catanzaro; founded c.710 BC by Achaean Greeks led by Myscellus; celebrated for its successes in the Olympic Games from 588 BC, Milo of Croton being its most famous athlete; birthplace of Alcmaeon; formerly in the Kingdom of Na…

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croup - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prognosis

A hollow crowing noise during respiration and on coughing. It occurs in children due to swelling and narrowing of the vocal cords due to infection with one of several viruses. It may arise following a cold. In severe cases, respiration may be compromised. Croup may also refer to the rump of a quadruped (see croupier). Croup (sometimes referred to as croup syndrome or laryngotrac…

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crow

A bird of the worldwide family Corvidae. It can be a common name for the whole family, or just for the 40 species of the genus Corvus (other genera being jays, magpies, choughs, nutcrackers, and the piapiac), or just for some species of Corvus (others being ravens, rooks, and jackdaws). The name is also sometimes misapplied to birds not belonging to Corvidae. …

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Crow

North American Sioux-speaking Plains Indians. They separated from the Hidatsa in the 18th-c, and lived between the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, becoming nomadic buffalo hunters on horseback, and traders. They allied with whites in the Indian wars of the 1860s and 1870s; and in 1868 were settled on reservations in Montana, where most Crow still live. …

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crowberry

A spreading, evergreen, heather-like shrub (Empetrum nigrum), native to arctic and N temperate moors; leaves 4–6 mm/?–¼ in; alternate, separate male and female flowers, three sepals, three petals; berry 5 mm/0·2 in diameter, black. (Family: Empetraceae.) Crowberry (Empetrum) is a small genus of dwarf evergreen shrubs that bear edible fruit. The berries are usually collec…

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Crown Court - Appeals from magistrates' courts, Defendants committed from magistrates for sentencing, Trials, Appeals from Crown Courts

A court in England and Wales, established by the Courts Act (1971), which abolished the Assizes and Quarter Sessions. Crown Courts have unlimited power to deal with indictable offences, and also hear most appeals from magistrates' courts. In addition to the criminal jurisdiction, a High Court judge may hear civil cases in this court. Unlike the courts which it replaced, the Crown Court may sit at …

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Crown Estate - History

Property belonging by heredity to the British sovereign, comprising over 120 000 ha/300 000 acres in England, Scotland, and Wales. Over half of Britain's foreshore is included, together with the sea bed within territorial waters. Revenue from the Crown Estate is made over to the government at the beginning of each reign. In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio ass…

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crown jewels - Africa, Asia, Europe, United States

Regalia and jewellery belonging to a sovereign. The English crown jewels have been displayed at various sites in the Tower of London for 300 years, since 1967 in the Jewel House. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1649, much of the regalia was sold or broken up, with the exception of the gold anointing spoon (12th-c) and eagle-headed ampulla (14th-c). Most of the crown jewels date from the Res…

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crown of thorns - Biblical symbolism, Textual evidence, Third-class relics, Purported remnants, Crown of Thorns iconography

A large starfish up to 60 cm/2 ft in diameter, with 9–23 arms; body and arms with long spikes on upper surface; found in shallow waters on coral reef areas in tropical Indo-West Pacific; feeds on live coral polyps; when abundant, can cause massive damage to reefs. (Phylum: Echinodermata. Subclass: Asteroidea.) In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, w…

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Crown Prosecution Service - History, List of Heads of the CPS, Criticism

In England and Wales, a body of lawyers responsible for assessing the evidence collected by the police, and for deciding whether to prosecute an individual or a corporate body and what the particular charge should be. Established in 1985, it is independent of the police, and is headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions. Although certain other bodies or individuals may initiate a prosecution, t…

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crucifixion - Details of crucifixion, Archeological evidence for ancient crucifixion, History of crucifixion, Modern crucifixions without death

A common form of capital punishment in the Roman world, in which a person was nailed or bound to a wooden cross by the wrists and feet, and left to die. The method, probably borrowed from the Carthaginians, was inflicted only upon slaves and people of low social status (humiliores). It was regularly preceded by flagellation, as happened in the case of Christ himself. Crucifixion is an ancie…

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cruise missile - Concise history, Design, Cruise missile categories, Employment of cruise missiles

A type of missile which flies continuously on wings, and is propelled continuously by an engine using air from the atmosphere as its oxidant to mix with the fuel it carries. The German V-1 of 1944 was a cruise missile, but the weapon came to prominence again 30 years later when it was revived by US weapon scientists to provide a comparatively cheap means of delivering a nuclear or conventional war…

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cruiser - History, The US Navy's "cruiser gap"

A medium-sized warship designed to protect trade routes and to act as a scout for a battle fleet. Size, speed, and armament varied enormously with the passing years, depending upon the strength of enemy cruisers. The term "cruiser" was first commonly used in the 17th century to refer to an independent warship. The Dutch navy was noted for its cruisers in the 17th century, while the British …

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crumhorn

A musical instrument made from wood with a small cylindrical bore, and curved at the end like a hockey stick. It had a double reed and a wind-cap (so that the player's lips did not touch the reed), and was made in various sizes. There were seven fingerholes and a thumbhole, and the larger instruments had metal keys. It was widely used in Europe in the 16th–17th-c, and revived in the 20th-c for pe…

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Crusades

Holy Wars authorized by the Pope in defence of Christendom and the Church. They were fought against the Muslims in the East, Germany, and Spain, against heretics and schismatics who threatened Catholic unity, and against Christian lay powers who opposed the papacy. Crusaders committed themselves with solemn vows, and by the 13th-c were granted the full Indulgence, ie remission of all punishment du…

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crustacean - Structure of crustaceans, Taxonomy, Geological history

A typically aquatic arthropod possessing a pair of jaws (mandibles) and two pairs of antennae situated in front of the mouth in adults; group contains c.40 000 species, mostly marine, but also in freshwater and terrestrial habitats; great diversity of forms; life-cycle commonly involves a larval stage with three pairs of limbs (the nauplius). (Subphylum: Crustacea.) The crustaceans (Crusta…

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Crux - Notable features, History, Stars

The smallest constellation in the sky, and one of the most distinctive, better known as the Southern Cross. It features on the national flags of Australia and New Zealand. Originally part of Centaurus, it received a separate identity in the 16th-c. Crux (IPA: /ˈkrʊks/, Latin: cross), commonly known as the Southern Cross (in contrast to the Northern Cross), is the smallest of the 88 modern…

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crwth - Nomenclature, History, Physical description and playing technique, The crwth today, Recordings

A Celtic (especially Welsh) lyre, played with a bow or plucked. The earliest types, known from the 12th-c onwards, had three strings, but by the 18th-c, when it became obsolete, the crwth had acquired a further three, tuned in unison with the others or at the octave. The crwth is an archaic stringed musical instrument, associated particularly with Wales, although once played widely in Europ…

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cryogenics - Industrial application, Detectors

The study of physical systems at temperatures less than c.90 K (?183ºC). Many processes are more easily understood and measured at low temperatures, where unwanted thermal effects are reduced. Some processes can be observed only at low temperatures, either because of masking by thermal effects or because the phenomena (eg superconductivity, superfluidity) exist only at low temperature. Cr…

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cryolite

A mineral composed of sodium, aluminium, and fluorine (Na3AlF6), used in the smelting of aluminium ores. It occurs in important quantities in Russia and Greenland. Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium aluminium fluoride) is an uncommon mineral of very limited natural distribution. It was historically used as an ore of aluminium and later in the electrolytic processing of the aluminium rich…

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crypt

Part of a building below the main floor and usually underground. In particular, it refers to the part of a church containing graves and relics. In medieval terms, a crypt (from the Latin crypta and the Greek kryptē) is a stone chamber or vault, usually beneath the floor of a church or castle, usually containing tombs of important persons such as saints or saints' relics, or high rank…

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cryptanalysis - History of cryptanalysis, Characterising attacks, Cryptanalysis of asymmetric cryptography, Quantum computing applications for cryptanalysis

The deciphering or codebreaking of messages intended for others. The use of codes and ciphers to protect sensitive information from falling into the hands of enemies or rivals creates a reciprocal demand for cryptanalysis. This involves firstly intercepting a message, then analysing it to reveal its contents. Since languages can be distinguished by the different frequencies with which the letters …

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cryptography - Terminology, History of cryptography and cryptanalysis, Modern cryptography, Legal issues involving cryptography, Further reading

The alteration of the form of a message by codes and ciphers to conceal its meaning. Codewords, normally from a code book, stand for one or more words of the plaintext (the original message). With ciphers, the letters of the plaintext are individually substituted or transposed (re-ordered), according to a secret key. Cryptography (or cryptology; The noted cryptographer Ron Rivest has observ…

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Crystal - Historical and mythical uses

A computer package for the development of expert systems. (Also, an inexpert package for the development of encyclopedias and databases - as in the name of this database.) In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Genera…

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crystal growth

The formation of crystals when a saturated solution of a suitable substance is either cooled or some solvent removed by evaporation. The growth usually starts on small introduced ‘seed’ crystals. The shape of the final crystals reflects the underlying crystal structure of the substance. In the nucleation stage, a small nucleus containing the newly forming crystal is created. Nucleation oc…

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Crystal Palace - World

An iron-framed, prefabricated, glass building designed by Sir Joseph Paxton to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The structure, dubbed the ‘Crystal Palace’ by Punch magazine, was erected in London's Hyde Park. It was re-erected in S London, but destroyed by fire in 1936. …

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crystallography - Theory, Notation, Technique, Materials science, Biology

The study of crystals, both of their external form and of their internal structure. The symmetries shown by natural crystals strongly suggested an atomic theory to Nicolaus Steno in the 17th-c, and the application of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals acting as optical gratings has given a great deal of information about the arrangements and bonding of atoms in crystals, and, by analogy, in oth…

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CS gas - 'CS Gas' - a misnomer, CS incapacitant spray, Use geographically

US military designation for a chlorinated compound, 1-o-chlorophenyl-2,2-dicyanoethylene, Cl–C6H4–CH=C(C?N)2. It causes irritation and watering of the eyes, and has been widely used in riot control. CS or 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (chemical formula: C10H5ClN2) is a substance that is used as a riot control agent and is usually claimed to be non-lethal by the forces who use it. (sic…

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ctenophore - Body, Movement, Prey and predators, Habitat, Reproduction, Ctenophore as an invasive species, Early classification, Historical phylum

A marine animal with a transparent, jelly-like (gelatinous) body, which swims using eight comb-like rows of plates (ctenes); carnivorous, using paired tentacles armed with stinging cells to catch prey; c.80 species, found mostly in open sea; known as comb jellies or sea gooseberries. (Phylum: Ctenophora.) The ctenophore (pl. Despite their appearance, they are zoologically not tr…

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Ctesias

Greek historian and physician. He was physician to Artaxerxes II Mnemon of Persia, and accompanied him in the expedition against his rebellious brother Cyrus (401 BC). He wrote a history of Persia in 23 books, Persika, of which only fragments remain. Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek Κτησίας), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 4th century BC. Ct…

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Ctesibius

Alexandrian Greek, the inventor of the force-pump and water organ, and improver of the clepsydra or water-clock. He was the teacher of Hero of Alexandria. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (working 285 - 222 BC) of Alexandria (Greek Κτησίβιος) was second only to Archimedes as an inventor and mathematician. Ctesibius was probably the first head of the Museum of Alexandr…

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Cuba - History, Culture, Government and politics, Provinces, Geography, Society, Demographics, Religion, Economy, Military

Official name Republic of Cuba, Span República de Cuba Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: Cuba or República de Cuba, IPA: [re'puβlika ðe ˈkuβa]), consists of the island of Cuba (the largest of the Greater Antilles), the Isle of Youth and adjacent small islands. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and t…

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Cuban Missile Crisis - Background, U.S. nuclear advantage, Missile deployment, U-2 flights

A period of acute international tension and potential military confrontation between the USA and USSR in October 1962, following the USA's discovery of Soviet nuclear missile sites in Cuba. The crisis pushed the world to the brink of a nuclear war. Amazingly, Soviet leader Khrushchev assumed that the USA would take no action, but President Kennedy demanded the dismantling of the base and the retur…

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Cubism - History, Synthetic cubism, Cubism and its ideologies, Settings in Music, Cubism in Literature

A modern art movement out of which grew most of the early forms of abstraction. About 1907 Picasso and Braque rejected Renaissance perspective and Impressionist attention to light and atmosphere. Objects, painted in sombre shades of brown and grey, were analysed into geometrical planes with several views depicted simultaneously (analytic cubism). After c.1912 a flatter, more colourful and decorati…

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cuckoo

A bird of the worldwide family Culculidae (130 species), mostly inhabiting woodland; some (eg roadrunners) inhabit desert. About 50 species do not build nests, but lay eggs in the nests of other birds, with the young reared by ‘foster’ parents. The name is sometimes misapplied to birds not belonging to this family. …

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cucumber - Flowering and pollination, History, Industry and geography

A vine (Cucumis sativa), trailing or climbing by means of tendrils, probably native to Africa but cultivated from early times as a salad vegetable; leaves heart-shaped, palmately lobed; male and female flowers 2·5 cm/1 in diameter, yellow, funnel-shaped; fruit up to 45 cm/18 in or more, green, fleshy, cylindrical or oval. (Family: Cucurbitaceae.) The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a wid…

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Cullinan diamond

The largest gem diamond ever found, weight 3255 carats (650 grams/22·9 avoirdupois ounces). It was found in Premier Diamond Mine, Transvaal in 1905 and named after Sir Thomas Cullinan, who had discovered the mine. It was cut into 9 large and 96 small stones, the largest of which (the Star of Africa) is in the Royal Sceptre of the British Crown Jewels. The Cullinan Diamond, found by Frederi…

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cult - Stigmatization and discrimination, Criticism by former members of purported cults, Prevalence of purported cults

Any set of beliefs and practices associated with a particular god or group of gods, forming a distinctive part of a larger religious body. The focus of the worship or devotion of a cult is usually a god or gods, spirit or spirits, associated with particular objects and places. The focus of devotion may be an animal (eg the whale cult in Eskimo religions), a particular deity (eg the Hindu cult devo…

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cultivar - Definition, Nature of a cultivar, Cultivar names, Trade designations and "selling names"

A contraction of cultivated variety; in names further abbreviated to cv. It refers to any distinct type of plant produced in cultivation but not growing in the wild. Many cultivars do not breed true, and are propagated vegetatively. A cultivar is a cultivated plant that has received a name under the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (the ICNCP, commonly known as the "…

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cultural history - A Vague Example: Historiography and the French Revolution

An approach to the study of history, dating from the work of Hegel, who argued that all epochs are characterized by a certain ‘spirit’, culture, or Zeitgeist. The most notable practitioner of this brand of history was Burckhardt, who was influenced by Hegelian historical thought and whose influential book Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy) appear…

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Cultural Revolution - Background, The Cultural Revolution, Time dominated by Lin Biao, Time of the "Gang of Four"

An abbreviation for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a radical Maoist mass movement initiated as a rectification campaign in 1966, which ended only with the death of Mao Zedong and the arrest of the Gang of Four in the autumn of 1976. To prevent the Chinese revolution from stagnating and to avoid ‘revisionism’, Mao aimed at replacing the old guard, including Liu Shaoqi (died in prison …

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culture (anthropology) - Defining "culture", Key components of culture, Ways of looking at culture, Cultures within a society

The way of life of a group of people, consisting of learned patterns of behaviour and thought passed on from one generation to the next. The notion includes the group's beliefs, values, language, political organization, and economic activity, as well as its equipment, techniques, and art forms (referred to as material culture). The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root mean…

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culture (microbiology) - Defining "culture", Key components of culture, Ways of looking at culture, Cultures within a society

An artificially maintained population of micro-organisms, or of dissociated cells of a tissue, grown in a nutrient medium and reproducing by asexual division. The process is used in experimental microbiological research and also in medical applications, chiefly as part of the task of diagnosis. The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning "to cultivate", generally refe…

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Cumae

The oldest Greek colony in Italy, founded c.750 BC near present-day Naples. It was famous in Roman times as the home of the oracular prophetess, the Sibyl. Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. The settlement is believed to have been founded in the 8th century BC by Greeks from the city of Cuma and C…

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Cumberland (UK) - Legacy

A former county of NW England, UK; part of Cumbria since 1974. Carlisle was created a county borough in 1915 and no longer formed part of the area under the control of the county council, or administrative county. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county and county borough were abolished and their former area was combined with Westmorland and parts…

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Cumberland (USA) - Legacy

pop (2000e) 31 800. Town in Providence Co, Rhode Island, USA; received from Massachusetts by royal decree and known as Attleboro Gore until 1746, when it was incorporated in Rhode Island as Cumberland; named in honour of William, Duke of Cumberland; birthplace of Adin Ballou and Jemima Wilkinson; former mining area for iron and copper; present economy based on manufacturing and retail trade; mon…

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Cumberland Gap - Geological Features, References in Popular Culture

Pass through the Allegheny Mts, E USA; altitude 500 m/1640 ft; European discovery, 1750; named after the Duke of Cumberland (son of George II); major migration route to the West in the 18th-c; strategic point during the American Civil War; Cumberland Gap National Historical Park (1955), area 83 km²/32 sq mi. The Cumberland Gap is a pass across the Cumberland Mountains region of the Ap…

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Cumbria - Economy, Towns and villages, People of interest, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 487 600; area 6810 km²/2629 sq mi. County in NW England, UK; bounded W by the Irish Sea, NW by the Solway Firth, N by Scotland; Pennines in the E; 40% of the county within the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales national parks; created in 1974 from the former counties of Westmorland and Cumberland, and parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire; county town, Carlisle; chief towns include Pe…

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cumin

A slender annual (Cuminum cyminum) growing to 50 cm/20 in, native to N Africa and SW Asia; leaves divided into narrow thread-like lobes; flowers white or pink, petals notched; fruit oblong with slender ridges. It is cultivated for the aromatic fruits, used for spice, is an ingredient of curry powder, and is much used in Mexican cooking. (Family: Umbelliferae.) …

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Cupid - Cupid's lineage, Cult, Portrayal in art and literature

The Roman god of Love, son of Venus, depicted as a naked winged boy with bow and arrows. Apuleius tells the story of Cupid and Psyche. He is equivalent to Greek Eros. In Roman mythology, Cupid (Latin Cupido) is the god of erotic love. There are differing stories about his parentage. Plato mentions two of these, and Hesiod's Theogony, the most ancient Greek theoography, says that…

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cupola

A small dome over a circular, square, or polygonal part of a building, usually above a roof or turret; more loosely, a dome of any size. In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. In some cases, the entire main roof of a tower or spire can for…

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cupronickel - History

An alloy of copper and nickel, silver in colour. It is used extensively for coinage. Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. The most ubiquitous use, from the point of view of the average person, is that most of the silver-coloured modern circulation coins are cupronickel. It is used in thermocouples, and a …

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curare - Curare and anaesthesia, Plants from which primary components of curare can be extracted

An extract of the South American plants Chondrodendron tomentosum or Strychnos toxifera, used as an arrow poison for hunting by South American Indians. The active principle, tubocurarine, is widely used to induce muscle paralysis during surgery. Curare is an example of a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant which blocks the nicotinic receptors, one of the two types of cholinergic (acetylcholine…

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curate

Strictly, a Christian clergyman admitted to the ‘cure of souls’ and having the ‘cure’ or charge of a parish. Popularly, the term is used of an assistant or unbeneficed clergyman, helping or temporarily replacing the priest, rector, vicar, or other incumbent of the parish. From the Latin curatus (compare Curator), a curate is a person who is invested with the care, or cure (cura), of sou…

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curia

In ancient Rome, the Senate house. It stood on the NW side of the forum, adjacent to the site of the legislative assembly. A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i.e. The curia per antonomasia was the Curia Hostilia in Rome, which was the building where the Senate usually met. The Senate, initially just a meeting of the city elders from all tribes (i…

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Curie's law - Applications

A law for paramagnetic materials which states that the magnetization is proportional to B/T, where B is magnetic flux density and T is temperature in kelvins; stated by physicist Pierre Curie in 1895. Physically, increasing B serves to align individual atomic magnetic moments; increasing T gives more thermal agitation, which upsets alignment. In a paramagnetic material Curie's law relates t…

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Curitiba - Planning, Transportation, Climate, Football Clubs, Government, Sister cities, Famous places

25°24S 49°16W, pop (2000e) 1 604 000. Commercial and industrial capital of Paraná state, S Brazil; SW of São Paulo, altitude 900 m/2950 ft; two universities (1912, 1959); railway; airfield; commercial centre; tobacco, furniture, paper, textiles, cars, maté, cattle; cathedral (1894), Palácio Iguaçu, Paranaense Museum, Passeio Público park, temple in Egyptian style on L Bacacheri to the…

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curlew

A long-legged sandpiper; breeds in the N hemisphere, but flies S (some as far as Australia) during the N winter; has long, down-curved bill; probes for food in sediments. (Genus: Numenius, 8 species.) …

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curling - Basics of the game, Playing surface, Players, Equipment, Curling culture, Additional information, Terminology, Trivia

A game played usually by teams of four on an ice rink, using special stones fitted with handles. The object is similar to that of bowls, to deliver the stones nearest to a target object, known as the tee. The ice is swept with brooms in front of the running stone to help it travel further. It is popular in Scotland, Canada, the Nordic countries, and the USA. Curling is a precision team spor…

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Curnonsky - Name, Philosophy, Chronology, Partial bibliography

French gourmet and journalist. One of the first to write about ‘good food’ and where to find it, he published La France gastronomique (28 vols, 1921–8) and Le Trésorier gastronomique de France (1933). In 1940 he founded the journal Cuisine et vins de France, and in 1953 published a book of the same name. Maurice Edmond Sailland (Angers, France October 12, 1872 – Paris, July 22, 1956),…

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currency - Privately issued currencies, Local currencies, Single global currency, Lists of currencies, Accounting units, Proposed currencies, Lists

A country's money. A currency is convertible if it can be changed into other currencies without restriction. A currency depreciates if it becomes cheaper relative to other currencies. For example, if £1 can be exchanged for $2, but subsequently the rate falls to £1 for $1.50, the pound has depreciated against the dollar; the dollar, by comparison, has appreciated. From the earliest times …

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current (oceanography)

Flowing water in the ocean. The surface currents depicted on atlases of the seas are long-term averages of the direction of water motion at the sea surface, driven primarily by the winds. Because most do not extend deeper than 300–500 m/1000–1600 ft, they can be conveniently separated from the circulation of intermediate and deep waters, driven by varying densities of sea water caused by diffe…

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curry - Curries around the world, Curry addiction health benefits, Ingredients, Curry powder, Curry leaves

A spiced dish of fish, meat, poultry, or vegetables, originating in the East. Among the spices used in curries are coriander, cumin, chili, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, fenugreek, ginger, and turmeric. These spices may act as a preservative in the cuisine of hot climates. Other common ingredients are garlic, yogurt, and coconut milk. A curry is any of a variety of distinctively spiced dishes…

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Curt Sachs

Musicologist, born in Berlin, Germany. After studies in art and music, he held posts in Berlin including curator of the Museum of Musical Instruments. Driven from Germany by the Nazis in 1933, he settled in the USA four years later and held posts as a consultant to the New York Public Library (1937–52) and a teacher at Columbia University (from 1953). He also served as president of the American M…

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curtain wall - History, Design, Infills, Fire safety, Maintenance and repair

A non-loadbearing wall used as a protective screen over the structural frame of a building. The materials used are varied: they include aluminium, steel, and especially glass. In mediaeval military architecture, the term referred to the defensive outer wall of a castle. Curtain wall is a term used to describe a building façade which does not carry any dead load from the building other than…

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Curtis (Emerson) LeMay - LeMay and UFOs, Awards and Decorations, Works

Aviator, born in Columbus, Ohio, USA. Commissioned in 1928 from the Reserve Officers' Training Corps at Ohio State University, he earned a reputation as an excellent pilot during the 1930s. From August 1944 he commanded the heavy bomber force that carried out long-range attacks on the Japanese home islands, and helped plan the atomic bomb missions of August 1945. He directed the US airlift of supp…

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Curtis Sliwa - Career, Assassination attempt on Sliwa, Current media presence, Family, Trivia

Social activist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was a rebellious student in parochial school. While working at a McDonald's restaurant, he organized the Rock Brigade, which evolved into the Magnificent Thirteen and then the Guardian Angels (1979). Originally the Guardian Angels simply wanted to protect subway riders in New York City, but the organization spread to many other cities (even…

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Curzio Malaparte - Biography, Main writings, Directed

Writer and journalist, born in Prato, Tuscany, NC Italy. His service as a volunteer in World War 1 is recounted in the essay La rivolta dei santi maledetti (1921). He first joined the Strapaese movement, but then defected to its antagonist Stracittà. Severing all links with Fascism he wrote Tecnica del colpo di stato (1931), for which he was internally exiled. He fought in the Italian Alpine troo…

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Curzon Line - History of the Curzon Line, Ethnography to the east of the Curzon Line

A line of territorial demarcation between Russia and Poland proposed in 1920 by the British foreign secretary, Lord Curzon. Poland rejected the proposal, subsequently gaining larger territories. In September 1939 a boundary similar to the Curzon Line became the border between German- and Soviet-occupied Poland, and in 1945 was recognized as the frontier between Poland and the USSR. The Curz…

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Cushing's syndrome - Signs and symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Epidemiology, Hyperadrenocorticism in Companion Animals

A disorder caused by excessive levels of glucocorticoid hormones. It may be a result of steroid treatment, or excessive secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal glands, due to a benign adrenal tumour or overstimulation of the adrenal glands by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. It produces a range of characteristic clinical features, including a round red face, thin easily bruised skin, …

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customs union - List of Customs Unions

A group of countries with a common external tariff and free trade between its members. Examples include Benelux, set up in 1948, and the European Economic Community (now the European Union), set up in 1958. Every Common market and Economic and monetary union has also a Customs Union …

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cutter - Sailing, Rowing, Pulling, Revenue, United States Coast Guard

A single-masted, fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessel with more than one headsail, usually requiring a bowsprit. Although sailing cutters are fairly uncommon today, the term is still in use, especially in compounds (eg revenue cutter). It is also applied to a ship's boat which is rigged for sailing and rowing, and in the USA it applies to vessels which would elsewhere be called sloops. When u…

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cutting - Cutting tools

A portion of a plant, usually a side shoot but also a leaf or root which, when removed from the parent, will grow to form a new individual. It is commonly used by gardeners as a means of propagation. Cutting is a compressive and shearing phenomenon, and occurs only when the total stress generated by the cutting implement exceeds the ultimate strength of the material of the object being cut.…

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cuttlefish - Cuttlefish as food, Cuttlefish in literature

A squid-like marine mollusc with eight arms and two tentacles, used to capture prey; internal calcareous shell (cuttlebone) may be straight or curved; found on or near the sea bed in shallow water; capable of complex behaviour and rapid colour changes. (Class: Cephalopoda.) Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also include squids, octo…

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cutworm - Pest Control

The caterpillar larva of moths of the family Noctuidae. It can cause serious damage to crops by feeding on the stems and foliage of seedlings. (Order: Lepidoptera.) While there are pesticides which can control these insects, the non-industrial gardener can protect threatened plants (most often tomato, pepper, pea, or bean) by simply impeding the ground-hiding cutworm caterpillar from …

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Cy Coleman - Awards and nominations

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He grew up in the Bronx, began playing piano as a child, and performed at Carnegie Hall at the age of nine. He studied at the New York College of Music and, although classically trained, he turned to jazz and became an accomplished jazz pianist. He also began songwriting and during the 1950s he collaborated with such songwriters as Carolyn Leigh, Bet…

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Cy Feuer

Musical director, producer, composer, and musician, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He learned to play the trumpet as a child, studied music at Juilliard, and in the early 1930s joined the band at the Radio City Music Hall. He decided to try his luck on the West Coast and eventually became music director (1939–48) with Republic Pictures film studio. In 1945 he met Ernest H Martin (1919–95) and …

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Cy Twombly

Painter, born in Lexington, Virginia, USA. He studied at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts School, the Art Students' League, and at Black Mountain College, settling in Rome in 1957, where he lives today. His gestural or ‘doodle’ technique derives from a Surrealist belief in the expressive power of automatic writing to tap the unconscious. Cy Twombly (born April 25, 1928) is an American abstr…

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Cy Young

Baseball pitcher, born in Gilmore, Ohio, USA. One of the first of baseball's greats, he made his major-league debut in 1890 and played until 1911, mostly with the Cleveland Indians and Boston Red Sox. During his career he threw 749 complete games and won 511 games, both records. National and American League's leading pitchers win the Cy Young Award every year. He was elected to baseball's Hall of …

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cyanide - Etymology, Appearance and odor, Occurrence and uses, Toxicity, Poison use, In Current Events

A compound containing the group ?C­N in a molecule, or salts of hydrocyanic acid containing the ion CN?. It is a very rapidly acting poison, which can kill within minutes. Cyanide gas has been used in gas chambers, and was used for more than 900 religious ‘suicide-murders’ in Guyana in 1978. It acts by preventing oxygen from being used by cells. Amyl nitrite (by inhalation) can treat cyanide po…

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cyanocobalamin - Structure, Synthesis, History as a treatment for anemia, Sources, Allergies

The chemical name for vitamin B12. This vitamin is involved in cell division and in the manufacture of the sheath surrounding nerve cells. It is found predominantly in animal-derived food, so that a true deficiency rarely occurs except among vegans, who eat no animal food. A secondary deficiency can occur if there is a deficiency of the intrinsic factor, a substance in the gut which aids B12 absor…

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cyanogen - Physical properties, Preparation, History, Toxic effects

N–­C–C–­N, boiling point ?21°C. A colourless, inflammable, poisonous gas, with a bitter almond smell. It bears the same relation to cyanide ion (CN?) as chlorine (Cl2) does to chloride ion (Cl?). Cyanogen, at room temperature, is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. It is, like most cyanides, very toxic because it is reduced to cyanide, which binds more strongly than oxygen to the …

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Cybele - Cult history

In Greek mythology, a mother-goddess, especially of wild nature, whose cult originated in Phrygia, and was taken over by the Greeks. She was depicted with a turreted mural crown, and was attended by lions. Originally a Phrygian goddess, insofar as the Hellenes were concerned, Cybele (Greek Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshiped in Anatolia from Neolithic …

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cybernetics - History, Scope

The study of control systems that exhibit characteristics similar to those of animal and human behaviour. The term was coined by Norbert Wiener in the 1940s, based on a Greek word meaning ‘steersman’. Although the term has tended to fall into disuse with the expansion of the computer field, cybernetics is essentially a broad-based discipline which includes information, message, and noise theorie…

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Cybill Shepherd - Biography, Filmography, Television work

Film actress, born in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. She was a successful model before her critically acclaimed film debut in The Last Picture Show (1971), following this with The Heartbreak Kid (1973) and Taxi Driver (1976). She also starred with Bruce Willis in the long-running television series Moonlighting (1985–9). Later films include Once Upon a Crime (1992) and Married To It (1993), and the tele…

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cycad - Origins, Taxonomy, History, Distribution, Speciation, Extinction, Conservation, Horticulture

A tropical or subtropical gymnosperm, palm-like in appearance, trunk usually unbranched, armoured with old leaf bases or scar-like remains, with a crown of tough, feathery leaves; flowers borne in separate male and female cones, the female very large. Cycads are considered to be the most primitive living seed-plants, appearing in the late Palaeozoic era, and thought to be related to seed-ferns, a …

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Cyclades - Area codes, Municipalities and communities, Further reading

pop (2000e) 99 300; area 2572 km²/993 sq mi. Island group in the Aegean Sea, Greece, between the Peloponnese (W) and the Dodecanese (E); chief islands are Tinos, Andros, Mikonos, Milos, Naxos, Paros, Kithnos, Serifos, lying in a circle around Siros; capital, Siros; several now popular holiday resorts. See also: List of settlements in the Cyclades prefecture …

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cyclamate - Chemistry, Cyclamate and cancer

A derivative of cyclohexylsulphamic acid. It has c.30 times the sweetening power of sucrose, and was previously used widely in sweetening ‘diet foods’. It is less used now because of possible health risks. Like many artificial sweeteners, the sweetness of cyclamates was discovered by accident. He put his cigarette down on the lab bench and when he put it back in his mouth he discovered th…

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cyclamen - Gallery

A perennial with leaves growing direct from fleshy corm, native to Europe and Asia; flowers nodding, white, pink, or purple, corolla lobes bent back; after flowering, stalk coils to bring ripening fruit to the soil. Pot plants are derived mainly from Cyclamen persicum. (Genus: Cyclamen, 15 species. Family: Primulaceae.) Cyclamen is a genus of 20 species of flowering plants, traditionally cl…

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cycling - Introduction, Getting started, Learning to cycle, Organized rides and races, Bicycling and health

The riding of a bicycle for fitness, pleasure, or as a sport. The first cycle race was in Paris in 1868, and won by James Moore of England. There are several popular forms of cycling as a sport. In time trials cyclists race against the clock. Cyclo-cross is a mixture of cycling and cross-country running, with the bike on the shoulder. Track racing takes place on purpose-built concrete or wooden ve…

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cycloid - Cycloidal pendulum

The path traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle as the circle rolls along a straight line. Using the angle ? through which the circle has turned as parameter, the equation of the cycloid is x = a(? ? sin ?), y = a(1 ? cos ?). A cycloid is the curve defined by a fixed point on a wheel as it rolls, or, more precisely, the locus of a point on the rim of a circle rolli…

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cyclophosphamide - Uses, Pharmacokinetics, Mode of action, Side-effects, History

An important drug in the treatment of cancers. It belongs to a class of drug called the nitrogen mustards, developed from mustard gas which was used in the first world war. Nitrogen mustards are so-called alkylating agents, which work by binding to the DNA of cells, thus stopping them from dividing. Cyclophosphamide is the most widely prescribed nitrogen mustard. It has severe side-effects, includ…

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Cyclops - Hesiod's Cyclopes, Homer's Cyclopes, Origins, In popular culture

In Greek mythology, a race of one-eyed giants who worked as smiths and were associated with volcanic activity. In the Odyssey, the Cyclops Polyphemus is outwitted and blinded by Odysseus, and hurls rocks into the sea at the departing ship. The Greeks called any pre-Greek structures incorporating huge stones ‘Cyclopean’. In Greek mythology a Cyclops, or Kyklops (Greek Κύκλωψ), is a m…

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cyclops - Hesiod's Cyclopes, Homer's Cyclopes, Origins, In popular culture

A freshwater copepod named after its conspicuous single eyespot; abundant in lake plankton, but also found on mud and in damp semiterrestrial habitats; feeds on fine particulate matter, or as a carnivore on insect larvae and other invertebrates. (Subphylum: Crustacea. Class: Copepoda.) In Greek mythology a Cyclops, or Kyklops (Greek Κύκλωψ), is a member of a primordial race of giants,…

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cyclothymia - History and Mental Status Examination, Diagnostic Criteria, ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria

In psychiatry, a persistent instability of affect, with repeated periods of mild elation and mild depression. This may be a feature of an individual's personality or a forerunner of manic-depressive illness. It usually commences in adolescence or early adulthood and runs a chronic course. Cyclothymia is a chronic bipolar disorder that consists of short periods of mild depression alternating…

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cyclotron - Uses of the Cyclotron, How the cyclotron works, Problems solved by the cyclotron

A machine for accelerating charged particles, typically protons; developed by Ernest Lawrence and others in 1931, and now largely superseded in particle physics by the synchrotron. Acceleration is provided by an oscillating electric field. A large constant magnetic field guides particles in a spiral path, having a radius that increases as particle velocity increases. Cyclotrons are used in nuclear…

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Cymbeline - Performance and Publication, Plot synopsis

Pro-Roman king of the Catuvellauni, who from his capital at Camulodunum (Colchester) ruled most of SE Britain. Shakespeare's character was based on Holinshed's half-historical Cunobelinus. The Tragedy of Cymbeline, King of Britain is a play by William Shakespeare. Critics often put it in a grouping called Shakespeare's Late Romances along with Pericles, Prince of Tyre, The Tempest, an…

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cymbidium

A member of a genus of orchids (epiphytes) native to tropical forests from Asia to Australia. They are widely cultivated for the spikes of large, showy flowers much used in floristry and the cut-flower trade. (Genus: Cymbidium, 40 species. Family: Orchidaceae.) …

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Cynewulf - Life, Works, Justification as a Poet, Miscellaneous

Anglo-Saxon poet, identified by some with Cynewulf, Bishop of Lindisfarne (737–80). Four poems, ‘Juliana’, ‘Christ’, ‘Elene’, and ‘The Fates of the Apostles’, have his name worked into the text in runes. Cynewulf is one of twelve Anglo-Saxon poets that are known by name today, and one of four whose work survives today. Posterity knows of his name by means of runic signatures that a…

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Cynthia Gregory

Ballet dancer, born in Alhambra, California, USA. She studied with the San Francisco Ballet and graduated into the company at age 19. In 1965 she joined the American Ballet Theatre, where she performed leading roles until her retirement in 1991. She continued for some years to choreograph and teach ballet. Miss Gregory’s parents encouraged her to take up dancing when she was five, hoping …

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Cynthia Ozick - Partial list of works

Novelist and short-story writer, born in New York City, USA. She studied at New York and Ohio State universities, publishing her first novel, Trust, in 1966. Her fiction explores the dilemmas of being Jewish in a Christian world, and she is perhaps best known as a writer of short stories, including The Pagan Rabbi and Other Stories (1971), Bloodshed and Three Novellas (1976), and The Shawl (1991).…

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cypress

An evergreen conifer, native to the temperate N hemisphere; leaves small, scale-like; cones like the head of a mace, with 4–12 woody scales joined at their margins, sometimes remaining on the branches for years. The timber is insect-repellant. It is susceptible to extreme cold, and is most common in warm climates. (Genus: Cupressus, 15–20 species. Family: Cupressaceae.) Cypress is the nam…

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Cyprian (Odiatu Duaka) Ekwensi

Writer, born in Minna, C Nigeria. He studied at Ibadan University College and the Chelsea School of Pharmacy in London. Early works include the novellas When Love Whispers (1947), The Leopard's Claw (1950), and People of the City (1954, revised 1969). His most successful novel was Jagua Nana (1961), about a group of vibrant characters who forsake their rural origins for the attractions of city lif…

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Cyprus

Official nameRepublic of Cyprus, Gr Kypriaki Dimokratia, Turkish Kibris Cumhuriyeti …

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Cypselus

Tyrant of Corinth, and one of the earliest in a series of self-made rulers who arose in many Greek cities in the 7th-c and 6th-c BC. He seized power against the narrow and exclusive oligarchy of the Bacchiads who had ruled Corinth since the 8th-c BC, and founded the Cypselid dynasty. Cypselus (or Kypselos) (Greek: Κύψελος) was the first tyrant of Corinth, Greece, in the 7th century B…

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Cyrenaics - Philosophy, Sources and External links

A school of 4th-c and 3rd-c BC Greek philosophers, whose founder was Aristippus of Cyrene. They espoused a radical hedonism, contrasted (but often confused) with that of Epicureanism. They believed that the immediate sensation of pleasure is the only good, that all such sensations are equal in worth, and that past and future pleasures have no present value. The Cyrenaics were an ultra-hedon…

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Cyril (Matamela) Ramaphosa - Early life and education, Political activist and trade union leader, Politician and President, Businessman

South African politician and trade unionist, born in Johannesburg, NE South Africa. He entered politics as a student at the University of the North, and was detained for the first time in 1974. He qualified as a lawyer, and worked initially in the legal department of a trade union grouping. In 1982 he was elected as the first general secretary of the National Union of Mineworkers, which rapidly gr…

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Cyril (Vernon) Connolly - Assessment, Works, Biographies, Reference

Writer and journalist, born in Coventry, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Oxford, contributed to the New Statesman and other periodicals, and wrote regularly for the Sunday Times. He was founder/editor of Horizon (1939–50), and briefly literary editor of the Observer. His only novel was The Rock Pool (1936). Among his works are Enemies of Promise (1938), The Unquiet Grave (1944), misce…

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Cyril Collard - Early life, Books, Les Nuits Fauves, Other directing credits, AIDS, Sources

French novelist and film maker. He published a semi-autobiographical novel, Les Nuits fauves (1989, trans Savage Nights), which he adapted for the screen to great acclaim in 1992. He directed and starred in the film, which won four Césars in March 1993, but died of Aids three days before the announcement. Cyril Collard (December 19, 1957 - March 5, 1993) was a French author, filmmaker, com…

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Cyril Cusack

Actor, director, and playwright, born in Durban, E South Africa. In 1932 he joined the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, remaining there for 13 years and appearing in over 65 plays. In 1945 he left the Abbey to form his own company, touring Ireland with a repertory of Irish and European plays, and making several visits abroad. He also made a name with telling cameo parts in films. Cyril Cusack (Novemb…

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Cyril Tourneur - Life

English playwright. He published several poems, but is known for his two plays, The Revenger's Tragedy (1607, sometimes assigned to Webster or Middleton), and The Atheist's Tragedy (1611). Cyril Tourneur (1575 – February 28, 1626) was an Elizabethan dramatist who enjoyed his greatest success during the reign of King James I of England. His only well-known work is The Revenger's Trag…

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Cyrillic alphabet - Romanization

An alphabet attributed to St Cyril, and used for Slavonic languages, such as Russian and Bulgarian. It is also used for many non-Slavonic languages in the republics of the former USSR. Capital and lowercase letters were not distinguished in old manuscripts. text-align:center;"> The soft sign ь is not a letter representing a sound, but modifies the sound of the preceding letter,…

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Cyrus

The second son of Darius II of Persia (r. 423–404 BC). He was accused of conspiring against his brother, Artaxerxes II, and sentenced to death (404 BC), but was afterwards pardoned and restored as satrap of Asia Minor. In 401 BC he led an army of Greek mercenaries against his brother, but was killed at Cunaxa. Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and gene…

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Cyrus (Edwin) Dallin

Sculptor, born in Springville, Utah, USA. He grew up in the West, studied in Boston, MA (c.1880–2), in Paris (1888), then settled in Arlington Heights to teach at the Massachusetts State Art School (1900–40). He is known for his American Indian subjects, such as ‘The Appeal to the Great Spirit’ (1908), which stands in front of Boston's Museum of Fine Arts. Cyrus Edwin Dallin (November 2…

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Cyrus (Hall) McCormick

Inventor and manufacturer, born in Rockbridge Co, Virginia, USA. His father, Robert McCormick (1780–1846), patented several agricultural implements, but abandoned his efforts to develop a mechanical reaper in 1831. Cyrus took up the project and patented a reaper in 1834, a year after the US Patent Office had recognized a similar machine. He and his competitors engaged in a fierce rivalry, but the…

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Cyrus (Roberts) Vance - Military and legal career, Political career, Later life and death

Lawyer and public official, born in Clarksburg, West Virginia, USA. He studied at Yale, became a lawyer, and entered government in 1957. He joined the Kennedy administration in 1960, becoming secretary of the army in 1962. President Johnson appointed him deputy secretary of defence (1963), but he later resigned (1969) and returned to private law practice. He was appointed secretary of state (1977)…

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Cyrus Thomas - Biography, Works

Entomologist and ethnologist, born in Kingsport, Tennessee, USA. He was a lawyer and minister turned scientist, and as state entomologist he wrote a report on Illinois insects (1877–82). Appointed archaeology chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1882), he directed a major survey of Indian mounds, and pioneered Maya studies. Cyrus Thomas (July 27, 1825–1910) was a U.S. ethnologist a…

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Cyrus W(est) Field - Early life, Atlantic telegraph cable, Later life

Businessman and financier, born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, USA. The brother of David Dudley Field and Stephen Johnson Field, by 1854 he had become wealthy from his paper manufacturing company and he retired to concentrate on promoting the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. He organized the New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Co (1854) and the Atlantic Telegraph Co (1856). Afte…

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cyst (biology) - Locations, Related structures

Any relatively thick-walled resting cell formed by an organism as a means of dispersal or as a way of surviving a period of adverse conditions. Eggs and spores are often protected in cysts, but whole organisms may also encyst, to re-emerge when favourable conditions return. A cyst may also be a sack that encloses an organism during a dormant period, such as in the case of certain parasites.…

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cyst (medicine) - Locations, Related structures

A benign (non-malignant) swelling within a tissue, very often containing fluid. It is sometimes caused by the blockage of a duct (eg a sweat-gland cyst in the skin), by abnormal embryological development (eg a renal cyst), or by infection (eg an amoebic or hydatid cyst). A cyst may also be a sack that encloses an organism during a dormant period, such as in the case of certain parasites. …

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cystic fibrosis - Symptoms and signs, Diagnosis and monitoring, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Epidemiology, History

A genetically determined disorder that causes the mucous secretions in many parts of the body to become thickened and viscid. One in 25 Caucasians carry the cystic fibrosis gene, and a child will be affected if it inherits the gene from both parents. The thick mucus particularly affects the respiratory and digestive symptoms. It accumulates in the airways, which dilate and are prone to recurrent i…

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cystitis - Types, Causes, incidence and risk factors:, Symptoms, Signs and Tests, Treatment, Expectations, Possible complications, Prevention

Inflammation of the wall of the urinary bladder, usually due to an infection. It induces frequency of urination, with a burning sensation on passing urine. Cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder. There are several types of cystitis: Cystitis occurs when the normally sterile lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) is infected by bacteria and becomes irritated a…

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cytochrome

An iron-containing protein (haemoprotein) found in virtually all aerobic organisms. It functions as an electron-carrier in a variety of oxidation–reduction reactions that take place within living cells during normal metabolism. Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport. cytochrome c) or as subunits of bigger enzymatic comple…

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cytoplasm - Function, Components of the cytoplasm, Differences between the animal and plant cytoplasms

That part of an animal or plant cell enclosed by the cell membrane (plasma membrane) but excluding the nucleus. The cytoplasm contains a range of organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and golgi bodies, each with a specialized function. Cytoplasm is a jelly-like material that fills cells. The cytoplasm consists of cytosol and the cellular organelles, except the cell nucleus. The cytop…

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cytosine

C4H5N3O. A base derived from pyrimidine, one of the four found in nucleic acids, where it is generally paired with guanine. Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The first time any quantum mechanical properties were harnessed to process information took place on August 1st in 1998 …

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Czech Republic - Economy, International rankings, Miscellaneous topics, Reference

Local name ?eská republika One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Images and media from Commons News stories from Wikinews …

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Czechoslovakia - Basic characteristics, History, Heads of state and government, International agreements and membership, Administrative divisions

pop (1992e) 15 605 000; area 127 899 km²/49 369 sq mi. Former federal state consisting of the Czech Republic (W) and the Slovak Republic (E); capital, Prague; official languages, Czech and Slovak; population, 65% Czech, 30% Slovak, with several minorities; unit of currency, the koruna or crown of 100 haler; formerly ruled by Austrian Habsburgs; Czech lands united with Slovakia to form sep…

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D(aniel) Carleton Gajdusek - Work on kuru, Career, Pedophilia, Biographies

Virologist, born in Yonkers, New York, USA. After serving paediatric residencies and performing research on infectious diseases in the USA and abroad, he joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (1958). In 1957 he began a series of expeditions to the Fore tribe of E New Guinea. While investigating kuru, the endemic fatal degeneration of the central nervous system, he found that the disease w…

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D-Day

The term used for a secret date on which a military operation is to begin. Terms such as D-plus-3 (three days after initial attack) are used to plan the sequence of such operations. The most famous D-day is 6 June 1944, when the Allies launched the greatest amphibious operation in history (code-named ‘Overlord’), and invaded German-occupied Europe. By the end of D-Day, 130 000 troops had been l…

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Da Nang - Education, Culture, Administration

16°04N 108°13E, pop (2000e) 445 100. Seaport in Quang Nam-Danang province, C Vietnam; on the South China Sea; site of an important US military base during the Vietnam War; textiles. Da Nang (occasionally Danang; Da Nang is home of two universities Da Nang cultural history dates back only 300 years, so the area is historically new when compared to the 4,000 year e…

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dabbling duck

A duck of the tribe Anatini; obtains food from water surface, or turns vertically ‘tail up’ to feed on vegetation on shallow lake beds, rivers, etc. One species, the mallard, has given rise to various domestic forms. (Subfamily: Anatinae.) The dabbling ducks are a group of eight genera and about 55 species of ducks, including some of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere species. …

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dace

Freshwater fish (Leuciscus leuciscus) widespread in rivers of Europe and Russia; length up to 30 cm/1 ft, body slim; olive-green above, underside silvery white; feeds on aquatic invertebrates and plants, including flying insects at surface; close relative of chub and orfe. (Family: Cyprinidae.) The unmodified name is usually a reference to the common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus) but it may …

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Dachau

48°15N 11°27E. Town NW of Munich and site of one of the first German concentration camps situated in Bavaria. During 1933–45, c.206 000 were interned there of whom c.32 000 died. Today's memorial sites (Gedenkstätten) there are a Carmelite Nunnery (Kapelle der Todesangst Christi, 1960), a Sühnekloster (Hl. Blut, 1963–4), a Jewish memorial (1964), the Protestant Versöhnungskirche (1965–6)…

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dachshund - Appearance, Temperament, History, Miscellaneous

A breed of dog, developed from small terriers in Germany; small, with long back, short legs; long muzzle, pendulous ears; used for hunting (sent into burrows); several sizes: standard, miniature, and rabbit, each with smooth-haired, wire-haired, and long-haired varieties; also known as sausage dog. The Dachshund is a short-legged, elongated dog breed of the hound family. The breed's name is…

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Dacia - Name, Geography, Culture, Religion, Society, Occupations, Language, Political entities, Roman conquest

In antiquity, the name given to the area N of the Danube roughly corresponding to modern Romania. Conquered by the Romans in the early 2nd-c AD, its rich deposits of silver, iron, and gold were actively exploited by them. Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, …

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Dacia Maraini - Life, Works, Sources and further reading

Writer, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. She became known with the novel L'età del malessere (1963), and her subsequent work deals with existential themes, usually related to women's status in modern society. Her works include the collection of poems Crudeltà all'aria aperta (1966), the novels Memorie di una ladra (1972), Isolina (1985), Cercando Emma (1993), and the plays Una donna perfetta…

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Dada - Overview, What is Dada?, History, Poetry, music and sound

A modern art movement founded in Zürich in 1916 which, against the background of disillusionment with World War 1, attacked traditional artistic values. The name was chosen at random from a dictionary. The founders included poets such as Tristan Tzara, as well as artists such as Jean Arp. Important contributors included Duchamp (whose Fountain, 1917 - a porcelain urinal - is perhaps the best-know…

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Daedalus - Daedalus in popular culture, Sources

A legendary Athenian inventor, who worked for King Minos in Crete and constructed the labyrinth. Later he escaped to Sicily with wings he had made for himself and Icarus; there he made the golden honeycomb kept at Mt Eryx. Any archaic work of skill was ascribed to him, and he was a patron saint of craftsmen in Ancient Greece. This article deals with the mythological character Daedalus. For …

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Dafydd ap Gruffydd - Early life, Prince of Wales

Prince of Gwynedd in North Wales, the brother of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. He opposed his brother's accession, but eventually supported him in his battles with the English. He succeeded his brother in 1282, but was betrayed and executed the following year - the last native prince of Wales. Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c.1235 – 3 October 1283) was Prince of Wales from December 1282 until his capture in…

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Dafydd ap Gwilym - Life, Poetry, Bibliography

Poet, born probably in Brogynin, Cardiganshire, W Wales, UK. He wrote love songs, satirical poems, and nature poems in the complex cywydd metre which he perfected, much extending the range of such poetry. His work may be compared with that of the troubadours. Dafydd ap Gwilym (ca.1315/1320-ca.1350/1370), is generally regarded as the greatest Welsh poet of all time and amongst the great poet…

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daguerreotype - History, Daguerreotype process, Proliferation, Demise

An early system of photography established by Louis Daguerre in France in 1839. A silver-plated sheet was sensitized by iodine vapour, and after a long exposure in the camera the image was developed over heated mercury and fixed in a solution of common salt. It became obsolete in the 1850s. The daguerreotype is an early type of photograph in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror…

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dahlia

A tuberous perennial up to 8 m/26 ft high, sometimes an epiphyte, native to mountains from Mexico to Colombia. Several species with large, showy, chrysanthemum-like flower-heads were introduced into cultivation, originally for the tubers, which were eaten as a vegetable; but they are now commonly grown as garden ornamentals. Extensive hybridization has resulted in a great variety of flower colou…

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Dahomey - Kings of Dahomey

W African kingdom based on its capital at Abomey, which in the late 17th-c and early 18th-c extended its authority from the coast to the interior, to the W of the Yoruba states. In the 1720s the cavalry of the Oyo kingdom of the Yoruba devastated Dahomey, but when the Oyo Empire collapsed in the early 19th-c, Dahomey regained its power. The state was annexed by the French in 1883, and regained its…

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daimyo - Daimyo in the Edo period

A Japanese feudal lord, equivalent to a mediaeval baron in Europe. Powerful under the Tokugawa shoguns (1603–1868), daimyo lost power at the Meiji Restoration. They had responsibility for keeping the peace. The amount of rice their domains produced showed their prestige. After the Battle of Sekigahara of 1600 that marked the beginning of the Edo period, shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized t…

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dairy farming - History of dairy farming, The milking operation, Use of hormones and antibiotics

A farming system specializing in the production of milk - usually from cows, but in some regions from sheep, goats, yaks, buffalo, or reindeer. Specialist dairy-cow breeds include Friesians, Ayrshires, and Jerseys; there are also dual beef-and-dairy herds, such as the US shorthorn. Dairy farming is most common in the wetter, temperate parts of the world, where grass grows well and where cows can g…

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daisy

A perennial native to Europe and W Asia (Bellis perennis), with a basal rosette of oval or spoon-shaped leaves; leafless flowering stems up to 20 cm/8 in, each bearing a solitary flower-head; outer ray florets white often tinged red, inner disc florets yellow. It grows in short grassland and garden lawns where regular mowing prevents it from being smothered by taller vegetation. It spreads by sh…

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Dakar

14°38N 17°27W, pop (2000e) 2 183 000. Seaport capital of Senegal, at the S extremity of the Cape Verde peninsula; W Africa's second largest port, serving Senegal and Mauritania; founded, 1857; capital of French West Africa, 1902; part of Dakar and Dependencies, 1924–46; held by Vichy forces during World War 2; capital of Senegal, 1958; airport; railway terminus; university (1957); commerce, …

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Dalai Lama - The succession of Dalai Lamas

Spiritual and temporal head of Tibet, currently Tenzin Gyatso (1935– ), born in Taktser, China, into a peasant family. He was designated the 14th Dalai Lama in 1937, but his rights were exercised by a regency until 1950. He fled to Chumbi in S Tibet after an abortive anti-Chinese uprising in 1950, but negotiated an autonomy agreement with the People's Republic the following year, and for the next…

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Dale Carnegie - Biography, The Dale Carnegie Course, Criticisms of the Course, Books

Writer and public speaker, born in Maryville, Missouri, USA. Interested in public speaking from his youth, he was unsuccessful as a salesman, and moved to New York City where he gave classes in public speaking at the Young Men's Christian Association (1912). Soon he was developing his own courses and writing pamphlets which would eventually be published as books. After army service in World War 1,…

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Dale Chihuly - Exhibitions, Trivia

Glass maker, born in Tacoma, Washington, USA. After gaining his MFA at the Rhode Island School of Design, he began to gain recognition for his work and founded the Pilchuck Glass School near Seattle (1971) to stimulate others to take up the craft of blowing glass. He has become internationally recognized as an innovative creator of colourful blown-glass abstract sculptures and architectural instal…

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Dales pony - Breed characteristics, History of the Dales Pony, The Dales Pony today

A breed of horse, developed in N England; height, 14–14½ hands/1·4–1·5 m/4 ft 8 in–4 ft 10 in; black or brown; sturdy with short legs; strong; formerly used for farm work and carrying loads; now popular for pony trekking. The Dales Pony is a small horse breed native to the eastern Pennines of northern Britain. The Dales is a very hardy breed, an easy-keeper, and posse…

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Daley Thompson

Athlete, born in London, UK. An outstanding decathlete, his first major honour was in the 1978 Commonwealth Games, which he retained in 1982 and 1986. He was world champion (1983), European champion (1982, 1986), and Olympic champion (1980, 1984). He broke the world record four times between 1980 and 1984. Having suffered from injuries, he announced his retirement in 1992. Francis Morgan Th…

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Dalian - Administration, Geography, Economy, Sightseeing and Attractions, Transportation, Cultural life, Sports, Education, Miscellaneous

38°53N 121°37E, pop (2000e) 2 770 000, administrative region 5 246 379. Port city in Liaoning province, NE China; port built (1899–1930) by Japanese; Soviet occupation (1945–54); deep natural harbour, silt-free and ice-free; resort beaches nearby; airfield; railway; designated a special economic zone; diesel engines, shipbuilding, machine tools, chemicals, textiles, glass, fishing (especi…

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Dalkeith - Transport

55º54N 3º04W, pop (2001e) 12 000. Market town in Midlothian, EC Scotland, UK; on the North Esk and South Esk rivers; 10 km/6 mi SE of Edinburgh; town was created a Burgh of Regality (1540) while under the control of the Earls of Morton; ownership passed to the Buccleuch family (1642); birthplace of 9th Earl of Argylle, David Mushet, Peter Tait; Crichton Castle (15th–c), once home to James B…

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Dallas Cowboys - Logo and uniforms, Season-by-season records, Players of note, Head coaches, Broadcasters

American football team, founded in 1960 and self-described as ‘America's team’ following its success in the Super Bowl in the 1970s (1972, 1978) and 1990s (1993–4, 1996). Its record of five Super Bowl wins is a record shared with the San Francisco 49ers. The Cowboys have also been National Football Championship Eastern division champions 14 times and NFC champions 8 times. The Dallas Cow…

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Dalmatia - Definitions, History, Postage stamps, Gallery

A name applied since early times to the strip of territory in the Balkan Peninsula bordering the Adriatic Sea in SW Croatia from the S end of Pag I to Cavtat, S of Dubrovnik; largely mountainous and barren, with few lines of communication to the interior; formerly part of the Greek province of Illyria, settled 6th-c BC; occupied by Slavs, 7th-c AD; harbours at Zadar, Split, Dubrovnik; wine, touris…

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dam - History, Types of dams, Spillways, Other considerations, Examples of failed dams

A barrier constructed to control the flow of water, thus forming a reservoir. Dams are built to allow storage of water, giving a controlled supply for domestic or industrial consumption, for irrigation, to generate hydro-electric power, or to prevent flooding. Large dams are built of earth, rock, concrete or of some combination of these materials (eg earth and rockfill). They are built either as g…

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damages - Compensatory damages, Statutory damages, Punitive damages, Restitutionary or disgorgement damages, Nominal damages, Legal costs

A remedy providing compensation in the form of money for a civil wrong or breach of duty. In breach of contract cases, the compensation aims to put the innocent party in the same position he or she would have been in had the contract been performed as agreed. In tort (delict, in Scotland), the aim is to compensate the plaintiff for the injury, loss, or damage actually suffered. In certain cases, e…

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Daman and Diu - Districts, Economy

pop (2001e) 158 100; area 456 km²/176 sq mi. Union territory in W India; chief town, Daman; island of Diu taken by Portugal, 1534; Daman area N of Mumbai ceded to Portugal, 1539; occupied by India, 1961; part of Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu until 1987. Daman and Diu pronunciation?(help·info) (Gujarātī: દમણ અને દિવ) is a union territory in India. Goa, Dama…

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Damascus - Name, Geography, Historical sites, Born in Damascus, Further References

33°30N 36°19E, pop (2000e) 1 860 000. Capital city of Syria, on the R Barada; claimed to be the world's oldest continuously inhabited city; a world heritage site; in ancient times a great trade and commercial centre; satellite city Dimashq ad-Jadideh; airport; railway; university (1923); famous for its crystallized fruits, brass and copper ware, silks, woodwork; mediaeval citadel (1219), Grea…

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Dame A(ntonia) S(usan) Byatt - Related concepts, 100 Words isn't much

Writer and critic, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK, the sister of Margaret Drabble. She studied at Cambridge, and became a lecturer in English at University College London. Her novels include Virgin in the Garden (1978) and Still-Life (1985), the first two parts of a projected sequence tracing English life from the mid-1950s to the present day, and Possession (1990, Booker). Late…

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Dame Agatha (Mary Clarissa) Christie

Writer, born in Torquay, Devon, SE England, UK. Under the surname of her first husband (Colonel Archibald Christie, divorced 1928), she wrote more than 70 detective novels, featuring the Belgian detective, Hercule Poirot, or the enquiring village lady, Miss Marple. In 1930 she married archaeology professor Max Mallowan, with whom she travelled on several expeditions. Her play The Mousetrap opened …

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Dame Beryl Grey

Ballerina, born in London, UK. She won a scholarship to Sadler's Wells Ballet School at the age of nine, and her first solo appearance at Sadler's Wells Theatre was in the part of Sabrina, in Comus (1941). The youngest Giselle ever, at the age of 16 she was prima ballerina of the Sadler's Wells Ballet (1942–57), and has also appeared with the Bolshoi Ballet in Russia (1957–8) and the Chinese Bal…

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Dame Helen Charlotte Isabella Gwynne-Vaughan - B, C, D, H, I, J, N, P, Q, R, S

Botanist and servicewoman. She studied at King's College, London, and became head and later professor of botany at Birkbeck College, London (1909–44). She was an authority on fungi. In World War 1 she was organizer (1917) and later controller of the Women's Army Auxiliary Air Force in France, and commandant of the Women's Royal Auxiliary Air Force (1918–19). In World War 2 she was chief controll…

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