Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 17

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Cologne - Demographics, Administration, The Coat of Arms of Cologne, Economy, History, Landmarks, Sister cities, Born in Cologne

50°56N 6°58E, pop (2000e) 986 000. Manufacturing and commercial river port in Cologne district, W Germany, on W bank of R Rhine; capital of N Roman Empire (3rd-c); influential centre in Middle Ages; badly bombed in World War 2; major traffic junction and commercial centre, noted for its trade fairs; archbishopric; railway; university (1388); oil refining, chemicals, wine, foodstuffs, vehicles,…

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Colombia - Flag of Colombia, Etymology of Colombia, History, Tourism, Land Use, Politics, Geography, Ethnic Groups, Economy, Demographics

Official name Republic of Colombia, Span República de Colombia Colombia, or formally, the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia?(help·info), IPA [re'puβ̞lika ð̞e ko'lombja]), is the northwesternmost country of South America. Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, to the south by Ecuador and Peru, to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the …

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Colombo - History, Geography and climate, Demographics, Government and politics, Economy, Education, Culture

6°55N 79°52E, pop (2000e) 689 000. Chief city and seaport of Sri Lanka; on the W coast, S of the R Kelani; outer suburb, Sri-Jayawardenapura, the official capital since 1983; settled by the Portuguese in 1517 and by the Dutch in 1656; under British control, 1796; large artificial harbour; British defence base, 1942–5; location of the 1950 Commonwealth Conference which established the Colombo …

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Colombo Plan - Present members

A plan drawn up by British Commonwealth foreign ministers in Colombo, Sri Lanka (Jan 1950), whose purpose was the co-operative development of the countries of S and SE Asia. Colombo also houses the headquarters of the Council for Technical Co-operation, which assists with planning agriculture and industry, health services, scientific research and the training and equipping of personnel. Significan…

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colonnade

A series of columns in or outside a building, usually supporting an entablature, roof, or arches. The most famous example is the enormous 284-column colonnade that forms the Piazza of St Peter's, Rome (1655–67), architect Bernini. In classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, as in the famous elliptically curving…

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Colonsay - Gallery

Island in Argyll and Bute, W Scotland, UK; N of Islay and W of Jura; separated from Oronsay by a low channel which is dry at low water; rises to 142 m/468 ft at Carn Eoim; islet of Eilean nan Ron (SW) is a nature reserve with a breeding colony of grey seals; Augustinian priory. Colonsay [Colbhasa] is an island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, located north of Islay and south of Mull. …

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colony - History, Colonies in ancient civilizations (examples), Modern colonies (examples), Current colonies (examples)

An area of land or a country held and governed by another country, usually for the purpose of economic or other forms of exploitation. It was only in the 20th-c that colonialism became generally regarded as illegitimate, capable of justification only where it was deemed by the international community to be in the longer-term interests of the colonial territory, which usually meant preparation for …

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Colorado - Geography, History, Demographics, Transportation, Law and government, Cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams, Further reading

pop (2000e) 4 301 000; area 269 585 km²/104 091 sq mi. State in WC USA, divided into 63 counties; the ‘Centennial State’; E part included in the Louisiana Purchase, 1803; W part gained from Mexico by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848; settlement expanded after the gold strike of 1858; became a territory, 1861; joined the Union as the 38th state, 1876; contains the Ute Indian reserva…

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Colorado Desert - Photos from the Colorado Desert

Depressed arid region in SE California and N Baja California, USA; part of the Great Basin; area 5000–8000 km²/2000–3000 sq mi; contains the Salton Sea, a shallow saline lake, situated 71 m/233 ft below sea-level. The Colorado Desert is a large arid depression in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of California and the northeastern portion of the Mexican state of Baja Californi…

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Colorado River - Course, Elevation summary

River in SW USA; rises in the Continental Divide, N Colorado; flows through Utah and Arizona (via Marble Canyon and the Grand Canyon), and forms part of the Nevada–Arizona, California–Arizona and Arizona–Mexico borders; empties into the Golfo de California; length c.2350 km/1450 mi; major tributaries the Gunnison, Green, San Juan, Little Colorado, Gila, Virgin; used extensively for irrigation…

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coloratura

Florid ornamentation, or ‘colouring’, of a melody, especially in vocal music. A coloratura soprano is one with a high voice who specializes in such music. The term is correctly applied to any passage sung in this manner by any voice type, but it is also commonly used as a noun to describe operatic soprano roles characterized by flexibility and embellishments such as runs and trills,…

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Colossus of Rhodes - The decision to erect the statue, Construction, Destruction, The myth, The Colossus in modern times

A huge, bronze statue of the Sun-god, Apollo, which bestrode the harbour entrance of the seaport of Rhodes. It was built c.280 BC. The Colossus of Rhodes was a giant statue of the god Helios, erected on the Greek island of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos, a pupil of Lysippos, between 292 BC and 280 BC. It was roughly the same size as the Statue of Liberty in New York, although it stood on …

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colostrum

In mammals, the yellowish milky fluid secreted by the mammary glands immediately before and after giving birth, which is followed by the secretion of the true milk. Colostrum (also known as beestings or first milk) is a form of milk produced by the mammary glands in late pregnancy and the few days after giving birth. Human and bovine colostrum is thick and yellowish. …

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coltsfoot

A perennial with long whitish rhizomes (Tussilago farfara), native to Europe, W and N Asia, and N Africa; leaves all basal, up to 30 cm/12 in across, rounded to shallowly lobed, white-felted beneath; flower-heads bright yellow, solitary on stems to 15 cm/6 in, appearing before the leaves. It is an old herbal medicine for chest complaints. (Family: Compositae.) …

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colugo - Classification

A nocturnal mammal, native to SE Asia; face lemur-like; large gliding membrane along each side of body, extending to tips of fingers, toes, and long tail; lives in trees; eats plant material; closely related to insectivores; only member of the order Dermoptera; also known as flying lemur. (Family: Cynocephalidae, 2 species.) Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. …

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Columba - Early life in Ireland, Scotland, Lasting legacy, Vita Columbae

A small S constellation. Saint Columba (7 December 521 - 9 June 597) is sometimes referred to as Columba of Iona, or, in Old Irish, as Saint Colm Cille or Columcille (meaning "Dove of the church"). He was born to Fedlimid and Eithne of the Uí Néill clan in Gartan, near Lough Gartan, County Donegal. Columba copied the manuscript at the scriptorium under Saint Finnian, int…

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Columbia - Places in North America, Other places in the U.S., Well-known companies

34°00N 81°03W, pop (2000e) 116 300. State capital in Richland Co, C South Carolina, USA; at the confluence of the Broad and Saluda Rivers, which join to form the Congaree R; settled, early 1700s; state capital, 1786; city status, 1854; burned by General Sherman, 1865; airfield; railway; two universities (1801, 1870); commercial and trading centre in a rich farming area; printing; textiles, pla…

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Columbia River - Geography, Missoula Floods, History, Hydroelectric dams

River in NW USA and SW Canada; rises in the Rocky Mts in E British Columbia, flows into Washington state, USA, and enters the Pacific at Cape Disappointment, SW of Vancouver, Washington; length 1953 km/1214 mi; many rapids and falls; major gorge through the Cascade range; source of irrigation and hydroelectric power. The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river situated in Brit…

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Columbiformes

An order of birds encompassing the pigeons, sandgrouse, the extinct dodo, and dodo-like solitaires; also known as Columbae. The order Columbiformes includes two families of birds: the Raphidae, to which the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaires belonged, and the Columbidae, which includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons. …

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Columbus (Mississippi) - Other

33º30N 88º25W, pop (2000e) 26 000. Seat of Lowndes Co, E Mississippi, USA; on the R Tombigbee, 130 km/81 mi N of Meridian; birthplace of Henry Armstrong, Tennessee Williams, Red Barber; university; railway; airfield; processing and shipping centre for cotton; livestock, dairy and timber region; marble quarrying nearby. Columbus may refer to: In the United States: …

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Columbus (Ohio) - Other

39°58N 83°00W, pop (2000e) 711 500. Capital of state in Franklin Co, C Ohio, USA, at the confluence of the Olentangy and Scioto Rivers; laid out opposite the earlier settlement of Franklinton, 1812; state capital, 1824; city status, 1834; railway; three universities (1850, 1870, 1902); air force base; electronics, machinery, fabricated metals, aircraft and automobile parts; centre for research…

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Columbus Day - United States observance, Día de la Raza, Opposition to Columbus Day

A national holiday in the USA, held in most states on the second Monday in October in commemoration of Christopher Columbus's discovery of America (12 Oct 1492). It is also celebrated in several countries of Central and South America. Columbus Day is a holiday celebrated in many countries in the Americas, commemorating the date of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World on October 1…

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column - History, Structure of columns, The Classical orders, Notable columns

A vertical support in a building, usually made up of a base, circular shaft, and spreading capital, and designed to carry an entablature or arch. It is also used as an aesthetic device to add ornament or to divide a space. Occasionally it is built in total isolation as a free-standing object. A column in architecture and structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits…

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Colwyn Bay - Attractions, Famous people, Schools

53º18N 3º43W, pop (2001e) 32 000. Seaside resort town in NW Wales; administrative centre of Conwy unitary authority; railway; theatre; mountain zoo; annual summer fishing festival; tourism. Prior to local government reorganisation in April 1974 Colwyn Bay was a Municipal Borough with a population of c.25,000, but in 1974 this designation disappeared leaving five separate parishes …

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coma (medicine) - Contrasts to other conditions, Distinctive phases of coma, Outcome, Records

A state of unconsciousness from which individuals cannot be roused. Brain functions are progressively depressed, but the vital activities of respiration and constriction of the heart continue. The causes include trauma to the brain, meningitis, alcohol and drug overdosage, and metabolic disorders such as severe kidney and liver failure and complications of diabetes. In medicine, a coma (fro…

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Coma Berenices - Stars

A faint N constellation established in 1551 by Gerardus Mercator. It includes the huge Coma cluster of galaxies, located 100 megaparsec away. …

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Comanche - Comanche History, Culture, Bibliography

Shoshonean-speaking North American Plains Indians who migrated S from Wyoming and became a powerful group, raiding and displacing others (eg the Apache), and challenging white settlers. They were one of the first to acquire horses from the Spanish, and hunted buffalo. The S Comanche were settled on reservations in the mid-19th-c, but the N Comanche held out against the white settlers, finally agre…

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combine harvester - History, Combine Process, Combine harvesters in popular culture, See Also

An agricultural machine which cuts, threshes, and cleans all types of cereals, oilseeds, and legumes. Most combines are now self-propelled, and are equipped for handling grain and seed in bulk. Cereal crops, including pulses, oilseed, and other seed crops, are now universally harvested by the combine harvester. The machine combines four functions: it gathers the crop, threshes the seed from the ea…

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combustion - Types, Chemical equation, Fuels, Temperature, Analysis, Instabilities

A burning, usually in a supply of oxygen to form oxides. The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon yields carbon dioxide and water. The energy associated with the combustion of a mole of a substance is called its heat of combustion. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in t…

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comedy - Comedy drama, Derivation, See also

The formal embodiment of a ‘comic’ view of experience in literary (or other artistic) form: typically, the drama. Although humour and laughter are often involved, comedy need not necessarily be funny. The term is contrasted with tragedy to indicate a play (or other work) with a happy ending, provided by clarification and reconciliation and often symbolized by marriage. Comedy derives from fertil…

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comet - Physical characteristics, Orbital characteristics, Comet nomenclature, History of comet study, Notable comets

A small Solar System body made of ice and dust. Comets are asteroidal in appearance at distances of many astronomical units from the Sun (when they consist of a bare, inactive nucleus) and are often spectacularly active when nearer to the Sun. The characteristic bright head (coma) and streaming tails (both dust and ions) are created by solar heating, which causes sublimation of the ices (and entra…

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comfrey

A bristly perennial, native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; leaves grow to 30 cm/12 in, narrowly oval, rough, the upper with stalks forming wings on the stem; inflorescence coiled; flowers drooping, tubular, or funnel-shaped, white, yellow, or pink in bud, and opening blue. (Genus: Symphytum, 25 species. Family: Boraginaceae.) …

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Cominform - Member Parties

An abbreviation for the former USSR's Communist Information Bureau, and a successor to the Comintern. It was established upon Stalin's orders at a meeting in Poland (Sep 1947), its purpose being the co-ordination of the ‘voice’ and activities of the communist parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, the USSR, and Yugoslavia. Its headquarters were moved from B…

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Comino

36°00N 14°20E; area 2·7 km²/1·04 sq mi. Smallest of the three main islands of the Maltese group, midway between Malta and Gozo; highest point, 247 m/810 ft; harbour for pirates until the 1700s; 20-minute boat trip from the main island; no cars allowed; Blue Lagoon. Comino (Kemmuna) is an island of the Maltese archipelago between the islands of Malta and Gozo in the Mediterranean S…

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Comintern - Origins of the Communist International, The foundation of the Comintern

An abbreviation for the Communist International, founded in Moscow (Mar 1919) at the behest of the Russian Communist Party, its purpose being the rallying of left-wing socialists and communists. It adopted Leninist principles in its policies, rejecting reformism in favour of revolutionary action, which it encouraged against capitalist governments. It was disbanded in May 1943. The Comintern…

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Commagene - History, Nemrut National Park

An area in N Syria, ruled in Seleucid and Roman times by a Hellenized dynasty of Persian (Achaemenid) origin. The Romans suppressed the dynasty in AD 72 because of its pro-Parthian leanings, and made Commagene part of the Syrian province. Commagene (Greek Kομμαγηνή Kommagênê) was a kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near t…

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commensalism

A type of interaction between two different species in which one species (the commensal) derives benefit from a common food supply, while the other species (the host) is not adversely affected. Commensalism is an interaction between two living organisms, where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. Originally it was used to describe the use of waste food by …

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commercial paper - Issuing Commercial Paper

A short-term negotiable instrument for payment of money, such as a bill of exchange. In the USA the term is used to describe a short-term note (between four and twelve months) issued by a company with a very high credit-rating. Commercial paper is a money market security issued by large banks and corporations. As a relatively low risk option, commercial paper returns are not large. …

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Commission for Racial Equality - Commissioners

A body of between 8 and 15 individuals set up in England and Wales under the Race Relations Act (1976) to work towards the elimination of discrimination because of colour, race, nationality, or ethnic origin. The Commission, which is appointed by the home secretary under the 1976 Act, also works to promote equality of opportunity and good relations between racial groups. It is an offence to incite…

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Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) - The CAP, History of the CAP, Criticism of the CAP

One of the most important of the common policies of the European Union (EU). The basic principles behind the CAP (established 1962), or farm-support plan, are free trade for agricultural commodities within the EU, EU preference for domestic production, control of imports from the rest of the world, regional aid policies, and common financing. The objectives of the CAP were stated in the Treaty of …

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common law - History of the common law, Common law legal systems, Basic principles of common law

A source of the law of many countries, derived largely from custom. The system of common law (general) replaced over a period of centuries local courts and customs. In England, Henry II was particularly influential in developing the common law by, for example, sending out royal representatives on circuit. The common law, supplemented by equity, was separately administered by the Courts of the King…

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common seal - Subspecies, Behaviour and reproduction

A true seal native to N Pacific and N Atlantic Oceans (Phoca vitulina); usually grey with dark blotches; may dive deeper than 90 m/300 ft; eats fish, squid, and crabs; also known as harbour seal or hair seal. The Common Seal (UK, Ireland), Harbor Seal (U.S.) or Harbour Seal (Canada), Phoca vitulina is a true seal of the Northern Hemisphere. While it is legal to kill seals wh…

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Commonwealth (British) - International or Multinational, National, Countries that formerly used the style Commonwealth, Subnational

A free association of independent nations formerly subject to British imperial government, and maintaining friendly and practical links with the UK, whose total population comprises 30 per cent of the human race. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster established the British Commonwealth of Nations; the adjective ‘British’ was deleted after World War 2. Most of the states granted independence, begin…

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Commonwealth (English history) - International or Multinational, National, Countries that formerly used the style Commonwealth, Subnational

English republican regime, established in 1649 after the execution of Charles I, and lasting until the Instrument of Government created a Protectorate in 1653. It failed to achieve political settlement at home, but its armies pacified Scotland and Ireland. The Navigation Acts (1650, 1651) and war with the Dutch (1652–4) fostered overseas trade and colonies. The type of community indicated …

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Commonwealth Day - History, Other holidays, Commonwealth Day on stamps

The second Monday in March, celebrated with receptions, educational events, etc throughout the Commonwealth; originally instituted as Empire Day (by which name it was known until 1960) and held on 24 May, Queen Victoria's birthday; from 1967, celebrated in June on the official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II; changed to its present date in 1977. Commonwealth Day is the annual celebration of …

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Commonwealth Games - Boycotts, Editions, List of nations/dependencies to compete, List of sports at the Commonwealth Games

A multi-sport gathering every four years by representatives of the nations of the Commonwealth. The first Games were in Hamilton, Canada in 1930. Edinburgh and Auckland are the only cities to have staged two Games. The 2002 games held in Manchester was the first major multi-sport event to include Elite Athletes with a Disability (EAD). The Commonwealth Games, like the Olympic Games, has als…

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Commonwealth Institute

An organization founded in 1959 to replace the Imperial Institute, itself founded in 1886 to promote commerce and industry between the countries of the British Empire. Based in London and Edinburgh, its main activity is the promotion of the heritage and culture of its member nations. The Commonwealth Institute is an educational charity loosely connected with the Commonwealth of Nations. …

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Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) - Members, History, Role and organization, Moves for further integration

A multilateral group of independent states which were once members of the USSR; formed in December 1991; membership included all the states that once comprised the USSR, with the exceptions of the Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia) and Georgia; Georgia joined in December 1993. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых …

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commune

A settlement of people at village or household level, usually based on the common ownership of material goods. Communes often have a tradition of self-government; this was most clearly expressed in the formation of the Paris Commune in 1871 which challenged the authority of the national government of France. During China's Great Leap Forward after 1958, 98% of the peasantry were organized into 26

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commune

A type of self-government which flourished in N and C Italy in the Middle Ages. It was first seen in N Italy in the 11th-c, when associations formed by local aristocrats to improve political stability managed to win privileges from the imperial authority. Later on (12th–13th-c), to put an end to continuous conflict within the aristocracy, power was entrusted to the podestà. The emerging bourgeoi…

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communication (interaction) - Communication media, Language, Telecommunication, Metacommunication, Animal communication

The sharing of meaning by individuals, groups, or organizations through the conveying of facts, ideas, feelings, values, etc from one party to another. The codes used may be linguistic (as in speech, writing, or signing) or those of non-verbal communication (eg gestures or clothes), but they require to be common to both parties for the most complete sharing of meaning or the fullest communication …

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communication (technology) - Communication media, Language, Telecommunication, Metacommunication, Animal communication

The technical means by which links are established between individuals, organizations, countries, etc for the purpose of the transfer of messages. These involve an initiator, who formulates a message and sends it as a signal (by means of a particular channel) to a receiver, who decodes and interprets the meaning. Communication as a named and unified discipline has a history of contestation …

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communication (transportation) - Communication media, Language, Telecommunication, Metacommunication, Animal communication

A system of routes (road, rail, sea, air) for transporting people and goods from one place to another. Historically used for the movement of troops and supplies, the notion is now more often associated with commercial transactions. Communication as a named and unified discipline has a history of contestation that goes back to the Socratic dialogues, in many ways making it the first and most…

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communication theory - History of communication theory, Communication Theory Framework, Some realms of communication and their theories, More Information

The application of information theory to human communication in general. Communication is seen to involve an information source encoding a message which is transmitted via a channel to a receiver, where it is decoded and has an effect. Efficient, error-free transmission is assumed to be the primary goal, especially in engineering contexts. Attempts to apply this model more generally have been crit…

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communicative competence

The ability to communicate with another person about the whole range of everyday situations and events. In foreign language teaching, this emphasis led to courses being based principally on contemporary spoken and written language about topics such as shopping, travel, leisure, and family life. In examinations, it produced marking schemes where more of the marks were given for oral and written flu…

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communism - Early communism, Marxism, The growth of modern Communism, Cold War years

A political doctrine based on Marxism–Leninism (also called scientific communism) which has as its central tenet the communal ownership of property used in productive processes, and thereby the abolition of private property. While many social and religious communities based on communally shared property have been recorded throughout history, the origins of contemporary communism are associated wi…

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Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) - Branches

The party which controlled political, economic, and social life in the former USSR. It was the only party with the right to put forward candidates in elections, and most of the country's important jobs were controlled by the party. Many posts were confined to party members, who comprised only c.10% of the population. The party was ruled illegal by Boris Yeltsin following the failed 1991 coup, but …

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community politics

An ongoing emphasis by candidates in general and parliamentary elections upon local, rather than national, issues and policies, the suggestion being that national parties pay insufficient attention to local concerns and campaign only during the formal campaign period. The term became popular in the UK following the successful adoption of such tactics by the Liberal Party in the Sutton and Cheam by…

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community property - United States

A legal theory of property ownership in which all of a couple's earnings and property acquired during marriage, subject to certain exceptions (eg gifts and inheritance), are owned jointly by the ‘community’ and divided equally in the event of a divorce; as opposed to separate property, in which each spouse owns his or her own property individually. Many US states have adopted community property …

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Como - History, Famous people, Economy, University, Transportation

45°49N 9°06E, pop (2000e) 96 000. Capital town of Como province, Lombardy, NW Italy, at SW end of L Como; railway; silk, motor cycles, glass, furniture, printing, marble quarrying, food processing, finance and service industries, tourism; marble cathedral (1396), 11th-c twin-towered church of Sant'Abbondio (11th-c), old town largely encircled by mediaeval wall; some Roman remains. …

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Comodoro Rivadavia

45°50S 67°30W, pop (2000e) 135 300. Seaport and largest city in Chubut province, Patagonia, S Argentina; on the Golfo San Jorge, on the Atlantic coast; railway; airfield; university (1961); natural gas pipeline linked to Buenos Aires; oil, petrochemicals. Comisión de Actividades Infantiles Comodoro Rivadavia (mostly known as C.A.I.), is an Argentine football club based in the t…

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Comoros - History, Geography, Government, Media and Culture, Further reading

Official nameFederal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros, République Fédérale Islamique des Comores The country consists of three of the four main islands in the volcanic Comoros archipelago: Grande Comore, Mohéli and Anjouan. Over the centuries, the islands of Comoros were populated by a succession of diverse groups from the coast of Africa, the Persian Gulf, Indonesia, and…

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comparative advantage - Critical analysis of Ricardo's theory

The argument that trade depends on the relative and not the absolute levels of costs of production in different countries. It holds that countries both should and do tend to export goods which their resources make it possible for them to produce relatively cheaply, and to import goods where lack of resources means they can produce only at relatively high cost or not at all. A country with poor nat…

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comparative linguistics

The comparison of the features of different languages or dialects, or the different historical states of a language. In the 19th-c, the concern was exclusively historical, as linguists explored the similarities and differences between languages, and tried to set up common antecedents on the basis of the correspondences they observed to exist between their sounds. In this way, Greek, Latin, and the…

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comparative literature - Overview, Early work, French School, American School, Current developments

The study of literature across national and linguistic boundaries. This developed during the 19th-c in the spirit of Schlegel's Universalpoesie and Goethe's Weltliteratur, and studies by Mme de Staël. Abel François Villemain (1790–1870) introduced the term littérature comparée in 1829; it was taken up by Sainte-Beuve, and there are clear influences on Matthew Arnold in his pursuit of ‘the be…

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comparative method - Terminology, Origin and development

In anthropology, initially an attempt to locate individual human societies within the framework of an evolutionary history of mankind. The aim was to classify societies into types, corresponding to a particular evolutionary level. The term may now apply to any method for comparing different cultures or social institutions. The comparative method (in comparative linguistics) is a technique u…

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comparative psychology - History, Comparative Psychology and the Comparative Method, Species studied, Animal cognition, Disorders of animal behaviour

Studies of the differences among animal (including human) species in behaviour and psychological capacities. It is traditionally concerned with attempts to rank groups of vertebrates in terms of ‘intelligence’, and to relate intelligence to relative brain size and other characteristics. However, it is now accepted that different species cannot be ordered on a single scale of intelligence, but th…

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comparative religion - Fields of study

The objective investigation of the religions of the world by scientific and historical methods. Its approach is descriptive and comparative, and is not concerned with questions of the truth or falsity of the beliefs it examines. Friedrich Max Müller (1823–1917), often called ‘the father of comparative religion’, did much to bring a knowledge of the world's religions to the notice of the Englis…

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compass - History of the navigational compass, Construction of a simple compass, Modern navigational compasses, Solid state compasses

A device for determining a horizontal geographical direction or bearing; invented in China in 1117, and in Europe in 1190. The magnetic compass depends on a magnet, free to rotate in a horizontal plane, locating itself in line with the Earth's magnetic field. It is subject to the irregularity and to the short- and long-period variation of the Earth's field. A compass can be any magnetic dev…

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competence

In linguistics, an idealized conception of language, representing the system of grammatical rules which any speaker of a language subconsciously knows. It is contrasted with performance, the way in which sentences actually appear, containing ‘imperfections’ such as hesitations, false starts, and grammatical errors. …

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Competitors - Edward I steps in, The arguments, Election

In 1290, following the death of Margaret I, Scotland had no obvious heir to the throne and the country was ruled by six Guardians. Fearing civil war, William Fraser, Bishop of St Andrews called upon Edward I of England to adjudicate between thirteen claimants, commonly called Competitors. With the death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 without a male heir, the throne of Scotland had bec…

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compiler - History, Types of compilers, Compiler design, Front end, A compiler example

A computer program which translates (compiles) the source code of a high-level computer language program, such as BASIC, into a set of machine-code instructions which can be understood by the central processing unit. Compilers are very large programs, and contain error-checking and other facilities. A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that translates text written in a comp…

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complementation (genetics)

The process by which two recessive mutant genes at different loci in a chromosome can supply each other's deficiency. An individual carrying both genes (a double heterozygote) appears phenotypically normal. For example, if two dwarfs marry they may have normal children as their genetic deficiencies are at different loci. A complementation test (sometimes called a "cis-trans" test) is used i…

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complex

A psychiatric term coined by Jung to indicate a set of feelings or ideas which influence (usually unconsciously) our behaviour and attitudes. The term also refers to a series of childhood fantasies underlying a neurotic process. …

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complex number - Definitions, Geometric interpretation of the operations on complex numbers, Some properties, Complex analysis, Applications, History

A number that is a pair of real numbers, (a,b). The algebra of complex numbers obeys these laws of addition: (a,b) + (c,d) = (a + c, b + d) and multiplication: (a,b)(c,d) = (ac ? bd, ad + bc). The real part, a, and the imaginary part, b, may be zero. The real numbers are the subset of complex numbers which arise on setting the imaginary part = 0: (a,0). Since (0,1)(0,1) = (?1,0), i…

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component (chemistry)

A substance present in a system, regardless of its state of matter. Water will be a single component, whether it is present as a solid, liquid, gas, or some combination of these. Component may refer to: …

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composition (music)

The process of creating a piece of music capable of being repeated, as well as the piece of music that is eventually created. The emphasis on repetition distinguishes composition from improvisation. The use of a complex system of musical notation ensures repeatability according to the composer's intentions, though in earlier periods (and still in much Eastern music) oral tradition has played a cri…

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comprehensive school - Operation

A school catering for the whole of the ability range; opposed to a selective school, which takes only a section of the population. In countries such as Sweden and the USA, these schools were commonplace for most of the 20th-c. In other places, such as the UK, the non-selective school did not become widespread until the 1960s. Some countries have no comprehensive schools at all, and others operate …

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Compromise of (1850) - Issues, Clay and Douglas draft compromise

A US attempt to resolve conflict over the expansion of slavery by legislation. Its major terms were the admission of California as a free state, and the passage of a strong Fugitive Slave Law to placate the South. The Compromise of 1850 was a series of laws to regulate the spread of slavery in the territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846–48). In five laws balancing the i…

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computational linguistics

The application and development of statistical and computational techniques as part of the study of language. Areas of interest include analysing the frequency of occurrence of particular words to investigate the authorship of a text, the use of computers in speech analysis and synthesis, the study of techniques of automatic (‘machine’) translation, and the development of computational models of…

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computer - History of computing, Stored program architecture, How computers work, Further topics

The modern electronic digital computer is the result of a long series of developments, which started some 5000 years ago with the abacus. The first mechanical adding device was developed in 1642 by the French scientist-philosopher, Pascal. His ‘arithmetic machine’, was followed by the ‘stepped reckoner’ invented by Leibnitz in 1671, which was capable of also doing multiplication, division, and…

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computer art

An art style begun after 1945 when wartime analogue computers were adapted to make abstract drawings; for example, the work of English artist and philosopher, Desmond Paul Henry (1921– ), included in the ‘Cybernetic Serendipity’ exhibition, London, in 1968. However, since the mid-1960s, modern digital computers have been used to produce drawings, paintings, and even sculpture (eg Charles Csuri,…

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computer graphics - 3D, Shading, Image-Based Rendering

The use of computers to display information in graphical or pictorial form, usually on a visual display unit (VDU), a printer, or a plotter. Computer graphics are now used in an increasing number of applications, ranging from the manipulation of highly detailed engineering drawings to computer games, from high definition views in aircraft simulators to automatic production of animated film, even i…

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computer printer - Printing technology, Modern print technology, Obsolete and special-purpose printing technologies, Other printers, Printing mode

A computer output device which produces characters or graphics on paper. Many different types exist, and the optimum choice for any given situation depends on the acceptable cost, printing speed, print quality, and operating noise. A computer printer, or more commonly just a printer, is a device that produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in…

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computer program - Terminology, Program execution, Programming, Trivia

A complete structured sequence of statements in a programming language or languages which directs a computer to carry out a specific task. The task of writing computer programs is known as programming, and the specialists who carry out this task are computer programmers. A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer…

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computer science - History, Major achievements, Relationship with other fields, Fields of computer science, Computer science education

The whole area of knowledge associated with the use and study of computers and computer-based processes. It encompasses computer design and programming, and intercomputer communication, and intersects with a number of other established disciplines such as mathematics, information theory, and electronic engineering. Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foun…

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computer terminal

Any device which can be attached to a computer, possibly over a telecommunications line, to allow a user to interact with the computer. Examples are visual display units and some kinds of personal computers using appropriate software while linked to another computer. A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying…

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computer virus - Distinction between malware and computer viruses, Comparison with biological viruses, Classification, Effects of computer viruses

A term applied to computer programs which can spread from computer to computer, usually via shared software, and damage other programs stored on the computers. The ‘virus’ program is often attached, by the human perpetrator, to a genuine program and is not readily detectable. A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the …

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computer-aided design (CAD) - Introduction, History, Software providers today, Software technologies, Hardware and OS technologies, The CAD operator

The use of computers in various design activities, such as designing the interconnections on printed circuit boards and optimizing the aerodynamic shapes of aeroplanes. CAD makes great use of computer graphics, and generally requires relatively fast computers. Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers, architects and other design pr…

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computer-aided software engineering (CASE)

The use of computer-based tools to assist with the process of designing and implementing computer programs and larger software suites. The acronym CASE also stands for computer-aided systems engineering - the use of computer-based tools to assist with the process of analysing manual business information systems and designing new computer-based systems to replace them. Computer-aided softwar…

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Conakry - Attractions, History, Conakry today, Economy

9°30N 13°43W, pop (2000e) 966 000. Seaport capital of Guinea, W Africa; on Tumbo island, 710 km/441 mi SE of Dakar (Senegal); linked to the mainland by a causeway; established in 1889; airport; railway terminus; technical college (1963); textiles, trade in fruit, iron ore, alumina. Conakry's attractions consist of the Ratoma District. It developed on Tumbo Island at the ti…

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concentration - Qualitative description, Quantitative notation, Techniques used to determine concentration, Table of concentration measures

In chemistry, the number of atoms, molecules, or ions of a substance present in a given volume. It is generally measured in moles per litre or per cubic metre. In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. To concentrate a solution, one must add more solute, or reduce the amount of solvent (for instance, by sel…

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Conceptual Art - History, Examples of conceptual art, Controversy in the UK, Further reading

A movement, dating from the 1960s, where the artist, instead of producing a physical object (eg a painted canvas) presents ideas, often in the form of a written text, a map, or a sound cassette. For example, Claes Oldenburg had a hole dug in Central Park, New York City, then had it filled in again. Others have buried themselves, the event being recorded by photographs taken at various stages. …

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concertina - Concertina Types (Systems)

A portable reed organ similar in principle to the accordion, but hexagonal in vertical cross-section, smaller, and without a keyboard. The English type, fully chromatic, was patented in 1844: it was largely superseded by the fully developed piano accordion early in the 20th-c. The name Concertina refers to a family of hand-held bellows-drive free reed instruments constructed according to va…

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concerto - The Baroque concerto, The Classical concerto, The Romantic concerto, The concerto in the 20th century

A musical work for one or more solo instruments and orchestra. The earliest examples, such as those written by Corelli in the 1680s, were of the concerto grosso type, contrasting two instrumental groups of unequal size. The early concerto with a single soloist is associated above all with Vivaldi, whose three-movement form (fast–slow–fast) was adopted by J S Bach, and remained standard in the co…

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concerto grosso

A musical work in which a small group of instruments (concertino: typically two violins and cello) is contrasted with the full string orchestra (ripieno). The Baroque concerto grosso, in four or more movements, was cultivated with particular distinction by Corelli and Handel. It later declined in favour of the solo concerto, but the title of ‘concerto grosso’ was used by some 20th-c composers (s…

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conch - Anatomy, Playing the conch shell, Religious symbolism, Media

A large marine snail found in shallow seas around coral reefs; the queen conch, Strombus gigas, is abundant in the Caribbean, and is gathered for food and the curio trade. (Class: Gastropoda. Order: Mesogastropoda.) A conch (pronounced "konk" (IPA: /kɒŋk/) or "konch" (IPA: /kɒntʃ/)) is a sea-dwelling mollusk, and more specifically, a marine gastropod. Still, it should be noted that many…

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conciliarism

The theory that the General Council (consisting of all bishops) has supreme authority in the Church. It gained prominence in disputes concerning the authority of the papacy in the W Church in the Middle Ages, but declined after 1460 when Pope Pius II forbade appeals from a pope to a General Council. Interest revived with the recognition of corporate or collegial authority of bishops at the Second …

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Concord (California) - Places, Educational Establishments, Other

37º59N 122º02W, pop (2002e) 121 800. City in Contra Costa Co, W California, USA; located 27 km/17 mi NE of Oakland, just S of Suisun Bay; originally known as Todos Santos (All Saints), the town was renamed c.1869; birthplace of Dave Brubeck; railway; many late 18th-c and early 19th-c buildings; Todos Santos Plaza in city centre. …

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Concord (Massachusetts) - Places, Educational Establishments, Other

42°28N 71°21W, pop (2000e) 17 000. Town in Middlesex Co, E Massachusetts, USA; on the Concord R, 8 km/5 mi NW of Boston; railway; in April 1775 British soldiers attempted to seize military stores in Concord but were resisted by minutemen; battles at Concord (19 Apr) and Lexington marked the start of the American War of Independence; home of Alcott, Emerson, Hawthorne, and Thoreau. …

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Concord (New Hampshire) - Places, Educational Establishments, Other

43°12N 71°32W, pop (2000e) 40 700. Capital of New Hampshire state, USA; in Merrimack County, S New Hampshire, on the Merrimack R; established, 1727; city status, 1853; state capital, 1808; railway; New Hampshire Technical Institute (1964); electrical goods; home of Mary Baker Eddy. …

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Concorde - General features, Technological features, Main problems overcome during design, Passenger experience, Paris crash, Return to service

The world's first supersonic airliner, built jointly by the British Aircraft Corporation and the French company, Aérospatiale. It entered full-time operational service in January 1976. Its maximum speed was 2·2 times the speed of sound, though normal cruising speed was reduced to twice the speed of sound, ie c.2000 kph/1300 mph. The maximum range was c.6400 km/4000 mi, and the time taken to …

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concrete poetry - See Also

Poetry which emphasizes the visual presentation of the poem on the page. Classical inscriptions provide a model, and 17th-c emblem poems are simple examples; Lewis Carroll's ‘Mouse’ in Alice is more playful. The French poets Mallarmé (Un Coup de dés, 1897), and Apollinaire (Calligrammes, 1918) considerably extended visual techniques. Later experiments (notably in South America) have been very …

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condensation (chemistry) - Condensation of water in nature, Applications of Condensation

The combination of two or more substances to form a product, with the elimination of a relatively small side-product. Condensation polymerization usually involves the elimination of water, and is important in the production of synthetic fabrics of the polyester and polyamide varieties. Condensation of vapor into liquid is the opposite of evaporation or boiling and is an exothermic process, …

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condensation (physics) - Condensation of water in nature, Applications of Condensation

The process by which water changes from a gaseous state (water vapour) to a liquid state. It occurs either when a parcel of air becomes saturated, or is cooled to below its dew point temperature. Cooling can result from uplift of air, radiation cooling on a calm cloudless night, or when warm moist air comes into contact with a cooler surface. In such situations, vapour condenses around condensatio…

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condition

In law, a relatively important term in a contract. In English law, breach of condition gives the innocent party the right to treat the contract as terminated. Contracts may also contain express or implied warranties, which may (eg in Scotland), in the event of a breach, justify repudiating the contract. Breach of a warranty in England is considered less important, and does not give the innocent pa…

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conditionality

The practice of lenders, in particular the International Monetary Fund, to impose conditions on the recipients of loans. These conditions include measures such as reducing budget deficits, currency devalution, or liberalization of trade controls. The argument for the IMF imposing conditions when making loans is that it only has finite funds available to help member countries in balance of payments…

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Condoleezza Rice - Early life and education, Academic career, Business career, Political career, Future prospects, Criticisms and responses

US academic and Republican politician, born in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. She studied political science at the University of Denver, graduating at the age of 19, then continued in political science at Notre Dame (MA) and again at Denver (PhD). She started political life as a Democrat, but changed parties in 1982 as a result of Jimmy Carter's Afghanistan policy. She joined Stanford University in 198…

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condominium (politics) - Discussion, Non-residential condominiums, United States, Canada - Ontario

In government, the joint rule, tenancy, or co-ownership of a territory by two or more countries, often suggested as appropriate where ownership of a territory is disputed. For example, the former New Hebrides (now the republic of Vanuatu) was, until 1980, jointly administered by Britain and France. A condominium, or condo for short, is a form of housing tenure. Often, a condomin…

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condominium (sociology) - Discussion, Non-residential condominiums, United States, Canada - Ontario

A type of co-operative ownership of a domestic dwelling. A person owns a unit (an apartment, or flat) in the building, and typically enters into an arrangement with other unit-owners to share the responsibility for the services to the building and the general upkeep of the site. The concept has a long European history, but is particularly associated with property dealing in the USA, where the term…

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condor - Appearance, Behavior

Either of two species of New World vulture; the Californian condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). The Andean condor, which inhabits the mountains, has the largest wingspan of any living bird (up to 3 m/10 ft). The Californian condor is in danger of extinction. (Family: Cathartidae.) Condor is the name for the largest species of New World vultures. …

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conducting - Nomenclature, History of conducting, Conducting technique, Further reading

The task of directing an orchestra, choir, or other musical group in the performance of a musical work. The conductor establishes a musical rhythm and interpretation, signalling this in a performance by conventional hand and arm movements, as well as by movements of the body and facial expression. A thin stick, or baton, held in the right hand, became widely used only in the mid-19th-c to give a c…

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cone

In gymnosperms, a spike-like structure formed of woody, overlapping scales bearing seeds. Clubmosses and horsetails have similar structures bearing spores. The term is also used for the cone-like fruits of some flowering plants. …

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Coney Island - The island, History, The Coney Island amusements, The communities, Education, Coney Island in popular culture

40°35N 73°59W. Public beach and amusement park in the borough of Brooklyn, New York City, USA; on the Atlantic Ocean, near the mouth of the Hudson R; developed as a pleasure resort since the 1840s; New York Aquarium. Coney Island is a peninsula (and formerly an island) located in southernmost Brooklyn, New York City, USA, with a famous beach lying on the Atlantic Ocean. The ar…

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Confederate States of America - History, Government and politics, Economy, Armed forces, Significant dates, Further reading

The official name of the states that seceded in 1860–1, precipitating the American Civil War: Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas. The Confederacy's constitution was modelled on the US Constitution, and its only president was Jefferson Davis of Mississippi. It never won foreign recognition, and collapsed in 18…

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Confederation (Canada) - Confederation as a legal action, Confederation Day, List of entities considered to be confederations

A movement in the 1860s devoted to the unification of the British North American colonies within a federal framework. New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario were so joined in 1867. The stimulus for confederation included threats emanating from the USA, declining British interests in the colonies, ambitions to link up with British Columbia, and proposals for an expensive railway building p…

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Confederation of British Industry (CBI) - Lobbying, Research, Organisation

A federation of UK employers, founded in 1965, with a membership of over 250 000 companies. Its role is to ensure that the needs, intentions, and problems of business organizations are generally understood. It carries out surveys and research into matters affecting business, and expresses opinions to government on matters that affect its members. The Confederation of British Industry (CBI)…

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Confederation of the Rhine - Member monarchies (alphabetically), Aftermath

(1806–14) A union of all the German states except Prussia and Austria, established by Napoleon I on the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The 18 states were placed under French control to assist the French war effort, although the long-term effect was to stimulate the movement for German unification. After Napoleon's defeat in Russia (1813), its members, by changing their allegiance i…

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Confessing Church

A Church formed in Germany by Evangelical Christians opposed to Nazism and the Nazi-supported ‘German Christian Church Movement’. Its Synod of Barmen published the Barmen Declaration (1934), which became influential in Germany and beyond as a basis for resistance to oppressive civil authorities. It was succeeded in 1948 by the ‘Evangelical Church in Germany’. The Confessing Church (Beke…

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confession (of faith) - Confession in different churches, Confession of faith, Confession as remains of a Saint

A declaration or profession of faith, originally by an individual martyr, later by a group or church. Such a document became common after the Reformation. Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. Confession of one's sins, or at least of one's sinfulness, is seen by most churches as a pre-requisite for becoming a Christian. In Catholic tea…

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confession (of sin) - Confession in different churches, Confession of faith, Confession as remains of a Saint

An acknowledgment of sin, made either corporately in the course of public worship or privately and individually as auricular confession, ‘into the ear’ of a priest. Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. Confession of one's sins, or at least of one's sinfulness, is seen by most churches as a pre-requisite for becoming a Christian. In …

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conformation

In chemistry, the arrangement of atoms of a molecule relative to other atoms to which they are not bonded. For example, the structure of ethane (shown at ethane) illustrates its most stable conformation, in which the hydrogen atoms interact as little as possible. Conformation generally means structural arrangement. …

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Confucius - Personal life and family, Teachings, Names, Philosophy, Disciples, Home town, Descendants, Further reading

Chinese philosopher, born in the state of Lu (modern Shantung). Largely self-educated, he married at 19, became a local administrator, and in 531 BC began his career as a teacher. In 501 BC he was appointed Governor of Chung-tu, then minister of works, and later minister of justice. His ideas for social reform made him the idol of the people; but his enemies caused him to leave Lu, and he travelle…

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conga - Terminology, Playing the Congas, Tuning the Congas

An Afro-Cuban dance usually performed (often with singing) in a long line, using simple and repetitive steps. It was popular in Western ballrooms in the mid-20th-c, and continues to be danced spontaneously at informal parties. The conga is a tall, narrow, single-headed Cuban drum of African origin, probably derived from the Congolese Makuta drums. Although ultimately derived from African dr…

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Congo

Official name Republic of the Congo (1991), formerly People's Republic of the Congo (from 1968), Fr République du Congo Congo is a name shared by two neighbouring countries in Central Africa, largely drained by the Congo River, and usually distinguished by their full official names and occasionally by adding their capital cities. It was long a French colony, most of the time called M…

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Congress - Political congress, Non-political congress

The national, or federal, legislature of the USA, consisting of two elected chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Unusually powerful for a modern legislature, Congress can initiate legislation, and significantly amend or reject presidential legislative proposals. The constitution endows it with the ‘power of the purse’, as all revenue bills must originate in the House. For a bil…

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congress - Political congress, Non-political congress

A large, especially international, assembly of delegates gathered for discussion. A congress is different from a parliament (Westminster System of Government) in that legislative initiative is vested into it. Countries with Congresses within a presidential system: Other Countries with Congresses: Congress is included in the name of several political parti…

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Congress of Racial Equality - Foundation, Civil rights campaign, Internal disagreements, CORE since 1968, Criticism

A prominent US civil rights organization which campaigns for the rights of African-Americans, and which was particularly involved in the attack on discrimination and racism in the 1960s. It still exists, and is regarded as one of the more militant black rights organizations. The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil R…

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congruence

In mathematics, a type of equivalence between expressions. Numbers b and c are said to be congruent relative to a number a if a divides the difference of b and c: a is called the modulus (mod) of the congruence. We write b­c mod a, eg 12­2 mod 5. The algebra of congruences was devised by Gauss. In mathematics, congruence is formally represented by a triple-tilde , whereas approximation is…

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Coniston Water - Geography, History, Steam Yacht Gondola, Gallery

Lake in the Lake District of Cumbria, NW England, UK; W of L Windermere and Grizedale Forest; length 9 km/6 mi; village of Coniston on NW shore; on E shore is Brantwood, former home of John Ruskin; Old Man of Coniston rises to 802 m/2631 ft in the W; scene of world water speed record by Malcolm Campbell in 1939; Donald Campbell killed here in 1967 trying to break this record. Coniston W…

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conjecture - Famous conjectures, Use of conjectures in conditional proofs, Undecidable conjectures

In mathematics, a result which is believed to be true but which currently eludes proof, and which is offered by its proposer as a worthwhile challenge. Conjectures should rest on an abundance of evidence, or be known to be true in many special cases, but some have merely a high degree of intrinsic plausibility, while others indicate the goals of an ambitious research programme and are less likely …

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conjugation (biology)

A process of sexual reproduction during which individuals of the same species but different mating types (strains) pair and exchange limited amounts of genetic material. It is found in unicellular micro-organisms, such as bacteria and protozoans. Conjugation is also used to describe related processes, such as the union of similarly-sized gametes in some green algae (eg Spirogyra) and some fungi. …

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conjugation (chemistry)

The real or apparent alternation of single and double bonds in a compound. In science: …

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conjugation (linguistics)

The scheme of inflections which mark contrasts of tense, person, and number in verbs. Latin and Greek had complex conjugational systems; English has very few verbal inflections (eg -ing, -ed, -en); by comparison, French and German are intermediate in complexity. In science: …

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conjunction (astronomy) - Conjunctions of planets in right ascension 2005-2020

The alignment of two celestial bodies seen from Earth, for example a planet with the Sun. The outer planets, further than we are from the Sun, are at conjunction when they lie directly behind the Sun. Mercury and Venus, the planets closer than Earth to the Sun, have two types of conjunction. They are said to be at inferior conjunction when they lie between us and the Sun, and at superior conjuncti…

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conjunctivitis - Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and management

Inflammation of the membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelids and the front surface of the eye (the conjunctiva). It may be caused by infections, foreign bodies, or chemicals. It results in a feeling of grittiness in the eyes, and is associated with stickiness of the eyelids and a discharge. The whites of the eyes are red and bloodshot. Conjunctivitis (commonly called "pinkeye" in …

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Conlon Nancarrow

Composer, born in Texarkana, Arkansas, USA. He pursued both jazz and classical studies in his youth and in 1937 fought in the Spanish Civil War. Three years later he settled in Mexico City, where he created a series of unique, highly complex works for pianola by working directly on the piano rolls. He emerged from relative obscurity by way of a 1982 ‘genius’ award from the MacArthur Foundation. …

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Connecticut - Geography-Climate, Education, Sports teams, Trivia

pop (2000e) 3 405 000; area 12 996 km²/5018 sq mi. A state in NE USA, divided into eight counties; the ‘Constitution State’, ‘Nutmeg State’ or ‘The Insurance State’; densely populated; explored by Adriaen Block, 1614; one of the original states of the Union, fifth to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1788; capital, Hartford; other chief cities, Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Stamfo…

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connectionism - Basic principles, History

A form of computer modelling in which information-processing is carried out by a network of inter-connected units, with some similarity to information-processing in the brain. It is sometimes called parallel distributed processing, because information is processed in many parts of the network simultaneously, and specific information is not localized at a particular point in the network. Con…

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connective tissue - Classification, Fiber types, Disorders of connective tissue

Tissue which binds together and is the ground substance of various parts and organs of the body. The character of the tissue depends on the organization of its constituent cells and fibres (eg the amount of collagen it contains). In the embryo, it forms a loose cellular network known as mesenchyme, from which develop such specialized connective tissues as bone, cartilage, blood cells, and fat. …

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Connemara - Notable towns and villages in Conamara

Mountainous region in W Galway county, W Ireland; W of L Corrib; rocky coastline with mountains rising to 765 m/2510 ft at Croagh Patrick in the Twelve Bens; peat bogs; numerous lakes. Conamara (anglicised Connemara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland comprising of a broad peninsula between Killary…

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Connie Chung - Trivia

Television journalist, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. She began her career as a newswriter in 1969, becoming the highest paid local presenter in the country at CBS's KNXT-TV in Los Angeles (1976–83). She moved to National Broadcasting Company News (1983–9) as a correspondent and presenter for various shows, including News at Sunrise. Returning to CBS (1989), she presented Face to…

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connotation - Definition, Logic

In linguistics, the emotional associations connected with the meanings of words; for example green carries implications of ‘youth’ and ‘inexperience’. It is contrasted with denotation, the objective reference a word has to an object ouside language, such as the physical properties of a colour. This word has distinct meanings in other fields: see connotation (semiotics) and connotation a…

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conquistador - Background, Debate on the Human Rights of Natives, List of Famous Conquistadores and Explorers

The standard term for the leaders of the Spanish expeditions of the early 16th-c that undertook the invasion and conquest of America. Conquistador (Spanish: [koŋ.kis.t̪a'ð̞oɾ]) (meaning "Conqueror" in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the…

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Conrad (Arnold) Elvehjem

Biochemist, born in McFarland, Wisconsin, USA. He studied and spent his entire career at Wisconsin University, ultimately as president (1958–62). In 1937 he showed that nicotinic acid cured two related deficiency diseases, canine blacktongue and human pellagra; it is now known as vitamin B6. He also showed that certain elements are essential in animal nutrition at trace levels, including copper, …

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Conrad (Emil Lambert) Helfrich

Dutch admiral, born in Semarang, Indonesia. In 1942 he succeeded the American Hart as supreme commander of the Allied Navies in the Far East (ABDA fleet). He could not get authority to attack until Hart had gone, and then it was too late. He has sometimes been blamed, particularly by Americans, for giving the orders to attack the Japanese, which led to the Battle of the Java Sea resulting in the d…

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Conrad (Nicholson) Hilton

Hotelier, born in San Antonio, New Mexico, USA. He became a partner in his father's general store, expanding the business after his father's death, and buying the Mobley Hotel in Cisco. This led to the purchase of other hotels in Texas, and by 1939 he was buying or starting up hotels further afield. The Hilton Hotels Corporation was formed in 1946, becoming the Hilton International Company (1948),…

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Conrad (Potter) Aiken

Poet and novelist, born in Savannah, Georgia, USA. He studied at Harvard, and made his name with his first collection of verse, Earth Triumphant (1914). His Selected Poems was awarded the 1930 Pulitzer Prize. He also wrote short stories and novels, including the autobiographical novel Ushant (1952). Conrad Potter Aiken (August 5, 1889 – August 17, 1973) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning Americ…

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Conrad Ferdinand Meyer - Works

Writer, born in Zürich, N Switzerland, a leading Realist. Fluent in both German and French, he opted for the former following the establishment of the German Reich. In the poetic field, the Balladen (1867) and Romanzen und Bilder (1871) culminated in such symbolical works as Der römische Brunnen and Zwei Segel (Gedichte, 1882). Best remembered for his novellas, which were frequently concerned wi…

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Conrad Martens

Landscape painter, born in London, UK. He studied in London, and in 1833 was appointed by the commander of HMS Beagle, Robert Fitzroy, as a topographer for the voyage with Charles Darwin from Rio de Janeiro to Valparaiso. In 1835 he arrived in Sydney, where he set up a studio and began teaching. His favourite subject was Sydney harbour, and a set of lithographs, ‘Sketches of Sydney’, was publish…

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consciousness - Etymology, Philosophical approaches, Cognitive neuroscience approaches, Physical approaches, Free will and consciousness, Spiritual approaches

The psychological state of being aware. Several different meanings can be distinguished, including the state of being awake (in contrast to unconscious) and the state in which mental experiences are directly accessible and reportable (in contrast to subconscious or preconscious). William James stressed the continuity of consciousness (the ‘stream of thought’). Cognitive psychologists have emphas…

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conscription - History, The gender issue, Conscientious objection, Draft evaders, Draft resisters, Deserters

The practice, dating from the Napoleonic era, of compelling young men of eligible age and fitness to serve by statute in the armed forces of a nation. To meet the huge manpower needs of World War 1, conscription was introduced in Great Britain in early 1916 and then in the USA under the Selective Service Act (May 1917). Conscription was again enforced in Britain from 1939–45, continuing in peacet…

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conservation (earth sciences)

The protection and preservation of the Earth's resources (eg plants, animals, land, energy, minerals) or of historical artefacts (eg books, paintings, monuments) for the future. The term is most widely used with reference to the environment, where several reasons are given for conservation. The World Conservation Strategy (1980) concluded that conservation of living resources was needed to preserv…

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conservation (psychology)

The hallmark of the concrete operations stage in Piagetian psychology. It is the ability to understand the invariance of such properties as number or volume, despite a change in appearance, eg that a row of counters which is lengthened by increasing the space between them represents the same number. Conservation refers to an ability in logical thinking according to the psychologist Jean Pia…

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conservatism - Development of thought, Schools of Conservatism, Ideological interaction and influence

A set of political ideas, attitudes, and beliefs which stress adherence to what is known and established in the political and social orders, as opposed to the innovative and untested. Generally associated with right-wing political parties, conservatives view humanity as inherently imperfect, emphasizing the need for law and order and the value of tradition. Society is often seen as an organic whol…

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Conservative Party

One of the two main political parties in the UK, its full name being the Conservative and Unionist Party due to its adherence to union of the countries making up the UK. In common with other conservative parties it is on the right of the political spectrum, though in the 1980s it fused conservative with radical neo-liberal ideas. It developed out of the Tory Party in the 1830s, and spent long peri…

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consols

Loan-stock issued by the British government, first introduced in 1751; the name derives from consolidated fund. It is a form of gilt-edged stock, but ‘undated’ - no redemption date is given for the return of the capital. In 1757, the coupon rate on the stock was reduced to 3%, leaving the stock as Consolidated 3% Annuities. In 1888, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Joachim Goschen,…

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consonant

A sound made with a closure or narrowing of the vocal tract, so that the airflow is either momentarily impeded or restricted. For example the lips close to produce a [p], and the tongue contacts the palate in producing an [s]. Consonants occur at the beginning or end of a syllable, eg cup. The notion is also used with reference to the written language: in English, for example, all letters apart fr…

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Constance - Location, History, Konstanz today, Twin Towns, Transport

47°39N 9°10E, pop (2000e) 77 400. Lake port in Tübingen district, SW Germany, on L Constance, on the Swiss border; former episcopal see and imperial city; railway; university (1966); tourism, commerce, wine, computers, metals, pharmaceuticals, textiles; council hall (1388), cathedral (15th-c). Coordinates: 47°40′N 9°11′E Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constanc…

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Constance Baker Motley

Lawyer and judge, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. While a student at Columbia University (1946 LLB), she worked as a clerk for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's legal defence and education fund, then took a full-time post there (1946–65). She successfully argued nine cases before the US Supreme Court, including those of James Meredith and Autherine Lucy. In 196…

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Constance Fenimore Woolson - Life and writings, Critical evaluation

Writer, born in Claremont, New Hampshire, USA. The great-niece of James Fenimore Cooper, her family moved to Cleveland, OH when she was young, and she studied there and in New York City. She travelled with her mother in various parts of America, and wrote travel sketches and regional stories for periodicals, such as Castle Nowhere: Lake Country Sketches (1875). From 1879 she lived in Europe, where…

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Constant Lambert - Major works

Composer, conductor, and critic, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal College of Music, London, became conductor of the Sadler's Wells Ballet (1928–47), and was also known as a concert conductor and music critic, notably in Music Ho! (1934). His best-known composition is the choral work in jazz idiom, The Rio Grande (1927). Other works include the ballets Pomona (1927) and Horoscope (1938)…

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Constant Permeke

Painter and sculptor, born in Antwerp, N Belgium. He studied at Bruges and Ghent, and later settled in Laethem-Saint-Martin, where he became the leader of the modern Belgian Expressionist school. After 1936, he concentrated primarily on the sculpture of nudes and torsos. Permeke was born in Antwerp but when he was six years old the family moved to Ostend, where his father became curator of …

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Constant Troyon

Painter, born in Sèvres, NC France. A member of the Barbizon Group, he specialized in landscapes, and particularly in animals. Many of his paintings are in the Louvre, and two are in the Wallace Collection, London. Constant Troyon (August 28, 1810 - February 21, 1865), French painter, was born on Sévres, near Paris, where his father was connected with the famous manufactory of china. …

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Constantijn Huygens - Biographical notes on Constantijn Huygens, Bibliography

Poet, born in The Hague, W Netherlands. He received an excellent education, studied law at Leiden University, travelled as a diplomat to England on several occasions, and became a secretary to the Orange family, the stadtholders. His poems are intelligent, clever, and witty, showing his great erudition, and he was also knowledgeable in music and painting. Among his many international friends and c…

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Constantin Brancusi - Life, Legacy, Quotations, Selected works

Sculptor, born in Pestisani, W Romania. He won a scholarship to the Bucharest Academy and arrived in Paris in 1904. ‘The Kiss’ (1908) was his most abstract sculpture of the period, representing two block-like figures. His ‘Sleeping Muse’ (1910) shows Rodin's influence, but is the first of his many characteristic, highly polished egg-shaped carvings. Other works include several versions of ‘Ma…

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Constantin Rossi

Popular singer, born in Ajaccio, Corsica. With 200 million records sold, he appeared in a number of films over a period of 30 years, which exemplified his image as a suave seducer of women, including Le Chanteur inconnu (1947, director A Cayatte) and Fièvres (1942, director J Delannoy). Tino Rossi (April 29, 1907 — September 26, 1983) was a singer and film actor. Born Constan…

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Constantine - People called Constantine, Places called Constantine, In Music, In Comics

36°22N 6°40E, pop (2000e) 549 200. Chief town of Constantine department, NE Algeria, N Africa; 320 km/200 mi SE of Algiers; oldest city in Algeria, important since the 3rd–4th-c BC; Roman provincial capital of Numidia; destroyed in AD 311 during a civil war, rebuilt by Constantine I; seat of successive Muslim dynasties in Middle Ages; prospered under Turks in the 18th-c; French occupation i…

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Constantine (Emperor) I - Life, Constantine and Christianity, Constantine and the Jews, Reforms, Constantine's Courts and Appointees

Roman emperor, born in Naissus, Moesia (Nis in modern Serbia), the eldest son of Constantius Chlorus. Though proclaimed emperor by the army at York on his father's death in 306, it was not until his defeat of Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in Rome (312) that he became emperor of the West; and only with his victory over Licinius, the emperor of the East, that he became sole emperor (324). Believin…

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Constantine (of Greece) I - Life, Constantine and Christianity, Constantine and the Jews, Reforms, Constantine's Courts and Appointees

King of Greece (1913–17, 1920–2), born in Athens, Greece. He played a leading part in Greece's victories in the Balkan Wars (1912–13), and succeeded his father, George I, as king. During World War 1, his policy of neutrality led to bitter conflict with interventionist forces led by liberal politician Venizelos, culminating (1916–17) in virtual civil war, Anglo–French intervention, and his abd…

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Constantine (of Greece) II

King of Greece (1964–73), born near Athens, Greece, who succeeded his father Paul I. In 1964 he married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark (1946– ), and has two sons and a daughter. He fled to Rome in 1967 after an abortive coup against the military government which had seized power, and was deposed in 1973. The monarchy was abolished by a national referendum in 1974. There have been several …

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Constantino Brumidi - Parentage and early life, Emigration

Painter, born in Rome, Italy. He emigrated to New York City in 1852, escaping from political troubles in Rome. Said to be the first painter of frescoes in America, he decorated many government buildings in Washington, DC including ‘Cincinnatus at the Plow’ (1855) in the Agricultural Committee room, and the frieze in the Rotunda of the Capitol (c.1875–80). Constantino Brumidi (July 26, 18…

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Constantius Chlorus - History, Legend

Roman emperor, the nephew of Claudius II Gothicus and the father of Constantine the Great. He took the title of Caesar in 292, had Britain, Gaul, and Spain as his government, and, after re-establishing Roman power in Britain and defeating the Alemanni, took the additional title of Augustus in 305. Flavius Valerius Constantius (March 31 c. 250–July 25, 306) was an emperor of the Western Ro…

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constellation - Explanation, History of the constellations, Greek constellation myths, Chinese constellations, Star names

From ancient times, a group of stars that form a recognizable shape or picture. The stars in most constellations are not genuinely related, but lie at greatly different distances from the Solar System. Different cultures have their own ways of delineating the constellations. The system in use by astronomers today has its origins in ancient Mesopotamia, and still includes many names from Greek myth…

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constipation

A condition in which there is infrequent and difficult emptying of the bowel. The interval between bowel movements varies widely in healthy individuals. However, a period of more than three days, especially if followed by difficult defaecation, suggests constipation. It results from the delayed transit of faeces through the colon, or its retention in the rectum, and may be due to inadequate dietar…

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constituency - Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, India, Singapore, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States

A territorial division that in many countries serves as a unit in the election of one or more political representatives to national assemblies. Population usually serves as the main criterion in determining the size of each constituency, but variations exist across political systems. For example, in the USA 435 people are elected to the House of Representatives from constituencies with roughly equ…

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constitution - Etymology, General features, Governmental constitutions, Constitutional courts

Usually a written document which contains the rules determining the way that a country may be governed in terms of the sources, purpose, use, and limits upon the exercise of political power. The UK is one of a few exceptions in having an unwritten constitution, although in all countries the identification of constitutional principles include reference to statute law, judicial interpretation, tradi…

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Constructivism

An imprecise term usually applied to a form of abstract art that began in Russia in 1917, using machine-age materials such as steel, glass, and plastic. Leading practitioners were Vladimir Tatlin (1885–1953), who projected the gigantic spiral monument to the Third International, and the brothers Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo. In Russia this impetus was soon channelled into industrial design (Sovi…

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consubstantiation

A theory attributed to Luther, describing the presence of Christ in the Eucharist ‘under or with the elements of bread and wine’. It is to be contrasted with the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. Consubstantiation is a theological doctrine that, like the competing theory of transubstantiation, attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in concrete metaphysical…

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consul (Roman history) - Ancient Rome, Other uses in antiquity, In Feudal times, Modern republics, Sources and references

In Republican Rome (5th-c–1st-c BC), a chief executive officer of state, with military and judicial functions. Two consuls were elected annually. The consulship was the highest office in the cursus honorum and could not be held before the age of 36. Under the Empire, it became mainly honorific. After the mythical expulsion of the last Etruscan King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and the ending…

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consumer protection - Consumer law, Consumer advocacy groups

Activities devised to protect buyers of goods and services against inferior or dangerous products and misleading advertising. These may be statutory (eg the USA Food and Drug Administration, established in 1927, and the British Sale of Goods Act, established in 1893) or by means of a voluntary code within an industry. They may also be introduced through consumer organizations, as in the movement l…

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consumerism - History, Usage, Criticism, Counter arguments, Other

The promotion of policies aimed at regulating the standards of manufacturers and sellers in the interests of buyers. The stimulus may come from government, through legislation, from an industry itself, through setting up codes of practice, or from consumer pressure groups. Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions …

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consumption (economics) - Keynesian economics and aggregate consumption, Studies, Bibliography

The part of national income used to satisfy immediate human needs. This includes both consumer spending by individuals or families, and government consumption. Consumption is contrasted with investment, or spending to create the means of future production. For most countries consumption is the largest component of national expenditure. Consumer goods are divided between consumer non-durables, such…

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contact - Titles

In England and Wales, under the Children Act (1989), a concept which replaced the former concepts of access and custody of a child by a parent or guardian during or after divorce, judicial separation, or the annulment of a marriage. Court orders made under the 1989 Act are known as Section 8 orders, and include residence orders, which formalize arrangements about where a child is to live, and cont…

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contact lens - History, Types of contact lenses, Manufacturing of contact lenses, Prescribing contact lenses, Complications, Usage

A disc of plastic which fits over the front of the eye, usually to correct vision problems, in the same way as spectacles. Coloured contact lenses can change the apparent colour of the eye, generally for theatrical or cosmetic reasons. Contact lenses first became available in the 1930s. Early devices, called scleral or haptic lenses, covered the complete front of the eyeball. Modern lenses are the…

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container ship

A cellular ship, designed to carry 6 m/20 ft or 12 m/40 ft boxes in predetermined positions, thus largely dispensing with the lashing or stowage problems associated with traditional cargo. The first purpose-built ships were commissioned in 1966 by a British company. By the early 1990s there were 26 million gross tonnes of container ships in the world, with a deadweight capability of over 28 mi…

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containment - Overview, History

The policy adopted by the USA and thereafter her Western allies aimed at containing, by political, economic, and diplomatic means, the ‘expansionist tendencies’ of the USSR. The policy, first advocated in 1947, also involved the provision of technical and economic aid to non-communist countries. Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of t…

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containment building

A steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor, designed to withstand high pressure and high temperature and, in an emergency, to contain the escape of radiation. Such a building must also withstand external hazards, such as high winds and heavy snow. A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. It is designed to,…

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contempt of court - England and Wales

A wide-ranging term which includes failure to comply with an order of the court, and conduct which obstructs the process of the court or is disrespectful to it (eg by intimidating witnesses or causing a disturbance in court). A person in contempt may be committed to prison or fined. Conduct may be treated as contempt of court under the ‘strict liability rule’, regardless of intent. An example of…

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continent

A term applied to the seven large land masses on the Earth's surface: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia, in decreasing order of size. The continents (including the submerged continental shelves) make up about 35% of the Earth's crust, the rest being made up of the oceanic plates. The thickness of the crust below the continents is 30–40 km/15–25 mi, a…

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Continental Congress

(1774–88) The gathering that declared and led the struggle for American independence. Each of the 13 colonies (states after 1776) had one vote. The First Congress met for six weeks in 1774. The Second (convened Apr 1775) did not formally dissolve until replaced by the government under the present Constitution, adopted in 1788. The Continental Congress is the label given to three successive…

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continental drift - Various data, Evidence, Debate

A theory which proposes that the present positions of the continents and oceans results from the breaking up of a single large land mass or ‘supercontinent’, termed Pangaea, c.200 million years ago. The idea is generally ascribed to Alfred Wegener (1910) but gained little support until the 1960s, when the theory of plate tectonics was established. Continental drift, first proposed as a th…

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Continental System

The process of economic warfare introduced by Napoleon to destroy British commercial power, after Trafalgar put paid to his invasion plans. The Decrees of Berlin (1806) and Milan (1807) established a blockade of European and neutral trade with Britain and her colonies. Britain responded by issuing Orders in Council which blockaded the ports of France and her allies and allowed them to trade with e…

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contract - Comparison of contract and tort law, Scope of common law contract law, Validity of contracts

An agreement intended either expressly or by implication to be legally enforceable. A contract has certain essential features. It arises from an offer which has been accepted in identical terms. Unless there is (in the terminology of English law) a promise under seal (ie a covenant), there must (in English but not Scots law) be consideration - that is, the promisee must confer some benefit or suff…

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contrapposto

In art, a pose in which the top half of the body is turned in a different direction from the lower. It occurs in classical sculpture, and was much used in 16th-c Italy, for example by Michelangelo and the Mannerists. Classical Contrapost (or Italian Classical Contrapposto) is a term most commonly used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing so that its shoulders and arms twis…

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contrast

In the visual medium, the relation between the light and dark areas of a scene or their reproduction by photographic or electronic means. It is expressed numerically as the brightness range of the subject or the gamma value of a process. A contrast is a distinction between 2 ideas, objects or colours. A large contrast is a big difference, and contrasting objects are boldly different. …

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control character - In ASCII, How control characters map to keyboards, The design purpose

A non-printing character or code which, when sent to a computer peripheral, causes a specific operation to take place. Examples are carriage return and line feed characters which make the printer operate in a particular way. In computing, a control character or non-printing character (non non-printing characters, are printing or printable characters except perhaps by the "space" character, …

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control engineering - Background, Control systems

The branch of engineering concerned with the control and adjustment of systems. A human operator need not be involved. Control is achieved by using closed loop systems: when an error is detected, the information is returned to the input and used to correct the error - a system known as feedback. Control engineering uses servo-mechanisms as automatically-operating control devices, as found in measu…

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convection - Free and forced convection, Atmospheric convection, Mantle convection, Pattern formation

The flow of heat by the actual movement of a gas or liquid. For example, air warmed by a fire expands, becomes less dense, and so rises, creating a convection current as fresh cool air is drawn in to replace the warmed air. Convection currents spread heat round a room. Forced convection takes place when heated fluid is forced to move, as in hot water heating systems. Convection is the inter…

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convergence (biology) - Mathematics, Natural sciences, Social sciences

The independent evolution of a structural or functional similarity, not based on an inherited similarity of genetic material, in two or more unrelated organisms as an adaptation to a particular way of life. For example, the similarities between a bird and a bat that are related to their ability to fly are the result of convergent evolution. In the absence of a more specific context, converg…

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convergence (linguistics) - Mathematics, Natural sciences, Social sciences

The process whereby variant forms of a language become more alike, as in the ‘levelling’ of dialect differences under the influence of a standard language. When varieties come increasingly to differ in structure, the process is known as divergence. In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; In mathemati…

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conversion (law) - Recovery of Chattels

The tort of intentionally dealing with goods so as to deny the true owner's rights by ‘converting’ the goods to the defendant's own use. An example would be the taking of someone's credit card without the owner's consent; even if the taker does not make use of the card, the act is still an instance of conversion, as it has deprived the rightful owner of the benefits which belong to possession of…

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conversion (psychiatry) - Religion, Sport, Technology

A loss or alteration of physical functioning which gives the impression of a physical disorder, but which is in fact the result of psychological mechanisms. For example, a patient might describe a sensation of back pain and paralysis of the legs when there is no organic disease and following an argument with his/her spouse who has asked him/her to leave home. …

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conversion (religion) - Religion, Sport, Technology

A change in affiliation from one religion to another, or the transition from non-involvement to belief in a religion. It also designates a change involving a transformation and reorientation affecting every aspect of a person's life, which can occur suddenly or gradually. …

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convertibility

The right of holders of a country's currency to change it into foreign currency without permission from the authorities. A fully convertible currency can be changed for any purpose. Current account convertibility is when a currency can be changed for current but not capital account purposes. Inconvertible currencies were common in the period after World War 2, and are still common in less-develope…

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Convocation - Academic convocations, Ecclesiastical convocations

A gathering of Church of England clergy, originally in the provinces of Canterbury and York, to regulate affairs of the Church. The Upper House consists of the archbishop and bishops; the Lower House of representatives of the lower clergy. Since the early 20th-c, the two convocations meet together, all now forming the Church Assembly, which meets two or three times a year, with powers regulated by…

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Conwy (county)

pop (2001e) 109 600; area 1130 km²/436 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in NC Wales, UK; formerly Aberconwy and Colwyn until 1998; drained by the R Conwy; administrative centre, Colwyn Bay; other chief town, Llandudno; seaside resorts on north coast; tourism, livestock, light industry; part of Snowdonia National Park; castle at Conwy; Bodnant Garden, Great Orme Cable Railway, Wels…

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Conwy (town)

53°17N 3°50W, pop (2000e) 13 900. Historic market town and resort in Conwy county, NC Wales, UK; at head of R Conwy (Conway); engineering, market, tourism; 13th-c castle (a world heritage site), with walls around the town; road tunnel beneath river. Conway can refer to any of the following: Conway is the name of several places …

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Cook Islands - Politics, History

pop (2000e) 20 400; area 238 km²/92 sq mi. Widely scattered group of 15 volcanic and coral islands, c.3200 km/2000 mi NE of New Zealand, S Pacific Ocean; self-governing country in free association with New Zealand; capital, Avarua (on Rarotonga); timezone GMT ?10; mainly Polynesian population; main religion, Christianity; official language, English, with local languages widely spoken; unit…

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Cook Strait - European History, Swimming the Strait

Channel of the Pacific Ocean separating North Island from South Island, New Zealand; 23–130 km/14–80 mi wide; visited by Captain Cook in 1770. Cook Strait is the strait between the North Island and the South Island of New Zealand. Two large bays, Golden Bay and Tasman Bay, lie on the South Island coast immediately to its west, and the North Island coast to the west recedes t…

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cool jazz - History, Cool jazz artists, Samples

A jazz movement, in which emphasis was placed on light, unforced playing, originated in the 1940s by Miles Davis in opposition to hot jazz. It is also exemplified in the music of Gerry Mulligan, Stan Getz (1927–91), and John Lewis (1920–2001). Cool jazz is a jazz style that emerged in the late 1940s in New York City. In 1946, after the Second World War, there was an influx of …

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Cool Papa Bell - Culture

Baseball player, born in Starkville, Mississippi, USA. An outfielder for the St Louis Stars, Pittsburgh Crawfords, and Homestead Grays (black baseball teams of the 1920s and 1930s), he was universally regarded as the fastest player, white or black, ever to play the game. A solid ·350 hitter and prolific base stealer, he was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1974. James Thomas "…

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coot - Species, Photo gallery

A bird of the rail family, inhabiting fresh waters; widespread; front of head with horny shield; sides of toes lobed, to assist swimming; pelvis and legs modified for diving. The name is sometimes misapplied to related birds. (Genus: Fulica, 9 species.) The coots are medium-sized water birds which are members of the rail family. …

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Copenhagen - Copenhagen municipality, History of Copenhagen, Geography, Culture, Transport, Places of note in or near Copenhagen

55°43N 12°34E, pop (2000e) 478 400. Capital city of Denmark, on E coast of Zealand and N part of Amager I; developed around 12th-c fortifications; charter, 1254; capital, 1443; birthplace of Martin Andersen-Nexø; airport (Kastrup); railway; university (1479); technical university of Denmark (1829); shipping and commercial centre; engineering, foodstuffs, brewing; old citadel of Frederikshavn;…

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Copenhagen Interpretation - The meaning of the wavefunction, Acceptance among physicists, Consequences, Criticisms, Alternatives, Video Demonstration

In quantum mechanics, the view expressed by Neils Bohr and others that any quantum system must be considered in conjunction with relevant measuring equipment, since the act of making a measurement is part of the system. A definite quantum state does not exist until some measurement is performed. This is the current orthodox interpretation of quantum measurement. The Copenhagen interpretatio…

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copepod

A small aquatic arthropod; free-living forms extremely abundant in most marine and freshwater habitats, forming a vital link in the food chain by feeding on minute plant plankton; subclass contains c.9000 species, many being commensals or parasites of other animal groups. (Subphylum: Crustacea. Subclass: Copepoda.) Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every …

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copper - Notable characteristics, Applications, History, Copper mining in Britain and the United States, Occurrence, Compounds

Cu, element 29, density 9 g/cm3, melting point 1080°C. The only brown metal, known from ancient times; its name derives from Cyprus, the main source in Roman times. It occurs free in nature, but more commonly as CuS and CuCO3. It corrodes slowly, conducts electricity well, and is used mainly in electrical apparatus. Compounds show oxidation states +1 and, more commonly, +2. Copper(II) sulphate (…

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copperhead

A pit viper (Agkistrodon contortrix) native to SE USA; top of head reddish-brown; bites more people in North America than any other venomous snake, but venom is weak and deaths are rare. The name is also used for the SE Australian Austrelaps superbus of family Elapidae. The Asian pit viper Agkistrodon acutus is called the Chinese copperhead. One of several kinds of snakes: Ficti…

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Copperhead

The name given to a member of the US Democratic Party who opposed the Civil War, derived from the name of a poisonous snake. In the election of 1864, Copperheads included a peace plank in their party platform, but this was repudiated by the presidential candidate, George McClellan. The name also applied more broadly to any Northerner with Southern sympathies. One of several kinds of snakes:…

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copra

The dried kernel of the coconut. In the 1860s, to supplement supplies of animal fats, manufacturers of soap, margarine, and lubricants turned to tropical vegetable oils, especially coconut oil. At first traders bought oil from local people, but later plantations were set up to produce copra, from which the oil is extracted by crushing. The Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Malaysia, and …

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coprolalia - Characteristics, Prevalence, Perception

The uncontrolled verbalization of obscenities. It occurs rarely in a variety of psychiatric disorders. Coprolalia encompasses words and phrases that are culturally taboo or generally unsuitable for acceptable social use, when used out of context. Coprolalia is an occasional but rare characteristic of Tourette syndrome, although it is not required for a diagnosis of Tourette's. I…

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copyright - History, Europe, United States copyright law, Tajikistan copyright law, Australian Copyright Law

Ownership of and right of control over all possible ways of reproducing a ‘work’, ie the product of an original creative act by one or more people, in a form which makes it possible to be copied. In particular, copyright protection is given to literary, dramatic, and artistic works (paintings, drawings, photographs, etc), sound recordings, films, television and sound broadcasts, and various prod…

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Coquimbo

29º54S 71º25W, pop (2001e) 146 400. Port capital of Elquí province, Coquimbo region, C Chile; birthplace of William Foxwell Albright; in 1981 heavy rains uncovered 39 ancient burials of sacrificed humans and llamas and a museum has been built to exhibit these; railway; steel church designed by Gustaf Eiffel; the recently erected Cross of the Third Millennium, 91 m/300 ft tall, rises above t…

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cor anglais - Etymology

A woodwind instrument with a slightly conical bore, a double reed, and a distinctive bulb-shaped bell. Neither English nor a horn, it is in effect a tenor oboe, a transposing instrument (in F) sounding a 5th below the written pitch. Link title The cor anglais, or English horn, or english horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the oboe family. it is made out of met…

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coracle - Structure, History, Similar craft

A small circular craft first constructed from reeds in basket form by ancient Britons. Watertightness was achieved originally with hides, but latterly with pitch. It was light enough to be carried on a man's back. The tradition mainly survives in Wales, where coracles are still used by salmon fishermen. A coracle is a small, lightweight boat used mainly in Wales but also found across many p…

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coral

A typically massive hydroid, found in colonies in warm shallow seas; many produce a calcareous external skeleton forming coral reefs; polyp phase of life-cycle dominant, with many specialized types of individuals; medusa often small and transparent. (Phylum: Cnidaria. Class: Hydrozoa.) …

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coral snake

A venomous snake native to the New World (Genera: Micrurus and Micruroides) and E Asia (Genus: Calliophis); usually with bold alternating bands of black, yellow, and red; strong venom, but not aggressive; short fangs do not inject venom easily, and snake either grips prey in mouth after strike, or bites several times. (Family: Elapidae.) The coral snakes are a large group of elapid snakes t…

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Cordell Hull - Life and career, Multimedia

US statesman, born in Overton Co, Tennessee, USA. He studied at Cumberland University, Tenessee, qualified as an attorney, then entered politics, becoming a member of the US House of Representatives (1907–21, 1923–31). Under Franklin Roosevelt he became secretary of state in 1933, and served for the longest term in that office until he retired in 1944, having attended most of the great wartime c…

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core curriculum - Examples

A basic central provision for all pupils, as opposed to a set of options taken only by some. It usually contains subjects like mathematics, science, and the pupil's native language, though in some schools and in some countries the core may be larger. In education, a core curriculum is a curriculum, or course of study, which is deemed central and usually made mandatory for all students of a …

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Coretta Scott King - Adult life, Life after assassination of Martin Luther King, The King Center, Final days, Criticism

Civil rights leader, born in Heiberger, Alabama, USA. After graduating in music at Antioch College, Yellow Springs, OH, she moved to Boston, MA to study singing, where she met her future husband, Martin Luther King, Jr. They married in 1953 and moved to Montgomery, AL where they became active in the civil rights movement. Following her husband's death in 1968, she continued his work for racial equ…

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Corfu - Geography and urban landscape, History, Archaeology and architecture, Museums and Libraries

pop (2000e) 110 000; area 592 km²/228 sq mi. Northernmost and second largest of the Ionian Is, Greece, off NW coast of Greece; seventh largest Greek island; length 64 km/40 mi; semi-mountainous terrain (highest point 907 m/2976 ft), dense vegetation; chief town, Corfu, pop (2000e) 36 500; airport; local ferries to mainland Greece and to Italy, Turkey, and ports in the Balkan Peninsula;…

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coriander

An annual (Coriandrum sativum), growing to 50 cm/20 in, native to N Africa and W Asia; leaves with narrow linear lobes; flowers white or pink, petals unequal, in umbels 1–3 cm/0·4–1·2 in across; fruit 3–4 mm/0·12–0·16 in, globular; also known as cilantro in North and South America. It is cultivated for the leaves, which are used in Chinese, Indian, and Mexican cooking, and for the fr…

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Corinth - History, Corinth today

37°56N 22°55E, pop (2000e) 30 200. Capital town of Corinth department, Greece; on an isthmus separating the Adriatic Sea from the Aegean; founded before 3000 BC; influential Greek city-state of Dorian origins, often at odds with Ionian Athens; famous in antiquity for its commercial and colonizing activities; destroyed by Romans 146 BC; ancient Kórinthos, 7 km/4 mi SW; transferred to new sit…

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Corinth Canal - Overview

An artificial waterway bisecting the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece; built 1881–93, although excavation of a canal through the Isthmus was begun as early as AD 67; length 6·5 km/4 mi. The Corinth Canal is a canal connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. The canal is 6.3 km in length and was built between 1881 and 1893. It was planned by the Hunga…

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Corinthian order - Indo-Corinthian capitals, Other examples of the Corinthian order

One of the five main orders of classical architecture, characterized by a fluted shaft and a decorative acanthus capital. It was first invented in Athens in the 5th-c BC, later developed by the Romans, and used extensively in the Renaissance period. The Corinthian order is one of the Classical orders of Greek and Roman architecture, characterized by a slender fluted column and an ornate cap…

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cork - History, Climate, Places of interest, Culture, Media, Retail, Industry, Twinned Cities, Transportation, Education, Sport

A spongy, protective layer just beneath the outer bark in trees, made up of thin-walled cells impregnated with a waxy substance (suberin). The cork layer may be built up over several years, becoming very thick. Cork (Corcaigh in Irish) is the second city of the Republic of Ireland and Ireland's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast respectively. It is the principal city and …

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Cork (city) - History, Climate, Places of interest, Culture, Media, Retail, Industry, Twinned Cities, Transportation, Education, Sport

51°54N 8°28W, pop (2000e) 176 000. Commercial seaport, county borough, and capital of Cork county, Munster, S Ireland; on R Lee near its mouth on Lough Mahon; third largest city in Ireland; airport; docks and ferry terminal; railway; university (1845); shipbuilding, brewing, tanning, food processing; St Finbarr's Cathedral, St Mary's Cathedral; cattle shows (Feb); international folk dance and …

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Cork (county) - History, Climate, Places of interest, Culture, Media, Retail, Industry, Twinned Cities, Transportation, Education, Sport

pop (2000e) 415 000; area 7459 km²/2880 sq mi. County and county borough, Munster, S Ireland; prosperous agricultural and industrial county bounded S by Atlantic Ocean and watered by the Lee, Bandon and Blackwater Rivers; the Boggeragh and Nagles Mts rise to the NW and N; capital, Cork; fishing, agriculture; natural gas and oil off Old Head of Kinsale, with terminal facilities at Whiddy I; B…

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corm

A short underground shoot containing food reserves. Early growth of foliage and flowers totally depletes the reserves, and a new corm is formed on top of the old one at the end of each year before the plant dies back. A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground stem of a plant (usually one of the monocots) that serves as a storage organ to enable the plant to survive winter or other ad…

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Cormac McCarthy - Biography, Works, Trivia

Novelist, born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, and raised in Tennessee. His first work, The Orchard Keeper, was published to great acclaim in 1965 (William Faulkner Foundation Award). Most of his early novels, with their dark themes of justice and retribution, are set in Tennessee, and include Outer Dark (1968), Child of God (1974), and his most autobiographical work, Suttree (1979). He moved to…

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cormorant - Names, Characteristics

A large gregarious seabird, found worldwide; dark plumage, often with bright naked facial skin; flies fast, usually close to water surface; swims underwater using feet; eats fish. Some species are called shags. Cormorants are important guano producers in the S hemisphere. (Family: Phalacrocoracidae, 31 species.) The Phalacrocoracidae family of birds is represented by 38 species of cormorant…

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Corn Laws - Debate and repeal, Other

British legislation regulating the trade in corn. This was common in the 18th-c, but the most famous Corn Law was that enacted by Lord Liverpool's government in 1815. Passed at a time when market prices were dropping rapidly, it imposed prohibitively high duties on the import of foreign corn when the domestic price was lower than 80 shillings (£4) a quarter, giving British farmers a domestic mono…

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corn poppy

An erect annual (Papaver rhoeas), growing to 60 cm/2 ft, producing white latex, native to Europe and Asia, and introduced elsewhere; leaves divided, bristly; flowers round, four petals, bright scarlet, with or without dark basal patch; capsule pepper-pot shaped with a ring of pores around the rim. It was formerly a widespread weed, with seeds lying dormant in the soil for many years, rapidly rea…

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corncockle

An annual with a little-branched stem (Agrostemma githago), 30–100 cm/12–40 in, clothed in white hairs; flowers 3–5 cm across with stalks and calyx-tube woolly, petals reddish-purple, slightly notched. Once a common weed of cornfields everywhere, it is now decreasing, and is rare in places. The seeds are thought to be poisonous; when numerous, they reduce the quality of flour. (Family: Caryo…

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cornea - Layers, Innervation, Diseases and disorders, Treatment and management of corneal diseases and disorders

The transparent front part of the outer protective coat of the eyeball. The degree of its curvature varies from person to person, and also with age (greater in youth than in old age). A large inequality in its vertical and horizontal curvatures is known as astigmatism (an inability to focus vertical and horizontal lines at the same point). The cornea is largely responsible for the refraction of li…

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Cornel West - Biography, Philosophy, Politics

Educator and philosopher, born in Sacramento, California, USA. Educated at Harvard and New York's Union Theological Seminary, he became a noted writer and speaker on what he called ‘prophetic pragmatism’, a philosophy that sought to fuse the life of the mind with public affairs in the areas of racial oppression, sexism, violence, and homophobia. His books include The American Evasion of Philosop…

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Cornelia Connelly

Catholic religious founder, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. She converted to Catholicism (1835), as did her husband, an Episcopalian priest. They separated, he became a Catholic priest (1845), and she founded the Society of the Holy Child Jesus, moving to England to begin its work (1846). The order also started schools in the USA, which she visited. Her husband later renounced his convers…

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Cornelis (Maartenszoon) Tromp

Naval commander, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, the son of Maarten Tromp. He shared the glory of de Ruyter's Four Days' Battle (1666) off Dunkirk, but de Ruyter blamed Tromp's ill-disciplined behaviour for the Dutch defeat in the Two Days' Battle (August 1666), which brought a temporary end to Tromp's career. In 1672 he was rehabilitated, and at Schoneveld and Kijkduin (1673) distinguished hi…

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Cornelius (Otto) Jansen

Theologian, founder of the reform movement known as Jansenism, born in Acquoi, The Netherlands. He studied at Utrecht, Louvain, and Paris, became professor of theology at Louvain (1630), and Bishop of Ypres (1636), where he died just after completing his four-volume work, Augustinus (published 1640). This sought to prove that the teaching of St Augustine on grace, free will, and predestination was…

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Cornelius (Van Allen) Van Dyck

Scholar and medical missionary, born in Kinderhook, New York, USA. He studied at Jefferson Medical College (1839) and became a medical missionary for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He studied Arabic intensively and ran a high school in Lebanon (1843–9). In 1857 he took up the uncompleted work of Eli Smith, and by 1865 he had made the first modern translation of the Bibl…

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Cornelius Nepos - Works

Roman historian, a native of Pavia or Hostilia. He wrote a lost universal history in three books (Chronica), and a series of Lives of Famous Men (De viris illustribus), of which only 25 (mainly Greek warriors and statesmen) survive - untrustworthy, but written in a clear and elegant style. He also wrote love poems and a book of anecdotes (Exempla), and lives of the elder Cato, Atticus, and Thrasyb…

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Cornelius Vanderbilt - Ferry empire, Vanderbilt legacy, Trivia

Businessman and philanthropist, born near New Dorp, New York, USA. The eldest son of William H Vanderbilt, he was a favourite of the ‘Commodore’ and became an assistant treasurer of the New York & Harlem Railroad in 1867, serving as its president (1886–99). Patriarch of the Vanderbilts from 1885, he directed the family investments with the aid of his brother William Vanderbilt, and served on th…

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Cornelius Vanderbilt - Ferry empire, Vanderbilt legacy, Trivia

Steamship and railroad developer and financier, born in Port Richmond, Staten I, New York, USA. He began as a ferryman between Staten I and New York City (1810), then worked for Thomas Gibbons (1818–29) and assisted him in his fight against the steamboat monopoly before establishing his own steamboat business. By 1846 he was one of the richest men in America, and in 1849 he started a steamship li…

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Cornelius Warmerdam

Pole-vaulter, born in Long Beach, California, USA. Seven times the world record holder, using a bamboo pole, he set records during World War 2 that were not bettered until the next decade. In 1941 he was the first man to reach 15 ft (4·57 m), and his vault of 4·78 m (1943), was not beaten for more than 14 years. The development of more flexible glass-fibre poles since the 1950s has led to dra…

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cornet - Relationship to trumpet, Playing/technique, Lists of important players

A musical instrument made of brass. The modern cornet, resembling a small trumpet with three valves, is used above all in brass bands. It is sometimes used in symphony orchestras, especially in France. The cornet is a standard brass band instrument, which was derived from the post horn. The cornet is the main high voice of the brass band in the UK and other countries that have British-style…

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cornetfish

Colourful tropical marine fish found around reefs and sea-grass beds; head and body very slender, length up to 1·8 m/6 ft; scaleless, tail bearing a whip-like process; predatory, feeding on other small fishes; also called flutemouth. (Family: Fistulariidae.) …

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cornett - Name, Construction, Music for the cornett, Playing the cornett, The cornett and authentic performance

A musical instrument in use from the 15th-c to the mid-18th-c, made from two pieces of hollowed wood, glued together and covered with leather to form a tube, usually curved, with a conical bore. This was provided with fingerholes and a cup-shaped mouthpiece like that of a brass instrument. The cornett has been revived in modern times for performing older music, including Bach's cantatas, in which …

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cornflower

A branched annual (Centaurea cyanus) growing to 80 cm/30 in, native to SE Europe; leaves narrowly lance-shaped, with grey cottony hairs, the lower lobed; flower-heads 1·5–3 cm/½–1½ in across, solitary, long-stalked; outer florets bright blue, spreading, larger than the inner red-purple florets; also called bluebottle. It was once widely introduced as a cornfield weed, but is now rare beca…

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cornice - Gallery

In classical or Renaissance architecture, the crowning, projecting part of an entablature. In a general sense, it may refer to any crowning ornamental projection along the top of a building or wall. Cornice molding is generally any horizontal decorative molding which crowns any building or furniture element: the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the ed…

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Cornish

The Celtic language once spoken to the W of the R Tamar in Cornwall. It shares some features with dialects of S Welsh, with which it was originally geographically contiguous. There is some religious literature, mainly translations from English, from the 15th–16th-c, showing vast lexical borrowing from English. The last speakers died in c.1800, but there is growing interest in a modern revival of …

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Cornplanter

Seneca chief, born along the Genessee River in present-day New York, USA. He fought with distinction for the British during the American Revolution and for the USA during the War of 1812. An accommodationist, in his old age he renounced co-operation with whites. During the American Revolution, he wanted to remain neutral, but after the Sullivan Expedition destroyed over 40 villages of the S…

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Cornwall - History, Physical geography, Ecology, Politics, Flag, Demographics, Economy, Culture, Transport, Places of interest, Miscellanea, History Source

pop (2001e) 499 100; area 3564 km²/1376 sq mi. County in SW England, UK, divided into six districts and the Isles of Scilly; bounded S by the English Channel, and W by the Atlantic Ocean; county town, Truro; tin mining, dairy farming, market gardening, fishing, tourism; Cornish nationalist movement revived the Stannary (Tinners' Parliament) in 1974, and there is renewed interest in the Corni…

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Coromandel Coast - Description, History

The E coast of India, extending more than 650 km/400 mi from Point Calimere in the S to the mouth of the Krishna R in the N. The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. Historically the Coromandel Coast generally referred to the stretch of coast between Point Calimere (Kodikkarai), near the delta of the Kaveri River, north to the mouths …

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corona (astronomy) - Physical features, Coronal heating problem

The outermost layers of the Sun's atmosphere, visible as a pearly halo of light during a total eclipse, temperature c.1–2 million K. It is a source of strong X-rays. In astronomy, a corona is the luminous plasma "atmosphere" of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronag…

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corona (botany) - Physical features, Coronal heating problem

An extension of the corolla (petals) of a flower, such as the central trumpet of a daffodil. In astronomy, a corona is the luminous plasma "atmosphere" of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph. The Sun's corona is much hotter (by a factor of nearly 20…

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Corona Australis

A small but prominent S constellation on the fringes of the Milky Way. Corona Australis (IPA: /kəˈrəʊnə ˌɒsˈtrɑːlɪs/) or Corona Austrina (IPA: /ˌɒsˈtriːnə/, Latin: southern crown) was one of Ptolemy's 48 constellations, and also counts among the 88 modern constellations. …

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Corona Borealis

A small N constellation, the stars forming a striking semicircle. Corona Borealis (IPA: /kəˈrəʊnə ˌbɒriˈɑːlɪs/, Latin: northern crown) is a small northern constellation whose main stars form a semicircular arc. 18/υ CrB 5.80 Other notable stars: R CrB 5.85 - 14.8 – R CrB variable prototype …

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corona discharge - Introduction, Applications of corona discharge, Problems caused by corona discharges, Mechanism of corona discharge, Electrical properties

An electrical discharge accompanied by the emission of blue light that sometimes occurs in the air surrounding the sources of an intense electric field. Electrons and ions in the air are accelerated by the field, giving rise to further ions; light is produced by the recombination of ions with electrons. A corona is a process by which a current, perhaps sustained, develops from an electrode …

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coronagraph

An optical instrument for producing an artificial eclipse inside a telescope. Real eclipses last only a few minutes, and most take place far from any observatory. With a coronagraph, it is possible to study the outer layers of the solar atmosphere without waiting for the next eclipse. A coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed specifically to block out the harsh, direct light…

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coronary heart disease - Overview, Pathophysiology, Angina, Risk factors, Prevention

Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, the most important cause of death over 40 in the West, and the commonest cause of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction; also known as ischaemic/ischemic heart disease. There are large differences in the prevalence of coronary artery disease between countries and communities. Risk factors include family history, smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, …

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coroner - England and Wales, United States, Hong Kong, Other jurisdictions, Artistic depictions

A public officer who investigates the cause of a death, especially one where there is reason to suspect that it was due to violent or unnatural causes, in some cases holding an official inquiry, or inquest, to investigate the facts surrounding the death. Inquests into treasure trove are also held in the coroner's court, which may sit with a jury. Coroners are appointed by the Crown, or elected or …

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corporatism - Classical theoretical origins, Neo-corporatism, State corporatism, Criticism of Corporatism, Sources

Arrangements where the authority to decide and implement economic and social policies is either shared with or delegated to groups of producers who are expected to abide by principles laid down by the state. Failure to do so may lead to a withdrawal of decision-making and representational rights. It produces a quasi-private system of government. Corporatism (often termed corporativism in the 1920s…

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corpus luteum - Structure

The mass of yellowish tissue remaining after ovulation, when a mature ovarian follicle ruptures from the ovary of a mammal. If fertilization does not occur after ovulation, the corpus luteum rapidly breaks down. The corpus luteum is typically very large relative to the size of the ovary; Its cells develop from the follicular cells surrounding the ovarian follicle. The granulosa cells become…

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correlation - Pearson's product-moment coefficient, Non-parametric correlation coefficients

In mathematics, a measure of the extent to which there is a linear relation between two variables. Given a set of data (xi,yi), standard deviation of x and y sx and sy, and covariance sxy, a correlation coefficient r is defined by sxy/sxsy. If r is close to 1, there is said to be good positive correlation: y increases as x increases. If r is close to ?1, there is good negative correlation: y decre…

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correspondence principle - Other uses of the term, Examples

The requirement that the quantum theory of submicroscopic systems, when applied to macroscopic systems, gives results consistent with those of classical mechanics. The principle ensures that classical and quantum mechanics are compatible. In physics, the correspondence principle is a principle, first invoked by Niels Bohr in 1923, which states that the behavior of quantum mechanical systems…

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corroboree

A term used by 19th-c settlers in New South Wales, Australia, for any Aboriginal ceremonial or festive gathering which included singing and dancing. Later it came into common use among non-Aborigines, but it fails to mark the distinction between religious ceremonies and non-religious performance practised by Aboriginal peoples. In the northwest of Australia, corroboree is a generic word to …

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corrosion - Corrosive substances, Corrosion in nonmetals, Electrochemical theory, Resistance to corrosion, Corrosion in passivated materials, Microbial corrosion

Destructive oxidation, usually by air in the presence of water; most marked for metals, especially iron. It is an electrochemical process, occurring most rapidly when two different metals are in contact with one another and with air and water, the more reactive metal being oxidized while the other provides a surface for the reduction of O2. Corrosion prevention is best carried out by isolating the…

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Corsica

pop (2000e) 261 000; area 8680 km²/3350 sq mi. Mountainous island and region of France in the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the departments of Corse-du-Sud and Haute-Corse; length 183 km/114 mi; width up to 84 km/52 mi; separated from Sardinia (S) by the Strait of Bonifacio; part of France since 1768; France's largest island; mountainous interior, rising to 2710 m/8891 ft at Mont Cinto…

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Cortes - People, Institutions, Localities

The representative assembly in Spain, which became the Spanish parliament after the fall of the monarchy in 1931. It continued to exist under Franco, but with little or no powers. In 1977 it became a two-chamber parliament, elected upon universal suffrage, and its powers were extended in 1978 after a national referendum. …

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cortex

An outer layer of an organism or biological system. For example, the adrenal cortex is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. In the brain of vertebrates, the cerebral cortex is a layer of grey matter lying above each cerebral hemisphere. In plants, the cortex is the tissue lying just below the epidermis. Cortex may mean:- In science: In video games: Other…

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cortisol - Synthesis, Physiology, Pharmacology, Diseases

A steroid hormone found in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates; also known as hydrocortisone. In some mammals (eg humans, dogs), it is the major glucocorticoid hormone. It promotes the conversion of protein and fat into glucose (gluconeogenesis), and has an important role in the body's resistance to physical and psychological stress, especially after trauma. Its synthesis and release are primarily c…

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corundum

A mineral formed from aluminium oxide (Al2O3); extremely hard and used as an abrasive. Gemstone varieties are ruby and sapphire. Corundum is the crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. …

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corvette - Sailing vessels, World War II, Modern corvettes, Further reading

A small single-screw warship designed for convoy escort duties in World War 2. In former times, it was a single gun-decked, three-masted, square-rigged sailing vessel, originally of French design and adopted by the British. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. During the Age of Sail, corvettes were smaller…

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Cos

area 290 km²/112 sq mi. Island of the Dodecanese, E Greece, in the Aegean Sea, off the SW coast of Turkey; length 43 km/27 mi; width 2–11 km/1¼–7 mi; hilly E region, rising to 846 m/2776 ft at Mt Dikaios; severely damaged by earthquakes in 1933; capital, Cos, pop (2000e) 15 300; cereals, olive oil, wine, fruit, tourism; famous in antiquity for its wine, amphorae, and ‘Coan garments…

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Cosimo de' Medici - Biography, Cosimo's relationships, references, Further reading

Financier, statesman, and philanthropist, born in Florence, NC Italy. Known posthumously as ‘father of his country’, he began the glorious epoch of the Medici family. As ruler of Florence he procured for Florence (nominally still republican) security abroad and peace from civil dissensions. He employed his wealth in encouraging art and literature, building the Medici library, the first public li…

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Cosmas

A merchant of Alexandria, who travelled widely in Ethiopia and Asia. He returned to Egypt c.550, and in monastic retirement wrote a Greek work on Christian topography to prove the authenticity of the biblical account of the world. Three popes of the Coptic Church bore the name Cosmas: Places: …

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cosmetics - History, The cosmetics industry today, Controversy, Types of cosmetic, Extreme cosmetics, Ingredients, Potential dangers, Image gallery

Preparations for artificially beautifying the human hair and complexion, used at various historical periods by both men and women. Fashionable women in W Europe have painted their faces since the Greek and Roman periods, to conform to a sequence of youthful ideals. The effects were formalized and unnatural in the later mediaeval period and during the 16th-c; in the 17th-c and 18th-c, black ‘patch…

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cosmic dust - Detection methods, Some bulk properties of cosmic dust, Radiative properties of cosmic dust, Dust grain formation

Microscopic grains of dust of extraterrestrial origin: also called Brownlee particles, after the original collector. It enters Earth's atmosphere at high velocity, and is slowed down by friction in the uppermost atmosphere. It spends months floating in the stratosphere, and can be collected by high-flying research aircraft or in space at space stations. The particles are a few microns in size, oft…

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cosmic string - Observational evidence, String theory and cosmic strings

Hypothetical massive filaments of matter (1019 kg/cm) predicted in supersymmetry theory as an important component of the very early universe. Cosmic strings, if they exist, would be extremely thin with diameters on the same order as a proton. A cosmic string 1.6 kilometers in length would exert more gravity than the Earth. Cosmic strings would form a network of loops in the early uni…

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