Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 16

Cambridge Encyclopedia

chromophore

That part of a molecule giving rise to colour. Most chromophores in dyestuffs involve double bonds, especially conjugated ones. These lower the energy of radiation absorbed, so that visible radiation as well as ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the compound. A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a molecule responsible for its color. When a molecule absorbs certain wavelengths …

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chromosome - Number of chromosomes in various species, Human

The threads within the nucleus of a cell which become visible during cell division. The chromosomes were postulated to be the carriers of inherited information in 1903, after a study of the close correspondence between their behaviour and Mendelian factors. Chromosomes occur in pairs - one member of maternal and one of paternal origin. They are the major carriers of genetic material, consisting of…

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chromosphere

Part of the outer gaseous layers of the Sun (and other stars), a few thousand km deep. It is visible as a thin crescent of pinkish light during a total eclipse of the Sun. The chromosphere (literally, "color sphere") is a thin layer of the Sun's atmosphere just above the photosphere, roughly 10,000 kilometers deep (approximating to, if a little less than, the diameter of the Earth). T…

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chronogram - Hebrew numerals

The practice of hiding a date within a series of words, by using the letters for Roman numerals (C = 100, V = 5, etc); often used on tombstones and foundation stones to mark the date of the event being commemorated. The numeral letters are usually written in capitals, eg DoMVs ‘domus’ (‘house’). A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as nume…

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chrysanthemum - History, Economic Uses

A name applied in a broad sense to various members of the family Compositae. The well-known large-flowered ‘chrysanthemums’ of gardens (Genus: Dendranthema) have a long history of cultivation, especially in China and Japan, and modern plants are derived from complex hybrids whose exact parentage is uncertain. Numerous cultivars have been developed, varying in flower colour, shape, and size, popu…

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Chrysippus - Philosophy, Bibliographical references

Stoic philosopher, born in Soli, Cilicia. He went to Athens as a youth, and studied under Cleanthes to become the third and greatest head of the Stoa. He wrote over 700 works, of which only fragments remain. Chrysippus of Soli (c.280–c.207 BC, Χρύσιππος ο Σολεύς) was Cleanthes' pupil and the eventual successor as the head of stoic philosophy. Little is known ab…

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chrysoprase

The apple-green form of chalcedony. Chrysoprase (also chrysophrase) is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (fibrous form of quartz) that contains small quantities of nickel. This sets it apart from rock crystal, amethyst, citrine, and the other varieties of crystalline quartz which are basically transparent and formed from easily recognized six-sided crystals. Unlike many non-transparent…

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chrysotile

The fibrous form of serpentine. It is a member of the asbestos group of minerals. Clinochrysotile is the monoclinic form of chrysotile and likely the most common variety. Like the other two species of chrysotile (orthochrysotile and parachrysotile) it is very difficult to distinguish from the other species. Orthochrysotile is the orthorhombic form of chrysotile and is more…

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chub - Fishing for Chub

Fish of European streams and rivers (Leuciscus cephalus), also found in lakes and in the Baltic Sea; body elongate, rather cylindrical, length up to 60 cm/2 ft; greenish-grey above, sides silver, underside white; popular as fine sport fish; a relative of orfe and dace; in the USA the term is used for a type of minnow. (Family: Cyprinidae.) The chub, or European chub (Leuciscus cephalus) i…

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Chuck Berry - Influence, Discography

Musician, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. As a singer-guitarist who drew from blues, rockabilly, and country-and-western styles, and wrote songs about teenage concerns, he was the biggest influence on pre-Beatles rock. He trained as a hairdresser and played with Johnnie Johnson's (1924–2005) trio in East St Louis, IL, before launching his career with Chess Records in Chicago (1955). With hit son…

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Chuck Close

Painter, born in Monroe, Washington, USA. He studied at the University of Washington School of Art, Seattle (1960–2), Yale University (1962–4), and in Vienna, Austria (1964–5). A photo-realist painter of large portraits, as in ‘Phil’ (1969), he was based in New York City from 1967, and taught at several universities. Paralysed from the neck down in 1988, he taught himself how to paint using m…

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Chuck Jones - Biography, Influence and critical perception, Notable animated films directed by Chuck Jones, Quotes

Animated cartoon director, born in Spokane, Washington, USA. His early work included Daffy and the Dinosaur (1939), Wile E Coyote, and the Road Runner (Fast and Furry-ous, 1949). Pepe le Pew, the amorous skunk, won him his first Oscar with For Scentimental Reasons (1951). His Bugs Bunny cartoons include the classic What's Opera Doc (1957) and the stereoscopic Lumber Jack Rabbit (1954). He won anot…

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Chuck Noll - Career record

Player of American football, born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Named coach of the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1969, his teams won four Super Bowls during the 1970s. In 1990 he won his 200th National Football League game, and left the Steelers at the end of the 1991 season. …

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Chuck Yeager - Biography, The Right Stuff, Controversies, Trivia, Video games, Further reading

Aviator and test pilot, born in Myra, West Virginia, USA. A fighter pilot ace during World War 2, he became the first to break the sound barrier, when he flew the Bell X-1 rocket 670 mph in level flight (14 Oct 1947). He broke the sound barrier for the last time aged 79 when his F-15 Eagle reached Mach 1·45 (26 Oct 2002). He held various air-force command assignments during 1954–62. He was vice…

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chuckwalla - Physical description

An iguana (Sauromalus obesus) from North America, found in rocky deserts; dark body with thick blunt yellow tail; no crest along back; eats plants; rests in rock crevices; if disturbed, may wedge itself in the crevice by inflating its lungs. Chuckwallas (less commonly Chuckawallas) are large lizards found primarily in arid regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. …

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Chun Doo-Hwan - The road to power, Years in office, An embattled ex-President

South Korean soldier and president (1980–8), born in Taegu, SE South Korea. He trained at the Korean military academy and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the South Korean army in 1955. After President Park Chung Hee's assassination in 1979, he took charge of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) and led the investigation into Park's murder. He assumed control of the army and th…

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church - Origins

In architecture, a building used for public religious worship, especially Christian. First adapted by the early Christians from the Roman basilicas and martyrs' shrines, it was later developed in the Romanesque architecture of the 11th-c and 12th-c into the now more usual Latin cross plan, typically consisting of nave with side aisles, transepts, chancel, and apse, such as Pisa Cathedral (mainly 1…

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Church Army - History, Principles and Practices, Church Army International, Training

An Anglican organization of volunteer lay workers, founded in 1882. Its aims are evangelical, but it concentrates on social welfare and rehabilitation work, mainly in cities. The Church Army was founded in England in 1882 by The Reverend Wilson Carlile (afterwards prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral), who banded together in an orderly army of soldiers, officers and a few working men and…

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Church of England - Theology and sociology, Governing and administration, History, Related churches, Financial situation

The official state Church of England, a national Church having both Protestant and Catholic features, based on episcopal authority, and with the monarch of England formally as its head. It originated when Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church (c.1532–4) and was declared by Parliament to be ‘the supreme head on earth of the English Church’. The Church remained largely Catholic in chara…

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Church of Scotland - Position in Scottish society, Governance and administration, History, Theology and practice, Current reform, Publications

The national Church in Scotland, founded at the Reformation of 1560 under the leadership of John Knox. It comprises a larger proportion of the population than most Protestant Churches in the English-speaking world, with a strong missionary tradition, especially in Africa and India. It maintains links with and supports many Churches in developing countries. Presbyterian in its governing organizatio…

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cicada - Taxonomy, Description, Life cycle, Gallery

A large, typically tropical insect that spends most of its long life-cycle as a nymph burrowing underground, feeding on sap from roots; adults live in trees; males typically have well-developed sound-producing organs. (Order: Homoptera. Family: Cicadidae.) A cicada is any of several insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with small eyes wide…

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Cicely Tyson

Actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. The daughter of immigrants from the Caribbean island of Nevis, she was raised in poverty. She worked as a secretary and a model while establishing herself as an actress, and with Arthur Mitchell she co-founded the Dance Theatre of Harlem. Her credits include the film Sounder (1972), and for television the mini-series Roots (1977) and the film The Auto…

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cichlid - Characteristics of cichlids, Range, Diet, Endangered cichlids, Hybrid cichlids, Cichlids as aquarium fish, Images of cichlids

Any of a large family of freshwater fishes found in South and Central America, Africa, and India; many species in African Great Lakes; body usually perch-like; feeding and breeding habits extremely diverse; important as a food fish and in the aquarium trade. (20 genera, including Haplochromis, Tilapia. Family: Cichlidae.) Cichlids (pronounced “sick-lids”) are fishes from the family Cich…

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cider - Types of cider, Cider production, Health, Cider festivals, Related drinks, Cider by country

An alcoholic drink produced from the fermentation of apples, traditionally made in SW England and Normandy, France. Its alcoholic content varies widely, from 3% to 9% ethanol. Most modern ciders are artificially carbonated. In the USA, ciders are either ‘sweet’ (non-alcoholic) or ‘hard’ (containing alcohol). Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of spe…

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Cienfuegos - Geography, History, Hurricane Dennis 2005, Attractions, Famous residents

22°10N 80°27W, pop (2000e) 132 600. Port and capital of Cienfuegos province, WC Cuba; on S coast, 337 km/209 mi SE of Havana; founded, 1819; important industrial centre; tobacco, citrus, cattle products; naval base; large botanical garden, Castillo de Jagua museum (1738–45). Cienfuegos is a city on the southern coast of Cuba, capital of the province of Cienfuegos. Near th…

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cigarette - History, Manufacturing, Contents and health effects, Consumption, Legal issues

A thin roll of finely-cut tobacco, wrapped in paper, used for smoking. The origins of the cigarette lie in Central and South America, where native Indians wrapped crushed tobacco leaves in a reed or vegetable casing. Spanish explorers then introduced the practice to Europe in the form of the cigar. By the 16th-c, cigarillos (‘little cigars’) had emerged, re-using the tobacco found in discarded c…

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ciliate - Classification

A microscopic, single-celled organism typically possessing short hair-like appendages (cilia) on its surface; contains two types of nucleus (macronucleus and micronucleus); commonly also with a specialized mouth region (cytostome); found free-living in all kinds of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and as parasites. (Phylum: Ciliophora.) The ciliates are one of the most important groups of …

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Cilicia - Geography, Early history, The Persian Royal Road, Hellenism and Roman Cilicia, Armenian kingdom, Ottoman Empire

The ancient name for the S coastal part of Turkey around the Taurus Mts. It was famous for its timber and its pirates. In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount A…

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Cimabue - Works

Painter, born in Florence, NC Italy. He adopted traditional Byzantine forms at first, but soon turned to nature, and led the way to the naturalism of his great pupil, Giotto. He executed several important frescoes in the Church of St Francis at Assisi; these were destroyed or severely damaged in an earthquake in 1997. Cenni di Pepo (Giovanni) Cimabue (c 1240 in Florence, Italy — c 1302 in…

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Cimbri - Moving south-east, Invading Gaul, Attacking the Roman Republic, Defeat, Culture

A Germanic people from N Europe who migrated S towards the end of the 2nd-c BC in search of new lands. They were defeated and destroyed by the Romans (101 BC) in the Po valley. The Cimbri were a Germanic-cross-Celtic tribe who together with the Teutons and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Empire in the late 2nd century BC. Alternatively, the name Cimbri could be related to Cymr…

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Cimmerians - Origins, Historical accounts, Language, Possible offshoots, In Pop Culture, Archaeology, Bibliography

A nomadic people of S Russia who were driven out by the Scythians in the 8th-c BC. They migrated through the Caucasus Mts to Assyria and Asia Minor, where they caused widespread havoc and destruction. The Cimmerians (Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, …

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CinemaScope - History, External references

A system of wide-screen cinematography, based on Henri Chrétien's invention of 1927 and adopted by 20th Century Fox in 1953. An anamorphic lens on the camera produces a laterally compressed image on 35 mm film, which is expanded on projection by a similar optical system. A squeeze factor of 2:1 horizontally is used, resulting in a screened picture of aspect ratio (width:height) 2·35:1. C…

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cinematography - Aspects of cinematography, Special effects, Role of the cinematographer, Evolution of technology: new definitions

The presentation of moving pictures as a series of photographic images recorded and reproduced in rapid succession, the eye's persistence of vision giving the impression of continuous movement. Film in continuous strips provided the material for Edison's pioneer Kinetoscope camera of 1891, but projecting the image on a screen for a large audience originated with the Lumière brothers in 1895, esta…

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Cinerama - History, Single-Film "Cinerama:" Ultra Panavision 70 and Super Panavision 70

One of the first systems of wide-screen cinema presentation in 1952, using three synchronized projectors to cover a very large curved screen in three blended panels. Its cost and complexity limited its use to showing travelogues in specially adapted theatres, and it ceased after 1962. Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images f…

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cineraria

A dwarf shrub growing to 60 cm/2 ft or more, native to Africa and Madagascar; stem much-branched from the base; leaves rounded, shallowly lobed, thickly white-haired beneath; flower-heads numerous, daisy-like, in dense flat-topped clusters, red to deep blue-violet. The popular garden cinerarias are derived from a related species, Pericallis hybrida, native to the Canary Is. (Genus: Cineraria, c.…

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cinnabar (entomology) - Properties, Mining and extraction of mercury, Medicinal use, Other forms of cinnabar

A medium-sized, nocturnal tiger moth; forewings dark grey with carmine patches, hindwings carmine with black margins; caterpillar yellow and black, feeding on ragwort (Family: Compositae); overwinters as pupa; also called cinnabar moth. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Arctiidae.) Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, t…

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cinnabar (metallurgy) - Properties, Mining and extraction of mercury, Medicinal use, Other forms of cinnabar

A mineral of mercury sulphide (HgS), the chief ore of mercury. It consists of small, red, soft crystals formed in hydrothermal veins and volcanic deposits, and is used in the mineral pigment vermilion. Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. Cinnabar is generally found in a massi…

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cinnamon - Cultivation, Uses, History

A small evergreen tree (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) growing to 6 m/20 ft, native to SE Asia; leaves ovoid to oblong; flowers greenish; berries black. The spice is obtained from the bark of young trees. (Family: Lauraceae). Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum, synonym C. The name cinnamon comes from Greek kinnámōmon, from Phoenician and akin to Hebrew qinnâmôn, itself ultimately from a M…

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Cinque Ports - History of the Ports

Originally, the five S English coast ports of Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, and Sandwich, associated by royal authority (under Edward the Confessor) to provide ships for naval defence; Rye and Winchelsea were added later. They received royal privileges, including (from 1265) the right to send barons to Parliament, and charters, the first dating from 1278; they were governed by a Lord Warden who …

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circadian rhythm - Origin, Animal circadian rhythms, Plant circadian rhythms, Light and the biological clock

A biological rhythm that has a periodicity of about one day. This periodicity can be seen, for example, in the sleep cycle in animals and the growth cycles of plants. A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. The term "circadian", coined by Franz Halberg, comes from the Latin circa…

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Circassians

A people from the Caucasus, speaking a NW Caucasian language, who are divided into Adyghians (Lower Circassians) and Kabardians (Upper Circassians). Most live in Russia, but there are also Circassian communities in Syria and Turkey, and small groups in Iraq, Jordan, and Israel. They are Sunni Muslims; most are farmers and pastoralists, hierarchically organized, with princes, nobles, and (until rec…

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Circe - Modern interpretations

In the Odyssey, an enchantress who detained Odysseus and his followers on the island of Aeaea. Her house was full of wild beasts. She transformed Odysseus's men into swine with a magic drink, but he was able to defeat her charms through the protection of the herb moly. In Greek mythology, Circe or Kírkē (Greek Κίρκη) was a goddess (or sometimes nymph or sorceress) living on the islan…

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Circinus

A small obscure S constellation. Circinus (IPA: /ˈsəːsɪnəs, -ənəs/, Latin: compass), is one of the small southern (declination −50 to −60 degrees) constellations. θ Cir 5.08 …

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circle - Analytic results, Properties, Inscribed angles, An alternative definition of a circle, Numbers and the circle

The locus of a point that is a constant distance from a fixed point. The constant distance is called the radius, and the fixed point the centre. From this definition are obtained all the properties of the circle. Thus if A and B are two points on a circle centre O, triangle OAB is isosceles, and so the perpendicular bisector of any chord of a circle passes through the centre of the circle. By the …

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circuit

An administrative division of the judicial system of England and Wales. Each circuit has a circuit administrator and two presiding judges, one senior, one junior. It is based upon the traditional regional groupings adopted by the bar, and consists of the South-Eastern, Western, Midland and Oxford, Welsh, Northern, and North Eastern circuits. In the USA, federal and state judicial systems have simi…

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circulation

In physiology, the vertebrate system in which blood is pumped intermittently from the heart, and flows continuously around the body (systemic circulation) or to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) and back to the heart by a network of blood vessels. By means of the systemic circulation, tissues are provided with oxygen (taken up in the lungs), nutrients (absorbed from the alimentary canal), hormones…

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circumcision - The procedures of circumcision, Medical aspects, Sexual, History of circumcision, Prevalence of circumcision

The widespread practice of removing all or part of the foreskin of the penis. The age of circumcision varies; male Jewish babies, for example, are circumcised eight days after birth, while other groups circumcise just before or at puberty as part of an initiation ceremony which marks the changing status from childhood to adulthood. In female circumcision, some or all external genitalia are removed…

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circumference

The boundary, or length of the boundary, of a closed curve, usually a circle. The circumference of a circle is 2?r, where r is the radius of the circle. The circumference of an ellipse can be expressed only in terms of an integral. …

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circumpolar star

A star which never sets when viewed from a particular location. In Europe and North America the stars of Ursa Minor and Ursa Major are always visible. In Australia, Crux is a circumpolar constellation. Circumpolar stars are those stars which are located near the celestial poles of the celestial sphere, i.e. Some of the circumpolar stars nearest the poles do not seem to engage in diurn…

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circus - History of the circus, The circus performance, Circus music, films and plays, Circus Buildings

Historically, games in ancient Rome involving horse and chariot races, gladiatorial combat, and wild animals; in modern times, a travelling show featuring animals and feats of human endurance and skill. Acts of bareback horse riding and lion taming formed the basis of early circuses, but other animals, such as chimpanzees, dogs, seals and elephants, became popular features (less so in recent years…

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Cirencester - Local geography, History, The name of the town, Leisure and entertainment, Education, Bibliography

51°44N 1°59W, pop (2000e) 15 700. Market town in Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK; in the Cotswolds, on the R Churn, 22 km/14 mi NW of Swindon; second largest town in Roman Britain during 2nd-c AD; electrical goods, engineering; Royal Agricultural College; 14th-c Church of St John the Baptist, Corinium museum. Cirencester is a market town in Gloucestershire, England, 93 miles (150 km)…

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cirrhosis - Symptoms and signs, Causes, Diagnosis, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Treatment

A chronic diffuse disorder of the liver, in which liver cells are destroyed and progressively replaced by scar tissue (fibrosis). The most common cause is long-continued excessive consumption of alcohol. Other causes include an auto-immune disorder, primary biliary cirrhosis, obstruction of the common bile duct (eg due to gallstones), and viral infections such as hepatitis B and C. It eventually l…

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Cisalpine Republic - Extension, Relationships with Switzerland, Institutional form, The treaty of Alliance, The second Republic, Dates of Directories

N Italian state created by Napoleon I at the Peace of Campoformio (1797), comprising Milan and Lombardy, the Valtellina, the Romagna, the Venetian territories of Brescia and Bergamo, and the Duchy of Massa Carrara. By the Treaty of Lunéville (1802), it became the Italian Republic, with Bonaparte as president. The Cisalpine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republ…

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Ciskei

Former independent black homeland in NE Cape province, South Africa; bounded SW by the Indian Ocean; fourth homeland to gain independence from South Africa (not recognized internationally), 1981; military takeover in bloodless coup, 1990; incorporated into Eastern Cape province in the South African Constitution of 1994. Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. C…

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Cissy van Marxveldt

Writer, born in Oranjewoud, N Netherlands. She wrote popular girls' books which were more challenging than other books written for girls during that period. Most successful was the series Joop ter Heul (5 vols, 1919–25, 1946) Cissy van Marxveldt (1889 - 1948), Dutch writer of children's books, whose Joop ter Heul novels for teenage girls had a notable influence on the writings of Anne Fran…

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Cistercians - Formation, Cistercian Life, Polity, Cistercian Houses, Later History, Monasteries

A religious order formed by Benedictine monks by St Robert of Molesme in Citeaux, France, in 1098, under a strict rule, with an emphasis on solitude, poverty, and simplicity. The order was prominent in the Middle Ages, with leaders including Bernard of Clairvaux. By the 13th-c it had over 500 houses in Europe, but thereafter declined. In the 17th-c it was divided into communities of Common Observa…

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citizens' band (CB) radio - Scope, CB Radio today, CB Usage in the United States, CB Usage Worldwide, CB Antennas

A short-range two-way radio communication system for use by members of the public, typically consisting of a transceiver (a combined transmitter-receiver) and aerial. CB originated in the USA in the 1940s, and is particularly associated with long-distance truck drivers, who evolved a special language of codes and jargon to keep their messages from being understood by the police and public, such as…

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Citlalt - External Links

19°02N 97°02W. Highest peak in Mexico, rising to 5699 m/18 697 ft in E Mexico; a dormant volcano, inactive since 1687; in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, area 197 km²/76 sq mi, established in 1936. Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltépetl (from Nahuatl citlalli = star, and tepetl = mountain), is the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America. A compani…

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citron

A citrus fruit (Citrus medica), 10–25 cm/4–10 in diameter; ovoid, with thick, rough, yellowish-orange rind, and green or yellow flesh. (Family: Rutaceae.) …

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citrus

A member of a group of plants bearing distinctive juicy, acid-tasting fruits of great economic importance. The majority belong to the genus Citrus, but a few come from close relatives. All species are spiny evergreen shrubs or trees; ovoid, dark green, glossy leaves with an articulated joint at the junction of blade and stalk; the stalk often winged, sometimes to the extent of appearing as a secon…

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cittern

A plucked string instrument of great antiquity, particularly popular in the 16th–17th-c. It resembled a lute, but with a smaller, pear-shaped body, a flat (or slightly convex) back, and usually four, five, or six courses of strings played with a plectrum. The cittern is a stringed instrument of the lute family dating from the Renaissance. The name "cittern" has also been applie…

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city - Geography, History of cities, Environmental effects, Global cities, Inner city

A settlement larger than a town or village, the definition of which varies according to national conventions. In Britain the term is used of cathedral towns (eg Ely) and certain other towns upon which the title has been conferred by royal authority (eg Birmingham, 1889); in the USA it is used of those urban centres which have a particular local government structure. A city is an urban area …

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city technology college (CTC)

A type of secondary school in the UK, established by the 1988 Education Act, which specializes in science and technology. It is independent of the local education authority and receives its annual grant direct from the government. …

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Ciudad del Este - Population, Economy, Miscellaneous

25°32S 54°34W, pop (2000e) 144 000. Capital of Alto Paraná department, N Paraguay, on the R Paraná; centre for the construction of the Itaipú dam, the largest hydroelectric project in the world; a bridge links the city with Brazil and the town of Foz do Iguaçu; earlier named after the former President of Paraguay, and renamed after his death. It is the second largest city in the cou…

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Ciudad Guayana - History

8°22N 62°37W, pop (2000e) 656 400. New city in Bolívar state, E Venezuela, on the Orinoco and Caroní Rivers; founded in 1961 to link the towns of San Félix, Puerto Ordaz, Palúa, and Matanzas; population of 1 million is planned; airfield; railway (freight); commercial port at San Félix; iron-ore loading at Puerto Ordaz; iron-ore terminal at Palúa; hydroelectric power nearby. Ciudad…

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civet - Species, Civet/Genet Hybrids

A carnivorous mammal of the family Viverridae, comprising 17 (mostly Asian) species; grouped as oriental civets, palm civets, otter civet, African civet, and Malagasy civet; also known as civet cat or bush dog, but the name civet is often used for any member of this family. A musky extract from the glandular secretions of some species (civettone or civet) is added to perfumes to prolong their scen…

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Civic Trust

A charitable organization in the UK which exists to promote conservation and improvement of the environment in town and country, through encouraging high standards in architecture and planning, and the preservation of buildings of historic and architectural interest. Its concerns include urban wasteland, industrial dereliction, damage from heavy lorries, and town improvement schemes. There are sep…

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Civil Constitution of the Clergy - Status of the Church in France before the Civil Constitution, Motivation of the Civil Constitution

Constitution passed by the French Constituent assembly in 1790. Its terms stipulated one bishopric per department, thus reducing the number of clergy. The pope lost the right to confirm new bishops. There were now two Catholic Churches in France, those who had sworn loyalty to the Civil Constitution and those who had not. It was condemned by the pope in 1791. The law of the Civil Constituti…

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civil disobedience - Theories and techniques of civil disobedience, Examples of Civil Disobedience

A political strategy adopted by M K Gandhi and his followers in India's Congress Party in 1930, in opposition to Britain's imperial rule, involving a non-violent, mass, illegal protest intended to discredit the authority of the state. The movement was banned, and many were arrested, including Gandhi; but a pact was reached in 1931, and Congress then participated in the second Round Table Conferenc…

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civil engineering - History, Sub-disciplines of civil engineering, Education and Licensure

A branch of engineering which deals with the design and construction of public works: buildings, bridges, tunnels, waterways, canals, streets, sewerage systems, railways, and airports. The subject includes structural, sanitary, and hydraulic engineering. Civil engineers must be familiar with the materials used in the structures and with construction equipment. They also study soils and rocks, so t…

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civil liberties - Civil liberties by country, Controversies in the UK

Individual freedoms that are thought to be essential to the operation of liberal democratic societies. These include freedom of speech, association, religion, conscience and movement, freedom before the law, and the right to a fair trial. In some political systems (eg the USA) the freedoms are constitutionally guaranteed in a bill of rights, while in others (eg the UK) they form part of the ordina…

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civil list - United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand

In the UK, since 1760, a payment made from public funds for the maintenance of the senior members of the royal family (except the Prince of Wales, who derives his income from the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall). It covers the salaries of the household staff, travel, entertaining, and public engagements at home and abroad. A sum payable from the Treasury is fixed by Act of Parliament at the begi…

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civil rights - Related terminology

The rights guaranteed by the state to its citizens. It incorporates the belief that governments should not arbitrarily act to infringe these rights, and that individuals and groups, through political action, have a legitimate role in determining and influencing what constitutes them. In common usage, the term is taken to mean the rights of groups, as opposed to the rights of the individual, althou…

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civil service - Early civil services, The British Civil Service, The United States civil service, The Indian Civil Service

Civilian personnel or officials employed on behalf of the state to administer central governmental policies, as distinct from the wider generality of public officials employed in such areas as local government, public corporations, and education, or as civilian staff of the armed forces. Most civil servants are permanent, in that they remain in post upon a change in government, though in some coun…

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cladistics - Definitions, Cladistic methods, Cladistic classification

A method of classifying organisms employing evolutionary hypotheses as the basis for classification. It uses recency of common ancestry as the criterion for grouping species together, rather than data on apparent similarity between species. Cladistics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships between organisms based on derived similarities. Cladistic analysis for…

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Claes (Thure) Oldenburg

Sculptor, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at Yale and the Art Institute of Chicago before moving to New York City in 1956, where he became part of the milieu from which Pop Art developed. In 1963 he introduced soft sculptures of normally hard objects such as light switches, for which he became best known. His projects for huge monuments in public places have occasionally been realized, as in…

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Claire (Berenice) Rayner - Breast cancer patient

British writer, broadcaster, and agony aunt, born in London, UK. She trained as a nurse and midwife in London, and followed a nursing career until becoming a medical correspondent for a women's magazine, both as Ruth Martin (1966–75) and under her own name (1975–87). She contributed an advice column to national newspapers (1973–91), and has made many appearances on radio and television to advis…

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Claire (Catherine) Danes

Actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. At age nine she began acting classes at the Lee Strasberg Studio in New York City and later enrolled at the Professional Performing Arts High School there. She became known through her role in the television series My So-Called Life (1994–5), and went on to star as Juliet in Baz Luhrmann's film William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet (1996). Later films…

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Claire (Lee) Chennault - See also, Further reading, Works Cited

Aviator, born in Commerce, Texas, USA. A schoolteacher, he obtained an infantry commission in 1917, then transferred to the signal corps and became a pilot. Forced out of the service in 1937 because of deafness, he went to work for the Chinese Nationalists, recruiting some 50 US pilots and equipping them with P-40 aircraft for operations against the Japanese. In a brief career of seven months in 1…

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Claire Bloom - Career, Personal life and memoirs

Actress, born in London, UK. She was educated in Bristol and made her debut at the Oxford Repertory Theatre (1946). A distinguished Shakespearean actress on stage and television, she has acted major roles in other classic and modern plays, including A Street Car Named Desire (1974) and The Cherry Orchard (1981). Her many films include Limelight (1952), Look Back in Anger (1959), The Spy Who Came i…

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clairvoyance - Clairvoyance through history, Developing clairvoyant abilities

The gaining of information about an object or a contemporaneous external physical event by alleged paranormal means. The term precognitive clairvoyance is used to refer to the supposed paranormal gaining of information about an external physical source which will come into existence at some time in the future. Together with telepathy and precognition, clairvoyance makes up one of the three main ca…

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clam - Examples of clams

The common name for a variety of bivalved molluscs; includes the giant clams, soft-shelled clams, and venus clams. (Class: Pelecypoda.) In culinary use, clam most often refers to the hard clam (Taxonomically, Mercenaria mercenaria) but may refer to other species such as the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. References: …

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Clapham Sect - Members

A movement for evangelical reform of the Church of England, active in the 1780s and 1790s; also known as the Saints. Its members were all Anglicans, the name deriving from the estate at Battersea Rise, Clapham, owned by English economist Henry Thornton (1760–1815), where he and his cousin William Wilberforce lived. John Venn (1759–1813), Vicar of Clapham, was also a prominent evangelical. …

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Clara (Josephine) Schumann - Biography, Music of Clara Schumann, Quotes, Works (partial listing)

Pianist and composer, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. She gave her first concert at 11, and published four of her Polonaises the following year. Her compositions include chamber music, songs, and many piano works, including a concerto. She married Robert Schumann in 1840, and from 1878 was principal piano teacher in the Conservatory at Frankfurt. Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1…

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Clara Barton - Youth, education, family nursing, American Civil War

Nurse and organizer, born in Oxford, Massachusetts, USA. An adventurous and strong-willed farmer's daughter, she nursed an invalid brother as a child, became a teacher at age 15, and worked in the US Patent Office in Washington, DC during the 1850s. After the Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run (Jul 1861) she advertized for provisions for the wounded, and received such a large contributio…

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Clara Bow - Early life, Early career, Fame and fortune, Mental illness, Filmography, Further reading

Film actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. At age 16 she won a fan magazine beauty contest and by 1922 she was making her first film. Mantrap (1926) was her first major hit, and she was suddenly the epitome of the Roaring Twenties, the ‘It Girl’ (referring to her sex appeal); and her ‘kewpie-doll’ appearance was imitated by thousands of young women. A 1928 poll named her America's mos…

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Clara Hale

Childcare activist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Widowed in 1932, she supported her family by offering home child care, becoming a foster mother to some 40 children. Living in Harlem, New York City, with the encouragement of her daughter, Dr Lorraine Hale, in 1968 she began to take in babies suffering the effects of birth to drug-addicted mothers, and in 1973 formally founded Hale Hous…

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Clara Reeve

Novelist of the Gothic school, born in Ipswich, Suffolk, E England, UK. She translated John Barclay's Argenis (1772), and wrote The Champion of Virtue, a Gothic Story (1777), renamed The Old English Baron, which was avowedly an imitation of Walpole's The Castle of Otranto. She wrote four other novels, as well as The Progress of Romance (1785). Clara Reeve (1729 - 1807), novelist, was the au…

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Clara Zetkin - Life, Further reading

Communist leader, born in Wiederau, E Germany. While studying at Leipzig Teacher's College for Women she became a Socialist and staunch feminist, and from 1881 to 1917 was a member of the Social Democratic Party. In 1917 she was one of the founders of the radical Independent Social Democratic Party (the Spartacus League), and became a founder of the German Communist Party (1918–19). A strong supp…

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Clare

pop (2000e) 92 000, area 3188 km²/1231 sq mi. County in Munster province, W Ireland; bounded W by Atlantic Ocean and E by Slieve Aughty Mts; Cliffs of Moher on Atlantic coast; limestone outcrops at the Burren; capital, Ennis; cattle, dairy farming, fishing; 3-day folk festival at spa town of Lisdoonvarna (Jul). Clare can refer to: …

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Clare Boothe Luce - Early life, Writing career, Political career, Legacy, Publications

Playwright, editor, and public figure, born in New York City, USA. Privately educated, she became associate editor of Vogue (1930), and associate editor and managing editor of Vanity Fair (1930–4), and was the author of several Broadway successes including The Women (1936) and Kiss the Boys Goodbye (1938). She divorced her first husband, and married millionaire publisher Henry Luce in 1935, with …

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Clare Boylan

Writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. Educated in Dublin, she worked as a journalist, winning the Dublin Journalist of the Year Award in 1983. Her first novel, Holy Pictures, appeared in 1983, and a book of short stories later that year, A Nail in the Head, confirmed her reputation. Later books include Last Resorts (1984), Home Rule (1992), Beloved Stranger (1999), and Emma Brown (2003). The film Makin…

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Clare Short - Background, Early career, DFID, Resignation over Iraq war, Post-ministerial career

British stateswoman, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, England, UK. She studied at Keele and Leeds universities, and after working as a civil servant and in local community organizations, became an MP in 1983. She was the opposition spokesperson on employment (1985–8), social security (1988–91), environmental protection (1992–3), and women (1993–5), then joined the shadow cabinet (1995), and …

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Clarence (Harrison) DeMar - See Also, Reference

Marathon runner, born in Madeira, Ohio, USA. He won the Boston marathon seven times (1921–4, 1927–8, 1930), was placed second three times, and third twice. He also won the bronze medal in the 1924 Olympics. He continued to run the Boston marathon until the end of his life. At this time the race was thought suitable for only a relatively small elite group of men, and he was therefore regarded as …

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Clarence (Leonard) Johnson - Aircraft contributions, Further reading

Aircraft designer, born in Ishpeming, Michigan, USA. He studied aeronautical engineering at the University of Michigan, and went to work for Lockheed Corporation in 1933. Beginning as a tool designer, he held positions as flight test engineer and stress analyst before becoming chief research engineer in 1938. He was involved in designing over 40 aircraft, including the U-2 high-altitude reconnaiss…

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Clarence (Melvin) Zener

Physicist, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. He taught at several American universities (1930–42), then became a physicist at the Watertown Arsenal (1942–5) in Massachusetts. He moved to Chicago (1945–51), was a physicist and engineer at Westinghouse (1951–65), then joined Texas A&M (1966–8), and Carnegie-Mellon (1968). He made seminal contributions to studies of superconductivity, metallur…

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Clarence (Seward) Darrow - Upbringing, From corporate lawyer to labor lawyer, From labor lawyer to criminal lawyer, Leopold and Loeb

Lawyer, social reformer, and writer, born in Kinsman, Ohio, USA. Admitted to the bar in 1878, he began as a small-town Ohio lawyer, but moved to Chicago in 1887. Political involvement with reform-minded Democrats led to a successful civil practice, then to two decades of labour law, ending in 1913. He gained a national reputation defending Eugene V Debs and other railway union leaders in connectio…

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Clarence Birdseye

Inventor and businessman, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He was interested in taxidermy as a child, and he took a cooking course in high school. After briefly attending Amherst College, he worked as a field naturalist for the Biological Service of the US Department of Agriculture (1910–12) before going to Labrador, where he engaged in the fur trade (1912–17). Observing how well the natives pre…

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Clarence Bloomfield Moore

Archaeologist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He was a wealthy socialite and international traveller who toured Europe and Asia Minor, crossed the Andes, and navigated the Amazon before turning to archaeology. He proved a meticulous fieldworker, and of his many studies of Indian mounds throughout SE USA, his excavations of the St John's shell middens in Florida (1892–4) were of particul…

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Clarence Edward Dutton

Geologist, born in Wallingford, Connecticut, USA. He joined the US Army (1862) and retired as a major (1901). Assigned to the US Geological Survey (1875–90), he made major contributions to geological and volcanic studies of the W USA and Hawaii. This article incorporates text from an edition of the New International Encyclopedia that is in the public domain. …

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Clarence King

Geologist, born in Newport, Rhode Island, USA. After graduating from Yale (1862), he crossed the USA on horseback and joined the California Geological Survey (1863–6). He then took charge of a survey of territory from E Colorado to California (1866–7). His observations while directing the US exploration of the 40th parallel (1867–78) resulted in his classic volume, Systematic Geology (1878), an…

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Clarence Thomas - Life, Early career, Supreme Court appointment, Controversies, Judicial philosophy, Approach to oral arguments

Judge, born in Pin Point, near Savannah, Georgia, USA. Shaped by his poor-but-proud family and his Catholic schooling, he went on to graduate from Holy Cross College and Yale Law School and to espouse conservative views on the situation of his fellow African-Americans. He worked as assistant secretary of education (1981) and then headed the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1981–9). Presid…

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Clarence Williams

Composer and publisher, born in Plaquemine, Louisiana, USA. When he was 13 he travelled as a singer and dancer with a minstrel show from New Orleans. He settled in New York, and in the 1920s supervised an exceptional series of small-band recordings with Louis Armstrong, Sidney Bechet, and other notable musicians. He became an important promoter and publisher of such artists as Fats Waller, Willie …

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Clarice Cliff

Ceramic designer, born in Tunstall, Staffordshire, C England, UK. She attended local art schools at Tunstall and Burslem, and set up a design studio at Wilkinson's Newport showroom, where she developed a style using bold designs painted with stylized trees and abstract patterns in vivid colours with bold brushwork. By 1929 the Newport pottery was given over entirely to the decoration of her work, …

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clarinet - Characteristics of the instrument, Construction and acoustics, Usage and repertoire of the clarinet

A woodwind instrument, with a cylindrical bore and a single reed. It evolved from the chalumeau, a somewhat coarse-toned instrument with a single reed, two keys, and seven fingerholes, developed at the end of the 17th-c; the term chalumeau is still used for the clarinet's lowest register. The clarinet came into regular use as a solo and orchestral instrument in the late 18th-c, since when the majo…

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Clark Kerr - Academic background, Chancellor of UC, UC President, Life after Berkeley, Trivia

University president and economist, born in Stony Creek, Pennsylvania, USA. A widely published labour economist and arbitrator, he presided over rapid growth at the University of California (chancellor 1952–8, president 1958–67), coined the term multiversity, and wrote the controversial Uses of the University (1963). He also chaired the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (1967–73). …

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clarkia

An annual native to W North America and Chile; leaves narrow to oblong; flowers in spikes, 4-petalled, white, pink, or violet; cultivated as ornamentals. (Genus: Clarkia, 36 species. Family: Onagraceae.) Clarkia is a genus within the flowering plant family Onagraceae. …

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class

A set or group of people sharing the same socio-economic position. A class society is a system of social inequality based on the unequal distribution of income and wealth. A person's class position is ascribed at birth via that of their parents (typically, the class income of the father), and is measured in terms of the income and wealth they enjoy. Classes can be differentiated in terms of occupa…

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classical music - Classical music as "music of the classical era", The nature of classical music

Music which is part of a long written tradition, which lends itself to sophisticated study and analysis in conservatories and universities, and which is heard in concert halls, opera houses, and churches (rather than in dance halls, public houses, and discotheques). The term classical (with a small c) is a popular but vague description; Classical (usually with a capital C) is best reserved for the…

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classicism - In the theatre, In architecture and landscaping, In the fine arts, In literature and poetry

An adherence, in any period, to the standards of Greek and Roman art, traditionally understood in terms of ‘correct’ proportions of the figure, dignified poses and gestures (as in Raphael, Poussin), but also powerful expression of feeling (as in Donatello, David). The French Academy in the 17th-c laid down elaborate rules, and in the mid-18th-c Winckelmann stressed the importance of ‘noble simp…

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Classics - Sub-disciplines within the classics, History of the western classics, Famous Classicists, Quotations

The name given to horse-racing's leading races in several countries. In England there are five Classics. The One Thousand Guineas is traditionally the first, run over 1 mi (1·6 km) at Newmarket; first run in 1814, it is open to fillies only. The Two Thousand Guineas is also early in the season, run over 1 mi (1·6 km) at Newmarket; first run in 1809, it is open to colts and fillies. The Derby…

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Claude (Achille) Debussy - Life and work, Death, Musical style, Debussy in film and pop culture, Notable compositions, Media

Composer, born in St Germain-en-Laye, NC France. Educated at the Paris Conservatoire (1873–84), he studied piano under Antoine-François Marmontel, and in 1884 won the Prix de Rome. His early successes were the Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun), and his piano pieces, Images and Préludes, in which he experimented with novel techniques and effects, pro…

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Claude (Eug - Style and influences, Works

Novelist, born in Tananarive, C Madagascar. He was educated at Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge universities, fought in World War 2, and later earned a living producing wine at Salses. His novels include Le Vent (1957, The Wind), L'Herbe (1958, The Grass), and - part of a four-volume cycle - La Route des Flandres (1960, The Flanders Road). Later works include Le tramway (2001, The Trolley). He receive…

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Claude (Langman) Berri

Film director, actor, and producer, born in Paris, France. Following a moderate career as an actor in the cinema and on television, he went on to produce Le Vieil Homme et l'Enfant (1967) with Michel Simon, successful with the public and the critics. He made ten more films, his greatest successes being Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources (both 1986), followed by Uranus (1991) and Germinal (1993…

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Claude Bernard - Life, Works, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865)

Physiologist, born near Villefranche, EC France. He studied medicine at Paris, and became assistant at the Collège de France to Magendie (1841), succeeding him as professor of experimental physiology (1855). He made several discoveries on the role of the pancreas and liver, changes in temperature of the blood, and the sympathetic nerves. His Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (186…

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Claude Chabrol - Filmography, Actor

Film critic and director, born in Paris, France. He financed his own first production Le Beau Serge (1958, Handsome Serge), and with Les Cousins (1959) became identified with the French Nouvelle Vague, a style which had become more publicly acceptable when he produced Les Biches (1968, The Does). His most widely-known films are dramas of abnormality in the provincial bourgeoisie, notably Le Bouche…

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Claude Chappe - Legacy

Engineer and inventor, born in Brulon, NW France. He was studying for a career in the Church, but his plans were altered with the French Revolution, and he decided instead to develop his interest in telegraphy. In 1793 he developed a hand-operated semaphore system, operating in towers built on high ground, equipped with two movable signal-arms, and telescopes. The system was soon copied throughout…

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Claude Cohen-Tannoudji - Teaching, Research, Nobel Prize in Physics, Bibliography

Physicist, born in Constantine, NE Algeria. He graduated in 1962 from the Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, where he went on to work. In 1997 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics for his contribution to the development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (born April 1, 1933) is a French physicist working at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, Fra…

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Claude Duval - Popular culture

Highwayman, born in Domfront, NW France. He moved to England at the Restoration (1660) in the service of the Duke of Richmond. Taking soon to the road, he pursued a successful career as a robber, gaining a popular reputation, especially for his daring and gallantry towards the women he robbed. He was captured drunk, and hanged at Tyburn, London. Samuel Butler satirically commemorated his death in …

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Claude E(lwood) Shannon - Biography, Shannon miscellany, Awards and honors list

Mathematician and pioneer of communication theory, born in Gaylord, Michigan, USA. He studied at Michigan and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1938 published a seminal paper on the application of symbolic logic to relay circuits, which helped transform circuit design from an art into a science. He worked at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (1941–72) in the area of information t…

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Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle

French army officer, born in Lons-le-Saunier, EC France. He wrote and composed the Marseillaise when stationed in 1792 as captain of engineers at Strasbourg. Its original name was ‘Chant de guerre de l'armée du Rhin’ (War Song of the Rhine Army), but it became known in Paris when it was sung by volunteers from Marseille during the French Revolution. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle (born Ma…

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Claude Kitchin

US representative, born in Scotland, North Carolina, USA. Son of a representative, he was a lawyer before going to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, North Carolina, 1901–23). Brilliant at debate, his support of the Payne–Aldrich tariff won him appointment to the Ways and Means Committee. As its chairman (1915), he initially opposed Wilson's declaration of war against Germany, but he sec…

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Claude Lelouch - Filmography

Film-maker, born in Paris, France. Creator of the hand-held camera technique, he directed well-established stars, such as Catherine Deneuve and and J LTrintignant, as well as unknowns. His Un homme et une femme (1966) won a Palme d'Or at Cannes and two Oscars. Most of his work is characterized by charm, romantic colours, and romanticism. Born in Paris, Lelouch won the Palme d'Or at the Cann…

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Claude Lorrain - Biography, Critical assessment and legacy, Selected works

Landscape painter, born in Chamagne, Lorraine region, NE France. He studied with various Italian painters, then settled in Rome (1627). He painted about 400 landscapes, including several with biblical or Classical themes, such as ‘The Sermon on the Mount’ (1656, Frick Collection, New York City). His compositions, if rather formal, are always graceful and well considered, and his colour is singul…

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Claude McKay - Early life, Political activism, Home to Harlem and other writings

Writer, born in Sunny Ville, Jamaica. He had already published two volumes in Jamaican dialect before he arrived in the USA to study at Tuskegee Institute, AL (1912) and Kansas State (1912–14). He moved to New York City and began to publish his poems under his pseudonym. By this time he was having an influence on ‘Harlem Renaissance’, and was also widely respected internationally. He lived abro…

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Claude Monet - Early life, Paris, Franco-Prussian War, Later life, Death

Painter, born in Paris, France. He spent his youth in Le Havre, where he met Boudin, who encouraged him to work in the open air. Moving to Paris, he associated with Renoir, Degas, Pissarro, and Sisley, and exhibited with them at the first Impressionist Exhibition in 1874; one of his works at this exhibition, ‘Impression: soleil levant’ (Impression: Sunrise, 1872, Paris), gave the name to the mov…

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Claude Nicolas Ledoux - Biography, Later works, Works, Criticism

Architect, born in Dormans-sur-Marne, NE France. As architect to Louis XVI, his major works include the Château at Louveciennes for Madame du Barry (1771–3), and the Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans (1775–80). In 1785 he was employed by the Fermes-Général to erect 60 tax buildings around Paris, though only a few were built. Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (Dormans, March 21, 1736 — Paris November 18…

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Claude Perrault

Architect, physician, and physicist, born in Paris, France, the brother of Charles Perrault, author of the Contes. With François d'Orbay, Claude built the colonnade of the Louvre (1667). Other works include the Paris Observatoire, and he also published an illustrated translation of the Roman architect Vitruvius in 1673. Though Claude Perrault (Paris, 1613 - Paris, 1688) is best known as th…

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Claude Sautet - Filmography (Director), Filmography (Writer), Filmography (other)

Scriptwriter and film-maker, born in Montrouge, NC France. A precise director who enjoyed directing actors, his films were relatively few because of his painstaking approach, but as a consequence were well made. They include Les Choses de la vie (Prix Louis-Delluc in 1970), Vincent, François, Paul et les autres (1974), Mado (1976), and Un coeur en hiver (1992). He won an Oscar nomination for Best…

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Claudette Colbert - Personal life, Career, Filmography, Television Work

Film actress, born in Paris, France. She went to the USA as a child, and started in films with spirited comedy roles, becoming a star with It Happened One Night (1934), which won her an Oscar. This was followed by 10 years of romantic comedy successes, including Tovarich (1937) and The Palm Beach Story (1942), and varied character parts up to the 1960s, such as in Parrish (1960). On the stage her …

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Claudio Abbado

Musical conductor, born in Milan, N Italy. From a distinguished musical family, he began training in piano, composition, and conducting. He made his British debut in Manchester (1965), was conductor and director at La Scala, Milan (1968–86), and principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra (1979–87). Other posts include principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (1971), mus…

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Claudio Arrau - Awards and Recognitions, Quotes

Pianist, born in Chillán, C Chile. He studied at the Stern Conservatory, Berlin (1912–18), and taught there (1924–40). He is renowned as an interpreter of Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, Liszt, and Brahms. His musical thoughts were collected in Conversations with Arrau by Joseph Horowitz (1982). Claudio Arrau León (February 6, 1903 – June 9, 1991) was a Chilean pianist of world fam…

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Claudio Monteverdi - Life and works, Compositions, Media

Composer, born in Cremona, N Italy. A proficient violist, he learned the art of composition in Cremona, publishing a set of three-part choral pieces at the age of 15. About 1590 he was appointed court musician to the Duke of Mantua, whose maestro di capella he became in 1602, moving on to a similar post at St Mark's, Venice, in 1613, where he remained until his death. His eight books of madrigals,…

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Claudio Reyna

Footballer, born in Livingston, New Jersey, USA, whose father was an Argentinian professional footballer playing for the club Independiente. Claudio made the US Olympic football squad while still at high school, and was voted 1993 College Player of the Year during his time at the University of Virginia. After a frustrating spell with Bundesliga (German Football League) club Bayer Leverkusen, he jo…

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Claudio Treves - Life

Italian politician and journalist, born in Turin, Piedmont, NW Italy. He joined the Socialist Party in 1892 and wrote for the review Critica Sociale (Social Criticism). He edited the party's newspaper, Avanti! (1910–12) and also La giustizia (1922–5), the mouthpiece of the reformist wing (Partito Socialista Unitario, of which he was also leader) that had split from the party. He escaped to Franc…

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Claudius - Claudius' affliction and personality, Family and early life, Reign, Marriages and personal life

Roman emperor (41–54), the grandson of the Empress Livia, the brother of Germanicus, and the nephew of the Emperor Tiberius. Kept in the background because of his physical disabilities, he devoted himself to historical studies, and thus survived the vicious in-fighting of the imperial house. Becoming emperor largely by accident in the chaos after Caligula's murder, he proved to be an able and pro…

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clavichord - History and use, Structure and action, Fretting, Music

A keyboard instrument used from the 15th-c to the late 18th-c and revived in recent times, mainly for performing early music. The keys, when depressed, cause metal tangents to strike the strings, which run at right angles to the keys and are tuned in pairs. They are dampened at one end by means of cloth or felt. In early ‘fretted’ clavichords, one pair of strings served to produce several differ…

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clavicle - Overview, Functions, Attachments, Development, Common clavicle injuries, Note about anatomical position, Additional images

The curved bone, also known as the collar bone, lying almost horizontally at the base of the neck between the breastbone (sternum) and the shoulder blade (scapula); part of the pectoral girdle. It acts as a strut preventing the shoulder falling inwards and downwards - hence the position of the shoulder and upper limb when the clavicle is broken. In human anatomy, the clavicle or collar bone…

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clay - Grouping, Historical and modern uses of clay, Some varieties of clay

A fine-grained sedimentary deposit composed mainly of clay minerals with some quartz, feldspar, and gypsum. Wet clay can be shaped into bricks, pottery, or sculpture, and when fired forms a durable solid due to the recrystallization of clay minerals into anhydrous silicates. Clay-rich soils are characteristically sticky, with poor drainage when wet, or cracked and hard when dry. Clay is a t…

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clay minerals - Structure

Hydrous sheet silicates which form fine, flaky crystals, and which can absorb water, giving clay its characteristic plasticity when wet. They are formed as the product of the weathering of rocks, and are often deposited by rivers. Kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite are important clay mineral groups. They are used as fillers for paper, rubber, and paint. Clay minerals include the followi…

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claymore - Name, Two-handed (Highland) claymore, Basket-hilted claymore

A large, double-edged sword used by Scottish Highlanders in the 17th-c. It had a broad, flat blade, and was wielded with both hands. An 18th-c development was a single-edged broadsword with a basket hilt. Claymore is a term used to describe two distinct types of Scottish swords. The name claymore is thought to be from claidheamh mòr—a Gaelic term meaning "big sword". …

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Clazomenae - Location, Mythology, Ancient Times

Ancient city of W Asia Minor, 32 km/20 mi W of present-day Izmir, Turkey; originally founded on the mainland, it was moved to a small island and Alexander the Great built a causeway to it; flourished during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; the birthplace of Anaxagoras. Clazomenae (Greek: Κλαζομεναί, Klazomenai, modern-day Klazomenai in Turkey) was an ancient Greek city of Ioni…

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Cleanth Brooks - Biographical information, Brooks and New Criticism, Reaction to New Criticism, Brooks’ most noteworthy works, Further reading

Literary critic, born in Murray, Kentucky, USA. A long-serving Yale professor (1946–75), he was the leading New Critic of the 1940s–1950s, recognized for his critical acuity in close readings of modern literature in The Well Wrought Urn (1947) and other essays. He published important works on Milton, Thomas Percy and William Faulkner. Brooks was also the preeminent critic on Southern lite…

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Cleanthes

Greek Stoic philosopher, born in Assos, Troas. He studied under Zeno of Citium in Athens for 19 years and succeeded him as head of the Stoa in 262. His own contributions to Stoicism were especially in the areas of theology and cosmology, and his principal extant writing is the Hymn to Zeus. Cleanthes (c. With but four drachmae in his possession he came to Athens, where he listen…

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Clear Grits

The name given to a Radical political reform group in Upper Canada (Canada West/Ontario) in the 1850s and 1860s. The term derived from the group's attitude of uncompromising determination. It promoted major constitutional reform, including direct election to executive posts, and secularization of Clergy Reserves. After 1867 it formed the core of the Canadian Liberal Party. Clear Grits were …

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cleavage

The process by which a fertilized egg cell (zygote) divides to give rise to all the cells of an organism. In animals, cleavage results in the formation of a blastula. The animal kingdom can be divided into two major groups on the basis of cleavage pattern: the deuterostomes, which include vertebrates and echinoderms, with radial cleavage, and the protostomes, which include molluscs and arthropods,…

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Cleisthenes

Prominent Athenian politician of the Alcmaeonid family, and founder of Athenian democracy. His constitutional reforms (c.508 BC) paved the way for the radical democracy established by Ephialtes and Pericles (c.461 BC). Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmaeonid family. He is credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and …

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Clem(ent) Studebaker - Tippecanoe Place mansion

Manufacturer, born in Pinetown, Pennsylvania, USA. He helped his father in his small wagon-building shop until 1852, when he and his older brother Henry Studebaker, with just $68 and some blacksmith tools, established H & C Studebaker in South Bend, IN. They put their name on their extremely well-made wagons and received many contracts. In 1868 the company became the Studebaker Brothers Manufactur…

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clematis

A member of a genus of woody climbers native throughout temperate regions; stems sometimes thick and liane-like; leaves pinnate, the stalk sensitive on the lower side, acting as a tendril and bending around supports on contact; flowers with four petaloid perianth-segments, styles long and feathery, aiding wind dispersal of the seeds, and giving seed-heads a white, hoary appearance. Many garden for…

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Clement (Clarke) Moore - Publications

Educator, Hebraist, and poet, born in New York City, New York, USA. He graduated from Columbia College (1798), became a Hebrew scholar, wrote A Compendious Lexicon of the Hebrew Language (1809), and was a founder of and professor at the General Theological Seminary, New York City (1823–50). He is generally known for a poem written for his children, ‘A Visit From St Nicholas’ (1822), later known…

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Clement (Edward) Davies - Offices held

British politician, leader of the Liberal Party (1945–56), born in Llanfyllin, Powys, E Wales, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1909. Elected MP for Montgomeryshire in 1929, he held his seat until his death. Although offered a post as education secretary in Churchill's 1951–5 government, he declined, and saved the Liberal Party from being subsumed in the Conservative Par…

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Clement (Melville) Keys

Journalist, financier, and aviation executive, born in Chatsworth, Ontario, Canada. His financial and organizational skills boosted the development of modern airline corporations such as Trans World Airlines. He moved to New York to work for the Wall Street Journal (1901–6) and eventually founded North American Aviation (1928), a holding company that assisted in the creation of Curtiss-Wright (19…

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Cleon - Aristophanes and Thucydides on Cleon

The first Athenian of rich, bourgeois stock to play a prominent role in 5th-c BC politics. Routinely dismissed as an upstart, demagogue, and warmonger, it was his capture of the Spartans on the island of Sphacteria (425 BC) that gave Athens her trump card in the peace negotiations of the late 420s BC. Cleon (d. 422 BC), Athenian politician during the Peloponnesian War, was the son of Cleaen…

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Clermont-Ferrand - History

45°46N 3°04E, pop (2000e) 142 000. Capital of Puy-de-Dôme department, C France; capital of Auvergne, 16th-c; Clermont merged with Montferrand, 1630; railway; bishopric; university (1896); geographical and economic centre of the Massif Central; Michelin tyres, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs; major source of mineral water; Gothic Cathedral of Notre-Dame (begun 1248), basilica of Notre-Dame-du-…

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Cleveland Abbe

Meteorologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He worked on the US Coast and Geodetic Survey before apprenticing himself in 1864 at the Russian Pulkovo Observatory, home of the then largest refracting telescope in the world. On his return (1866) he tried but failed to establish an observatory in New York City, and in 1868 became director of the Cincinnati Observatory. While there, he impleme…

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Cleveland bay - History of the Breed, Breed Description

One of the oldest English breeds of horse; height, 15–16 hands/1·5–1·6 m/5–5 ft 4 in; reddish-brown with long body, shortish legs, muscular hindquarters; also known as the Chapman horse. Crossing with thoroughbreds in the 18th-c produced the rare Yorkshire coach horse. The Cleveland Bay is a carriage-type horse, and is always true to its color: bay. This uniform color is desired in …

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click beetle - Partial List of Genera

An elongate, usually dark-coloured beetle; an adult lying on its back can right itself with a jack-knifing movement that produces a loud click; long, cylindrical larvae live in soil, feeding on roots; can be serious crop pests, known as wireworms. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Elateridae.) Click beetles (family Elateridae), sometimes called elaters, Skipjack, Snapping, or Spring Beetle, are a…

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click language - Groups

A language in which ‘click’ sounds are a systematic part of the consonant system, as in such African languages as Zulu and Xhosa. Clicks are produced by an air-stream which begins at the back of the mouth, and typically involve the kind of sounds made when ‘tut-tutting’, or in ‘gee-upping’ a horse. A click language is a tribal tongue of Africa which uses click consonants in its phonet…

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Clifden - History, Access, Religion

53º29N 10º01W. Town in Connemara region, Co Galway, W Ireland; 80 km/50 mi W of Galway City; founded in 1812 by local landlord John D'Arcy; nearby memorial to mark the landing site of the first successful non-stop crossing of the Atlantic (1919) by John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown; Connemara pony show (Aug). Coordinates: 53.4833°?N 10.0167°?W Clifden (in Irish, An Cloc…

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Cliff Richard - 1940—1958: Childhood, 1958—1963: Success and stardom, 1964—1975: Changing circumstances, 1976—1994: Comeback

Pop-singer, born in Lucknow, NC India. He moved to England at the age of eight, began his professional career playing with the Dick Teague Group, and formed his own band in 1958. Originally called The Drifters, the group changed its name to The Shadows to avoid confusion with a US vocal group of the same name. Following the success of ‘Living Doll’ (1959), The Shadows were hailed as Britain's an…

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Clifford (Whittingham) Beers

Founder of the mental hygiene movement, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Trained as a scientist at Yale, he was confined to hospital after a mental breakdown (1900–3). As a result of indignities and violence he experienced, he was determined to reform the mental health system. His book, The Mind That Found Itself (1908), created a sensation, calling for a true therapeutic approach to mental i…

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Clifford Brown - Life, Tributes, Partial list of compositions, Partial discography, Further reading

Jazz musician, born in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. He was rapidly establishing himself as one of the greatest trumpeters in jazz history when he was killed in an automobile accident. He played with Lionel Hampton, Tadd Dameron, and Art Blakey (1953–4), then co-led a quintet with Max Roach that gained immediate recognition as one of the leading groups in modern jazz. Clifford Brown (…

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Clifford Odets - Life, Works

Playwright and actor, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. In 1931 he joined the Group Theater, New York City, becoming a leading US playwright in the 1930s. His works are marked by a strong social conscience, and grew largely from the conditions of the Great Depression. They included Waiting for Lefty, Till the Day I Die (both 1935), and Golden Boy (1937). Among his film scripts were The Gene…

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Clifton (Albert Furlow) Sprague

US naval officer, born in Dorchester (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. He fought a remarkable naval action against the Centre Force of the Japanese fleet in 1944. His escort carrier group sustained heavy losses, but performed the vital service of removing the Centre Force from the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Vice Admiral Clifton Albert Frederick ("Ziggy") Sprague (1896-1955) was a World W…

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Clifton Chenier

Musician, born in Opelousas, Louisiana, USA. He was an accordianist and singer who pioneered zydeco, a fusion of blues and the French Cajun music of Louisiana. He led his own band from the 1950s, playing locally until he gained wide recognition through a series of European tours beginning in the early 1970s. Clifton Chenier (June 26, 1925 - December 12, 1987) a native of Opelousas, Louisian…

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climate - Classifications, Climate determinants, Climate indices, Historical climates, National climates

The long-term prevailing weather conditions in a region or place. There are a number of different schemes for dividing the Earth into climatic regions, the majority of which are based on a combination of indices of mean annual temperature, mean monthly temperature, annual precipitation totals, and seasonality. The climate of a place is influenced by several factors. Latitude determines the amount …

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climax vegetation

A botanical term for the final stage of plant succession which has developed without disturbance. Where climate is the major factor in determining vegetation, a climatic climax results. In most regions of the Earth, the climatic climax is dominated by trees: tropical rainforest in the humid tropics; deciduous woodland at temperate latitudes. Acceptance of the concept is not universal, and factors …

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clinical psychology - History, Professional practice, Other scientific perspectives

The application of psychological knowledge to the assessment, prevention, and treatment of a variety of psychological disorders, involving behavioural, emotional, or cognitive disturbances. Clinical psychology is the application of psychology to troublesome mental distress in a health and social care context. Clinical Psychologists assess mental health problems; The American Psycholog…

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clinometer - Factors Which Influence The Use Of Clinometers, Survey Methods Used For

A hand-held surveying instrument, also known as an Abney level. It is used to measure the angles of a slope by bringing a level-bubble on a graduated circle into coincidence with a wire in a sighting tube. A clinometer also known as an inclinometer is an instrument for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation or inclination of an object with respect to gravity. Early in the 1900's …

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Clint Eastwood - Biography, Filmography, Discography, Eastwood in popular culture

Film actor and director, born in San Francisco, California, USA. He began acting in television Westerns, especially the Rawhide series (1959–65), and became an international star with three Italian-made ‘spaghetti’ Westerns, beginning with A Fistful of Dollars (1964). In the USA his box-office status was confirmed with several violent crime thrillers, such as Dirty Harry (1971), and from that t…

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Clinton Hart Merriam

Naturalist, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of a wealthy merchant, he grew up in Locust Grove, NY within view of the Adirondacks. He studied at Yale, earned a medical degree from Columbia University, and practised medicine for several years before turning full time to natural history. As director of the US Biological Survey (1885–1910), he oversaw research projects, expeditions, and…

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clitoris - Development and formation, Recognition of existence, Body modification, Additional images

Part of the female external genitalia, composed of erectile tissue partly surrounded by muscle. It is the equivalent of the male penis (though it does not convey the urethra), and enlarges upon tactile stimulation. In seals and some other animals it contains a small bone (the os clitoridis). The clitoris (Greek κλειτορίς) is a female sexual organ. Unlike the homologous male organ (…

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Clive (Hubert) Lloyd

Cricketer, born in Georgetown, Guyana. Educated on a scholarship to Chatham High School, Georgetown, he worked as a hospital clerk until his first West Indies Test cap in 1966, then moved to England to play for Haslingden before joining Lancashire (1968–86). A left-handed batsman and fielder, he played in 110 Test matches (captain 1974–85), scoring 7515 runs and making 19 centuries. He led the W…

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Clive (Stuart) Anderson - Trivia

Television presenter and barrister, born in London, UK. He studied law at Cambridge, where he was president of Footlights, and was called to the bar in 1976. He wrote scripts for radio and television, began acting as a TV warm-up man, and joined BBC Radio 4 as chairman of the popular Whose Line Is It Anyway? (1988). The show later transferred to Channel 4 Television, where he was also given his ow…

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Clive (Vivian Leopold) James - Sydney, London and Cambridge, Career, Bibliography, Trivia

Writer, satirist, broadcaster, and critic, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at the universities of Sydney and Cambridge, and became television critic for the English newspaper The Observer. He has published several books of comment and criticism, including The Metropolitan Critic (1974) and Snakecharmers in Texas (1988). Other writing includes volumes of verse, such as Oth…

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Clive Bell - Marriage, relationships, Key ideas, career

English critic of art and literature. He studied at Cambridge, and in 1907 married painter Vanessa Stephen, sister of the writer Virginia Woolf. A prominent member of the London-based Bloomsbury group, his best-known works include Art (1914), in which he expounded the theory of ‘significant form’, and Since Cezanne (1922), in which he espoused modernism in art. Among later works are Landmarks in…

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cloaca

In some species (eg reptiles, birds, but not placental mammals), the terminal region of the gut. The alimentary canal, urinary system, and reproductive system all open into the cloaca and discharge their products via a single common aperture. In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and (usually) genital tract…

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clock - History, Types, Purposes, Specific types of clocks

A mechanism for measuring and indicating the passage of time, and for recording the duration of intervals. Its essential elements are a source of energy to drive the mechanism, and a device to maintain a regular (usually stepwise) rate of motion. (In the earliest mechanical clocks, the striking of bells was a primary function.) The first clockwork escapement was Chinese, AD 724, and water-powered …

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clone (computing)

Hardware or software products manufactured by one company which completely mimic the behaviour of products originally devised by another manufacturer. It is usually cleverly designed to avoid patent and licence restrictions. Clone may refer to: …

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cloning (genetics) - Molecular cloning, Genetic cloning, Organism

The process of asexual reproduction observed, for example, in bacteria and other unicellular micro-organisms which divide by simple fission, so that the daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and to the parent (except when mutation occurs). In higher organisms, genetically identical individuals may be produced by cloning. A body (somatic) cell is taken from an embryo in an early st…

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Clonmel

52°21N 7°42W, pop (2000e) 15 700. Capital of Tipperary county, South Riding, Munster, S Ireland; on R Suir; centre of Irish greyhound racing and salmon fishing; railway; agricultural trade, food processing, tourism, footwear, cider. Clonmel (Cluain Meala in Irish) is a medium-sized town in the south of the Republic of Ireland and the county seat of South Tipperary County Council. The Co…

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closed shop - Origins of the closed shop, The legal status of the closed shop in the United States

A company or works where some grades of worker are required to belong to a recognized trade union; the opposite situation is known as an open shop. Unions prefer the closed shop, as it gives them more members, and gives their members a better chance of getting any available jobs. They also feel that non-members benefit from agreements on pay and working conditions, and that it is unfair for them n…

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cloud - Cloud formation and properties, Cloud classification, Colors, Global dimming, Clouds on other planets, Reference

A visible collection of particles of ice and water held in suspension above the ground. Clouds form when air becomes saturated and water vapour condenses around nuclei of dust, smoke particles, and salt. Four main categories of clouds are recognized: nimbus clouds, which produce rain; stratus clouds, which resemble layers; cumulus clouds, which resemble heaps; and cirrus clouds, which resemble str…

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cloud chamber - Invention, Other chambers

A device for detecting subatomic particles; invented by Charles Wilson in 1912. It comprises a chamber containing vapour prone to condensing to liquid. The passage of particles forms ions, which act as centres for condensation, and the particle paths become visible as trails of mist. The cloud chamber was important in the early days of radioactivity, but has been superseded by other particle detec…

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clover - Cultivation, Symbolism and mythology

A low-growing annual or perennial, occurring in both temperate and subtropical regions, but mainly in the N hemisphere; leaves with three toothed leaflets; small pea-flowers, white, pink, or red, clustered into often dense, rounded heads; pods small, remaining enclosed by the calyx. The flowers are visited by hive bees, providing an important source of nectar for bee-keepers. Several species are e…

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Clovis

The earliest identifiable Indian culture of North America - hunter-gatherers exploiting the mammoth herds of the plains towards the end of the last glaciation, c.10 000–9000 BC. It is characterized archaeologically by bifacially-flaked spear points found across the USA, notably near Clovis, New Mexico, in 1963. Clovis may refer to: In geography: In royalty: …

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Clovis I

Merovingian king, who succeeded his father, Childeric (481), as king of the Franks. He overthrew the Gallo-Romans, and took possession of the whole country between the Somme and the Loire by 496. In 493 he married (St) Clotilde, and was converted to Christianity along with several thousand warriors after routing the Alemanni. In 507, he defeated the Visigoth, Alaric II, captured Bordeaux and Toulo…

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clown - History, Clown types, Other types, Styles, Skills, Customs and traditions, Clowning frameworks

An archetypal comic figure (part anti-social trickster, part clumsy innocent child) found as a popular entertainer in diverse cultures. A long and varied tradition of professional exponents in European theatre has created such distinct clowns as Pickleherring, Hanswurst, Harlequin, Pierrot, Auguste, and Joey. When Grimaldi was creating Joey, he was shaping both a unique figure and a specific tradi…

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club - Coffee houses, Social clubs, Social Activities Clubs

An establishment where people associate to pursue social, political, or sporting activities. In the US, country clubs and women's clubs are well-established. In London, clubs for men developed in the 17th-c from the taverns and coffee houses where men met to do business. These clubs (Whites, founded 1693, Boodles 1767, Brooks's 1764, Portland 1816, Athenaeum 1824, Garrick 1831, Carlton 1832, Refor…

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club foot - Causes, Treatments, Famous people

A congenital deformity of one or both feet, in which the child cannot stand on the sole of the affected foot (technically called talipes [talipeez]). The sole of the foot is turned inwards. The deformity is readily seen at birth, and cannot be manipulated, but improvement may be achieved by the application of a series of graded splints, or in severe cases by surgical operation. A clubfoot, …

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Cluny Abbey - Founding, Organization, Cluny and the Arts, The Famous Library, Cluny's influence

A Benedictine abbey founded in 910 at Cluny, EC France, known for the monastic reforms it introduced, promoting a stricter observance of the Benedictine rule. The basilica of St Peter and St Paul (11th–12th-c) was the largest church in the world at the time. The abbey was forced to close in 1790, during the French Revolution. The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 Septem…

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clutch

A mechanical device that allows an engine to be connected and disconnected from its load while the engine is running. A clutch is necessary when the power characteristics of an engine's output do not match naturally the power characteristics of the load. In such cases a gearbox has to be interposed between engine and load, together with a clutch, to allow the engine to be disconnected and a new ge…

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cluttering - Treatment

A disorder of speech fluency, in which the main symptom is excessive rapidity while speaking. Clutterers seem unable to control their speech rate, and as a result introduce disturbances of rhythm and articulation into their speech, with sounds becoming displaced, mispronounced, or omitted, and syllables telescoping into each other. The cause is unknown, though a physical explanation in terms of th…

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Clyde (Vernon) Cessna

Aviator, born in Hawthorne, Louisiana, USA. After developing a simply designed monoplane with the innovatory cantilever wing (1917), he partnered businessman Victor Roos and produced Cessna–Roos aircraft. Cessna became sole owner (1927) and founded the successful Cessna Aircraft Company, mass-producing modern, multi-purpose planes. Clyde Vernon Cessna (December 5, 1879 - November 20, 1954)…

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Clyfford Still

Painter and printmaker, born in Grandin, North Dakota, USA. He studied art at Spokane University, graduating in 1933. By c.1940 he had arrived at his personal style, rejecting European ideas, and employing the currently fashionable organic forms of Biomorphism. He later taught at the California School of Fine Arts, San Francisco (1946–50). Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 198…

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Clytemnestra - Artworks based on the story of Clytemnestra

In Greek legend, the twin sister of Helen and the wife of Agamemnon. She murdered him on his return from Troy, assisted by her lover, Aegisthus. She was killed in revenge by her son, Orestes. Agamemnon followed his brother Menelaus after Menelaus' wife Helen was stolen by Paris, thus igniting the Trojan War. While Agamemnon was away, Clytemnestra weakened her resolve and began a…

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Co-operative Party

A British political party which grew out of the ideas of voluntary mutual economic assistance developed in the 19th-c by Robert Owen. Established in 1917, one candidate, who joined with the Parliamentary Labour Party, was elected to the House of Commons in 1918. Thereafter it became closely integrated with the Labour Party, with which it still elects MPs jointly. …

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coal - Origin of coal, Types of coal, Uses, Coal fires, World coal reserves

A black or brown sedimentary rock found in beds or seams, and formed by heat and pressure over millions of years on vegetation accumulated in shallow swamps; used as a fuel. Successive stages in the formation of coal involve an increase in carbon content or ‘rank’: peat is the first stage, followed by lignite or brown coal (60–70% carbon), bituminous coal (more than 80% carbon), and anthracite …

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coal mining - Methods of extraction, Modern Mining in America, Dangers to miners, Safer times in modern mining

Extracting coal from beneath the ground. In open-cast mining, the coal is near the surface: the overburden is stripped away, the coal removed, and the overburden restored for environmental conservation. In drift mining, the coal lies within a slope: a horizontal tunnel is driven into the side of the slope, and the coal removed on level railways or conveyors. Deep mining relies on vertical shafts w…

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coal tar - Applications, Safety

A volatile by-product of heating coal in the absence of air to form coke; a black viscous liquid consisting of a complex mixture of organic compounds. Further distillation of coal tar produces a large number of chemicals which form the basis of explosives, dyes, and drugs. Being flammable, coal tar is sometimes used for heating or to fire boilers. It can be made into coal tar so…

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coal tit - Taxonomic note, Gallery

A small bird native to Europe, Asia, and Africa (Parus ater); head and throat black, cheeks and back of neck white; inhabits woodland, especially coniferous, and gardens; eats seeds, and often takes insects from tree bark. (Family: Paridae.) The Coal Tit, Parus ater is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. Most authorities treat the Coal Tit in the subgenus Periparus withi…

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coalition - Politics and government, Computer science

An interparty arrangement established to pursue a common goal, most obviously government. Coalition governments are relatively common in electoral systems using proportional representation and/or in multiparty systems. The nature of the coalition is defined by those parties with seats in the cabinet. A coalition government, in a parliamentary system, is a government composed of a coalition …

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Coast Mountains - Significant peaks, Subranges

Mountain range in W British Columbia and Alaska, extending about 1600 km/1000 mi NW–SE; rises to 4042 m/13 261 ft in Mt Waddington, British Columbia; rugged terrain with several glaciers. There are several subdivisions of the Coast Mountains. Some neighbouring ranges can be found in Interior Plateau and the Hazelton Mountains section of the Skeena Mountains (which are not part o…

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coati

A raccoon-like mammal, found from S USA to South America; reddish-brown; long banded tail; long narrow muzzle with overhanging tip; inhabits woodland; eats fruit and small animals; solitary males called coatimundis (or koatimundis). The name is also used for the Andean mountain coati (Nasuella olivacea). (Genus: Nasua, 2 species. Family: Procyonidae.) The name coati (pronounced "co-ah-tee")…

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coaxial cable - Connectors, Uses, Types, Interference and troubleshooting

A form of electrical wiring with relatively low loss which is used in the home as a connector from a television aerial to the television set. In computer systems it is the standard form of inter-connection wiring for local area networks. It is now being replaced in many places by fibre-optic cable, and in many computer networks by unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. Coaxial cable is an e…

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cob

A type of horse, often produced when crossing a heavy cart-horse with a racing horse; height, 14·2–15·2 hands/1·5–1·6 m/4 ft 10 in–5 ft 2 in; short deep body; calm natured; lacks speed; also known as rouncy or roncey. The name is also used specifically for the Irish cob, Norman cob, Welsh cob, and extinct Powys cob. Cob may refer to: COB may refer to: …

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cobalt

Co, element 27, density 9 g/cm3, melting point 1495°C. A hard metal, which occurs in ores as its sulphide (CoS), along with copper and nickel. It is used mainly as a metal in steel alloys, especially for permanent magnets. Most of its compounds show +2 oxidation state. Hydrated salts are usually light red, but many anhydrous ones are bright blue, and are used as pigments. Cobalt (IPA: /ˈ…

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Cobb and Co

An Australian company which operated the largest coach service in E Australia (1853–1924). Famous for the reliability of its service, it was based in Victoria to 1862, and then in Bathurst, New South Wales. By 1890, Cobb and Co had 6400 km/4000 mi of coach routes, but from then on found itself less able to compete with the railways. It continues today as a motor transport company. Cobb a…

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COBOL - Prehistory and specification, History of COBOL standards, Defining features, COBOL legacy, Defense

Acronym for COmmon Business Orientated Language, a high-level computer language widely used in the business community. It uses statements written in English which are relatively easy to understand; for example, the statement ADD VAT TO NET-PRICE could be used in a COBOL program. COBOL is a third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use…

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cobra - Culinary use, Trivia

A venomous snake, native to S Asia and Africa; neck has loose folds of skin which can be spread as a ‘hood’ when alarmed; fangs short; venom (more poisonous than that of vipers) attacks the nervous system; usually inhabits forests, but also open country. Some species (spitting cobras) can squirt venom up to 3 m/10 ft into the eyes of threatening animals, and may leave them permanently blinded.…

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cocaine - History, Pharmacology, Cocaine trade, Addiction, Legal status, Usage

C17H21NO4, melting point 98°C. A white alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the South American shrub Erythroxylon coca, and used for its stimulant properties, similar to those of amphetamine. Freud used it ‘to boost the flagging human spirit’ of his patients, and his physician colleague Carl Koller (1857–1944) discovered its local anaesthetic actions. It is still used as a topical local anaes…

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coccyx - Function, Structure, Pathology, Additional images

The lowest part of the vertebral column, forming the tail in many animals. In humans it is small and triangular, comprising three to five rudimentary vertebrae, and is situated in the groove between the buttocks. The coccyx (Latin: os coccygis), commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the human vertebral column, of three to five (usually four) fused vertebrae (th…

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Cochabamba - People and culture, Places to see, Education, Airport, Neighborhoods, Satellite cities, Trivia

17°26S 66°10W, pop (2000e) 517 000. Capital of Cochabamba department, C Bolivia; altitude 2500 m/8200 ft; country's third largest city; founded, 1542; airfield; railway; university (1832); important agricultural centre; oil refining, furniture, footwear; cathedral, Palacio de Cultura, Los Portales museum, monument to War of Independence, markets; golf club at L Alalay; Carnival (before Lent)…

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cochineal - History, Biology, Farming, Dye, Sources for the History of Cochineal

A dye (carminic acid) obtained from the dried bodies of a female bug, Dactylopus coccus. The bug feeds on cacti, and is native to Peru and Mexico. (Order: Homoptera. Family: Coccidae.) Cochineal is the name of both an expensive crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), from which the dye is derived. The cochineal insect is a scale insect in the suborder Ste…

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Cochise - Biography, Cochise in Popular Culture

Chiricahua Apache chief, born in present-day Arizona or New Mexico, USA. Initially friendly towards whites, he embarked on a campaign against them in 1861 after he had been imprisoned on the false charge of kidnapping a white child. With the murder of his father-in-law, Mangas Coloradas, in 1863, he became the main war chief of the Apaches. For many years he engaged in a series of violent actions …

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cochlea

The spiral cavity in the internal ear, which is concerned with hearing. It consists of a bony part with a central pillar (the modiolus) and a spiral duct (part of the membranous labyrinth). The space between the bony and membranous parts is filled with perilymph (a fluid similar to cerebrospinal fluid). A thin spiral shelf projects from the modiolus, on which lies the basilar membrane. Sound waves…

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cockatiel - Description, Cockatiels as Pets, Breeding

An Australian parrot of the cockatoo family (Nymphicus hollandicus); long tapering crest on head; male with colourful facial markings; inhabits open country; eats grass seeds or fruit. (Family: Cacatuidae.) The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) is a diminutive cockatoo endemic to Australia and prized as a household pet. The cockatiel (also recognized as the Quarrion and the Weer…

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cockatoo - Cockatoos as endangered or vulnerable species

An Australasian parrot, separated from other parrots mainly by features of its skull, and in having an erectile crest of feathers on the head. (Family: Cacatuidae, 18 species.) A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. Cockatoo species are also, on average, larger than the true parrots (however, the cockatiel is a small cockatoo and the very large pa…

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cockchafer - Taxonomy, Description, Life cycle, Pest control and History

A large, dark-coloured chafer; adults nocturnal, feeding on leaves; fleshy, C-shaped larvae burrow in ground for 3–4 years, feeding on roots before emerging as flying adults, typically in May, hence alternative name of maybug. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Scarabeidae.) The Cockchafer (or "May bug" , as it is colloquially called) is a European beetle of the genus Melolontha, in the dung beet…

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cockroach - Biology, Selected species, Behavior, Cockroaches and health risks, Habitat, Interesting facts, Pest control, Popular culture, History

An active, typically nocturnal insect; body depressed; legs long and adapted for running; forewings hard and leathery; hindwings membranous, sometimes lost; eggs laid in crevices, litter, caves, and other habitats; will eat almost any organic matter; common household pest. (Order: Blattaria, c.3700 species.) Cockroaches are insects of the Order Blattodea. Among the most well-kno…

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cocktail party effect - Experiments and theoretical approaches

The technique of selective listening, whereby people surrounded by a number of different conversations cut off attention from all but one. It is often triggered by someone in the nearby conversation uttering a word which has some special significance to the listener, such as the listener's name, or the town he/she comes from. The cocktail party effect describes the ability to focus one's li…

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Coco Chanel - Life, External Links

Fashion designer, born in Saumur, W France. She worked as a milliner until 1912, and after World War 1 opened a couture house in Paris. She revolutionized women's fashions during the 1920s, her designs including the ‘chemise’ dress and the collarless cardigan jacket. Many of the features she introduced, such as the vogue for costume jewellery and the evening scarf, still retain their popularity.…

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cod - Unrelated species called cod, Species marketed as cod, Cod trade

Any of the family Gadidae (15 genera; 100 species) of marine fishes, found mainly in cool temperate shelf waters of N hemisphere; body with 2–3 dorsal and 1–2 anal fins; includes the common cod (Gadus morhua); length up to 120 cm/4 ft; greenish to reddish, freckled, with a pale lateral line; adults feed mainly on crustaceans and small fishes; supports very important trawl and net (seine) fishe…

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coda

The final section of a piece of music (eg a sonata-form movement or a fugue), not strictly integral to the structure, but required for a satisfactory peroration. Coda may refer to: …

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CODASYL

Acronym for COnference on DAta SYstems Language, a committee of computer experts meeting in the USA which reports on aspects of computer programming. It was responsible for the development of a technique (known as the network model of data, and also as the CODASYL model) for storing in a computer system not only data items but also the relationships between these data items. CODASYL (often …

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code - Codes in communication used for brevity, An example: the ASCII code

A system of rules for matching signs, linguistic or otherwise, which makes communication possible. It may be governed by informal, unwritten conventions (eg body language) or by officially agreed rules (eg some types of sign language), and may be culturally specific or universal in its use. Computer programmers may apply an alphanumeric code, while linguists often view language as a code or set of…

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codec

Acronym for coder/decoder, a device for converting the analogue signals used by audio and video equipment to digital form so that the signals can be sent over digital telecommunications networks such as ISDN. Pulse Code Modulation is used for the conversion. A Codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. Codecs enco…

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codeine - Indications, Controlled substance, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacology, Adverse effects, Recreational use

A painkiller related to morphine that is used for treating mild types of pain (eg headache); it is rarely addictive. It does cause constipation and can be used to treat diarrhoea. It is also used in some cough mixtures, since it suppresses the cough reflex. Codeine is an alkaloid found in opium in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 percent. While codeine can be extracted from opium, mos…

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Codex Alimentarius - Authority

A code of practice intended to set worldwide standards for food production and processing. It was established in 1963 by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for "food law", "food code", or "food book") is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and othe…

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codling moth

A small, drab-coloured moth that lays eggs on apples and other fruit; the caterpillars feed inside the fruit, before emerging to pupate in a silken cocoon. They can be a serious pest of cultivated apples. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Tortricidae.) The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is an agricultural pest of the Lepidopteran family Tortricidae. Codling moth infestations are ofte…

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coeducation - Coeducation in Canada, Coeducation in China

The education of boys and girls in the same school or college. In some countries, for religious or cultural reasons, schools are predominantly for children of the same sex; but in others coeducation is the norm. In many countries the 20th-c trend has been away from single-sex education. At the same time, there has been a sustained debate about whether girls in particular are disadvantaged by coedu…

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Coenraad Jacob Temminck

Ornithologist, born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, the son of the treasurer of the Dutch East India Company. At the age of 17 he became an auctioneer with the company, and amassed a collection of bird specimens. His best-known work is the Manuel d'ornithologie (Manual of Ornithology), published from 1815. The first director of the new natural history museum at Leyden (from 1820), Temminck's stint,…

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coffee - Etymology and history, Coffee seed types, Processing and roasting, Preparation, Economics of coffee

An evergreen shrub, leaves oval, in opposite pairs; flowers white, fragrant, 5-petalled, in axils of leaves; cherry-like fruits, red, fleshy, containing two seeds (the coffee beans) rich in caffeine; used worldwide as a beverage. Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica) is native to Ethiopia, and was introduced first to Arabia, later the East Indies, West Indies, South America, and Africa. During the 16th-…

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cognitive psychology - History, Major research areas in cognitive psychology, Influential cognitive psychologists

A branch of psychology which studies the higher mental processes (memory, attention, language, reasoning, etc). In contrast to behaviourists, cognitive psychologists are more ready to posit mechanisms and processes that are not directly observable, such as memory stores and switches of attention. Many cognitive psychologists subscribe to the ‘computer metaphor’, in which the brain and the comput…

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cognitive science - History, Principles of Cognitive Science, Scope of cognitive science, Research methods, Key findings, Criticisms

The formal study of mind, in which models and theories originating in artificial intelligence (AI) and in the human sciences (particularly cognitive psychology, linguistics, and philosophy) are subject to interdisciplinary development. For example, a grammar written by a linguist might be implemented on a computer by an AI scientist, and its predictions tested by a psychologist observing human sub…

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cognitive therapy - The basics, Thoughts as the cause of emotions, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Depression

A form of behaviour therapy based on the supposition that the manner in which individuals cognitively perceive themselves and the world about them determines their feelings and emotions, and that restructuring of the former can lead to changes in the latter. This form of treatment was described by US psychotherapist Aaron T Beck, and has been championed in Europe by British clinical psychologist I…

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coherence

A relationship between waves. Two waves of the same frequency are described as coherent if their relative displacements are constant in time, ie if one wave lags behind the other at one moment, and at some later time lags by the same amount. Such waves have a constant phase difference; they are ‘in step’. Light from lasers is coherent, but from ordinary bulbs it is incoherent. Coherence o…

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cohort

A term used especially in demographic studies to describe a group of people living at the same time whose life histories overlap, and who can be traced through the birth, death, marital, educational, and other experiences they have. Cohort may mean: …

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cohort study

A scientific method used in medicine to determine the cause of a disease. A group of people exposed to a suspected risk factor is followed up over time and compared to a group not exposed, to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the proportion of each group that develop the disease under investigation. An example is the relationship between smoking and lung cancer: …

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Coimbatore - History, Geography, Demographics, Administration, Infrastructure, Economy, People and culture, Education, Media, Communication, Health Care

11°00N 76°57E, pop (2000e) 1 002 000. City in Tamil Nadu, S India, 425 km/264 mi SW of Chennai (Madras); stronghold of successive Tamil kingdoms, 9th–17th-c; ceded to Britain, 1799; airfield; railway; university (1971); agricultural centre; tea, cotton, hides, teak; glass, electrical goods, fertilizer. Coimbatore pronunciation?(help·info) (Tamil: ேகாயமப்த்தூ

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Coimbra - Location, Nationwide importance, History and landmarks, Education, Economy, Culture, Leisure activities, Transportation, Climate, Civil parishes

40°12N 8°25W, pop (2000e) 95 000. Capital of Coimbra district, C Portugal; on R Mondego, 173 km/107 mi NE of Lisbon; former capital of Portugal, 12th–13th-c; oldest university in Portugal (founded at Lisbon in 1290, transferred here in 1537); bishopric; paper, tanning, pottery, biscuits, food processing, fabrics, wine; two cathedrals, São Sebastião aqueduct, Monastery of the Holy Cross, n…

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coke - Surname

A form of charcoal, first used in 13th-c China, made by heating coal to over 1000ºC in the absence of air to remove the volatile constituents. It is a brittle, porous substance consisting mainly of carbon, and used chiefly in steelmaking for fuelling blast furnaces. Coke may refer to: …

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Cola - Etymology

An ancient Tamil dynasty, which ruled much of S India between the 8th-c and 13th-c. The height of power was under Rajaraja (985–1014) and Rajendra (1014–44), who extended the kingdom to include Ceylon. It introduced highly-developed revenue administration, village self-organization, and irrigation systems. Tamil architecture and literature flourished. Cola drinks may be sweetened with sug…

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Cola di Rienzo - Early career, Leader of revolt, Tribune of Rome, Attempt to unify Italy, End of his rule

Politician, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. A man of the people, he studied the classics and became a notary. He was part of a delegation that reported on the Roman situation to Pope Clement VI in Avignon. Back in Rome, inspired by lofty ideals and the desire to restore Rome to her former republican glory, he stirred the people to rebellion (1347) and proclaimed himself tribune. He removed authority …

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Colchester - History, Politics, Culture, Twin towns, Education, Transportation, References in literature, Colchester in popular culture, Famous Colcestrians

51°54N 0°54E, pop (2001e) 155 800. Town in Essex, SE England, UK; S of the R Colne, 82 km/51 mi NE of London; University of Essex (1961); claimed to be the oldest town in England, founded by Cunobelinus AD c.10; railway; light industry, printing, oysters, rose growing; city walls, castle (12th-c); oyster festival (Oct); football league team, Colchester United (‘U’s). Colchester is a…

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colchicine - History, Pharmacology

A drug effective against gout, extracted from the corm and seeds of the meadow saffron, Colchicum autumnale (‘autumn crocus’), so called because it grows in Colchis on the Black Sea. The plants were used in Europe to treat gout in the 17th-c; pure colchicine was first prepared in 1820. It is still widely used. Colchicine is a highly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of …

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cold

An infection of the upper respiratory tract caused by several different viruses, usually a rhinovirus; also known as the common cold or coryza [koriyza]. It is characterized by a sore throat and profuse nasal secretions, initially watery and then thicker. In severe cases, infection may spread to the sinuses and lower respiratory tract, causing sinusitis, bronchitis, and exacerbating underlying res…

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cold fusion - Overview, Experimental evidences, Theory, History, Set-up of the Fleischmann and Pons experiment

Nuclear fusion occurring at room temperature. In March 1989, US chemist Stanley Pons and British chemist Martin Fleischmann claimed to have observed nuclear fusion in an electrolytic cell comprising platinum and titanium electrodes in heavy water. Their claims are now known to be false. The way in which Pons and Fleischmann announced their results to the media so soon, the lack of independent chec…

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Cold War - Historical overview, Arms race, Intelligence, Origin of the Term "Cold War", Historiography, Further reading

A state of tension or hostility between states that is expressed in economic and political terms, and stops short of a ‘hot’ or shooting war. The policies adopted are those which attempt to strengthen one side and weaken the opposition, particularly those relating to military and weapon superiority. Thus the term was often used to describe the relationship between the USSR and the major Western …

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Cole (Albert) Porter - The early years, The middle years, Song samples, Well-known songs

Composer and lyricist, born in Peru, Indiana, USA. Born into a family of some wealth and social standing, he showed a talent for music early, publishing a song by age 11. He graduated from Yale (1913), where he wrote the famous Yale fight song, ‘Bulldog, Bulldog’, and after briefly studying law at Harvard, turned to music. He went off to Paris to continue his music studies (1920–1), and from th…

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Coleman (Alexander) Young - Pre-Mayoral career, Five terms as Mayor, Assessment, Quotes

Mayor, born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. He graduated from Detroit Eastern High School, and served in the Army Air Corps (1942–6). A Michigan state senator (1964–74), he became the longest serving mayor of Detroit (1974–94), and his tenure often reflected the city's racial, economic, and political problems. Coleman Alexander Young (May 24, 1918 – November 29, 1997) served as mayor of D…

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Coleman Hawkins - Life and career, Notable works, Quotation

Jazz tenor saxophonist, born in St Joseph, Missouri, USA (he claimed 1904 as his birth year). He joined Fletcher Henderson's jazz orchestra in 1923. The performances on romping swing tunes such as ‘The Stampede’ (1926), and on slow ballads such as ‘One Hour’ (1929), altered the way the tenor saxophone was played, and popularized the instrument in jazz music. He played widely in Europe (1934–9…

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coleus

A perennial native to Java (Coleus blumei); stems square; leaves oval, toothed, in opposite pairs; small flowers pale blue or white, in whorls forming slender spikes. A very popular pot plant, it is grown for its foliage, which is variegated in a range of bright colours. (Family: Labiatae.) Coleus (Solenostemon) is a genus of perennial plants, native to tropical Africa and Asia. Albert Hoff…

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Colin (Brian) Blakemore - Background and research interests, Animal testing and animal rights

Physiologist, born in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, California, and Oxford universities, then worked at Cambridge (1968–79), and has been professor of physiology at Oxford since 1979. He also holds posts in Oxford as director of the Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience (1989) and associate director of the Centre in Brain and Behaviour (1991). In 2001 he b…

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Colin (Earl) Meads

Rugby union player, born in Cambridge, New Zealand. A lock forward, New Zealand rugby's ‘unsmiling giant’, he wore the All Black jersey in 133 matches, including a then-record 55 internationals, between 1957 and 1971. He was only the second player ever sent off in an international, against Scotland in 1967. A sheep farmer, he served as national coach and selector and union president after retiri…

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Colin (Henry) Wilson

Novelist and writer on philosophy, sociology, and the occult, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He left school at 16, held various jobs, and served briefly in the Royal Air Force before writing his best-seller The Outsider (1956), a study of modern alienation. A prolific author, he has written many books and novels, including Ritual in the Dark (1960), The Mind Parasites (1966), Th…

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Colin (Luther) Powell - Personal background, Military career, Presidential appointments, Civilian career, Secretary of State, Life after politics, Political views

US army general, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the City College of New York, and took an army commission, later serving in Vietnam (1962–3, 1968–9). After holding a series of senior commands, he was appointed head of the National Security Council by President Reagan (1987–9), took over the Army Forces Command, and was made chairman of the joint chiefs-of-staff by President Bush (198…

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Colin (Macmillan) Turnbull - Turnbull's Books, Reference

Anthropologist, born in Harrow, NW Greater London, UK. He studied at Oxford, then carried out fieldwork, first in India (1949–51) and later among the Mbuti pygmies of the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). He worked at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City (1959–69), and was professor at George Washington University from 1976. He wrote many books on so…

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Colin (Ray) Jackson - Achievements, Bibliography

Athlete, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. His achievements in the 110 m hurdles include World Championship gold medals (1993, 1999), silver medals (1987, 1997), and Olympic silver (1988). He also held the European Championship title four times (1990, 1994, 1998, 2002). In the Commonwealth Games he won gold (1990, 1994) and silver medals (1986, 2002). He retired in 2003 and became a BBC television co…

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Colin (Williams) Welland

Actor and playwright, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at Goldsmiths' College, London, worked as an art teacher, and began his career as an actor in Manchester in 1962. As a dramatist, he has written both for film and television. In 1970, 1973, and 1974 he was voted best TV playwright in Britain. His work for television has included Roll on Four O'Clock (1970), Kisses at F…

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Colin Firth - Selected filmography

Actor, born in Grayshott, Hampshire, UK. He studied drama in London, worked in the West End, and went on to play a series of acclaimed character parts in film and television. He received a BAFTA nomination for his role in the television production of Tumbledown (1989), and another for Pride and Prejudice (1995), where his brooding performance as the handsome Mr Darcy attracted unprecedented public…

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Colin Maclaurin - Sources

Mathematician, born in Kilmodan, Argyll and Bute, W Scotland, UK. He studied at Glasgow, became professor at Aberdeen (1717), and in 1725 was appointed to the chair of mathematics at Edinburgh. His best-known work, Treatise on Fluxions (1742) gave a systematic account of Newton's approach to the calculus, taking a geometric point of view rather than the analytical one used in mainland Europe. …

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Colin St John Wilson

Architect, born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge (1940–2) and at London University's School of Architecture (1946–9). He returned to Cambridge as a lecturer (1955–69), became professor of architecture (1975–89, now emeritus), and was made a fellow of Pembroke College in 1977. His many design projects include the extension to the British Museum (1973–9),…

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colitis

Inflammation of the large bowel (colon) leading to diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and bleeding. It may be due to infection with micro-organisms, auto-immune processes (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), or inadequate blood supply (ischaemic colitis). Ulcerative colitis affects young adults; the lining of the colon and rectum ulcerate and may perforate, leading to peritonitis. Ischaemic colitis t…

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collaboration - Questions, Etymology, Barriers To Collaboration, Differentiating coordination, cooperation, collaboration teamwork, Wartime collaboration

During a war, any form of help to an enemy. When the war is over, there are often major problems in deciding who was guilty of collaboration and to what degree. In The Netherlands after World War 2, for example, volunteers for the SS might be shot, but policemen doing their duty under duress could hardly be punished, as some sort of civil administration had to continue. Collaboration (co+la…

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collage - Collage in painting, Decoupage, Wood collage, Digital collage, Literary collage, Legal issues

A technique of picture-making introduced by the Cubists c.1912 in which pieces of paper, fabrics, or other materials are glued to the surface of the canvas. It was much used by the Surrealists in the 1920s. Collage (From the French: coller, to stick) is regarded as a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. For example, an artist…

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collective bargaining - United Kingdom, United States, European experience

Trade union negotiations on behalf of a group of workers in relation to pay and conditions of employment. If the negotiations break down, the dispute may result in industrial action (such as a strike), or the matter may be referred to arbitration by another body. A collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining consists…

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collective security

The concept of maintaining security and territorial integrity by the collective actions of nation states, especially through international organizations such as the League of Nations (where the principle is embodied in its Covenant) and the United Nations (in its Charter). Individual member states must be prepared to accept collective decisions and implement them, if necessary, through military ac…

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collectivism - Politics, Economics, Typology, Collectivist societies, Anti-collectivism

A set of doctrines asserting the interests of the community over the individual, and the preference for central planning over market systems. It advocates that economic and political systems should be based upon co-operation, a significant amount of state intervention to deal with social injustice, and central planning, decision-making, and administration to ensure uniformity of treatment. Althoug…

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Colleen McCullough - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Wellington, New South Wales, SE Australia. She studied in Sydney and London, and pursued a career as a neurophysiologist in Sydney, London, and Yale University Medical School. She then moved to Norfolk I in the South Pacific (1979) and became a best-selling novelist. Her books include The Thorn Birds (1977), which sold 20 million copies, The Grass Crown (1991), and a Roman trilog…

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collegiate church

A church which has a group (chapter) of canons attached to it, but which is not a cathedral; examples in the Church of England are Westminster Abbey and St George's Chapel, Windsor. The term is also used (in the USA and Scotland) for a church which has ministers of equal rank. A collegiate church is a church served and administered by a college of canons or prebendaries, similar to a cathed…

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Colley Cibber - Life, Cibber's autobiography, Cibber as actor, Cibber as playwright, Cibber as manager

Actor and playwright, born in London, UK. He spent most of his career at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. In 1696, his first comedy, Love's Last Shift, established his fame both as a dramatist and actor. As a manager and playwright, he greatly improved the decency of the theatre. From 1730 he was poet laureate. He is now principally remembered for his autobiography, Apology for the Life of Mr Coll…

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collie

A medium-sized domestic dog; several breeds developed in Scotland as sheepdogs; collie, usually brown and white, with a long pointed muzzle (two forms: the long-haired rough collie and the rarer smooth collie); black and white Border collie similar; smaller Welsh collie not recognized as a true breed; bearded collie (or Highland collie), with a long shaggy coat, resembles a small untidy Old Englis…

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colligative properties

Properties of a solution which vary directly with the concentration of a solute. They include depression of the vapour pressure, elevation of the boiling point, depression of the freezing point, and osmotic pressure. In chemistry, colligative properties are factors that determine how the properties of a bulk liquid solution change depending on the concentration of the solute in the bulk sol…

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collimator (astronomy) - Overview

A small telescope fixed to a large one, to help in preliminary alignment. It is a device for changing the diverging light or other radiation from a point source to a parallel beam. In neutron, X-ray and gamma ray optics, a collimator is a device that filters a stream of rays so that only those travelling parallel to a specified direction are allowed through. Collimators are used in ne…

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collimator (optics) - Overview

An optical device for changing a divergent beam of light (from a point source) into a parallel beam, which is required for control of the optical behaviour of the beam (as in a spectroscope). Generally, light passes through a converging lens, then through a slit. The collimator in X-radiography uses slits only, in order to give a beam which will cast a sharp shadow. In neutron, X-ray and ga…

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colloid - Classification of colloids, Interaction between colloid particles, Stabilization of colloid suspensions, Destabilizing a colloidal suspension

A state midway between a suspension and a true solution. It is classified in various ways, particularly into sols (eg milk), in which liquid properties predominate, and gels (eg gelatine), which are more like solids. The size of dispersed phase particles in a colloid range from one nanometer to one micrometer. Dispersions where the particle size is in this range are referred to as colloidal…

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Colmar

48º05N 7º20E, pop (2001e) 65 400. Capital of Haut-Rhin department, Alsace region, E France; on the R Lauch, on a plain near the vine-covered foothills of the S Vosges Mts; birthplace of Auguste Bartholdi, Martin Schongauer, Jörg Wickram; the old quarter with narrow winding streets has many burgher houses (16th–17th-c); Maison Pfister (1537); Gothic Dominican church (13th-c); town hall (18th-…

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