Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 15

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Charles Mingus - Biography, Books on Charles Mingus, Movies

Jazz bassist, composer, and bandleader, born in Nogales, Arizona, USA. He played the cello with the Los Angeles Junior Philharmonic Orchestra before becoming a bassist with traditional-style bands. As a child, he had sung Gospel music, and his later work as a leader and composer brought elements of this background together with modern and avant-garde ideas. During the 1940s, he worked with big ban…

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Charles Nerinckx

Religious leader, born in Belgium. Ordained in 1785 and forced underground after the French Revolution, he emigrated to the USA (1804) and became a missionary in the wilderness frontier of Kentucky. Zealous and accused of excessive rigorism, he co-founded the Sisters of Loretto (1912), imposing on them a stringent rule of life. Rev. Charles Nerinckx was a missionary priest in Kentucky, and …

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Charles Nodier

Man of letters, born in Besançon, NE France. He studied entomology, publishing Traité sur les Antennes et les Ouïes des Insectes (1798), then turned to literature with a work on Shakespeare (1801), a novel Le Peintre de Salzbourg, journal des Emotions d'un Coeur souffrant (1803), a collection of poems Essais d'un jeune Barde (1804), and a light tale Le dernier Chapitre de mon Roman (1803). He m…

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Charles P(roteus) Steinmetz - Biography, Later years, Patents, Further reading

Electrical engineer and inventor, born in Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). Deformed from birth, he devoted his energy to school and diverse intellectual interests. After graduating from Zurich Polytechnic, he emigrated to the USA in 1889. His first major accomplishment was the publication in 1892 of data showing how magnets lose power in the process of generating alternating current. I…

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Charles Pelham Villiers - Extenal links

British statesman and corn-law reformer, a younger brother of George, 4th Earl of Clarendon. He studied at Haileybury and Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1827. He was an MP (1827–87), becoming the ‘Father of the House of Commons’. He made his first motion in favour of Free Trade in 1838, moving a resolution against the corn laws each year until they were repealed in 1846. He was a membe…

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Charles Percier

Architect, born in Paris, France. He studied with Pierre Fontaine in Rome, and together they developed the Empire style under the patronage of Napoleon I, in buildings and in interior decoration. Percier retired from his post on the downfall of Napoleon in 1814. He remained a lifelong friend of Fontaine, and they were buried in the same tomb. Charles Percier (Paris, August 22, 1764 - Paris,…

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Charles Perrault - Biography, Fairy tales

Writer, born in Paris, France. He became a lawyer, and in 1663 was a secretary to Colbert. He wrote several poems, and engaged in debate over the relative merits of the ancients and the moderns, but is best known for the fairy tales published by him under the title Histoires ou contes du temps passé (1697), with the further title on the frontispiece, Contes de Ma Mère l'Oye (Mother Goose's Tales…

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Charles Pichegru - Early life and career, Rhine front, Northern front, Thermidor and Directory, Coup attempts and death

French general, born in Les Planches. He conquered the Austrian Netherlands in 1794 and invaded the Republic. He negotiated with the Austrians and later intrigued with them to restore the French monarchy. In 1797 he was arrested and deported to Cayenne. He escaped to England the following year and in 1803 joined Cadondal's conspiracy against Napoleon in France. Arrested a month later, he was found…

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Charles Ponzi - Early life, Arrival in the United States, The Ponzi Scheme, Suspicion, Collapse, Prison and later life

Swindler, born in Italy. He went to the USA in 1899, and ran a financial scheme in Boston (1919–20) that brought him a fortune from unsuspecting, small investors and gained him the name ‘Get Rich Quick’ Ponzi. Convicted of mail fraud and theft, he served prison sentences before being deported to Italy (1934). He moved to Brazil and died with an estate of $75. Charles Ponzi (1882–Januar…

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Charles Porterfield Krauth - Education and parish ministry, The Confessional Revival, The General Council

Protestant clergyman and theologian, born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, USA. A studious child, he was ordained in the Lutheran ministry at age 19. As a leader of conservative Lutheranism, he helped to revive older European forms of worship, including confession, in America. He edited the journal Lutheran and Missionary (1861–7) and from 1868 until his death was a professor at the University of P…

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Charles Pratt - Youth, Education, Whale Oil, Petroleum, Astral Oil, Standard Oil, Heritage, Charles Pratt II

Oil merchant and philanthropist, born in Watertown, Massachusetts, USA. One of 11 children, he grew up in adverse circumstances. He went to work at age 10 and moved to New York City in 1851. He specialized in paints and oils (1854–67) before he formed Charles Pratt & Co to refine crude oil at Greenpoint, NY, and the resultant product was marketed worldwide as an illuminant. He sold his firm to Jo…

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Charles Rasp

Prospector, born in Stuttgart, SW Germany. Illness forced him to emigrate to Australia in 1869, and he became a boundary rider in New South Wales, at a time when considerable discoveries of tin were being made. He pegged the very first claim on the ‘Broken Hill’ in 1883. Two years later further tests indicated not tin but rich silver ore. The Broken Hill Proprietory Company was formed, and he be…

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Charles Reade - Works

Novelist and playwright, born in Ipsden House, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and was called to the bar in 1843, but never practised. He first tried to write for the stage in 1850, producing about 13 dramas. His life after 1852 is a succession of plays by which he lost money, and novels that won profit and fame. These novels illustrate social injustice and cruelty in one form o…

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Charles Rennie Mackintosh - Architectural Work, Design work and paintings

Architect, designer, and painter, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He attended evening classes at Glasgow School of Art, joined the established firm of Honeyman and Kepple in 1889, and in 1900 married Margaret Mackintosh (1865–1933), with whom he worked in close collaboration. He became a leader of the ‘Glasgow Style’, a movement related to Art Nouveau. His work exercised considerable influence…

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Charles Reznikoff - Early years, Objectivist poet, Court poetry, Late recognition

Poet and writer, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Missouri (1910–11), settled in New York City, and earned a law degree from New York University (1915). He worked in publishing much of his life, and is noted for his spare poetry of the objectivist school. A frequent theme in his work was the role of Judaism in his life, as in Poems 1937–75 (1977). Reznikoff…

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Charles Richard Crane

Internationalist and philanthropist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Heir to the Crane Company (plumbing supplies) fortune, he travelled at an early age and met the British adventurer, Richard Burton, in Damascus. In 1912 he sold his interest in the family company to a brother, and was the largest single contributor to Woodrow Wilson's campaign that year. At the end of World War 1, he co-wrote (wi…

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Charles Robert Ashbee

Designer, architect, and writer, born in Isleworth, W Greater London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and was founder and director of the Guild of Handicraft (1888–1908) in London's East End (later in Gloucestershire), employing over 100 craftworkers, the largest-scale attempt to put into practice the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement. As an architect he specialized in church restoration, and h…

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Charles Robert Cockerell - Notable Buildings

British architect, the son of Samuel Pepys Cockerell. He travelled in the Levant and Italy (1810–17), was professor of architecture in the Royal Academy (1840–57), and designed the Taylorian Institute at Oxford and the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. As an archaeologist, Cockerell is remembered for discovering the reliefs from the temple of Apollo at Bassae, near Phigalia, which are now …

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Charles Robert Leslie

Painter, born in London, UK. He studied from 1800 in Philadelphia, and returned to England in 1811 to study at the Royal Academy. He was professor of drawing at West Point, NY (1833), and professor of painting at the Royal Academy (1848–52). His paintings were mostly scenes from famous plays and novels. Charles Robert Leslie (1794-1859), English genre painter, was born in London on 19 Octo…

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Charles Robinson - History

US governor, born in Hardwick, Massachusetts, USA. An agent of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, he unified the anti-slavery movement in Kansas Territory's Free-State Party (1855–9). Briefly territorial governor, he served as the new state of Kansas's first governor (Republican, 1861–3). Accused of tampering with state bond sales, he fought off impeachment and later ran unsuccessfully for re…

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Charles Rosen

Pianist and writer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied piano from childhood, and later studied music history and gained a doctorate in French literature at Princeton University. He made his New York debut as a recitalist in 1951, and thereafter he maintained an active performing and teaching career. His many books on music include the 1971 Classical Style, itself a classic. Th…

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Charles Schuchert - Famous people

Palaeontologist, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Although his formal education ended at age 12, he began his scientific career illustrating state geological surveys, and ended it as professor of historical geology at Yale (1904–23), then nationally pre-eminent in training invertebrate palaeontologists and stratigraphers. A pioneer palaeogeographer, he published the classic Paleogeography of North …

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Charles Scribner - Charles Scribner, Charles Scribner II, Charles Scribner III, Charles Scribner IV

Publisher, born in New York City, USA. He graduated from Princeton in 1840, and in 1846 founded with Isaac Baker (d.1850) the New York publishing firm of Baker & Scribner, which was called Charles Scribner's Sons from 1878. He founded Scribner's Monthly (1870–81), which later became Scribner's Magazine (1887–1939). His three sons continued the business. Charles Scribner (February 21, 1821…

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Charles Scribner - Charles Scribner, Charles Scribner II, Charles Scribner III, Charles Scribner IV

Publisher, born in New York City, New York, USA. In 1879 he succeeded his brother, John Blair Scribner, as head of the firm that became Charles Scribner's Sons, acting as president until 1928 and then as chairman of the board. Aided by editors such as Maxwell Perkins, Scribner's grew in distinction, publishing works by Edith Wharton, George Santayana, Ernest Hemingway, Theodore Roosevelt, and othe…

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Charles Simeon - Reference

Evangelical clergyman, born in Reading, S England, UK. A fellow of King's College, Cambridge, he was appointed perpetual curate there (1783–1836). A renowned preacher, he led the evangelical revival in the Church of England, and helped form the Church Missionary Society (1797). Charles Simeon (1759 - November 13, 1836), was an English evangelical clergyman. He was born at Readi…

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Charles Simic - Life, Bibliography

Poet, born in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslavia). His father escaped from the violence of World War 2 to New York City, and his family followed him in 1954. Charles studied at New York University (1967 BA), and became an editorial assistant for Aperture, a photography magazine (1966–9). He taught at several institutions, notably the University of New Hampshire (1974). He is prais…

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Charles Simon Favart - Reference

Playwright, born in Paris, France. He began writing libretti for comic opera while working as a pastry cook, and success led him to become stage manager (1743) and director (1758) of the Opéra-Comique. With his wife, Marie-Justine-Benoiste Duranceray (1727–71), he pioneered a new realism in costume. Among his best out of more than 100 comic operas are Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne and Les T…

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Charles Sprague Sargent

Arboriculturist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A merchant's son, he studied at Harvard (1862), and served in the Union Army during the Civil War. He was on the faculty of Harvard (1872–1927) and became director of the college's newly founded Arnold Arboretum (in Boston) (1873), a position he held for the rest of his life. In addition to developing the arboretum's collections, he worked for …

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Charles Stark Draper

Engineer and inventor, born in Windsor, Missouri, USA. A generalist with degrees from Stanford, Harvard, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he became head of MIT's instrumentation laboratory in 1939. There he developed gyroscopes for weapons systems and went on to produce guidance systems for missiles and spacecraft, including the Apollo moon project. Charles Stark Draper …

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Charles Stewart Parnell - Family background, Member of Parliament, Leader, New style, new party, new rules, Candidate selection

Irish politician, born in Avondale, Co Wicklow, E Ireland. He studied at Cambridge, and in 1875 became an MP, supporting Home Rule, and gained great popularity in Ireland by his audacity in the use of obstructive parliamentary tactics. In 1879 he was elected president of the Irish National Land League, and in 1886 allied with the Liberals in support of Gladstone's Home Rule Bill. He remained an in…

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Charles Sturt - Early life, Exploration, A break from exploring, Exploring from Adelaide

Explorer, born in Bengal, India. He went as an army captain to Australia, and headed three important expeditions (1828–45), discovering the Darling (1828) and the lower Murray Rivers (1830). Blinded by hardship and exposure, he received in 1851 a pension from the first South Australian parliament. Captain Charles Napier Sturt (April 28, 1795 – June 16, 1869) was an English explorer of Au…

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Charles Sumner - Early life, education and law career, Travels in Europe, Beginning of political career

US senator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. An exceptional law student, he originally rejected a law practice and political career to become a lecturer at Harvard Law School and an editor of legal textbooks. He travelled in Europe (1835–7) and emerged as a public figure when he denounced the Mexican War at an Independence Day speech in Boston (1845), and he toured as a lyceum lecturer. He the…

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Charles Sutherland Elton - Bibliography

Ecologist, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He studied at Liverpool College, and New College, Oxford, where he spent most of his career (1936–67). He was one of the first to carry out scientific studies of animals in their natural environment, and his book Animal Ecology (1927) is considered to have established the basic principles of modern animal ecology. He is recognized as havin…

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Charles Taze Russell - Early life, Ministry, Death, aftermath, and legacy, Theology and teachings, Criticisms and controversies

Religious leader, the founder of what is commonly called the Bible Student Movement, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. As a Congregationalist, he struggled with the concept of eternal torment, his subsequent Bible studies leading him to conclude that the Biblical hell is oblivion, that the Millennium began in 1874, and that a period of social and political upheaval would lead to a peaceable k…

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Charles Thomas Jackson

Chemist, born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA. After graduating from Harvard Medical School, he continued his studies in Paris, then returned to Boston and established the first laboratory in analytical chemistry to accept students (1836). Of wide-ranging interests (he did major geological surveys of New England), he became increasingly paranoid. In 1832 he had suggested to Samuel F B Morse the id…

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Charles Tilly - Bibliography

Sociologist, born in Lombard, Illinois, USA. He studied at Harvard and taught at institutions including the University of Michigan (1969–84) and the New School for Social Research (1984), where he directed the Center for Studies of Social Change. He combined sociological, political, and historical analysis in his studies of early capitalism, war, and social action. His works include The Contentio…

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Charles Tilstone Beke - Reference

Explorer and biblical critic, born in London, UK. A scholar of ancient history, philology, and ethnography, he wrote Origines Biblicae, or Researches in Primeval History (1834). He explored Abyssinia (1840–3), where he studied the course of the Blue Nile, mapped 70 000 sq mi, and collected 14 vocabularies. In 1874 he explored the region at the head of the Red Sea in search of Mt Sinai. …

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Charles Townshend

British statesman, the grandson of Charles, 2nd Viscount Townshend. He entered the House of Commons in 1747. He was a Lord of the Admiralty and secretary for war (1761–2), and became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1766. He asserted authority over the American colonies by imposing high taxes on necessities, especially on tea (the Townshend Acts, 1767) - a policy which ultimately provoked the Ameri…

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Charles Trenet - Early life, Music career, World War II, After the war, Return to France, 1970s, Later career

Singer, born in Narbonne, S France. He studied painting before turning to music, and throughout a long career lost neither vitality nor youthful optimism. He performed with Johnny Hess in 1934–6 as the duo Les Collégiens Swing, then went to the ABC where he made ‘Y'a d'la Joie’. Famous after his first film La Route Enchantée (1938), many record successes followed, including ‘Je chante’, ‘L…

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Charles (of France) V - Early life, The Regency and the Bourgeois Rising, The Treaty of Bretigny, King of France

King of France, born in Vincennes, NC France. He came to the throne in 1364, and in a series of victories regained most of the territory lost to the English in the Hundred Years' War. Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 31, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. Charles was born at Vincennes, Île…

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Charles (of France) VI

King of France, born in Paris, France, who came to the throne as a young boy in 1380. He was defeated by Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt (1415). From 1392, he suffered from fits of madness. He was born in Paris, the son of King Charles V and Jeanne de Bourbon. …

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Charles (of France) VII

King of France (1422–61), born in Paris, France. At his accession, the N of the country was in English hands, with Henry VI proclaimed King of France, but after Joan of Arc roused the fervour of both nobles and people, the siege of Orléans was raised (1429), and the English gradually lost nearly all they had gained in France. Under his rule France recovered in some measure from her calamities. …

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Charles (of France) VIII

King of France (1483–98), born in Amboise, France, the son of Louis XI and Charlotte of Savoy. His sister Anne served as regent (1483–91) until he began to rule in his own right. Through his marriage to Anne of Brittany (1491) the province became united to France. The chief event of his reign was his invasion of Italy (1494) and the brief occupation of Naples (1495), but the states of Italy unit…

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Charles W(illard) Moore - Biography, Work

Architect and educator, born in Benton Harbor, Michigan, USA. He taught widely, notably at Yale (1965–75) and the University of California, Los Angeles (1975–85). In several partnerships, notably Moore Lyndon Turnbull Whitaker (1962–70), he produced designs juxtaposing disparate historical and cultural references. Moore graduated from the University of Michigan in 1947 and earned both a …

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Charles Wakefield Cadman

Composer and organist, born in Johnston, Pennsylvania, USA. A church organist, he became interested in native American music after reading such ethnologists as Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche. He proceeded to incorporate Indian themes in many of his own compositions, such as his opera Shanewis, staged at the Metropolitan in 1918. He is best known for such songs as ‘Land of the Sky-blue Wate…

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Charles Wesley - Best-known hymns, Legacy, Information Sources, Category Listings

Hymn-writer and evangelist, born in Epworth, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK, the brother of John Wesley. He studied at Oxford, was ordained in 1735, and accompanied John to Georgia as secretary to Governor James Oglethorpe, returning to England in 1736. After an evangelical conversion in 1738, he wrote over 5500 hymns, including such well-loved favourites as ‘Jesu, Lover of My Soul’, ‘Hark, the H…

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Charles Wilkes - Early life and career, The South Seas expedition, The Civil War, Last years

US naval officer, born in New York City, USA. He joined the US Navy in 1818 and studied hydrography. He explored the South Pacific islands and the Antarctic continent, including the stretch that now bears his name (1839–40). During the Civil War he intercepted the British mail-steamer Trent off Cuba, and took off two Confederate commissioners accredited to France, thereby creating a risk of war w…

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Charles William Eliot - Background, Eliot's Career and the Crisis in the College, Eliot's Legacy

Educationist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Trained as a mathematician and chemist at Harvard and in Europe, he taught at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before assuming the presidency of Harvard (1869–1909). Having signalled his progressivism in The New Education (1869), he presided over a period of intense growth and reform at Harvard, which included the admission of…

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Charles Willson Peale - Most famous Pieces

Painter, naturalist, and museum founder, born in Queen Annes Co, Maryland, USA, the brother of James Peale. He began as a saddler (1762), then studied with John Hesselius in Philadelphia (c.1762) and with Benjamin West in London (1767–9). He settled in Annapolis, MD (1769–75) and painted many portraits. After service in the Continental army (1775–8), he established himself in Philadelphia (c.17…

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Charles Wuorinen

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He began composing in childhood and studied at Columbia University, later teaching there and at the Manhattan School. He was a prolific, well-known, sometimes controversial exponent of the serial compositional technique. …

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Charles (of France) X - Links

The last Bourbon king of France (1824–30), born at Versailles, NC France. The grandson of Louis XV, he received the title of Comte d'Artois, and in 1773 married Maria Theresa of Savoy. He lived in England during the French Revolution, returning to France in 1814 as lieutenant-general of the kingdom. He succeeded his brother Louis XVIII, but his repressive rule led to revolution, and his eventual …

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Charles (of Sweden) XII - Campaigns, Death

King of Sweden (1697–1718), born in Stockholm, Sweden, the son of Charles XI. Following an alliance against him by Denmark, Poland, and Russia, he attacked Denmark (1699), and compelled the Danes to sue for peace. He then defeated the Russians at Narva (1700), and dethroned Augustus II of Poland (1704). He invaded Russia again in 1707, and was at first victorious, but when Cossack help failed to …

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Charles Yanofsky

Geneticist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the City College of New York and at Yale, then taught at Western Reserve University, OH. Working at Stanford on gene mutations from 1961, he used microbiological methods to prove that the sequence of bases in the genetic material DNA acts by determining the order of the amino acids which make up proteins, including the enzymes which control bio…

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Charles's law

A law discovered by and named after Jacques Charles, but first published by Joseph Gay-Lussac: at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to a constant plus its temperature measured on any scale. The value of this constant fixes the zero of the absolute scale of temperature, ie if temperature is given in K then at constant pressure volume is directly …

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Charles-

Prelate and politician, born in Obernai, Bas-Rhin, France. Ordained in 1848, he was made Bishop of Angers (1869) and elected deputy to Brest, Finistère (1880). He was conservative in his politics and set up the Catholic universities. His many works include Oeuvres polémiques, Oratoires (17 vols, 1869–88), and Bossuet et l'éloquence sacré au XVIIe siècle (1894). Charles-Emile Freppel (…

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Charleston (dance) - Charleston today, Tap Charleston

A jazz dance of black origin popularized in the 1920s. It was, however, first seen at Charleston, SC, in 1903, and was named after the city. It can be danced either solo, with a partner, or in a group. Music is in 4/4 time and with syncopated rhythms. The Charleston is a dance named for the city of Charleston, South Carolina. While it developed in African-American communities in…

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Charleston (South Carolina) - Places

32°46N 79°56W, pop (2000e) 96 600. Seat of Charleston Co, SE South Carolina, USA; a port on the Atlantic Ocean, at the mouths of Ashley and Cooper Rivers; the oldest city in the state, founded in 1670; survived attacks by a British fleet in 1776 and 1779; finally captured and held by the British, 1780–2; the Confederate attack on nearby Fort Sumter (12–13 Apr 1861) began the Civil War; evacu…

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Charleston (West Virginia) - Places

38°21N 81°38W, pop (2000e) 53 400. Capital of state in Kanawha Co, W West Virginia, USA, at the confluence of Elk and Kanawha Rivers; developed around Fort Lee in the 1780s; city status, 1870; capital of West Virginia, 1870–5 and from 1885; largest city in the state; airfield; railway; an important transportation and trading centre; chemicals, glass, primary metals; various other products bas…

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Charlevoix

Jesuit explorer of North America, born in St Quentin, N France. In 1720 he was sent by the French regent to find a route to W Canada. He travelled by canoe up the St Lawrence River across the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi to New Orleans, and was finally shipwrecked in the Gulf of Mexico. He became the only traveller of that time to describe the interior of North America. He described his tr…

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Charley Pride - Background, Music career, Chronology, Trivia

Country music singer, born in Sledge, Mississippi, USA. Born into a family of poor cotton-pickers, he was drawn to country music as a youth, but he first tried a career in baseball. He made it to the minors in Helena, MT (1960) but failed in a tryout with the California Angels. He had done some singing at a country music bar in Helena, so he returned there, and his singing in local clubs gained hi…

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Charlie Barnet

Bandleader, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was a saxophonist from a New York socialite family who led his first band on the SS Republic (1929) and subsequently played on many Atlantic crossings for the Cunard and Red Star lines. In 1933 he formed a big band in New York, and the following year it became the first white orchestra to appear at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem. His personal weal…

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Charlie Chaplin - Childhood, Pioneering film auteur, United Artists, The Great Dictator, Politics, McCarthyism, Academy Awards, Final works

Film actor, producer, screenwriter, director, and composer, born in London, UK. The son of music-hall entertainers, his mother had a nervous breakdown and his father died when he was five, forcing Charlie to become a street urchin, along with his half-brother, Sydney, dancing for pennies in the street. After a time in an orphanage, he joined a troupe of child dancers and later had small roles on t…

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Charlie Christian

Jazz guitarist, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. He was hired by bandleader Benny Goodman in 1939, playing mainly with the Goodman sextet rather than the big band. Christian pioneered the use of the amplified guitar as a solo instrument, freeing the guitar from a purely rhythmic role. He was one of the musicians whose after-hours sessions at Minton's Playhouse in New York City laid the basis of the beb…

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Charlie Dunbar Broad

Philosopher, born in London, UK. He became professor of moral philosophy in Cambridge (1933–53), but also had a strong interest in parapsychology, and was president of the Society for Psychical Research. …

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Charlie Parker - Place in jazz history, Biography, Selected discography

Jazz musician, born in Kansas City, Kansas, USA. (His name sometimes appears as Charles Christopher Parker Jr, a misnomer.) An only child, he was raised by his mother in Kansas City, MO, an important centre of jazz and blues activity in the 1930s. He received his first music lessons on the baritone horn in public schools in 1931, and three years later he dropped out of school to concentrate on mas…

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Charlie Sheen - Career awards, Filmography

Film actor, born in New York City, USA. He made his first film appearance at the age of nine in his father's film The Execution of Private Slovik (1972). His adult film debut was in Red Dawn (1984), but it was the Oscar-winning film Platoon (1986), about the war in Vietnam, which proved to be his breakthrough picture. Later films include Wall Street (1987), Hot Shots! and its sequel (1991, 1993), …

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Charlotte (Anna) Gilman - People, Companies, Things, Places, Other

Writer and social reformer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. Despite her ancestry in the well-known Beecher family, she experienced near-poverty after her mother was abandoned by her father, and was educated irregularly. During a 10-year marriage to Charles Stetson which ended in divorce (1894), she suffered a mental breakdown, described in thinly veiled fiction in her now classic story ‘The Y…

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Charlotte (Saunders) Cushman - Early life

Actress, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. One of the first major native-born US actresses, she began as an opera singer but turned to acting after she overstrained her voice; the vocal damage left her with a husky, veiled quality that she used to great advantage, often playing male roles (including Romeo and Hamlet). By 1842 she was managing as well as starring at the Walnut Street Theatre in P…

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Charlotte Church - Early life, Classical career, Pop career, Acting and television career, Personal life, Controversy, Discography, Filmography, Endnotes

Soprano, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. She began singing lessons at age 9, and at 11 performed ‘Pie Jesu’ from Andrew Lloyd Webber's Requiem on a television talent show. The Sony Music Corporation immediately signed her to a recording contract, and she has gone on to international success. With her debut album, Voice of an Angel (1998), she became the youngest ever artist to make number 1 in the…

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Charlotte M(ary) Yonge - Selected bibliography

Novelist, born in Otterbourne, Hampshire, S England, UK. She achieved a great popular success with her The Heir of Redclyffe (1853), and in all she published some 120 volumes of fiction, High Church in tone, which helped to spread the Oxford Movement. She also published children's books, historical works, translated a great deal, and edited a magazine for girls, The Monthly Packet. Charlott…

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Charlotte Rampling - Filmography, Trivia

Film actress, born in Sturmer, Essex, SE England, UK. She made her debut in The Knack, and How to Get It (1965), and became known following her supporting role in Georgy Girl (1966). Later films include Stardust Memories (1980), Angel Heart (1987), Time is Money (1994), The Wings of the Dove (1997), Summer Things (2003), and Heading South (2006). In 1999 she played Miss Havisham in BBC television'…

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Charlotte von Stein - Her childhood, Profession and family, Charlotte and Goethe, Loneliness and death, Afterlife

Writer, born in Eisenach, C Germany. Lady-in-waiting at the Weimar court, in 1764 she married Friedrich von Stein, the Duke of Saxe-Weimar's Master of the Horse. In 1775, she met Goethe, who fell in love with her. She became the inspiration for his character Natalie in Wilhelm Meister, as well as many of his love poems and plays. Her own works include dramas such as Rino (1776) and Dido (1792). …

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Charlottenburg Palace - History, Palace grounds

A palace in Berlin, built (1695–1796) by Elector Frederick for his wife, Sophie Charlotte. The building houses a museum. Schloss Charlottenburg is the largest existing palace in Berlin. Initially, under the name of Lietzenburg, the palace was constructed in the Italian Baroque style by the architect Arnold Nering commissioned by Sophie Charlotte, the wife of Friedrich III…

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Charlottetown Accord - The accord, The referendum, Support, Opposition, The campaign, Results, The aftermath, External sources

A Canadian constitutional package for a new federal structure, put together by the prime minister (Brian Mulroney), provincial and territorial leaders, and First Nations representatives in August 1992. The essential difference between the ‘Consensus Report on the Constitution’ and the failed Meech Lake Accord of 1990 was that it recognized aboriginal demands as legitimate, and promised to integr…

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Charlottetown Conference - The conference

A meeting of colonial representatives from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (1864) to discuss Maritime Union. A delegation from the province of Canada (present-day Ontario and Quebec) successfully promoted the idea of a larger federation with the rest of mainland British North America. It was followed by the Quebec Conference, and led to Confederation in 1867. The Charlo…

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Charlton Heston - Biography, Trivia, Books, Filmography

Actor, born in Evanston, Illinois, USA. He made his film debut in an amateur production of Peer Gynt (1941) and, after air force war service and further theatre experience, his Broadway debut in Antony and Cleopatra (1947). In Hollywood from 1950, he portrayed historic or heroic roles in such epics as The Ten Commandments (1956), Ben Hur (1959, Oscar) and El Cid (1961). He displayed his potential …

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charm

In particle physics, an internal additive quantum number conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions, but not in weak interactions; symbol C. Charmed quarks are those having C = +1; charmed particles contain at least one charmed quark. It was postulated in 1964, and used to to account for the J/? particle discovered 10 years later. Members of the D meson family contain a charmed quark o…

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Charminar

A famous city landmark at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The imposing archway, surmounted by four minarets 56 m/182 ft high, was built under Mohammed Quli Qutab Shah in 1591. Charminar is a monument located in the City of Hyderabad which is the capital city of the State of Andhra Pradesh in South India. Charminar is one of the most important landmarks of the city. He ordere…

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Charon (astronomy)

Pluto's only known satellite, discovered photographically in 1978 by James W Christy and Robert S Harrington at the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. Its distance from Pluto is 19 600 km/12 200 mi; diameter 1200 km/745 mi. It is unusually large, relative to its planet, and has a surface of mainly water ice. Charon was upgraded to dwarf planet (or pluton) status in 2006. Dwarf planets t…

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Charon (mythology)

The ferryman of the Underworld, who carried the shades or souls of the dead across the R Acheron. Sometimes other rivers are substituted in literature, such as Styx and Lethe. The Greeks placed a small coin in the mouth of a corpse as Charon's fee. In Greek mythology, Charon (Greek Χάρων, fierce brightness) was the ferryman of Hades. (Etruscan equivalent: Charun) He took the newly dead…

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Chartism - Origin, The first wave, The 1848 petition, Legacy

A largely working-class radical movement which achieved substantial but intermittent support in Britain between the late 1830s and the early 1850s. Its objective was democratic rights for all men, and it took its name from ‘The People's Charter’, first published in 1838. Its six points were: universal male suffrage; the abolition of property qualifications for MPs; parliamentary constituencies o…

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Chartres - Geography, Main sights, Others

48°29N 1°30E, pop (2000e) 43 700. Capital city of Eure-et-Loire department, NC France, on left bank of R Eure, 100 km/62 mi SW of Paris; railway; bishopric; agricultural centre and wheat market; abbey church of St Pierre-en-Vallée (11th–13th-c); Gothic cathedral (1195–1220), a world heritage site; students' pilgrimage (Apr–May). Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfectur…

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Charybdis

In Greek mythology, a whirlpool which swallowed ships whole, encountered by Odysseus on his wanderings, and sometimes placed in the Straits of Messina - incorrectly, since there is no whirlpool there. …

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Chatham Islands - Geography, History, Population, Transportation, Government, In fiction

pop (2000e) 800; area 963 km²/372 sq mi. Islands of New Zealand in the SW Pacific Ocean; 850 km/528 mi E of South Island; comprises Chatham I (Wharekauri) and Pitt I (Rangiaotea), and some rocky islets; visited in 1791 by the British brig Chatham; chief settlement, Waitangi; sheep-rearing, sealing, fishing. The archipelago of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language and Wh…

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Chatsworth

One of the great English country houses, built (1687–1707) for the 1st Duke of Devonshire near Edensor village, Derbyshire, C England, UK. The original design by William Talman (1650–1719) was altered and extended by successive architects. The gardens, laid out in 1688 by George London (d.1714), were re-landscaped by Capability Brown and Sir Joseph Paxton. In 1950 the 11th Duke of Devonshire tur…

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Chauncey Allen Goodrich

Lexicographer, scholar, and theologian, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, the son-in-law of Noah Webster. As professor of rhetoric and later of theology at Yale College, he wrote several influential works on Greek and Latin grammar. He also prepared an English-language edition of the Bible. He supervised the abridgment of Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language, prepared by J…

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Chauncey Wright - Publications

Philosopher, born in Northampton, Massachusetts, USA. He studied mathematics and science at Harvard (1852), and then worked for the American Ephemerist and Nautical Almanac, until a legacy allowed him to retire (1872). He lived a simple, often melancholy bachelor's existence in Cambridge, where he associated with William James and C S Peirce as senior member of a discussion group ironically titled…

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Chay Blyth - Early life, Rowing and sailing career, Business Career, Records

Yachtsman, born in Hawick, SE Scotland, UK, the first to sail single-handed ‘the hard way’ round the world (1970–1). Educated at Hawick, he joined the Parachute Regiment of the Royal Army (1958–67). He rowed the Atlantic from W to E with John Ridgeway (1966), before making his epic voyage westward around the globe. With a crew of paratroopers he won the Whitbread Round the World Yacht Race (19…

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Che Guevara - Family heritage and early life, Guatemala, Cuba, Disappearance from Cuba, Congo, Bolivia, Legacy and criticisms, Timeline

Revolutionary leader, born in Rosario, E Argentina. He studied at Buenos Aires, trained as a doctor (1953), then played an important part in the Cuban revolution (1956–9). He held various government posts under Castro, including commander of La Cabana Fortress (1959–63), governor of the National Bank (1969), and minister of industry (1961). He became worldwide ambassador for Cuba in 1961, but l…

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Chechnya - History, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Further reading

Republic in the C Caucasus, bordered S by the main Caucasus range and Georgia; capital, Grozny (named Dzhoxhar Ghala, 1997); economy based on oil, with major refining centre at Grozny; population largely Chechen (c.60%, Muslim); history of resistance to Russian rule, especially in 19th-c; became an administrative region (oblast) within the Soviet Union; amalgamated with Ingushetiya (Checheno-Ingus…

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Cheddar - What makes Cheddar famous?, Market Cross, Sites of Special Scientific Interest

5°17N 2°46W, pop (2000e) 4400. Market town in Somerset, SW England, UK; 16 km/10 mi SE of Weston-super-Mare; famous for the limestone features of the Cheddar Gorge and for the Cheddar cheese originally made here. Cheddar is a village in the district of Sedgemoor in Somerset, England, situated on the edge of the Mendip Hills 14.5?km (9 miles) northwest of Wells. It is famous…

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cheese - History, World production and consumption, Cultural attitudes, Types of cheese, Health and nutrition, Making cheese

A dairy foodstuff made from milk, originally used as a means of preserving food from periods of plenty during leaner times. Milk proteins are soluble in water at a neutral pH, but when the pH falls to a critically low level of about 4·6, the proteins no longer remain soluble. They precipitate out to form the curd of sour milk, which is the basis of cheese manufacture. The most basic cheese is kno…

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cheetah

A member of the cat family (Acinonyx jubatus), native to Africa and SW Asia; fastest land animal (can reach 110 kph/70 mph); only cat unable to retract its claws completely; pale with solid dark spots; lean with long legs and tail; inhabits dry grassland and scrub; eats birds, hares, and antelopes; easily tamed. …

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Cheka - The name, History, Cheka in popular culture

An acronym from the Russian letters che + ka, for the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage, established in 1917. It was in effect a political police force whose duties were to investigate and punish anti-Bolshevik activities. During the Civil War it was responsible for executing thousands of political opponents in what came to be called the ‘Red Ter…

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Chelmsford - Population, Transport, Industry, Economy, Chelmer redevelopment, Places of interest, History, Geology, Twin towns

51°44N 0°28E, pop (2001e) 157 100. County town of Essex, SE England, UK; on the R Chelmer, 48 km/30 mi NE of London; railway; Anglia Polytechnic University (1992); electronics, furniture; cathedral (15th-c). Chelmsford is the county town of Essex, England. It is almost exactly in the centre of the county and it has been the county town of Essex since the early 13th century. It is also…

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Cheltenham - Outline, Notable Cheltonians, Gallery

51°54N 2°04W, pop (2001e) 110 000. Residential town in Gloucestershire, SWC England, UK; on W edge of Cotswold Hills, 12 km/7 mi NE of Gloucester; famous spa in 18th-c; railway; schools (Cheltenham College, Cheltenham Ladies' College); Cheltenham Gold Cup horse-race (Mar); National Hunt steeplechases in Prestbury Park; festival of contemporary music (Jul). Cheltenham (or Cheltenham Sp…

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Chelyabinsk - Education, Industry

55°12N 61°25E, pop (2000e) 1 142 000. Industrial capital city of Chelyabinskaya oblast, W Siberian Russia; on E slopes of the S Ural Mts; founded in 1736 as a frontier outpost; airport; road and rail junction; iron and steel, machines, foodstuffs, chemicals. Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челя́бинск) is a Russian city just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on Miass River, at 55°03

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chemical bond - Overview, Bonds in chemical formulas, Strong chemical bonds, Other strong bonds

The electric forces linking atoms in molecules and non-molecular solid phases. Three types of bond may be identified: (1) ionic, as in sodium chloride (NaCl), in which electrons are lost and gained so that the structure is held together by the mutual attraction of Na+ and Cl? ions; (2) covalent, as in chlorine (Cl2), where some electrons are associated with two atomic nuclei; and (3) metallic, as …

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chemical engineering - Examples, Overview, Modern chemical engineering, Related fields and topics, Significant chemical engineering texts

The theory and practice of designing, setting up, and operating apparatus for the large-scale manufacture of the products of chemical reactions. The earliest chemical manufacture (to the mid-19th-c) was based on personal skills and on tradition. From then on, the application of mathematics and physics to chemical problems, and an increased demand for chemical products, led to the study of the ways…

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chemical equation - Balancing chemical equations, Reading chemical equations

The quantitative expression of a chemical reaction. It must balance, in terms of both the numbers of atoms of all elements involved, and the electric charge. The example given below is the reaction of manganate(VII) (permanganate) ions with iron(II) to give manganese(II) and iron(III). The reaction also consumes acid (H+) and produces water: MnO4? + 5Fe2+ + 8H+ ?Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O. …

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chemical formula - Molecular and structural formula, Polymers, Ions, Isotopes, Empirical formula, Non-stoichiometric formulas

The representation of a substance in terms of the symbols of its elements. Molecular compounds are written as the full molecule; thus benzene is C6H6 and acetylene is C2H2. Non-molecular compounds are written as the simplest ratio of elements, also called the empirical formula; thus calcium fluoride is CaF2, and diamond is C. A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise w…

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chemical laser

A laser in which a chemical reaction provides the energy for laser action. For example, in a laser containing carbon dioxide with hydrogen and fluorine, the laser action would take place in the carbon dioxide, powered by the reaction of hydrogen and fluorine to give hydrogen fluoride. Chemical lasers with powers in excess of 106 W are possible. A chemical laser is a laser that obtains its …

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chemical reaction - Reaction types, Chemical kinetics

A process in which one or more compounds are converted into others, by the breaking and forming of chemical bonds (usually with the gain or loss of energy by the system). Chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances . The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. Chemical reactions are character…

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chemical warfare - Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare, History

The use of deadly or disabling substances in warfare. It was forbidden by a declaration of the Hague Conference in 1899, but one of the signatories, Germany, was the first to use such weapons, the first attack being made against British troops at Ypres in April 1915. Since 1918 chemical weapons have been used in many conflicts, but not on European battlefields, although the Germans manufactured la…

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chemistry - Introduction, History of chemistry, Subdisciplines of chemistry, Fundamental concepts, Chemistry societies, Interpersonal chemistry, Etymology

The study of the composition of substances and the changes that they undergo. Its origins lie partly in ancient technology (eg metallurgy and soap manufacture), partly in mediaeval speculation on methods of obtaining gold (alchemy), and partly in early attempts to improve medicines (iatrochemistry). Antoine Lavoisier is usually considered the father of modern chemistry, with his distinction betwee…

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chemotaxis - History of chemotaxis research, Phylogeny and chemotactic signalling, Bacterial chemotaxis, Eukaryotic chemotaxis, Clinical significance

The process by which cells or organisms move in response to a chemical stimulus towards the most appropriate region of their environment. Examples include the movement of leucocytes towards the sites of inflammation, infection, or tissue damage; and the movement of bacteria towards areas that are nutritionally rich. Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other s…

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chemotherapy - History, Principles, Types, Dosage, Delivery, Treatment schemes, Side-effects

The drug treatment of infectious diseases (using antibiotics), parasitic diseases, and cancer. Cancer chemotherapy usually involves the administration of a cocktail of cytotoxic drugs (ie which kill or damage cells). Although designed to attack preferentially the rapidly growing cells of a tumour, they also attack normal cells (especially bone marrow) causing reduced resistance to infection, loss …

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Chen Duxiu - Early life, Politics, Literature, Intellectual contributions and disputes

One of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). As dean of the Faculty of Letters at Beijing University, he founded the journal New Youth (1915), which first published both Hu Shi and Lu Xun, and influenced the young Mao Zedong. He saw Marxism as a vehicle for modernization, met a Comintern agent in 1920, and established Communist cells in several cities, six of which founded the CCP in …

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Chen Ning Yang

Physicist, born in Hofei, China. The son of a mathematics professor, he went to the USA to study at the University of Chicago (1945). There he renewed his friendship with Tsung Dao Lee, whom he knew in China when the Japanese forced both men to change schools. Yang became a professor at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ (1949–66), regularly meeting with Lee, then a professor at Co…

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Cheops - Life

King of Memphis in Egypt, second ruler of the fourth dynasty. He is famous as the builder of the Great Pyramid. The Ship of Cheops is a funeral ship found dismantled at Giza in 1954 in one of five boat pits around the pyramid. Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. Khufu was the son of King Sneferu and Queen Hetepheres. It is g…

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Chequers

The official country residence of British prime ministers, donated to the nation by Viscount Lee of Fareham in 1921. The estate is located in the Chiltern Hills, Buckinghamshire, SC England, UK. It is mentioned in the Domesday Book. Chequers, or Chequers Court, is a country house near Ellesborough, to the south east of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England, at the foot of the Chiltern Hills…

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Cher - Early life, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, Personal life, Personal wealth, As a gay icon, Political interests

Singer and actress, born in El Centro, California, USA. She was originally paired in a singing act with her husband Salvatore ‘Sonny’ Bono (1935–98) as Sonny and Cher, and was later married briefly to rock guitarist Greg Allman (1947– ). Sonny and Cher were best known for the rock anthem ‘I Got You Babe’ (1965). Cher found greater success on her own, both as a singer and as a stage and film …

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Cherasco

44°39N 7°51E. Town in Cuneo province, Piedmont, Italy. It was the site of the Armistice of Cherasco, drawn up between Napoleon and Vittorio Amedeo III, King of Sardinia, on 28 April 1796. It gave to France Nica, Savoy, Cuneo, Tenda and Breglio. It is also the site of the Peace of Cherasco which put an end to the second Monferrato war, drawn up in April 1631 by Emperor Ferdinand III, Louis XIII o…

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Chernobyl - Name origin, History

51°16N 30°15E. City in Ukraine; near the junction of the Pripyat and Ushk Rivers, N of Kiev; scene of the world's largest known nuclear disaster (26 Apr 1986); nuclear reactor complex shut down in 2000. In 2003 the International Chernobyl Research and Information Network (ICRIN) was launched by the UN Inter-Agency Task Force. Coordinates: 51°16′N 30°13′E Chernobyl (Chorn…

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chernozem

A dark, rich and fertile soil found in cool, low-humidity regions. It is typical of the Russian steppes. …

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Cherokee - Bands and naming, Language and writing system, History of the Cherokee, The Modern Cherokee Nation

A North American Indian people, originally from the Great Lakes, who migrated to the SE after their defeat by the Iroquois and Delaware. Evicted from their land when gold was discovered on it, 15 000 were force-marched W by 7000 US troops (the ‘trail of tears’, 1838–9). The survivors were settled in Oklahoma with Creeks and other SE tribes who were moved there by the US government in the 1830s…

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cherry

A deciduous, mostly N temperate tree closely related to the plum, peach, and blackthorn; often with distinctive shiny reddish-brown banded bark; oval, finely toothed leaves; clusters of white flowers and bright red or purplish fruits which are sour or sweet, depending on the species or variety. The well-known orchard fruits are mostly the sour or morello cherry (Prunus cerasus), a species of unkno…

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cherry laurel

An evergreen shrub or small tree (Prunus laurocerasus), native to the Balkans but cultivated since the 16th-c, and widely naturalized; leaves oblong, leathery; flowers white, fragrant, c.30 in a spike; berries red or green, turning black when ripe, poisonous. (Family: Rosaceae.) …

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cherry plum

A deciduous, occasionally spiny, shrub or small tree (Prunus cerasifera), growing to 8 m/26 ft, probably one of the parents of plum; flowers white, appearing with or before ovoid, toothed leaves; fruit globular, 2–3·5 cm/0·8–1·5 in, red or yellow; native to the Balkans, and cultivated elsewhere; also called myrobalan. (Family: Rosaceae.) …

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chert - Chert and Precambrian fossils, Chert and flint: archaeological and historical uses, References and external links

A very fine-grained form of silica (SiO2), in which the quartz crystals are too small to be observed by optical microscopy. It is characteristically formed on the ocean bed by the accumulation and subsequent recrystallization of the silica shells of diatoms and Radiolaria. It also occurs as concretions in limestones. Chert outcrops as oval to irregular nodules in greensand, limestone, chalk…

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cherubim - Classical Sources, Religious perspectives, Artistic depictions

In the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, winged celestial creatures or beasts of various descriptions. Their roles include guarding the tree of life in the Garden of Eden (Gen 3.24), being stationed on the cover of the Ark of the Covenant (Ex 25.18–22), adorning Solomon's temple (1 Kings 6.23ff), and accompanying the throne chariot of God (Ezek 1, 10). Descriptions in the Bible vary, but in gene…

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Cheryl Crawford

Actress, director, and producer, born in Akron, Ohio, USA. One of the founders of the Group Theatre in 1931, she began her career acting with the Theatre Guild. She also helped found the American Repertory Theatre (1946), the Actors Studio (1947), and became a director of the American National Theatre and Academy (ANTA) series. As producer, her works include One Touch of Venus (1943), Brigadoon (1…

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Chesapeake Bay - Geology, History, Watershed, Fishing Industry, Deteriorating environmental conditions

38°40N 76°25W. An inlet of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia (S) and Maryland (N) states, USA; over 300 km/185 mi long; at the mouth of the Susquehanna, Patuxent, Potomac, Chester, Choptank, Nanticoke, Rappahannock, and James Rivers; part of the Intracoastal Waterway; an early area of US settlement (explored 1607); wide range of seafood; increasing pollution. The main stem of the bay itsel…

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Cheshire (UK) - Divisions and environs, Identity, History, Economy, Geography, Settlement, Famous products, Famous people, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 673 800; area 2328 km²/899 sq mi. County of NWC England, UK, bounded W by Wales; drained by the Mersey, Weaver, Dee, Gowy, and Wheelock Rivers; Delamere Forest between Chester and Northwich; county town, Chester; chief towns include Crewe, Warrington, Widnes, Runcorn, Macclesfield; Warrington and Halton new unitary authorities from 1998; dairy farming, petrochemicals, motor vehic…

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Cheshire (USA) - Divisions and environs, Identity, History, Economy, Geography, Settlement, Famous products, Famous people, Places of interest

41º29N 72º54W, pop (2000e) 28 500. Residential town in New Haven Co, SC Connecticut, USA; located 22 km/14 mi N of New Haven and 40 km/25 mi SW of Hartford; originally part of the town of Wallingford; settled in 1694; incorporated as a town, 1780; birthplace of Joseph Bellamy, Lambert H Hitchcock, John Kensett; largely a farming and agricultural region, it has been designated the ‘Bedding…

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chess - Gameplay, History, Organization of chess, Computer chess

A game for two players played on a board containing 64 squares alternately black and white. Each player has 16 pieces, either black or white, consisting of eight pawns, two rooks (also known as castles), two knights, two bishops, a queen, and a king. The game is one of strategy, the object being to attack the opponent's king in such fashion that it cannot move safely. That attacking move is called…

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Chester - History, Present day, Culture, Industry, Transport, Districts, Towns and Villages, Further reading

53°12N 2°54W, pop (2001e) 118 200. County town of Cheshire, NWC England, UK; on the R Dee, 305 km/189 mi NW of London; important Roman port and military centre; railway; airfield (Hawarden), commercial centre, light engineering, car components, aircraft construction (Broughton), tourism; 13th–15th-c cathedral, city walls, two-tiered shopping arcades, 11th-c St John's Church; town hall (1869…

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Chester (Bomar) Himes - Life, Works

Writer, born in Jefferson City, Missouri, USA. He studied at Ohio State University (1926–8), was convicted of armed robbery (1928), and spent six years in prison. After his release he worked as a journalist in Cleveland, as a writer for the labour movement, and at various other jobs. His early novels, such as Lonely Crusade (1947), tended to focus on racial issues in contemporary America. By 1953…

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Chester (Floyd) Carlson - Further reading

Physicist, born in Seattle, Washington, USA. He graduated in physics at the California Institute of Technology, and worked in electronics, later specializing also in patent work. By 1938 he had devised a basic system of electrostatic copying on plain paper, which after 12 years' work by assistants became the xerographic method, the basis of modern photocopiers. Chester F. He invented the pr…

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Chester (Irving) Barnard

Businessman, public official, and foundation executive, born in Malden, Massachusetts, USA. After working as an engineer with the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in Boston (1909–22), he moved on to head the Pennsylvania and then New Jersey Bell companies (1922–48). He served on various civic boards, and during World War 2 was president of the United Service Organizations for National De…

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Chester Gould - Early years, Dick Tracy

Cartoonist, born in Pawnee, Oklahoma, USA. He created the newspaper comic strip Fillum Fables (1924) for Hearst's Chicago American, and in 1931 he created for syndication a strip featuring a square-jawed police detective named Dick Tracy. The strip encouraged citizen involvement in crime prevention and a strong adherence to the law. In 1990 the strip was adapted to a full-length film starring Warr…

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Chet Atkins - Biography

Guitarist and record producer, born near Luttrell, Tennessee, USA. In the 1940s he performed with the Carter Family and Red Foley, and first appeared in the ‘Grand Ole Opry’. In Nashville in the 1950s he made the electric guitar popular as a solo instrument for country music. He became a producer for RCA, and promoted such singers as Hank Snow and Waylon Jennings, reviving country music in the 1…

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Chet Baker - Early days, Drug addiction, Later life, Book and film biographies, Honours, Partial discography

Jazz trumpeter and singer, born in Yale, Oklahoma, USA. He played in US army bands (1946–52), then joined the Gerry Mulligan Quartet, and his brilliant interplay with Mulligan brought critical and popular success. As a leader, his signature tune became ‘My Funny Valentine’, which epitomized his image as a lonely, searching wanderer. His boyish good looks led to minor movie roles in the 1950s, b…

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Chetniks - Origins, Modern era

Yugoslav, mainly Serbian, guerrillas during World War 2. Under the leadership of Drazha Mihailovic, they fought Tito's communist Partisans rather than the Axis occupiers. Abandoned by the Allies in 1944, they were defeated by the Partisans, and Mihailovic was tried and executed in 1945. Since 1990 the name has been adopted by Serb irregular forces in the former state of Yugoslavia. The Chet…

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Chevalier Jackson

Physician, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, and became a professor there. By 1930 he also held positions at three other medical schools in Philadelphia, the University of Pennsylvania, Temple, and the Women's College of Pennsylvania, and was president of the latter (1935–41). A specialist in laryngology, he devised an instrument that …

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Cheviot Hills

Hill range on the border between Scotland and England, UK; extends 56 km/35 mi SW along the frontier between Scottish Borders council and Northumberland; rises to 816 m/2677 ft at The Cheviot; gives its name to a famous breed of sheep. …

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chevrotain - Gallery, Miscellaneous

A ruminant artiodactyl mammal, native to tropical forest in Africa, India, Sri Lanka and SE Asia; small with stocky bodies and short slender legs; no horns or antlers; male with long protruding canine teeth; also known as mouse deer or deerlet. (Family: Tragulidae, 4 species.) The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer (not to be confused with deer mice, Peromyscus), make up t…

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Chewa - Traditional rural society, Chewa history, Politics, Literature

A Bantu-speaking agricultural people of Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe who speak Chinyanja, the lingua franca of Zambia and Malawi. They belong to a cluster of Bantu-speaking peoples known as the Maravi. Like many other groups in the area, descent and succession is matrilineal. Population c.2 million. The Chewa are a people of Central/Southern Africa. Like the Nsenga and Tumbuka, a considerab…

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chewing gum - Types, Composition and manufacture, Health claims, Gum and society, Gum in popular culture, Gum and military

A sugared and flavoured product made from the concentrated juice of latex of the sapodilla tree, especially popular in the USA. It is chewed for its flavour, but not swallowed. Chewing gum comes in a variety of flavors, depending on location, and is most often chewed for the flavor. Some examples include: Chewing gum is a combination of a water-insoluble phase, known as gum base…

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Cheyenne (Indians) - Language, Early history and culture, 19th century and Indian Wars, Northern Cheyenne exodus, Northern Cheyenne return

North American Plains Indians, speaking an Algonquian language, divided since the 1830s into N and S groups. Buffalo hunters on horseback, they were pushed W by various groups (such as the Ojibwa and Sioux), and their population was reduced by fighting and disease. They were involved in conflict with European prospectors and settlers (1857–9), and in the 1870s participated in the uprisings of oth…

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Cheyenne (Wyoming) - Language, Early history and culture, 19th century and Indian Wars, Northern Cheyenne exodus, Northern Cheyenne return

41°08N 104°49W, pop (2000e) 53 000. State capital in Laramie Co, SE Wyoming, USA; founded at a railway junction, 1867; territorial capital, 1869; prospered with gold mining in the Black Hills in the 1870s; railway; livestock market and shipping centre; Frontier Days Museum; Frontier Days (Jul). The Cheyenne are a Native American nation of the Great Plains. The Cheyenne nation is compose…

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chi-square test

A statistical test to measure how well the values ‘expected’ from a model agree with the ‘observed’ values. If ei is an ‘expected’ value and oi the corresponding ‘observed’ value, the statistic ?2 = ?(oi ? ei)2/ei is calculated, and its significance deduced by comparing it with values given in tables. A chi-square test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statist…

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Chiang Mai - History, Religious sites, Culture, Transportation, Industry

18°48N 98°59E, pop (2000e) 191 000. City in NW Thailand, 700 km/435 mi N of Bangkok; N Thailand's principal city since 1296, when it was founded as the capital of Lan Na Thai kingdom; airfield; railway; university; tea, rice, groundnuts, corn, teak; flower festival (Feb), Songkran water-throwing festival (Thai New Year), Loy Krathong (Nov). Chiang Mai (in Thai เชียงใหม…

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Chiara Lubich - Biography

Humanitarian, born in Trento, NE Italy. She studied philosophy at the University of Venice and began work as a school teacher. At the age of 23, she decided to follow God, and founded the Focolare Movement, an alternative to the cloistered existence imposed on women who became Catholic nuns. Her community of female workers dedicated itself to serving the poor in Trento and surrounding areas, and s…

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chiaroscuro - Examples

In painting, the use of strong light and shadow to define forms in space. The technique was developed in Italy by Leonardo da Vinci and Caravaggio, and perfected by Rembrandt in 17th-c Holland. A certain amount of chiaroscuro is the effect of light modelling in painting, where three-dimensional volume is suggested by highlights and shadow, effects fully developed in fifteenth-century …

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Chiba

35°38N 140°07E, pop (2000e) 839 000. Port capital of Chiba prefecture, Kanto region, E Honshu, Japan; commuter town 40 km/25 mi E of Tokyo, on Tokyo Bay; railway; eight universities; steel, textiles, paper; Buddhist temple (8th-c). Chiba (千葉) can refer to: A placename: A personal name: A fictional person: …

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Chic Young

Strip cartoonist, the creator of the popular Blondie, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. From an artistic family, he studied art at the Chicago Institute, took various jobs, then joined Newspaper Enterprise Association, creating his first strip, Affairs of Jane, in 1920. Pretty girls were to dominate his career: Beautiful Bab (1922), Dumb Dora (1925), and finally Blondie (1930), which became King Fea…

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Chicago - History, Geography, Culture, Economy, Demography, Law and government, Education, Infrastructure

41°53N 87°38W, pop (2000e) 2 896 000. Third largest city in the USA; seat of Cook Co, NE Illinois, on L Michigan; built on the site of Fort Dearborn; settled in the 1830s; city status, 1837; developed as a result of its strategic position linking the Great Lakes with the Mississippi R after the Illinois and Michigan Canal was completed (1848), and after the railway to the E was opened (1853);…

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Chicago Cubs - Season records, Quick facts

Major League baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Originally founded as the Chicago White Stockings (1876), the team took its present name in 1902. They have been league champions 16 times (between 1876 and 1945) and have won the World Series twice (1907, 1908). Former players include Grover Alexander (1918–26). The Chicago Cubs are a Major League Baseball team that plays in the …

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Chicago School (architecture)

The name given to a group of Chicago architects and office buildings in the late 19th-c. The buildings were the forerunners of 20th-c skyscrapers, and are characterized by the pioneering use of steel frame construction, clothed in masonry and with large expanses of windows, often to a great height. A prime example is the Stock Exchange (1893–4), architects Sullivan & Adler. Chicago archite…

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Chicago School (economics)

A group of economists at Chicago University, led by Milton Friedman from 1948 to 1979. They hold the monetarist view that competition and market forces should be allowed to act freely, and with minimal government interference, for the best results. The Chicago school of economics is a school of thought referring to a particular style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the Unive…

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Chich - Name and orthography, History of Chichen Itza, The site, High Priest's Tomb, Old Chichen

Toltec/Maya capital of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, AD c.1000–1200, reputedly established by the Toltec ruler Topílitzin after his expulsion from Tula c.987. Its monumental centre (area 3 km/1¾ mi by 2 km/1¼ mi) contains temple pyramids, the largest known Meso-American ballcourt, and a tzompantli (skull platform). From the Great Plaza, a 275-m/900-ft causeway leads N to the Cenote (Well)…

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Chichester - History, Unusual Franchise, Cathedral, City, Chichester Festivities, Chichester Festival Theatre, Music Scene, Area, Conservation

50°50N 0°48W, pop (2001e) 106 400. County town of West Sussex, S England, UK; 26 km/16 mi E of Portsmouth; founded by the Romans; later taken by the Saxons and named after their leader, Cissa; railway; engineering, furniture, agricultural trade, tourism; cathedral (11th–12th-c), bishop's palace (12th-c), St Mary's hospital (13th-c), market cross (15th-c), theatre (1962), remains of Roman vi…

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Chick Webb - Life and career, Disputed birthdate, Trivia

Musician, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A hunchback from birth, he was a highly acclaimed drummer who began playing on Chesapeake Bay pleasure steamers with the Jazzola Orchestra in 1924. Moving to New York City, he played with Edgar Dowell (1925), then formed his own combo (1926). He gradually developed a big band while playing in Harlem nightclubs during the late 1920s and early 1930s. In 19…

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chickenpox - Symptoms and signs, Prognosis and treatment, Screening and prevention, History, Vaccination, Controversy, Pox parties

A highly infectious and usually benign disease of childhood (and sometimes adults), caused by herpes zoster, the same virus that is responsible for shingles. It causes characteristic blister-like (vesicular) eruptions on the skin, which may become infected by bacteria. Chickenpox, also spelled chicken pox, is the common name for Varicella simplex, classically one of the childhood infectious…

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chicle

An evergreen tree (Achras zapota) growing to 18 m/60 ft, native to Central America, cultivated elsewhere; leaves elliptical; flowers tiny, greenish-white, 6-petalled; fruit 5–10 cm/2–4 in, greyish to reddish-brown with yellow flesh. The copious white latex, collected as for rubber, provides the elastic base for chewing gum; the edible fruit is called sapodilla plum. (Family: Sapotaceae.) …

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Chico Hamilton

Musician, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He played trumpet with Count Basie, Woody Herman, and other major bands. A talented drummer, prominent in the West Coast ‘cool jazz’ movement, he first recorded with Slim and Slam in 1941, and worked with Lena Horne for many years. He also provided the drumming for several film soundtracks, including Bing Crosby and Bob Hope's Road To Bali (1952). …

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Chico Mendes - History, Founding of unions, Individual activism, Assassination, In the Cinema

Brazilian rubber tapper who organized resistance to the wholesale exploitation of the Amazon. He formed an alliance between the tappers and their former enemies, the Amazonian Indians, to fight against the deforesters. He was shot and killed in December 1988, but his work had attracted worldwide attention, and the fight against deforestation goes on. Francisco Alves Mendes Filho , December …

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chicory - History, Chicory as a herbal treatment

A perennial growing to 120 cm/4 ft (Cichorium intybus), with a long stout tap root, native to Europe, W Asia, and N Africa, and widely introduced elsewhere; leaves spear-shaped, lobed or toothed, the upper clasping the stem; flower-heads nearly stalkless, 2·5–4 cm/1–1½ in across, bright blue, rarely pink or white. It is locally grown as a vegetable and as a medicinal plant. Dried and groun…

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Chief Joseph - Background, As chief, Retreat and surrender, Aftermath

Nez Percé chief, born in the Wallowa Valley of present-day Oregon, USA. A peaceful leader of a peaceful tribe, he was forced into a state of war in 1877 and helped lead 750 of his people on a 1500 mi flight to Canada. Within 40 mi of the border, his people starving and freezing, he surrendered (Oct 1877), delivering an oft-quoted speech at the event. After being held in Oklahoma, he returned to…

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Chief Justice - Competence, List of Chief Justice positions, Sources and references

The presiding justice of the United States Supreme Court, nominated by the US president and confirmed by a majority of the Senate. The Chief Justice serves for life (along with the eight associate justices), presides in both public session and at private court conferences, assigns the task of writing majority opinions, and administers the oath of office to the US president. The Chief Justice can d…

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Chien-Shiung Wu - China, America

Physicist, born in Shanghai, E China. She studied at the National Centre University in China, and moved to the USA in 1936, working at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1944 she was on the staff of Columbia University, New York City. Her research was in particle physics, notably her confirmation that some physical processes (such as beta-particle emission) are not identical in a mirror-…

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Chihuahua

28°40N 106°06W, pop (2000e) 639 000. Capital of Chihuahua state, N Mexico; altitude 1428 m/4685 ft; centre of Pancho Villa's revolutionary activities; railway; university (1954); mining, cattle raising, smelting; cathedral (18th-c); famous for its hairless small dog. …

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chihuahua

The smallest domestic breed of dog, developed in Mexico; tiny body; head disproportionately large with bulbous forehead, large widely-spaced eyes, and large ears; constant body temperature of 40°C; two forms: the long-coat chihuahua and smooth-coat chihuahua. …

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child abuse - Childhelp USA, Prevent Child Abuse America(PCA America), Reporting abuse and neglect in Australia

The treatment of a child by an adult in a way unacceptable in a given culture at a given time; also referred to technically as non-accidental injury of childhood and popularly as battered baby/child syndrome. Abuse may be physical (soft and bony tissue injury, burns and scalds, poisoning and suffocation), sexual, emotional, or through neglect - though these varieties may overlap. Most abuse is per…

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Childe (Frederick) Hassam

Painter, born in Dorchester (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. He began his career as an illustrator for magazines, but after a trip to Paris (1885) he took up the Impressionist style. Returning to the US in 1889, he settled in New York City and soon became known for his colourful scenes of city life, figure studies, and natural settings, such as ‘Celia Thaxter in her Garden’ (1892). From…

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Children's Crusade - The long-standing view, Modern research, Historiography, In the arts

A movement in 1212 of thousands of children (some as young as six) from Germany and France, aiming to reach the Holy Land and recapture Jerusalem from the Turks. Some reached Genoa, Italy, but did not embark; some reached Marseille, France, whence they were shipped to N Africa and sold into slavery. The Children's Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 121…

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children's hearing - History

The system of child care in Scotland which replaced juvenile courts in 1971. The children's hearing system deals with all children believed to be in need of care and protection, as a result of various situations including abuse, ill-treatment, and being beyond parental control, as well as virtually all children charged with a criminal offence, the age of criminal responsibility being 8 in Scotland…

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Chile - Origin of the name, History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Defense, Foreign relations, Demographics, Culture, Language

Official name Republic of Chile, Span República de Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile?(help·info)), is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow coastal strip wedged between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to one theory the Incas of Pe…

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Chiltern Hills - List of notable towns and villages in, or adjacent to, the Chilterns

Low chalk hill range in SE England; extends 88 km/55 mi NE from S Oxfordshire, through Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, and Bedfordshire; continued SW as the Berkshire Downs and NE as the East Anglian Ridge; rises to 260 m/853 ft at Coombe Hill. The more gently sloping country - the dip slope - to the south-east of the Chiltern scarp is also generally referred to as The Chilterns, contai…

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Chiltern Hundreds

In the UK, a legally fictitious office of profit under the Crown: Steward or Bailiff of Her Majesty's Chiltern Hundreds (that is, districts) of Stoke, Desborough, and Burnham. To accept this office disqualifies an MP from the House of Commons. As an MP cannot resign, application to be appointed to the Chiltern Hundreds is the conventional manner of leaving the Commons. The Chiltern Hundreds…

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chimaera (botany)

A mosaic organism, usually a plant, composed of tissues of two genetically different types, or a tissue composed of cells of genetically different types. It is formed either by a mutation that affects cell type, or by the artificial grafting together of parts of different individuals. …

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chimaera (zoology)

Cartilaginous fish (Chimaera monstrosa) with robust body, large pelvic fins, and long tapering tail; teeth fused into plates; common in deeper waters (100–500 m/300–1600 ft) of N Atlantic and Mediterranean; length up to 1·5 m/5 ft; cream with brown patches and metallic sheen; also called ratfish or rabbitfish. (Family: Chimaeridae.) …

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Chimbote - Climate, Districts and Neighborhoods, Economy, Transportation, Airport, Etymology, Tourism, Earth Disasters, Sister Cities, Newspapers

8°59S 78°38W, pop (2000e) 356 000. Port in Ancash department, N Peru; one of the few natural harbours on the W coast and Peru's largest fishing port; a new port has been built to serve the national steel industry; exports fishmeal. Chimbote is the largest fishing port in Peru. Peru's former president, Alejandro Toledo, grew up in Chimbote. The city of Chimbote sh…

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chimpanzee - Lifespan, Chimpanzee differences, History of human interaction

An ape native to equatorial Africa, believed to be the closest living relative to humans; height, 1–1·7 m/3¼–5½ ft; black coat; hair on head parted or directed backwards; face and ears naked; skin pale or dark; spends most time on the ground; eats fruit and some insects, but may kill small vertebrates; uses twigs, etc as tools to obtain food; two species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and th…

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China - Name, History, Territory, Society

Official name People's Republic of China, Chinese Zhonghua Renmin Gonghe Guo China (Traditional Chinese: 中國; China refers to one of the world's oldest civilization comprising successive states and cultures dating back more than 6,000 years. The stalemate of the last Chinese Civil War following World War II has resulted in two separate states using the name "China": the People's Re…

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chinchilla - Chinchillas as Pets

A South American cavy-like rodent; small (length, 35 cm/14 in); thick soft grey coat, bushy tail, large round ears. It is widely farmed for its fur, which is the most expensive in the world. (Genus: Chinchilla, 2 species. Family: Chinchillidae.) Chinchillas and their relatives viscachas are small, crepuscular rodents native to the Andes mountains in South America and belonging to the fami…

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Chindits - Beginnings, Operation Longcloth, Interlude, Operation Thursday, Change of command, The move north, Final operations, The end

Members of the 3rd Indian Division, raised in 1942 by Brigadier Orde Wingate for long-range guerrilla operations, supported by air-supplied bases, in Japanese-occupied Burma. High casualties were sustained on the two deep penetrations of the Burmese jungle in 1943 and 1944, and their military value has been questioned. The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 194…

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Chinese

The Sinitic branch of the Sino–Tibetan group of languages, comprising eight major varieties, commonly called ‘dialects’. This classification is an artifact of the writing system of Chinese, which is used by all varieties. Although the orthography transfers from one variety to another, the varieties themselves are, in some cases, not mutually intelligible, and on linguistic criteria would be cla…

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Chinese architecture - Features, Classification by structure, Imperial architecture, Commoner architecture, Religious architecture

The architecture of China, until the 20th-c, consistently based on the column, with walls used as screens rather than as load-bearing structures. Apart from pagodas, buildings were mostly made from wood. The earliest surviving buildings are the Tang dynasty pagodas (AD 618–907), such as the Wild Goose pagoda, Ch'ang-an, Shensi (701–5). Most buildings date from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and l…

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Chinese art - Historical development to 221 BC, Early imperial China (221 BC–AD 220)

The art associated with ancient China, dating from before 4000 BC, which influenced all Far Eastern countries, and reached Europe in the late 17th-c. It is characterized by technical innovation (silk, porcelain, paper, printing) and great stylistic refinement. Decorated bronze vessels and jade carvings date from 1000 BC; the interconnected traditions of painting and calligraphy were established du…

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Chinese astronomy - Early history, Jesuit activity in China, Modern astronomy, Famous Chinese astronomers, Further reading

Among the many achievements of early Chinese astronomy (which developed independently of that in the West) are: the first lunar eclipse recordings (1361 BC, four more by 1279 BC); solar measurement and a 12-monthly calendar (before 1100 BC); algebraic stellar calculations (by 5th-c BC); observation of Halley's comet (possibly 611 BC, definitely 467 BC); the compilation of star catalogues (5th-c BC…

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Chinese literature - Classical texts, Classical Poetry, Classical Prose, Novels, Modern, Overseas Chinese Literature, Chinese Islamic literature, Others

The literature of China goes back 3000 years. The earliest works under the Zhou dynasty (1028–256 BC) were the Nine Classics, an admixture of history, poetry, ethics, and commentary on ritual and divination, used by Confucius in his teachings. Closely associated are the 20 books of Confucius's own Analects, and the Mencius by a disciple. Late in the Zhou dynasty we have the ‘Hundred Schools of T…

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Chinese philosophy - Brief history, Main Schools of Thought, Great philosophical figures, Concepts within Chinese philosophy

Intellectual inquiry in China dates back at least to the time of Confucius in the 6th-c BC, and until the consolidation of empire in the 2nd-c BC a number of different schools engaged in vigorous rivalry. Since argument was primarily directed at competing rulers rather than fellow-citizens, early Chinese thought has a strongly social, non-speculative emphasis, but modern researchers have come to r…

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chinoiserie

Silks, porcelain, and lacquer from China, which were very much admired in Europe from the time they were first imported in the late Middle Ages, and consequently much imitated. From the work of the 17th-c japanners and the productions of the early European porcelain makers, which directly copied Oriental art, a separate Western style evolved, using Chinese and Japanese motifs in an original manner…

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Chinook

A North American Indian people of Washington and Oregon, one of the NW Indian groups with an artistic tradition. They were successful middlemen in the trade between coastal Indians and interior Plateau Indians, their language being widely used as a lingua franca. They fished salmon, and traded in dried fish, slaves, canoes, and shells. White contact, dating back to 1805, eventually eroded their cu…

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Chinua Achebe - Life, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Ogidi, W Nigeria. He studied at the University College of Ibadan, and his early career was in broadcasting. He was in Biafran government service during the Nigerian Civil War (1967–70), and then taught at US and Nigerian universities. His first novel, Things Fall Apart (1958), presenting an unsentimentalized picture of the Ibo tribe, was heralded as a fresh voice in African lite…

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Chioggia - History, Main sights, Culture, Notable people, Economy

45º13N 12º17E, pop (2001e) 52 000. Town in N Italy at the S end of the Veneta Lagoon, 24 km/15 mi S of Venice; town occupies several islands and is joined by a bridge to the mainland at the seaside resort of Sottomarina; 11th-c cathedral (rebuilt 1633–74), Church of San Martino (1392), Church of San Domenico (14th-c); large fishing port, shipyards; exports bricks and local herbs. Chi…

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Chios - History, Chios in popular culture, Municipalities

pop (2000e) 55 000; area 842 km²/325 sq mi; length 48 km/30 mi. Greek island in the Aegean Sea, off the W coast of Turkey; fifth largest of the Greek islands; crossed N–S by hills rising to 1298 m/4258 ft; fertile plain in SE; chief town, Chios, pop (2000e) 32 400; ferry to mainland and islands; noted for its wine and figs; tanning, boatbuilding, tourism; Navy Week (Jun–Jul). …

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chip

A commonly used name for an integrated circuit. Strictly, the term refers to the small ‘chip’ of silicon on which the electronic circuits reside, rather than the encapsulated package. Chip may mean: In food: In technology: …

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chipmunk - Species, Pop Culture References, Gallery

A type of squirrel; all species native to North America except Eutamias sibiricus from W Asia; back with alternating pale and dark longitudinal stripes; cheeks with internal pouches for carrying seeds. (Genera: Tamias, 1 species; Eutamias, 22 species.) Chipmunk is the common name for any small squirrel-like rodent species of the genus Tamias in the family Sciuridae. Chipmunks ha…

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chirality

Asymmetry resulting in an object not being superimposable upon its mirror image. Chemical chirality is usually associated with a carbon atom having four different substituents. Two isomers which are mirror images of one another are called enantiomers. Towards symmetrical environments, enantiomers behave identically, but towards other chiral molecules they are different. Thus they will have identic…

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chirography - Brief history, Modern Chirography

The various forms and styles of handwriting, which differ between the writing systems of the major language families. Early Western styles included majuscule, as seen in the chiselled capital letters of early Greek and Roman inscriptions from c.300 BC; minuscule, the use of small letters found in Greek from the 8th-c AD; uncial writing, large rounded letters found in Latin and Greek manuscripts fr…

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Chiron - Fictional references, Symbolism

In Greek mythology, a good and wise centaur, the son of Kronos and Philyra the Oceanid, who kept a school for princes in Thessaly. He educated Asclepius in the art of medicine and music, Jason the Argonaut, and Achilles. He was wounded with a poisoned arrow of Heracles, and gladly gave up his immortality to be rid of pain. In Greek mythology, Chiron ("hand") — sometimes transliterated Che…

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chiropractic - History, Explanation, Theories, Education, licensing, and regulation, History, Chiropractic vertebral subluxation

The study of health and disease from a structural point of view, with special emphasis on the alignment of the bones of the skeleton and of the anatomical relation of nerves and muscles of the body to them. The discipline was founded in 1895 by US physician Daniel David Palmer (1845–1913), and is probably now the most widely recognized alternative medical practice in the Western world. It is main…

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Chisholm Trail - History, Chisholm Trail on film

A cattle trail in the USA from Texas across Oklahoma to the railheads at Abilene, Kansas. It is named after Jesse Chisholm, who pioneered the route in 1866. The trail fell into disuse with the spread of enclosure and the growth of a rail network. The Chisholm Trail was a route used in the late 19th century in the western United States for cattle drives, the movement of cattle overland. The …

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Chita Rivera

Actress and dancer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. At age 16 she won a scholarship to Balanchine's School of American Ballet in New York City, made her professional debut in Call me Madam (1952), and had her first important part in Guys and Dolls (1953). Perhaps her best-known role was as Anita in West Side Story (1957). Already twice nominated for a Tony, she won the award for the…

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chitin - Detailed Description, Name, Uses

A long chain-like molecule (a linear homopolysaccharide of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) found as a major constituent of the horny covering (cuticle) of insects and cell walls of fungi. When cross-linked, these chains produce a lightweight but strong material. Chitin is a hard, semitransparent material that is found in many places in the natural world. For example, chitin is the main component of…

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chiton - Structure, Name, Scientific Investigation, Activities, Habitat, Miscellaneous

A marine mollusc characterized by a dorsal shell consisting of eight overlapping calcareous plates; muscular foot used for attachment to, and movement over, a substrate; several pairs of gills present in a groove around the foot; most species in shallow water; also known as coat-of-mail shell. (Class: Polyplacophora.) Chitons are mollusks that live near the edge of the ocean in most of the …

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Chittagong - People and culture, Topography, History, Economy and development, Language, Administration, Main sights, Transportation

22°20N 91°48E, pop (2000e) 2 386 000. Seaport capital of Chittagong district, SE Bangladesh; principal port of Bangladesh on the R Karnafuli, flowing into the Bay of Bengal; conquered by Nawab of Bengal, 1666; ceded to British East India Company, 1760; damaged during 1971 Indo-Pakistani War; many Hindu and Buddhist temples; university (1966); trade in tea, jute, skins, hides; cotton, iron, st…

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Chittagong Hill Tracts - History

area 8680 km²/3350 sq mi. Region in SE Bangladesh, bounded E by Burma; hilly area enclosed by rivers; reaches heights of 500–1000 m/1500–3000 ft in the SE; divided into four fertile valleys, covered with thick planted forest; L Kaptia (686 km²/265 sq mi) formed when Karnafuli hydroelectric dam built at Kaptia; capital, Rangamati. The Chittagong Hill Tracts comprise an area of 13…

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chloracne - Etiology and progression, Treatment, Related conditions, Notable cases

Acne-like lesions on the skin with pimple-like (papular) formations which may become infected (pustular). Its occurrence is linked to industrial exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons. Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. T…

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chlorine

Cl, element 17, boiling point ?35°C. A greenish-yellow gas, containing diatomic molecules (Cl2). A very reactive substance, it does not occur free in nature, but is recovered from deposits of NaCl or KCl by electrolysis. It may also be recovered from sea water, which contains about 2% chlorine as dissolved Cl?. The gas has an intense odour and is very poisonous. Industrially, chlorine is mainly u…

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chloroform

CHCl3, IUPAC trichloromethane, boiling point 62°C. A dense liquid (1·4 g/cm3), it has found use as a solvent and one of the first modern anaesthetics. It is somewhat toxic, and this has led to its progressive disuse. Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. The output of this process is a mixture of the four…

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chlorophyll - Chlorophyll and photosynthesis, Historical evidence for the importance of chlorophyll in photosynthesis, Spectral characterization of chlorophyll

The green pigment (a magnesium-porphyrin derivative) found in plants, which absorbs radiant energy from sunlight, mainly in blue (wavelength 435–438 nm) and red (wavelength 670–680 nm) regions of the spectrum. Several variants occur, the principal ones being chlorophylls a and b in land plants, and c and d in seaweeds. Green substance in producers that traps light energy from the sun, w…

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Chlorophyta

The green algae that form zoospores or gametes having cup-shaped grass-green chloroplasts and at least two anterior flagella; classified as a phylum of the kingdom Protoctista. The Chlorophyta, or green algae, include about 17,000 species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. …

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chloroplast - Origins, Structure

A specialized structure found within plant cells. It is typically biconvex in shape, and comprises stacks of membraneous discs bearing photosynthetic pigments embedded in a matrix. It contains some genetic material (DNA), and partly controls the synthesis of its own proteins. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts abso…

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choir - Structure of choirs, Skills involved in choral singing, Historical overview of choral music, Choral competitions

The part of a church for the singers; usually part of the chancel, and separated from the nave by a screen or a rail. A vocal ensemble which sings in a church, or sings exclusively sacred music, is called a choir, whereas an ensemble which performs the non-soloist parts of an opera or musical theatre production (or sometimes an oratorio) is called a chorus. There are also terms for mo…

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cholecystitis

Acute inflammation of the gall bladder, often induced by a blockage or partial blockage of the flow of bile by gallstones. It presents with severe upper right-sided abdominal pain accompanied by vomiting and fever. To prevent recurrence the gall bladder is often removed surgically (cholecystectomy) after the inflammation has settled. …

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cholera - History, Treatment, Trivia

An acute infection of the gastro-intestinal tract by Vibrio cholerae, acquired by drinking contaminated water. The bacteria cause profuse watery diarrhoea, which so depletes the body of water and electrolytes as to induce shock and death within 24–48 hours. Adequate treatment involving the replacement of body fluids can prevent death and allow a full recovery. Cholera is a water-borne dise…

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cholesterol - Physiology, Clinical significance, Cholesterol in plants, Cholesteric liquid crystals

The most abundant steroid in animals, an essential component of plasma membranes, and the substance from which bile salts and the adreno-cortical and sex hormones are formed. It is ingested in the diet as a constituent of egg-yolk, meats (particularly offal), and some shellfish; transported in the blood; and synthesized in the liver, gastro-intestinal tract, and other tissues. It is implicated as …

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choline - History, Physiology, Choline as a Supplement, Sources

The most common form of the variable part of phospholipids, which play a key role in the structure of biological membranes. It is an essential component of the diet of some species, and is therefore often linked with vitamins; but it is not an essential dietary component for humans. Phospholipids containing choline are also known as lecithin, commonly sold in health-food shops to reduce cholestero…

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chopsticks - Etymology, History, Types, How to use, General etiquette, Environmental impact, Medical problems, Trivia

A pair of slender sticks used in several Far Eastern countries for eating food, first documented in China during the 3rd-c. Chinese chopsticks are generally round and are not pointed. Most Japanese chopsticks (hashi) have square sides, and when lacquered, are usually pointed. In Japan, lacquered chopsticks are normally used at home. Restaurants often provide plain wooden chopsticks in a paper wrap…

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chorale (choir)

A term used for a choir, especially in the USA. Chorales tend to have simple and singable tunes, because they were originally intended to be sung by the congregation rather than a professional choir. Within a verse, most chorales follow the AAB pattern of melody that is known as the German Bar form. He composed some chorale melodies himself, such as A Mighty Fortress. For other choral…

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chorale (hymn)

A hymn of the Lutheran church. The qualities most associated with its music - harmonic strength and a firm, regular metre - are those of Bach's harmonizations; he wrote few original hymn melodies himself. Like most other hymns, chorales are strophic, ie the same music is used for each stanza. Chorales tend to have simple and singable tunes, because they were originally intended to be sung b…

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chord

In music, two or more notes sounded simultaneously. In tonal music of the period c.1600–1920 a chord functions as a unit in a harmonic progression related to (or diverging from) a particular key centre. Before then, chord progressions (though not the chords themselves) were largely determined by the direction of the individual melodic lines. In post-tonal music, chords have been formed on serial …

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chordophone

Any musical instrument in which the sound is produced by the vibrations of one or more strings. Chordophones form one of the main categories of instruments in the standard classification of Hornbostel and Sachs (1914). They are divided into (i) those without resonators, or with resonators that can be detached while leaving the strings in place (simple chordophones: piano, zither, etc), and (ii) th…

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choreography - Settings, Choreographic techniques, Further reading

Originally, as ‘chorégraphie’, the writing of dances in notation; in its current general use, the making of dances by the selection of movements for a particular dance purpose, linked together to form a whole. The maker of the dance, the choreographer, was barely mentioned by name before the 19th-c, the dance being simply an adjunct to the musical and dramatic act. The choreographic structure i…

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chorionic villus sampling

A technique for obtaining samples of placental tissue, ideally at 8–12 weeks gestation. A needle is introduced through the mother's abdominal and uterine walls under ultrasound guidance. It is advanced to the edge of the placenta, a small piece of which is removed. The tissue can be used for chromosome analysis, enzyme assay, and DNA analysis, thereby identifying the presence of Down's syndrome a…

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chorus

The collective or impersonal voice in a drama (as distinct from the individual characters), which serves to introduce and comment on the action. It was an essential feature in classical drama, but less common later (where another character often assumes this role, as with Enobarbus in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra). However, the chorus is used by Shakespeare in Henry V, and by Eliot in Murder…

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Chris Barber - Basic biography

Jazz musician, born in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. A trombonist and vocalist, he joined the Ken Colyer band, taking it over in 1954. By the end of the decade the Chris Barber Jazz Band was well established, and had made several hit singles, notably ‘Petite Fleur’, with soloist Monty Sunshine (1928– ). Barber's future wife, blues singer Ottilie Patterson, joined the band i…

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Chris Evans - Early career, A national celebrity, Radio 1 and beyond, Virgin Radio, UMTV, Return to public life

Disc jockey and television presenter, born in Warrington, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. He left school at 16 and began presenting a night-time show on Piccadilly Radio in Manchester, later joining BBC's local London station, GLR. For television's Channel 4 he launched The Big Breakfast and hosted Don't Forget Your Toothbrush and TFI Friday. He presented breakfast shows for Radio 1 and later Virgin, h…

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Chris Hani - Early life, Political career, Assassination, Influence, Trivia

South African political leader, born in Cofimvaba, SE South Africa. His record as guerrilla leader and his charisma made him the most popular African political figure of his generation. He joined the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League at the age of 15, and in 1963 became a member of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the ANC's armed wing. He left the country in 1963, and rose through the ranks of Umkhon…

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Chris Van Allsburg - Bibliography

Writer, illustrator, and sculptor, born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. He studied at the University of Michigan (1972) and the Rhode Island School of Design (1975), where he taught illustration beginning in 1977. Based in Providence, RI, he worked as a fine artist, sculptor, and creator of award-winning books for children, such as The Polar Express (1985). Chris Van Allsburg (born June 18,…

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Christ's Hospital - History, Christ's Hospital today, Traditions, Organisation of the school, Old Blues

An independent co-educational boarding school, founded in London, UK in 1552. It is known as the Blue Coat School, because of the distinctive long blue coat which was worn by the boys. The school moved to Horsham, West Sussex in 1902, and in 1985 the girls' school (formerly at Hertford), was merged with the boys school. The boys still wear their traditional blue coat as part of the everyday unifor…

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Christa Ludwig

Mezzo-soprano, born in Berlin, Germany. She made her operatic debut in Die Fledermaus (1946) in Frankfurt, Germany, and went on to be particularly associated with the operas of Mozart and Richard Strauss. Christa Ludwig (born March 16, 1928) is a distinguished German mezzo-soprano, known both for her opera performances and her singing of Lieder. Ludwig was born in Berlin to a mu…

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Christa Wolf

Writer, born in Landsberg, Germany. She studied German literature and became a publisher's editor. A significant contemporary literary figure whose writing has been influenced by Bertolt Brecht, she won the Österreichischen Staatspreis für Literatur for her early work Moskauer Novelle (1961), and in recognition of her literary ability for Der geteilte Himmel (1963), a novel about divided Germany…

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Christadelphians - Beliefs, History, Organisation, Youth Work, Further reading

A Christian sect, founded by John Thomas (1805–71) in the USA, which teaches a return to primitive Christianity and that Christ will soon come again to establish a theocracy lasting for a millennium. Christadelphians are congregational in organization, and there are no ordained ministers. The name means ‘Brothers of Christ’. The Christadelphians (From the Greek "Brothers in Christ") are …

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Christchurch - Geography, Demographics, Economy, Government, History, Gateway to the Antarctic, Visitor attractions, Entertainment, Educational institutions, Transport

43°33S 172°40E, pop (2000e) 334 000. City in Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand; on the R Avon, on the E coast, NW of its port, Lyttelton Harbour; founded, 1850; airport; railway; university (1873); corn and sheep trade from the Canterbury Plains; food processing, wool, chemicals, fertilizers, furniture; Canterbury Museum, Ferrymead Historic Park, McDougall Art Gallery; scene of 1974 Britis…

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Christiaan (Neethling) Barnard - Early life, Heart transplant, Personal life

Surgeon, born in Beaufort West, SW South Africa. He graduated from Cape Town medical school, and after research in America returned to Cape Town in 1958 to work on open-heart surgery and organ transplantation. In December 1967 at Groote Schuur Hospital he performed the first successful human heart transplant. The recipient, Louis Washkansky, died of pneumonia 18 days later, drugs given to prevent …

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Christiaan (Rudolf) de Wet - Publications

Afrikaner statesman and general, born in Smithfield district, Orange Free State, C South Africa. He became conspicuous in the Transvaal War of 1880–1, and in the war of 1899–1902 was the most audacious of all the Boer commanders. In 1907 he became minister of agriculture of the Orange River Colony, and in 1914 joined the South African insurrection, but was captured. Sentenced to six years' impri…

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Christiaan Huygens - Named after Huygens

Physicist and astronomer, born in The Hague, The Netherlands. He studied at Leyden and Breda, discovered the ring and fourth satellite of Saturn (1655), and made the first pendulum clock (1657). In optics he propounded the wave theory of light, and discovered polarization. He lived in Paris, a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences (1666–81), but as a Protestant felt it prudent to return to The …

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Christian (Ren - Bibliography

Biochemist, born in Thames Ditton, Surrey, SE England, UK. He graduated in medicine at Louvain in 1941, held a chair of biochemistry there from 1951, and held a similar post concurrently at Rockefeller University, New York City, from 1962. He had a major part in discovering the lysosomes which contain the enzymes within animal and plant cells, and afterwards in studying their activity and the dise…

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Christian Aid - History

A large UK-based charity supported by most Churches in Britain. It pays for development projects in the poorest countries of the world, particularly in agriculture, water supply, and health, using its own experts as advisors. Christian Aid is an agency of the major Christian churches in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Christian Aid campaigns to change the rules and systems that …

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Christian art - History, Art mediums, Themes

The art associated with the development of Christianity, emerging c.300 in Italy, using the formal style of late Roman art for new spiritual purposes; technically mediocre, but with a new iconography. Frescoes in the Roman catacombs, relief-sculptured panels on sarcophagi, and ivory carvings already in the 4th-c show basic motifs, such as the Good Shepherd, Jonah and the Whale, and scenes from Chr…

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Christian Cardell Corbet

Painter and art historian, born in Ajax, Ontario, SE Canada. He studied at the University of Guelph, was appointed artist to Elizabeth the Queen Mother in 1966, and received international recognition for ‘Elizabeth Holding her Ribbon’ (1995). An authority on Canadian women in the fine arts, he is the author of several works on Canadian women artists, and founder of the Corbet Collection of Canad…

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Christian Dietrich Grabbe - Works

Playwright, born in Detmold, WC Germany. In his early years an enthusiast for Shakespeare and the fiery literary movement ‘Sturm und Drang’, he was a precursor of the modern German theatre. Often concerned with historical themes, his writings (considered to mirror boyhood impressions as son of a prison governor) combine realistic and naturalistic-expressionistic elements. His heroes are largely …

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Christian Dior - Early life, The New Look, Personal life, Menswear, Collections by Hedi Slimane, Parfums Christian Dior

Fashion designer, born in Granville, W France. He was the founder of the international fashion house of that name, and first began to design clothes in 1935. After working for Piguet and Lelong in Paris, he founded his own Paris house in 1945, and achieved worldwide fame with his long-skirted ‘New Look’ (1947). His later designs included the ‘H’ line and the ‘A’ line. Dior was heir to…

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Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg - Early collections, Focus on microscopic organisms, Legacy, Publications

Naturalist, born in Delitzsch, EC Germany. Professor at Berlin from 1839, he travelled in Egypt, Syria, Arabia, and C Asia. His works on microscopic organisms founded a new branch of science, and he discovered that phosphorescence in the sea is caused by living organisms. Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (April 19, 1795 – June 27, 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, g…

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Christian Herter

Furniture maker, born in Stuttgart, Germany. In c.1860 he joined the New York firm of his half brother Gustav Herter, which in 1866 was renamed Herter Brothers. After studying design in Paris, Christian bought out Gustav's share (1870) and abandoned the firm's historical revival furniture in favour of pieces akin to the English arts-and-crafts style. Clients such as the Vanderbilts and J P Morgan …

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Christian Lacroix

Fashion designer, born in Arles, SE France. He studied Classics in Montpellier, specializing in French and Italian painting and the history of costume. After working at Hermès and with Guy Paulin, he joined Jean Patou, who showed his first collection in 1982. In 1987 he left Patou and, with other partners, opened the House of Lacroix in Paris. He is known for his ornate and frivolous designs. He …

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Christian Morgenstern

Writer, born in Munich, SE Germany. The son of an artist, he studied law, philosophy, economics, and history of art before becoming a full-time writer. He is known particularly for his witty poetry, full of fantastic word play and imagery, such as Galgenlieder (1905), Palmström (1910), Palma Kunkel (1916), and Der Gingganz (1919). Influenced by Nietzsche, Rudolf Steiner, and Buddhism, he also wro…

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Christian Science - Overview, Healing, Prayer, Philosophy, Scientific stance, Theology, Medicine, Sects, Criticism of Christian Science, Response to criticism

A movement, founded by Mary Baker Eddy, which seeks to reinstate the original Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. The first Church of Christ, Scientist, was established in 1879 in Boston, MA, followed in 1892 by the present worldwide organization, with its headquarters at Boston. Eddy's Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875) an…

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Christian Slater - Legal run-ins, Personal life, Panasonic Work, Partial filmography

Actor, born in New York City, USA. He had a small role in a television soap opera when he was eight, and by the age of nine he was in the touring company of The Music Man. He made his film debut in The Legend of Billy Jean (1985), and became known after his role as the young monk in The Name of the Rose (1986). Later films include Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991), Very Bad Things (1998), 3000 …

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Christian Socialism - Christian socialist parties, Prominent Christian socialists, Quotes

A range of movements aiming to combine Christian and socialist, or collectivist, ethical principles. They attempt to promote socialism through enlisting Christ's help, and though undoctrinal in nature are most commonly found in the Protestant church. Originating in 19th-c Britain, they have since spread to Scandinavia, Switzerland, France, Germany, and the USA. The New Labour government (UK) of To…

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Christianity - Groups within Christianity, Beliefs, Controversies and criticisms, Bibliography, Further reading

A world religion (with over 2000 million adherents in 2004) centred on the life and work of Jesus of Nazareth in Israel, and developing out of Judaism. The earliest followers were Jews who, after the death and resurrection of Jesus, believed him to be the Messiah or Christ, promised by the prophets in the Old Testament, and in unique relation to God, whose Son or ‘Word’ (Logos) he was declared t…

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Christina

Queen of Sweden (1632–54), born in Stockholm, Sweden, the daughter and successor of Gustav II Adolf. She was educated as a prince on her father's orders during her minority, when the affairs of the kingdom were ably managed by Axel Oxenstierna. When she came of age (1644) she negotiated the Peace of Westphalia, bringing to an end the Thirty Years War (1648). She patronized the arts and attracted …

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Christina (Georgina) Rossetti - Works

Poet, born in London, UK, the daughter of Gabriele Rossetti. A devout Anglican, and influenced by the Oxford Movement, she wrote mainly religious poetry, such as Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862). By the 1880s, recurrent bouts of illness had made her an invalid, but she continued to write, later works including A Pageant and Other Poems (1881) and The Face of the Deep (1892). Her work displays …

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Christine Caron

French swimmer. She won the silver medal in the 100 m backstroke at the 1964 Olympic Games and broke the world record. In 1966 she was European champion, and was French champion 29 times. Kiki may refer to: In music: In sports: In other fields: …

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Christine Keeler - The Profumo Affair, The portrait, Publications

Former model and showgirl, raised in Wraysbury, Windsor and Maidenhead, S England, UK. She was involved in an affair with a Soviet naval attaché, Ivanov, and the Conservative cabinet minister, John Profumo, which led to Profumo's resignation from politics (1963), the prosecution of her patron Stephen Ward (d.1963) for living off the immoral earnings of Keeler and Mandy Rice Davies, and Ward's eve…

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Christmas

The Christian festival commemorating the birth of Jesus, observed by most branches of the Church on 25 December but by some denominations in January. The practice of celebrating Christmas on 25 December began in the Western Church early in the 4th-c; it was a Christian substitute for the pagan festival held on that date to celebrate the birth of the unconquered Sun. Many Christmas customs are of n…

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Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) - History, People, Postage stamps, Government, Geography, Flora and fauna, Communications and transportation, Trivia

10°25S 105°39E, pop (2000e) 2700; area 135 km²/52 sq mi. Island in the Indian Ocean 360 km/225 mi S of Java Head and 1310 km/815 mi from Singapore; administered by Australia as an external territory; annexed by the UK, 1888; sovereignty passed to Australia, 1958; population includes Europeans, Chinese, and Malays; wet season Nov–Apr; annual rainfall c.2040 mm/80 in; main source of in…

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Christology - Controversies concerning those who deny Christ's divine nature

The orderly study of the significance of Jesus Christ for Christian faith. Traditionally, the term was restricted to the study of the person of Christ, and in particular to the way in which he is both human and divine. Latterly, an emphasis on the inseparability of Christ's person and work has meant that Christology often encompasses enquiry into his saving significance (soteriology) as well. …

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Christoph (Willibald) Gluck - Early years, Travels, Vienna, Operatic reforms, Paris, Last years, Stage Works, Sources

Composer, born in Erasbach, Bavaria, SC Germany. He taught music at Prague, then studied in Vienna and Milan. In 1741 he began to write operas, and after collaborating with the librettist Raniero de Calzabigi (1714–95) he produced such works as Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) and Alceste (1767). In the late 1770s, Paris was divided into those who supported Gluck's French opera style and those supporting…

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Christoph Martin Wieland - Biography, Editions

Writer, born near Biberach, S Germany. After several early devotional works, he made the first German translation of Shakespeare (1762–6), and wrote a number of popular romances, notably Agathon (1766–7). After holding a professorship at Erfurt, he was called to Weimar to train the grand-duchess's sons, where he lived until his death. During this time he translated many classical authors, and wr…

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Christoph Meckel - Works, Exhibition Catalogs, Translations, Illustrated Works

Writer and graphic artist, born in Berlin, Germany. He has produced illustrated books of poetry and prose with Surrealist and Expressionist elements, including Tarnkappe (1956) and Nebelhörner (1959). The theme of childhood plays an important role in his novels, and he has also written radio plays and children's books. …

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Christophe Plantin - Early career, Works, Legacy

Printer, and publisher of the Antwerp Polyglot Bible, born in St Avertin, WC France. After a childhood in Lyon and France, he settled as a bookbinder in Antwerp (1549), and six years later started his own printing business ‘De Gulden Passer’. His Biblia Polyglotta (1569–73), Latin, Hebrew and Dutch Bibles, and editions of the classics are all famous. He became ‘arch printer’ for Philip II, of…

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Christopher (Columbus) Langdell

Legal scholar, born in New Boston, New Hampshire, USA. He is best known for pioneering the case study method of teaching law and for his trend-setting book, Casebook on Contracts (1871). He practised law in New York City before joining the faculty at Harvard (1870). As dean of Harvard Law School (1875–95) he raised the school's standards by broadening the curriculum and imposing more rigid schola…

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Christopher (Darlington) Morley - Quote

Writer, born in Haverford, Pennsylvania, USA. His family moved to Baltimore (1900), he graduated from Haverford College (1910), and he studied at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar (1910–13). He worked as a journalist in New York City for many years, and lived in Roslyn Heights, Long Island. He wrote essays, poetry, and novels, his best-known being Kitty Foyle (1939). As an editor he is credited with pro…

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Christopher (James) Hampton - Bibliography, Adaptations, Filmography, Translation Work

British playwright, born on Fayal I, in the Azores. He studied at Oxford; his first play, When Did You Last See My Mother? (1966), was produced in London and New York while he was still an undergraduate, and led to his appointment as the Royal Court Theatre's first resident playwright. The Court produced more of his plays, including Total Eclipse (1968), The Philanthropist (1970), Savages (1973), …

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Christopher (John) Brennan - Bibliography

Poet and critic, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied Classics and philosophy at Sydney University. While reading philosophy at Berlin University (1892), he became interested in French Symbolist poetry, which influenced his future writing. He published only a select number of volumes of verse, the best of which (such as XXI Poems: Towards the Source, 1897) were written before …

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Christopher (William Bradshaw) Isherwood - Bibliography, Further reading

Novelist, born in Disley, Cheshire, NWC England, UK. He studied at Repton, Cambridge, and London, and taught English in Germany (1930–3). His best-known novels, Mr Norris Changes Trains (1935) and Goodbye to Berlin (1939), were based on his experiences in the decadence of post-slump, pre-Hitler Berlin, and later inspired Cabaret (musical, 1966; filmed, 1972). In collaboration with Auden, a school…

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Christopher Anstey

Writer, born in Brinkley, Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK. He studied at King's College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow (1745–54). In 1766 he wrote the New Bath Guide, an epistolary novel in verse, which achieved great popularity. Anstey was the son of a wealthy clergyman the rector of Brinkley, Dr. Anstey in Cambridgeshire, where he was born. He was educated at Eton College and King's…

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Christopher Bruce

Dancer and choreographer, born in Leicester, Leicestershire, C England, UK. He studied tap, acrobatics, and ballet, and on graduating from the Ballet Rambert School (1963) immediately joined the company. In 1967 he established his reputation in Glen Tetley's Pierrot lunaire. His work is a fusion of classical and modern dance idioms, with a strong undercurrent of social consciousness. He became ass…

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Christopher Columbus - Life, Background to voyages, Voyages, Governorship, Later life, Legacy

European discoverer of the New World, born in Genoa, NW Italy. He went to sea at 14, was shipwrecked off Portugal, and settled there c.1470. His plans to reach India by sailing W were rejected by John II of Portugal, but finally supported by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. He set sail from Saltes (3 Aug 1492) in the Santa Maria, with 50 men, and attended by the Pinta and the Niña. He reached the…

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Christopher Dresser

Designer and writer, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. His first area of study was botany, from which he developed the stylized plant motifs which became the basis for his interest in decorative design. He designed glass, ceramics, and cast-iron furniture for a number of manufacturers, but his outstanding works were well-researched items of functional metalwork such as teapots and soup tureens. …

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Christopher Fry

Playwright, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. Educated at Bedford, he was a teacher and actor before becoming director of Tunbridge Wells Repertory Players (1932–6) and of the Playhouse at Oxford (1940). After service in World War 2, he began a series of major plays in free verse, often with undertones of religion and mysticism, including A Phoenix Too Frequent (1946) and The Lady's Not For Burnin…

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Christopher Gable

Dancer and choreographer, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal Ballet School, and was soon dancing solo roles as a principal and partner to Lynn Seymour. He retired as a dancer in 1967, having created roles in Kenneth MacMillan's Images of Love (1964) and Frederick Ashton's The Two Pigeons (1961). He became founder and artistic director of the Central School of Ballet in London in 1982 and …

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Christopher Gadsden - Early life, Revolutionary years, Later life, Further reading

American revolutionary leader, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. He was a member of the first Continental Congress (1774), became a brigadier-general in the Continental army during the Revolution, and was Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina. Gadsden was born on February 16, 1723/4 at Charleston, South Carolina. He was the son of Thomas Gadsden, who had served in the British Navy be…

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Christopher Gist

Frontier explorer, guide, and Indian agent, born in Maryland, USA. Nothing much is known of his early life, but by 1750 he had enough reputation to be hired by the Ohio Company to explore and map the Ohio R valley and NE Kentucky, becoming the first Englishman to do so. In 1753 he established a settlement near (present-day) Brownsville, PA. During the French and Indian War, he became a guide to Ma…

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Christopher Lambert - Biography, Filmography

Film actor, born in New York City, USA, and brought up by French parents in Geneva. He began to study acting at the National Conservatory in Paris, but left after three years. He then appeared in a number of French films before starring in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan (1984). Other films include the Highlander series (1985, 1991, 1994), Mortal Kombat (1995), Arlette (1997), Resurrection (1999),…

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Christopher Lee - Early life, Career as an actor, Voice work, Honors, Books by Christopher Lee, Selected Roles

Film actor, born in London, UK. His gaunt appearance and sinister image led to acclaimed performances in Dracula (1958) and its sequels, as well as in a range of other horror movies. Later films include The Three Musketeers and its sequel (1973, 1989), Gremlins 2 (1990), Funny Man (1994), The Stupids (1996), and he played the role of Saruman the wizard in parts one and two of the Lord of the Rings…

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Christopher Marlowe - Early life, Literary career, The Marlowe legend, Marlowe's reputation among contemporary writers

Playwright and poet, born in Canterbury, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied there and at Cambridge, and was the most significant of Shakespeare's predecessors in English drama. His Tamburlaine the Great (c.1587) shows his discovery of the strength and variety of blank verse, and this was followed by The Jew of Malta (c.1590), The Tragical History of Dr Faustus (c.1592), partly written by others, and…

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Christopher Newport - Early career, Expedition which founded Jamestown, Additional missions, Legacy, The New World

Seaman and colonist, born in England, UK. In 1606 he was given charge of the Virginia Company's expedition to America. He made a total of five voyages to Jamestown (1607–11) and served as the intermediary between the Virginia Company and the new colonists in Virginia. , Christopher Newport (c. For fifteen years, Newport had been a privateer who raided Spanish freigh…

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Christopher Reeve - Early life, College days, Juilliard, Soap operas and Broadway, Superman

Film and stage actor, born in New York City, USA. He studied at Cornell University and the Juilliard School in New York, and had various stage and television roles before becoming universally known as the star of Superman and its sequels (1978, 1980, 1983, 1987). Later films include Noises Off (1992) and Morning Glory (1994). In May 1995 he became paralysed from the neck down and wheel-chair bound…

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Christopher Saxton

Surveyor and cartographer, probably born in Sowood, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. He may have studied at Cambridge University. He was commissioned by Elizabeth I to carry out the first survey of all the counties of England and Wales, and worked under the patronage of Thomas Seckford, Master of the Queen's Requests. His atlas (1579) was the first national atlas of any country, and he is often call…

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Christopher Walken - Career overview, Cult status

Actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He began acting and dancing at an early age on stage and television, made his Broadway debut at 16, and went on to appear in a wide range of theatre roles. His first big film role came in The Anderson Tapes (1971), and he received a Best Supporting Actor Oscar for his role in The Deer Hunter (1978). With an ability to play sinister as well as comic role…

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Christy Mathewson - Minor league career early major league career, Major league career, Post-playing career, Trivia

Baseball player, born in Factoryville, Pennsylvania, USA. An outstanding right-handed pitcher, he played 17 seasons (1900–16) for the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), and holds the record (with Grover Alexander) of 373 wins. He won more than 30 games in three successive seasons, and struck out 2499 batters in his career. He was one of the first five players to be elected to the Bas…

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chromatin - Levels of Chromatin Organization, Non-Histone Chromosomal Proteins, Chromatin: Alternative Definitions

The complex formed by the association of genetic material (DNA) with large numbers of different proteins within the cell nucleus. The role of chromatin is to assist in the compaction of DNA to fit within the nucleus and to control the function of genes. Chromatin takes up stain, and thus can be made visible under the microscope during the process of cell division. It is organized into distinct bod…

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chromatography - History, Chromatography terms, Chromatography theory, Capillary-action chromatography, Column chromatography, Gas-liquid chromatography

The separation of components of a mixture (the mobile phase) by passing it through another phase (the stationary phase), making use of the different extents to which the various components are adsorbed by the stationary phase. Many systems have been developed. One is paper chromatography, illustrated by the separation of the constituent dyes of an ink when it is spilled on a paper tissue. Another …

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chromatophore - Pigment translocation, Background adaptation, Development, Practical applications, Cephalopod chromatophores, Bacteria

A pigment-bearing cell, or structure within a cell. In many animals, chromatophores are cells containing pigment granules. By dispersing or contracting these granules, the animal is able to change colour. Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans, and cephalopods. They are largely responsible for generating skin and …

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chrominance

The component of a video signal which determines the hue and saturation of a reproduced colour. The term is sometimes abbreviated to ‘chroma’. In analog television, chrominance is encoded into a video signal using a special "subcarrier" frequency, which, depending on the standard, can be either quadrature-amplitude (NTSC and PAL) or frequency (SECAM) modulated. In the PAL system, th…

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chromium

Cr, element 24, density 7·2 g/cm3, melting point 1857°C. A hard, lustrous metal, found combined with oxygen, especially in chromite (Cr2FeO4), and generally prepared as a metal by reduction of the ore with aluminium. It reacts readily with atmospheric oxygen, but, like aluminium, forms a tough oxide coat, preventing further reaction. Its principal uses are in plating and as a component of steel…

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